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Kartuli Enis Istoria

Kartuli Enis Istoria

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Yayınlayan: Tariel Putkaradze
A History of the Georgian Language
A History of the Georgian Language

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Published by: Tariel Putkaradze on Feb 27, 2010
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akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti

qarTuli enis istoria
profesor t. futkaraZis saerTo redaqciiT
saxelmZRvanelo universitetis bakalavriatis studentTaTvis

quTaisi 2006

Akaki Tsereteli State University

A History of the Georgian Language
Under the General Editorship of Professor Tariel Putkaradze

Course Book for Undergraduate Students

Kutaisi 2006

- 2 -

qarTvelobisTvis dRes sasicocxlo mniSvnelobisaa dedaenis (zogadad, mSobliuri kulturis) istoriisa da awmyoseuli problemebis mcodne momavali Taobebis aRzrda. saqarTvelos axalaRorZinebuli saxelmwifos moqalaqeTa interesebi da ganaTlebis evropul sivrcesTan koordinaciis aucilebloba moiTxovs mecnierebisa da sainformacio teqnologiebis Tanamedrove donis Sesabamis saxelmZRvaneloebs universitetis studentebisaTvis. qarTuli enis istoriis avtorebi arian akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis qarTuli enisa da zogadi enaTmecnierebis departamentis profesor-maswavleblebi: tariel futkaraZe, JuJuna feiqriSvili, manana miqaZe, marine qacarava, rusudan saRinaZe, ekaterine dadiani, izolda rusaZe, Tamar lomTaZe, nino fxakaZe. warmodgenili saxelmZRvanelos saxelwodeba garkveulwilad pirobiTia, vinaidan masSi zogadadaa mimoxiluli ara mxolod qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros istoria, aramed qarTvelologiis Sesavali kursisa da qarTuli samwignobro enis normirebis zogi sakiTxi.

recenzentebi:

prof. damana meliqiSvili prof. manana tabiZe prof. revaz Serozia

gamomcemloba ”quTaisis saxelmwifo universiteti" © t. futkaraZe ISBN-99928-79-69-4

- 3 -

sarCevi winasityvaoba: qarTveli eris istoriuli gza (ZiriTadi waxnagebi)
7

Tavi I - qarTvelTa enobrivi samyaro
1.1.

qarTuli ena, rogorc saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ena, saqarTvelos saeklesio ena, saqarTvelos samwignobro ena /t.futkaraZe/.............................. qarTuli enis adgili msoflios enaTa Soris /m.qacarava/.................................................................. saerToqarTveluri enis modelis sakiTxi da qarTveluri enobrivi erTeulebis istoriuli mimarTebis sqema /t.futkaraZe/; saerToqarTveluri enis daTariRebis problema /n.fxakaZe/ qarTvelTa samwignobro enisa da qarTveluri ena-kiloebis mimarTebis sakiTxi; Tanamedrove qarTveluri dialeqtebi /t.futkaraZe/.............. Tanamedrove qarTveluri dialeqtebis gavrcelebis veli /e.dadiani/.........................................

10

1.2.

21

1.3.

25

1.4.

32

1.5.

45

Tavi II - qarTuli damwerloba da samwignobro enis ganviTarebis gza
2 .1. 2 .2.

qarTuli damwerlobis saxeebi da Seqmnis dro /J.feiqriSvili/..................................................... uZvelesi werilobiTi Zeglebi (epigrafikuli warwerebi, xelnawerebi, Zveli qarTuli Txzulebebi) /J.feiqriSvili/............................................. Zveli qarTveli mwignobarni /m.miqaZe/ ................. Zveli qarTuli saganmanaTleblo da kulturuli

74

85 95

2 .3. 2

- 4 -

.4.

kerebi saqarTvelosa da ucxoeTSi /J.feiqriSvili/......................................................
2

102

.5. 2 .6.

ucxoeTSi moRvawe qarTvelologebi /J.feiqriSvili/...................................................... qarTuli enis mkvlevrebi /i.rusaZe/....................... lema /m.qacarava/........................................................

116 139 149

2 qarTuli samwignobro enis periodizaciis prob.7.

Tavi III - qarTuli samwignobro enis Teoriuli kursis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi
3.1.

sametyvelo bgerebi da satransliteracio sqema /t.futkaraZe/............................................................... saxelis paradigma /r.saRinaZe/................................... zmnis paradigma /e.dadiani/......................................... sityvaTSexameba /t.futkaraZe/................................... martivi winadadeba /m.miqaZe/.......................................

156 162 172 184 188

3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5.

Tavi IV - qarTuli enis leqsika da sityvawarmoeba
4.1.

qarTuli leqsikisa da terminologiis Seswavlis istoriis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi /T.lomTaZe/ .................. saerTo iberiul-kavkasiuri leqsika /e.dadiani/........ saerToqarTveluri leqsika /e.dadiani/....................... qarTveluri dialeqturi leqsika - qarTuli samwignobro enis ulevi wyaro /i.rusaZe/................................ sityvawarmoeba /T.lomTaZe/.............................................

193

4.2. 4.3. 4.4.

197 200 204 211

4.5.

- 5 -

4.6. 4.7.

nasesxebi leqsika da barbarizmebi /e.dadiani/.............. leqsikonebi /i.rusaZe/...................................................

215 221

Tavi V - qarTuli enis normirebis sakiTxebi
5.1. 5.2. 5.3.

normirebis istoria /r.saRinaZe/................................. normirebis principebi /r.saRinaZe/............................. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi /r.saRinaZe/.......................................................................

253 262 267 279 290

pirTa saZiebeli danarTi

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis dRe

14 aprili

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winasityvaoba
qarTveli eris istoriuli gza (ZiriTadi waxnagebi) Zvel qarTvel mematianeTa warmodgeniT, sxva ZirZvel xalxTa msgavsad, qarTvelTa winareistoria saTaves RvTaebrivi kalTidan iRebs, kerZod, bibliur eTnarqTa sqema ase gamoiyureba: noe - iafeti - iavani - TarSiSi - Targamosi (iberielkavkasielTa eTnarqi). miTologiur siuJetebSic Cans iafeti promeTes mama; specialistTa didi nawili varaudobs, rom promeTe iafetis Ze da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri Zveli RvTaeba amirani erTi da imave personaJis saxelebia. Zv.w. V-III aTaswleulebis kavkasiasa da axlo aRmosavleTSi cxovrobdnen monaTesave winaaziur-kavkasiuri tomebi. pirveli didi gaerTianebebi Seqmnes: xuritebma - CrdiloeT SuamdinareTSi, xaTebma - centralur mcire aziaSi/anatoliaSi; Zveli wyaroebis mixedviT, Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi, anatoliasa da kavkasiaSi (halisis, Woroxis, mtkvris, rionis, evfratis, araqsis… xeobebSi) Canan: musxebi, qaSqebi, urartuelebi, kolxebi, daianelebi... Tanamedrove kvlevebi safuZvels gvaZlevs, davaskvnaT, rom evraziis sxva xalxebis enebisgan gansxvavebiT, winaaziur-kavkasiuri mosaxleobis enas hqonda moTxrobiTi (ergatiuli) brunva, Sesabamisad, maT SeiZleba vuwodoT "moTxrobiT brunviani enis mqone xalxebi". logikuri Cans samecniero literaturaSi warmodgenili mosazreba: gviani eneoliTis amierkavkasiis adresamiwaTmoqmedo cxovrebis wesis memkvidre mtkvar-araqsis kultura, romelic Zv.w. IV aTaswleulidan vrcel teritoriazea ganfenili, Seqmnilia ergatiuli konstruqciis enis/enebis mqone kavkasiur-xurituli modgmis xalxis mier. mecnierebis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze rTulia sabolood gadawyvetilad CaiTvalos axlo aRmosavleTis, samxreT evropisa (balkaneTis, apeninisa da pirineis naxevarkunZulebze) da afrikis CrdiloeT sanapiros Zveli araindoevropeli xalxebis (Sumerebis, xaTebis, pelazgebis, etruskebis...) qarTvelebTan - 7 -

naTesaobis problema, Tumca saamisod bevri sayuradRebo argumenti arsebobs. samecniero wreebSi meti mxardamWeri hyavs baskur-qarTveluri (kavkasiuri) naTesaobis Temas: n.maris, arn.Ciqobavas, i.braunis, i.zicarisa da sxvaTa azriT, ergatiuli konstruqciis mqone baskuri da iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis (xalxebis) naTesaobac "uTuod dadebiTad wydeba". baskur-kavkasiuri naTesaobis Sesaxeb faseuli msjelobebi aqvT, agreTve: iv. javaxiSvils, k.ulenbeks, h.fogts, r.lafons, h.kintanas, S.ZiZigurs, g.CantlaZes, n.sturuas, s.gabunias... (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix. t.futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005). Zv.w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevridan dRevandel qarTvelTa winaprebi halisis, mtkvris, Woroxis, rion-yvirilis, enguris, liaxvis xeobebsa da Crdilo-kavkasiis nawilSi qmnian did kolxur-yobanur kulturas, romelsac, pirobiTad, SeiZleba vuwodoT aia-kolxeTis eTnokultura. kolxuri kulturis Semqmneli xalxis saxelmwifo ena, savaraudoa, iyo saerToqarTveluri koine/ena, romlis uSualo memkvidrea samwignobro qarTuli. qarTveli mematianeni cnobil mefeTa cxovrebis aRweras azos, farnavazisa da qujis istoriiT iwyeben; am droidan berZenTaTvis kargad cnobili "oqromravali aia-kolxeTi" isev aRorZinebulia erTian saxelmwifod, oRond ufro mcire teritoriaze da ZiriTadi centriT - mcxeTaSi (pirobiTad farnavazis saxelmwifo); Sdr.: qarTveluri saxelmwifos dedaqalaqi sxvadasxva dros iyo: samxreT saqarTveloSi (TorTumi, SaSilu/sasire, artanuji), dasavleT saqarTveloSi (quTaisi, noqalaqevi), aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi (ufliscixe, mcxeTa, Tbilisi). uZvelesi periodidan dRemde qarTveli eris savaraudo istoriuli jaWvi aseT saxes miiRebs:

winareqarTveluri (iberiul-kavkasiur-axloaRmosavluri kulturis) epoqa - Zv.w. V-III aTaswleulebi; kolxuri (saerToqarTveluri) kulturis epoqa - Zv.w. II aTaswleulis Sua periodidan Zv.w. I aTaswleulis Sua periodamde; - 8 -

• • • • • • • •

sruliad saqarTvelos aRorZineba azos, qujisa da farnavazisa qarTlad - Zv.w. I aTaswleulis meore naxevari; gardamavali Jami - welTaRricxvaTa mijna; qristianobis Semosvlidan gorgasalis mkvlelobamde ax.w. IV-V saukuneebi; didi marcxidan qarTul mesianizmamde - VI-X saukuneebi; daviT aRmaSeneblisa da Tamaris epoqa - oqros xana; dro laSa-giorgidan giorgi brwyinvalemde; spars-Turqobis didi periodi - patar-patara saqarTveloebad daSla; rusobis periodi - mefe giorgi meTormetedan - prezident zviad gamsaxurdiamde.

xangrZlivi istoriis mqone qarTveli eri dReniadag qmnida did sulier kulturas; qarTvelTa yvelaze STambeWdavi Semoqmedeba mravalsaukunovani mwignobruli kulturaa.

- 9 -

Tavi I qarTvelTa enobrivi samyaro
"ena aris eris suli da eris suli aris misi ena"
vilhelm humboldti

1.1.

qarTuli ena _ saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ena,
saqarTvelos saeklesio ena, saqarTvelos samwignobro ena

qarTuli ena mravalsaukunovani damwerlobis mqone da mkacrad normalizebuli erT-erTi uZvelesi enaa. saukuneebis manZilze qarTuli ena kulturis ena iyo ara mxolod qarTvelTaTvis, aramed kavkasiaSi mcxovrebi bevri sxva eTnikuri jgufisTvisac; mag., Crdilo kavkasiaSi dRemdea SemorCenili qarTulwarwerebiani eklesia-monastrebi. samyaroSi iSviaTia ena, romlis sametyvelo bgerebs (fonemebs) zustad asaxavs uZvelesi da Tanamedrove anbanis asoniSnebi; am mxrivac gamorCeulia qarTvelTa dedaena. swored sametyvelo bgeraTa zusti kvalifikaciiTa da normirebuli enis sayrdeni enobrivi bazisis simyariT unda aixsnas is faqti, rom, sxva Zvel enaTagan gansxvavebiT, arqauli qarTuli (qarTveluri) samwignobro ena da Tanamedrove qarTuli erT mTlianobas qmnis... qarTuli samwignobro enis uZvelesi kerebi iyo: taoklarjeTis, afxazeT-egrisis, lazeT-WaneTis, svaneT-Takveris, qarTl-kaxeTis, guria-aWaris, mTiuleT-xevis, TuSeT-fSavxevsureTis, hereTis sasuliero centrebi; eklesiamonastrebSi CamoZerwil qarTul samwignobro enas arsebiTi cvlileba dRemde ar ganucdia - igi dResac gasagebia; amJamadac saqarTvelos eklesiebSi, rogorc wesi, wirva-locva aResruleba saukuneebis win SemuSavebuli enobrivi normebis dacviT. am saintereso faqts axsna aqvs: samwignobro qarTulis istoriis manZilze gancdili garkveuli cvlilebebi evoluciuri xasiaTisaa da ara - radikaluri; Sdr.: samwignobro enis arsebiT metamorfozas iwvevs radikaluri enobrivi - 10 -

reforma an sabazo enobrivi erTeulis (koines, dialeqtis) Secvla, rogorc es moxda berZnulis, somxurisa da sxva SemTxvevebSi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom, droTa ganmavlobaSi, yovel enaSi Cndeba axali leqsika da gramatikuli normebis daxvewis aucilebloba, magram didi tradiciebis mqone ena mainc inarCunebs sakuTar kalapots; qarTuli enis istoriuli gzisa da perspeqtivis Sesaxeb sainteresoa qarTvel klasikosTa Sexedulebebi: vaJa-fSavela: "Cveni enis saTavea Zveli klasikuri qarTuli literaturuli ena... mwerali unda ibrZodes saerToerovnuli enis interesebisTvis, romelic aerTianebs enobriv ganStoebebs, dialeqtebis saxeliT rom vicnobT... axali qarTuli mwerlobis valia, saerToerovnul enaSi daamkvidros Cveni enis arqauli formebi, Tanamedrove qarTvelebis dialeqtebSi arsebuli gauryvneli formebi"... konstantine gamsaxurdia: "qarTuli sityvieri inventaris gamdidreba unda moxdes calkerZ Zveli qarTulis maragidan, calkerZ cocxali dialeqtebisa da enakavebis wiaRidan, raTa qarTuli ena martooden mSrali, mwignobruli ena ar gaxdes... unda SemovuSvaT qarTul (samwignobro) enaSi rogorc megrul-svanuri dialeqtebis sityvebi, ise fSav-xevsuruli"... "qarTvelTa erovnuli gadagvarebis mosurneT uwinares enaze mihqondaT xolme ieriSi" (b.jorbenaZe). didi istoriis manZilze imperiaTa Tu barbarosTa agresiebis dros qarTvel ers, Sesabamisad, qarTul enas mravalgzis damuqrebia safrTxe: momxduri cdilobda qarTvelobisaTvis daeviwyebina sakuTari warsuli, kultura da enobriv-eTnikurad daeSala igi; saamisod eswrafoda, qarTveluri kiloebis bazaze Seeqmna axali "samwignobro enebi" (dialeqtebze Targmnidnen saxarebis calkeul epizodebs, locvebs da a.S.) da am kiloTa mflobelTaTvis gaeucxoebina winaprebis mier Seqmnili dedaena, daeviwyebina dedakultura... XX saukuneSi bolo saSiSroeba Seiqmna 70-ian wlebSi komunisturi imperiis mier: 1978 wels sabWoTa imperia Seecada daemcro isedac formalurad arsebuli konstituciuri statusi qarTuli enisa; saqarTvelos sazogado moRvaweebma da studentobam (ganurCevlad eTnikuri warmomavlobisa) ar dauSves sabWoTa kon- 11 -

stituciaSi qarTuli enis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis, statusis daknineba da 14 aprils grandiozuli aqcia gamarTes. imperia moerida viTarebis gamwvavebas da ukan daixia. am dRidan saqarTveloSi erovnuli moZraobis axali etapi iwyeba: zviad gamsaxurdias meTaurobiT arsebuli antiimperiuli disidenturi brZola farTo erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobaSi gadaizarda. saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg erovnulma xelisuflebam 14 aprili gamoacxada saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis dRed. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom XX-XXI saukuneTa mijnaze saqarTvelos faqtobriv xelisuflebaSi myofi saokupacio administracia am dRes dedaenis dRed an qarTuli enis dRed moixseniebda, rac, faqtobrivad, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs (gansakuTrebiT, araqarTuli warmomavlobisas) xels uSlida, aReniSnaT da ezeimaT saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis dRe. bolo periodis saqarTveloSi izrdeba ucxoenovani skolebisa da universitetebis ricxvi. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo interesebi moiTxovs, kargad gaanalizdes arsebuli viTareba da ZiriTadad qarTuli kulturuli faseulobebis Seswavla-propagandis mizniT daigegmos ganaTlebis reforma; winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, sabWouri rusifikacia enisa da eris gadagvarebis axali saxeobiT Seicvleba. bunebrivia, qarTvelma studentma kargad unda icodes erTi ucxo ena mainc, magram aucilebelia saqarTvelos moqalaqeobis mqone axalgazrdoba pirvel rigSi flobdes saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enas da ganaTlebas iRebdes saxelmwifo enaze, ramdenadac, kulturis ena gansazRvravs pirovnebis cnobierebasa da samyaros xedva-aRqmis sistemas... ucxo eniT - dedaenis gareSe gazrdili adamiani Sordeba sakuTar fesvebs, kulturas, tradicias da verc sxvis kulturas eziareba srulyofilad; Sedegad viRebT snobur, arasrulfasovan Taobas, romelic naklulovnad axdens TviTrealizebas da mwirad aRiqvams garesamyaros. saxelmwifo enis statussa da moqmedebis ares gansazRvravs qveynis konstitucia (agreTve _ sxva kanonebi). saxelmwifo ena amTlianebs mosaxleobis saxelmwifoebriv interessa - 12 -

da suliskveTebas. igi qveynis erTianobisa da Zlierebis safuZvelia; Sdr.: saqarTvelos istoriaSi erTiani saxelmwifos ideis ganxorcielebis ori umniSvnelovanesi periodi arsebobs da orsave SemTxvevaSi enis rolis saxelmwifoebrivi gageba wamoiwia wina planze: erTia farnavazis moRvaweobis periodi: ”arRara izraxeboda qarTlsa Sina sxua ena, Tvinier qarTulisa” da meore - grigol xanZTelis epoqa, roca iTqva: ”qarTlad friadi queyana~ aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva~ yoveli aResrulebis”. mocemuli sazogadoebis mier Tavisi samwignobro enis floba da am enis mixedviT TviTaRqma uSualodaa damokidebuli akademiuri ganaTlebis xarisxze. mag.: mravalwaxnagovani istoriuli kataklizmebis gamo, lazebs sxvadasxva saxelmwifoebriv da kulturul velSi uxdebaT cxovreba. Sesabamisad, gansxvavebulia sakuTari warsulis codnis xarisxic, rac pirdapirproporciulad aisaxeba erovnul-enobrivi TviTaRqmis faqtorebze; kerZod: lazTa erTi nawili (ZiriTadad, sarfisa da gonio-axalsoflis mkvidrni) ar mowyvetila qarTvelur kulturulsaxelmwifoebriv vels; Sesabamisad, am mosaxleobam icis, rom megrelTa, kaxelTa, mesxTa, fxovelTa... msgavsad, isinic arian erTiani qarTveluri kulturisa da saerToqarTvelur enobriv struqturaze dafuZnebuli mwignobrobis avtorebi; maTTvis kargadaa cnobili, rom saqarTvelos mefeebis didi nawilis garda, lazur-Wanur-megruli warmoSobisani iyvnen qarTveluri kulturis Semqmnelebi iovane lazi, ioane minCxi, stefane sananoisZe, ioane petriwi, iovane maruSisZe, Wyondidlebi... dadianebi, Ciqovanebi, gamsaxurdiebi da mravali sxva. lazTa meore nawili aRizarda TurqeTis saxelmwifoSi. mas daviwyebuli aqvs Tavisi kilo da, Turquli ganaTlebis sistemis Sesabamisad, Tavs Turqad miiCnevs. TurqeTsa da evropaSi moRvawe lazTa mesame nawilisaTvis ucnobia (bunebrivia, ara yvelasaTvis!) saerToqarTveluri kulturis qmnadobis procesSi laz-megrelTa monawileoba, magram maT ician, rom lazebi enobriv-eTnikurad arsebiTad gansxvavdebian Turqebisagan. lazTa es jgufi sakuTari metyvelebis ba-

- 13 -

zaze cdilobs axla Seqmnas samwignobro ena da "gadaarCinos" TavisTavadoba. saqarTvelos amJamindeli sazRvrebis gareT mcxovreb qarTvelebs xSirad ara aqvT informacia sakuTari istoriis/kulturis Sesaxeb. Tanamedrove teqnologiebis pirobebSi Zneli araa samecniero codnis gansazogadoebrioba; Cvens SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelosa da TurqeTis keTilmezobluri urTierTobis pirobebSi unda Seiqmnas obieqturi samecniero informaciis gacvlis veli, romelic yvela lazs saSualebas miscems icodes: 1. kolxuri (kolxur-yobanuri) arqeologiuri kulturis sazRvrebi cxadyofs, rom kolxuri saxelmwifo ocze met qarTvelur Tems aerTianebda da Tavisi arsiT qarTveluri (zogadqarTuli) xasiaTisaa. 2. qarTveluri samwignobro ena efuZneba saerTo qarTvelur enobriv models da ara qarTlurs, kaxurs, an sxva romelime qarTvelur kilos; pirveli qarTuli asomTavruli warwerebi SemorCenilia iovane lazis monasterSi, qarTuli himnografiis fuZemdebelia aseve lazi/megreli ioane minCxi da sxv. 3. saqarTvelos gaerTianebuli saxelmwifos ideologebi da winamZRolebi metwilad iyvnen lazur-megruli warmoSobis didgvarovnebi (bagrationebi, Wyondidlebi da sxva); 4. lazTa folklorSi (msgavsad imerxevelTa, taoelTa, svanTa, herTa, kaxTa...) gamorCeulad pativsacemi adgili uWiravs erTiani saqarTvelos did mefes - Tamars; qarTvelTa saerTo istoriis amsaxveli es masala i.yifSiZis mier erTi saukunis winaa Cawerili. ...am da sxva analogiuri faqtebis codna obieqtur vels Seqmnis lazTa TviTaRqmisaTvis. yovel sazogadoebriv jgufs/erTobas (bunebrivia, lazebsac) aqvs ufleba, icodes TavianTi warmomavloba. samwuxarod, dasavleT evropaSi mcxovrebi garkveuli pirebic cdiloben eTnikur Tu enobriv umciresobad ga- 14 -

moacxadon da am gziT did istoriul samwignobro kulturas moswyviton qarTvelTa erTi nawili. amgvari enobrivi diversia zogs uneburad gamosdis sakmarisi samecniero informaciis verflobis gamo; mag., "evropis enebis centris" grifiT 2002 wels espaneTSi gamoqveynebul rukebdarTul wignSi "Europe of the Peoples" da 2000 wels parizSi gamocemul atlasSi "safrangeTi da samyaro" (La France et le Monde, Atlas) rukis sxvadasxva feriT, droSiTa da eTnikuri dasaxelebiT arian warmodgenili: qarTvelebi, afxazebi, megrelebi, aWarlebi, svanebi da osebi... saqarTveloSic dResac aris jgufi, romelic zog qarTvelur kilos gaazrebulad uwodebs damoukidebel umwerlobo enas, maTTvis qmnis damwerlobas da evrosabWos dokumentebis arsis gayalbebiT eswrafvis qarTvelTa erTi nawili saqarTveloSi enobriv an eTnikur umciresobad gamoacxados: 1992 wlis 5 noembers evrosabWos wevrma saxelmwifoebma strasburgSi miiRes "evropuli qartia regionaluri da umciresobaTa enebis Sesaxeb", xolo 1995 wlis 1 Tebervals aqve xeli moewera "CarCo konvencias erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb". aRniSnuli dokumentebi evrosabWos wevrebisa da wevrobis msurvelTaTvis warmoadgens saxelmZRvanelo debulebebis krebuls erovnul da lingvistur umciresobaTa uflebebis dacvis sferoSi; kerZod, qartia da konvencia iTxovs: saxelmwifos ZiriTadi mosaxleobisgan gansxvavebuli avtoqToni, aborigeni eTnikuri Tu enobriv-kulturuli sazogadoebebisaTvis umciresobis statusis miniWebasa da saTanado uflebebiT aRWurvas. konvenciisa da qartiis mixedviT, umciresobaTa uflebebi STambeWdavia: umciresobis enaze saqmiswarmoeba da swavleba bagabaRSi, skolasa da umaRles saswavlebelSi... ix., mag., qartiis me-8 muxlis I.e. punqti: saxelmwifom unda miiRos zomebi, raTa "xelmisawvdomi gaxados sauniversiteto da sxva saxis umaRlesi ganaTleba Sesabamis regionalur da umciresobaTa enebze". - 15 -

aqve aRvniSnavT, rom: konvenciis me-12 muxlis me-2 punqtis Tanaxmad, erovnul umciresobad aRiarebuli sazogadoebis ena mocemul regionSi administraciuli organoebis saqmiswarmoebis enad gamocxaddeba, Tuki saxelmwifoSi tradiciulad mcxovrebi umciresobebi am regionSi dResac umravlesobaSi arian, an didi raodenobiT cxovroben da, Tuki, amave dros, maT es surT (ix. agreTve 66-e ganmarteba). ix., agreTve: qartiis me-8 muxlis I.z. punqti: saxelmwifom unda miiRos zomebi "raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes im istoriisa da kulturis swavleba, romlis gamoxatulebasac warmoadgens regionaluri an umciresobis ena". qartiasa da konvencias dRemde SeuerTda 44 qveyana, ratifikacia ki moaxdina ocdacxrametma: belgiis, saberZneTis, islandiisa da luqsemburgis parlamentebs jerjerobiT ar daudasturebiaT mTavrobebis xelmowerebi. evrosabWos am dokumentebs ar uerTdeba safrangeTi. saqarTvelos faqtobrivi mTavroba evropul dokumentebs miuerTda 2000 wels; 2005 wlis 13 oqtombers "saqarTvelos parlamentma" daamowma konvencia; uaxloes xanSi igegmeba qartiis ratifikaciac. qartiisa da konvenciis eTnikur-lingvisturi cnebebis arakompetenturi ganmartebebiT, kerZod, terminebis: erovnuli umciresoba, enobrivi umciresoba, ena, regionaluri ena, umciresobis ena, dialeqti... ulogiko gaazrebiT, 2000 welsve gaCnda saSiSroeba, saqarTveloSi dakanonebuliyo aTamde regionaluri saxelmwifo ena; avtoqTonad aRiarebuliyo amdenive eTnikuri jgufi, romelsac, sakuTar enaze saSualo skolebisa da umaRlesi saswavleblebis gaxsnis garda, ufleba eqneboda saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi saqmiswarmoebac qarTulisgan gansxvavebul enaze ewarmoebina da a.S. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, amJamadac cdiloben, saqarTvelo gamocxaddes mravalerovan da mravalenovan saxelmwifod da saqarTvelos regionebSi SeizRudos saqarTvelos istoriuli saxelmwifo enis funqcionireba. arada, qarTuli enisTvis amgvar safrTxes namdvilad ar qmnian saerTaSoriso - 16 -

mniSvnelobis dokumentebi, vinaidan evropul qartiasa da konvenciaSi kargadaa Camoyalibebuli umciresobaTa uflebebi, magram ganmartebuli ar aris teqstSi gamoyenebuli cnebebi: erovnuli umciresoba, enobrivi umciresoba, kulturuli umciresoba, ena, dialeqti, enis saxesxvaoba da sxv. strasburgis dokumentebze xelismomweri qveynebis xelisuflebebis azriT, am cnebebis/terminebis gaazreba da eTnikuri umciresobebisa Tu umciresobaTa enebis CamonaTvalis Seqmna konkretuli saxelmwifos kompetenciaa, vinaidan dasaxelebul terminTa mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb evropaSi ver moxerxda SeTanxmeba mravalwliani dava-kamaTis Semdegac ki. am sakiTxs sagangebod exeba konvenciis ganmartebiTi moxsenebis me-4 da me-12 nawilebi; mag., konvenciis me-12 ganmartebaSi vkiTxulobT: "konvencia ar iZleva erovnuli umciresobis cnebis ganmartebas im praqtikuli mosazrebis gamo, rom mocemul etapze SeuZlebeli iqneboda imgvari formulirebis SemoTavazeba, romelsac evropis sabWos yvela wevri saxelmwifo dauWerda mxars". msgavs azrs gadmoscems qartiis me-17 ganmartebac: "qartia ar gansazRvravs enas arc socialur-politikuri Tu eTnikuri niSniT, rogorc ama Tu im konkretuli socialuri Tu eTnikuri jgufis komunikaciis saSualebas; amgvarad, qartia ar iZleva enobrivi umciresobis cnebis gansazRvrebas". es azri ufro mkveTrad gamoTqmulia qartiis 32-e ganmartebaSi: "qartia ar gansazRvravs Tu ra SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba CaiTvalos calke enad gamoxatvis esa Tu is forma". aqve vityviT, rom ar arsebobs enisa da kilos gamijvnis ukamaTo kriteriumebi; Sdr., mag., sayovelTaod miRebuli enis ganmarteba: ena aris garkveuli semantikis mqone bgeriT niSanTa - enobriv niSanTa - istoriulad Camoyalibebuli sistema, romelic warmoadgens samyaros xedva-aRqmis, azrovnebis, codnis Senaxvis da komunikaciis saSualebas... calke aRebuli dialeqtic bgeriT niSanTa bunebrivad mowesrigebuli sistemaa; dialeqtic warmoadgens samya- 17 -

ros xedva-aRqmis, azrovnebis, komunikaciis saSualebas; Sesabamisad, enis am logikuri definiciis mixedviT ver gavmijnavT enasa da kilos (dawvrilebiT ix. qvemoT). qartiisa da konvenciis ganmartebebis mixedviT, es da sxva msgavsi terminebi "yoveli konkretuli saxelmwifos SemTxvevaSi individualurad ganisazRvreba" (ix. qartiis ganmartebebis me-18 nawili). Sdr., agreTve, qartiis 21-e ganmarteba: "qartiis avtorebi mividnen im daskvnamde, rom ar iqneboda mizanSewonili qartiisTvis daerToT regionaluri da umciresobaTa enebis siebi, vinaidan, lingvisturi Tu sxva saxis argumentebis gamo, igi ueWvelad gaxdeboda cxare kamaTisa da uTanxmoebis sagani..." aqvea dazustebac: "qartia prerogativas aniWebs konkretuli qveynis xelisuflebas, demokratiuli principebis gaTvaliswinebiT Tavad gansazRvros is kriteriumebi, romlebze dayrdnobiTac am qveynis teritoriaze gavrcelebul ama Tu im enas mieniWeba damoukidebeli enis statusi" (32-e ganmarteba). miuxedavad warmodgenili gancxadebebisa, evrosabWos dokumentebSi aris friad sayuradRebo aqcentebi; kerZod: qartiis ganmartebiTi moxsenebis pirvelive punqtSi vkiTxulobT: "evropis mravali saxelmwifos teritoriaze cxovroben ama Tu im regionis mkvidri avtoqTonuri jgufebi, romelTa mSobliuri ena gansxvavdeba qveynis mosaxleobis umravlesobis enisgan". e.i. evropuli saxelmwifoebi Tvlian (samarTlianadac t.f.), rom erovnul Tu enobriv umciresobad misaCnevi sazogadoeba aborigeni, mocemuli teritoriis Tavdapirveli, ZvelisZveli binadari (avtoqToni) unda iyos; mag., dabadebidan germaniis moqalaqe ramdenime milion Turqsac ki germanelebi ar miiCneven erovnul umciresobad, vinaidan, miuxedavad am diasporis sakmaod xangrZlivi istoriisa, isini aq mainc migrantebad arian CaTvlili (Sdr.: avtoqToni - ama Tu im qveynis ZvelisZveli mkvidri mosaxleoba). migrant da avtoqTon jgufTa enebis gansxvavebis aucilebloba mkveTradaa gamoTqmuli qartiis sxva monakveTebSi: - 18 -

ganmartebiTi moxsenebis 31-e nawili: "qartiis debulebebi moicavs mxolod istoriul enebs, anu im enebs, romlebic didi xania gavrcelebulia mocemuli saxelmwifos teritoriaze". arsebiTia Semdegi debulebac (romelic Camoyalibebulia "regionaluri/umciresobaTa enebi ar gulisxmobs (ar moicavs) saxelmwifos oficialuri enis saxesxvaobebs, dialeqtebsa da migrantTa enebs". sazogadoebis erT nawilSi gansakuTrebiT araadekvaturad iqna gaazrebuli terminebi regionaluri ena da umciresobis ena; arada, am terminebs naTlad ganmartavs qartia: qartiis I muxliTa da qartiis me-18 ganmartebiT, regionalur enad miCneulia saxelmwifoSi mcxovrebi im avtoqToni erovnuli/eTnikuri umciresobis ena, romelic umravlesobaa mocemul regionSi, xolo umciresobis enad CaTvlilia iseTi avtoqToni eTnikuri umciresobis ena, romelic ricxvobriv umciresobaSia Tavissave regionSic (vrclad ix. t. futkaraZe, 2005a). kidev erTxel xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos: rogorc wesi, enobriv/eTnikur umciresobad miiCneva mocemuli saxelmwifos avtoqtoni araZiriTadi (sxva kulturisa da warmomavlobis mqone) mosaxleoba, mag., baskebi espaneTSi). saqarTveloSi erTi romelime kuTxis qarTvelobis miCneva enobriv an eTnikur umciresobad da qarTveluri kiloebis saxelmwifo enebad gamocxadeba (ix., agreTve, j.hiuitis, v.foirStainisa da sxvaTa moRvaweoba; masala vrclad ix. T.gvancelaZe, enisa da dialeqtis sakiTxi qarTvelologiaSi, Tb., 2006) saqarTvelos enobrivi politikis "garedan" dagegmvis mcdelobaa, rac verasodes Secvlis faqts: mravalsaukunovani qarTuli samwignobro kultura Tvisobrivad erTnairad iqmneboda samegreloSic, svaneTSic, mesxeTSic da qarTl-kaxeTSic; am kuTxeTa mosaxleobisTvis qarTuli istoriuli dedaenaa, adgilobrivi (saSinao) zepiri metyveleba ki - erT-erTi qarTveluri dialeqti (da ara umciresobis ena!). - 19 qartiis pirveli muxlis a punqtis meore nawilsa da qartiis 32-e ganmartebaSi):

samwignobro enis Seqmnisa da funqcionirebis TvalsazrisiT saqarTveloSi unikaluri viTareba gvaqvs: a. berZnuli, germanuli, espanuri, franguli Tu sxva saliteraturo enebisgan gansxvavebiT, qarTvelTa samwignobro ena ar efuZneba erT romelime dialeqts; Sdr.: espanuri, kataloniuri, provansuli (anu oqsitanuri) laTinurisgan momdinare erTgvarovani moZme ena-kiloebia, romlebzec sxvadasxva dros Seiqmna damwerloba; maTgan zogi gamocxadda saxelmwifo enad, zogi - ara; Sesabamisad, maT Soris dRemde grZeldeba metoqeoba imis miuxedavad, rom zog maTgans enis statusi aqvs miniWebuli, zogs - dialeqtisa (mag., dRemde sakamaToa kataloniuri da provansuli erTi enis kiloebia Tu ori damoukidebeli enaa). sul sxvagvaria qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros istoria: Tanamedrove qarTuli samwignobro ena uSualo memkvidrea arqauli saeklesio enisa, romelic, Tavis mxriv, efuZneba saerToqarTvelur enobriv models da ara qarTlur, kaxur, imerul, megrul, mesxur Tu svanur enobriv erTeulebs; b. qarTuli samwignobro ena erTaderTia msoflioSi, romelic, sul mcire, 15 saukunea uwyvetad funqcionirebs, rogorc saxelmwifo, saeklesio da saliteraturo ena. qarTuli samwignobro ena (/qarTveluri samwignobro ena; r.Serozia) - qarTuli kulturis, cnobierebis CamomZerwavi fenomeni da qarTvelTa TviTobis/identobis ganmsazRvreli ZiriTadi, mravalsaukunovani faqtoria.
dedaena pirovnebis saxea; xalxi qmnis enas da ena qmnis ers; saxelmwifo ena qveynis Rirsebis sazomia.

literatura T.gvancelaZe, enisa da dialeqtis sakiTxi qarTvelologiaSi, Tb., 2006. g. ramiSvili, dedaenis Teoria, Tb., 2000.

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m. tabiZe, enobrivi situacia saqarTveloSi da qarTuli enis funqcionirebis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2005. m.tabiZe, qarTuli enis funqcionirebis aRmniSvneli terminebi da frazebi qarTul istoriul-literaturul Txzulebebsa da dokumentebSi: saenaTmecniero Ziebani, XV, Tb., 2003. m.tabiZe, qarTuli enis funqcionirebis sakiTxebi daviT aRmaSeneblis epoqaSi: saenaTmecniero Ziebani, XV. Tb., 2003. t. futkaraZe, eTnolingvisturi terminebi da evropuli qartia umciresobaTa enebis Sesaxeb, quTaisi, 2005a. t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005.

1.2. qarTuli enis adgili msoflios enaTa Soris
dedamiwis mosaxleobis enaTa raodenoba zustad ar aris dadgenili; asaxeleben 4000-dan 7000-mde enas. aseT did sxvaobas iwvevs ara enobriv erTeulTa ricxvis daudgenloba, aramed maTi statusis sxvadasxvagvari gansazRvra (mocemuli lingvisturi monacemi enaa, dialeqti Tu kilokavi?). rTulia umwerlobo enisa da dialeqtis gamijvna. vfiqrobT, logikuria, rom umwerlobo enad CaiTvalos im xalxis ena, visac dedaenaze samwignobro kultura ara aqvs, xolo dialeqtia is metyveleba, romelic enaTesaveba saerToerovnul enas. bunebrivia, adamians odiTganve ainteresebs Tavisi dedaenis monaTesave enebis dadgena, vinaidan, rogorc wesi, enaTa naTesaobiT ganisazRvreba eTnosTa naTesaoba. mecnierebis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis saSualebiT ZiriTadad dadgenilia msgavsi struqturisa da urTierTmonaTesave enaTa ojaxebi. gavrcelebuli SexedulebiT, msoflioSi gamoiyofa: indoevropul, semitur, finur-ungrul, Turqul, iberiul-kavkasiur, samodiur, mongolur, tungusur-manjurul, Cinur-tibetur, dravidul, munda, malaiur-polineziur, paleoaziur, avstraliis, papua, afrikul, paleoafrikul, CrdiloeT amerikul, centralur amerikul, samxreT amerikul enaTa ojaxebi; calkea: iaponuri, koreuli, ainuuri da baskuri enebi (specialistTa erT nawils baskuri ena iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxSi Seaqvs). - 21 -

didi xnis istoria aqvs qarTuli enis Zireuli kavSirebis Ziebas wina aziis uZveles enebTan - xuritulTan, xeTurTan, SumerulTan. f.bopidan moyolebuli dRemde araerTxel gamxdara kvlevis sagani qarTuli enisa da indoevropuli enebis naTesaobis sakiTxic, magram am mimarTulebiT damajerebeli argumentebi jerjerobiT ar Cans. T.gamyreliZis, v.ivanovisa da sxvaTa mixedviT, indoevropul-qarTveluri tipologiuri Sexvedrebi kvlevis saintereso sferoa. g.deetersis azriT, qarTvelurSi Tanaarsebobs indoevropuli da iberiulkavkasiuri fenebi (am mosazrebas iziarebs g.maWavarianic). yvelaze gavrcelebuli TeoriiT, qarTuli ena enaTesaveba afxazur-Cerqezul, CeCnur-inguSur (naxur) da daRestnur enebs. am Teoriis fuZemdeblebi arian iv. javaxiSvili da arn. Ciqobava. XX saukunis meore naxevarSi arn.Ciqobavam Camoayaliba iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis skola, romlis warmomadgenlebi aTwleulebis manZilze warmatebiT ikvleven qarTveluri da Crdilokavkasiuri enebis naTesaobas; Sedegad gamovlenilia mravali msgavsi enobrivi movlena da leqsikuri paraleli; kerZod, qarTvelursa da sxva iberiulkavkasiur enebs saerTo warmomavlobisa aqvT ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis Semdegi sityvebi (vasaxelebT erT nawils): deda, mama, coli, oboli... Tve, dRe, mze, yinavs, ca, zafxuli, samxari... barkali, bayvi, guli, idayvi, marjvena, mkerdi, mxari, piri, ZuZu, wamwami, wveri, Wipi, tvini, filtvi, fxa, xeli, Zvali, muxli... guguli, mgeli, Rori, yvavi, Tagvi, ciyvi, qaTami, matli, mweri, kalia, pepela, WianWvela, Zu, xvadi, berwi, RuRuni, xvixvini... dika, maxa, seli, yana, vaSli, msxali, leRvi, kakali, soko, WinWari, anwli, ZeZvi... vin, man, Seni, Tqueni... sami, xuTi, aTi, asi, cali, tyupi... didi, mrgvali, rbili, TeTri, yviTeli, Txeli, Zveli, msxvili... kedeli, yveli, Zmari, celi, jaWvi... suni/suli, seli, seri (Rame), nemsi, sueli/Srati, sofeli, nesto, asuli, usuari (vaJi), mze, SeSa, vaSli, uSveri, mSvenieri, sTueli, ZaRli, ZeZvi, Zuali, Zu, xuezi, cali, farcxi, frCxili, cici(naTela), CxarTvi, berwi, wyali, nerwyvi, mwife, wueTi, wodeba, wveva, wueri... Seazanzarebs, eSinia, wovs, wvavs, Wams, svams, susxavs, ustvens, fuvdeba, dgas, icinis, lokavs, go-

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ravs, urtyams, abams, qsovs, Tesavs, Weds... stvena, wasma, mosva, qsova, vseba... enaTmecnieruli kvlevis am etapze meti argumentebi aqvs saerToqarTveluri, saerTonaxur-daRestnuri da saerToafxazur-adiReuri ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondisa da enobrivi struqturebis sistemuri erTgvarobis mtkicebas. sayuradReboa isic, rom musikaTmcodneTa daskvniT, qarTvelTa, abaza-afxazTa, vainaxTa (CeCen-inguSTa) da daRestnelTa musikaluri enebi momdinareoben saerTokavkasiur-winaaziuri musikaluri fuZeenidan. Tanamedrove iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa da dialeqtTa dajgufebis ramdenime sqema arsebobs; aq warmovadgenT arn.Ciqobavasa (1952) da T.gvancelaZis variantebs: arn.Ciqobava: iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi Sedgeba oTxi jgufisgan: I. qarTveluri anu iberiuli enebi: qarTuli, zanuri, svanuri. II. afxazur-adiReuri enebi: afxazuri ("enaTmecnierebis
SesavalSi" arn. Ciqobava afxazur enaSi aerTianebs abazur dialeqtebs: tapanTursa da aSxaruls; "iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis SesavalSi" es ori kilo abazuri enis saxeliTaa warmodgenili - red.), adiRuri anu Cerqezuli yabardouliTurT (zemo adiReuri kilo anu yabardouli calke enadaa warmodgenili "iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis SesavalSi" - red.), ubixuri

ena. III. qistur-bacburi enebi: qisturi, bacburi anu wovaTuSuri ("enaTmecnierebis SesavalSi" am jgufSi dasaxelebuli ar

aris CeCnuri da inguSuri, vinaidan 1952 wels CeCen-inguSebi gadasaxlebulni iyvnen Sua aziaSi da sabWoTa cenzuris mier ikrZaleboda maTi xsenebac ki; 1979 wels gamoqveynebul "iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis SesavalSi" III jgufis dasaxeleba da Semadgenloba ase gamoiyureba: naxuri (CaCnuri, inguSuri, bacburi) - red.).

IV. daRestnuri enebi: xunZur-andiur-didouri qvejgufi

(xunZuri anu avariuli ena da andiuri xeobis ena-kiloTa [arn.Ciqobavas terminia! - red.] wyeba: andiuri, boTlixuri, karatauli, tindiuri, bagvaluri (tindiuri da bagvaluri erT enadaa warmodgenili 1979 wels - red.) Wamaluri, axvaxuri, xvar-

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Siuli, didouri da kapuWuri); lakur-darguuli qvejgufi (lakuri, darguuli); lezgiuri qvejgufi (lezgiuri, waxuruli, ruTuluri, aRuluri, tabasaranuli, xinaluRuri, buduxuri, kriwuli, arCibuli, uduri).

T.gvancelaZe: iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi Sedgeba sami jgufisgan: I. samxreTis jgufi: qarTveluri (qarTuli) samwignobro ena (zanuri, svanuri, mesxuri, heruli... dialeqturi jgufebis CaTvliT). II. Crdilo-dasavleTis jgufi: 1. afxazur-abazuri ena; 2. Cerqezuli (adiReur-yabardouli) ena; 3. ubixuri ena (aw ukve mkvdari). III. Crdilo-aRmosavleTis jgufi: a. vainaxuri qvejgufi: 1. vainaxuri (CeCnur-inguSuri, anu iCqeriul-inguSuri) ena. b. xunZuri qvejgufi: 1. xunZuri ena; 2. andiuri ena (boTlixuris, Rodoberiulis, axvaxuris, karataulis, bagvaluris, tindiuris, Wamalaluris CaTvliT); 3. didouri ena (hinuxuris, xvarSiulis, kapuWur-hunziburis CaTvliT). g. lakur-darguuli qvejgufi: 1. lakuri ena; 2. darguuli ena. d. lezgiuri qvejgufi: 1. lezgiuri ena (Tabasaranulisa da aRuluris CaTvliT); 2. waxur-ruTuluri ena; 3. arCibuli ena; 4. kriwuli ena; 5. buduxuri ena; 6. xinaluRuri ena; 7. udiuri ena.
literatura T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tb., 1965. T.gamyreliZe, z.kiknaZe, i.Saduri, n.Sengelia, Teoriuli enaTmecnierebis kursi, Tb., 2003. Т. В. Гамкрелидзе, В. В. Иванов, Индоевропейский язык и индоевропейцы, т. I-II, Тбилиси, 1984. T.gvancelaZe, enaTa genealogiuri klasifikaciis ZiriTadi kriteriumebi da qarTveluri enobrivi samyaro, qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t. VII, quTaisi, 2003.

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T.gvancelaZe, iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxis SemadgenlobisaTvis, t. VIII, quTaisi, 2004. gr. giorgaZe, uZvelesi axloaRmosavluri eTnosi da qarTvelTa warmomavloba, Tb., 2002. G. Deeters, Das khartvelische Verbatum. Verglichende Darstellung des Verbalbaus der sudkaukasischen Sprachen, Leipzig, 1930. enaTmecnierebis Sesavlis sakiTxebi, g.axvledianis redaqciiT, Tb., 1972. q. lomTaTiZe, afxazuri da abazuri enebis istoriul-SedarebiTi analizi, I, Tb., 1976. d. losaberiZe, qarTvelTa eTnogenezis sakiTxisaTvis; saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe,#2, 1992. n.maisuraZe, qarTuli xalxuri musika da qarTvelTa eTnogenezi; qarTveli xalxis eTnogenezi, Tb., 2002. g.maWavariani, saerTo-qarTveluri konsonanturi sistema, Tb., 1965. b.foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia, Tb., 1974. t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. arn. Ciqobava, enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1952. arn. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1979. m.Cuxua, iberiul-iCqeriul enaTa SedarebiTi gramatika, Tb., 2006. m. Cuxua, qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 2003. s. janaSia, Sromebi, t. III, Tb., 1959.

1.3. saerToqarTveluri enis modelis sakiTxi da qarTveluri enobrivi erTeulebis istoriuli mimarTebis sqema; saerToqarTveluri enis daTariRebis problema
Tanamedrove samecniero literaturaSi kargadaa damuSavebuli arsebul enaTa monacemebis SepirispirebiT winare enebis saxis (modelis) aRdgenis meTodebi (ix., mag., T.gamyreliZe, 2003, gv. 558-589); kerZod, Sinagani rekonstruqciiT, SedarebiTi rekonstruqciiTa da leqsikursemantikuri rekonstruqciiT warmoidgineba monaTesave enobriv erTeulTa amosavali enobrivi modeli. - 25 -

qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros TiTqmis yvela mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom qarTvelur ena-kiloTa amosaval saerToqarTvelur models ZiriTadad mihyveba qarTuli samwignobro ena. azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa mxolod saerToqarTvelurSi sonantebisa da nunismier TanxmovanTa raodenobasTan dakavSirebiT: aRiarebulia, rom saerToqarTveluri fuZeenis fonematur struqturaSi sami klasi gamoiyofa: Tanxmovnebi (Cqamierebi, sonorebi), sonantebi da xmovnebi. fuZeenis xmovanTa sistemaSi Tanamedrove qarTvelur ena-kiloTa mixedviT aRdgeba a, e, o xmovnebi. i da u bgerebi xan marcvlovani, xanac umarcvlo alofonebiT warmodgebian da, Sesabamisad, qmnian sonantTa klass. i/~ da u/E/v sonantebi dResac arsebobs TiTqmis yvela qarTvelur dialeqtSi (Sdr.: T. gamyreliZisa da g. maWavarianis mixedviT, Tanamedrove qarTvelur qvesistemebSi sonantTa klasi gamoiricxeba). T. gamyreliZis, g. maWavarianis, h. fenrixisa da sxvaTa azriT, saerToqarTvelur sonantTa rigSi aRdgeba m, n, r, l fonemebic. arn. Ciqobava, g.rogava, q.lomTaTiZe, T.gvancelaZe da sxva cnobili mecnierebi samarTlianad Tvlian, rom saerToqarTvelurSic da dResac m, n, r, l bgerebi sonorebia da ara sonantebi. specialistTa didi nawili saerToqarTvelurSi ZiriTadad imave Tanxmovnebs aRadgens, rac gvaqvs arqaul samwignobro qarTulSi: xSulebi: b, f, p; d, T, t; Z, c, w; j, C, W; g, q, k; B, y. napralovnebi: z, s; J, S; R, x; h. sonorebi: m, n, r, l. mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis (T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, h.fenrixi, z.sarjvelaZe, m.qurdiani) azriT, saerToqarTvelur enaSi winanunismieri Z, c, w, z, s da ukananunismieri j, C, W, J, S bgerebis gverdiT damatebiT savaraudoa Suanunismieri (Suasibilanturi) Z&, c&, w&, z&, s& Tanxmovnebis arseboba. qarTveluri fuZeenis morfologiuri, sintaqsuri da semantikuri struqturebic arsebiTad arqauli samwignobro qarTuli enis msgavsia. specialistTa Soris didi kamaTis sagania qarTvelur dialeqtTa divergenciis sqema (sakiTxis mimoxilvisaTvis ix., - 26 -

m.qurdiani, 1996); kerZod, mecnierTa erTi nawili varaudobs, rom saerToqarTvelur enas jer gamoeyo svanuri da zanurqarTuli, Semdeg ki zanur-qarTuli daiSala qarTulad da megrul-lazurad; avtoris mixedviT, qarTvelur enobriv erTeulTa daSlis am sqemas deetersis sqemas uwodeben:
g.deetersis sqema: saerToqarTveluri zanur-qarTuli

svanuri

lazuri

megruli

qarTuli

gansxvavebuli da ufro argumentirebuli Sexeduleba Camoayaliba akad. arn. Ciqobavam; misi azriT, saerToqarTvelurs jer gamoeyo zanur-svanuri dialeqturi jgufi, romelic Semdeg daiSala zanur da svanur enobriv erTeulebad:
arn. Ciqobavas sqema: svanuri zanur-svanuri saerToqarTveluri zanuri qarTuli

Tanamedrove samecniero kvlevebis mixedviT naTelia, rom saerToqarTveluri enis memkvidrea Zveli qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis (saeklesio) ena, romlis uSualo gagrZelebaa Tanamedrove samwignobro qarTuli ena; arqauli qarTulis met-naklebad Secvlil ganStoebebs ki warmoadgens qarTveluri dialeqturi jgufebi: centraluri, svanuri, zanuri, mesxuri, fxouri, raWuli, heruli... (divergenciis sqema ix. qvemoT: Tanamedrove qarTveluri dialeqtebi). saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro. saerToqarTveluri enis qronologiasTan dakavSirebiT samecniero lit- 27 -

eraturaSi azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa. sakiTxi kompleqsur Seswavlas moiTxovs da daskvnebis sandoobasac istorikosarqeologTa, eTnografTa da lingvistTa erToblivi muSaoba gansazRvravs. mecnierTa erTi nawili saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis drod Zv. w. II-I aTaswleulebs asaxelebs (arn.Ciqobava, k.bergslandi, h. fogti, t.futkaraZe...), meore nawili ki saerToqarTveluri enis funqcionirebas SesaZleblad miiCnevs Zv. w. V-IV aTaswleulebSi (T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, T.miqelaZe, m.qurdiani...). saerToqarTveluri enis istoriuli qronologiis dadgena pirvelad scades e.w. glotoqronologiuri meTodis gamoyenebiT. amerikeli lingvistebis - moris svodeSisa da robert lizis mier gasuli saukunis 40-ian wlebSi Seqmnili glotoqronologiuri anu leqsikur-statistikuri meTodiT monaTesave enaTa diferenciaciis dro ganisazRvreba ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondidan aRebuli 100 an 200 sityvis cvlilebis koeficientis mixedviT. es meTodi iTvaliswinebs ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis cvalebadobis siCqaris erTgvarobas yvela enaSi. leqsikur-statistikuri meTodiT qarTvelur enobriv erTeulTa diferenciaciis daTariReba scades g.klimovma, T.gamyreliZem da g.maWavarianma. erTi da imave meTodiT Sesrulebuli ori gamokvlevis Sedegebi 1000-wliani sxvaobis mqone aRmoCnda, kerZod, g.klimovis azriT, saerToqarTvelurisagan svanuris gamoyofa daiwyo II aTaswleulis, xolo zanurisa - I aTaswleulis dasawyisSi (g.klimovi, 1952, gv. 119). T.gamyreliZisa da g.maWavarianis azriT ki, saerToqarTvelurisagan svanuris gamoyofa Zv. w. X saukuneSi moxda, xolo qarTul-zanuris diferencireba - Zveli da axali welTaRricxvis mijnaze (T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, 1965, gv. 17). samecniero literaturaSi miTiTebulia glotoqronologiuri meTodis naklze. igi mxedvelobaSi ar iRebs enis cvlilebis gansxvavebul temps sxvadasxva epoqaSi da leqsikis cvlis sixSiris xarisxis gansazRvrisas ver iTvaliswinebs intensiuri gavlenis an sametyvelo kodTa Serevis rols; es meTodi naklebsandoa imitomac, rom saanalizo erTeulTa siaSi - 28 -

erTi uzusto formis moxvedrac ki mkveTrad cvlis qronologiur CarCoebs (ix. k.bergslandi, h.fogti, 1972; d. kristali, 1989, gv. 331; t.futkaraZe, 2000, gv, 327; T.gvancelaZe, 2004...). saerToqarTveluri enis divergenciis gansxvavebuli sqemaa warmodgenili T.gamyreliZisa da v.ivanovis SromaSi ”indoevropuli ena da indoevropelebi”; kerZod, am naSromSi saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis drod miCneulia Zv. w. IV aTaswleuli. k.bergslandisa da h.fogtis azriT, "saerToqarTveluri ena Zveli welTaRricxvis bolo aTaswleulSi unda movaTavsoT” (k. bergslandi, h. fogti, 1972, gv.255). arn. Ciqobavas TvalsazrisiT, saerToqarTveluris arseboba Zv. w. I aTaswleulSia savaraudebeli. cnobili mecnieri ase msjelobs: "iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi monaTesave enebia, maT warmoSoba aerTianebs. es ZvelisZvel viTarebas gulisxmobs; savaraudod, sami aTasi wlis winandels da, albaT, Zvel adgilsamyofels, kavkasiis samxreTiT mdebare miwa-wyals. am enaTa ganviTareba sxvadasxva gziT warimarTa; ara erTs sxva enas gadahyrian; saukuneTa manZilze araerTi dialeqti Tu ena warmoqmnila Tu gamqrala, gaTqvefila sxva enaSi. amitom gasakviri is ki ar aris, rom iberiul-kavkasiur enebs “gasaocari nairgvaroba axasiaTebs, aramed is, rom fonetika-morfologiasintaqsSi (aseve, leqsikaSic) niSandoblivi saerTo Tvisebebi SerCeniaT" (arn. Ciqobava,1979, gv. 253). t.futkaraZis azriT, Zv.w. V-IV aTaswleulSi saerToindoevropulis Tanadroulad arsebobda iberiul-kavkasiuri kontinuumi (enobrivi ganfeniloba), romlisganac sakuTriv qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros gamomijvna dawyebuli Cans kavkasiasa da anatoliaSi indoevropuli nakadis Semosvlis Semdeg Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebis mijnaze; mkveTri daSoreba ki savaraudoa Zv.w. I aTaswleulis manZilze, kerZod, skviT-kimerielTa da sparsuli modgmis tomTa Semosevebis dros. qarTveluri modgmis mier kolxur-yobanuri (yobani - sofeli Crdilo kavkasiaSi, kerZod, Tanamedrove oseTSi) kulturis Seqmnis dros, Zv.w. II aTaswleulis Sua periodidan (Zv.w. I aTaswleulis I naxevramde), Cans, uZveles qarTvelur tomTa dialeqtebidan - 29 -

yalibdeba saerToqarTveluri enobrivi koine - Zvel qarTvel tomTa saerTo-sametyvelo ena. Sdr.: Zv.w. I aTaswleulis II naxevarSi Canan Semdegi Temebi: muSqebi/mesxebi, daianelebi/taoxebi, kolaelebi, tibarenebi, iberebi/saspeirebi, quTebi/kvitebi, koraqsebi, haliZonebi/xalibebi, xaldebi/qaldebi, makronebi, fasianebi, ekriktikes mcxovrebni, henioxebi, sanebi, sanigebi/sanikebi... saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis drois Sesaxeb garkveuli informacia SeiZleba mogvces qarTvelur kiloebSi arsebulma im sityvebma, romelTa saerToqarTveluri forma nasesxebia da SesaZlebelia sesxebis daTariRebac; mag., savaraudoa, rom saerToqarTvelurSive arsebuli sparsulidan nasesxebi zogi sityvaforma Zv.w. VI saukunes ver gaSordeba (Sesabamisad, ufro adre naklebadaa savaraudo sakuTriv zanuri da svanuri enobrivi erTeulebis arseboba); aseTebi Cans: zari, kuarTi, tye, Zewkvi, wiT-s... aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Zv.w. V-III aTaswleulebSi arsebuli msoflios yvela ena amJamad ukve mkvdaria; aRdgenili winareenebis (protoenebis) struqtura mniSvnelovnad (arsebiTad!) gansxvavdeba Tanamedrove enebisgan; garda amisa, msoflioSi ar arsebobs didi samwerlobo tradiciis mqone erTi enac ki, romelsac 30 saukunis ganmavlobaSi SeenarCunebinos Tavisi ZiriTadi saxe; miT umetes, aseTi ver iqneba umwerlobo tomobrivi ena Tu kilo. 1000 wlis manZilzec ki mxolod did samwerlobo tradicias SeuZlia, Seanelos enis mniSvnelovani cvlilebis procesi; 4000-5000-wlian Tvisobriv ucvlelobaze ki, vfiqrobT, laparakic zedmetia. mezobel xalxTa enebSi qarTveluridan Sesuli onomastikuri masalis, qarTveluri nasesxobisa da e.w. TariRian toponimTa (quTaisi, faTisi...) analizi safuZvels gvaZlevs vTqvaT, rom Tanamedrove qarTveluri ena-kiloebi (samwignobro qarTuli, megrul-lazuri, svanuri, fxovuri, mesxuri da sxva kiloebi) saTaves iReben welTaRricxvaTa mijnidan. maSasadame, dRevandel qarTvelTa: lazTa, megrelTa, imerxevelTa, mesxTa, kaxTa, svanTa, herTa, fxovelTa da sxva qarTvelTa amJamindeli saSinao metyveleba (kiloebi) saTaves iRebs welTaRricxvaTa mijnidan; sayuradReboa, rom swored am dros - 30 -

Cndeba maTi saxelebi istoriul wyaroebSic. SegviZlia vTqvaT: qarTveluri modgmis TemTa didi winaprebi: miTebSi gadasuli aietic, mogvianebiT, azonic, qujic, farnavazic, gorgasalic, Wyondidlebica da iovane petriwic oficialurad saerToqarTvelur, an mis struqturulad adekvatur, zogadqarTul samwignobro enaze metyvelebdnen, werdnen da, rac mTavaria, erToblivad qmnidnen ramdenimeaTaswlovan qarTvelur samwignobro kulturas.
literatura r. abaSia, dialeqturi poziciis principi da qarTvelur enobriv erTeulTa urTierTmimarTebis zogierTi sakiTxi (sibilantTa Sesatyvisobis mixedviT): qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t. VII, quTaisi, 2003. k. bergslandi, h. fogti, glotoqronologiis safuZvlianobisaTvis; mimomxilveli, 6/9, Tb., 1972. T. gamyreliZe, sibilantTa Sesatyvisobani da qarTvelur enaTa uZvelesi struqturis zogi sakiTxi, Tb.,1959. T. gamyreliZe, "oqros sawmisi" da Zveli kolxeTis mosaxleobis eTnikuri vinaoba, anu ra enaze metyvelebda mefe aieti? literaturuli saqarTvelo, 20-27 marti, 1998. T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tb.,1965. T. Гамкрелидзе, В. Иванов, Индоевропейский язык и индоевропейцы, ТБилиси, 1984. G. Deeters, Das khartvelische Verbatum. Verglichende Darstellung des Verbalbaus der sudkaukasischen Sprachen, Leipzig, 1930. Г. Климов, О Глотохронологическом методе датировки распада языка, ВЯ, Москва, 1952, №2. D. Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedial of Language, New York, 1989. d. losaberiZe, qarTvelTa eTnogenezis sakiTxisaTvis: saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe, #2, 1992. g. maWavariani, saerTo-qarTveluri konsonanturi sistema, Tb.,1965. g. maWavariani, qarTvelur enaTa SedarebiTi gramatika, Tb., 2002.

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miqelaZe, Ziebani kilxeTisa da samxreT-aRmosavleTSavizRvispireTis uZvelesi mosaxleobis istoriidan, Tb.,1974. g. rogava, qarTvelur enaTa fonetikis istoriul-SedarebiTi Seswavlis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, Tb.,1952. g. rogava, qarTvelur enaTa istoriuli fonetikis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1962. T. uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis fonematuri struqtura, Tb.,1976. t. futkaraZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli enis xmovanTa sistema, sadoqtoro disertacia, Tb., 1998. t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. m. qurdiani, saerToqarTveluri ena da misi diferenciaciis Tanamimdevrobis problema, qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t. I, quTaisi, 1996. m. qurdiani, qarTvelur enaTa istoriuli enobrivi kontaqtebi da saerToqarTveluri enis diferenciaciis qronologiuri sazRvrebis problema; saenaTmecniero Ziebani, XIV, Tb., 2003. m. Cuxua, istoriuli fonetikis zogierTi sakiTxis Taobaze svanurSi; qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, VIII, Tb., 2003. m. Cuxua, qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 2003.

T.

1.4. qarTvelTa samwignobro enisa da qarTveluri ena-kiloebis mimarTebis sakiTxi; Tanamedrove qarTveluri dialeqtebi
msoflios xalxebisa da ena-kiloebis mimarTebebze dakvirveba aCvenebs, rom enobrivi variantebis statusi ZiriTadad regulirdeba: eTnokulturuli (samwignobro enis istoriasTan mimarTebiT da sxv.), sociolingvisturi (sametyvelo erTeulis funqcionirebis mixedviT) da saxelmwifoebrivreligiuri midgomebiT... zogjer, werilobiTi tradiciis, saerTokulturuli faseulobebis armqone monaTesave xalxebis metyvelebis statusis gansazRvrisas, gamoyenebulia gagebinebis "kriteriumic" (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix., t.futkaraZe, 2005; T.gvancelaZe, 2006). aRsaniSnavia, isic, rom msof- 32 -

grelebi, lazebi, svanebi, kaxelebi, mesxebi, herebi, imerlebi, javaxebi, TuSebi, aWarlebi, raWvelebi, taoelebi, qarTlelebi...) qmnis sam-

lioSi arsebuli mwignobrobis mqone arc erTi enobrivi erTeuli enad saxeldebuli ar aris arc sakuTriv lingvisturi kriteriumebiT (fonetikis/bgeraTSesatyvisobis, morfologiis Tu sintaqsis mixedviT) da arc "gagebinebis" mixedviT... tradiciulad, samwignobro kulturisa da eTnikur-kulturuli istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT, miiCneoda, rom qarTvelebs erTi samSoblo ena da mravali Sinauri ("Temiuri") kilo gvaqvs. marTlac, sul mcire 15 saukunis manZilze qarTveli eri - saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis qarTveloba (me-

muSod SeiZleba davasaxeloT dasavleT saqarTvelos mkvidrTa: qarTuli himnografiis erT-erTi fuZemdeblis, iovane minCxis, X saukuneSi moRvawe himnografisa da mTargmnelis, stefane sananois Ze Wyondidlisa da XVII saukuneSi moRvawe anton Wyondidlis qmnilebebis ena).

wignobro kulturas; Sesabamisad, igi yvela qarTvelis dedaenaa. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom ukiduresi feodaluri daqucmacebulobis Jamsac ki wirva-locva qarTvelTa mTel teritoriaze qarTuli samwignobro eniT aResruleboda (sani-

qarTvelTa erTiani enobriv-eTnikuri cnobierebis warmosaCenad gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa "iverielTa erTobis traqtati", romelsac 1790 wels moaweres xeli qarTl-kaxeTis, samegrelos, imereTisa da guriis mefe-mTavrebma. istoriul dokumentSi mkafiodaa naTqvami: "vinaidan yovelTave iverielTa, msaxlobelTa samefosa Sina qarTlisa, kaxeTisa, imerTa, odiSisa da guriisaTa aqvsT erT morwmuneoba, arian Svilni erTisa kaTolike eklesiisagan Sobilni da erTisa enisa mqonebelni, aqvsT mavasxelobiTica (=urTierTvaldebulebiTi) siyvaruli viTarca sisxliT naTesavTa da moyvarobiT SekrulTa urTierTTa Soris". istoriuli tradiciis TvalsazrisiT, sayuradRebo faqtia is, rom saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi (maT Soris, samegrelosa da svaneTSic) lapidaruli da epigrafikuli Zeglebis, agreTve, piradi mimoweris ena yovelTvis iyo qarTuli saliteraturo ena. - 33 -

Zveli droidanve qarTvelTa dialeqtebiT uwyvetad mdidrdeboda saliteraturo ena; kerZod, megruli, svanuri, mesxuri, fxovuri, qarTluri Tu imerxeuli Tvisobrivad erTnairad iyo masazrdoebeli xanmeti teqstebis, "vefxistyaosnis” Tu petriwis Sromebis enisTvis. sainteresoa arn.Ciqobavas Tvalsazrisi: Zveli qarTuli samwignobro ena Seiqmna zanuri da svanuri dialeqtebis monawileobiT (arn. Ciqobava, 1948). Sdr., agreTve, n.maris mosazreba: "qarTuli saliteraturo enis Seqmna-ganviTarebaSi monawileobas iRebdnen: qarTlelebi, imerlebi, megrelebi, svanebi, laz-Wanebi da sxvani… saRvTo werilis teqstSi Cven vpoulobT wminda Wanur anu megrul, imerxeul da sxva tomTa sityvebs. am realuris kulturul-istoriulis SexedulebiT, qarTuli saliteraturo ena imdenaTve svanuria da megruli, imdenaTve gurulia da imeruli, ramdenaTac qarTluri. is aris RviZli samwerlo ena yvela saqarTvelos tomisaTvis" (n.mari, 1905). kavkasiaSi ruseTis imperiis gavlenis gaZlierebis Semdeg carizmis moxeleebi Seecadnen, qarTvelTa nawilisTvis gaeucxoebinaT winaparTa mier Seqmnili werilobiTi kultura da saSinao kiloebi umwerlobo enebad gamoucxades; maT (i.vostorgovma, q.patkanianma...) qarTvelur enobriv erTeulTa statusis TiTqosda uwyinari Temis mZafri politizeba moaxdines; imperiis mizani iyo enobrivad "sxvadasxva" qarTveloba calkeul eTnosebad warmoedgina da amgvarad dacalkevebuli qarTveli eris istoriuli miwawyali iolad daepyro (dResac aris amgvari mcdelobani). didi ilias meTaurobiT saqarTveloSi sapasuxo antiimperiuli moZraoba daiwyo: qarTvelma saeklesio da saero moRvaweebma qarTuli ena erovnebis burjad gamoacxades da "dauSreteli zrunvis sagnad aqcies" (b.jorbenaZe, 1987, gv. 17). gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia "wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis" wevrTa da sxva sasuliero pirTa Rvawli (romelTa nawili saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebelma eklesiam wmindanad Seracxa; Sdr.: ruseTis marTlmadidebelma eklesiam 2000 wels wmindanad Seracxa i.vostorgovi...). XX saukuneSic bevrma qarTvelma daicva Tavisi erovnuli enis Rirseba da argumentirebulad ukuagdo qarTvelTa dama- 34 -

qucmacebeli enobrivi "Teoria". davasaxelebT bolo ori saukunis sasuliero da sazogado moRvaweTa erT nawils: ivane kereseliZe, dimitri baqraZe, wminda ilia marTali, akaki wereTeli, dimitri yifiani, guria-samegrelos episkoposi aleqsandre, wminda kirion kaTalikosi, patriarqi leonide oqropiriZe, wminda ambrosi xelaia, episkoposi grigol dadiani, daviT giorgis Ze dadiani, nikoloz tarielis Ze dadiani, petre Waraia, mose janaSvili, vaJa-fSavela, petre mirianaSvili, wminda aleqsi SuSania, iakob gogebaSvili, luarsab lolua, sosiko merkvilaZe, valerian gunia, patriarqi kalistrate cincaZe, silovan xundaZe, ivane javaxiSvili, Tedo saxokia, Tedo Jordania, pavle ingoroyva, giorgi wereTeli, konstantine gamsaxurdia, zviad gamsaxurdia, oTar gigineiSvili, kaTolikos-patriarqi ilia meore, mitropoliti anania jafariZe, nodar jalaRonia, nomadi barTaia, erekle saRliani, iaSa Tandilava da sxv. Sdr.: saqarTveloSi ruseTis imperiis gabatonebamde megrul-Wanur da svanur enobriv erTeulebs qarTul kiloebad acxadebdnen qarTvelTa sazogado moRvawenic da mecnierTa didi nawilic; sanimuSod movixmobT ramdenime Tvalsazriss: petre Waraia (mosazreba warmoadgina gamokvlevebSi: "qarTuli
saliteraturo ena da qarTuli marTlwera” da "megruli dialeqtis naTesaobrivi damokidebuleba qarTulTan"): nacias aqvs ena, xolo

Tems (toms) - dialeqti. megrul-Wanur-svanuri Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis dialeqtebi ki ar aris, aramed im enis, romlis nawilebicaa Tanamedrove saliteraturo "ena”, misi dialeqtebi da istoriuli qarTuli saliteraturo "ena”... qarTvelTaTvis istoriuli qarTuli saliteraturo ena erTaderTia da TiToeuli qarTuli kilo ar unda gavixadoT saliteraturo enad: germaniis TiToeul kuTxeSi, olqSi da TiTqmis sofelSi sxvadasxva enaze laparakoben, magram saliteraturo ena yvelgan aris erTi: mwignobrul enad miaCniaT is ena, romelic SeumkiaT da ganumSvenierebiaT liuters, lessings, giotesa da sxv. Tu aseT mravalricxovan ers, rogoric germanelebi arian, romlebic amasTanave sdganan ganaTlebis saTaveSi, erTi sayovelTao saliteraturo ena saWi-

- 35 -

rod ucvniaT, Cven raRani varT, rom TiToeuli kilo saliteraturo enad gavixadoT...” (p.Waraia, 1997, gv.203-204). Sdr., agreTve, m.janaSvili da r.erkerti: samecniero literaturaSi iberiuli (qarTveluri, qarTuli) enis arsebobis adreul saxeobad miCneulia Zveli qarTuli, romlis ganStoebaa svanuri metyveleba. imave Zveli qarTulis gagrZelebaa axali qarTuli, romlis ganStoebaa megruli, megrulis ganayari ki lazuria (r.erkerti, 1895, gv.287). i.gogebaSvili (statia "dabali Robe erTa Soris”; 1894): “ ”sad Tqmula da gagonila, rom dabalma moxeleebma (igulisxmeba ruseTis imperiis moxeleebi - t.f.) ers mohglijon RviZli, mTeli mxare, gahyaron Sexorcebulni erTad RvTisa da bunebis nebiT, gaswyviton aTasis wlis Zmuri kavSiri, oriv mxris Sesasusteblad da Casaylapavad, da ubrZanon mTels mxaresa, karga bloma nawils qveynisasa: aRar gaixseno Seni naTesauri damokidebuleba da Zmuri urTi-erToba deda-qveyanasTana, ilaparake mxolod Sens Sinaurs kilozed, zurgi Seaqcie Sens mTavars deda-enasa, da daiviwye igi, gadaagde iqiT mSobliuri anbani, Seni monawileobiT mogonili, uarhyav samSoblo literatura, romlis salaroSi arc erTs Zmazed Sen naklebi ar Segitania, gaauqme Seni saRmrTo metyveleba, romelTanac Sexorcebulia Seni sarwmunoeba, daiviwye Seni aTasis wlis istoriuli arseboba da gadaiqec velur xalxad, romelmac yvelaferi Tavidan unda daiwyoso... megrelTaTvis imis Tqma, rom isini qarTvelebi ar arian, rom maT ara aqvT arc anbani, arc damwerloba, arc literatura, rom yvelaferi es amieridan unda Seiqmnas, gana es imas ar niSnavs, rom wavarTvaT maT mTeli maTi saxelovani warsuli, mTeli istoriuli monapovari, gamovacxadoT isini gonebriv Ratakebad da gverdiT amovuyenoT iseT barbarosul tomebs, romelTac araviTari istoria ar gaaCniaT"... Sdr., agreTve, silovan xundaZe (gaz. "saxalxo saqme", 1919, #709): "...qarTuli enis formebis Seswavlis dros maTi Sedareba monaTesave kilo-kavebis formebTan interess aorkecebs. garda amisa, saWiroa, rom Cvenma mozardma Taobam icodes, rom megruli da svanuri Stoebia qarTuli enisa da ara

- 36 -

gansxvavebuli enebi, rogorc amas ambobden da dResac amboben mterni da orgulni Cveni qveynisa”. carizmis dros vera, magram sabWoTa imperiaSi aSkarad gabatonda qarTveluri "enebis" Teoria; sabWoTa periodis qarTvel mecnierTa didi nawili iZulebuli iyo angariSi gaewia i.stalinis mier "erTaderTad" aRiarebuli mosazrebisTvis. represiuli reJimis pirobebSi enaTmecnierTagan winaaRmdegobis gaweva an gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisis mtkiceba TviTmkvlelobis tolfasi iyo. bolos saqme iqamde mivida, rom sabWouri tradiciis gavleniT, zogma mravalsaukunovani samwignobro qarTuli kulturis erT-erTi umTavresi Semoqmedi - lazeT-samegrelosa da svaneTis qarTveloba - iseT umwignobro tomebad gamoacxada, romlebsac sakuTari damwerloba ara aqvT da monaTesave xalxis (qarTvelebis) enaze weren. Tumca, amgvar umarTebulo daskvnas didi polemika uZRoda win; gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa iv.javaxiSvilisa da n.maris, a.SaniZisa da s.xundaZis diskusiebi; warmovadgenT oriode epizods: ivane javaxiSvili (1992, gv. 53-54): 1908 wels n. mari ambobda, rom iafetur enaTa Stos saukeTeso da damaxasiaTebel warmomadgenlad "qarTulsa da masTan Zmurad dakavSirebul cocxal kilokavebs garda, ese igi egreT wodebul qarTebisa da iberTa jgufis (ukeT rom iTqvas qarTebisa, iberTa [igulisxmeba megrul-Wanuri] da svanTa jgufebs) garda, mkvdari enebic Sedian"-o (n. mari, 1908, gv.1). maSasadame, im dros, rodesac Tavisi Teoriis ZiriTadi debulebani pirvelad gamoaqveyna, n. marisTvis megruli, Wanuri da svanuri qarTuli enis "Zmurad dakavSirebuli cocxali kilokavebi", dialeqtebi iyo mxolod... n. maris zemomoyvanili debulebis Semdgom, mkiTxveli samarTlianad iqneba gaocebuli, radganac missave 1912 w. sajarod warmoTqmulsa da dabeWdil sityvaSi "kavkasia da sulieri kulturis Zeglebi" imave avtoris amgvar msjelobas Sexvdeba: "qarTvelTmcodneni, qarTul nacionalur Sexedulebaze damynobilni, ugulebels hyofdnen mTel rigs qarTulis, Tumca monaTesave, magram damoukidebel enebs, rogorc mag. svanurs, megruls, Wanurs da maT qarTulis ”damaxinjebul" Tqmad anu dialeqtad sTvlidnen"-o... avtors daviwyebia, rom amgvarive ”nacionalisturi" - 37 -

Sdr., i.stalini (marqsizmi da nacionaluri sakiTxi; pirvelad gamoica v.leninis aqtiurobiT 1913 wels venaSi; Semdeg sagangebo wesiT gamoqveynda 1920, 1934 da 1951 wlebSi; vimowmebT 1951 wlis Tbilisis gamocemis mixedviT): "ar arsebobs eri, romelic erTsa da imave dros sxvadasxva enaze laparakobdes, magram es kidev imas ar niSnavs, rom ar SeiZleba arsebobdes erT enaze molaparake ori eri (gv. 18)"... "kulturul-nacionaluri avtonomia gulisxmobs cotaT Tu bevrad ganviTarebul erovnebebs, ganviTarebuli kulturiT, literaturiT. uampirobod es avtonomia yovelgvar mniSvnelobas kargavs, uazrobad iqceva. magram kavkasiaSi arian mTeli rigi xalxebi, romelTac primitiuli kultura, gansakuTrebuli ena aqvT, magram mSobliur literaturas moklebulni arian... ra vuyoT aseT xalxebs: megrelebs, afxazebs, aWarlebs, svanebs, lekebs da sxv., romlebic sxvadasxva enaze laparakoben, magram TavianTi literatura ki ara aqvT?" (gv. 138-139)... "nacionaluri sakiTxi kavkasiaSi SeiZleba gadaiWras mxolod im mimarTulebiT, rom dagvianebuli erebi da xalxebi (megrelebi, svanebi, aWarlebi... xazgasma Cvenia - t.f.) umaRlesi kulturis saerTo kalapotSi movaqcioT"( gv. 142)...

Sexeduleba masac hqonda 1905 da 1908 wlebSi "megruli, Wanuri da svanuri masac qarTulis cocxal kilokavebad miaCnda".

s.xundaZe: "SaniZem unda icodes, rom qarTuli enis formebis Seswavlis dros maTi Sedareba monaTesave kilo-kavebis formebTan interess aorkecebs. garda amisa, saWiroa, rom Cvenma mozardma Taobam icodes, rom megruli da svanuri enebi Stoebia qarTuli enisa da ara gansxvavebuli enebi, rogorc amas ambobden da dResac amboben mterni da orgulni Cveni qveynisa" (gazeTi "saxalxo saqme", 1919w., #709, gv. 2-3).

Sdr., zviad gamsaxurdia (fragmentebi werilidan "samegrelos sakiTxi", Tb., 1989): "1928 wlis TebervalSi moskovidan Camovida ck kp (b)-s instruqtori pSenicini, romelmac moixila samegrelos soflebi da gamoitana "obieqturi" daskvna: "megrel glexs unda mivceT skola, sasamarTlo da popularuli broSura mSobliur enaze“ ("mSobliuri ena“ - 38 -

SeniSvna: silovan xundaZis qarTul gramatikas, romelic 7-jer iyo gamocemuli (V gamocema, 1917, quTaisi; VI gamocema, 1919, quTaisi; VII Sesworebuli da Sevsebuli gamocema, "merani",quTaisi, 1920) bolos darTuli aqvs "qarTuli enis kilokavebis (megrulisa da svanuris) gramatikuli formebi". s.xundaZe gardaicvala 1928 wels.

pSenicinisa da ZmaTa misTa terminologiiT, megrulia" z.gamsaxurdia). 1928 wlis 25 dekembers saqarTvelos ck IV plenumze moismines pSenicinis moxseneba, sadac daisva sakiTxi "samegreloSi megrul enaze broSurebis gamocemis mizanSewonilobis Sesaxeb". ck-s mdivani kaxiani waaxalisa pSenicinis mxriT gamxnevebam da gamoitana axali dadgenileba 1929 wlis marts megruli enis privilegiebis aRsadgenad skolaSi, sasamarTloSi saqmis warmoebisas, gazeTis gamocemis saqmeSi, am dadgenilebaSi megruls ukve ena ewoda da ara enakavi..." (z.gamsaxurdia, 1989)... sabWoTa imperias win aRudga samegrelos mosaxleoba, gansakuTrebiT am kuTxis Svili cnobili moRvaweebi; didma konstantine gamsaxurdiam ki qarTuli samwignobro enis qmnadobis ZvelqarTuli tradiciis safuZvelze dResac aqtualuri Teoriuli moZRvreba Camoayaliba: "Cemis azriT, unda xdebodes enis reparacia adgilobrivi dialeqtebis saSualebiT. unda SemouSvaT qarTul (samwignobro) enaSi rogorc megrul-svanuri dialeqtebis sityvebi, ise fSav-xevsuruli... vaJa-fSavelam am mxriv didi samsaxuri gauwia qarTul enas..." (konstantine gamsaxurdia, 1922; ix. aTtomeuli, 1983, t. VII, gv. 411); Sdr., agreTve: "XX saukunis mwerlobam unda mogvces ilias qarTluris, akakis imerulis, vaJas fSauris, megrulisa da guruli enobrivi elementebis sruli sinTezi. ai, es iqneba idealuri literaturuli qarTuli" (konstantine gamsaxurdia, 1929; aTtomeuli, 1983, t.VII, gv. 499)... kiTxvaze: ratom miaCndaT did qarTvel moRvaweebs megruli, svanuri, lazuri... qarTuli enis kiloebad, pasuxi erTia: ori dedaena ar arsebobs; yvela qarTvelis istoriuli dedaenaa qarTuli; Sdr., istoriuli dedaena da eri urTierTganmsazRvreli cnebebia (da ara mxolod Cveni winaprebisTvis): grigol orbeliani: "ra ena waxdes, eri daeces"; ilia WavWavaZe: "ena istoriaa erisa, pirveli niSani eris vinaobisa - enaa"; vaJa-fSavela: "eri dedaa enisa"; zviad gamsaxurdia: "qarTulSi, iseve rogorc sxva Zvel enebSi, ena mxolod enas ki ar niSnavda, aramed xalxs, erovnebas, modgmas"; - 39 -

Sdr.: v.humboltis, l.vaisgerberis, g.ramiSvilisa da mraval sxvaTa mixedviT, eri ganimarteba, rogorc enobrivi erToba; Sdr., agreTve, g.ramiSvili, 2000, gv.172: "ena sxva araferia, Tu ara eris msoflxedva" (vrclad ix. t.futkaraZe, 2005)... saerToqarTveluri enis modelirebis yvela akademiuri cda da qarTuli samwignobro enis istoria cxadyofs, rom Tanamedrove samwignobro qarTulis fonematuri, saxeluri, zmnuri, sintaqsuri da leqsikur-semantikuri struqturebi ZiriTadad saerToqarTveluri enis igiveobrivia; qarTvelTa saSinao kiloebi ki Teoriulad aRdgenili am saerTo enis metnaklebad Secvlili variantebi arian. Sesabamisad, logikuria, rom istoriul saerToerovnul enasTan mimarTebiT dialeqtebad ganvixiloT winareenisgan momdinare dRevandeli saxesxvaobani; Sdr.: dialeqti berZnuli sityvaa da niSnavs saerTo-saxalxo enis ganStoebas, adgilobriv metyvelebas, romelzec laparakobs mocemuli eris (eTnosis) erTi nawili. aRsaniSnavia, rom samwignobro qarTulsa da kiloebs Soris sxvaoba matulobs dedaqalaqTan (sasuliero-kulturul da mmarTvelobiT centrTan) kilos daSorebis proporciulad. samwignobro qarTulis gavlenis klebis Sesabamisad, qarTvelTa Tanamedrove saSinao-sametyvelo erTeulebi unda daiyos centralur, ganapira da saqarTvelos istoriuli teritoriis gareT arsebul dialeqtebad; Tavis mxriv, ganapira dialeqtur jgufebs eqvs qvejgufad warmovadgenT: centraluri kiloebi: kaxuri, qarTluri, imeruli, leCxumuri,
ganapira kiloebi: mesxuri kiloebi: aWaruli, livanuri, maWaxluri, imerxeuli, taouri, samcxuri, javaxuri; heruli kiloebi: kakuri, aliabaTuri; fxovuri kiloebi: CaRmaTuSuri, fSavuri, xevsuruli, moxevuri, mTiulur-gudamayruli; aqve, "asocirebul" dialeqtad SeiZleba ganvixiloT wovaTuSuric, romelic Seicavs rogorc CeCnuringuSuris, aseve, qarTulis msgavs fenebs; raWuli kiloebi: barisraWuli, mTaraWuli; svanuri kiloebi: laSxuri, lentexuri, Coluruli, balsqvemouri, balszemouri; zanuri kiloebi: megruli, lazuri (xofuri, viwur-arqabuli, aTinuri). saqarTvelos istoriuli teritoriis gareT arsebuli qarguruli.

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TvelTa kiloebi: fereidnuli, "Cveneburebis qarTuli" (bursa-ine-

qarTvelTa enobrivi erTeulebis istoriuli sqema ase gamoiyureba:
Zv.w.VII-IV aTasw.

golSi, adafazar-izmiTSi, gonensa da kaizerSi gadasaxlebul qarTvel muhajirTa metyveleba) da yizlar-mozdokur-plastunkuri qarTuli.

winaaziur-kavkasiuri enobrivi veli

Zv.w.III aTasw.

xaTuri

qarTvelurkavkasiuri

xurituli …

Sumeruli …

Zv.w.II aTasw.

s.Cerqezuli koine

s.qarTvel. ena

s.vainaxuri koine

s.daRestnuri koine

welTaRricxvaTa mijna

kilouri veli

S i S i n a

arqaul qarT. saxelmw. ena

s i s i n a kilouri veli

zanuri(lazur-megrul.)

qarTv. saeklesiosaxelmw. da saero mwelobis ena

Takverul-raWuli

centraluri

ax.w. IV-X saukuneebi

lazuri:aTin.viw.xof.

samcxur-javaxuri...

balszemouri

balsqvemouri

ax.w. XV-XVIII saukuneebi

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fereidnuli

lentexuri

qarTluri

maWaxluri

laSxuri...

livanuri

fSauri...

megruli

aWaruli

imeruli

kaxuri...

taouri

fxouri

svanuri

mesxuri

heruli

Tanamedrove samwignobro ena

TuSuri (maT Semonaxuli aqvT mravali arqauli movlena); 2. mTiulur-fSauri (orives bevri saerTo aqvs fxour dialeqtebTan _ moxeurTan, fSaurTan, xevsurulTan); 3. qarTlur-kaxuri (orive axlos aris saliteraturo qarTulTan); 4. dasavluri jgufi: imeruli (zemo-, Sua- da qvemoimeruli), guruli da raWuli; 5. samxreTdasavluri jgufi: aWaruli da imerxeuli; 6. ingilouri (a.SaniZe, 1957, gv. 828-832).

Sdr., sxvagvari dajgufebiT, qarTveluri enobrivi samyaro warmodgenilia sam/oTx enad; kerZod, zogi mkvlevari Tvlis, rom saliteraturi qarTulis paralelurad arsebobs umwignobro svanuri da megrul-lazuri enebi; kerZod, "svanur enaSi" aerTianeben svaneTis qarTvelTa 4/5 dialeqts: balszemours, balsqvemours, lentexurs, laSxursa da Coluruls (zogjer). meri azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa zanuri kiloebis kvalifikaciisas: mkvlevarTa nawili (arn.Ciqobava, v.Tofuria...) megrulsa da Wanurs "zanuri enis" dialeqtebad miiCnevs, nawili kidev (T.gamyreliZe, g.kartozia...) lazursac da megrulsac damoukidebel enebad miiCnevs. samecniero literaturaSi winaaRmdegobrivia sakuTriv qarTuli (saliteraturo) enis dialeqtebad miCneul erTeulTa klasifikaciac; kerZod: gasuli saukunis samecniero literaturaSi am kiloTa dajgufebis ramdenime varianti arsebobs: 1920 wels a.SaniZem gamokvlevaSi "subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi” qarTuli kiloebi or jgufad dayo: aRmosavlurad da dasavlurad; aRmosavlur jgufi gaaerTiana: qarTluri, kaxuri, qiziyuri, fSauri, mTiulurgudamayruli, xevsuruli, moxeuri da TuSuri, xolo dasavlurSi: imeruli, guruli da raWuli (a.SaniZe, 1920, gv. 144). mogvianebiT a.SaniZe dialeqtTa sxvagvar klasifikacias gvTavazobs, kerZod, gamoyofs eqvs dialeqtur jgufs: 1. fxouri: xevsuruli, moxeuri,

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S.ZiZiguri (1935) asaxelebs 5 dialeqtur jgufs: 1. ingilouri, fereidnuli; 2. TuSuri, fSauri, xevsuruli, mTiuluri, mTaraWuli; 3. kaxuri, qarTluri, mesxuri; 4. zemoimeruli, qvemoraWuli, qvemoimeruli; 5. guruli, aWaruli, imerxeuli.
TuSuri, fSauri, mTiuluri (gudamayruli), moxeuri, raWuli. mTisa da nawilobriv baris kiloebs ukavSirdeba mozdokisa da yizlaris qarTvelTa metyveleba; baris kiloebia: qarTluri (mesxurjavaxuriT), kaxuri (qiziyuriT, ingilouriTa da fereidnuliT), imeruli (leCxumuriTurT), guruli, aWaruli, imerxeuli..

arn. Ciqobava (1965, gv. 5-6) qarTul cocxal metyvelebas mTisa da baris metyvelebad yofs; mTis kiloebia: xevsuruli,

mTaraWuli; 2. qarTluri, kaxuri, qiziyuri, Tianuri, z.aWaruli; 3. xevsuruli, moxeuri, mTiulur-gudamayruli, fSauri, ingilouri, fereidnuli; 4. zemo da Suaimeruli, leCxumuri, qvemoraWuli da imerxeuli; 5. qvemo imeruli da TuSuri; 6. guruli da aWaruli.

g.nebieriZe (1965, gv. 21) xmovanTkompleqsTa cvlilebis xasiaTis mixedviT 6 dialeqtur jgufs gamoyofs: 1. gloluri,

b.jorbenaZis mier qarTuli enis kiloebi dayofilia aRmosavleT saqarTvelosa da dasavleT saqarTvelos kiloebad. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos dileqtebSi sami qvejgufi gamoiyofa: a) mTis dialeqtebi: xevsuruli, fSauri, TuSuri, moxeuri, mTiulur-gudamayruli, b) baris dialeqtebi: qarTluri, kaxuri, ingilouri, fereidnuli, g) samxreT-dasavluri dialeqti _ mesxurjavaxuri; dasavleT saqarTvelos kiloebi sam zonad iyofa: a) zemo zonis dialeqti - raWuli, b) Sua zonis dialeqtebi imeruli da leCxumuri, g) qvemo zonis dialeqtebi - guruli da
aWaruli. literatura ambrosi (xelaia), ruseTis saeklesio politikis Sesaxeb afxazeTSi, gamosacemad moamzada n.papuaSvilma, Tb., 2005. v. boederi, ena da kilo qarTvelologiaSi: enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2005. k. gabunia, qarTveluri enebis klasifikaciis sakuTriv lingvisturi da sociolingvisturi kriteriumebis gamijvnisaTvis: enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, Tb. 2004. T. gvancelaZe, enaTa genealogiuri klasifikaciis ZiriTadi kriteriumebi: qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t. VII, Tb., 2003.

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T. gvancelaZe, m. tabiZe, r. Serozia, r. Wanturia, RvTismsaxurebisa da ganaTlebis ena, rogorc rusifikatoruli politikis ganxorcielebis saSualeba: qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t.V, quTaisi, 2001. T.gvancelaZe, enisa da dialeqtis sakiTxi qarTvelologiaSi, Tb., 2006. И. Кипшидзе, Грамматика мингрельского языка, С.-Петербург, 1914. n. mari, qarTvelTa erovneba, quTaisi, 1905. g. meliqiSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. I, Tb.,1970. Г. Небиеридзе, Фонологический анализ вокализма грузинского языка (Автореферат канд диссертации) Тб.,1965. a. oniani, ena da dialeqti (qarTveluri dialeqtebi Tu qarTveluri enebi?): enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, #1, Tb., 2003. g. ramiSvili, dedaenis Teoria, Tb., 2000. m.tabiZe, enobriv sakiTxebze gamarTul polemikaTa sociolingvisturi aspeqtebi (qarTul sinamdvileSi): quTaisuri saubrebi, saerTaSoriso simpoziumi, VI, quTaisi,1999. m. tabiZe, enobrivi variantebis kvlevis sakiTxisaTvis: qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t. VII, quTaisi, 2003. m. tabiZe, enobrivi situacia saqarTveloSi da qarTuli enis funqcionirebis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2005. t. futkaraZe, qarTvelTa dialeqtebis dajgufebisaTvis: arn. Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi, XII, masalebi, Tb., 2001. t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. m. qurdiani, saerTo-qarTveluri ena da misi diferenciaciis Tanamimdevrobis problema: qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t. I, quTaisi, 1996. a.SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, Tb., 1920. А. Шанидзе, Принципы классификации грузинских диалектов, Труды объединенной научной сессии Академии наук СССР и академии наук Закавказских республик по общественным наукам (29 марта - 2 апреля 1954 г.), Стенографический отчет, Баку, 1957. Ш. Дзидзигури, 1938 Опыт классификации диалектов грузинского языка, (Тезисы на степень кандидата наук). 1935. Арн. Чикобава, Картвельские языки, их исторический состав и древний лингвистичесkий облик, ike, t. II, Tb.,1948.

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arn.Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa Seswavlis istoria, Tb., 1965. p. Waraia, megruli dialeqtis naTesaobrivi damokidebuleba qarTulTan (masala), wignSi: p.Waraia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1997. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli da kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba, Tb.,1992. b.jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, I, Tb., 1989.

1.5. Tanamedrove qarTveluri kiloebis gavrcelebis veli
saqarTvelos kulturul-administraciul centrTan siSore-siaxlovis mixedviT gamoiyofa dialeqtTa 3 jgufi: centraluri, ganapira da saqarTvelos istoriuli teritoriis gareT arsebuli kiloebi (ix. zemoT, 1.5.). am paragrafSi zogadad warmovadgenT Tanamedrove qarTvelur kiloTa gavrcelebis vels raionebisa da xeobebis mixedviT (vrclad ix., t.futkaraZe, e.dadiani, "qarTveluri dialeqtologia", 2006). qarTluri dialeqti. qarTluri yvelaze msxvili dialeqturi erTeulia. qarTlur kiloze metyveli qarTveloba saqarTvelos dRevandeli sazRvrebis mixedviT qveynis centralur nawilSi - qarTlSi cxovrobs; qarTli ZiriTadad moicavs mtkvris Sua welis xeobas, kaspis, qarelis, mcxeTis, goris, cxinvalis, marneulis, bolnisis, dmanisis, axalgoris, walkis, javis, TeTriwyarosa da xaSuris raionebs. qarTluri kilo yvelaze axlos dgas samwignobro qarTulTan. sxva qarTvelur kiloTagan yvelaze met saerTos igi poulobs kaxurTan. es bunebrivia maTi teritoriuli siaxlovisa da politikur-ekonomikuri erTianobis gamo. dialeqturi Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, qarTlur kiloSi oTxi ZiriTadi kilokavi gamoiyofa: centraluri anu Sida qarTluri (mcxeTis, kaspis, goris, qarelis raionebis metyveleba), Crdilo anu zemo qarTluri (axalgoris, agreTve, duSeTis raionSi Semavali soflebis metyveleba), - 45 -

centraluri kiloebi:

samxreTi anu qvemo qarTluri (gomaruli, weraqv-sionuri, rexuli, algeTuri Tqmebi) da dasavluri qarTluri (borjomis, xaSurisa da suramis metyveleba). kaxuri dialeqti. kaxeTi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos vrcel teritoriazea gaSlili. moicavs mdinare ivris Sida da qvemo dinebisa da mdinare alaznis auzs. dRevandeli administraciuli dayofiT kaxeTSi Sedis: axmetis, Telavis, yvarlis, gurjaanis, siRnaRis, lagodexis, dedofliswyaros, sagarejos raionebi da Tbilisis gareubani. kaxelebi sakmao raodenobiT cxovroben TianeTis raionSi. kaxeTi iyofa: garekaxeTad (md. ivris Sua weli), qiziyad (md. ivris qvemo weli), SignikaxeTad (md. alaznis marjvena sanapiro) da gaRmamxrad (md. alaznis marcxena sanapiro). miuxedavad farTo gavrcelebulobisa, kaxuri metyveleba ZiriTadad yvelgan erTnairia; gamoiyofa sami kilokavi: garekaxuri, Signikaxuri da qiziyuri. qiziyuris saxelwodebiT cnobilia siRnaRisa da nawilobriv dedofliswyaros raionebis mosaxleobis metyveleba. danarCeni kilokavebisagan gansxvavebiT, qiziyuri metyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia arqauli movlenebi. guruli dialeqti. guruli metyveleba gavrcelebulia dasavleT saqarTvelos sam raionSi: ozurgeTSi, Coxataursa da lanCxuTSi. gurias CrdiloeTiT samegrelo esazRvreba, samxreTiT - aWara, aRmosavleTiT - imereTi, dasavleTiT - Savi zRva. gurul dialeqtSi STambeWdavia megrul-Wanuri dialeqturi fena. guruli kilo iyofa or kilokavad: zemo da qvemo gurulad. zemo guruli moicavs ZiriTadad Coxataurisa da ozurgeTis mTiani regionis mosaxleobis metyvelebas, qvemo guruli - lanCxuTisa da ozurgeTis raionebis metyvelebas. guruli kilos kilokavebad dayofas safuZvlad udevs, erTi mxriv, leqsikuri da, meore mxriv ki, morfologiuri sxvaoba. zemo guruli dialeqturi TaviseburebebiT ufro uaxlovdeba qvemo imeruls, vidre qvemo guruls. imeruli dialeqti. imereTi erT-erTi didi istoriuleTnografiuli mxarea dasavleT saqarTveloSi. saxelwodeba dakavSirebulia am mxaris mdebareobasTan: imereTi, e.i. lixis - 46 -

mTis gadaRma mxare (Sdr.: amereTi). mogvianebiT imereTi kuTxis saxelwodebad, xolo "imereli" - am kuTxis qarTvelTa saxelad (Temonimad) Camoyalibda. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom vaxuStis TxzulebaSi "imereTi" Zveli mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba gulisxmobs mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos: "bagrationTa raJams
daipyres yoveli saqarTvelo, amaT uwodes qarTls amereTi da afxazeTs imereTi, anu imerni da amerni, umetesad SeerTebisaTAs; awca sazogadod uwodeben imereTs... cxeniswyals-zeiTs, aRmosavleTis kerZsa, vidre lixis mTamde..." (vaxuSti, 1941).

imereTi geografiulad or did regionad iyofa: zemo da qvemo imereTad. zemo imereTi moicavs saCxeris, WiaTuris, zestafonisa da xaragaulis raionebs, xolo qvemo imereTSi moiazreba Terjolis, tyibulis, baRdaTis, wyaltubos, xonis, samtrediisa da vanis raionebi, nawilobriv abaSis raioni (sazRvrispira soflebi). zemo imereTs aRmosavleTiT esazRvreba lixis anu suramis qedi, samxreTiT - aWara-imereTis qedi, CrdiloeTiT - raWis qedi, dasavleTiT - samegrelo. qvemo imereTs samxreTiT esazRvreba mesxeTi, CrdiloeTiT naqeralas qedi da xvamlis mTa, aRmosavleTiT - WiaTuris, zestafonisa da xaragaulis raionebi, samxreTiT - guria. imeruli erT-erT msxvil dialeqtur erTeuls warmoadgens. iyofa zemoimerul da qvemoimerul kilokavebad. imerulis enobrivi erTeulebis statusis Sesaxeb samecniero wreebSi azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa: mecnierTa nawili (S.ZiZiguri, q.ZoweniZe...) imerul dialeqts or kilokavad yofs, nawili (a.SaniZe) - samad (zemo-, Sua- da qvemoimeruli); k.kublaSvili zemoda qvemoimeruls damoukidebel dialeqtur erTeulebad miiCnevs. amasTanave, gamoyofen Suaimerul kilosac (v.fanCviZe). Suaimerulad miiCneva zemo da qvemo imereTs Soris arsebuli gardamavali zolis metyveleba (Terjoluri, baRdaTuri, tyibuluri), romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia rogorc qvemoimerulis, ise zemoimerulis enobrivi niSnebi. leCxumuri dialeqti. leCxumuri dialeqti ZiriTadad cageris raionSia gavrcelebuli, nawilobriv moicavs ambrolaurisa da wyaltubos raionebis soflebs. - 47 -

leCxumi cxeniswylis, rionisa da lajanuris xeobebSia moqceuli. leCxums aRmosavleTiT raWa (mdinare aski) esazRvreba, dasavleTiT - samegrelo (asxis mTa), CrdiloeTiT qvemo svaneTi (yvedreSis Rele), samxreTiT - imereTi. leCxumi wyaroebSi pirvelad moixsenieba VI saukuneSi (prokofi kesarieli) skvimniis saxeliT. savaraudoa, rom skvim- fuZe igivea, rac le-Cxum- (le- daniSnulebis mawarmoebeli saerToqarTveluri prefiqsia). geografiulad leCxums or nawilad yofen: zemo leCxumad (cxeniswylisa da lajanuris xeobaTa, agreTve, rionis xeobis erTi nawilis soflebi) da qvemo leCxumad (rionis xeobis soflebi tviSidan lexidris xeobis CaTvliT sofel Rvedamde). fxouri kiloebi: fxovelebi wyaroebSi pirvelad IV saukuneSi ixsenieba. wminda ninom, sxva qarTvel mTielebTan erTad (WarTalelebi, wilknelebi, gudamayrelebi), fxovelebsac uqadaga qristianoba. maT qristianoba ar miuRiaT, ris gamoc "fxoelTa dauteves queyana maTi da gardavides TuSeTs” (qarTlis cxovreba, 1995, gv.125-126). termini "fxovi" Zvel istoriul wyaroebSi gamoiyeneboda ori istoriul-eTnografiuli regionis, kerZod, fSavisa da xevsureTis aRsaniSnavad, Sesabamisad, "fxoelni" gulisxmobda xevsurebsa da fSavlebs; amis Sesaxeb vaxuStic aRniSnavs: "...aw uwodeben fSav-xevsureTs, romelTa pirvel ewodaT fxoelni” (vaxuSti, 1941, gv.93). fSav-xevsurulTan msgavsebis gamo gamarTlebuli Cans, amave jgufSi gaerTiandes mTis sxva kiloebic: TuSuri, moxeuri, mTiulur-gudamayruli. xevsuruli dialeqti. xevsureTi erT-erTi istoriuleTnografiuli kuTxea aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi. kavkasionis qedi xevsureTs or nawilad yofs: CrdiloaRmosavleTis mxare, anu piriqiTa xevsureTi da samxreTaRmosavleTis mxare, anu piraqeTa xevsureTi. piriqiTa xevsureTi moicavs ardotisa da Satilis xeobebs (axlandeli duSeTis raionis Satilis sasoflo sabWos teritoria), piraqeTa xevsureTi - xevsureTis aragvis xeobas (duSeTis - 48 -

ganapira kiloebi:

raionis barisaxosa da gudanis sasoflo sabWoebis teritoria). piriqiTa da piraqeTa xevsureTi erTmaneTs arxotisa da daTvisjvris uReltexiliT ukavSirdeba. xevsureTi aRniSnuli kuTxis aRsaniSnavad XV saukunidan Cndeba. saxeli darqmeulia mxaris mTiani, xevebiani adgilmdebareobis gamo. xevsureTs CrdiloeTiT esazRvreba CaCneT-inguSeTi, aRmosavleTiT - TuSeTi, dasavleTiT - xevi da gudamayari, samxreTiT - fSavi. xevsureTi dRevandeli administraciuli dayofiT moicavs duSeTis raions. xevsurebi cxovroben, agreTve, gudamayrisa (soflebi: bakurxevi da sakerpo) da xevis (soflebi: juTa da arTxmo) teritoriaze da TianeTis raionSi. xevsurul dialeqtSi gamoiyofa ori kilokavi: SatilurmiRmaxeuri da piraqeTul-arxotuli. fSauri dialeqti. fSavi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi mdebareobs. saxelwodeba "fSavi" XV saukunidan gvxvdeba. Zveli istoriuli saxeli fxovi dRes mxolod erT sofel - Suafxos SerCenia. fSavis mTavari mdinare aragvia, romelic sami Senakadisagan Sedgeba: boTanas wyali, asisxevi da bogoCaris xevi. fSavis sazRvrebia: Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT - kavkasionis mTavari qedi, romelic mas aRmosavleTiT yofs TuSeTisagan da CrdiloeTiT ki - piriqiTi xevsureTisagan; dasavleTiT - piraqeTi xevsureTi, mTiuleT-gudamayari, samxreTiT - duSeTis raioni. fSavlebi dRes gafantulni arian mdinare aragvis, ivris, iltosa da alaznis saTaveebSi. didi raodenobiT cxovroben agreTve gomborSi, erwo-TianeTsa da SiraqSi. erwo-TianeTs xSirad fSavis saxeliTac moixsenieben. fSavlebi sakmao raodenobiT cxovroben axmetis raionSi, pankisis xeobaSi; Telavis raionis or sofelSi (luCuri da lafanyuri); yvarlis raionis sofel gZelWalaSi. dRevandeli administraciuli dayofiT, fSavi duSeTis raions miekuTvneba. TuSuri dialeqti. TuSeTi saqarTvelos CrdiloaRmosavleT mTianeTs ekuTvnis; mdebareobs kavkasionis mTavari qedis CrdiloeTiT. aRmosavleTiT TuSeTs daRestani esaz- 49 -

Rvreba, dasavleTiT - fSav-xevsureTi, CrdiloeTiT - CaCneTinguSeTi, samxreTiT - kaxeTi. TuSeTi SemozRudulia wyalgamyofi maRali qedebiT. piriqiTa qedi TuSeTs orad yofs: CrdiloeT mxarezea piriqiTa xeoba da samxreTiT - gomewris xeoba. TuSeTSi ori mdinare miedineba: gomewrisa da piriqiTis alazani. wyaroebSi TuSebi II saukunidan Canan. TuSeTis qarTveloba (TuSTa Temi) dRes oTx Temad iyofa: wovebi, gomewarani, CaRmebi da piriqiTni. TuSeTis administraciuli centria sofeli omalo. TuSeTi axmetis raionSi Sedis. gomewris, CaRmisa da piriqiTis TuSebi TuSur dialeqtze metyveleben, wovaTas TuSebis saojaxo sametyvelo kodi ki wovaTuSuria (samecniero literaturaSi es enobrivi erTeuli bacburis saxeliTac moixsenieba), romelic vainaxur enebsac enaTesaveba da qarTulsac. sxva qarTvelebTan wovaTuSebi kaxuri dialeqtis msgavs gardamaval kiloze metyveleben. moxeuri dialeqti. xevi mdebareobs saqarTvelos teritoriis CrdiloeT nawilSi, romelzedac gadis saqarTvelos samxedro gza. xevs, Tavisi mdebareobis gamo, saqarTvelos istoriaSi yovelTvis hqonda mniSvnelovani sakomunikacio da strategiuli roli. xevis saSualebiT saqarTvelo ukavSirdeboda CrdiloeTiT mcxovreb mezoblebs. am gzis yvelaze mniSvnelovani punqtebia - jvris uReltexili da darialis karibWe. jvris uReltexils moxeveebi eZaxian jorTvakes (jvarTvakes anu jors (jori//jvari). xevis teritoria moicavs, agreTve, snos xeobas, romelsac literaturaSi RuduSauris xeobasac uwodeben. Tergisa da snos xeobebTan erTad yazbegis raionis farglebSi moqceulia TeTri aragvis (mTiuleTis aragvis) saTaveebi da Trusos xeoba - istoriuli dvaleTis erTi nawili. dRevandeli administraciul-teritoriuli dayofiT, xevi yazbegis raionSi Sedis. CrdiloeTidan xevs CrdiloeT oseTi da inguSeTi esazRvreba, samxreTidan - mTiuleTisa da gudamayris eTnografiuli erTeulebi, aRmosavleTidan xevsureTi, dasavleTidan xevs Tergisave xeobaSi mdebare mcire eTnografiuli erTeuli, Truso esazRvreba, saidanac istoriul dvaleTSia gadasasvleli. - 50 -

mTiulur-gudamayruli dialeqti. mTiuleT-gudamayari mdebareobs aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi. mTiuleTi moicavs mdinare TeTri aragvis xeobas. misi ukiduresi samxreTi sazRvaria mTiulTkari, CrdiloeTiT - Trusos xevi da sakuTriv xevi, aRmosavleTiT - gudamayari, dasavleTiT lomisis qedi. saqarTvelos Tanamedrove administraciul-teritoriuli dayofiT, mTiuleTi mdebareobs nawilobriv duSeTis, nawilobriv yazbegis raionebis teritoriaze. gudamayari mdebareobs Savi aragvis xeobaSi. Sav aragvs qmnis ori mdinare: boslisa da bur-saWilis aragvi. Savi aragvi fasanaurTan uerTdeba TeTr aragvs. gudamayars CrdiloeTiT xevi esazRvreba, Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT - xevsureTi, aRmosavleTiT - fSavi, dasavleTiT - mTiuleTi. dRevandeli mTiuleTis istoriul-eTnografiuli regioni ori damoukidebeli mxaris - xadisa da cxavatis gaerTianebis Sedegadaa miRebuli. mTiuleTi cnobili iyo koSkebis simravliT. marto xadaSi 60 koSki yofila. "...garda svaneTisa, Cven ar viciT arc erTi kuTxe, sadac mcire teritoriaze ase bevri koSki idges" (p.zaqaraia, 1962, gv. 50). mesxuri kiloebi: "mesxeTi" istoriuli samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos (zemo qarTlis) Zveli saxelwodebaa. terminiT: "mesxuri kiloebi" moviazrebT istoriuli mesxeTis teritoriaze arsebul qarTul eTnografiul jgufTa (TemTa) metyvelebas

vrclad warmovadgenT taoklarjul kiloebs, ramdenadac, jerjerobiT, maT Sesaxeb informacia mwiria samecniero literaturaSi. mesxeTis teritoria moicavda md. mtkvris auzis zemo nawils (samcxe, javaxeTi, artaani, eruSeTi, kola) da md. Woroxis auzs mTlianad (aWara, klarjeTi, SavSeTi, tao, speri). am teritoriaze uZvelesi droidan cxovrobdnen mesxebi. aqedan modis mxaris saxelwodebac - mesxeTi. XVI saukuneSi mesxeTi osmalebma miitaces da iq osmaleTis administraciuli erTeuli - axalcixis safaSo Seqmnes. istoriuli mesxeTis - 51 -

(samecniero literaturaSi "mesxuri" ZiriTadad gamoyenebulia an sakuTriv samcxuris, an samcxur-javaxuris aRsaniSnavad); SedarebiT

nawili (samcxe da javaxeTi) saqarTvelos daubrunda ruseTTurqeTis 1828-29 wlebis omis Sedegad, adrianopolis sazavo xelSekrulebis (1829) Tanaxmad, xolo aWara - ruseTosmaleTis 1877-78 wlebis omis Semdeg berlinis kongresis (1878 w.) gadawyvetilebiT. amJamad TurqeTis xelisuflebis mier kontrolirebad teritoriaze darCenilia: istoriuli tao, klarjeTi, SavSeT-imerxevi, livana, maWaxela, lazeTi, eruSeTi, kola, artaani... mesxuri kiloebidan dRes saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sazRvrebSi mxolod aWaruli, samcxuri da javaxuria, danarCeni ki TurqeTis sazRvrebSia. aWaruli dialeqti. aWaruli dialeqti erT-erTi msxvili dialeqturi erTeulia. aWaruli metyveleba gavrcelebulia Suaxevis, qedis, xelvaCauris, xulos, qobuleTis raionebSi, nawilobriv, guriis mxareSi. aWaras CrdiloeTiT esazRvreba guria, aRmosavleTiT samcxe, samxreTiT - TurqeTis saxelmwifo sazRvari, dasavleTiT akravs Savi zRva. aWaris administraciuli centria qalaqi baTumi. aWaruli iyofa zemo da qvemo aWarulad: zemoaWaruli moicavs xulos, Suaxevis, qedis da, nawilobriv, xelvaCauris raionebs; qvemoaWaruli - xelvaCaursa da qobuleTs. samcxuri dialeqti. istoriuli samcxe (axlandeli mesxeTi) mdebareobs mtkvris xeobaSi; moicavs axalcixis, adigenis da aspinZis raionebs. samcxes dasavleTiT esazRvreba aWara, aRmosavleTiT javaxeTi, samxreTiT - saqarTvelos istoriuli kuTxeebi: eruSeTi da SavSeTi, CrdiloeTiT - guria da imereTi. samcxis nawili - focxovis xeoba - dRes TurqeTSia. specialistTa umravlesoba (n.mari, iv.javaxiSvili, a.SaniZe, arn.Ciqobava, z.WumburiZe...) Tvlis, rom saxelwodeba "samcxe" momdinareobs satomo saxelisagan: "mesxi" sa-e mawarmoeblis darTviT, kerZod: mesxi > sa-mesx-e > sa-msx-e (e xmovnis amovardniT) > samcxe (s>c procesis Sedegad). samcxuri metyveleba metad axlos dgas javaxurTan. javaxuri dialeqti. javaxeTi mdebareobs saqarTvelos samxreT sazRvarze. Tanamedrove administraciuli danawile- 52 -

biT javaxeTi moicavs mTlianad axalqalaqisa da ninowmindis raionebs, nawilobriv - aspinZis raions. javaxeTis istoriul-geografiuli sazRvrebia: aRmosavleTiT - qarTli (walkisa da dmanisis raionebi), dasavleTiT samcxe (aspinZis raioni), CrdiloeTiT - borjomis raioni, samxreT-aRmosavleTiT - somxeTi, samxreT-dasavleTiT TurqeTis saxelmwifo sazRvari. imerxeuli (SavSuri) dialeqti. istoriuli SavSeTis xeobebs Soris qarTuli ena da qarTuli toponimebi yvelaze ukeT daculia berTiswylis/SavSeTiswylis Senakadis imerxeviswylis (fafarTiswylis) xeobis soflebSi: iveTSi, ifxrevlSi, imnieTSi, qoqlieTSi, wyalsimerSi, bzaTaSi, SoltisxevSi, weTileTSi, agaraSi, xoxlevSi, manatbaSi, zaqieTSi, TeTraketSi, baZgireTSi, xevwvrilSi, ziosSi, ubeSi, dabaSi, dasamobSi, CaqvelTaSi, CixorSi, TeTrakeTSi, ustamisSi, surevanSi, devieTSi, TeTrakeTSi, didmereSi, lioneTSi, davlaTSi, CixorSi, SerTulSi, farnuxSi, maCxateTSi, jvarisxevSi, andriawmindaSi da sxv. adre, termini "imerxevi" geografiuli cnebis aRmniSvneli iyo (gadaRma xevi), Semdeg ki TurqeTis sazRvrebSi moqceuli qarTuli kuTxis - SavSeTis erTi nawilis saxelad iqca. vaxuSti SavSeTis Sesaxeb wers: "xolo SavSeTis-wyali gamosdis eruSeTsa da SavSeTs Soriss arsianis mTas. es dis pirvelad aRmosavleTidam dasavleTad, merme modrkebis da dis aRmosavleTs _ samBreTs Suadam CdiloT-dasavleTs Soris. amas, Woroxis SesarTavs zeiT, moerTvis mdinared Wilovnis-Bevi, gamosdis arsianis mTas, modis Cdilodam samBriT grexiT... da mzRvris SavSeTs: aRmosavliT mTa arsiani, da gardavlenan mas zeda gzani eruSeTs, focxvis-Beobas da zarzma-yels; samBriT mzRvris klde, artanujsa da SavSeTs Sorisi, viTarca kedeli, romeli Camovals arsianis mTidam dasavleTad, vidre kninRa Woroxamde, da ganvlis mas kldesa Sina gza, viTarca kari da TAnier misa ara ars gza; dasavliT mTa SavSeTisa, SavSeTsa da Woroxs Sorisi; CdiloT mTa, arsianidam Camosuli dasavliT Woroxamde. da ars ese SavSeTi tyiani, gora-mTiani... (vaxuSti, 1914, gv.135136).

imerxevSi dRemdea SemorCenili qarTuli cixeebi da eklesiebis nangrevebi; gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia is, rom mxolod imerxevSi, diobansa da ubes Soris, saTavesTan (mTis saxelia) - 53 -

axlos dasturdeba toponimi xanZTa (sadac eklesiis nangrevebicaa); xalxuri gadmocemiT, aq, xanZTaSi, Zvelad arsebobda "universiteti" (dRemde xanZTad iTvleba istoriuli portas samonastro kompleqsi). iqaur soflebsa da sxva geografiul adgilebs (mTebs, xeobebs, velebs...) oficialurad Seucvales qarTuli saxeli da maT nacvlad uwodes osmaluri, Turquli da qurTuli saxelebi. amaze vaxuStic aRniSnavs: "...dasavliT ars da Sifaqlus mTis iqiT gurji boRjis Beoba anu saqarTvelosyelisa, rameTu odes daipyres osmalTa azrum (dRevandeli erzurumi - e.d.), mier JamiT uwodes saxeli ese" (vaxuSti, 1941, gv. 141). SavSeT-imerxevi, sxva istoriul qarTul mxareebTan erTad, XVI saukunidan TurqeTis qveSevrdomobaSia. oTx saukuneze metia, igi ucxo enobriv garemoSi imyofeba. imerxevSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa erTi nawili dRemde qarTulad metyvelebs. SavSeTSi ZiriTadad Turqulia gabatonebuli, SavSeTis soflebis mikrotoponimiaSic momravlebulia Turqulenovani saxelebi. soflis rogorc Zveli, ise axlandeli (rogorc qarTuli, ise Turquli) saxelebi sinonimuri toponimebia. ixmareba orive saxeli. Tumca aris saSiSroeba imisa, rom garkveuli drois gasvlis Semdeg qarTuli saxeli gaqres. SavSeTimerxevis soflebSi bevri qarTuli warmomavlobis gvarsaxeli dRemde SemorCa, Tumca oficialurad mosaxleobas miRebuli aqvs Turquli gvarebi. ician winaprebis gvarebic. es gvarebi bolovdeba -Ze, -Svili, -ienTi, -eT, -eb, -osan sufiqsebiT (n.cecxlaZe, 2002, gv. 239-243). imerxeuli metyvelebis nimuSebi pirvelad gamoaqveyna n.marma (1911 w.); 1993 wels ufro srulyofili masala gamosca S.futkaraZem. imerxevel qarTvelTa udidesi nawili dRemde dedaenaze Tavisuflad metyvelebs (Tumca bavSvebs ukve uWirT qarTulad metyveleba). imerxeuli dialeqti aWarulsa da maWaxlurs Camohgavs, magram seriozuli sxvaoba SeiniSneba fonetikaSic (Ë bgera, palatalizebuli xmovnebi, dezafrikatizebuli Z...), morfologiaSic (II subieqturi piris niSnad h-s aqtiuri gamovlena, ma-, wama- zmniswinebis, matoponimebeli -Ti sufiqsis aqtiuri gamoyeneba) da leqsikaSic (RenWi/RarWi - mozrdili biWi, baxala - gogo, amezRam amaRam, ~taqani/itaqani - staqani, laxana - kombosto, kodavi - 54 -

kodala, kumata~/yarTofi - kartofili, jaWkvi - jaWvi...); Sdr., imerxevelis dakvirveba: "aWaruli da aqeuri gurjija erTmaneT ar ewyoba" (S.futkaraZe). imerxeul kiloSi gamoiyofa zemoimerxeuli da qvemoimerxeuli kilokavebi. taouri dialeqti. tao istoriuli samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erT-erTi kuTxea, romelic dRes TurqeTis sazRvrebSi Sedis. tao bunebriv-geografiuli pirobebis mixedviT iyofoda or nawilad da "orsave kerZosa taosa Tavisi saxeli hqonda: amiertao - qvemo tao da imiertao - zemo tao. amieri da imieri tao erTmaneTisagan gamoiyofoda olTisiswylis (dRevandeli olTu-Cai) qvemo weliT da misi Senakadi bardusis wyliT [dRevandeli bardus-Cai] (i.javaxiSvili). taos sazRvrebis Sesaxeb vaxuSti mogviTxrobs: "aramed arTvins zeiTi, idamde, Woroxis dasavleTisa, TorTomis mTis aRmosavleTiT ars parxali anu taoskari, anu tao. da mzRvris amas: aRmosavliT Woroxis mdinare; samBriT TorTomidam Camosuli mTa idamde; dasavliT TorTomis mTa; CdiloT Woroxi da ispiris mTa. da ars es tao venaxovani, xiliani, mosavliani yovliTa mosavliTa, da mTis kerZoT, viTarca javaxeTi. aramed ars mTiani, goriani, RelovanBramovani, Rratoiani, wyliani da iwro. da arian BevTa dabnebi. kacnica egreTnive. garna idi da narumaki arian, viTarca TrialeTi anu javaxeTi yovliTurT"... (vaxuSti, 1941, gv.138). tao "Bevebis" simravliT gamoirCeoda. taos qveyana (mxare) rva "Bevs" moicavda; kerZod, maTi saxelebia: kola, berdacfori, partizacfori, Wyatqi, buxa, oqaRe, azordacfori da arsiacfori parkalis mTebTan (d.musxeliSvili, 1980, gv.160). logikuria mosazreba, rom uZvelesi qarTveluri saxelmwifos - diaoxis/taoxis - saxeli taos formiTaa SemorCenili. Semdeg tao kolxeTis samefoSi Sedioda. Zv. w. IV-III saukuneebidan igi Zveli kolxeTis memkvidre quj-farnavazis qarTlis organuli nawilia. Zv. w. II saukuneSi tao somxeTma daipyro; ax. w. I-II saukuneebidan ki kvlav qarTlis samefoSia; VIII-IX saukuneebSi aq farTo samonastro mSenebloba mimdinareobda: aSenda qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis SesaniSnavi Zeglebi: bana, xaxuli, oSki, parxali... taouri kargadaa Semonaxuli Ëevais xevSi, parxalTan axlos mdebare sam sofelSi: xevaiSi (xevegSi), balxsa da qobaiSi - 55 -

(qvabagSi); S.futkaraZis cnobiT, parxaliswylis qarTulad molaparake soflebia, agreTve: arjevani, armenxevi, axalTi, balxibari, bertaxevi, bowminda, godGekari, gudasxevi, devTisa, didiRele, didixevi, dolekari, eliasxevi, vanisxevi, vaCekari, vejankeTi, ieTi, imtkori, kilioni, kldekari, konwoli, krevlaTi, kuepreTi/kupreTi, maxateTi, navanevi, niklovi, oblekari, oRdemi, sarigoli, safarante, soroxevi, utavi, farisxevi, fiqalTi, fiCxeTi, qisoreTi, qonobani, qorieTi, cirekari, wvevibari, Wedlian kari, WilaTi, xevmudi, xucekari... olTisiswylis xeobis qarTuli soflebia; avwala, anzavi, bana, iSxani, karnavazi, kiaxi, kosori, olori, orTisi, solomonisi, fanaskerti... TorTomiswylis xeobaSia: oSki, xaxuli; Woroxis mimdebare teritoriazea: binaTi, gumfali, kowaxuri, dorTqilisa, uSxumi, qorTa, xoTi, xomxali. taouri qarTuli sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba sxva mesxuri kiloebisgan; taouri kilos gageba rTulia sagangebo Seswavlis gareSe. fonetikur movlenaTagan aRsaniSnavia: xmovan prefiqsTa harmonizacia da o-s palatalizeba (SemoviareT . SimiviareT, wamova > wèmèva, Semovida > Somovida > Sèmèvida), Ë bgeris arseboba da sxv. morfologiuri movlenebidan aRsaniSnavia: Sa- zmniswini (mawon Saayeneb), zog saxelur semantikur jgufTan eb- mravlobiTobis nacvlad nar- sufiqsis gamoyeneba (gzevnari "gzebi", Ëevnari "xevebi", xevnari "xeebi", kapnari "kapnebi", karnali "karebi", Tevnari "mTebi"), gauxardaT formis nacvlad dasturdeba: guuxarnes, III subieqturi piris niSnad zogjer a-s gamoyeneba s-s nacvlad: gvaqva "gvaqvs", maqva "maqvs"; Zveli qarTulis msgavsad a-s gamoyeneba -Si-s nacvlad "moskova Cavel", dasturdeba kiTxviTi nawilaki a ("ramdeni RarWi gyavsa?")... leqsikaSic arsebiTia sxvaoba: xvaraTi "saubari", iarenoba "Zveli ambebis gaxseneba" (aq sityva "laparaki" saerTod ar ician), RenWi "biWi, gogo 10 wlamde", bgano "gogo 10 wlis Semdeg", dedekaci "gaTxovili", qarToli "kartofili", agara "iailebi", Wani "lazi", fxikia "frTxali", dazgna "anTeba", tiki "guda-stviri", gumuuRebT "davibrunebT", Cazavdeba "Cacvivdeba", ved- fuZis nacvlad zogjer vlindeba ven- (wevneT "wevdeT"), trinki "fexi", Zga "gza", TavSxam "TavaRma", popoWiki "Cliqi", iskami "skami", kedi "Zafi", - 56 -

kowiwi (mwvane didi xvliki), xului (patara xvliki), slikvi (ufro patara xvliki), yuri miyare "yuri daugde", muceli menTeba "muceli mtkiva" da sxv. maWaxluri dialeqti. maWaxeli/miWixiani istoriuli qarTuli Temia samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi mdinare maWaxelas da misi Senakadebis: mindieTis wylisa da efratis Relis xeobebSi (mdinare maWaxela sofel maWaxlispirTan uerTdeba Woroxs). Tavisi geografiuli mdebareobiT maWaxeli mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos, pirvel rigSi, Woroxis xeobis mxaris ekonomikur da kulturul cxovrebaSi. maWaxelas xeobis warsulis Sesaxeb mniSvnelovani cnobebia daculi uZveles qarTul xelnawer dokumentSi, romelic cnobilia "maWaxlis xeobis sulTa matianis" saxelwodebiT. masSi aRniSnulia maSindeli gvarsaxelebi, adgilis saxelebi, toponimebi. XVII saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi osmalebma daipyres mTeli samcxe-saaTabago. amave periodidan lazeTTan erTad aWara-maWaxeli Camoaciles saqarTvelos; mitacebuli teritoriebi sanjayebad (olqebad) dayves. Tavdapirvelad calke sanjays warmoadgenda maWaxeli, romelic Cildiris (axalcixis) vilaieTSi Sedioda. ruseTTurqeTis omis Semdeg maWaxlis mosaxleobis didi nawili TurqeTSi gadaixvewa: muhajiroba ganapiroba mefis ruseTis xelisuflebis mier xelovnurad Seqmnilma mZime pirobebma (sazRvrispira regionebSi ruseTi somxebs ufro endoboda; amave dros, sulTnis TurqeTs iafi muSaxeli esaWiroeboda). dRes zemo maWaxeli TurqeTis sazRvrebSia, qvemo maWaxeli ki saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSia, kerZod, xelvaCauris raionSi Sedis: zeda CxutuneTi, qveda CxutuneTi, CiquneTi, cxemlara, skurdidi, aWarisaRmarTi, qedqedi, sindieTi, Wanivri, gorgaZeTi, safutkreTi da sxv. TurqeTis respublikis sazRvrebSia: xerTvisi (aq erTmaneTs erTvis mindieTisa da efratis Releebi), mindieTi, akria, qvabisTavi, zedvake, efrati. Turqulis intensiuri gavlenis miuxedavad, zemo maWaxelSic dResac mSvenieri qarTuliT (maWaxluri dialeqtiT) laparakoben; maWaxlur kilos ori kilokavi aqvs: zemomaWaxluri da qvemomaWaxluri; dialeqturi maxasiaTeblebi ufro mkafiod Cans zemomaWaxlurSi. maWaxluris TaviseburebaTagan - 57 -

aRsaniSnavia: r sonoris dakargva, Sa- zmniswinis aqtiuri gamoCena ("uReli Saadgis qedze"; S.futkaraZe), wa > wo procesi (woveliT, wovda...), arqauli xolmeobiTis msgavsi formebis (iTibvis, iyidvis, deirgvis, vklidiT, vasxmidiT...) povniereba; am kiloSi -ar sufiqsi warmomavlobas awarmoebs Zveli qarTulisa da zanuris msgavsad (Cxutun-ar-i: CxutuneTeli); araiSviaTad, Taviseburia leqsikac: miwaxapa~ "kartofili", wanwalaki "sacalfexo xidi", dedluca "patara dedali", dawondeba "moewoneba" da sxv. livanuri dialeqti. istoriuli livana mdebareobda feodaluri xanis samxreT saqarTveloSi, md.Woroxis qvemo dinebaSi. istoriul wyaroebSi sxvadasxva saxelwodebiT gvxvdeba: ligani, nigali. pirvelad ixsenieba XI saukuneSi (nigali). vaxuStis mixedviT, moicavda md. Woroxis xeobis qveda welis orive mxares arTvinis sanaxebiTurT: "da am arTvanis (< ardovani - t.f.) sanaxebiTurT, vidre erges sazRvramde, Woroxis Beobis imieri da amieri iwodebis liganis Beobad. da ars es liganis Beoba TAnier siviwrovisa, friad nayofieri narinjiT, TurinjiT, limoTi, zeTisxiliT...” (vaxuSti, 1941, gv.136). SemdgomSi livanad moiazreboda mdinareebis aWariswylisa da Woroxis SesayarTan mdebare teritoria. 1549 wels livana osmalebma daikaves. ruseT-osmaleTis 1877-78 wlebis omis Semdeg istoriuli samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos sxva teritoriebTan erTad ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi Sevida. amJamad livanis mxolod mcire nawils flobs saqarTvelo, didi nawili ki, TurqeTis sazRvrebSi rCeba. qarTuli enis livanuri kiloze molaparake qarTvelobis soflebia: xelvaCauris raionSi: mirveTi, kirnaTi, maradidi; murRulis raionSi: agara, aduCa, arxva, baga, baSqoi, bujuri, gevli, goglieTi, gurbuni, dialeTi, durCa, ereguna, iskebi, kabarjeTi, kasimeTi, koridseTi, lomekeTi, ozmali, trapeni, foroseTi, qamileTi, qvamCireTi, qobekeTi, qorTukeTi, qura, yavrieTi, CxaleTi, Zanculi, wyalya, Wilavri, xaxuri, xorsoli, juani... borCxis raionSi: agara, avana, arhaveTi, axaldaba, bageni, banakna, beRlevani, beSavli, damfali, devsqeli, ebrika, vazria, valaSeni, vintavli, zedubani, zelieTi, Txilazori, katafxia, kvarCxani, kincxureTi, kirsa, - 58 -

zeda maradidi, murkiveTi, nigia, omana, orji, ofuja, oxorji, petruli, sabavri, uzruma, ukarnere, qarTla, klaskuri, Rvia, Suaxevi, CarbieTi, Winkuri, xeba, xinwkana... arTvinis raionSi: ardola, berTa, gverdabaRebi, dolisyana, erTa xidi, Tolgomi, iskeba, kapari, korZuli, lomaSeni, mamawminda, moxobani, neZvi, opiza, sinkoTi, ustamisi, ferasxevi, Surmaxi, Cidila, CxakaTi, wefTa, wyaloqro, xaifeTi, jmerki... (S.futkaraZe). zogadi dakvirvebiT, livanurSi gamoiyofa; maradiduli, murRuluri da borCxuli kilokavebi. livanurSi Ë naklebad Cans, sxva mesxuri kiloebisgan gansxvavebiT SezRudulia agreTve ee > ie procesi; lazuris msgavsad, livanurSic gaaqtiurebulia ergativis roli ("man Cans", "gogom akeTefs saWmel"), rig SemTxvevaSi Taviseburia zmnuri paradigma, aqtiuria II subieqturi da III obieqturi piris niSnebi, zanurisa da Zv. qarTulis normis msgavsad, gv- piris niSnis nacvlad gamoiyeneba m- (Cven maqvan; arn.Ciqobava), -nen/-en mravlobiTis sufiqsis nacvlad gamoiyeneba -es (biWebi cixidan gamovides; S.futkaraZe), Semonaxulia arqauli qarTulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli kiTxviTi nawilaki a da sxv. raWuli kiloebi: raWa dasavleT saqarTvelos CrdiloeT nawilSi mdebareobs da SemozRudulia mTebiT. aseTi mdebareobis gamo, mas yofen zemo da qvemo raWad. zemo raWa ZiriTadad moicavs onisa da, nawilobriv, ambrolauris raionebs, qvemo raWa ki - ambrolauris raions (lixeTis xeobis gamoklebiT); gamoyofen agreTve mTis raWas, romelic zemo raWis ukidures CrdiloeT nawilSi mdebareobs da, istoriuli wyaroebis mixedviT, mTiuleTi ewodeboda (am kuTxis raWvelebi dResac TavianT Tavs "mTiulebs" eZaxian). samecniero literaturaSi es saxeli ar ixmareba imis gamo, rom ar moxdes aRreva aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTiuleTTan (duSeTis raioni). saxelebi: mTis raWa, mTaraWa ramdenadme pirobiTia. termini "mTis raWa" xalxuria da samecniero literaturaSi s.makalaTias amave saxelwodebis naSromis gamoqveynebis Semdeg damkvidrda. CrdiloeTiT raWas esazRvreba oseTi (mamisonis uReltexiliT ukavSirdeba), aRmosavleTiT - cxinvalis mxare (yofili samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqi anu Sida qarTli), - 59 -

Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT - qvemo svaneTi, dasavleTiT - leCxumi, samxreTiT -imereTi. mTis raWa mdebareobs md.rionis saTavesa da glolis anu WanWaxis wyals Soris. aerTianebs Rebisa da glolis Tems da Sedgeba sami soflisagan: Rebi, Wiora da glola. mTis raWis soflebi vaxuStis Tavis geografiaSi moxseniebuli aqvs rogorc "koSkovan-godlovan-zRudiani soflebi”. xSirad raWa leCxumTan erTad (raWa-leCxumi) moiazreba, rasac istoriuli safuZveli aqvs, kerZod, es ori kuTxe erT istoriul-eTnografiul regions, Takvers warmoadgenda. mogvianebiT Takvers raWa gamoeyo da "Takveris" saxelwodebiT mxolod leCxumi aRiniSneboda (r.TofCiSvili, 2002, gv.71). raWulSi ramdenime kilokavs gamoyofen; S.ZiZiguri sam kilokavs asaxelebs: qvemoraWuli, zemoraWuli da mTaraWuli; v.Tofuria raWulSi oTx erTeuls gamoyofs: rivnisTauri _ Rebi-Wioras metyveleba, gloluri, zemoraWuli da qvemoraWuli. enobrivi Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT SesaZlebelia raWuli metyveleba ufro or dialeqtad davyoT: mTaraWulad da barisraWulad. heruli kiloebi: istoriuli hereTi (dRevandeli saingilo) amJamad azerbaijanis respublikaSia moqceuli da moicavs kaxis, zaqaTalisa da belaqnis raionebs. dRevandel saingilos dasavleTiT da samxreT-dasavleTiT kaxeTi esazRvreba, samxreTiT - md. agri-Cai, aRmosavleTiTa da samxreT-aRmosavleTiT - kavkasionis mTagrexili. IV-V saukuneebSi hereTi saqarTvelos erT-erT saerisTavos warmoadgenda, xolo XI saukunidan kaxeTis samefoSia. XV saukunidan saxelwodeba "hereTi” saistorio wyaroebSi TandaTan gaqra, igi kaxeTis organul nawilad iqca. XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi hereTi araerTgzis aoxrda lekTa TareSisa da Sah-abasis laSqrobebis Sedegad. Semdeg ki ruseTTurqeTis davis sagans warmoadgenda. 1921 wlidan s.orjonikiZis "damsaxurebiT" saingilo azerbaijanis sazRvrebSi moeqca. saingiloSi qarTvelebTan erTad cxovrobs sxvadasxva erovnebis xalxi: waxurelebi, xunZebi, azerbaijanelebi, - 60 -

rusebi, somxebi. bunebrivia, aRniSnul enebTan urTierTobam qarTul metyvelebas Taviseburi daRi daasva. gavlena igrZnoba yvela doneze: fonematur, morfologiur, sintaqsur, leqsikur sistemebSi. ingiloTa metyveleba ganiyofa or kilod: aliabaTurad da kakurad (am kiloebze molaparakeT xSirad urTierTgagebinebac ki uWirT); herul dialeqtebze metyveleben 12 sofelSi; aqedan, kakurad - kaxis raionis 7 sofelSi (kaxingilo anu kaki, alaTemuri, meSabaSi, alibeglo, qoTuqlo, Tasmalo, zagami), aliabaTurad - zaqaTalis raionis 3 sofelSi (aliabaTi, mosuli, engiani) da belaqnis raionis erT sofelSi (iTiTala); TerTmetive sofeli azerbaijanSia. ingiloTa erTi sofeli - samTawyaro - dedofliswyaros raionSia. teritoriulad qarTuli soflebi erTmaneTisagan sakmaod daSorebulia, rac uTuod ganapirobebs maT Soris qarTuli metyvelebis sagrZnob gansxvavebas (gr. imnaiSvili). "erTiani (sayrdeni) erovnuli enisgan TiTqmis srulma mowyvetam, sarwmunoebrivma sxvaobam, sxvaenovani mosaxleobis moZaleobam Sedegad is iqonia, rom arc erT sxva qarTul kilos ar axasiaTebs kilokavebad, Tqmebad, qcevebad iseTi mravalferovani da mkveTri danawileba, rogorc ingilours” (b.jorbenaZe). zanuri kiloebi: zanur dialeqtTa jgufSi gaerTianebulia ori kilo: megruli da Wanuri. specialur literaturaSi megruli da Wanuri kvalificirebulia enebadac (n. mari, i. yifSiZe, g. kartozia, a. oniani...), zanuri enis kiloebadac (arn. Ciqobava, v. Tofuria...) da qarTvelur samwignobro enasTan mimarTebiT qarTvelur kiloebadac (giuldenStedti, n.mari, s.xundaZe, t.futkaraZe, T.gvancelaZe...). megrul-Wanuris aRsaniSnavad zanuris paralelurad gamoiyeneba "kolxuri" (g. rozeni, k. danelia...); savaraudoa, rom Zveli kolxeTi moicavda saerToqarTveluri enis mTel vels - istoriuli saqarTvelos mTel teritorias, Sesabamisad, megrul-Wanuri kiloebis aRsaniSnavad ufro gamosadegia termini: zanuri. megruli dialeqti. megruls uWiravs vrceli teritoria: odiSis zegani da TiTqmis mTeli kolxeTis dablobi - Savi - 61 -

zRvidan svaneTis mTebamdis da cxeniswyal-rionidan md. RaliZgamdis (arn. Ciqobava, 1937, gv. 4-5). megruli dialeqti gavrcelebulia: foTis, abaSis, senakis, xobis, martvilis, Cxorowyus, zugdidis, walenjixis raionebSi. megruli metyveleba ufro did teritoriaze iyo gavrcelebuli, vidre dRes. amas cxadyofs toponimebi; iv.javaxiSvili wers: "...im adgilas, sadac axla gurulebi da imerlebi cxovroben, winaT megrulad mosaubre tomi unda saxlebuliyo. bevri soflisa da mdinaris saxelebis mniSvnelobis axsna mxolod megrulis saSualebiT SeiZleba, an ara da maT cxadi megruli damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi aqvT, mag., mTa jixanjiri (jixa - cixe), jumaTi, Wyongvari (Wyoni - muxa), md. oCxamuri (o-Cxamuri, Cxomi - Tevzi), oWilauri (o+Wilauri sa-Wilao), WyviSi, WyviaSauri, WanieTi, md. gobazouli, md. kintriSi, onWikuTi, onjoxeTi, sof. ocana guriaSi da sxv. amgvari saxelebis darqmeva mTebisa da mdinareebisaTvis mxolod megrel-lazebis tomebs SeeZlo. maSasadame, ZiriTadi da Tavdapirveli mosaxleoba guriaSi megrelebisa unda yofiliyo" (iv. javaxiSvili, 1913, gv.56). megruli warmomavlobisaa toponimebi: okriba, cxeniSi, wyaltubo, WyviSi, jixaiSi... Cans, samwignobro enis gavleniT, regionSi megruli metyveleba SeizRuda. istoriulad samegreloSi Sedioda samurzayano (dRevandeli administraciuli dayofiT, galis raioni da oCamCiris raionis didi nawili), romelic engursa da RaliZgas Soris

mdebareobs. saxelwodeba ukavSirdeba murzayan ServaSiZis saxels, romelmac XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi (1705 w.) memkvidreobiT miiRo aRniSnuli teritoria. samurzayano rom samegrelos organuli nawili iyo, es iqidanac Cans, rom samurzayanos yvela toponimi, romelic damowmebulia Sua saukuneebis qarTul Tu ucxour istoriul wyaroebsa da rukebze da romelTa etimologiac, SesaZlebelia, aris mxolod da mxolod qarTveluri (ZiriTadad megruli)" (p. cxadaia, 2002, gv.29).

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aRmosavleTiT samegrelos esazRvreba imereTi, samxreTiT guria, Crdilo-dasavleTiT - afxazeTi, dasavleTiT - Savi zRva. megrulis kilokavuri diferenciacia i.yifSiZis saxels ukavSirdeba da dRemde ucvleli rCeba. gamoiyofa ori kilokavi: senakuri (dasavlur-megruli metyveleba) da zugdidursamurzayanouli (aRmosavluri metyveleba) (i. yifSiZe, 1914, gv. XVIII). Wanuri (lazuri) dialeqti. lazeT-WaneTi samxreTdasavleT saqarTveloSia. adreul xanaSi (III-VI ss.) moicavda SavizRvispireTis samxreT-aRmosavleT mTianeTs - aRmosavleT pontos mTebis CrdiloeT kalTebs, md. Woroxis zemo welis auzs (axlandeli TurqeTi, baiburTisa da ispiris mazrebis teritoria). VI saukunis I naxevarSi WaneTi bizantiam daipyro; saqarTvelos mTlianobis aRdgenis Semdeg misi didi nawili saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSia; varaudoben, rom bagrationebi - saqarTvelos mefeni, lazeT-klarjeTidan iyvnen. XIII-XIV saukuneebSi lazeTis nawili saqarTvelos xelSewyobiT warmoqmnil trapizonis imperiaSia. XIV saukuneSive WaneTis aRmosavleTi nawili samcxis samTavros SemadgenlobaSia. 1461 wels, TurqeT-osmalTa mier trapizonis imperiis ganadgurebis Semdeg, WaneTi maTi batonobis qveS aRmoCnda; mxolod misi aRmosavleTi nawili darCa saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi. dRes saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi aris erTaderTi sofeli sarfi, sadac lazebi cxovroben. rTuli istoriuli bedis Sedgia is rom, dRemde lazebs sxvadasxva saxelmwifoebriv da kulturul velSi uxdebaT cxovreba. Sesabamisad, lazebSi gansxvavebulia sakuTari warsulis codnis xarisxic, rac pirdapirproporciulad aisaxeba erovnul-enobrivi TviTaRqmis faqtorebze; kerZod: lazTa erTi nawili (ZiriTadad, sarfisa da gonio-axalsoflis mkvidrni) ar mowyvetila qarTvelur kulturulsaxelmwifoebriv vels; Sesabamisad, maT ician, rom megrelTa, kaxelTa, mesxTa, fxovelTa... msgavsad, isinic arian erTiani qarTveluri kulturisa da saerToqarTvelur enaze dafuZnebuli mwignobrobis avtorebi; maTTvis kargadaa cnobili, rom saqarTvelos mefeebis didi nawilis garda, lazur- 63 -

megruli warmoSobisani iyvnen qarTveluri kulturis Semqmnelebi: iovane lazi, ioane minCxi, stefane sananoisZe, ioane petriwi, iovane maruSisZe, Wyondidlebi... dadianebi, Ciqovanebi, gamsaxurdiebi da mravali sxva; isini did pativs scemen Tamar mefes, romelic lazTa folklorSi (msgavsad imerxevelTa, taoelTa, svanTa, herTa, kaxTa...) gamorCeuladaa warmodgenili. lazTa meore nawili aRizarda TurqeTis centralur regionebSi. mas daviwyebuli aqvs Tavisi dedaqarTulic, mSobliuri kiloc da, Turquli ganaTlebis sistemis Sesabamisad, Tavs Turqad miiCnevs. TurqeTsa da evropaSi moRvawe lazTa mesame nawilisaTvis ucnobia (bunebrivia, ara yvelasaTvis!) saerToqarTveluri kulturis qmnadobis procesSi laz-megrelTa monawileoba, magram maT ician, rom lazebi enobriv-eTnikurad arsebiTad gansxvavdebian Turqebisagan, lazTa es jgufi sakuTari kuTxuri metyvelebis (lazuri dialeqtis) bazaze cdilobs axla Seqmnas samwignobro ena da "gadaarCinos" TavisTavadoba. sabWoTa periodSi iCqmaleboda qarTveli eris namdvili istoria; evroamerikul sivrceSic sabWouri stereotipebi vrceldeboda; Sesabamisad, saerTaSoriso organizaciebis didi nawili dRemde moklebulia obieqtur informacias lazTa, megrelTa, aWarelTa, mesxTa, herTa Tu sxva qarTvelTa istoriis Sesaxeb. swored mecnierulad argumenturebuli codnis naklulobis Sedegia is, rom zogi evropuli fondi cdilobs sul mcire 15 saukunis win unikaluri qarTuli anbanis Semqmnel qarTvelTa erT nawils XX-XXI saukuneTa mijnaze "Seuqmnas" anbani da damwerloba. megruli da Wanuri dRes erTmaneTs mowyvetilia, magram saukuneebis win maT Soris sxvaoba minimaluri iyo. dRes Wanurs, megrulisagan gansxvavebiT, Zlieri dialeqturi diferencicia axasiaTebs (maT Soris xSirad gagebineba Wirs), rac samwignobro qarTulisgan izolaciiTa da ucxo enobriv garemoSi arsebobiT aixsneba. Wanuris kilokavebia: aTinuri, viwur-arqabuli da xofuri. aTinurSi gamoiyofa bulefurarTaSenuli, xofurSi - Cxaluri, xolo viwur-arqabulSi - viwuri da arqabuli Tqmebi . svanuri kiloebi: - 64 -

svaneTi mdebarebs dasavleT saqarTveloSi kavkasionis kalTebze da garSemortymulia raWis, leCxum-samegrelosa da afxazeTis qedebiT. igi iyofa zemo svaneTad (mestiis raioni) da qvemo svaneTad (lentexis raioni). zemo svaneTSi miedineba enguri, xolo qvemo svaneTSi - cxeniswyali. calke gamoiyofa kodoris (dalis) xeobis svaneTi, romelic afxazeTSi, gulrifSis raionSia. svaneTs aRmosavleTiT raWa esazRvreba, samxreTiT leCxumi da samegrelo, dasavleTiT - afxazeTi (dasavleTi nawili), CrdiloeTiT - yaraCai da balyareTi. svanebi pirvelad moixsenieba strabonTan. svaneTi Temebad iyofoda. zemo svaneTis Svidi sazogadoeba (uSguli, kala, ifari, mulaxi, mestia, lenjeri, latali) Seadgenda Tavisufal svaneTs, xolo eqvsi Temi (beCo, cxumari, eceri, fari, Cubexevi da laxmula) - sadadeSqeliano svaneTs (mflobeli: dadeSqeliani). qvemo svaneTis SemadgenlobaSi Semavali sami sazogadoeba (laSxeTi, Coluri da lentexi) samegrelos mTavrebis mflobelobaSi Sedioda da erqva sadadiano svaneTi. svanuri kiloebisa da kilokaveb-Tqmebis gamoyofa n.maris saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli; manve daadgina ZiriTadi saklasifikacio niSnebi (xmovnis sigrZe, umlauti, sxvaoba brunebasa da uRlebaSi, leqsikuri Taviseburebani); kerZod, zemo svaneTSi gamoiyofa: balszemouri da balsqvemouri, qvemo svaneTSi - laSxuri da lentexuri; zogi mkvlevari calke kilod gamoyofs Coluruls. balszemouri da balsqvemouri darqmeulia latalsa da beCos Sua mdebare balis gadasasvleli qedis mixedviT.

fereidnuli dialeqti. fereidani erT-erTi provinciaa iranSi, sadac XVII saukunis dasawyisSi (1614-1617 ww.) iranis Sahma abas I saqarTvelodan ayrili aTasobiT qarTveli (kaxeli) Caasaxla. ase Seiqmna Sua iranSi qarTuli soflebi: zemo martyofi, qvemo martyofi, SuRureTi (CoRiureTi), afusi - 65 -

saqarTvelos istoriuli teritoriis gareT mcxovreb qarTvelTa metyvelebani:

(ruispiri), sibaji (vaSlovani)... fereidani erTaderTi iranuli raionia, sadac iZulebiT gadasaxlebulma qarTvelobam dRemde SeinarCuna qarTuli ena da qarTuli adaT-wesebi. sxva raionebSi (xorasani, mazandari, farsi...) qarTuli metyveleba aRar ismis. iqauri qarTvelebi TandaTan aiTqvifnen iranis sxvadasxva tomebSi. ukanasknel wlebSi gamoqveynebuli masalebiT, fereidanSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa raodenoba 12-14 aTass Seadgens. fereidnuli kilo warmoiqmna kaxurisgan: samnaxevari saukunis win Sua sparseTSi (iranSi) gadasaxlebuli kaxelebis qarTuli metyveleba izolirebulad ganviTarebisa da sparsulis gavlenis gamo axal qarTul kilod Camoyalibda. arn. Ciqobava: "qarTuli ena erTaderTi Zafia, romelic fereidanis qarTvelobas akavSirebs qarTul sulier samyarosTan; gadagvarebas ver ascdeba igi, Tu mas ar Seenaxa es kavSiri... male daekargeba mas Segneba, rom is "gurjia", rogorc ki gamoesalmeba am Segnebis burjs, enas; ver uSvelis am mxriv verc qarTuli uremi, verc tipiuri baniani saxli da sxva naSTi qarTvelur kulturul saxeobisa, romelic mas dRemde SerCenia". yizlar-mozdokuri da plastunkuri. yizlar-mozdokurisa da plastunkuris saxeliT cnobilia im qarTvelTa metyveleba, romlebic cxovroben CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi qalaq mozdokSi, yizlaris olqis or sofelSi: sasofloSi (aleqsandro-nevskaia), sarafanSi (Selkovskaia) da soWis maxloblad plastunkaSi. yizlarsa da mozdokSi qarTvelebi dasaxlebulan 200 wlis win saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebidan (xevi, kaxeTi, qarTli, imereTi...). gadasaxlebis ZiriTadi mizezi unda yofiliyo lekTa gamanadgurebeli TareSi. bevric Samilis winaaRmdeg omis monawile yofila da Semdeg iq damkvidrebula. istoriuli wyaroebis CvenebiT, pirvelad yizlarSi qarTuli axalSeni daaarsa ruseTs mimavali qarTlis mefis vaxtang meeqvsis amalis erTma nawilma 1724 wels. XIX saukuneSi qarTvelTa raodenoba aq TandaTan gaizarda (amas xels uwyobda savaWro urTierTobebic). dRes yizlar-mozdokSi

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qarTveloba mcirea; rusebTan asimilaciis gamo, qarTuli ena da tradiciebi ZiriTadad moxucebs axsovT. yizlar-mozdokuri da plastunkuri qarTulnarev sametyvelo erTeuls warmoadgens: rusulis gavleniT qarTuli metyveleba sagrZnoblad aris Secvlili. "Cveneburebis" metyveleba. "Cveneburebis qarTuliT” aRiniSneba TurqeTis teritoriaze mcxovrebi qarTvelebis muhajirTa STamomavlebis - metyveleba ("muhajiri” arabuli sityvaa da qarTulad niSnavs emigrants, gadaxvewils). muhajiri qarTvelebi Tavisianebs anu iqaur qarTvelebs "Cveneburebs” eZaxian. iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli qarTvelebis STamomavlebi dRes cxovroben: facaSi, bursa-inegolSi, adafazar-izmiTSi, gonensa da kaizeris midamoebSi. maT kargad aqvT SenarCunebuli rogorc qarTuli TviToba (identoba), aseve qarTuli ena. n.maris Semdeg pirvelad "Cveneburebis qarTulis" mravali gamorCeuli nimuSi Caiwera, vrclad gamoikvlia da gamoaqveyna profesorma SuSana futkaraZem.
literatura m. alaviZe, leCxumuris Taviseburebani: quTaisis pedadogiuri institutis Sromebi, II, quTaisi, 1941. gr. beriZe, javaxuri kilo, Tb.,1988. i.gigineiSvili, v.Tofuria, i.qavTaraZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, Tb., 1961. i.giviaSvili, i.koplataZe, tao-klarjeTi, Tb., 2004. vaxuSti, aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa, T.lomourisa da n.berZeniSvilis redaqciiT, Tb.,1941. v. Tofuria, mTaraWulis daxasiaTebisaTvis: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, II, Tb.,1961. v. Tofuria, Sromebi, t. II, Tb., 2002. v. Tofuria, m. qaldani, svanuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2000. gr. imnaiSvili, qarTuli enis ingilouri dialeqtis Taviseburebani, Tb.,1966. gr. imnaiSvili, qarTluri dialeqti, I, gamokvleva, Tb.,1975. p.ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, Tb., 1956. n.kaxiZe, maWaxlis xeobis istoriuli warsulidan: Jurn. xerTvisi, 2005, # 1.

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k. kublaSvili, qvemoimeruli dialeqti, Tb.,1985. a. martirosovi, javaxuri dialeqti, Tb.,1984. m. maWavariani, fereidnulis zogi Tavisebureba: ike, XXII, Tb.,1985. a. martirosovi, gr.imnaiSvili, qarTuli enis kaxuri dialeqti, Tb.,1956. a. martirosovi, qarTuli dialeqtologiis istoriisaTvis, Tb., 1972. S. niJaraZe, aWaruli dialeqti, baTumi, 1975. a. oniani, svanuri ena, Tb.,1998. s. JRenti, guruli kilo (gamokvleva, teqstebi, leqsikoni), tfilisi, 1936. T. saraliZe, algeTis xeobis qarTluri, Tb.,1978. i.sixaruliZe, SavSeT-imerxevi: saistorio geografiis masalebi, baTumi, 1988. i.sixaruliZe, nigali (livana): saistorio geografiis masalebi, baTumi, 1988. v. somxiSvili, qsnis xeobis metyveleba, cxinvali, 1968. n.surmava, kirnaT-maradiduli metyvelebis sintaqsuri Taviseburebani: dialeqtologiuri krebuli, Tb., 1991. T. uTurgaiZe, TuSuri kilo, Tb.,1960. T. uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis mTis kiloTa zogi Tavisebureba, Tb.,1966. m.faRava, m.cincaZe, e.makaraZe, r.diasamiZe, l.Tandilava, taouri metyvelebis nimuSebi: baTumis universitetis krebuli, IV, baTumi, 2005. S.futkaraZe, Cveneburebis qarTuli, wigni I, baTumi, 1993. S.futkaraZe, qarTuli enis samxrul-dasavluri dialeqtebis Taviseburebani istoriuli tao-klarjeTisa da muhajiri qarTvelebis metyvelebis mixedviT: sadoqtoro disertacia, Tbilisi, 1995. t.futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. i. qavTaraZe, qarTuli enis moxeuri dialeqti, Tb.,1985. o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli lesikoni, t. I-III, Tb., 2001-2002. i. yifSiZe, Txzulebani, Tb.,1994. m.Sahini, maWaxluri Tqmani: Jurn. xerTvisi, 2005, # 1. g. CangaSvili, saingilo, geografiul-istoriuli narkvevi, Tb., 1970. arn. Ciqobava, Wanuris gramatikuli analizi, tfilisi, 1936.

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arn. Ciqobava, mTiuluris Taviseburebani: enimkis moambe, II(1), tfilisi, 1937. st. Cxenkeli, yizlar-mozdokuri qarTuli: tfilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, V, tfilisi, 1936. d. CxubianiSvili, qvemo fereidnulis zogi Tavisebureba (sof. daSqesanas monacemebis mixedviT): XXII dialeqtologiuri sesiis masalebi, Tb.,2002. d. CxubianiSvili, enobrivi diferenciaciisaTvis fereidnulSi: quTaisuri saubrebi, VI, quTaisi, 1999. d. CxubianiSvili, nacvalsaxelis zogi saxeobisaTvis qvemo fereidnulSi: XXIV dialeqtologiuri sesiis masalebi, Tb., 2004. d. CxubianiSvili, fereidnulis Seswavlis zogi aspeqti: arn. Ciqobavasadmi miZRvnili saerTaSoriso simpoziumis masalebi, Tb., 1998. n. cecxlaZe, SavSeT-imerxevis toponimia, baTumi, 2000. m.cincaZe, kirnaT-maradidis metyvelebis Taviseburebani: baTumis pedagogiuri institutis studentTa Sromebi, I, baTumi, 1954. m.cincaZe, m.faRava, samxruli dialeqtebi da qarTuli samwerlobo ena (V-XVIII ss.), baTumi, 1998. g. cocaniZe, Tianuris ZiriTadi fonologiuri da morfologiuri Taviseburebani: axalgazrda mecnier-muSakTa krebuli, Tb., 1970. m.cincaZe, taouri qarTulis zogi Tavisebureba: XXI dialeqtologiuri samecniero sesiis masalebi, 2001. g. cocaniZe, fSauri dialeqti, Tb., 1978. S. ZiZiguri, dialeqtologiuri Ziebani, Tb.,1970. q. ZoweniZe, zemoimeruli kilokavi, Tb.,1973. a. WinWarauli, xevsurulis Taviseburebani, Tb., 1960. a. WinWarauli xevsuruli leqsikoni, Tb., 2005. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, t. I, Tb., 1989. b. jorbenaZe, qarTvelur enaTa dialeqtebi, Tb., 1995.

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administraciuli ruka Cemi wignidan

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dialeqtebis ruka

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II aTaswleulis ruka

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I aTaswleulis Sua periodi ruka

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Tavi II qarTuli mwignobrobis ganviTarebis gza
2.1. damwerlobis saxeebi da qarTuli anbanis Seqmna
damwerloba aris metyvelebis nakadis dokumentireba grafikul niSanTa sistemebis meSveobiT; damwerlobis mizania sametyvelo informaciis gadacema da Senaxva. yoveli eris saliteraturo enis istoria damwerlobis Seqmnidan iRebs saTaves. damwerlobaSi grafikuli niSani warmoadgens metyvelebis ama Tu im elementis (mTeli gamonaTqvamis, sityvis, marcvlis, bgeris) simbolos. amis mixedviT, gamoiyofa damwerlobis sami ZiriTadi tipi: piqtografiuli (naxatebiT gadmoicema azri), ideografiuli anu ieroglifuri (niSnebiT gamoisaxeba sityvebi) da anbanuri (niSnebiT aRiniSneba sametyvelo bgerebi). kacobriobis istoriaSi pirveli anbanuri damwerloba Seqmnes finikielebma (Crd. semianebma - ebrauli modgmis xalxma) daaxl. Zv. w. XV-XIV saukuneebSi. finikiuri anbani Sedgeboda 22 aso-niSnisagan - mxolod Tanxmovnebisagan. werdnen marjvnidan marcxniv. anbanis Semqmnelad iTvleba vinme palamide. daaxloebiT Zv. w. X-IX saukuneebSi finikiuri anbanisagan warmoiSva ori axali damwerloba (ganStoeba): a r q a u l i b e r Z n u l i da s e m u r - a r a m e u l i . pirvelma saTave daudo dasavlur anbanebs, meorem - aRmosavlurs. Zv. w. 403 wels arqauli berZnulisagan Seiqmna k l a s i k u r i b e r Z n u l i d a m w e r l o b a , romelSic Tanxmovnebis garda Seitanes xmovnebic, e.i. finikiuri konsonanturi anbani gaxda vokalizebuli. berZnebma Secvales weris mimarTulebac marcxnidan marjvniv. - 74 -

sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis mixedviT, dRes msoflioSi arsebobs 14 originaluri saxis damwerloba. esenia: laTinuris safuZvelze Sedgenili anbanebi slavur-kiriluris safuZvelze Sedgenili anbanebi arabulis safuZvelze Sedgenili anbanebi induri marcvlovani damwerlobis safuZvelze Sedgenili anbanebi CineTis logografiuli (ideografiuli) damwerloba iaponuri ideografiuli damwerloba koreuli bgerobrivi damwerloba eTiopiuri marcvlovani damwerloba berZnuli qarTuli somxuri ebrauli siriuli monRoluri (CineTis monRoleTSi). 2.1.1. istoriuli cnobebi qarTuli anbanis warmoSobis Sesaxeb. antikuri wyaroebis mixedviT irkveva, rom istoriuli kolxeTis sazRvrebi moicavda istoriul saqarTvelos mTlianad da CrdiloeT kavkasiis nawils. Tanamedrove qarTvelTa uSualo winaprebs - kolxebs jer kidev Zv. w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi, legendaruli mefe aietis epoqaSi, hqoniaT kvirbebi - magar sxeulze amokveTili niSnebi (Tanamedrove rukis msgavsi); kolxeTSi inaxeboda tyavze naweri wigni ("oqros sawmisi”), romelSic aRwerili iyo oqros mopovebis xerxebi. CvenTvis ucnobia, rogori saxisa iyo es damwerloba. qarTuli anbanuri damwerlobis Sesaxeb wyaroebSi daculia ramdenime cnoba: 1) qarTuli saistorio tradiciiT, qarTvelebs farnavazamdec hqoniaT damwerloba. igi SeudgeniaT qarTvel qurumebs ebraul da qaldeur damwerlobaTa safuZvelze: "ara
uwignoni iyvnen qarTvelni JamTaca Sina vidre farnavazamde. werdnen igini uxucesTa weriliTa. ese igi qurumTa mier, romel-

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raz bagrationis naSromSi: "qarTuli anbanis warmoSobis Sesaxeb"; Tavad Teimuraz bagrations dokumenti damowmebuli aqvs anton II kaTalikosis kuTvnili wignidan "matiane SemecnebaTa". 1836 wels es istoriuli sabuTi frangulad gamoaqveyna mari brosem). 2) XI saukunis mematianis - leonti mrovelis mowmobiT, qarTuli anbanis Seqmna miewereba mefe farnavazs (Zv. w. IV-III saukuneebi): "aman [farnavazma] ganavrco ena qarTuli... da aman Seqmna mwignobroba qarTuli" ("qarTlis cxovreba"). 3) V saukunis somexi istorikosis - koriunis TxzulebaSi: "maStocis cxovreba da moRvaweoba" daculia cnoba, rom somxuri damwerloba Seqmna mesrop maStocma (361-440 ww.), manve gamoigona qarTuli da albanuri (alvanuri) damwerlobebi. iv. javaxiSvilma dawvrilebiT Seiswavla koriunis zemoaRniSnuli Txzuleba da miuTiTa, rom koriunis SromaSi maStocis mier qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis versia mermindeli, kerZod, VI saukunis damlevis CanarTia. amas mowmobs is faqtic, rom V saukunis somexi istorikosi lazar farpeli, romelic kargad icnobda koriunis Txzulebas, maStocs miiCnevda mxolod da mxolod somxuri anbanis Semqmnelad. amis Sesaxeb aseve araferia naTqvami somexi istorikosebis favstos buzandisa (V s.) da mxiTar airivanelis (XIII s.) naSromebSi. piriqiT, airivaneli qarTuli damwerlobis Semqmnelad farnavazs asaxelebs. somxur cnobaTa siyalbe Cans, agreTve, ”epistoleTa wignSi”, sadac Sekrebilia somxeTis eklesiis mesveurTa mimowera sxva qveynebis eklesiis meTaurebTan V-XIII saukuneebis manZilze. wigni somxuridan Targmna da gamokvleviTurT gamosca zaza aleqsiZem. "epistoleTa wignic" mowmobs, rom mogviano periodis gadamwerlebma da redaqtorebma Zveli teqstebi sakuTari Sexedulebebisa da survilisamebr gadaakeTes. amis erT-erTi nimuSia XIII saukunis somexi moRvawis vardapetis - 76 -

Tac uxucesTa da xevisberTa uxmoben. igini iyvnen kerpTa mRvdelni da memsxverpleni erisani RmerTTa mimarT da werili maTi ars werili ese xucuri Cveni... werilni xucesni pirvelsa Jamsa qmnil ars werilisagan ebraulisa da qaldeurisa da msgavsca arian asoTa maTTa Cveni xucurni"... (cnoba Semonaxulia Teimu-

sityvebi: "...mesropma misca maT (qarTvelebs - J.f.) anbani da mesropmave ukurTxa varZiis jvari".“ somxuri wyaroebis winaaRmdegobani da qarTuli anbanis Sesaxeb CanarTis mermindeloba kargad aris Seswavlili z. aleqsiZisa da al. abdalaZis mier. dadgenilia, rom VII saukunis dasawyisSi, roca erTmaneTs daupirispirda qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebi (sparseTi xels uwyobda somxur eklesias da aviwroebda qarTul da albanur eklesiebs), Sahisa da arabebis waqezebiT gaZlierebuli somxebi cdilobdnen regionSi pirvelobis daCemebas da am mizniT istoriuli dokumentebis gayalbebasac ar eridebodnen. maStocis mier qarTuli anbanis Seqmna daujerebelia im mizeziTac, rom mas qarTuli ar scodnia (aseve ar scodnia albanuri enac). da, saerTod, anbanis Seqmna iseT did momzadebas moiTxovs, rom SeuZlebelia V saukunis dasawyisSi erT kacs Seeqmna sami sxvadasxva sistemis enisaTvis arsebiTad gansxvavebuli damwerlobebi; metic, ukanasknel xanebSi isic gairkva, rom somxuri anbanis avtori siriul da berZnul damwerlobebTan erTad sanimuSod iyenebda qarTul anbans. qarTuli damwerlobis warmomavlobis kvlevis Tanamedrove etapze somxur versias CvenSi aRaravin aRiqvams seriozulad, misi siyalbe safuZvlianadaa dasabuTebuli. amitom qvemoT, damwerlobis warmoSobis Teoriebis ganxilvisas, mas aRar SevexebiT. 2.1.2. qarTuli damwerlobis warmomavlobis Teoriebi. Tanamedrove samecniero literaturaSi ganixileba qarTuli anbanis warmomavlobis berZnuli da semuri Teoriebi. b e r Z n u l i Teoriis mixedviT, qarTuli anbani genezisurad aris dakavSirebuli berZnul anbanTan. am Teoriis fuZemdeblad iTvleba k. gardthauzeni. misi azriT, aso-niSnebis fonetikuri mniSvneloba da Tanamimdevroba qarTulSi berZnulis msgavsia. saqarTveloSi berZnuli Teoria pirvelad wamoayena dim. baqraZem. igi Tvlida, rom qarTuli anbanis rigi Zveli berZnuli aso-niSnebis rigs misdevs; qarTuli anbani Seiqmna berZnuli kulturis gavleniT jer kidev

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SavizRvispireTis berZnuli koloniebis arsebobis xanaSi, bevrad ufro adre farnavazamde. k. kekeliZis dakvirvebiT, "im hipoTezebidan, romelnic CvenSi Tu sazRvargareT wamouyenebiaT qarTuli anbanis warmoSobis Sesaxeb, ufro misaRebia is, romelsac es anbani berZnulisagan gamohyavs". p. ingoroyva qarTul anbans miiCnevda arqauli berZnuli alfabetis safuZvelze Seqmnilad mcire aziaSi. T. gamyreliZis mixedviTac, qarTuli asomTavruli anbani momdinareobs berZnulidan, oRond Seqmnilia qristianobis SemoRebis Semdeg... Zveli qarTuli asomTavrulis sistemuri Sepirispireba semitur da berZnul damwerlobebTan avlens qarTuli damwerlobis struqturul Tanxvedras arqaul berZnul sistemasTan. qarTuli anbanis berZnulisgan warmomavlobis Teorias bevri sxva qarTvelologic iziarebs (k.danelia, v.boederi, z.sarjvelaZe...). berZnul Teorias samecniero literaturaSi imTaviTve daupirispirda s e m u r i Teoria, romelic wamoayena germanelma mecnierma fridrix miulerma. igi Tvlida, rom qarTuli da somxuri damwerloba arameul-sparsuli damwerlobidan unda iyos warmomdgari. CvenSi am Tvalsazriss iziarebda s. gorgaZe ("werilebi saqarTvelos istoriidan", 1906). qarTuli anbanis warmoSobis semuri Teoria mecnierul safuZvelze Camoayaliba iv. javaxiSvilma Tavis fundamentur naSromSi: "qarTuli damwerlobaTmcodneoba anu paleografia" (SemoklebiT - "qarTuli paleografia"). didma mecnierma safuZvlianad gaakritika qarTuli anbanis berZnulisgan momdinareobis argumentebi. misi azriT, qarTuli anbani warmarTuli epoqis Zeglia da finikiur-semituris (arameulis) bazazea Seqmnili, Tumca Semdgom, elinistur xanaSi, araerTgzis ganucdia berZnuli monumenturi damwerlobis gavlena. warmodgenili mosazreba gaamyara Semdgomma aRmoCenebma da gamokvlevebma. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT faseuli aRmoCnda armazis bilingva (saflavis qvaze Sesrulebuli epitafia, dawerili 2 enaze - berZnulad da arameulad. saxelwodeba ”bilingva” amis mixedviTaa darqmeuli). Zegli aR- 78 -

moaCina iv. javaxiSvilma 1940 wels, mecnierulad Seiswavla g. wereTelma. mkvlevarma, pirvel yovlisa, daadgina arameuli anbanis saxeoba (romelsac ”armazuli damwerloba” uwoda), Seudara qarTul anbans da daaskvna: qarTuli anbani monaTesavea armazulisa, orive ki momdinareobs saerTo wyarodan arameulidan. armazuli anbanis saxiT aRmoCnda Suamavali, romlis meoxebiT qarTuli anbani uSualod daukavSirda arameuls. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa r. patariZis debulebebi; wignSi: "qarTuli asomTavruli" man saistorio wyaroebis, arsebuli Tvalsazrisebisa da legendismagvari versiebis SejerebiTa da kriptogramebis (pirobiTi, saidumlo niSnebiT Canaweri) zedmiwevniTi analiziT ivarauda: qarTuli damwerloba Seqmnili Cans warmarTul xanaSi finikiur-babilonuri damwerlobisagan; igi TviT berZnul monumentur (klasikur) anbanze adrindelia. qarTuli anbanis finikiur-semur warmomavlobas sarwmunod miiCnevs bevri cnobili qarTvelologi. 2.1.3. qarTuli damwerlobis Seqmnis qronologia. qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis TariRTan dakavSirebiT samecniero literaturaSi erTmaneTs upirispirdeboda ori Tvalsazrisi: a. qarTuli damwerloba Seqmnili unda iyos ax. w. IV-V saukuneebSi, b. qarTuli anbani warmarTuli epoqis Zeglia, Seqmnili Cvens eramde. pirveli Tvalsazrisi CvenSi Camoayaliba k.kekeliZem XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi. igi miuTiTebda, rom meoTxe saukunis gasuls Tu mexuTis damdegs, mas Semdeg, rac CvenSi damyarda qristianoba... daibada saWiroeba nacionaluri anbanisa da mwignobrobis SemoRebisa... qarTuli damwerloba unda Seqmniliyo ax. w. 420-422 wlebSi qristianuli eklesiis iniciativiT. qarTuli anbanis Seqmnas ukavSirebda qarTlis monaTvlisa da gaqristianebis periods T.gamyreliZec: qarTuli asomTavruli damwerloba Seqmnili unda iyos IV saukunis dasasrulsa da V saukunis dasawyisSi. igi sagangebod msjelobda - 79 -

agreTve leonti mrovelis cnobaze - farnavazma Seqmna mwignobroba qarTuli. mecnieris azriT, ”mwignobroba qarTuli"“farnavazisdroindeli saqarTvelosaTvis unda niSnavdes, albaT, im dros qarTuli weris SemoRebas specifikuri saxiT, e.i. qarTuli teqstis Caweras romelime - im dros gavrcelebuli anbanis - berZnulis an arameulis saSualebiT da amgvarad Cawerili teqstebis wakiTxvas kvlav sawyis - qarTul enaze. weris es meTodi ”aloglotografia” farTod iyo gavrcelebuli iranul samyaroSi. cota mogvianebiT T.gamyreliZe Tavis wignSi ”weris anbanuri sistema da Zveli qarTuli damwerloba”“werda: Zveli qarTuli asomTavruli damwerloba SesaZlebelia arc warmoadgendes qarTuli enisaTvis damwerlobis Seqmnis pirvel cdas da qristianobamdel saqarTveloSi savaraudoa arsebuliyo kidev ufro Zveli werilobiTi tradiciebi. ar aris gamoricxuli, asomTavruli damwerloba qristianobis xanis axali qarTuli erovnuli damwerloba iyos, romelmac Secvala an gamoaZeva manamde arsebuli warmarTuli epoqis werilobiTi sistema. rogorc wesi, qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis savaraudo TariRad ax. w. IV-V saukuneebs asaxelebdnen is mkvlevrebi, romlebic qarTul anbans genezisurad akavSirebdnen berZnulTan. garda amisa, maTi azriT, qarTuli anbanis warmarTul Zeglad miCneva gaWirdeboda imis gamoc, rom ar moipoveba qristianobamdeli werilobiTi Zeglebio. iv. javaxiSvilma imTaviTve’ar gaiziara k.kekeliZis mier navaraudevi qronologia qarTuli anbanis warmoSobisa. man uZvelesi xanmeti, haemeti teqstebisa da bolnisis warwerebis gamowvlilviTi analiziT wamoayena hipoTeza: bolnisis asomTavruli warwera imdenad Camoyalibebuli da daxvewilia, rom SeuZlebelia misi miCneva pirvel qarTul warwerad.“qarTuli anbani warmarTuli epoqis Zeglia. igi Seqmnili unda iyos araugvianes Zv. w. VII saukunisa. mecnieri iqve dasZenda: albaT, qarTuli miwis wiaRSi aRmoCndeba Zeglebi, romlebic am Cvens hipoTezas daadasturebeno. p. ingoroyvas dakvirvebiTac, qarTuli anbani gamomuSavebulia Zv. w. VIII-VII saukuneTa mijnaze.

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cnobilia, rom XX saukunis 50-ian wlebamde pirvel qarTul werilobiT Zeglad iTvleboda 492-493 wlebiT daTariRebuli bolnisis warwerebi da, Sesabamisad, am droidan iwyeboda qarTuli anbanis istoriac. magram 1950-1952 wlebSi palestinaSi aRmoCenilma qarTulma warwerebma axleburad daayena qarTuli anbanis qronologiis sakiTxi. m.TarxniSvilis, S.nucubiZis, s.yauxCiSvilis, g.wereTlis, e. maWavarianisa da sxva mkvlevarTa azriT, palestinis warwerebi Sesrulebuli unda iyos V saukunis I naxevarSi (daaxl. 430-433 wlebSi). isini naxevari saukuniT mainc uswreben win dRemde yvelaze Zvelad miCneul bolnisis warwerebs“ (g.wereTeli). qarTuli damwerlobis warmoSobis problemas axali Suqi mohfina 1984 wels duSeTis raionis sofel davaTSi aRmoCenilma warwerebma. davaTis stelas aTariReben 361-382 wlebiT. man kidev erTi saukuniT waswia win qarTuli anbanis Tvalxiluli istoria. bolo wlebSi mikvleuli Zeglebis Seswavlisa da tradiciuli masalebis axleburi analizis safuZvelze r.patariZem qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis TariRad ivarauda Zv. w. 415 weli. qarTuli anbanis warmarTul Zeglad miCnevas Tanamedrove etapze kidev ufro sarwmunos xdis nekresis uZvelesi warwerebic. isini aRmoCenilia saflavis qvebze nekresis naqalaqaris samonastro kompleqsis arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad (savele muSaoba dResac mimdinareobs). l. WilaSvilis azriT, nekresis warwerebi TariRdeba daaxl. Zv. w. IV ax. w. II-III saukuneebiT. am warwerebma qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis istoria 7-8 saukuniT mainc daaZvela... amis Semdeg qarTuli asomTavrulis ganviTareba ar SeiZleba daukavSirdes qristianobis Semosvla-damkvidrebas. sagulisxmoa isic, rom nekresis erT-erTi warwera r. patariZem miiCnia farnavazis epoqaSi - daaxl. Zv. w. 274 wels Sesrulebulad. sxvadasxva profilis bevri sxva mkvlevaric (ak.baqraZe, g.narsiZe, m.CxartiSvili, z.aleqsiZe...) qarTul anbans warmarTuli xanis Zeglad Tvlis. - 81 -

maSasadame, gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebidan qarTuli damwerlobis istoriisaTvis metad faseuli bevri axali masala iqna aRmoCenili. Tu am monacemebTan erTad gaviTvaliswinebT tradiciuli istoriografiis kvlevis Sedegebs (iv. javaxiSvili, p. ingoroyva, g. wereTeli), agreTve movigonebT "matiane SemecnebaTas" cnobas ("ara uwignoni iyvnen qarTvelni JamTaca Sina farnavazamde...") da arn. Ciqobavasa da T. gamyreliZis mosazrebebs, maSin miaxloebiT SeiZleba ase warmovidginoT qarTuli anbanis ganviTarebis gza: savaraudoa, Zv. w. I aTaswleulis Sua periodSi erT an ramdenime qarTvelur toms ukve hqonda sakuTari anbani, romelic farnavazis epoqaSi iqca qarTvelTa saerTo erovnul damwerlobad. qarTuli anbanis Semoqmedis vinaoba jerjerobiT ucnobia. qarTuli damwerlobis genezisi kvlav rCeba aqtualur problemad lingvistur qarTvelologiasa da kulturologiaSi. 2.1.4. qarTuli anbanis agebis principebi. qarTulSi aso-niSnebi gamoxatavs bgeras, ricxviT mniSvnelobas, aqvs astronomiuli da kalendaruli daniSnulebac. r.patariZis azriT, qarTuli anbanis pirveli asomTavruli niSania a. rkalze zeda horizontaluri xazi (-) aRniSnavs mTvaris gamoCenas. roca mTvare caze miaRwevs umaRles wertils, zustad SuaRamea, e.i. qarTulis pirveli aso a (ani) astronomiuli niSania - dRe-Ramis dasawyisi; mTvaris kulminaciuri dgoma SuaRamea. babilonursa da egvipturSic qarTulis msgavsi viTarebaa - dRe-Ramis dasawyisia SuaRame, semurSi ki - gansxvavebuli. marTalia, qarTuli anbani mzis kalendaricaa, magram igi mTvaris aRniSvniT iwyeba, radgan Zvelad dRe-Ramis aTvla xdeboda mTvaris saSualebiT. marTlac, mTvaris moZraoba zustad erT Tves grZeldeba: 28 dRes moCans caze, 2 dRes ki - ara. 30 dRis Semdeg kvlav axali mTvarea. maSasadame, qarTuli anbanis pirvel asod an-is CaTvla babilonuri damwerlobis principiTaa ganxorcielebuli. garda amisa, qarTul anbanSi aRniSnulia, Tu ramden saaTs - 82 -

TavruliT q). qveynis arsi 24 saaTia, e.i. an (pirveli aso) dReRamis dasawyisia, qan (24-e) - dRe-Ramis dasasruli. an-i da qan-i astronomiuli niSnebia. irkveva, rom anbanis Semqmnelma qurumma astronomiac kargad icis. misTvis cxadia, rom dedamiwa (qveyana-miwa) RerZis garSemo 24 saaTSi erTxel Semobrundeba. amrigad, qarTvel qurumebs babilonuri lursmuli da ebraul-finikiur anbanur damwerlobaTa principebis mixedviT SeuqmniaT mTvaris kalendaruli anbani, romelic Sedgeboda 35 aso-niSnisagan. pirveli aso iyo a (ani) _ qaldeurbabilonuri mTvaris RvTaebis simbolo (niSnavda dRe-Ramis dasawyiss), 24-e asoa qan (dRe-Ramis dasasruli), 34-e - B (xaris ideograma, xaris RvTaeba - mTvaris RvTaebis Svili), sul bolo aso jan aris jvris ideograma (dawvr. ix. r.patariZe, 1980). 2.1.5. qarTuli damwerlobis ganviTarebis safexurebi. qarTulma damwerlobam ganvlo ganviTarebis sami safexuri da Sesabamisad Seiqmna damwerlobis sami grafikuli nairsaxeoba: asomTavruli, nusxuri da mxedruli. iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, qarTuli damwerlobis pirveli saxea asomTavruli. igi gamoiyeneboda me-9 saukunemde, asoebi iyo mrgvali da didi moxazulobisa. saxelwodeba - "asomTavruli", "mrglovani" - amis mixedviTaa darqmeuli. asomTavruliTaa Sesrulebuli uZvelesi epigrafikuli Zeglebi: nekresis, palestinis, bolnisis, davaTis qvajvrisa da sxva warwerebi; aseve xanmeti da haemeti teqstebi. termini "asomTavruli" gvxvdeba X-XI saukuneebis erT xelnawerSi, "mrglovani" ki - XI saukunisaSi (z. sarjvelaZe). nusxuri asomTavrulis gviandeli variantia. mkvidrdeba IX saukunidan da gabatonebuli xdeba X-XI saukuneebSi. nusxuri weris pirveli nimuSi dadasturebulia xelnawerebidan "sinur mravalTavSi" (864 w.), epigrafikul Zeglebze ki - atenis sionis warweraSi (835 w.). nusxurSi asoebi mcire zomisaa da Tanac kuTxovani, amitom meorenairad weris am saxes - 83 -

grZeldeba dRe da Rame. qarTuli anbanis 24-e aso aris q (qan). igi warmoadgens qveynis simbolos, qveynis oTx mxares (asom-

kuTxursac uwodeben. garda amisa, nusxuri iwereboda gakruli xeliT. anbanis am saxeobas swored amis mixedviT daerqva nusxuri (termini nawarmoebia sityvisagan nusxa, rac Zvelad niSnavda "dedansac" da "gakruli xeliT werasac"). nusxuri praqtikulad ufro moxerxebuli aRmoCnda asomTavrulTan SedarebiT, radgan am ukanaskneliT wera moiTxovda did drosa da bevr sawer masalas. nusxuris Semdgomi ganviTarebiT warmoiqmna mxedruli. marTalia, mxedruli weris uZveles nimuSad iTvleba 1054 wlis Zegli, magram, sazogadod, mxedruli gabatonda XII saukunidan, dRevandeli saxe ki miiRo XIV saukuneSi. saxelwodeba "mxedruli" darqmeulia imis gamo, rom am saxeobas iyenebdnen saero pirebi - vaWrebi, meomrebi anu mxedrebi... mxedruliT iwereboda saero xasiaTis nawarmoebebi da saxelmwifo-sakancelario Zeglebi. sagulisxmoa, rom imavdroulad eklesiisaTvis kvlav ZiriTadi iyo asomTavruli da nusxuri: nusxuri SriftiT werdnen saeklesio Txzulebebis mTlian teqsts, saTaurebsa da sityvis dasawyis asoebs ki aformebdnen asomTavruliT. am ukanaskneliT sruldeboda agreTve warwerebi saflavis qvaze. rogorc vxedavT, saero damwerlobas imTaviTve daupirispirda saeklesio damwerloba _ asomTavruli da nusxuri, romelTac cota mogvianebiT ewoda xucuri (amosavali sityvaa xucesi=mRvdeli); paralelurad gamoiyeneba nusxa-xucuric. iv.javaxiSvilis azriT, terminebi "xucuri" da "mxedruli" enaSi Semosuli unda iyos XIII saukunis damlevsa da XIV saukunis damdegs. qarTuli damwerlobis saxeebis qronologiuri mimarTebis Sesaxeb samecniero literaturaSi arsebobs gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisic. Tanamedrove qarTulSi damwerlobis ZiriTadi saxea mxedruli, asomTavruli da nusxuri ki gamoiyeneba specialuri daniSnulebiT.
literatura

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a. baqraZe, kritikuli gulani, Tb.,1977. T. gamyreliZe, weris anbanuri sistema da Zveli qarTuli damwerloba, Tb.,1990. T. gamyreliZe, mwignobroba qarTuli: gazeTi "literaturuli saqarTvelo", 1987, 20 noemberi. avT. ioseliani, qarTuli mwignobrobis, wignis da stambis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb.,1990. p. ingoroyva, TxzulebaTa krebuli, t. IV, Tb.,1978. k. kekeliZe, qarTuli literaturis istoria, I, Tb.,1960. b. kilanava, qarTuli damwerlobisa da mwerlobis saTaveebTan; Tb.,1990. v. liCeli, kolxeTisa da iberiis kulturis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2000. e. maWavariani, qarTuli anbanis grafikuli safuZvlebi, Tb.,1982. r. patariZe, qarTuli asomTavruli, Tb.,1980. r. patariZe, qarTuli mwignobroba, Tb.,1989. z. sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali, Tb.,1984. J. feiqriSvili, qarTvelologiis sakiTxebi, quTaisi, 1992. J. feiqriSvili, nekresis warwerebis mniSvneloba qarTul werilobiT tradiciaSi: etimologiuri Ziebani, quTaisi, 2005. t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia. Tb., 1975-87. g. wereTeli, uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi palestinidan, Tb., 1960. l. WilaSvili, nekresis uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi da qarTuli damwerlobis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2004. i. javaxiSvili, qarTuli paleografia, Tb.,1949.

2.2. uZvelesi qarTuli werilobiTi Zeglebi
2.2.1. epigrafikuli Zeglebi. qarTveli eris istoriaSi gamorCeuli mniSvneloba eniWeba uZveles werilobiTs Zeglebs - qarTvelTa didi mwignobruli kulturis amsaxvel dokumentebs. b o l n i s i s warwerebi. XX saukunis 50-ian wlebamde pirvel qarTul warwerad miCneuli iyo bolnisis sionis taZris warwerebi, romelTagan erT-erTi a. SaniZem daaTariRa - 85 -

492-493 wlebiT. es warwerebi qronologiuri aspeqtiT mogvianebiT kvlav Semowmda specialistebis mier da daweris TariRic dazustda; kerZod: e. maWavariani, m. mRebriSvili maT 478-493 wlebiT aTariReben, r.patariZe ki miiCnevs, rom erTi warwera Sesrulebulia 357 wels, meore - 392 wels (es da sxva uZvelesi warwerebi ix. danarTSi). p a l e s t i n i s warwerebi. 1950-1952 wlebSi italieli arqeologis - virjilio korbos mier Catarebuli gaTxrebis dros palestinaSi, iudas udabnoSi, beTlemis maxloblad, aRmoCnda qarTuli monastris nangrevebi sami qarTuli warweriT. erTi maTgani moRweulia dauzianeblad, meore da mesame ki - fragmentebis saxiT. mkvlevarTa azriT, pirveli warwera TariRdeba 532-552 wlebiT, meore da mesame gacilebiT adrindelia da Sesrulebuli unda iyos V saukunis I naxevarSi, daaxl. 440-ian wlebSi (e. maWavarianis mixedviT - 433 wels). d a v a T i s qvajvris warwerebi. 1984 wels duSeTis raionis sofel davaTSi Catarda arqeologiuri gaTxrebi. aRmoCnda RvTismSoblis saxelobis eklesiaSi CaSenebuli qvastela/qvajvari uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebiT. varaudoben, rom eklesia aSenebuli unda iyos araugvianes 419 wlisa. davaTis qvajvari qarTuli kulturis umniSvnelovanesi Zeglia. mas ikvlevdnen sxvadasxva profilis specialistebi (istorikosebi, Teologebi, arqeologebi, maTematikosebi, enaTmecnierebi...). stela Sedgeba ori monakveTisagan: pirvelze (zeda nawilze) gamosaxulia ori mTavarangelozi: miqaeli (aweria qaragmiT) da gabrieli. didebulTa sakadris samosSi sazeimod gamowyobil mTavarangelozebs xelT upyriaT gragnili, romelzedac amokawrulia qarTuli asomTavruli anbani. asoebi ganlagebulia 6 striqonad. qveda monakveTze warmodgenilia ori pirovneba - ori xelisufali. raki mTavarangelozebi frTebdaSvebulni arian, Cans, isini qvemoT gamosaxul pirovnebebs auwyeben RvTis nebas (RvTis gadawyvetilebas).

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davaTis stelaze ZiriTadad dasturdeba ori TariRi - 284 da 311. aqedan pirveli (Zv. w. 284) farnavazis mier oficialuri saxelmwifo damwerlobis SemoRebis weli unda iyos, meore (ax. w. 311) ki - qarTuli damwerlobis aRorZinebisa. davaTis stelaze amokawruli anbani miaCniaT 367 wels Sesrulebulad, xolo mTlianad qvajvris gamosaxulebas aTariReben 362-381 wlebiT. davaTis stelaze qarTuli asomTavruli anbanis srulyofil korpusTan erTad gamoqandakebulia qarTuli mwignobrobis aRorZinebis Taviseburi scena. qvajvris mizani unda iyos qarTuli mwignobrobisa da wignis mTlianad Cayeneba qristianuli eklesiisa da qveynis samsaxurSi. r. patariZis azriT, davaTis qvajvris xati da "qeba~ da dideba~ qarTulisa enisa~" igiveobrivi Sinaarsis Zeglebia. orive maTganiT irkveva, rom qarTuli welTaRricxva Tavis dasabams iRebs farnavaz mefis mier qarTuli mwignobrobis SemoRebis droidan. n e k r e s i s warwerebi. nekresis naqalaqari mdebareobs yvarlidan 8 km-is daSorebiT, mTiani kavkasionisa da alaznis velis Sesayarze. nekresi warmoadgenda istoriuli hereTisa da Semdgom - kaxeTis erT-erT sayuradRebo politikur, ekonomikur, kulturul da religiur centrs. 1984 wlidan nekresSi daiwyo arqeologiuri gaTxrebi l. WilaSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT. meoTxedi saukunis manZilze warmoebuli gaTxrebis Sedegad aq gamoikveTa sruliad gansxvavebuli daniSnulebisa da xasiaTis nagebobaTa Semcveli sami fena: pirveli - qveda fena unda yofiliyo kerpTmsaxurebisdroindeli samlocvelo-samsxverplo kremaciuli samarxebiT. es fena SeiZleba daTariRdes Zv. w. IV-II saukuneebiT. meore fena mazdeanTa samlocveloa, faravs sakerposamsxverplos. specialistTa azriT, daaxl. Zv. w. II saukuneSi (roca daarsda q. nekresi) agebuli mazdeanTa didebuli taZari da samlocvelo funqcionirebda ax. w. II-III saukeneebamde (am fenas miekuTvneba mazdeanTa saflavebis warweriani qvebis umetesoba). - 87 -

mesame - zeda fena SedarebiT gviandelia, adreqristianuli xanisa, daaxl. ax. w. IV-V saukuneebisa. dRes igi warmodgenilia sameurneo nagebobis - marnisa da darRveuli samarxebis saxiT. sagulisxmoa, rom swored zeda fenis sasaxle-darbazebis samSeneblo masalad yofila gamoyenebuli warweriani qvebi (mazdeanTa saflavis qvebi). maTze amokawruli aso-niSnebi dRes CvenSi nekresis warwerebis saxeliTaa cnobili. naqalaqaris gaTxrebi grZeldeba, Tumca mopovebuli masalebis mixedviTac ukve SesaZlebeli gaxda garkveuli daskvnebis gamotana. magaliTad, l. WilaSvilis dakvirvebiT, nekresis warwerebi Sesrulebuli Cans sxvadasxva dros, daaxl. Zv. w. IV ax. w. III saukuneebSi. VI-VII saukuneebSia Seqmnili mcxeTis jvris, ukangoris, sahakduxtis, wyisis warwerebi. 2.2.2. xelnaweri teqstebi. uZvelesi qarTuli xelnaweri teqstebi iyofa sam jgufad: xanmeti, haemeti da sannarevi. es dayofa emyareba II subieqtur da III iribobieqtur pirTa niSnebis sxvaobas. x a n m e t i teqstebi ewodeba iseT werilobiTs Zeglebs, sadac II subieqturi da III iribobieqturi pirebis niSnad xprefiqsia gamoyenebuli (x-akeTeb Sen, x-emaleba igi mas). xanmeti teqstebi ZiriTadad TariRdeba VIII saukunis dasawyisamde periodiT. maTi umravlesoba saqarTveloSia daculi. maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovania qarTul-ebrauli palimfsesti ("palimfsesti" berZnuli sityvaa, niSnavs "kvlav gadafxekils". sazogadod, palimfsesti iseT xelnawers hqvia, romelsac xelaxla iyeneben sawerad). xelnaweri Sedgenili unda iyos V-VI saukuneTa mijnaze ierusalimSi, Semdeg ki moxvedrila ebraelebis xelSi. maT igi dauxeviaT (ufro sworad: orad gaukecavT) da gamouyenebiaT TavianTi wignisaTvis - Talmudis teqstisaTvis. daaxloebiT XI saukuneSi ebraelebs qarTuli xelnaweri palimfsestad uqceviaT. igi XIX saukunis bolomde inaxeboda egvipteSi, kairos sinagogis genizaSi (xelnawerTa sawyobSi). XIX saukunis miwurulSi genizis xelnawerebi gautaniaT evropisa da amerikis biblioTekebsa da muzeumebSi. zemodasax- 88 -

elebuli xelnaweris erTi furceli moxvda inglisSi bodleianis biblioTekaSi, sxva oTxi furceli - kembrijis universitetis biblioTekaSi, sami naxevi ki - britaneTis (londonis) biblioTekaSi. palimfsestis sxva furclebis bedi ucnobia. 1897 wels oqsfordidan doqtorma neibauerma qarTulebrauli palimfsestis erTi furclis (ori gverdis) fotopiri gamougzavna peterburgis universitetSi niko mars. marma maSinve ver miaqcia saTanado yuradReba am fotopirs da igi Sesaswavlad gadasca ebraulis mkvlevars - kokovcovs. gamoirkva, rom es furceli iyo Talmudis uZvelesi nusxa (xelis mixedviT XI saukunisad miiCnies). marTalia, kokovcovi qarTulis mkvlevari ar iyo, magram miuTiTa, palimfsestze qarTuli naweri ebraulze Zveli Canso. kokovcovma Tavisi naSromi am xelnaweris Sesaxeb gamoaqveyna 1899 wels. im dros iv. javaxiSvili iyo peterburgis universitetis V kursis studenti, romelsac kokovcovi ukiTxavda asuruls. niWier students - iv. javaxiSvils maswavlebelma aCuqa Tavisi Sromis amonabeWdi palimfsestis fotopirianad. magram maSin iv. javaxiSvilma ver SeZlo am xelnaweris wakiTxva da teqsti kvlav darCa qarTvelTa yuradRebis miRma. iv. javaxiSvilma mogvianebiT, 20 wlis Semdeg, gaSifra zemoaRniSnuli palimfsestis nawyveti, romelic Seicavda ieremias winaswarmetyvelebis xanmeti teqstis nawils. am Zeglis aRmoCeniT daiwyo axali etapi qarTuli xelnawerTmcodneobis istoriaSi. amave dros cxadi gaxda isic, rom V saukuneSi biblia qarTulad naTargmni unda yofiliyo. X saukunidan sinis mTaze, ekaterines monasterSi, inaxeboda VII saukunis II naxevarSi palestinaSi Seqmnili xelnaweri - xanmeti leqcionari (leqcionari ewodeba Zveli da axali aRTqmis wignebidan amokrebili sakiTxavebis krebuls). 1893 wels al. cagarels aRuweria sinuri xelnawerebi, maT Soris xanmeti leqcionaric (29 furceli yofila), magram male igi sxva xelnawerebTan erTad gautaniaT evropis qveynebSi.

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xanmeti leqcionari vinme mxatvrisagan (milixisagan) SeuZenia cnobil qarTvelologs hugo Suxardts, romelsac manamde xelT hqonia sxva oTxi qarTuli xelnaweric. Suxardts isini Seuswavlia da XX saukunis dasawyisSi kidec dauweria Sroma "cnobebi qarTuli xelnaweris Sesaxeb". mxolod am SromiT gaxda cnobili qarTvelebisaTvis xanmeti leqcionaris arseboba. h. Suxardtis koleqciis qarTuli xelnawerebi daculia gracis universitetSi. swored aqedan miiRo a. SaniZem maTi fotopirebi. aqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom xanmeti leqcionaris 2 furceli evropaSi gatanisas dakargula, magram dReisaTvis isinic aRmoCenilia: erTi inaxeba parizis nacionaluri biblioTekis qarTul xelnawerTa koleqciaSi, meore - inglisSi, birmingemSi. a. SaniZis gamokvleviT, xanmet leqcionarSi dasturdeba Svidi haemeti formac. xanmeti iakobis protoevangele qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi ganuzomeli mniSvnelobis Zeglia, ramdenadac igi aris sufTa xanmetobis amsaxveli (arc erTi SemTxveva ar aris x-s klebisa da h-s xmarebisa); TariRdeba VII saukuniT. iakobis protoevangele daculia avstriis nacionalur biblioTekaSi. mas pirvelad miakvlia da gamoaqveyna 1970 wels j. berdzolma. h a e m e t i teqstebi. haemeti ewodeba iseT werilobiTs Zeglebs, sadac II subieqturi da III iribobieqturi pirebis niSnad gamoyenebulia h- prefiqsi (h-akeTeb Sen, h-emaleba igi mas). haemeti teqstebi xanmetTan SedarebiT gacilebiT cotaa. maTi ZiriTadi qronologia ganisazRvreba VIII saukuniT. yvelaze Zvel haemet Zeglad iTvleba wyisis warwera (616619 ww.), xolo xelnaweri teqtebidan - haemeti leqcionari, romelic aRmoaCina da gamosca a. SaniZem 1923 wels. enobrivi da paleografiuli niSnebis mixedviT, leqcionari VIII saukunisaa. igi miaCniaT naSTad im didi moculobis wignisa, romelic 400-mde furcels mainc Seicavda. Sinaarsis mixedviT teqsti haemeti sakiTxavebis krebuli Cans.

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hadiSis oTxTavi Seqmnilia 897 wels gamoCenili Satberdeli moRvawis - sofronis SekveTiT, gadamweria miqaeli. hadiSis oTxTavi XI saukunemde (zogi cnobiT, XVI-mde) SatberdSi inaxeboda. Semdeg igi sxva xelnawerebTan erTad svaneTSi autaniaT da TiTqmis 400 weli daculi iyo mestiis raionis sofel hadiSSi, bolos ki damkvidrda mestiis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumSi. hadiSis oTxTavi erTaderTi namdvili haemeti teqstia. xelnaweri gadawerilia haemeti dednidan, magram ise, rom gadamwers imdroisaTvis ukve zedmetad qceuli h- prefiqsi xmovnebis win aRar uxmaria, gamoutovebia. mxolod ramdenime SemTxvevaSi meqanikuri Secdoma mosvlia da h mainc dauweria, mere Secdoma TviTonve SeuniSnavs da h amoufxekia. swored aseTi "SecdomebiT" dgindeba, rom dedani namdvilad haemeti iyo. hadiSis oTxTavi qarTuli enis istoriaSi didi mniSvnelobis Zeglia, metad faseuli rogorc paleografiuli, ise wminda enobrivi TvalsazrisiTac. s a n n a r e v i teqstebi. samecniero literaturaSi sannarevs uwodeben iseT teqstebs, sadac II subieqturi da III iribobieqturi pirebis niSnad zogierTi Tanxmovnis win s- prefiqsi dasturdeba imave poziciaSi sxva zmnebTan gamoyenebuli h- prefiqsis gverdiT (e.i. piris niSnad h-s paralelurad Semoeria sani: h-wer Sen > s-wer... Sdr. hparav Sen...) sannarevi xelnawerebidan qarTuli enisa da mwerlobis istoriaSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania sinuri mravalTavi. igi aris pirveli TariRiani teqsti, gadawerili 864 wels ierusalimSi, sabawmidis lavraSi. xelnaweri SeuwiravT sinis mTis monastrisaTvis da dResac iqvea daculi (amJamad sinis mTa, sadac wmida ekaterines saxelobis monasteria, arabTa gaerTianebuli respublikis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis). sinuri mravalTavis Sedgenis iniciatori da ZiriTadi gadamweri, anderZis mixedviT, aris grigol xanZTelis mowafe makari leTeTeli. sinuri mravalTavi warmoadgens bizantiel avtorTa homiletikuri ("homiletika" - Zveli saeklesio moZRvrebaqadagebani) Txzulebebis krebuls, romlebic gankuTvnili iyo - 91 -

sauflo da did saeklesio dResaswaulebze wasakiTxad. mravalTavi didi moculobis wignia, Seicavs 275 furcels. masSi Sesulia 18 avtoris 50 nawarmoebi. TxzulebaTa avtorebi saeklesio da samwerlo asparezze moRvaweobdnen III-V saukuneebSi. mravalTavi dawerilia mSvenieri mrglovaniT. mxolod anderZis nawilia nusxuriT Sesrulebuli. xelnaweri sayuradReboa Tavisi mdidari leqsikiTa da arqauli gramatikuli formebiT. masSi SeiniSneba xanmetobis kvalic, rac imas adasturebs, rom mravalTavSi Setanil TxzulebaTa nawili xanmeti dednidanaa gadmowerili. 1950 wels sinis mTasa da ierusalims ewvivnen amerikeli mecnierebi, romelTac gadaiRes iqaur xelnawerTa mikrofirebi. swored maTi meSveobiT 1955 wels miiRo saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiam sinur da ierusalimur qarTul xelnawerTa mikrofirebi. 1959 wels daibeWda sinuri mravalTavis sruli teqsti a. SaniZis redaqciiT, winasityvaobiTa da gamokvleviT: "sinuri mravalTavi 864 wlisa". uZvelesi istoriul-literaturuli 2.2.3. Txzulebani. saqarTveloSi saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibda mdidari literaturuli tradicia. dRemde moRweulia IV-V saukuneebSi Seqmnili originaluri Txzulebani da ucxo enebidan Targmnili religiuri xasiaTis wignebi. leonti mrovelis "qarTlis cxovreba" istoriuli qronikaa. misi erT-erTi nawili - mefeTa cxovreba iwyeba TxzulebiT - "cxovreba farnavazisi", romelic, mkvlevarTa azriT, dawerili unda iyos Zv. w. III-II saukuneebSi. igi uZvirfases cnobebs gvawvdis farnavazianTa dinastiis fuZemdeblis farnavaz mefis cxovrebisa da Zv.w. IV-III saukuneTa mijnaze farnavazisa da qujis mier erTiani saqarTvelos aRdgenis Sesaxeb. agiografiuli Txzuleba "wameba~ yrmaTa wmidaTa cxraTa" dawerili unda iyos II an III saukuneSi, warmarTobis xanaSi (S. jijeiSvili). "mirian mefis anderZi" (ax. w. IV saukune) vrclad exeba mirianis mefobis xanas. swored am dros qarTvelebma oficialurad miiRes qristianuli sarwmunoeba... - 92 -

"wmida ninos cxovreba" Seqmnili Cans IV saukunis I naxevarSi. srul dedans Cvenamde ar mouRwevia (r. siraZe, m. CxartiSvili, r. devdariani). uZveles literaturul TxzulebaTa Soris gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo da mniSvnelovania "qeba~ da dideba~ qarTulisa enisa~". teqsti SemorCenilia gadamweris - iovane zosimes xelnawerebis saxiT; avtori ucnobia. "qeba~s" Seswavlis istoria iwyeba 1858 wlidan, rodesac frangma qarTvelologma mari brosem frangulad Targmna "qeba~s" teqsti. dRemde araa dadgenili teqstis Seqmnis zusti TariRi; savaraudo drod miiCneva: IV saukune (a.baqraZe, r. patariZe, g. narsiZe, m. CxartiSvili...); VI saukune (a.jafariZe); IX saukune (p. ingoroyva, t. futkaraZe...); X saukune (k. kekeliZe, z. gamsaxurdia, n. papuaSvili...). Tanamedrove kvlevis Sedegad aRiarebulia, rom "qeba~s" xotbis ZiriTadi obieqtia qarTuli ena da qarTveli eri. erT-erT xelnawers saTaurad aqvs "qeba~ qarTvelTa~ da qarT(gr.robaqiZe, z.gamsaxurdia, n.papuaSvili, velTa enisa~" t.futkaraZe...). "qeba~s" ZiriTadi Sinaarsi aseTia: qarTuli ena ”Semkuli da kurTxeulia". qarTuli da berZnuli iseTive megobrebi arian, rogoric nino da elene, romelTagan erTma saxareba uqadaga qarTvelebs, meorem ki - berZnebs; isini debi arian, viTarca mariami da marTa... qarTuli ena lazarea: qristem lazare aRadgina mkvdreTiT. qarTul enaSi Senaxulia "yoveli saidumlo": meored mosvlisas ufali qarTuli eniT gansjis msoflios... iakob curtavelis "wameba~ wmidisa SuSanikisi" dawerilia V saukuneSi (476-482 wlebSi), Tumca Cvenamde moRweulia teqstis X saukunis nusxa (xelnaweri) da ara dedani. teqstis xasiaTi, misi daxvewili mxatvruloba cxadyofs im epoqaSi qarTuli mwerlobis tradiciulobasa da maRal dones. avtori sainteresod aRwers V saukunisdroindel saqarTveloSi sazogadoebriv cxovrebas - politikur, ekonomikursa Tu kulturul viTarebas. garda amisa, gvawvdis sagulisxmo cnobebs imis Sesaxeb, rom gorgasalis epoqaSi bibliis teqstebi ukve qarTulad yofila Targmnili (SuSanikma - 93 -

"Tana waritanna evangelY TAsi da wmidani igi wignni mowameTani"). "martviloba da moTmineba wmidisa evstaTi mcxeTelisa" agiografiuli xasiaTis nawarmoebia. avtori ar aris cnobili. istoriuli wyaroebiT, evstaTi mcxeTeli awames daaxl. 551 wels. Txzuleba dawerilia misi Tanamedrovis mier. iovane sabanisZis "abos wameba" Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi sayuradReboa Tematuri da Janrobrivi mravalferovnebiT. masSi aRwerilia abos martviloba da Semdeg mocemulia himni abosi. abo awames 786 wlis 6 ianvars. nawarmoebic Seqmnili unda iyos daaxloebiT am periodSi, VIII saukunis bolos. IX saukuneSia dawerili "cxoreba~ da wameba~ konstanti kaxisa~". "moqceva~ qarTlisa~" sxvadasxva piris mier sxvadasxva dros dawerili epizodebis krebulia, romelic eZRvneba saqarTveloSi saxelmwifo religiad qristianobis gamocxadebas. tradiciuli TvalsazrisiT, Txzuleba Sedgenili unda iyos Satberdis monasterSi moRvawe beris mier arauadres IX saukunisa (k. kekeliZe). samecniero literaturaSi miTiTebulia, rom "moqceva~ qarTlisa~s" Tavdapirveli varianti Seqmnili unda iyos V saukunis II naxevarSi. "grigol xanZTelis cxovreba" qarTuli agiografiis erTerTi saukeTeso nimuSia, dawerili giorgi merCulis mier 951 wels grigolis "mowafeTa mowafeebis" monaTxrobis mixedviT. avtori didi mxatvruli ostatobiT aRwers VIII-IX saukuneebSi tao-klarjeTis ber-monazvnobis istorias, mTliani saqarTvelos politikur da socialur-ekonomikur cxovrebas, gansakuTrebuli siyvaruliT warmoaCens grigol xanZTelis am didi saeklesio moRvawis cxovrebasa da moqalaqeobas. zemoCamoTvlilTa garda, kidev bevri sxva saintereso originaluri Tu naTargmni Txzuleba Seiqmna Zvel saqarTveloSi.
literatura

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z. gamsaxurdia, "qeba~ da dideba~ qarTulisa enisa~": ciskari, 1987, #3. r. devdariani, qristianuli mwerlobis sakiTxebi, quTaisi, 2002. p. ingoroyva, Txzulebani, t. IV, Tb.,1978. k. kekeliZe, qarTuli literaturis istoria, I, Tb., 1960. e. maWavariani, bolnisis sionis samSeneblo warwera, Tb., 1985. g. narsiZe, "qeba~s" istoriuli paralelebi: mnaTobi, 1986, #4. g. narsiZe, davaTis qva-jvari: mnaTobi, 1987, #4, 8. S. nucubiZe, palestinis axali gaTxrebi da qarTuli kulturis sakiTxebi: mnaTobi, 1959, #1. n.papuaSvili, ”qeba~s" fakultatiuri swavlebisaTvis: qarTuli ena da literatura skolaSi, 1983, #2. r. patariZe, "qeba~ qarTulisa enisa~", mnaTobi, 1987, #1. z. sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali, Tb., 1984. J. feiqriSvili, qarTvelologiis sakiTxebi, quTaisi, 1992. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, Tb., 1975-87. qeba~ da dideba~ qarTulisa enisa~, Semdgenel-redaqtori t. futkaraZe, Tb., 2000. m. CxartiSvili, "saidumloeba saxelisa": mnaTobi, 1991, #6. g. wereTeli, uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi palestinidan, Tb., 1960. l. WilaSvili, nekresis uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi da qarTuli damwerlobis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2004. z. WumburiZe, qarTuli xelnawerebis kvaldakval, Tb.,1983.

2.3. Zveli qarTveli mwignobarni
qarTvelTa samwignobro kultura saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi uwyvetad iqmneboda didi qarTveli moRvaweebis mier; isini arqauli da Tanamedrove xalxuri enobrivi monacemebis SezavebiT mdidar, gamomsaxvelobiT enas qmnidnen. am faqtorma Seapiroba samwignobro enis Tvisobrivi ucvleloba da sul mcire, TxuTmetsaukunovani mTlianoba.

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qarTuli kultura ZiriTadad saqarTvelos kuTxeebSi arsebul kulturul centrebSi moRvawe mwignobarTagan iqmneboda, kerZod: samxreT saqarTveloSi: ioane mosxi, arsen safareli, grigol xanZTeli, giorgi merCule, basil zarzmeli, ioane mtbevari, ioane oqropiri... dasavleT saqarTveloSi: ioane lazi, ioane minCxi (martvileli), stefane sananoisZe, ioane petriwi, tbeli abuseriZe, Wyondidlebis mravali Taoba... aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi: bakuri, petre iberi, iakob curtaveli, Sio mRvimeli, grigol diakoni, ioane sabanisZe, ioane bolneli, leonti mroveli, arsen iyalToeli... sazRvargareTul centrebSi: ioane zosime, basil sabawmindeli, miqel modrekili, filipe beTlemeli, eqvTime mTawmindeli, giorgi mTawmindeli, efrem mcire, giorgi mcire... maT moamzades SoTa rusTvelis epoqa... mokled Zvel qarTvel mwignobarTa erT nawilis Sesaxeb: bakuri. bakuri aris IV saukuneSi mcxovrebi filosofosi, iberiis samefo gvareulobis warmomadgeneli, romlis Sesaxebac oden berZnul-laTinurma wyaroebma Semoinaxes cnobebi; bakurs ganaTleba miuRia Zveli kolxeTis tradiciebis memkvidre filosofiur skolaSi, romelic dasavleT saqarTveloSi arsebula. bizantiaSi xangrZlivi moRvaweobisas mas didi saxeli mouxveWia Tavisi sibrZnis gamo, im zomamdec, rom erTi cnobili bizantieli filosofosi mas "RmerTebis sayvarels" uwodebs. savalalo isaa, rom bakuris TxzulebaTagan Cvenamde aRarafers mouRwevia. ioane lazi. IV saukunis bolosa da V saukunis dasawyisSi qarTlSi samefo karisa da eklesiis ierarqTa meTaurobiT gaaqtiurebuli iyo mTargmnelobiTi saqmianoba, romelsac erTvoda sakuTriv qristianuli originaluri Sedevrebis Seqmna. umTavres centrs warmoadgenda mefe bakuris samefo kari. swored aq sami wlis ufliswulis - murvanosis (SemdgomSi - petre iberis) aRmzrdelad dasavleT saqarTvelodan moiwvies miTridate lazi. igi 12 wlamde zrdida da mwignobrobas aswavlida mefiswuls.

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s. yauxCiSvilis mosazrebiT, ioane anu miTridate lazi dasavleT saqarTvelos cnobili ritorikuli skolis warmomadgeneli iyo. igi petres aswavlida qarTuls. ioane (miTridate) lazi unda yofiliyo qarTuli qristianuli saRvTismsaxuro enisa da literaturis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli da qarTuli mTargmnelobiTi skolis erT-erTi lideri (a.jafariZe). ioane lazi miCneulia palestinis qarTuli monastris (sadac daculia uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi) amgebad. petre iberi. iberiis mefis - varaz-bakuris (an varazbaqaris Ze) Ze murvani 409 wels (an 410, 412 ww.) unda dabadebuliyo. igi Tormeti an TxuTmeti wlisa saTanado amaliTurT mZevlad warugzavniaT konstantinepolSi. Wabuki murvani imperatorsa da karis filosofosebs acvifrebda niWiTa da ganswavlulobiT. mefe-dedoflis gamorCeuli siyvaruliT iyo garemosili, dideba ar aklda. miuxedavad amisa, mefuri cxovrebis brwyinvalebas man beris cxovreba arCia: Tavis sulier moZRvarTan - miTridate lazTan erTad sasaxlidan gaipara da palestinaSi, ierusalimSi, maswavlebelTan erTad berad aRikveca; amis Semdeg ewoda murvans petre, xolo miTridates - ioane. wminda adgilebis molocvisa da warmatebuli sasuliero saqmianobis Semdeg isini daemkvidrdnen palestinaSi, sadac SemdgomSi petre qalaq maiaumis episkoposad daadgines. oTxmoc wlamde icocxla petre iberielma da didi gavlena da saxeli moipova bizantiaSi. imdroindeli wyaroebi mas moixsenieben, rogorc "msoflioSi sakvirvelad saxelganTqmul kacs", "meore mociqul pavles", "meore moses". petre iberis mieraa dawerili "areopagituli wignebi", romlebic VI saukunis ocdaaTiani wlebidan SecdomiT miewereboda pavle mociqulis mowafes dionise areopagels (e.honigmani, S.nucubiZe). petre iberielis wignebma Sua saukuneebis azrovnebasa da kulturaze didi gavlena moaxdina da iqca renesansis filosofiur safuZvladac. iakob xucesi. iakob curtaveli Cvenamde moRweuli pirveli qarTuli agiografiuli Zeglis - "SuSanikis wamebis" - 97 -

avtoria. iakobi qristianobisaTvis wamebuli dedoflis moZRvari iyo da, bunebrivia, Tavadac aris nawarmoebis personaJi. 476-482 wlebSi Seqmnili am Txzulebidan Cans, rom iakobi brZeni da safuZvlianad ganaTlebuli pirovnebaa. iakob xucess curtavelsac uwodeben. varaudoben, rom igi mogvianebiT curtavis episkoposic gaxda. curtavi mdebareobda bolnissa da rusTavs Soris, iq, sadac erTdeba ori mdinare - maSavera da xrami. curtavSi iyo qarTlis pitiaxSis rezidencia. aqve arsebobda kulturul-saganmanaTleblo kera, sadac swavlobdnen qarTvelebic da mezobeli somxebic. aq uswavlia V saukunis cnobil somex istorikoss - lazar farpels (lazar farpecs). grigol diakoni. grigoli pirveli qarTveli istorikosia, romelsac dauweria "qarTlis mokle moqceva"; "moqceva~ qarTlisa~s" WeliSur versiaSi vkiTxulobT: "viTarca sweria grigol diakonis mciresa mas, mokled aRwerilsa, wignsa qarTlisa moqcevisasa" (e. TayaiSvili, 1911, gv. 714). s. kakabaZis azriT, grigoli aris IV saukunis II naxevris mwerali; 380-400 wlebSi mas jer berZnulad da mere qarTulad dauweria "mcire moqceva~ qarTlisa~". k. kekeliZe Tvlis, rom IV saukuneSi am doneze ver iqneboda ganviTarebuli qarTuli mwerloba. samwuxarod, am moRvawis Sesaxeb sxva cnobebi ar mogvepoveba. ioane mosxi (Sdr., samcxis istoriuli sofeli musxi) VIVII saukuneebis msoflioSi cnobili mweralia. misi novelebis krebuli Semonaxulia berZnul enazec (limonari - "mdelo") da qarTuladac (”samoTxe"). fiqroben, rom berZnul "limonarsa" da qarTul "samoTxeSi" Sesuli novelebi ioane mosxma erTimeorisagan damoukideblad dawera berZnuladac da qarTuladac. aris mosazreba, rom ioane mosxis kalams ekuTvnis "sibrZne balahvarisi". Sio mRvimeli VI saukunis saeklesio moRvawea; igi im 13 asurel mamaTagania, romlebic saqarTveloSi siriidan Camovidnen. varaudoben, rom asureli mamebi, warmoSobiT - kabadokielebi, qarTveluri modgmisani iyvnen (Sdr., kabadokielebi iyvnen wminda giorgic, wminda ninoc; varaudoben, rom kabadokielia azoc). il. abulaZis azriT, Sio qarTvelia, igi iyo

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ioane zedaznelis mowafe, SeZlebul RvTismsaxur aznaurTa Svili, berad aRikveca, moRvaweobda zedazenSi da mere wavida siriaSi. Sio mRvimelis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli mcxeTis maxloblad dRemde arsebuli monasteri "SiomRvime". Cvenamde ar aris moRweuli misi krebuli "swavlani". Sio mRvimels akuTvneben ramdenime savedrebels - Zveli qarTuli poeziis nimuSebs; erT-erTi maTgani - "oxiTa~" mimarTulia RvTismSoblisadmi da ganmsWvalulia lirizmiT. Sios anderZis Tanaxmad, "oxiTa~" igalobeboda RvTismSoblis taZarSi. ioane sabanisZe. VIII saukunis miwurulis saqarTveloSi erT-erTi gamorCeuli sasuliero moRvawe da niWieri mwerali iyo ioane sabanisZe; swored gamorCeulobis gamo miiRo man qarTlis kaTalikosis - samoelis (780- 790 ww.) Txovna, daewera Txzuleba axalmowamis - abos Sesaxeb. 790 wels ioane sabanisZes ukve dawerili hqonda "abos wameba" da mas saqarTvelos yvela eklesiaSi kiTxulobdnen. ioane sabanisZe aris pirveli, romelmac wamoWra erovnuli sakiTxi da ganacxada, rom qarTvelebi gaimarjvebdnen mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mamapapur wessa da rigs ar uRalatebdnen. igi daupirispirda arabebsa da maT mier gadabirebul qarTvelebs. varaudoben, rom ioane sabanisZe moRvaweobda mcxeTis jvris monasterSi. seiTi VIII saukunis II naxevris mwignobaria, romelic ierusalimSi, sabas lavraSi moRvaweobda. akad. k. kekeliZis varaudiT, man saTave daudo agiografiuli krebulis - "mravalTavis" Seqmnas. grigol xanZTeli. grigol xanZTeli VIII-IX saukuneebis saqarTveloSi udidesi saeklesio moRvawe da poetia. p. ingoroyvas azriT, grigol xanZTelis kalams 300-mde himnografiuli Sroma ekuTvnis. grigolma 102 weli icocxla. Tavisi xangrZlivi cxovrebis manZilze man uamravi monasteri da kulturulsaganmanaTleblo kera aRadgina da aaSena. grigol xanZTeli qarTveli eris sulier mamad SeiZleba miviCnioT: taoklarjeTSi misma didma Rvawlma gadaarCina erTiani saqarT- 99 -

velos idea, rasac Sedegad mohyva didi saqarTvelos aRorZineba da msoflioSi gamorCeul qristianul qveynad qceva. arsen didi safareli. arsen safarelis Sesaxeb cnobebs "grigol xanZTelis cxovreba" iZleva. arseni samcxidanaa, Svili didi feodalis - mirianisa. arseni 27 weli kaTalikosobda (860-887 ww.). k. kekeliZis azriT, arsen didis kalams ekuTvnis Txzuleba "Tqmuli wmidisa mamisa Cuenisa, arsenisa~, mcxeTeli kaTolikosisa~, romelic iyo sanaxebTagan samebisTa safariT, ganyofisTAs qarTlisa da somxiTisa". nawarmoebi exeba qarTvelTa da somexTa sarwmunoebriv urTierTobasa da ganxeTqilebis istorias. arsenis meore cnobili nawarmoebia "cxovreba da martviloba abibos nekreselisa". giorgi merCule (885-960 ww.). giorgi merCule moRvaweobda mdinare Woroxis xeobaSi mdebare xanZTis savaneSi. niWieri da ganaTlebuli pirovneba iyo, zedmiwevniT flobda berZnul, arabul, siriul enebs. Targmnida wignebs. werda gamorCeul leqsebs, romlebsac misma Tanamedroveebma "merCuliulni" uwodes. profesiiT samarTalmcodne iyo. aqedan modis misi zedwodeba "merCule", rac sjuls anu saeklesio kanonis mcodnes niSnavs (iv. amirxanaSvili, 2006). giorgi merCulem Seqmna Zveli qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis Sedevri "grigol xanZTelis cxovreba". mas ekuTvnis saukunovani Sefaseba: "qarTlad (saqarTveloSi) friadi (mravali) queyana~ (mxare) aRiracxebis (iTvleba), romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva~ yoveli aResrulebis". ioane minCxi. ioane minCxi (saxelwodeba soflis saxelisgan momdinareobs; sofeli minCxi amJamindel martvilis raionSia) qarTuli himnografiis udidesi warmomadgenelia. X saukunis poetsa da musikoss mravali himni aqvs Seqmnili, romlebic cnobilia terminebiT: "minCxni", "minCxnisani"; sinis mTaze daculia sagaloblebi, romelTac aweria "minCxurni"; specialistebis daskvniT, am rigis qmnilebebi ekuTvnis minCxis skolis warmomadgenlebs da ara Tavad ioane minCxs. eqvTime mTawmindeli aris aTonis saliteraturo skolis erT-erTi damaarsebeli da udidesi moRvawe, romelmac gansakuTrebuli kvali datova qarTuli mwerlobis istoriaSi. - 100 -

eqvTimem didi mTargmnelobiTi saqmianoba gaswia. is ara marto berZnulidan Targmnida qarTulad, aramed qarTulidanac berZnulad. misi Targmanebia: "raodennime werilni", "balahvari", da "abukura~". qarTveli mkiTxvelis interesebidan gamomdinare, Targmnisas eqvTime aToneli axal, Tavisufal redaqcias qmnida; SeiZleba iTqvas, is ucxour qmnilebebs aqarTulebda. man, rogorc bizantielTa Soris kargad cnobilma da didad popularulma moRvawem, cxadad daanaxa berZnebs qarTuli kulturis maRali done da qarTveli eris sapatio adgili qristian erTa Soris. efrem mcire. efrem mcire XI saukunis cnobili moRvawea. igi unda iyos Svili taoeli aznauris - vaCe kariWis Zisa, romelic iziarebda bizantiis orientacias da konstantinopolSi gadavida sacxovreblad, sadac miiRo ganaTleba da zedmiwevniT Seiswavla berZnuli ena. efremis meTaurobiT Sav mTaze Seiqmna qarTuli mwerlobis mZlavri kera. efrem mcirem SeimuSava sakuTari mTargmnelobiTi Teoria, romelic sam princips efuZneboda: 1. Txzuleba unda iTargmnos mxolod dednidan; 2. Targmani zustad unda gadmoscemdes dednis teqsts; 3. Targmans unda daerTos komentarebi. efremi farTo erudiciis moRvawea; man didi Rvawli gaswia qarTuli samwignobro enis ganviTarebaSi; gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia is, rom efremi barbarizmebiTa da kalkebiT ar amZimebs dedaenas da cdilobs Seqmnas, an cocxal kiloebSi moiZios saTargmni leqsikis Sesatyvisi qarTuli erTeulebi
(SemdgomSi sityvaTqmnadobis amave kurss agrZelebs da aaqtiurebs ioane petriwi). efremma SeimuSava punqtuaciis axali sistema.

qarTuli samwignobro enis, zogadad, kulturis istorias aseve amSveneben: stefane sananoisZe (Wyondideli), daviT tbeli, iovane-zosime, miqel modrekili, giorgi mTawmindeli, stefane aToneli, Teofile xucesmonazoni, leonti mroveli, giorgi mcire, daviT aRmaSenebeli, ioane petriwi, arsen beri, nikoloz gulaberisZe, ioane anCeli, ioane SavTeli, arsen iyalToeli, tbeli abuseriZe da sxva. aqve, sagangebod davasaxelebT cnobil mwignobrebs svaneTidan: grigol svani, ioane qancxiani (qacxiani), grigol qancxiani, ilarion sofromaZe, - 101 -

timoTe papa, ioane farjaniani, vaxtang farjaniani, ioane xaritoniani, giorgi mozdoniani, miqael odariani, uxojeliani, Sqeriani, ioane javesiani, demetre ifareli, BeSdiniani, ioane dalidiani, qerabin xojelani, demetre RoReliani, ivane mulaxeli da mravali sxv. dasasrul aRsaniSnavia isic, rom wina saukuneebSi moRvawe Cveni winaprebic gansakuTrebuli sisaTuTiT ixsenebdnen da inaxavdnen Zvel qarTvel mwignobarTa saxelebs; sanimuSod warmovadgenT nawyvets XVI saukunis moRvawis - bagrat batoniSvilis Txzulebidan "moTxroba~ sjulTa uRmrToTa ismaitelTa~": "iyvnes ukue uwinares mohamedisa kacni wmindani da saswaulTmoqmedni, naTesaviT qarTvelni, daviT (tbeli) da stefane (Wyondideli)... romelni warvides ierusalims… da gviTargmnes Cuen wignebi yoveli berZnulisgan qarTulad"...
literatura iv. amirxanaSvili, qarTuli literaturis saymawvilo istoria: "literaturuli saqarTvelo", 2006, 28. VIII. g. gasviani, dasavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis istoriidan, Tb., 1973. Е. Такаишвили, Описание рукописей, Тбилиси, II, 1911. r. TvaraZe, literaturuli werilebi, Tb., 1996. k. kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, I, Tb., 1980. k. kekeliZe, adrindeli feodaluri qarTuli literatura, Tb.,1961. Н. Марр, Грузинские приписки греческого Евангелея из Коридии, С.Петербург, 1911. J. feiqriSvili, qarTvelologiis sakiTxebi, quTaisi, 1992. t. futkaraZe, qarTli - qarTvelTa "friadi (mravali) qveynis" saerTo saxeli (romeli qveynebi iTvleba qarTlad "gr.xanZTelis cxovrebis" mixedviT?); Tsu mesxeTis filialisa da grigol xanZTelis sazogadoebis erToblivi samecniero konferencia, 17-18 aprili, 2003. anania jafariZe (mTavarepiskoposi), petre iberi marTlmadidebeli episkoposi, Tb., 2002.

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anania jafariZe (mTavarepiskoposi), qarTuli saeklesio (saliteraturo) enis Camoyalibebis sakiTxisaTvis (ioane lazi), Tb., 2002.

2.4. Zveli qarTuli kulturul-saganmanaTleblo kerebi saqarTvelosa da ucxoeTSi
2.4.1. kulturis kerebi Zvel saqarTveloSi. saqarTvelo uZvelesi kulturis qveyanaa, magram warmarTuli periodis werilobiTi Zeglebi Cvenamde srulad ar aris moRweuli; savaraudoa, rom adrindeli qarTveluri saxelmwifoebis (daiaeni, kolxa, anu Zveli qarTli) uZvelesi kulturuli kerebi sakulto centrebSi arsebobda. saqarTveloSi swavlaganaTlebisa da kulturis ganviTarebas SegviZlia Tvali gavadevnoT adreqristianuli xanidan. qristianobam - am uaRresad mwignobrulma religiam safuZveli Cauyara qristianul mwerlobas, Seqmna skolebi... magaliTad, egrisSi (romelic, "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT, qarTlis organuli nawili iyo) III-VI saukuneebSi fazisis (foTis) maxloblad arsebobda umaRlesi ritorikuli skola lazTa akademia, sadac aswavlidnen ritorikul xelovnebas, ZiriTadad filosofiasa da samarTlis safuZvlebs; agreTve: literaturas, musikas, astronomiasa da maTematikis elementebs. aq izrdebodnen saukeTeso oratorebi da politikuri moRvaweebi. kolxeTis akademia im dros imdenad mniSvnelovani kulturuli centri yofila, rom aq ganaTlebis misaRebad modiodnen gamoCenili bizantieli filosofosebic ki. lazTa akademiis Sesaxeb moTxrobilia berZeni filosofosis - Temistiosis - erT-erT werilSi. Temistiossa da mamamissac ritorikuli ganaTleba lazTa akademiaSi miuRiaT. aq uswavlia ioane lazsac. Tavdapirvelad, warmarTuli tradiciis inerciiT, qarTuli mwignobruli saqmiaoba ZiriTadad mimdinareobda mefemTavarTa da episkoposTa karze, magram VII saukunidan, roca SesamCnevad ganmtkicda samonastro cxovreba, saganmanaTle-

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blo da kulturul-literaturul centrebad iqca eklesiamonastrebi. istoriuli wyaroebis mixedviT, Zvel saqarTveloSi monastrebi (rogorc religiur-kulturuli kerebi) pirvelad dauarsebiaT asureTidan Camosul kapadokiel mamebs. maTi moRvaweobis periodad varaudoben VI saukunes. momdevno xanaSi kidev ufro mravldeboda eklesiamonastrebisa da maTTan praqtikuli mizniT gaxsnili skolebis ricxvi. aq xdeboda qristianuli damoZRvra da eklesiis msaxurTa momzadeba... aswavlidnen saRmrTo werils, galobebs, filosofias, ucxo enebs. saqarTveloSi saganmanaTleblo saqmianobis axali etapi iwyeba IX saukunidan, roca qarTvelebma, erTi mxriT, gaicnes bizantiuri skola da, meore mxriT, axlo urTierToba daamyares ucxoeTSi arsebul qarTul samonastro kerebTan. am periodSi saqarTvelos kulturul kerebs Soris upirvelesi iyo tao-klarjeTis centrebi. tao-klarjeTi ZvelTaganve dasaxlebuli yofila qarTvelebiT: WanebiT, megrelebiT, taoelebiT, maWaxlelebiT, aWarlebiT, livanelebiT, SavSelebiT... VI-VII saukuneebSi aq auSenebiaT qristianuli salocavebi, romlebic VIII saukunis I naxevarSi murvan yrum gaanadgura; am ubedurebas male daemata Jamianoba (xolera)... mosaxleobisagan TiTqmis daicala es mSvenieri mxare, ganadgurda aqauri eklesia-monastrebic. VIII saukunis 50-iani wlebidan tao-klarjeTs kvlav daubrunda sicocxle; maleve ganaxlda opizis ioane naTlismcemlis saxelobis monasteri, romelic mokle droSi iqca am kuTxis samonastro cxovrebisa da qarTuli mwerlobis erTerT mniSvnelovan kerad. tao-klarjeTis samonastro cxovrebisa da qarTuli kulturis Semdgomi aRmavloba uciloblad dakavSirebulia grigol xanZTelis saxelTan. grigol xanZTelis xelmZRvanelobiT TiTqmis sulier udabnod qceuli tao-klarjeTi daifara eklesiebiT. grigolma aq aago mamaTa sami da dedaTa ori monasteri. amaTgan mwerlobis istoriisaTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovani iyo Sa tberdi, sadac Seiqmna hadiSis, jruWisa da parxlis oTxTavebi, Satberdis krebuli da a.S. aranaklebi - 104 -

mniSvneloba hqonda xanZTis, iSxnis, oSkis, xaxulis, berTisa da parxlis monastrebsac. tao-klarjeTis monastrebi gadaiqca qarTuli mwerlobis akvnad. maT didi roli Seasrules Cveni mwignobrobis istoriaSi. aqaa Seqmnili udidesi nawili im saganZurisa, rac mogvepoveba IX-X saukuneebidan. aqve Camoyalibda erovnul niadagze aRmocenebuli tao-klarjeTis saliteraturo skola, sadac qarTvelTa SemoqmedebiTi energia ise gaizarda, rom igi gascda saqarTvelos farglebs da gagrZelda sazRvargareTis qarTul samonastro da saliteraturo wreebSi. XI-XII saukuneebis saqarTveloSi tradiciad iqca niWieri ymawvilebis gagzavna saberZneTis skolebSi swavla-ganaTlebis misaRebad. swored aseTi gziT moxvdnen ucxoeTSi da iqaur umaRles saswavleblebSi aRizardnen efrem mcire, eqvTime aToneli, giorgi mTawmideli, arsen iyalToeli, ioane petriwi da sxvebi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom ucxoeTSi ganaTlebamiRebuli qarTvelebi iqve aarsebdnen seminariebs, saswavleblebs da Semdgom sakuTari skolis tradiciebi gadmohqondaT samSobloSi. am aspeqtiT gansakuTrebiT farTod gaiSala muSaoba daviT aRmaSeneblis epoqaSi. cnobilia, rom daviTma gelaTis monastris didi eklesiis aSenebis Semdeg (1106 w.) Semoikriba swavluli qarTvelebi, aqve daaarsa gelaTis akademia, raTa gelaTi qceuliyo meore aTinad Tu meore ierusalimad. marTlac, gelaTis akademiam maSindel msoflioSi male gaiTqva saxeli da mogvevlina "sxuad aTinad, friad uaRres missa". XI-XII saukuneebSi, roca saqarTvelom Tavisi politikurkulturuli ganviTarebis mwvervals miaRwia, samecnierosaganmanaTleblo skolebi - akademiebi Seiqmna gremsa da iyalToSi. saqarTveloSi arsebuli swavla-ganaTlebis kerebi xels uwyobda qarTuli mwerlobisa da filologiuri azrovnebis ganviTarebas, iwereboda originaluri Txzulebani, ucxo enebidan iTargmneboda mdidari literatura. swored am periodSi Seiqmna ukvdavi "vefxistyaosani". XIII saukunidan saqarTvelo politikurad iwyebs dasustebas, daqveiTebas. Sesabamisad, TandaTan ganadgurda kultu- 105 -

ruli monapovari, Seferxda skolebis saqmianoba, zogan ki mTlianad Sewyda... magram aRorZinebis xanidan (XVII s.) CvenSi kvlav gamococxlda kultura, literatura, mwerloba. gansakuTrebiT gamravlda elementaruli, pirveldawyebiTi skolebis ricxvi TbilisSi. gaCnda saSualo saswavleblebic. am mxriv, pirvel yovlisa, unda davasaxeloT Tbilisis seminaria, romelic gaixsna 1755 wels anton kaTalikosis iniciativiT (seminariis pirvel reqtorad daniSnes filipe yaiTmazaSvili) da Telavis seminaria (gaixsna 1782 wels). XVIII saukuneSi saqarTveloSi saskolo-saganmanaTleblo saqme warmatebiT xorcieldeboda, magram ruseTis mier saqarTvelos dapyrobam qveynis ganviTareba Seaferxa. 2.4.2. qarTuli kulturis kerebi ucxoeTSi. Zveli saqarTvelos sasuliero mwerlobisa da, saerTod, mecnieruli azrovnebis ganviTarebas emsaxureboda qarTvelTa mier sazRvargareT Seqmnili eklesia-monastrebic. "yvelaze mniSvnelovan da msxvil sazRvargareTul centrebad am periodSi samarTlianad unda CavTvaloT iveriis monasteri aTonis mTaze, svimeon sakvirvelmoqmedis savane Sav mTaze, antioqiis maxloblad, jvris monasteri palestinaSi da petriwonis monasteri makedoniaSi" (k. kekeliZe). werilobiTi wyaroebidan cnobilia, rom qarTvelebs axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebSi samonastro kolonizacia dauwyiaT jer kidev adreqristianul xanaSi. Tavdapirvelad aseT uaxloes punqtebad iTvleboda palestina da siria. p a l e s t i n a. qarTvelTa samonastro cxovreba palestinaSi saTaves iRebs IV-V saukuneebidan. pirveli periodis monastrebidan cnobili iyo xaritonis, eqvTimes, Teodores, sabas lavrebi. qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania Teodores saxelobis monasteri, romelic uZveles ZeglebSi moxseniebulia sxvadasxva saxeliT: "qarTvelTa monasteri", "lazTa monasteri", "iberTa monasteri" (dRes "beTlemis monastersac" uwodeben). wm. Teodores monasteri agebuli unda iyos IV saukuneSi qarTlis mefe bakuris dros. igi V saukuneSi (daaxl. 440-ian - 106 -

wlebSi) ganuaxlebiaT petre iberielsa da ioane lazs (romlebic iq moRvaweobdnen sikvdilamde da iqve daimarxnen), VI saukuneSi ki momxdara am taZris xelaxali aRdgena-ganaxleba mama antonis mier (S. nucubiZe). petre iberielma monasterSi Seqmna skola, romlis birTvs Seadgenda siriaSi myofi qarTveloba. arsebobs mosazreba, rom am skolaSi swavlamiRebuli qarTvelebi samSobloSi dabrunebulan, rac qarTul istoriografiaSi cnobilia asurel mamaTa mosvlis saxeliT. petre iberielis moRvaweobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan mxared miCneulia maSindeli kulturul-saganmanaTleblo kerebis - eklesia-monastrebisa da sastumroebis mSenebloba, qarTvelTaTvis gankuTvnili TavSesakrebi adgilebis Seqmna siria-palestinaSi. misi TaosnobiT siriaSi daarsda qarTvelTa kolonia, sadac, saeklesio-religiuris garda, eweodnen farTo filosofiur-kulturul da samwerlo xasiaTis saqmianobas. qarTvelTa am uZvelesi savanis Sesaxeb axali da farTo informacia CvenSi cnobili gaxda XX saukunis Sua xanebSi, roca italieli virjilio korbos mier Catarebuli arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad ierusalimSi, beTlemis maxloblad, aRmoCenil iqna qarTuli monastris nangrevebi uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebiT. swored am warweraTa meSveobiT, sadac moxseniebulia rogorc mefe bakuri, ise taZris ganmaaxleblebi - petre iberi (murvanosi) da antoni, dgindeba monastris istoria. beTlemis (palestinis) warwerebi qarTuli gramatologiis (damwerlobaTmcodneobis) metad faseuli dokumentia. uZvelesi wyaroebiT irkveva, rom palestinaSi qarTvelebs hqoniaT 20-mde savane, romelTagan Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobiT imTaviTve gamorCeuli yofila sabawmidis lavra. igi dauarsebia 483 wels cnobil saeklesio moRvawes - saba ganwmedils (439-532 ww.). sabawmidis lavraSi saukuneTa manZilze iqmneboda mniSvnelovani Zeglebi qarTul, siriul, somxur, berZnul, arabul enebze. magram mainc sabawmidis samonastro keris istoriaSi gansakuTrebiT nayofieri iyo VIII-IX saukuneebi. am periodSi igi iqca saqristiano mwerlobis erT-erT gamor- 107 -

Ceul kerad: warmoebda intensiuri literaturulmwignobruli saqmianoba, gatarda qarTuli saliteraturo enis reforma; ganviTarda originaluri himnografia, TargmniTi literatura, gaxSirda xelnawerTa gadawera, Semkoba-Semosva... aRizardnen kaligrafebi (makari leTeTeli, giorgi Tbileli, ioane-zosime...). xelnawerTa umetesoba, romlebic sinis mTaze inaxeba, VIIIIX saukuneebSia Seqmnili sabas lavraSi. aq unda SemuSavebuliyo is xelic, romelsac sabawmidurs uwodeben. X saukunis dasawyisidan sxvagvarad warimarTa sabawmidis taZris bedi. arabebma ukve aSkarad iwyes qarTvelebis Seviwroeba da male maTi gamudmebuli Tavdasxmebisa da Zarcvis gamo sruliad SeuZlebeli gaxda savaneSi cxovreba da moRvaweoba. qarTvelebma iZulebiT miatoves iqauroba da miaSures sxva monastrebs, ZiriTadad, sinis mTas. axal sadgomSi Tan gadaitanes rogorc samonastro tradiciebi, ise aq gadawerili da damuSavebuli wignebis didi nawili. samudamod Sewyvita arseboba sabawmidis lavram, romelmac erT-erTma pirvelma Cauyara safuZveli ucxoeTSi qarTul mwignobrul tradiciebs da romlis SemoqmedebiTi cxovreba Zlier nakadulad erTvoda im did mdinares, rasac qarTuli qristianuli kultura hqvia. jvris monasteri palestinis qarTuli samonastro centrebidan SedarebiT gviandelia. mas Semdeg, rac XI saukunis pirveli meoTxedidan arabTa politika palestinis qristianebisadmi (gansakuTrebiT monastrebisadmi). ramdenadme Seicvala, am qveyanaSi qarTvelTaTvis SesaZlebeli gaxda samonastro cxovrebis ganaxleba; XI saukunis I naxevarSi cnobilma mwignobarma giorgi proxore SavSelma daaarsa jvris monasteri saqarTvelos samefo karis mxardaWeriTa da daxmarebiT. taZris Seneba proxores dauwyia eqvTime mTawmindlis brZanebiT. gadmocemiT, TiTqos monastris adgilas moWrili xisagan unda iyos gakeTebuli is jvari, romelzedac qriste acves (monastris saxelsac am faqts ukavSireben). giorgi SavSels savaneSi Semoukrebia 80-mde qarTveli moRvawe. maTi literaturuli saqmianoba ZiriTadad gamoixateboda sxva avtorTa Txzulebebis gadaweraSi, magram, palestinaSi Seqmnili - 108 -

politikuri viTarebis gamo, qarTvelTa cxovreba-moRvaweobas aqac male daemuqra saSiSroeba. 1071 wels ierusalimis aRebisas Turq-selCukebma qarTuli savanec daarbies da nawilobriv daangries. cota xnis Semdeg igi kvlav aRadgines da moxates daviT aRmaSeneblis daxmarebiT. 1273 wels monasteri gadaakeTes meCeTad, magram saqarTvelos mefeebis CareviT maleve daibrunes igi qarTvelebma da ganagrZes samonastro cxovreba. cnobilia, rom XVII saukunis 40-ian wlebSi nikoloz (nikifore) ColoyaSvils jvris monasterSi didi aRdgeniTi samuSaoebi Cautarebia: mouxatvinebia kedlebi da gumbaTi. am periodSi ierusalimis qarTvelobasa da palestinis jvris monasters udides daxmarebas uwevda samegrelos mTavari levan dadiani (1611-1657). misi Rvawli asaxulia monastris qarTul da berZnul warwerebSi (l.menabde). jvris monasterSi literaturul saqmianobas eweodnen cnobili qarTveli mwignobrebi da kaligrafebi: arsen iyalToeli, nikoloz gulaberisZe... tradiciuli gadmocemiT, aq erTxans umoRvawia SoTa rusTvelsac (mTavar taZarSi svetze Semonaxulia misi freskuli portreti XII-XIII saukuneebisa). mkvlevarTa azriT, jvris monastris qarTuli mwerloba Tavisi xasiaTiTa da SinaarsiT faqtobrivad aris aTonisa da sabas lavris literaturuli tradiciebis gagrZeleba. sagulisxmoa, rom XI saukunidan moyolebuli XIX saukunemde, miuxedavad ucxoelTagan mudmivi Tavdasxmebisa da devnaSeviwroebisa, jvris monasteri palestinaSi mainc rCeboda qarTuli mwerlobis umTavres centrad. XVIII saukunis dasasrulamde taZari nominalurad kvlav iTvleboda qarTvelTa sakuTrebad, magram XIX saukunis damdegs xangrZlivi istoriis mqone es didebuli savane mTlianad daicala qarTvelTagan da yovlad arakanonierad gadavida berZnebis xelSi. s i r i a. aRmosavleT siriaSi, antioqiis maxloblad, Sav anu sakvirvel mTaze arsebobda qarTvelTa samonastro centrebi. Sav mTaze qarTvelebi ukve VII saukunidan eweodnen samonastro cxovrebas (k. kekeliZe). aq moRvaweobda svimeon mes-

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vete sakvirvelmoqmedi, romlis saxeli dakavSirebulia eklesiis istoriasTan. Sav mTaze intensiuri mwignobrul-saganmanaTleblo muSaoba iwyeba XI saukunis 30-iani wlebidan, roca aq dasaxlda samxreT saqarTvelodan wamosuli bevri cnobili filosofosi da mwignobari: giorgi Seyenebuli, giorgi mTawmindeli, efrem mcire, saba Tuxareli, anton tbeli da sxvebi. XI saukunis II naxevarSi Sav mTaze 60-mde qarTveli moRvaweobda. XIII saukunis bolos Savi mTis monastrebis literaturuli saqmianoba mTlianad Sewyda. roca siria Turqebma daipyres da antioqia patara mahmadian qalaqad iqca, monasteric gaveranda da daingra. qarTvelebmac iZulebiT miatoves iqauroba samudamod. a r a b e T i s naxevarkunZuli. sinis mTis wm. ekaterines saxelobis monasteri mdebareobs arabeTis naxevarkunZulis dasavleTiT, sinis naxevarkunZulis samxreT seqtorSi. cnobilia, rom sinis mTaze jer kidev VI saukunidan cxovrobda TiTo-orola qarTveli, IX saukuneSi daarsda qarTuli saTvistomo, romelsac male miaSures X saukuneSi arabebis ZalmomreobiT palestinaSi Seviwroebulma qarTvelma moRvaweebma. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sinis mTis kolonia sabawmidis monastris pirdapiri gagrZelebaa. sinis mTa, rogorc miuvali kuTxe, SedarebiT mosvenebuli iyo mtrebis Semosevebisa da aoxrebisagan, amitom aq ufro aris daculi da Semonaxuli TariRiani Tu uTariRo Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebi. XI saukuneSi daviT aRmaSenebelma sinis mTaze (qorebis mTaze) aago axali eklesia da senakebi qarTvel moRvaweTaTvis, SemdgomSi Tamar mefec ugzavnida uxv Sewirulebas aqaur qarTvelebsa da maTs savaneebs. qarTvel mefeTa mfarvelobis meoxebiT, sinis mTis savane kidev didxans agrZelebda samonastro cxovrebasa da literaturul saqmianobas, magram XV saukunidan aq ukve sagrZnoblad Senelda yovelgvari moRvaweoba, XVII saukuneSi ki qarTvelebma mTlianad miatoves iqauroba, radgan saqarTvelosa da aRmosavleTSic osmalTa

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mxridan iseTi politikuri situacia damyarda, rom qarTuli savanis gadarCena SeuZlebeli gaxda. sinis mTis wm. ekaterines saxelobis monasterSi Tavi moiyares cnobilma mwignobrebma, poetebma, kaligrafebma, wignTa mmosvelebma. eseni iynen: ioane minCxi, ioane-zosime, ioane kumurdoeli, makari leTeTeli da sxvebi. swored maTi erToblivi moRvaweobiT Seiqmna uaRresad mdidari wignsacavi, romelic naTlad warmoaCens aqaur qarTvelTa mravalferovan literaturul interesebs. X saukuneSi aqve hqoniaT ara mxolod biblioTeka, aramed samkiTxvelo darbazi da specialuri katalogic. qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi sinis mTis monastris mniSvneloba metad faseulia im mxrivac, rom uZveles qarTul xelnawerTa didi nawili aqauri savanis meSveobiT Semogvenaxa. bevri amaTgani dResac sinis mTazea daculi, zogi ki inaxeba msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi: Tbilisis, sankt-peterburgis, praRis, gracis, aSS-isa da sxva biblioTekebSi. b i z a n t i a. qarTvelTa samonastro kolonizacia bizantiaSi VIII-IX saukuneebidan dawyebula. am saqmeSi mniSvnelovani wvlili aqvs ilarion qarTvels, romelsac bizantiaSi dauarsebia ori qarTuli monasteri: erTia olimpis anu ulumbos monasteri mcire aziis biTviniaSi (sadac ilarioni mosula 864 wels) da meore - "qarTvelTa monasteri hromanas" (agebuli imperator basilis mier 876 wels ilarionis nawilTa dasasveneblad). am droisaTvis olimpos mTaze qarTvelebs hqoniaT sami sxva eklesiac: quabi an eklesia wmidisa RvTismSoblisa, kozmandamiane da lavra krania. werilobiTi wyaroebis mixedviT, ulumbos monasterSi imTaviTve mimdinareobda literaturuli saqmianoba, ramac ufro intensiuri saxe miiRo mas Semdeg, rac aq damkvidrda mama-Svili ioane da eqvTime. ioane yofila samcxis warCinebuli ojaxis Svili. qristes siyvarulis gamo man miatova samSoblo, saxli, dideba, col-Svili... farulad aRikveca berad, Semdeg gaxda ulumbos monastris Zmobis wevri, aqve moiyvana Tavisi mcirewlovani umcrosi Svili eqvTime. mama da Svili erTgulad emsaxurebodnen qristesac da qarTul mwig- 111 -

nobrobasac. 965 wels ioane SviliTurT gadavida aTonis mTaze aTanases lavraSi. ioanem aqac didad gaiTqva saxeli. eqvTimes biografis cnobiT, rodesac eqvTimem kargad Seiswavla qarTuli da berZnuli enebi, mamam uTxra: "Svilo Cemo, qarTlisa queyana~ didad naklulovan ars wignTagan... da vxedav, romel RmerTsa moumadlebia Senda; aw iRuawe, raTa ganamravlo sasyideli Seni RmrTisagan"... da igi viTarca iyo yovelsave zeda morCil, moswrafed Seudga brZanebasa missa da iwyo Targmnad" (k. kekeliZe). aTanases lavraSi Zmobis wevrTa raodenoba TandaTan izrdeboda. male maT SeuerTda cnobili qarTveli mxedarTmTavari Tornike, romelic ioanem berad aRkveca ioanes saxeliT. radganac lavraSi qarTvelTa ricxvi sistematurad matulobda, amitom iqve axlos damatebiT aaSenes ioane maxaroblis eklesia da senakebi ZmaTaTvis. 980-983 wlebSi aTonis wminda miwaze tao-klarjeTis savaneebSi aRzrdili moRvaweebis mier daarsda RvTismSoblis saxelobis monasteri. damaarsebelia ioane (SemdgomSi cnobili ioane aToneli); man Tornike erisTavis mier brZolebSi mopovebuli simdidris nawiliT aago es didebuli taZari, romelic mTel im mxareSi gamorCeuli iyo mSvenierebiT, silamaziT da ganTqmuli - simdidriT. Tavdapirvelad monastris winamZRvarTa gadawyvetilebiT, savaneSi ar unda SeeSvaT berZnebi, magram dabali samsaxurisaTvis mainc gaxda aucilebeli berZnebis miwveva. samwuxarod, rac dro gadioda, monasterSi maTi ricxvi matulobda... simdidres daxarbebuli berZnebi ramdenjerme daesxnen Tavs taZars, gaZarcves da moindomes qarTvelebis sruliad gandevnac ki. saqarTvelos xelisufalTa CareviT, qarTvelebi XIII saukunis bolomde ase Tu ise inarCunebdnen monasters, magram XIV saukunis dasawyisisaTvis, roca TandaTan sustdeboda saqarTvelos politikuri siZliere, aTonis savaneSic SesamCnevad mcirdeboda qarTveloba... XIV saukunis II naxevarSi konstantinopolis patriarqis - kalistes dadgenilebiT monastris winamZRvrad da sxva sapasuxismgeblo Tanamdebobaze qarTvelebs aRar niSnavdnen. marTalia, qarTvelebi monastris - 112 -

oficialur patronebad momdevno saukuneebSic iTvlebodnen, magram faqtobrivad berZnebi ganagebdnen yovelives da, bolos, XIX saukuneSi, roca saqarTvelom dakarga politikuri damoukidebloba, berZnebma sabolood gamodevnes qarTvelebi aTonis mTidan da daepatronnen qarTuli kulturis am SesaniSnav Zegls, "Cveni winaprebis naWirnaxulevs". aTonis iverTa monasteri bizantiaSi iyo qarTuli sulieri kulturis mZlavri kera, qarTuli erovnuli ideis matarebeli. monasterSi Tavi moiyares qarTvel moRvaweTa saukeTeso Zalebma. aqaur literaturul skolas sxvadasxva dros winamZRvrobdnen ioane da eqvTime aTonelebi, giorgi mTawmindeli. aqve moRvaweobdnen stefane aToneli, arsen ninowmindeli, ioane grZelisZe da sxv. aq, aTonze, Camoyalibda gansakuTrebuli saliteraturo, sagramatiko da sakaligrafio skola, romelmac waruSleli kvali datova Cveni mwignobrobis istoriaSi. aTonis iverTa monasterSi daiwera bevri originaluri Txzuleba, iTargmna bizantiuri literaturis mniSvnelovani Zeglebi, bibliis teqstebi (romlebmac kanonikuri uflebac moipoves). sagulisxmoa isic, rom qarTul enaze arsebuli aqauri literatura iTargmneboda berZnul Tu sxva enebze. am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT faseulia eqvTime aTonelis mier qarTulidan berZnulad naTargmni "sibrZne balavarisi" agiografiul-moraluri da asketur-dogmaturi xasiaTis Txzuleba, romelic warmoadgens budas cxovrebis gadmokeTebas saqristiano moTxrobad. mkvlevarTa azriT, am Txzulebis Tavdapirveli redaqcia, romelic, Tavis mxriv, gadmokeTebuli unda iyos arabulidan araugvianes VIII saukunisa, gaxda berZnuli Targmanis dedani da swored am gziT gavrcelda Txzuleba mTels evropul literaturaSi (p.peetersi, m.TarxniSvili). irkveva, rom aTonel wminda mamaTa moRvaweoba mxolod mwignobrul-mTargmnelobiTi saqmianobiT rodi Semoifargleboda. aTonis savane X-XII saukuneebSi mtkice burjad edga Cvens kulturasa da saganmanaTleblo sistemas rogorc sazRvargareTis qarTul samonastro centrebSi, ise saqarTveloSi. magaliTad, swored eqvTimes davalebiTa da xelSewyo- 113 -

biT dauwyia giorgi SavSels jvris monastris Seneba... giorgi mTawmindels saqarTvelodan bizantiaSi wauyvania 80 ymawvili ganaTlebis misaRebad da a.S. "erTi sityviT, arc erT samonastro dawesebulebas iseTi mniSvneloba ar hqonia Cveni mwerlobisa da kulturis istoriaSi, rogorc aTonis iveriis monasters" (k.kekeliZe). m a k e d o n i a. sazRvargareTis qarTul saganmanaTleblokulturul centrebs Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs petriwonis monasters, romelic auSenebia grigol bakurianisZes 1083 wels makedoniaSi, sofel petriwoSi (axland. bulgareTSi, sof. baCkovo, q. plovdivis axlos). monasters saxelwodebac am soflis mixedviT daerqva. grigol bakurianisZe bizantiis istoriaSi kargad cnobili pirovneba yofila. ganaTlebulma, energiulma da Wkvianma bizantiis imperatoris karze male gaiTqva saxeli da bizantiis jarebis xelmZRvanelic gaxda. sabrZolo warmatebisaTvis imperatorebma grigols uboZes didZali simdidre da daumtkices samflobelod sofeli petriwo. swored am mamulSi iqna agebuli monasteri grigolisa da misi Zmis - abazis Zvlebis gansasveneblad. monastris mTavari taZari RvTismSoblis saxelobisa iyo, xolo sxva ori patara eklesia atarebda ioane naTlismcemlisa da mTavarmowame giorgis saxels. grigols qarTul da berZnul enebze Tavad Seudgenia monastris tipikoni (wesdeba), sadac iyo gansazRvruli monastris mkvidrTaTvis savaldebulo wesebi da Tanve xazgasmiT miTiTebuli, rom monasteri aSenda mxolod qarTvelTaTvis (amitomac uwodebda grigoli "qarTvelTa anu iverielTa monasters"). tipikonis wesebis gamkacreba da Zmobis wevrad gaxdomaze kontroli grigolis mxridan uTuod imiTac iqneboda gamowveuli, rom sazRvargareT yvelasaTvis cnobili iyo berZenTa aSkara cda da gansakuTrebuli interesi qarTvelTa savaneebis dapatronebisa. petriwonis monasteri ar emorCileboda arc erT adgilobriv saeklesio da saeriskaco xelisufals. Sedgeboda 50 berisagan. monastris pirveli winamZRvari grigoli iyo. misi sik- 114 -

vdilis Semdeg berebi Tavad irCevdnen winamZRvars. Rirssacnobia isic, rom am periodis sazRvargareTis samonastro kerebidan mxolod petriwonis monasterTan arsebobda seminaria, sadac monastrisaTvis samRvdlod amzadebdnen qarTvel bavSvebs. seminariaSi Sesvla SeeZlo mxolod qarTuli werakiTxvis mcodnes; swavlebac qarTul enaze mimdinareobda. seminariaSi aswavlidnen konstantinopolis manganis akademiidan (daaarsa konstantine monomaxma 1044-1047 wlebSi) gamosuli qarTveli moRvaweni. varaudoben, rom seminariaSi aswavlida saxelganTqmuli qarTveli filosofosi ioane, romelsac monastris mixedviT miuRia zedwodeba petriwi. XI-XII saukuneebSi petriwonis monasteri gaxda Cveni mwerlobis erT-erTi Zlieri centri. iqaur mwignobrul saqmianobas, tradiciuli azriT, TiTqmis oci wlis manZilze xelmZRvanelobda ioane petriwi, romlis literaturulfilosofiurma skolam (petriwonulma skolam) kidev ufro dauaxlova qarTuli mwerloba bizantiurs. petriwonis monasterSi moRvawe qarTvelebma filosofiuri wignebis TargmniTa da komentirebiT xeli Seuwyves qarTuli filosofiuri azrovnebis ganviTarebas, filosofiuri terminologiis Seqmnas. saqarTveloSi petriwonis skolis tradiciebi gagrZelda gelaTis monasterSi, gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rac aq gadmosaxlda ioane petriwi. XIII saukunis dasawyisSi (1204 wels, zogi cnobiT - 1189 wels) jvarosnebma petriwonis monasteri daarbies da gaZarcves. amitom monastris saqmianoba Zalian Seferxda, magram XIV saukunis damdegamde aq jer kidev iyo qarTuli elementi, Semdgom ki iqaurobas mTlianad daepatronnen sruliad sxvebi. dasasrul, rogorc petriwonis monastris, ise ucxoeTis sxva qarTuli centrebis moRvaweoba da, sazogadod, maTi mniSvneloba qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi SeiZleba SevafasoT iv. javaxiSvilis sityvebiT: "sazRvargareTuli monastrebi, romelnic gaSenebulni iyvnen bizantiuri swavlaganaTlebisa da saRvTismetyvelo-saeklesio mwerlobis yvela umTavres centrSi, sadac isini sruli avtonomiiT sarge- 115 -

blobdnen, saSualebas aZlevdnen qarTvelebs ufro advilad edevnebinaT Tvalyuri maSindeli ganaTlebuli kacobriobis warmatebisaTvis da kvaldakval mihyolodnen mas" (1949, gv. 314).
literatura k. danelia, qarTuli gramatikuli azris saTaveebTan: ”ciskari", 1990, #8. avT. ioseliani, qarTuli mwignobrobis, wignisa da stambis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1990. k. kekeliZe, qarTuli literaturis istoria, I, Tb., 1960. iv.lolaSvili, ioane petriwi, "saTnoebaTa kibe", Tb., 1968. d.meliqiSvili, ioane petriwis filosofiur SromaTa ena da stili, Tb., 1975. d.meliqiSvili, gelaTis samonastro-literaturuli skola (akademia), quTaisis universitetis moambe, 1993, #1, gv. 624; #2, gv. 3-25. l. menabde, Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis kerebi, t. I-II, Tb., 1980. S.nucubiZe, petre iberieli da fsevdo-dionises Txzulebani, Tb., 1952. S.nucubiZe, palestinis axali gaTxrebi da qarTuli kulturis sakiTxebi, ”mnaTobi", 1959, #1. z.sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali, Tb., 1984. J. feiqriSvili, qarTvelologiis sakiTxebi, quTaisi, 1992. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, Tb., 1975-87. a. SaniZe, qarTuli monasteri bulgareTSi da misi tipikoni, Txzulebani, t. IX, Tb., 1986. v. CaCaniZe, petre iberieli da qarTuli monastris arqeologiuri gaTxrebi ierusalimSi, Tb., 1974. z. WumburiZe, qarTuli xelnawerebis kvaldakval, Tb., 1983. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, III, Tb., 1949.

2.5. qarTvelologiuri kvleva ucxoeTSi

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2.5.1. ucxoeli qarTvelologebi. sazRvargareTuli qarTvelologia antikuri xanidan iRebs saTaves. saqarTvelos Sesaxeb aRweriTi xasiaTis cnobebs pirvelad vxvdebiT Zveli berZeni da romaeli istorikosebis (herodotes, aristoteles, strabonis, pliniusis, tacitusis, apianesa da sxv.) naSromebSi. am aspeqtiT faseulia agreTve IV-XV saukuneebis bizantiel avtorTa cnobebi da XIII-XV saukuneebis dasavleT evropis mogzaurTa Canawerebi, sadac aRwerilia ara marto Cveni qveynis ulamazesi buneba, misi xelsayreli geografiuli mdebareoba, qarTveli xalxis zne-Cveulebani, aramed miTiTebulia am mxaris kulturis uZvelesobac. magram mecnieruli qarTvelologia ZiriTadad iwyeba XVII-XVIII saukuneebidan. amieridan evropis qveynebSi qarTuli kulturis safuZvliani Seswavla farTo xasiaTs iRebs. ucxoelTaTvis gansakuTrebiT saintereso kvlevis obieqtad iqca qarTuli ena - msoflios erT-erTi uZvelesi ena. dRes kidev ufro masStaburia qarTvelologiuri kvleva. sazRvargareTis bevr qveyanaSi (italia, aSS, safrangeTi, germania, inglisi, Sveicaria, espaneTi, norvegia, belgia, poloneTi, CexeTi, ungreTi, CineTi, iaponia...) arsebobs qarTvelologiuri centrebi, sadac swavloben da mecnierulad ikvleven qarTul enasa da literaturas, saqarTvelos istoriasa da kulturas. aq izrdebian ucxoel qarTvelologTa Taobebi (amjerad mokled visaubrebT mxolod ramdenime maTganze). i t a l i a Tanamedrove sazRvargareTuli qarTvelologiuri centrebidan yvelaze xangrZlivi da mdidari tradicia aqvs italias. cnobilia, rom evropelTagan pirvelad italielebi dainteresdnen qarTuli eniTa da damwerlobiT, literaturiTa da kulturiT. aq XVII saukunis I meoTxedidan daiwyo farTo xasiaTis qarTvelologiuri saqmianoba, rac ganapiroba italieli misionerebis moRvaweobam saqarTveloSi. am mxriv didi damsaxureba miuZRviT antonio jardinas, stefane paolonis, francisk mario majos, bernardo neapolels, kristoforo de kastelis, pietro delavales da sxvebs.

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sagulisxmoa isic, rom pirveli qarTuli wigni swored am qveyanaSi daibeWda - 1629 wels. stefane paolinim da nikifore ColoyaSvilma (irbaxma) Seadgines da romSi gamosces "qarTul-italiuri leqsikoni". italieli misionerebi saqarTveloSi aarsebdnen skolebs, sadac qarTvel bavSvebs aswavlidnen sakuTari gramatikebiTa da leqsikonebiT. saqarTveloSi yofnis dros kristoforo de kastelis Seudgenia suraTebis albomi, romlis naxatebic cocxlad warmoaCenen XVII saukunisdroindel saqarTvelos, gansakuTrebiT ki imereTis, guriis, samegrelosa da afxazeTis istoriis ucnob masalebs. bevr maTgans saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs. pietro delavalem romSi Caitana uZvelesi qarTuli xelnaweri (oTxTavi) da safuZveli Cauyara evropaSi qarTul xelnawerTa Sekrebas. qarTuli enaTmecnieruli azrovnebis istoriaSi metad faseulia "qarTuli enis gramatika", romelic laTinur enaze dawera francisk mario majom da 1643 wels dabeWda romSi (meored gamoica 1670 wels). marTalia, am gramatikaSi zogi enobrivi movlena arasworadaa axsnili, magram saerTod igi sayuradRebo daskvnebsac Seicavs. sanam mari broses gramatika gamovidoda, evropelebi majos SromiT ecnobodnen qarTul enas (arn. Ciqobava). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom italielma misionerebma qarTuli enis Sesaxeb Seqmnes seriozuli gramatikuli literatura da erTgvarad Seuwyves xeli gramatikuli mecnierebis danergvas saqarTveloSi. 1722 wels neapolSi daarsda aRmosavlur enaTa koleji, romelic mogvianebiT gadakeTda aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutad. swored aq Caeyara safuZveli kavkasiis xalxTa enis, istoriisa da kulturis mecnierul Seswavlas. am droidan ucxoeli mecnierebi sagangebod msjelobdnen qarTuli enis warmoSobisa da naTesaobis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, italiaSi moRvawe lorenco ervasi Seecada, qarTuli ena daekavSirebina berZnul-laTinurTan. igi miuTiTebda agreTve evropeli da kavkasiis iberebis naTesaobaze. ervasim 1787 wels gamosca mravalenovani leqsikoni. qarTulis garda, igi yuradRebas - 118 -

aqcevda sxva qarTvelur enobriv erTeulebsac. samecniero literaturaSi man pirvelma dabeWda Wanuri dialeqtis ori nimuSi (teqsti). italiaSi qarTvelologiuri muSaoba ufro mravalmxrivi gaxda XX saukunis dasawyisidan, rasac, erTi mxriT, didad Seuwyo xeli iq mcxovrebi qarTveli emigranti mecnierebis: m. TamaraSvilis, mix. TarxniSvilis, S. beriZis moRvaweobam da, meore mxriT, prof. bernardo barbielinis mecnierulma interesebma. 1935 wels neapolis aRmosavleTmcodneobis ganaxlebul instituts saTaveSi Caudga cnobili orientalisti, grafi b. barbielini. igi erTxans Turme saqarTveloSic cxovrobda, kargad gaucvnia Cveni xalxis kultura da istoria (umogzauria saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi), praqtikulad Seuswavlia qarTuli ena... dauweria naSromi: "vin arian xevsurni". 1936 wels barbielinim aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutSi daaarsa qarTvelologiis kaTedra, aqve Seiqmna "kavkasiis kabineti". institutSi axlo aRmosavleTis Semswavlel studentTaTvis SemoRebul iqna qarTuli enis savaldebulo orwliani kursi. barbielinis miwveviT, qarTvelologiis kaTedras 7 wlis ganmavlobaSi xelmZRvanelobda evropaSi saxelganTqmuli qarTveli mecnieri S. beriZe, kiTxulobda leqciebs qarTul enasa da literaturaSi. dRes qarTvelologiis mZlavri centrebi arsebobs veneciisa da milanis universitetebSi. 1987 wels veneciis universitetSi qarTvelologiis kaTedra daaarsa cnobilma qarTvelologma luiji magarotom. igi saqarTvelos xSiri stumaria. safuZvlianad flobs qarTul enas, ikvlevs qarTuli enisa da literaturis sakiTxebs, aswavlis qarTul enasa da literaturas ucxoel studentebs, Targmnis qarTveli poetebisa da mwerlebis nawarmoebebs. swored mTargmnelobiTs saqmianobaSi miRweuli warmatebisaTvis 1999 wels luiji magarotos mianiWes inglisis qarTvelologiuri centris marjori uordropis saxelobis premia. Rirssacnobia isic, rom veneciis universitetSi qarTuli ena iswavleba damoukidebel sagnad. qarTvelologiur centrs aqvs mdidari biblioTeka, - 119 -

gamodis Jurnal "georgikas" italiuri seria... da, rac mTavaria, italiis qarTvelologiur centrebSi nayofierad moRvaweoben axalgazrda qarTvelologebi: jorjo rota, luka tauferi, andria ferirazi, julia jerodi, eridano basareli, jorjo Ziferi, boRos zekiani, marcela frangipane da sxv. Tanamedrove italieli qarTvelologia mama luiji mantovani. igi 1998 wlidan saqarTveloSi cxovrobs da moRvaweobs, rogorc kaTolike mRvdeli, uaRresad ganaTlebuli pirovneba. flobs ramdenime evropul enas, magram gansakuTrebuli interesiT qarTul enas ikvlevs. TanamemamuleebisaTvis (visac qarTuli enis Seswavlis survili aqvs) dawera "qarTuli enis mcire gramatika" da "qarTuli enis savarjiSoebis mcire krebuli"; garda amisa, 2006 wels gamoica mama luijis mier Sedgenili vrceli "italiur-qarTuli leqsikoni." germania germaniaSi (germanulenovan qveynebSi) qarTvelologiuri centri gamorCeulia mravalmxrivi SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobiTa da mdidari tradiciebiT. marTalia, jer kidev Suasaukuneebidan moyolebuli germaneli, avstrieli, Sveicarieli mogzaurebi, diplomatebi, mecnierebi, wmida mamebi saqarTveloSi Camodiodnen sxvadasxva mizniT da met-naklebad gansxvavebul cnobebs awvdidnen Tanamemamuleebs am qveynis istoriisa da kulturis Sesaxeb, magram qarTvelologiis saTaved mainc XVII saukune iTvleba, roca germanelTa wignebSi pirvelad gaCnda cnobebi qarTuli enisa da damwerlobis Sesaxeb. sagulisxmoa, rom amave periodSi daiwyes germanelebma msjeloba qarTveluri enebis naTesaobis Sesaxebac. magaliTad, g.laibnicma (1647-1716ww.) pirvelma scada moeZebna msgavseba qarTulsa da indoevropul enebs Soris. miuxedavad imisa, rom laibnicis daskvnebi zogjer ar eyrdnoboda damajerebel faqtobriv masalas, mainc, saerTod, am didi avtoritetis SromebSi mocemul msjelobas qarTuli enis Sesaxeb didi mniSvneloba hqonda ucxoeTis samecniero wreebSi qarTuli enis problemebisadmi interesis gamoCenis TvalsazrisiT (arn. Ciqobava). - 120 -

kavkasiuri (maT Soris qarTveluri) enebis Sesaxeb saintereso dakvirvebebia warmodgenili msoflioSi saxelganTqmuli filosofosis - fridrix miuleris SromebSi "qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis Sesaxeb", "qarTuli Sriftis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb", "kavkasiur enaTa adgili enaTmecnierebaSi" da a.S. fr. miulerma qarTvelur enaTa naTesaobasTan dakavSirebiT wamoayena axali Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviT, qarTvelur-kavkasiuri enebi ar enaTesaveba msoflioSi arsebul arc erT enas; maT sruliad gankerZoebuli adgili uWiravT msoflios enaTa sistemaSi - qmnian calke damoukidebel ojaxs. XIX saukunis II naxevridan germanel qarTvelologTa mecnieruli kvlevis sferoSi, am zogadi enobrivi problemebis garda, wminda lingvisturi sakiTxebic moeqca, rac, Tavis mxriv, moiTxovda qarTuli enis praqtikul codnas da misi rTuli (evropul enaTagan sruliad gansxvavebuli) struqturis dawvrilebiTs analizs. am aspeqtiT pirvel rigSi unda davasaxeloT adolf diris (1867-1930 ww.) saqmianoba. igi 1902-1913 wlebSi cxovrobda kavkasiaSi, swavlobda am kuTxis xalxTa yofasa da enebs. a. diris mravalricxovan qarTvelologiur naSromTagan gansakuTrebiT faseulia germanul enaze gamocemuli "Teoriul-praqtikuli gramatika Tanamedrove qarTuli enisa" (1904), "kavkasiur enaTa Seswavlis Sesavali" (1928 w.) da a.S. "a. diris qarTvelologiur naSromebs dRemde ar daukargavs mniSvneloba" (arn. Ciqobava). am periodis qarTvelologiuri kvlevis istoriaSi ganuzomelia avstrieli mecnieris, gracis universitetis saxelganTqmuli profesoris - hugo Suxardtis (1842-1927 ww.) Rvawli. msoflio lingvisturi mecnierebis korife bavSvobidanve gamorCeuli yofila ucxo enebis advilad aTvisebis gansakuTrebuli unariT. germanikuli enebis garda, icoda kelturi, slavuri, romanuli enebi, ebrauli, arabuli, ungruli, baskuri... safuZvlianad Seuswavlia kavkasiuri enebi, maT Soris, Zveli da axali qarTuli, romelic, misi azriT, namdvilad aris "metad Taviseburi, saintereso da msoflio mecnierebisaTvis sayuradRebo ena". - 121 -

h. Suxardti srulyofilad flobda qarTul enas, advilad erkveoda mis struqturul TaviseburebebSi, amitom iyo, rom man pirvelma miuTiTa zog iseT enobriv movlenaze, romelic maSin TviT qarTveli specialistebisaTvisac ki ucnobi iyo. magaliTad: abruptivebis (mkveTri Tanxmovnebis) Tavisebureba qarTulSi, maxvilis buneba, moqmedebiTi brunvis -iv niSniani varianti, moTxrobiTi brunvisa da gardamavali zmnis raoba (ergatiuli konstruqcia), dialeqtebSi -ye nawilakis gamoyeneba iribi obieqtis mravlobiTobis aRsaniSnavad da a.S. h.Suxardts saintereso mosazrebebi aqvs gamoTqmuli qarTvelur enaTa naTesaobazec. lingvistikaSi manve gaukafa gza termins ”qarTveluri enebi". h. Suxardtma gadaarCina da qarTul kulturas Semounaxa ramdenime Zveli qarTuli xelnaweri, maT Soris - VII saukunis xanmeti leqcionari. sagulisxmoa, rom ucxoelma mecnierma xanmeti teqstis Seswavla im dros daiwyo, roca saqarTveloSi saerTod araferi icodnen xanmetobis Sesaxeb. amasTan dakavSirebiT a. SaniZe kidec werda: "h. Suxardts TiTqmis sworad gaugia xanmetobis arsi, amitomac SeiZleba iTqvas, rom xanmeti Zeglebis Seswavlis wamowyeba pirvelad mainc Suxardtis saxelTan iqneba dakavSirebuli". h. Suxardti iyo ara marto uZlieresi mecnierTeoretikosi, aramed praqtikosi maswavlebelic. gracis universitetSi man Seadgina qarTuli enis Semswavlel studentTa jgufi. XX saukuneSi kidev ufro mravalmxrivi gaxda qarTvelologiuri saqmianoba germaniaSi. aTeulobiT ucxoeli iwyebs qarTuli enisa da literaturis, xelovnebisa da kulturis istoriis safuZvlian Seswavlasa da mecnierul kvlevas. sagulisxmoa isic, rom zogierTma maTganma disertaciac ki daicva qarTvelologiis sakiTxebze da metad faseuli mecnieruli daskvnebiT gaamdidra qarTuli lingvistika. eseni arian: gerhardt deetersi, artur laisti, hugo huperti, gertrud peCi, iulius asfalgi da sxvebi. germaniaSi (iena, miunxeni, berlini, hale, oldenburgi, boni...) dResac aqtiurad moRvaweoben da sayuradRebo qarT- 122 -

velologiuri xasiaTis naSromebsa da saleqsikono bazebs qmnian: karl horst Smidti, hainc fenrixi, iost giperti, vinfrid boederi, Stefi iunger-xotivari, qristine lixtenfeldi, hupert fenzeni, ulrix boki, viqtoria ruika franci, ahmeT iunali, volfgang Sulce, elmar kristmani, bernard komri, harald komri, herman harcingeri, iorg fasbinderi, eskart olshauzeni, ralf-bernhard vartke, harald hauptmani, zigmar fon Snurbaini, vinfred orTmani, ernst pernicka, hartmut kiune... qarTvelologiaSi gamorCeuli Rvawli aqvs hainc fenrixs. igi metad mravalmxrivi Semoqmedia. misi kvlevis sagania rogorc enaTmecniereba, ise qarTuli literatura da kulturis istoria; Targmnis germanulad qarTvel mweralTa nawarmoebebs. h.fenrixis mravalricxovan qarTvelologiur naSromTagan gansakuTrebiT faseulia "qarTuli enis mokle gramatika" (1986), a. SaniZis "Zveli qarTuli enis gramatikis" germanuli Targmani, "qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni" (gamoica 1990 wels TbilisSi, Tanaavtoria z. sarjvelaZe) da a.S. h.fenrixi SesaniSnavad flobs Zvel da sasaubro qarTuls, megrul-Wanur-svanursa da ramdenime CrdiloeT kavkasiur enasac. qarTvelologiaSi miRweuli didi warmatebisaTvis h. fenrixi dajildoebulia iv. javaxiSvilis medliT. aRsaniSnavia, rom germaniaSi qarTvelologiur saqmianobas xels uwyobs qarTuli klubebi da saTvistomoebi, qarTveli da germaneli kolegebis mWidro mecnieruli TanamSromloba. ienis fr. Sileris saxelobisa da Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetebi erToblivad scemen qarTvelologiur Jurnals "georgikas" (romlis erT-erTi redaqtori da gamomcemelia hainc fenrixi), paralelurad ienis universitetSi gamodis samecniero Jurnali: "enaTa formebi da Sinaarsi". orive JurnalSi sistematurad ibeWdeba qarTvel da ucxoel mecnierTa naSromebi qarTuli enisa da literaturis, istoriis, xelovnebisa da filosofiis sakiTxebze. amerika

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aSS-Si qarTvelologiur kvlevas safuZveli Cauyara harvardis universitetis profesorma robert bleikma (18861950 ww.); igi san-franciskodanaa. 1908 wels daamTavra kaliforniis universitetis klasikuri berZnulis ganyofileba. Semdeg erTdroulad swavlobda harvardisa da berlinis universitetebSi. 1914 wels r. bleiki, rogorc peterburgis universitetis Tavisufali msmeneli, miavlines kavkasiaSi, samagistro gamocdebi Caabara qarTuli sityvierebis dargSi. r. bleiki iyo Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriis mkvlevari. gamosca qarTuli biblia da paleografiuli teqstebi (laTinuri TargmaniTurT), mecnierulad aRwera palestinasa (jvris monasterSi) da aTonze (iverTa monasterSi) daculi qarTuli xelnawerebi, romelTa mecnieruli Rirebuleba Zalian didia. dRes SeerTebuli Statebisa da kanadis bevr universitetSi (harvardis, monrealis, Cikagos, vaSingtonis, oqsfordis, indianis, tuskanis, kvebekis, neSvilisa da sxv.). moRvaweoben cnobili qarTvelologebi: hovard aronsoni, alis harisi, diana holiski, qevin TuiTi, noel polki, kim breiTveiti, hol hedviki, luis frensis solano, dodona kiziria... adam smiTi, ron gorni, robert driusi, kreg melCerTi, jin gregi da sxvebi. hovard aronsoni cnobili enaTmecnieria. man Cikagos universitetSi daaarsa qarTuli enis kaTedra, SemoiRo qarTuli enis saswavlo kursi, gamoqveynebuli aqvs ramdenime naSromi qarTuli enis gramatikis sakiTxebze. ikvlevs Zvelsa da axal qarTul enas. 1982 wels gamosca ”qarTuli enis gramatika" saxelmZRvanelo ucxoel studentTaTvis. man d.kiziriasTan erTad Seadgina saxelmZRvanelos meore wigni (qrestomaTia). aRsaniSnavia, rom aronsonis gramatika ucxoeTSi Zalzed popularulia, praqtikulad gamoyenebuli. diana holiski (vaSingtonis jorj meisonis universitetis profesori) qarTul enas studentobisas gaecno Cikagos universitetSi (aq qarTul enas aswavlida hovard aronsoni). igi saqarTvelos ramdenjerme ewvia, praqtikulad Seiswavla qarTuli ena, gansakuTrebiT dainteresda mTis kiloebiT. safrangeTi - 124 -

safrangeTSi Cveni qveynis Sesaxeb pirveli zogadi cnobebi Suasaukuneebidan Cndeba. magaliTad, frangi mogzauris - Jan Sardenis vrcel TxzulebaSi "mogzauroba sparseTsa da aRmosavleTis sxva qveynebSi" didi adgili eTmoba saqarTvelos. cnobilia, rom 1672-1673 wlebSi Sardenma imogzaura kavkasiaSi, moiara dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo, vrclad aRwera sakuTari TvaliT nanaxi uamravi faqti da movlena Cveni qveynis sinamdvilidan da, rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, piradi STabeWdilebebi Seavso saqarTvelos warsulis Sesaxeb cnobebiT, romlebic amokriba berZen, romael da sparsel istorikosTa Txzulebebidan, misionerTa Canawerebidan. Sardenis es cnobebi metad faseuli da sando masalaa saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis, magram safrangeTSi mecnierul qarTvelologiur muSaobas safuZveli Caeyara XIX saukunis Suaxanebidan, rac dakavSirebulia frangi orientalistis, akademikos mari broses saxelTan. aRiarebulia, rom mari brose (1802-1880 ww.) iyo qarTvelologiis mamamTavari ara mxolod safrangeTSi, aramed mTels evropaSi. m. brose qarTuli eniTa da saerTod saqarTveloTi dainteresebula mas Semdeg, rac frangul enaze gascnobia rusi swavlulis - evgeni bolxovitinovis naSroms: "saqarTvelos politikuri, saeklesio da swavla-ganaTlebis mdgomareobis istoriuli mimoxilva", sadac sxva sakiTxebTan erTad saubaria qarTuli enisa da misi damwerlobis uZvelesobaze (e.bolxovitinovi: "qarTuli matiane qarTuli damwerlobis Seqmnas miawers mefe farnavazis epoqas"). mari brosem Seiswavla qarTuli ena (muSaobaSi daxmarebas uwevdnen miwer-moweriT Teimuraz batoniSvili da sen marteni). 1834 wels gamosca qarTuli enis TviTmaswavlebeli "qarTuli enis gramatika", romelSic gaTvaliswinebuli iyo antonis, majos, daviT batoniSvilis gramatikebi. 1837 wels mari brose miiwvies ruseTSi, airCies peterburgis mecnierebaTa akademiis wevrad qarTul-somxuri filologiis ganxriT. man aqac Cauyara safuZveli qarTvelologias, cdilobda, qarTuli ena umaRlesi specialuri ganaTlebis sistemaSi Sesuliyo. am mizniT sataxto qalaqSi kiTxulobda jer sajaro leqciebs saqarTvelos istoriaSi, - 125 -

xolo Semdeg (1841-1842 ww.) - qarTuli filologiis kurss peterburgis universitetSi. mari brosem frangulad Targmna da Svid tomad gamosca "qarTlis cxovreba" da sxva saistorio Txzulebani... 1920-iani wlebidan frang qarTvelologTa Soris nayofieri moRvaweobiT gamoirCeoda parizis kaTolikuri universitetis profesori moris brieri. wlebis manZilze aswavlida qarTul enas parizis kaTolikuri universitetis Zveli aRmosavluri enebisa da aRmosavleTis cocxali enebis skolaSi. ikvlevda Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebs. 1931 wels niko maris TanaavtorobiT m. brierma frangul enaze gamosca 800gverdiani saxelmZRvanelo "qarTuli ena". frang mecnier-lingvistTa Soris, romlebmac qarTuli ena specialuri kvlevis sagnad gaixades, aRsaniSnavia rene lafoni (1899-1974 ww.). igi gaxldaT gamoCenili enaTmecnieri, baskologi, kavkasiologi, qarTvelologi. r. lafonma qarTuli enis gramatikis zogadsa Tu konkretul sakiTxebs uZRvna araerTi naSromi: ”qarTuli enis ukeT gacnobisaTvis", "kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba", "iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi", "baskur-kavkasiuri etiudebi", sadac didi adgili aqvs daTmobili baskurqarTul Sesatyvisobebs. da a.S. frangulad Targmna qarTvel enaTmecnierTa gamokvlevebi, "vefxistyaosnis" calkeuli Tavebi, qarTvel klasikosTa mxatvruli nawarmoebebi. sagangebod unda aRiniSnos isic, rom rene lafoni rogorc qarTuli da baskuri enebis saukeTeso mcodne - dabejiTebiT miuTiTebda baskur da qarTul enaTa monaTesaveobis Sesaxeb. 1969 wels Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis samecniero sabWom qarTuli enis Seswavla-popularizaciaSi didi damsaxurebisaTvis rene lafons mianiWa sapatio doqtoris wodeba. dRes rom safrangeTSi qarTvelologiuri centri erTerTi Zlieri SemoqmedebiTi skolaa, amaSi didi wvlili miZRviT agreTve: JorJ diumezils, bernar uties, rober troimfs, Jan pier giuglielms, fransua mar telamons, Sarl mersiesa da sxvebs. safrangeTSi arsebobs qarTvelologTa sami oficialuri centri: parizis aRmosavluri enebisa da civilizaciis insti- 126 -

tuti, sorbonis universiteti (qarTuli enis kaTedra) da parizis qarTvelologiisa da kavkasiologiis samecniero centri. inglisi inglisSi mecnieruli qarTvelologia aRmocenda XIX saukunidan. pirvel inglisel qarTvelologad asaxeleben cnobil mecniers, poliglots, saeklesio istoriis mkvlevars - solomon sozar malans, romelmac inglisurad Targmna platon ioselianisa da gabriel episkoposis religiuri xasiaTis nawarmoebebi... mas 1872 wels quTaisSi yofnisas gelaTSi wirva-qadageba qarTul enaze Cautarebia. inglisuri qarTvelologiis meore TvalsaCino warmomadgenelia oqsfordis universitetis profesori uiliam riCard morfili. man jer damoukideblad daiwyo qarTuli enis Seswavla, Semdeg, 1888 wels, saqarTveloSic Camovida, ufro axlos gaecno qarTul kulturasa da aqaur cnobil moRvaweebs: ilias, akakis, iakob gogebaSvils, ivane maCabelsa da sxvebs... imave wels inglisSi gamoaqveyna Tavisi pirveli qarTvelologiuri naSromi: "qarTuli ena da mwerloba". mas Semdeg, wlebis manZilze, aqtiurad iyo dakavebuli qarTvelologiis sakiTxebiT. qarTvelologiis Semdgomi ganviTareba inglisSi uciloblad dakavSirebulia da-Zma - marjori da oliver uordropebis saxelTan. maT srulyofilad Seiswavles qarTuli da inglisurad Targmnes qarTuli mwerlobis bevri saukeTeso nimuSi: sulxan-saba orbelianis "sibrZne sicruisa", "visramiani", qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebi, ilia WavWavaZis "gandegili", "wm. ninos cxovreba"... marjori uordropma Targmna agreTve "vefxistyaosani". swored am SesaniSnavi TargmaniT gaecno pirvelad inglisur enaze mkiTxveli sazogadoeba SoTas ukvdav poemas. mogvianebiT uordropebis ojaxis Sewirulebis saxelze oqsfordis universitetSi marjori uordropis xsovnis ukvdavsayofad daarsda qarTuli enis, literaturisa da istoriis Seswavlis wamaxalisebeli fondi, romelic xels uwyobs inglisSi qarTvelologiuri muSaobis normalurad warmarT-

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vas. fondi afinansebs leqciebs, kvleviTs samuSaoebsa da Sromebis gamocemebs qarTvelologiis dargSi. sagulisxmoa is faqtic, rom inglisSi sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT adre gaixsna qarTuli enis kaTedrebi jer oqsfordSi, Semdeg - londonis universitetSi. XX saukuneSi inglisis qarTvelologiuri centri kidev ufro gaizarda ricxobrivad, gafarTovda da mravalmxrivi gaxda misi SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobis Tematika; am qveyanaSi moRvaweoben: uiliam aleni, devid langi, robert stivensoni, stiven jounsi, donald reifildi, devid braundi, robert parsonsi, harold beili, qeTrin viviani, Tamar dragaZe, lordi qolin renfriu, robert tompsoni da sxvebi. *** qarTvelologiuri kvleva farTo masStabiT mimdinareobs msoflios bevr sxva qveyanaSic; qarTvelologias gamorCeuli (Tu sayuradRebo) naSromebi SesZines: hans fogtma (norvegia), ian braunma (poloneTi), iaromir iedliCkam (Cexoslovkaia), laioS tardma (ungreTi), paul peetersma, Jerar garitma, miSel van esbrokma (belgia), giorgi klimovma (ruseTi), iuri zicarma (ruseTi) da sxv. ucxoeTSi qarTuli eniTa da kulturiT dainteresebulni arian agreTve: karina vamlingi, bengt sigurdi, Sifte amirheqmaTi (SvedeTi), maiql stouni, iTamar singeri (israeli), ali aqsamazi, harun Cimqe, muzafer qiri (TurqeTi), antonio sagona (avstralia), brian makgingi (irlandia)... sTiven repi (amerika), j. j. s. vaitenbergi (germania), silvin kozaki (germania), enToni isTmondi (inglisi), iorg fasbinderi (germania), bernard qnapi (Sotlandia), dara goldsTeini (germania), gudvin quqi (aSS), ian bertrami (germania), klaudia sagona (niderlandebi), qris TornToni (filadelfia), andreas hauptmani (germania), denis hamfrisi (aSS), s. hareli (aSS) da sxv.

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2.5.2. emigranti qarTvelologebi. sazRvargareTuli qarTvelologiis Tanamedrove donis SeqmnaSi udavod didi damsaxureba miuZRviT qarTvel emigrantebsac. msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi iZulebiT Tu nebiT wasul qarTvel mecnierebs asuldgmulebda erTaderTi mizani - gaeRvivebinaT da gaeZlierebinaT ucxoeTSi saukuneebis manZilze arsebuli interesi saqarTvelosadmi da qarTuli ena da kultura moeqciaT msoflios mecnieruli azrovnebis centralur velSi. mixeil TamaraSvili (1859-1911 ww.) daibada axalcixeSi. ganaTleba miiRo sazRvargareT. Tavdapirvelad swavlobda konstantinopolSi, petre xarisWiraSvilis mier daarsebul qarTul saswavlebelSi, Semdeg - espaneTis sasuliero seminariaSi. 1888 wels daamTavra parizis wminda lazares sasuliero saswavlebeli. amave periodSi igi gaecno parizis samecniero cxovrebas, muSaobda wignsacavebSi, arqivebsa da muzeumebSi. 1891 wels m. TamaraSvili iZulebuli gaxda samudamod mietovebina mSobliuri kuTxe da miaSura italias. man warmatebiT daasrula romis sasuliero akademia da Semdeg daiwyo samecniero moRvaweoba; 1894 wels moipova RvTismetyvelebis doqtoris samecniero wodeba. mravalmxrivi iyo m. TamaraSvilis, rogorc mecnieris, sakvlevaZiebo sfero, magram gansakuTrebiT mainc dainteresebuli iyo saqarTvelos istoriiT. man vatikanis, safrangeTis, italiis, TurqeTis, aleqsandriis, moskovisa da londonis arqivebSi gamoavlina saqarTvelos istoriis amsaxveli didZali axali masala, romelTa gamowvlilviTi analizis safuZvelze gadmosca saqarTvelos kaTolikobis gavrcelebis sruli istoria wignSi: "istoria kaTolikobisa qarTvelTa Soris" (1902 w.). am naSroms maRali Sefaseba misca ilia WavWavaZem, mas meore "qarTlis cxovreba" uwoda. evropis samecniero wreebSi gansakuTrebiT didi gamoxmaureba mohyva m. TamaraSvilis wigns: "qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan dRemde" (1910). wigni daibeWda romSi frangul enaze. am gamocemas mieniWa vatikanis specialuri premia. naSromis Sesaxeb daweril 50-ze met recenziaSi aRiarebuli iyo sakiTxis aqtualoba da gamotanili daskvnebis Rirebuleba. - 129 -

m. TamaraSvilma saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebuli araerTi saintereso masala gamoavlina sazRvargareT da xelmisawvdomi gaxada farTo mkiTxvelisaTvis. moiZia evropaSi sulxan-sabas mogzaurobis masalebi, siciliaSi aRmoaCina kristoforo de kastelis suraTebis albomi, romlis fotoaslis gadasaRebad da warwerebis Sesaswavlad didi Sroma gaswia. m. TamaraSvilis niWierebasa da ganswavlulobas, mis adamianur Rirsebebs evropis qveynebis samecniero wreebSi maRal Sefasebas aZlevdnen. igi aRiarebuli iyo, rogorc imdroindeli evropis erT-erTi TvalsaCino mecnieri da mkvlevari. samwuxarod, am didebuli mamuliSvilis fasi saqarTvelom gvian Seicno... 1978 wels italiidan samSobloSi gadmoasvenes m. TamaraSvilis neSti da pativiT miabares mSobliur miwas didubis panTeonSi. mixeil TarxniSvili (1897-1958 ww.) ”mTeli dasavleTisaTvis qarTuli istoriisa da filologiis maswavlebeli iyo... ar arsebobs saqarTvelos istoriis, misi enis, literaturisa da liturgiis dargi, maTi mimarTeba mezobeli qveynebis literaturasa da eklesiasTan, romelSic Tavisi mniSvnelovani wvlili mas ar Seetanos. man pirvelma daanaxa dasavlel mkvlevarebs qarTuli literaturis naklebad cnobili saganZuri" (Jerar gariti). m. TarxniSvili daibada axalcixeSi. swavlobda pirvelad stambolis qarTvel kaTolikeTa samonastro skolaSi, Semdeg germaniaSi (qalaq etalSi). 1924 wlidan avstriaSi (venaSi) eufleboda filosofiasa da Teologias. 1933 wels daamTavra romis papis aRmosavleTmcodneobis instituti da imave wels iqve daicva sadoqtoro disertacia. 1933-1943 wlebSi, rogorc mRvdeli, eweva agreTve praqtikul moRvaweobas safrangeTSi, belgiasa da germaniaSi, 1943 wlidan ki samudamod dasaxlda italiaSi da mTlianad CaerTo samecniero saqmianobaSi. m. TarxniSvili udidesi ganaTlebis mqone pirovneba iyo. mas ise brwyinvaled scodnia germanuli, franguli, italiuri, laTinuri, berZnuli, siriuli da rusuli enebi, rom TiToeul maTganze werda samecniero naSromebs.

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metad mravalferovani iyo m. TarxniSvilis SemoqmedebiTi Tematika: qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis istoria Tu saqarTvelos istoria, mTargmnelobiTi Tu leqsikografiuli saqmianoba... magram mainc fasdaudebelia misi Rvawli ucxoeTis sxvadasxva qveynis biblioTekebSi daculi uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebis, xelnawerebisa da leqcionarebis gamoqveyneba-SeswavlaSi. am mxriv, pirvel rigSi unda davasaxeloT virjilio korbos mier palestinaSi aRmoCenili uZvelesi warwerebi, romlebic m. TarxniSvilma pirvelma gaSifra mecnierulad da gamoTqva sagulisxmo mosazrebani. garda amisa, man didi Sroma gaswia gracis universitetisa da vatikanis biblioTekebSi daculi qarTuli xelnawerebis gamosaqveyneblad; Seunelebeli interesiT ikvlevda qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis istorias. evropelTaTvis rom xelmisawvdomi gaexada qarTuli mwerloba, germanul enaze Targmna k. kekeliZis "Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis istoria". m. TarxniSvili evropul enciklopediebs sistematurad awvdida masalebs saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Seadgina "qarTul - franguli leqsikoni". didia m. TarxniSvilis damsaxureba im mxrivac, rom igi mTeli sicocxlis manZilze iyo ucxoeTSi qarTuli kulturis erTguli damcveli da qomagi. magaliTisaTvis davasaxelebT mxolod erT SemTxvevas: evropis samecniero wreebSi imxanad gabatonebuli iyo p. peetersis debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad ”balavarianis" berZnuli Targmani qarTulidan unda iyos Sesrulebuli eqvTime aTonelis mier XI saukunis I naxevarSi. magram miunxenis universitetis profesorma doelgerma scada daerRvia es debuleba da kidec uaryo ”balavarianis" berZnuli Targmanis qarTulidan warmomavloba. m.TarxniSvilma amasTan dakavSirebiT germanul da qarTul enebze dawera ori naSromi, sadac gaakritika doelgeris Tvalsazrisi da mecnierulad daasabuTa p.peetersis debulebis marTebuloba. m. TarxniSvili sicocxleSive iyo aRiarebuli, rogorc saxelganTqmuli mecnieri, Rrmad ganswavluli pirovneba. man evropaSi aRzarda qarTvelologTa mTeli Taoba; mTeli

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sicocxlis manZilze rudunebiT, siyvaruliTa da saocari mxneobiT Tavs dastrialebda uZveles qarTul mwerlobas. Salva beriZe (1892-1970 ww.) - neapolis universitetis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis profesori, daibada axal senakSi. xarkovis universitetis damTavrebis Semdeg 1917-1918 wlebSi moRvaweobda moskovis lazarevis institutSi, sadac n. marisa da al. xaxanaSvilis rekomendaciiT iwyebs kvlevas enaTmecnierebaSi. 1920-iani wlebidan S. beriZe emigraciaSi agrZelebs samecniero muSaobas. 1930-1931 wlebSi londonSi inglisurad gamoucia anTologia: "qarTveli poetebi", frangulad dauweria naSromi: "baironi da puSkini", xelnaweris saxiT darCenia "vefxistyaosnis" sruli italiuri Targmani... 1934 wels S. beriZem daamTavra sorbonis universiteti. 1936 wlidan cxovrobda italiaSi, neapolSi. igi prof. b. barbielinma miiwvia neapolis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutSi qarTvelologiis kaTedris gamged da miando leqciebis wakiTxva qarTul enasa da literaturaSi. institutSi qarTuli enisa da literaturis swavleba sakmaod maRal doneze mdgara. leqciebs didi interesiT ismenda 20-mde ucxoeli studenti. S. beriZe uaRresad nayofieri mkvlevari iyo. man araerTi sayuradRebo naSromi gamoaqveyna JurnalSi: "bedi qarTlisa". gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia wignebi: "qarTuli ena italiaSi", "baskuri da qarTuli", "rusTavelis msoflio mniSvneloba", "rusTaveli da medicina" da a.S. 1945 wels neapolSi daibeWda "vefxistyaosnis" prozauli Targmani (es iyo SoTas ukvdavi poemis pirveli prozauli Targmani italiur enaze). grigol feraZe (1899-1943 ww.) - msoflioSi saxelganTqmuli mecnieri, profesori, daibada goris mazraSi. 1921 wels k. kekeliZis SuamdgomlobiTa da artur laistis rekomendaciiT saqarTvelos sapatriarqos sabWom gr. feraZe gaagzavna germaniaSi Teologiuri ganaTlebis misaRebad. berlinis universitetSi germaneli specialistebis xelmZRvanelobiT mecadineobda Teologiasa da orientalistikaSi (ebraul, asiriul, arabul, koptur, somxur, berZnul enebze). qarTul enas aswavlida cnobili qarTvelologi r. mekelaini. 1925 - 132 -

wels swavlis gasagrZeleblad gadadis bonis universitetSi, sadac male moipova filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtoris xarisxi naSromSi: "monazvnobis dasawyisi saqarTveloSi". specialistebis azriT, naSromSi gamotanili daskvnebi metad mniSvnelovani da faseulia qarTuli bermonazvnobis istoriisaTvis. amis Semdeg gr. feraZe codnis gasaRrmaveblad miemgzavreba briuselSi, Semdeg - inglisSi, sadac oqsfordisa da londonis universitetebSi ikvlevs qarTul xelnawerebs. 1927 wels gr. feraZe miiwvies bonis universitetSi leqciebis wasakiTxad Zvel qarTulsa da Zvel somxur literaturaSi. amieridan iwyeba misi nayofieri mecnieruli moRvaweoba. germanuli, franguli, inglisuri, laTinuri, Zveli slavuri, rusuli, ebrauli da sxva aRmosavluri enebis safuZvliani codna mas uxsnida gzas, praqtikulad aeTvisebina msoflio literaturis miRwevebi. 1928 wels gr. feraZes mieniWa arqimandritis wodeba. 1932 wels miiwvies oqsfordis universitetSi. aq igi saTaveSi Caudga marTlmadidebluri Teologiis kaTedras da kiTxulobda leqciebs qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi, bibliis Zvel Targmanebsa da qarTul sasuliero mwerlobaSi. 1933 wels gr. feraZe mudmiv sacxovreblad gadadis poloneTSi. igi gaxda varSavis orientalistikis samecniero sazogadoebis aqtiuri wevri. daaarsa Jurnali "patrologia". 1935 wlidan kvlav mogzaurobs msoflios sxvadasxva qveynis samecniero centrebsa da biblioTekebSi uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebis gamosavlineblad da Sesaswavlad. aTonze man aRmoaCina 50 qarTuli wigni da 13 xelnaweri. 1936 wels imogzaura palestinaSic. 1942 wels gestapom daapatimra gr. feraZe. moaTavses osvencimis sakoncentracio banakSi, sadac dasrulda misi sicocxle. WeSmariti sulieri moZRvari gazis kameraSi Tavisi surviliT Sevida erT-erTi tyve poloneli ebraelis nacvlad. "Sen didi ojaxi gaqvs: coli da xuTi Svili. Sen unda icocxlo maTTvis... me ki Sens magivrad movkvdebi maTi momavlisaTvis", uTxra tyve amxanags grigolma da kidec aResrula mowameobrivi sikvdiliT.

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polonelma xalxma Rirseuli pativi miago gr. feraZis Rvawls. mis cxovrebasa da moRvaweobas mieZRvna mravali samecniero naSromi. miuxedavad xanmokle sicocxlisa, gr. feraZis saxeli samudamod Caiwera mecnierebaSi msoflios masStabiT. metad mdidari da mravalmxrivi iyo misi SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreoba. ucxoeTis Jurnal-gazeTebSi sxvadasxva enaze gamoqveynebuli aqvs 64-ze meti naSromi, romelTa mixedviT ucxoelebi erTxmad aRiarebdnen gr. feraZis mecnierul damsaxurebas da xazgasmiT warmoaCendnen misi moRvaweobis gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas sazRvargareTis qarTvelologiaSi. axlo megobrebis TqmiT, gr. feraZes hqonia uZvirfasesi mecnieruli wignsacavi, sadac inaxeboda tyavze dawerili xelnawerebi, maT Soris V-VI saukuneebis etrati - qarTuli istoriis uZvelesi sabuTi da sxv. samwuxarod, samSoblomde ver moaRwia am udidesma biblioTekam, piradma arqivma da misma mecnierulma memkvidreobam. 1995 wels qarTulma eklesiam arqimandriti gr. feraZe wmindanad Seracxa. kita Cxenkeli (1895-1963 ww.) SveicariaSi mecnieruli qarTvelologiis fuZemdebelia. daibada quTaisSi. klasikuri gimnaziis damTavrebis Semdeg (1913 w.) swavla ganagrZo moskovis universitetSi. 1920 wels gaemgzavra germaniaSi codnis gasaRrmaveblad. kalesa da hamburgis universitetebSi eufleboda filosofias, politekonomias, soflis meurneobas. 1936 wels k. Cxenkelma moipova doqtoris xarisxi politikur ekonomiaSi da moRvaweoba daiwyo hamburgis universitetSi, sadac male daavales qarTuli enis kursis wakiTxvac. marTalia, k. Cxenkels umaRlesi filologiuri ganaTleba ar miuRia, magram igi didi interesiT Seudga enaTmecnierul saqmianobas. da, rac mTavaria, mas aq mieca saSualeba sinamdviled eqcia sanukvari ocneba - misawvdomi gaexada evropelTaTvis qarTuli ena, romlis originaluri aRnagoba ukve didi xania iwvevda ucxoeli lingvistebis interess. 1943 wels k.Cxenkeli gadavida SveicariaSi, dasaxlda ciurixSi. ciurixis universitetsa da konfederaciul umaRles

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saswavlebelSi mas daavales qarTuli enis swavleba, rac sruliad axali ram iyo mTels SveicariaSi. kita Cxenkelma ciurixis universitetSi Camoayaliba qarTuli enis kaTedra, romelic male iqca mZlavr qarTvelologiur centrad. aq aRizardnen saxelganTqmuli qarTvelologebi: iolanda marSevi, ruT noikomi, lea fluri... ukve janmrTelobaSeryeulma, magram gasaocari sulieri mxneobis mqone mecnierma - k. Cxenkelma Tavdauzogavi Sromis Sedegad 1958 wels Tavisi erTguli mowafeebis TanadgomiTa da daxmarebiT dabeWda monumenturi naSromi (1500 gverdiani) "qarTuli enis Sesavali" germanulad, savarjiSoebi da teqstebi - qarTulad. Rirssacnobia, rom im dros SveicariaSi qarTuli stamba ar arsebobda, amitom k. Cxenkelma Sveicariis xelisufalTa nebarTviTa da nivTieri daxmarebiT daaarsa qarTuli gamomcemloba "amirani", Tavad moawyo stamba, romlis Sriftis mSvenieri garnituri sakuTari xeliT Camoasxa. monografiis pirveli nawili Teoriulia, meore ki praqtikuli (savarjiSoebiTa da qrestomaTiiT). sailustracio magaliTebi amokrebilia qarTveli klasikosi mwerlebis nawerebidan. "qarTuli enis Sesavalma" maRali Sefaseba daimsaxura msoflios samecniero centrebSi. sxvadasxva qveyanaSi daibeWda 50-ze meti recenzia, romlebSic erTxmad aRiarebdnen saxelmZRvanelos maRal Teoriul dones da praqtikul Rirebulebas qarTulis SeswavliT dainteresebul ucxoelTaTvis. wigni male iTargmna inglisuradac. "qarTuli enis Sesavalma" avtors didi aRiareba moutana, saqveynod gauTqva saxeli. am SromisaTvis ciurixis universitetis filosofiis fakultetma k. Cxenkels mianiWa filosofiis sapatio doqtoris (honoris kauzas) Rirseba - "dasafaseblad qarTuli enis Rrmad warmodgenisa da dauRalavi erTgulebisaTvis..." 1960 wels k. Cxenkelma daasrula 2500-gverdiani "qarTulgermanuli leqsikonis" Sedgena da iwyo nakveTebad misi gamocema, magram Tavad mxolod 6 wignis gamoqveyneba moaswro (maswavleblis gardacvalebis Semdeg es saSviliSvilo saqme 1974 wels daasrules misma mowafeebma).

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"ucxoeTSi ganisvenebs k. Cxenkelis tanjuli, mraval gaWirvebagamovlili sxeuli, magram suli, albaT, kvlav mzrunvelobiT dastrialebs Tavis mamuliSvilur saqmianobas: "uRvTo iyo misi sikvdili!" - ase Seafasa qarTulma emigraciam Rvawli kacisa, romelic sazRvargareT 30 welze metxans, garda mecnieruli moRvaweobisa, erTgulad qomagobda qarTul mwignobrobasa da kulturas... "romelmac martom, piradi garjiTa da rudunebiT moaxerxa amerikuli warmoebis sabeWdi manqana veritaiperisaTvis (manqanas qarTulis garda yvela damwerlobis SriftiT SeeZlo beWdva) daematebina meToTxmete _ qarTuli damwerloba" (gaz. literaturuli saqarTvelo", 1989, 17 Tebervali). nikoloz janeliZe (1920-1993 ww.) daibada samtrediaSi. swavlobda goris pedagogiur institutSi. 1941 wels gaiwvies samamulo omSi. ibrZoda qerCSi, saidanac germaniaSi moxvda, rogorc tyve. keTili mepatronis - germaneli glexisa da imxanad germaniaSi mcxovrebi akaki gamsaxurdias daxmarebiT Tavi daaRwia tyveobas da Cavida romSi saxelganTqmul qarTvel emigrant mecnierTan - m. TarxniSvilTan. misi xelmZRvanelobiT gaiara aspiranturis kursi da miiRo evropis umaRles saswavlebelSi qarTuli enis swavlebis mowmoba. n. janeliZe dabrunda germaniaSi da 1950 wlidan daiwyo muSaoba qarTuli enis leqtorad hamburgisa da kilis universitetebSi. aq aswavlida qarTul enas. n. janeliZe mravalmxrivi moRvawe iyo. literaturuli saqmianobiT gatacebulma, xelmokleobis miuxedavad, daaarsa sakuTari gamomcemloba "saqarTvelo", sadac beWdavda Targmanebsa da originalur Txzulebebs, qarTveli mwerlebisa da poetebis nawarmoebebs. 1984 wels gamosca "vefxistyaosnis" Semoklebuli prozauli Targmani. misi moRvaweobis gvirgvinad miCneulia "qarTuli zRaprebi". garda amisa, qarTuli enis Semswavlel ucxoel studentTaTvis Seadgina "germanul-qarTuli sasaubro", germanul enaze dabeWda i. gogebaSvilis mixedviT Sedgenili "dedaena".

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n.janeliZis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli germanul-qarTuli kulturuli urTierTobis amsaxveli bevri saintereso RonisZieba, romlebmac sayovelTao aRiareba moupoves ucxoeTSi. kalistrate (kale) salia (1901-1986 ww.) daibada walenjixis raionis sofel jgalSi. swavlobda Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi sibrZnismetyvelebis fakultetze. 1921 wels gaemgzavra germaniaSi. jer daamTavra berlinis universitetTan arsebuli enisa da literaturis orwliani instituti, Semdeg ki - q. hales universitetis iuridiul da ekonomikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti. sacxovreblad sabolood damkvidrda safrangeTSi. k. salias samecniero-SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweoba, pirvel yovlisa, dakavSirebulia JurnalTan "bedi qarTlisa". 1947 wels kalistratem da misma meuRlem - ninom safrangeTis erovnuli samecniero centris finansuri daxmarebiTa da nebarTviT daaarses samecniero istoriulliteraturuli Jurnali "bedi qarTlisa". Tavdapirvelad Jurnali mcire moculobisa iyo, weliwadSi 4-jer gamodioda qarTul enaze, emsaxureboda viwro wres. Jurnalis redaqcia ganTavsebuli iyo saliebis binaSi. 1957 wlidan Jurnals ewoda "bedi qarTlisa - reviu de qarTveloloJi" ("bedi qarTlisa qarTvelologiuri mimoxilva"), igi gafarTovda moculobiTac. masSi statiebi ibeWdeboda frangul, inglisur, germanul enebze, zogjer italiuradac. Jurnali Seuferxeblad gamodioda 1984 wlamde (k. salias avadmyofobis Semdeg Sewyda gamocema). sagangebod unda aRiniSnos, rom k. salia iyo Jurnalis suli da guli, redaqtori da koreqtoric ki, meuRlesTan erTad - gamomcemelic. saliebma Jurnalis garSemo Semoikribes msoflios cnobili qarTvelologebi, ucxoeli Tu Cveni Tanamemamule mecnierebi: mixako wereTeli, mix. TarxniSvili, eqvTime TayaiSvili, gr. robaqiZe... g. wereTeli, k. kekeliZe, a. SaniZe, arn. Ciqobava, s. yauxCiSvili, al. baramiZe, e. metreveli da sxvebi. Jurnalis samecniero sabWos SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen msoflios cnobili qarTvelologebi, kavkasiologebi da orientalistebi. - 137 -

metad mravalferovani iyo k.salias mecnieruli memkvidreoba. dawerili aqvs mravali naSromi istoriisa da literaturis sakiTxebze. 1980 wels frangul enaze gamoqveynda k. salias fundamenturi wigni "qarTveli eris istoria"; wigns imave wels mieniWa safrangeTis akademiis premia (inglisSic gamoica naSromis inglisuri Targmani). "qarTveli eris istorias" maRali Sefaseba misces cnobilma evropelma qarTvelologebma. magaliTad, hans fogti werda: "es aris SesaniSnavi naSromi, romelsac qarTveli eri imsaxurebs. frangi mkiTxvelisaTvis igi iqneba SesaniSnavi saSualeba Zalze naklebad cnobili eris istoriisa da kulturis Sesaswavlad". profesori k. salia, rogorc evropaSi saxelganTqmuli qarTvelologi, arCeuli iyo sxvadasxva qveynis samecniero centrebis wevrad; kerZod: iyo hamburgis, oslos, kamberis, bordos universitetebisa da parizis kaTolikuri institutis sapatio doqtori, profesori; xmelTaSua zRvis akademiis wevri, aseve: parizis saazio sazogadoebis, parizis lingvisturi sazogadoebis, bizantiologiis sazogadoebis, parizis saistorio sazogadoebis wevri, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis sapatio wevri, akademikosi... yovelwliurad (15 wlis ganmavlobaSi) irCeoda mecnieruli presis saerTaSoriso kavSiris vice-prezidentad. saliebis ojaxs mWidro urTierToba hqonda qarTvel mecnierebTan, samecniero wreebTan, gansakuTrebiT xelnawerTa institutTan, romelsac saliebma sakuTari biblioTekis 1000 egzemplari (qarTvelologiuri, orientalisturi literatura) gadasces saCuqrad. es uZvirfasesi ganZi inaxeba saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis k.kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa institutSi, romelsac miekuTvna nino salias saxeli, romelsac saliebma mTeli TavianTi qoneba saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademias uanderZes. anderZis Tanaxmad, kalistrate salia (meuRlesTan erTad) ganisvenebs didubis panTeonSi. ...vin moTvlis, ramdeni qarTveli emigranti aResrula ucxoeTSi; bevrma maTganma pirnaTlad moixada mamuliSviluri

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vali: warmoaCina qarTveli kacis didi SemoqmedebiTi potenciali, maRalzneobrioba, Sromismoyvareoba da niWiereba.
literatura r. davidovi, "gazis kameridan ukvdavebaSi": gaz. "komunisti", 1990, 31 ianvari. s. Turnava, sazRvargareTuli qarTvelologia, Tb., 1978. s. Turnava, XX saukunis sazRvargareTuli qarTvelologia, Tb., 1989. i. iedliCka, k.Cxenkelis qarTuli enis gramatika: ”mnaTobi", 1958, #11. l.kaiSauri, k.Cxenkelis qarTul-germanuli leqsikoni: ike-s weliwdeuli, 1977, #4. v.kaxniaSvili, ucxoelebi qarTuli kulturis Sesaxeb, Tb., 1966. i.megreliZe, qarTuli enis moamage Sveicarieli qalebi: gaz. ”samSoblo", 1974, dekemberi. i.megreliZe, Cexi qarTvelologi iaromir iedliCka da misi baraTebi: Jurn. ”ganTiadi", 1991, #8. l.menabde, rusTaveli sazRvargareTul literaturaSi, Tb., 1990. T.papava, gabneuli saflavebi, Tb., 1990. T.uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis Seswavlis istoria, I, Tb., 1999. J. feiqriSvili, qarTvelologiuri kvleva ucxoeTSi, Tb., 1996. J. feiqriSvili, miSel van esbroki, luiji mantovani, nikoloz janeliZe: etimologiuri Ziebani, quTaisi, 2005. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia. g. SaraZe, ucxoeTis cis qveS, Tb., 1990. arn. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa Seswavlis istoria, Tb., 1965. arn. Ciqobava, j. vaCeiSvili, pirveli qarTuli nabeWdi gamocemebi, Tb., 1983. b. wifuria, luiji magaroto, qarTuli literaturis mkvlevari: ”burji erovnebisa", ## 3,4, 2001. r. xuciSvili, laioS tardi da qarTvelologia, Tb., 1992.

2.6. qarTuli enis mkvlevrebi
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qarTuli enis safuZvliani Seswavla anbanis SeqmniT iwyeba, vinaidan enis fonematuri struqturis kargi codnis gareSe SeuZlebelia aseTi srulyofili anbanis Seqmna. samwuxarod, XI saukunemde arsebuli qarTuli gramatikuli naazrevi jerjerobiT aRmoCenili ar aris. yvela monacemis mixedviT, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom gramatikuli kvleva-Zieba saqarTveloSi IX saukuneze adrec dawyebula, magram Zvel qarTvel gramatikosTa naSromebis nawili Cvenamde moRweuli ar aris; magaliTad, anton pirvels unaxavs ioane petriwis specialuri gamokvleva qarTuli enis agebulebis Sesaxeb, magram is Semonaxuli araa. samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom erT-erTi pirveli "qarTuli enis gramatika" Seqmna msoflio mniSvnelobis filosofosma - ioane petriwma. XI saukunis II naxevris qarTvelma filologma, filosofosma, mTargmnelma efrem mcirem Camoayaliba sakuTari mTargmnelobiTi Teoria; misi didi damsaxurebaa qarTuli filosofiuri terminologiis SemuSaveba. efremis mier Seqmnili mravali filosofiuri termini dResac gamoiyeneba. efremma SemoiRo punqtuaciis sakuTari sistema, romelic dakanonda qarTul mwerlobaSi. Cvenamde moRweuli pirveli ganmartebiTi leqsikonic efrems ekuTvnis. es aris fsalmunis Targmanebis SesavalSi CarTuli sityvari, sadac asamde leqsikuri erTeulia ganmartebuli. swavlulebi efrems miiCneven avtorad uZvelesi qarTuli gramatikuli traqtatisa "sityua~ arTronTaTvis" (Tumca amave traqtatis avtorad zogi
arsen iyalToels Tvlis; qarTuli da berZnuli enebis saukeTeso mcodne arsen iyalToeli mTargmnelobiT saqmianobas eweoda. bizantiel mweralTa filosofiur-Teologiuri Txzulebebis Targmanebi arsens mouTavsebia krebulSi: "dogmationi". masve uTargmnia "didi sjulis kanoni". TargmanebisaTvis daurTavs saintereso SeniSvnebi da sqolioebi).

Cvenamde moRweuli pirveli gramatikuli traqtati qarTuli samwignobro enis Sesaxeb "sityua~ arTronTaTAs" daiwera XI saukuneSi. igi aris utyuari sabuTi imisa, rom qarTvelebs XI-XII saukuneebSi marTlac hqondaT gramatikuli - 140 -

literatura" (mz.SaniZe). es imasac mowmobs, rom mogviano epoqaSi XVI-XVII saukuneebis mwignobarT win dauxvdaT enaTmecnieruli kvlevis xangrZlivi tradiciebi. rogorc irkveva, am tradiciaTa Camoyalibebas xels uwyobs ara somxuri, aramed berZnuli kulturis garemo" (T.uTurgaiZe, 1999, gv. 14). avbedobis gamo XIII-XVI saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi Sewyda mecnieruli azris ganviTareba. qarTuli zmnis uRlebis sistemas aqtiurad ikvleven me-17 saukunidan, rodesac italiel misionerTa mier iqmneba qarTuli enis saxelmZRvaneloebi da qarTul-italiuri leqsikonebi; mag., T.uTurgaiZis kvlevis mixedviT, Cvenamde moRweuli erT-erTi pirveli saxelmZRvanelo qarTuli enisa ekuTvnis italiel misioners antonio jardinas, romelic gorsa da guriaSi moRvaweobda XVII saukunis 30-ian wlebSi; Sdr., 1629 wels romSi daibeWda stefano paolinisa da nikifore irbaxi-ColoyaSvilis qarTul-italiuri 3084 sityviani leqsikoni, romelsac axlavs mxolod transliteraciis wesebi. IV saukunis gramatikosis - donatusis laTinuri enis gramatikis mixedviT Sedgenili qarTuli zmnis paradigma warmodgenilia franCesko-mario majos ”qarTuli enis gramatikaSi", romelic daibeWda romSi 1643 da 1670 wlebSi (majo saqarTveloSi Camovida 1637 wels). 1715-1716 wlebis "sityvis konis" B redaqciis SesavalSi ("saswavlo yrmaTa") sulxan-saba orbeliani zogierT sakiTxSi agrZelebs ioane petriwisa da arsen iyalToelis memkvidreobas, bgeraTa da morfemaTa analizis dros mihyveba berZnul-laTinur gramatikebs, xolo zmnis paradigmas qmnis italiel misionerTa naSromebze dayrdnobiT da aumjobesebs maT sqemebs (T.uTurgaiZe, 1999, gv. 83-108). majos, goreli anonimis, sabas, agreTve, somxeTSi italieli misioneris - kl. galaniusis "somxuri enis gramatikis" gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT zurab SanSovanma moskovSi dawera "mokle Rrammatika qarTulisa enisa" (1737 w.). anton kaTalikosis "qarTuli Rrammatika" (1753, 1767 ww.) efuZneba winamorbedTa gamocdilebas da safuZvlian enobriv analizs axdens; T. uTurgaiZis azriT, anton pirveli unda miviCnioT "qarTuli enis adekvaturi gramatikuli sistemis - 141 -

pirvel Semqmnelad". antonis mier 1767 wels dawerili "qarTuli Rrammatikis" II variantis winasityvaobaSi rafiel erisTavi wers: "es Rrammatika gamoica Cemis zedamxedvelobiTa da safasiT aleqsandre episkoposisa, romlis survili da daucxromeli zrunva aris gaacnos sazogadoebas SesaniSnavi avtorebi. amgvars SesamCnevs swavlulebaSi da qarTulis enis mcodneTa Soris, ueWvelia, iricxeba am Rrammatikis Semdgenelic - kaTalikozi anton I". anton I aris ara mxolod gramatikuli azris, aramed qarTuli enaTmecnierebis fuZemdebelic. mis naazrevSi asaxulia metad mniSvnelovani debulebebi. antonma bgerebi dayo xmovnebad da Tanxmovnebad. erTmaneTisagan gamoyo metyvelebis nawilebi, aRwera sityvis warmoebis formebi. antonma ZiriTadad gadawyvita saxelTa brunebis sakiTxi. misi damsaxurebaa brunvaTa sistemaSi moTxrobiTi brunvis dasaxeleba da am brunvis funqciis dadgena. manve SeniSna saxelis fuZis kumSva da kveca, sazogado saxelebisagan gamoyo sakuTar saxelTa bruneba, miuTiTa Tandebulian brunvebsa da nacvalsaxelTa brunebis Taviseburebebze, srulyofilad warmoadgina subieqturi da obieqturi piris niSnebi, sworad daaxasiaTa gvaris kategoria, gamoyo qvemdebare-damatebaTa brunvebi... antonma Seqmna qarTuli gramatikuli terminologia. mas ekuTvnis terminebi: xmovani, aso, marcvali, Ziri, morfi, arsebiTi saxeli, nacvalsaxeli, CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli, zmna, mimReoba, saxelzmna, sazogado saxeli, dadebiTi xarisxi, mdedrobiTi, mamrobiTi, niSani, zmnizeda, kavSiri, Tandebuli, Sorisdebuli, brunva, wrfelobiTi, saxelobiTi, naTesaobiTi, micemiTi, moqmedebiTi, mravlobiTi, awmyo, myobadi, namyo, piri, piris niSani, brunvis niSani, moqmedebiTi gvari, pirnakli, mZime, wertili, orwertili, frCxili da sxv. antonis gramatikis debulebebia ganmeorebuli Semdgomi periodis gramatikul naSromebSi. anton pirvelisa da filipe yaiTmazaSvilis mowafe gaioz reqtori samasze meti originaluri Tu naTargmni Sromis avtoria. aRsaniSnavia misi wignebi: "qarTuli anbani" da "qar- 142 -

Tuli enis gramatika". es ukanaskneli 1789 wels daiwera, magram daibeWda mozdokSi gaiozisave daarsebul stambaSi 1797 wels. gaiozis "qarTuli enis gramatika" aris gramatikis pirveli nabeWdi saxelmZRvanelo qarTul enaze. am saxelmZRvanelos mTeli tiraJi (700 egzemplari) avtors TbilisSi axlad gaxsnili keTilSobilTa saswavleblisTvis gaugzavnia. gaiozis "qarTuli enis gramatika" sami nawilisagan Sedgeba: Sesavali, I nawili - morfologia, II nawili - sintaqsi, III nawili - orTografia da punqtuacia. bevri maSindeli kulturuli adamiani dainteresebula am gramatikiT. maT Soris, imereTis dedofali ana, romelic Tavisi SviliSvilebiT peterburgSi cxovrobda. mas weriliT uTxovia gaiozisaTvis es saxelmZRvanelo. "qarTuli enis gramatikaSi" avtors sakiTxebi ise daulagebia, rom moswavleebisaTvis praqtikulad kargad gamosayenebeli yofiliyo. gaioz reqtoris "qarTuli Rrammatika" 1970 wels gamoica, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo e. nikolaiSvilma. anton pirvelisa da gaiozis gramatikebis dadebiTi debulebebis umetesi nawili aqvs gadmotanili ioane qarTveliSvils "qarTul gramatikaSi", romelic warmodgenilia xelnaweris saxiT da inaxeba saq. mecn. akademiis xelnawerTa institutSi (fondi ## 4432, 2585). am naSromSi avtors sabolood aqvs daxvewili brunebis sistema. avtoris damsaxurebaa qarTul zmnaSi ori uRlebis (viniani da maniani) gamoyofa. aRsaniSnavia mefe giorgi XII-is ufrosi Svilis daviT bagrationis (1767-1798 ww.) enaTmecnierul-leqsikografiuli saqmianoba. 1790 wels man Seadgina qarTuli enis "mcire Rrammatika", romelic dawerilia kiTxva-migebis wesiT. aq 8 metyvelebis nawilia axsnili cal-calke. daviT bagrationis qarTuli gramatika xelnaweris saxiT inaxeba saq. mecn. akademiis akad. k. kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa institutSi (fondi ## 3719, 3449). daviT bagrationis Zmis ioane bagrationis mTavari nawarmoebia enciklopediuri xasiaTis Txzuleba "kalmasoba", romelic moicavs enaTmecnierul nawilsac. metad faseulia av- 143 -

toris mosazrebebi qarTuli enisa da literaturis sakiTxebze. ioane bagrations wignisaTvis darTuli aqvs kritikuli SeniSvnebi. avtori kompilaciis meTodiT warmogvidgens kompleqsuri gramatikis axal struqturul models. "kalmasobis" gramatikuli nawili 1810-1813 wlebSia dawerili. kalmasobiseuli qarTuli gramatikis teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo n. kotinovma (1986 w.). 1829 wels peterburgSi ioane bagrations dauweria meore gramatika: "yrmaTaTvis saswavleblad". 1830 wels daibeWda solomon dodaSvilis "Semoklebuli qarTuli grammatika". 1834 wels frangma mecnierma, evropaSi qarTvelologiis mamamTavarma mari brosem peterburgSi gamosca ”qarTuli enis gramatika", romelic 17 Tavisagan Sedgeba. yovel Tavs mosdevs sailustracio masala TargmaniTurT. am saxelmZRvaneloSi gaTvaliswinebuli iyo antonis, majos, d. batoniSvilis gramatikebi. mari brose pirveli specialisti iyo, romelmac scada qarTuli enis naTesaobis sakiTxis ganxilva gramatikul movlenaTa Cvenebis mixedviT. platon ioselianma 1840 wels gamoaqveyna "pirueldawyebiTni kanonni qarTulisa Rrammatikisa". meorejer es wigni 1863 wels gamoqveynda. saxelmZRvaneloSi pl. ioseliani arkvevs qarTuli enis fonetikis mraval sakiTxs: ixilavs sityvis bgeriT Sedgenilobas, laparakobs marcvalze, iZleva qarTuli maxvilis wesebsac da, rac mTavaria, igi aris qarTuli enis fonetikuri movlenebis Seswavlis damwyebi. platon ioselianis gramatikiT Tavdeba qarTuli gramatikuli azris ganviTarebis pirveli periodi (XVII s-is 60-iani XIX s-is 50-iani wlebi). cnobilma qarTvelma enaTmecnierma da leqsikografma daviT CubinaSvilma mari broses rCeviTa da daxmarebiT Seadgina ”qarTul-rusul-franguli leqsikoni" da ”qarTuli enis qrestomaTia", xolo 1855 wels - "qarTuli enis mokle gramatika" rusulad (Д.Чубинов - "Краткая грузинская грамматика", С.-Пб., 1855). daviT CubinaSvils ekuTvnis meore - 144 -

gramatika "Грузинская грамматика", вновь составленная Давидом Чубиновым, С.-Пб., 1887. 1887-1891 wlebSi avtorma daasrula ”qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni". 1877 wels safrangeTSi daibeWda m. s. kelenjeriZis ”qarTuli praqtikuli gramatika sasoflo skolebisaTvis" [enriko fabris stamba]. 1871 wels aleqsandre cagarelma daviT CubinaSvilisagan Caibara peterburgis universitetis qarTuli enis kaTedra; am droidan iwyeba axali periodi qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros kvlevaSi. al. cagarels gamoqveynebuli aqvs saenaTmecniero Sromebi, romelTagan aRsaniSnavia: 1. kavkasiur enaTa iberiuli jgufis morfologiis SedarebiTi mimoxilva. 2. qarTuli enis indoevropul da Turanul enebTan navaraudevi naTesaobis Sesaxeb. 3. qarTuli enis sagramatiko literaturis kritikuli mimoxilva. 4. megruli etiudebi. nakveTi I-II teqstebiT, TargmaniTa da axsna-ganmartebiT. qarTuli gramatikuli azrovnebis istoriaSi metad mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs dimitri yifianis mier 1882 wels Sedgenil saxelmZRvanelos, romelsac ewodeba "axali qarTulis grammatika sxartulad dawerili mamisagan SvilebisaTvis". am gramatikis Sedgena dimitri yifianisaTvis 1860 wels uTxovia gamorCeul qarTvel patriots aleqsandre orbelians. gramatikis Tavfurcelze avtors mohyavs gr. orbelianis sityvebi: "ra ena waxdes, eric daeces...". d.yifianis ”axali qarTulis grammatika..." ori nawilisagan Sedgeba: pirvelSi ganxilulia morfologiis sakiTxebi, kerZod, damuSavebulia saxelTa bruneba, meoreSi ki mocemulia leqsikoni. d. yifians Seudgenia qarTuli zmnebis uRvlilebis tabula "wera", romelsac iyenebda petre umikaSvili, roca aswavlida p. uslars (qarTul da sxva kavkasiur enebs swavlobda carizmis Jandarmeriis davalebiT). 1889 wels aris gamocemuli Tedo Jordanias "qarTuli enis grammatika" (etimologia da sintaqsi).

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qarTuli enis sakiTxebia ganxiluli "mokle qarTul gramatikaSi", romelic Seadgina da 1894 wels gamosca quTaisis sasuliero saswavleblis maswavlebelma andria benaSvilma. 1904 wels quTaisSi gamovida silovan xundaZis "qarTuli gramatika". 1927 wels quTaisSive gamoqveynda misi "qarTuli marTlwerisa da sworenis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi". 1906 wliT aris daTariRebuli mose janaSvilis "qarTuli gramatika". 1907 wels gamoica aristo quTaTelaZis "pirveldawyebiTi qarTuli grammatika" (meoTxe gamocema). 1908 wels gamovida niko maris mniSvnelovani wigni "Zveli qarTuli enis gramatikis ZiriTadi tabulebi", romelSic mocemulia bgeraTa klasifikaciis, brunebis, uRvlilebis tabulebi. am naSromis safuZvelze niko mari peterburgis akademiis profesorad airCies. 1925 wels gamovida niko maris "Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo enis gramatika". es wigni Zveli qarTulis pirveli mecnieruli gramatikaa. niko marma gamosca aseve ”axali qarTuli enis gramatikis saxelmZRvanelo", romelic savaldebulo wigni iyo qarTuli enis praqtikuli kursis msmenelTaTvis. 1931 wels brieris TanaavtorobiT parizSi frangul enaze gamoqveynda niko maris mier wakiTxuli qarTuli enis mTliani kursi (800 gverdiani wigni) "qarTuli ena". Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis qarTuli enis kaTedris pirvelma gamgem ioseb yifSiZem 1911 wels gamosca "qarTuli enis gramatika", romelic saswavlo-praqtikuli daniSnulebis aRweriTi gramatikaa. 1914 wels gamovida i. yifSiZis kapitaluri Sroma "megruli (iveriuli) enis gramatika". wignis pirveli nawili exeba fonetikas, meore morfologias, mesame - sintaqss. ioseb yifSiZe ikvlevda Zvel da axal qarTuls, agreTve, megrul-Wanuris fonetikur da gramatikul struqturas. 1912 wels daibeWda iason nikolaiSvilis "qarTuli mokle gramatika". XX saukunis 30-iani wlebidan gramatikaSi Tavi iCina axalma, formalisturma (struqturulma) mimarTulebam, ro- 146 -

melmac sintaqsis miznad Sesityvebis mxolod agebulebis (struqturis ) kvleva daisaxa. am meTodiT 1927 wels Seiqmna ilia feraZisa da ilia sixaruliZis "enis dakvirveba". saSualo skolebis V-VI-VII klaselebisaTvis 1937 wels ilia sixaruliZem gamosca "qarTuli enis gramatika" (morfologia da sintaqsi). ganuzomelia ivane javaxiSvilis Rvawli Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebis SeswavlaSi. ivane javaxiSvili "did yuradRebas uTmobda qarTuli enis uZvelesi agebulebisa da genezisis sakiTxebs. man pirvelma daasabuTa qarTveluri enebis naTesaoba mTis kavkasiur enebTan rogorc struqturuli, ise masalobrivi igiveobis mixedviT, Seumzada niadagi iberiulkavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Camoyalibebas" (J.feiqriSvili). enaTmecnieruli kuTxiT misi gamorCeuli naSromebia: "damwerlobaTmcodneoba anu qarTuli paleografia", ”kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba" da sxv. qarTuli enis SeswavlaSi gansakuTrebuli wvlili aqvs akaki SaniZes; man 1920 wlis 9 maiss Tbilisis universitetSi daicva sadoqtoro disertacia "subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi". 1930 wels a.SaniZem gamoaqveyna ”qarTuli gramatika (morfologia)"; 1953 wels - ”qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi". ganmeorebiT es wigni 1973 wels gamoica. 1976 wels gamoqveynda a. SaniZis "Zveli qarTuli enis gramatika". zogadi enaTmecniereba, zogadi fonetika, eqsperimentuli fonetika, qarTuli enis fonetika da fonologia, qarTuli da qarTveluri enebi, indoevropeistika, indologia, iranistika zogadad da osuri ena konkretulad, rusuli da saerTod slavuri enebi, logopedia, Targmanebi... ai, arasruli sia im problemebisa, rac giorgi axvledianis mecnieruli interesebis sferoSi Sedioda. man 1918-1919 wlebSi gamosca enaTmecnierebis Sesavlis originaluri saxelmZRvanelo sam nakvTad. 1949 wels gamovida g. axvledianis "zogadi fonetikis safuZvlebi". giorgi axvledianis moxsenebaTa safuZvelze dakanonda saliteraturo qarTuli enis mravali norma.

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fasdaudebelia didi mecnieris - arnold Ciqobavas wvlili qarTuli samecniero azris ganviTarebaSi. gansakuTrebiT unda gamoiyos: "qarTuli enis zogadi daxasiaTeba" (romelic win uZRvis fundamentur koleqtiur Sromas - "qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikons"), "saxelis fuZis uZvelesi agebuleba", "martivi winadadebis problema qarTulSi", "Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi leqsikoni", ”iberiulkavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Sesavali", "enaTmecnierebis Sesavali"... qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros gamorCeuli mkvlevrebi arian agreTve: karpez dondua, varlam Tofuria, giorgi rogava, farnaoz erTeliSvili, arli TayaiSvili, ivane gigineiSvili, givi maWavariani, maqsime qaldani, anton kiziria, ivane imnaiSvili, grigol imnaiSvili, aleqsandre Rlonti, SoTa ZiZiguri, aram martirosovi, ivane qavTaraZe, TinaTin SaraZeniZe, daviT gewaZe, guram ramiSvili, givi nebieriZe, zurab jafariZe, levan kiknaZe, irakli veSapiZe, besarion jorbenaZe, zurab sarjvelaZe, guram Tofuria, akaki daviTiani, korneli danelia... qarTul enas dResac bevri TvalsaCino mkvlevari hyavs.
literatura g.axvlediani, zogadi fonetikis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1949. d.bagrationi, qarTuli enis mcire grammatika, xelnaweri, inaxeba saqarTvelos mecn. akad. k.kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa institutSi (fondi S #3719, 3449). i.bagrationi, yrmaTaTvis saswavleblad, tfilisi, 1828. a.benaSvili, mokle qarTuli gramatika, tfilisi, 1894. m.brose, qarTuli enis gramatika, peterburgi, 1834. s. dodaSvili, Semoklebuli qarTuli grammatika, tfilisi, 1830: s.dodaSvili, Txzulebani, Tb., 1961. pl.ioseliani, piruel-dawyebiTni kanonni qarTulisa Rrammatikisa aRbeWdili mesamed q. Tfiliss, 1863. a.kaTalikosi, qarTuli Rrammatika, r.erisTavis redaqciiT, tfilisi, 1885.

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m.kelenjeriZe, qarTuli praqtikuli gramatika sasoflo skolebisaTvis [enriko fabris stamba], safrangeTi, 1877. n.mari, Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo enis gramatika, tfilisi, 1925. n.mari, qarTuli ena, parizi, 1931. i.nikolaiSvili, qarTuli mokle gramatika, Tb., 1912. s.s. orbeliani, qarTuli leqsikoni anu sityvis kona, Tb., 1884, 1991. T.Jordania, qarTuli grammatika (etimologia da sintaqsi), tfilisi, 1889. gaioz reqtori, qarTuli Rrammatika, mozdoki, 1797. i.sixaruliZe, qarTuli enis gramatika (morfologia da sintaqsi), saxelmZRvanelo saSualo skolis V-VI-VII klaselebisaTvis, tfilisi, 1937. T.uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis Seswavlis istoria (naw. I), Tb., 1999. J.feiqriSvili, qarTvelologiis sakiTxebi, quTaisi, 1992. i.feraZe, i.sixaruliZe, enis dakvirveba, enis swavlebis pirveli koncentri, tfilisi, 1927. i.qarTveliSvili, qarTuli gramatika, xelnaweri, inaxeba saq., mecn. akademiis xelnawerTa institutSi (fondi S #4432 da # 2585). a.quTaTelaZe, pirvel-dawyebiTi qarTuli gramatika, tfilisi,1907. d.yifiani, axali qarTulis gramatika sxartulad dawerili mamisagan SvilebisaTvis, tf., 1882. i.yifSiZe, qarTuli enis gramatika, tf., 1911. И. Кипшидзе, Грамматика мингрельского (иверского) языка, С.-Пб., 1914. mz.SaniZe, Sesavali efrem mciris fsalmunTa Targmanebisa: Tsu Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, II, Tb., 1968. a.SaniZe, qarTuli enis gramatika (morfologia), Tb., 1930. a.SaniZe, qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1953, 1973. a.SaniZe, Zveli qarTuli ena, Tb., 1976. z.SanSovani, mokle Rrammatika qarTulisa enisa, moskovi, 1737. arn.Ciqobava, martivi winadadebis problema qarTulSi, Tb., 1928, 1968. arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli enis daxasiaTeba, qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. I, Tb., 1950. Д.Чубинов, Краткая грузинская грамматика, С.-Пб., 1855. Д.Чубинов, Грузинская грамматика, С.-Пб., 1887.

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sil. xundaZe, qarTuli gramatika, quTaisi, 1904. sil. xundaZe, qarTuli marTlwerisa da sworenis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, quTaisi, 1927. m.janaSvili, qarTuli gramatika, Tb., 1906. iv.javaxiSvili, damwerlobaTmcodneoba anu qarTuli paleografia, Tb., 1926. iv.javaxiSvili, qarTuli da kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba, Tb., 1937.

2.7. qarTuli samwignobro enis periodizaciis problema
TxuTmetsaukunovani qarTuli samwignobro enis periodizacia samecniero literaturaSi sxvadasxvagvarad xdeba: n.marisa da a.SaniZis azriT, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoria moicavs sam periods: Zveli qarTuli ena (V-XI ss.), saSualo qarTuli ena (XII-XVIII ss.) da axali qarTuli ena (XIX-XX ss.). am Tvalsazriss iziarebs mecnierTa erTi nawili (z.WumburiZe, z.sarjvelaZe...). sam periods gamoyofs f. erTeliSvilic, oRond is iyenebs terminebs: Zveli saliteraturo ena (V-XI ss.), axali saliteraturo ena (XII-XIX ss.), Tanamedrove saliteraturo ena. arn. Ciqobavam naTlad aCvena, rom saSuali qarTuli aris "Zveli" da "axali" normebis Sereva, Sesabamisad, man ganaviTara mosazreba, rom saliteraturo enis istoriaSi unda gamoiyos ori periodi: Zveli qarTuli (V-XI ss.) da axali qarTuli (XII saukunidan dRemdis). am Tvalsazrissac hyavs momxreni. qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebaSi xuT etaps gamoyofs b. jorbenaZe: I etapi - Zveli qarTuli, klasikuri saliteraturo ena: V saukunidan XI-XII saukuneebamde; II etapi - XI-XVI saukuneebi: saero literaturis damkvidreba da xalxur metyvelebasTan daaxloeba; III etapi - XVII-XVIII saukuneebi: samwignobro enis sami oficialuri stiliT weris damkvidrebis dro; IV etapi - XIX saukunis 60-iani wlebidan XX saukunis 20-ian wlebamde: axali saliteraturo enis damkvidrebis periodi; V etapi - XX saukunis 10-20-iani wle- 150 -

bidan iwyeba da grZeldeba dRemde: Tbilisur metyvelebaze orientirebuli Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis arsebobis dro (b.jorbenaZe, 1989, gv. 155-167). g.gogolaSvilis azriT, arsebobs sami saerTo-saxalxo qarTuli ena (Zveli, saSuali da axali) da ori qarTuli saliteraturo ena (Zveli da axali): "Zveli qarTuli ena da axali qarTuli ena sxvadasxva donis enobrivi erTeulebia" (g.gogolaSvili, 2004, gv. 32-37); igi Tvlis, rom ar arsebobs erTiani saSuali qarTuli saliteraturo ena, magram arsebobs saSuali qarTuli ena, rogorc enobrivi realoba Tavisi mravalgvari nairsaxeobiT. samecniero literaturaSi saeWvodaa miCneuli, berZnulis, somxurisa da sxva enaTa msgavsad, samwignobro qarTulis warmodgena e. w. Zvel, saSual da axal qarTul enebad, an Zvel da axal enebad (Zveli qarTuli enisa da axali qarTuli enis arsebobis dausabuTeblobis Sesaxeb ix.: r.TvaraZe, 1985, gv.19; z.gamsaxurdia, 1991, gv.534; t. futkaraZe, 1993; t.futkaraZe, 1998; c.bendeliani, 2003...). Zveli da axali berZnuli marTlac sxvadasxva struqturis enebia da maT Soris gagebinebac SeuZlebelia; Sdr., qarTvelur sinamdvileSi Zveli da axali qarTuli enobrivi qvesistemebi erTmaneTisagan Tvisobrivad ar gansxvavdeba ("gansxvavebul droTa Wrilebsa da horizontalur ganStoebebSi qarTuli ena struqturul saxes arsebiTad yvela doneze inarCunebs"; T.uTurgaiZe, 2002, gv.19); garda amisa, saukuneebis manZilze leqsikuri fondis gasaocari simyaris gamo, arc gagebineba gamxdara problema. t.futkaraZis azriT, samwignobro qarTulis stabiluroba gansazRvra unikalurma situaciam: igi TiTqmis oci saukunis manZilze erTdroulad aris saxelmwifo enac, saeklesio enac da samwerlobo enac; garda amisa, qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebaSi arsebiTi saxis wyvetiloba, sayrdeni dialeqtis gamocvlis gamo naxtomisebri cvlileba, an sagangebo, Tvisobrivad axali enis Semqmneli reforma ar dasturdeba. V saukunidan dRemde wignier qarTvels Tavisuflad SeuZlia gaigos nebismieri originaluri teqsti: fonetikuri, morfologiuri Tu sintaqsuri movlenebi raodenobriv cvlilebebs TandaTanobiT Tu ganicdidnen. enis ganviTarebaSi - 151 -

ar Cans erTi romelime monakveTi, saidanac axal etaps daviwyebT. saukuneebis manZilze qarTuli saliteraturo enis sxvadasxva stiliT iwereboda rogorc sasuliero, aseve saero da samecniero xasiaTis naSromebi. V saukuneSi qarTuli saliteraturo ena ukve imdenad iyo "daduRebuli", rafinirebuli, Camoyalibebuli, rom Semdeg mis fonetikur, morfologiur Tu sintaqsur normebs arsebiTi, Tvisobrivi cvlileba aRar ganucdia. saukuneebis manZilze arsebuli qarTuli samwignobro enis saeklesio da saero mwerlobis stiluri variantebi erTmaneTs droSi ar enacvlebian: XI saukuneSi ar wydeba "e.w. Zveli qarTuli"; amave stiliT iwereba saeklesio xasiaTis Sromebi XII-XVIII saukuneebSic da XIX s. pirvel naxevarSic ki; garda amisa, qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesiis RvTismsaxureba amJamadac am eniT mimdinareobs; e.i. qarTuli samwignobro enis saeklesio da saero-samecniero stilebi dResac Tanaarseboben saeklesio da saero velebis mixedviT; es stiluri variantebi ar arian sxvadasxva drois enobrivi doneebi. garda amisa, Tavisi funqcionirebis yvela periodSi qarTuli saerTo-erovnuli ena warmodgenilia "mravalgvari nairsaxeobiT". Sesabamisad, Cven SeiZleba vilaparakoT qarTuli saerTosaxalxo erovnuli enis stiluri variantebis funqcionirebis periodebze (da ara ramdenime qarTuli samwignobro enis arsebobaze), kerZod: damwerlobamdeli periodi: arsebobs zogadqarTuli enobrivi koine, misi oficialuri (saxelmwifo), sakulto saxesxvaobebi da qarTveluri kiloebi; V-X saukuneebi: dRemde moRweuli Zeglebis mixedviT, funqcionirebs saeklesio ena da qarTvelTa zepiri metyvelebis oficialuri da xalxuri nairsaxeobebi; IX-XX saukuneebi: gverdigverd arsebobs samwerlobo enis normirebuli saeklesio, saliteraturo (saero-sakancelario), samecniero stilebi, teritoriuli da socialuri dialeqtebi da a.S. (t.futkaraZe, 2005, gv. 55). warmodgenil yvela mosazrebas aqvs safuZveli, Tumca faqtia, rom sul mcire 15 saukunis manZilze arsebobs erTi qarTuli samwignobro ena Tavisi ZiriTadi normebiTa da - 152 -

leqsikuri fondiT. bunebrivia, rom yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi yoveli ena Tavisi sxvadasxva variantiT (stiliT) realizdeba.
literatura c. bendeliani, "saswaulni wmindisa mTavarmowamisa giorgisni" da "amirandarejaniani" qarTuli samwignobro enis periodizaciis TvalsazrisiT: qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t. VII, quTaisi, 2003. z. gamsaxurdia, werilebi, eseebi, Tb., 1991. Н. Марр, К изучению современного Грузинского языка, Петроград, 1922. g. gogolaSvili, qarTuli enis periodizaciisaTvis: enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, 2004, # 1. f. erTeliSvili, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriisaTvis: qarTuli ena da literatura skolaSi, #2, 1968. u. vainraixi, SesaZlebelia Tu ara struqturuli dialeqtologia: mimomxilveli, 4-5, 1968. r. TvaraZe, TxuTmetsaukunovani mTlianoba: qarTuli ena da literatura skolaSi, #3, 1978. T.uTurgaiZe, T.uTurgaiZe, qarTuli ena sistemuri aspeqtiT: quTaisuri saubrebi, IX, quTaisi, 2002. t. futkaraZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebaSi etapebis gamoyofis mizanSewonilobis Sesaxeb: quTaisis saxelmwifo universitetis 60 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo samecniero konferenciis masalebi, quTaisi, 1993. i. qavTaraZe, qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis, XII-XVIII ss., Tb., 1964 arn. Ciqobava, enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1952. S. ZiZiguri, mTlianoba oRond nairgvari: qarTuli ena da literatura skolaSi, #3, 1978. z. WumburiZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis periodizaciisaTvis: madli dedaenisa, Tb., 1982. b. jorbenaZe, balavari mwerlobisa, Tb., 1987. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, Tb., 1989.

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menabdis ruka: sazRvargareTi qarTuli kerebi

menabdis ruka: sazRvargareTi qarTuli kerebi

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Tavi III qarTuli samwignobro enis Teoriuli kursis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi
3.1. qarTuli enis sametyvelo bgerebi da satransliteracio sqema samecniero literaturaSi qarTuli samwignobro enis sametyvelo bgerebis (fonemebis) analizi warmodgenilia n. maris, s. xundaZis, a. SaniZis, arn. Ciqobavas, g. axvledianis, h. fogtis, r. robinsis, n. vatersonis, s. JRentis, S. gafrindaSvilis, T. uTurgaiZis, g. maWavarianis, T. gamyreliZis, z. jafariZis, b. jorbenaZisa da sxvaTa gamokvlevebSi; sakiTxis istoria vrclad aris warmodgenili T. uTurgaiZis naSromSi (T. uTurgaiZe, 1976). azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa qarTul xmovanTa, - 156 -

sonantTa (marcvlovani da umarcvlo variantebis mqone fonemaTa), afrikatTa da B, y bgeraTa arsebiTi (relevanturi) niSnebis kvalifikaciis, agreTve, warmoTqmis adgilTa (lokalur rigTa) saxeldebis motivaciis TvalsazrisiT. Tanamedrove samwignobro qarTulSi ar ganirCeva i da u bgerebis umarcvlo variantebi, amitom iTvleba, rom Tanamedrove qarTulSi gvaqvs xuTi xmovani: a, e, i, o, u (Sdr., Tanamedrove qarTvelTa zepir metyvelebaSi xSirad vlindeba i da u bgerebis umarcvlo variantebi). qarTulSi a daxasiaTdeba rogorc maqsimalurad Ria (farTo), dabali aweulobisa, ukana (an saSualo) rigis, dauWimavi (saerTod, qarTuli xmovnebi daWimulebi ar arian), aralabialuri xmovani. e palataluri anu magari sasismieri, wina rigisa da saSualo aweulobis xmovania. o saSualo aweulobis, gamokveTilad bagismieri (ufro zustad, labiovelaruli) xmovania; iSviaTad o SeiZleba dabali aweulobiTac gamovlindes. u ukana rigisa da maRali aweulobis bgeraa, romelic tuCebis momrgvalebiTa da win wamoweviT warmoiTqmeba. i wina rigisa da maRali aweulobis xmovania. qarTuli enis xmovanTa mimarTeba sqematurad marTkuTxa samkuTxedis saxes miiRebs: i u

e

o

a

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saartikulacio aparatis (zesadgami milis) Riaobis mixedviT, ganxilul bgeraTa mimarTeba pirobiTad Semdegnairad SeiZleba warmovadginoT: a > e/o > i/u. qarTuli enis (da qarTveluri kiloebis) TanxmovanTa Sesaxeb mravali gamokvleva arsebobs. TanxmovanTagan diskusiis sagania ZiriTadad afrikatebis, agreTve, v, y da B bgeraTa relevanturi niSnebis sakiTxi; kerZod: e.w. rTuli Z c w da martivi d T t enakbilismierTa rigSi Seaqvs g. axvledians (g. axvlediani, 1999, gv. 91), a. SaniZe ki d T t bgerebs z s TanxmovnebTan erTad nunismierebSi aerTianebs (a. SaniZe, 1953, gv. 13-16); winanunismierad miiCnevs Z c w z s Tanxmovnebs T. uTurgaiZe (T. uTurgaiZe, 1976, gv. 74). erTsa da imave sawarmoTqmo adgilze Z c w afrikatTa da z s napralovanTa warmoeba saeWvod miiCnia S. gafrindaSvilma. misi varaudiT, z s ufro ukana warmoebisaa, vidre Z c w (S. gafrindaSvili, 1961, gv. 77). qarTul samecniero literaturaSi sakamaToa v-s daxasiaTebac: zogierTi mkvlevari mas kbilbagismierad Tvlis (g. axvlediani, a.SaniZe, b.jorbenaZe), zogi - wyvilbagismierad/ bagismierad (h. fogti, r. robinsi, n. vatersoni, T. uTurgaiZe...). Cveni dakvirvebiT, qarTvelTa metyvelebaSi ufro xSiria wyvilbagismieri spiranti alofoni, vidre - kbilbagismieri, gansakuTrebiT Tanxmovnis momdevno poziciaSi (dawvrilebiT ix., t.futkaraZe, 1998).

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literatura g. axvlediani, zogadi fonetikis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1999. T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tb., 1965. T. gamyreliZe, sibilantTa Sesatyvisobani da qarTvelur enaTa uZvelesi struqturis zogadi sakiTxi, Tb., 1960. T. gamyreliZe, z. kiknaZe, i. Saduri, n. Sengelia, Teoriuli enaTmecnierebis kursi, Tb., 2003. S. gafrindaSvili, labializaciis bunebisaTvis zog iberiulkavkasiur enaSi: ike, VII, Tb., 1955. S. gafrindaSvili, qarTuli enis napralovan TanxmovanTa saSualo speqtrebi: mass, Tb., 1967.

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S. gafrindaSvili, fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebis samwevrovani klasifikaciisaTvis: metyvelebis analizis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1969. n. kiziria, Wanuris bgeriTi Sedgeniloba, Tb., 1980. Г. Небиеридзе, Генеративно-фонологическая модель грузинского языка и принципы её построения, Автореферат диссертации на поиск, уч. степени доктора филологических наук, Тбилиси, 1974 s. JRenti, qarTuli enis fonetika, Tb., 1956. r. robinsi, n. vatersoni, SeniSvnebi qarTuli sityvis fonetikis Sesaxeb: "mimomxilveli", 4, 1968. g. rogava, qarTvelur enaTa istoriuli fonetikis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1962. Н. Трубеской, Основы фонологии, Москва, 1960. T. uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis fonematuri struqtura, Tb., 1976. h. fogti, qarTuli enis fonematuri struqtura, Tb., 196. t. futkaraZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli enis xmovanTa sistema, sadoqtoro disertacia, Tb., 1998. t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. n. quTelia, lazuri konsonantizmi: macne (ena-literaturis seria), 4, Tb., 1985. n. quTelia, lazuris fonematuri struqtura, Tb., 2005. z. jafariZe, percefciuli fonetikis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, Tb., 1975. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, I, Tb., 1989. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, II, Tb., 1998. Р. Якобсон, Г. М. Фанти, М. Халле, Введение в анализ речи, Новое в лингвистике, Выпуск 2, Москва, 1962.

3.2. saxelis paradigma

qarTul enaSi saxeli sxvadasxva formiT (yalibiT) aris warmodgenili. erTi da imave sityvis formaTa sistemas enaTmecnierebaSi paradigmas uwodeben (paradigma - berZn. magaliTi, nimuSi, romelime sityvis formaTa tabula). saxelis TiToeuli forma warmoadgens brunvis yalibs; qarTuli saxelis yalibi formdeba formamawarmoebeli sufiqsiT - brunvis niSniT; TiToeul brunvis yalibs aqvs gramatikuli mniSvneloba. konkretuli formawarmoebiTi saxeluri yalibi da misi gramatikuli mniSvneloba qmnis brunvis kategorias.

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ramdenadac brunva morfologiuri cnebaa, amdenad zogierT mecniers brunvaTa raodenobis ganmsazRvrelad sityvis morfologiuri struqtura miaCnia; sxvebi ki brunvis, rogorc damoukidebeli enobrivi erTeulis, gamosayofad sintaqsur da semantikur mxaresac Tvlian aucilebel pirobad. qarTul lingvistikaSi anton kaTalikosidan moyolebuli dRemde brunvaTa gamoyofa gansxvavebuli principebis mixedviT xdeba. qarTuli gramatikis Seqmnisas antons sanimuSod hqonda indoevropuli enebis gramatikebi, ramac garkveuli gavlena iqonia miseul brunvaTa raodenobasa da rigze; kerZod, is gamoyofs 8 brunvas:
wrfelobiTi: naTesaobiTi: micemiTi: SemasmenlobiTi: dawyebiTi: moTxrobiTi: moqmedebiTi: wodebiTi: mariam mariam-isa mariam-s mariami mariam-isgan mariam-man mariam-iTa mariam oqro oqro-~sa oqros oqro oqro-sagan oqro-man oqro-Ta oqro-o.

da sxvisa mimarT mdgmoebisa erTisa da misive saxelisa”; e.i. brunva aris saxelis erTisa da imave fuZis sxvadasxvanairad mimoxriTi cvla. a. SaniZe: brunva aris gramatikuli kategoria, romelic aerTianebs bgeriTi Sedgenilobisa da funqciis mixedviT gansxvavebul saxelur formebs. arn. Ciqobava: brunva gabmul metyvelebaSi saxels akavSirebs saxelTan an zmnasTan (saTanado Sinaarsis gadmosacemad). v.Tofuria: brunva aris saxelis forma, romelic miiReba misi saxva sityvebTan sintaqsuri urTierTobis Sedegad. g. nebieriZe: brunva aris morfologiuri kategoria, romelic sxvadasxva gramaTa saSualebiT asaxavs sagnis (movlenis) mimarTebas sxva saganTan (movlenasTan), an raime moqmedebasTan: mimarTeba SeiZleba iyos sintaqsuri an semantikuri (posesiuri, lokaluri)... mokled: brunva iseTi morfologiuri kategoriaa, romelic gramatikul da semantikur mimarTebebs gamoxatavs.

saxelis formacvalebas brunvaTa mixedviT bruneba hqvia. dRemde sakamaToa brunvaTa raodenobis sakiTxi. azrTa sxvadasxvaobis mizezia brunvis cnebis sxvadasxvagvari gaazreba: anton kaTalikosi: "brunva aris cvaleba mimoxriTi sxvisa

antonis gramatikaSi (1753 w.) naTesaobiTi, micemiTi, moqmedebiTi da wodebiTi brunvebi evropuli gramatikebis - 163 -

mixedviTaa Setanili, Tumca isini amave dros organuladaa damaxasiaTebeli qarTulisTvis. sxva enebis gavleniT man qarTulSi gaumarTleblad Semoitana SemasmenlobiTi (akuzativi, braldebiTi). anton kaTalikosis damsaxurebaa moTxrobiTi brunvis SemoReba, misi formisa da funqciis dadgena. qarTuli enis pirvel gramatikaSi sxva enebisTvis ucxo da sakuTriv qarTulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli moTxrobiTi brunvis gamoyofa antonis did gramatikul alRoze miuTiTebs. anton kaTalikosis gramatikis ZiriTadi debulebebi daedo safuZvlad Semdgomi xanis sxva gramatikebs, Tumca metnaklebi siaxle da Taviseburi midgoma saxelis paradigmebisadmi mainc iCens Tavs. am mxriv, pirvel rigSi, gaiozis gramatika (1796-1804 ww.) unda davasaxeloT. antonis gramatikidan amodis ioane qarTveliSvilic. is pirveli qarTveli gramatikosia, romelmac erTimeoris paralelurad mogvca mravlobiTi ricxvis narTaniani da ebiani saxeoba, riTac sabolood swor safuZvelze daayena mravlobiTSi brunvis niSanTa sakiTxi. platon ioselianma qarTul gramatikaSi brunvaTa rigidan gandevna wrfelobiTi (Secvala saxelobiTiT), SemasmenlobiTi (braldebiTi) da dawyebiTi; man SemoiRo aseTi rigi: saxelobiTi, naTesaobiTi, micemiTi, moTxrobiTi, moqmedebiTi, wodebiTi. pl. ioseliani Seecada daezustebina winamorbedTa kvlevis Sedegebi. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia dimitri yifianis "axali qarTuli grammatika sxartulad dawerili mamisagan SvilebisaTvis” (1882 w.). igi ori nawilisagan Sedgeba: pirvelSi warmodgenilia etimologia (morfologia), meoreSi _ leqsikoni. sayuradReboa d. yifianis debuleba: "moTxrobiTi brunva specifikuri brunvaa qarTulisaTvis”. man Tavis gramatikaSi moTxrobiTi saxelobiTis Semdeg moaTavsa, Tumca momdevno xanis gramatikosebma: p. kvicariZem, a. quTaTelaZem da s. xundaZem, pl. ioselianis msgavsad, es brunva gadasves micemiTis Semdeg braldebiTis adgilze. qarTulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli kidev erTi brunva - viTarebiTi - pirvelad gamoyo m. brosem.

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arn.Ciqobavas azriT, brunvaTa tradiciuli rigi pl. ioselianidan iwyeba. am rigis dakanoneba s.xundaZis gramatikaSi moxda. brunvaTa es Tanmimdevroba arn.Ciqobavas qarTulisTvis uvargisad miaCnia. mecnieri dauSveblad Tvlis braldebiTis adgilas moTxrobiTi brunvis moTavsebas, radgan braldebiTis funqcia qarTulSi SeiZleba daekisros mxolod micemiTsa da saxelobiTs; garda amisa, braldebiTi yovelTvis aRniSnavs umoqmedos, pasiurs, moTxrobiTi ki - moqmeds, aqtiurs. igi saerToqarTveluri movlenaa. brunvaTa rigi garkveuli kriteriumiT dgindeba: pirveli sami brunva - saxelobiTi, moTxrobiTi, micemiTi pirmimarTi wevrebis, qvemdebare-damatebis, brunvebia; micemiTis Semdeg a.SaniZe aTavsebs naTesaobiT brunvas, arn.Ciqobava ki viTarebiTs (mimarTulebiTs, gardaqceviTs), radganac xmovanfuZian saxelebSi viTarebiTSi kveca ar xdeba da am brunvis CaTvliT fuZe sruli saxiTaa warmodgenili. sakamaToa wodebiTi brunvis sakiTxi. igi SedarebiT axali warmoSobisaa. wodebiTi berZnul-laTinur gramatikebSi damoukidebeli brunva iyo. qarTulSi gadmoitana anton kaTalikosma wodebiTis saxeliT. mas asaxelebdnen sxva Zveli gramatikosebic, magram mas Semdeg, rac arn. Ciqobavam eWvi Seitana wodebiTis arsebobaSi, qarTul lingvistikaSi erTmaneTs daupirispirda ori Tvalsazrisi: dRes zogi mkvlevari wodebiTs brunvad miiCnevs, zogi - ara, kerZod: arn.Ciqobava da v.Tofuria wodebiTs brunvad ar miiCneven, radganac es forma ar aris miRebuli sintaqsuri urTierTobis Sedegad. garda amisa, misi niSani axali warmoSobisaa, Sorisdebulidan Cans miRebuli. Sdr.: svanurSi mimarTvis dros dResac o Sorisdebuli ixmareba: o, RerbeT (o, RmerTo). wodebiTs damoukidebel brunvad ar miiCnevs g. nebieriZec. misi azriT, igi unda iyos brunvaTa sistemaSi, magram saxelobiTTan erTad, radgan wodebiTi saxelobiTis variantia (aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom g.nebieriZe moTxrobiTsac saxelobiTis variantad miiCnevs da ara damoukidebel brunvad). wodebiTi saxelobiTis variantia funqciuri da ara sintaqsuri TvalsazrisiT: mas saxeldebis, mimarTvis funqcia aqvs.

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a.SaniZes wodebiTi Seaqvs brunvaTa paradigmaSi, magram mas boloSi aTavsebs. mis azrs iziareben: l.kvaWaZe, al.oniani, T.uTurgaiZe, l.nozaZe... samecniero literaturaSi diskusiis sagania e.w. Tandebulian brunvaTa sakiTxi. jer kidev m. brosem Tandebulian formebs rTuli brunvebi uwoda da gamoyo lokaluri anu adgilobiTi brunvebi (bagasa-Sina, bagasa-zeda). zogi Zveli gramatikosis kvalad, ZiriTad brunvaTa gverdiT, a.SaniZec gamoyofs ramdenime lokalur brunvas. sazogadod, brunvis niSani daerTvis fuZes, Tandebuli ki - brunvis niSnian formas. dRes brunvis niSans mirTuli zogi Tandebuli istoriulad calke mdgomi iyo: saxlsa zeda>saxlsze>saxlze; saxlsa Sina>saxlsSi>saxlSi; magram: miwa-s-Tan. a.SaniZes swored fonetikuri cvlilebebi miaCnia lokaluri brunvebis gamoyofis safuZvlad. a.SaniZis saxelur formaTa paradigma aseT saxes iRebs:
saxelobiTi: moTxrobiTi: micemiTi: naTesaobiTi: moqmedebiTi: viTarebiTi: sadaobiTi: gamosvliTi: miwevniTi: wodebiTi: saxl-i saxl-ma saxl-s saxl-is saxl-iT saxl-ad saxl-ze, saxl-Si saxl-idan saxl-amde saxl-o

Sdr.: sadaobiTi miuTiTebs adgilmdebareobas. misi niSnebia -Si da -ze: wyal-Si, wyal-ze (mic. br.). gamosvliTi aRniSnavs romelime punqtidan gamosvlas; es punqti SeiZleba iyos rogorc sivrceSi, ise droSi: saxl-idan, mais-idan (moqm. br.). miwevniTi aCvenebs garkveul punqtamde miwevnas sivrcesa da droSi: kaxeT-amde, mais-amde (viT. br.). z.sarjvelaZem Tandebuliani brunvebis TvalsazrisiT Seiswavla Zveli werilobiTi Zeglebi da miuTiTa, rom lokalur brunvaTa Canasaxi ukve Zvel qarTulSive iCens Tavs. yvelaze xSirad dasturdeba is forma, romelic Tanamedrove qarTulis miwevniTi brunvis winaparia: cad-mde > camde, soflad-mde > soflamde…).

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lokalur brunvaTa gamoyofas ar eTanxmeba arn. Ciqobava. igi Tvlis, rom ar SeiZleba TandebulTa miCneva brunvis niSnebad, radgan: Tu -Si da -ze brunvis niSnebia, rogorRa iqneba igive -Si da -ze erTi brunvis "sadaobiTis” niSnebi. Tu -Si da -ze brunvis niSnebad iqca imis gamo, rom fuZes mosdeven uSualod, igive unda iTqvas -Tan Tandebulis Sesaxebac TanxmovanfuZian saxelebTan. arn.Ciqobava da misi mimdevrebi warmodgenil yalibebs ganixilaven sxva Tandebulian formebTan erTad. Sdr., brunvis niSanTa alomorfebis g.maWavarianiseuli sqema (mogvawoda d.meliqiSvilma):
sax. i, 0; moTxr. ma, m; mic. s(a), 0 (-Si, -ze, -Tan); viT. ad, d, a (-mde TandebulTan); naT. is, si, s; moqm. iT, Ti, i (-dan); wod. o, v, 0.

qarTuli enis kompiuteruli modelirebis aucileblobam isev gaaaqtualura saxelis formamawarmoebeli yalibebis gamoyofis problema; kerZod, saWiroa iseTi formalizebuli wesebis Seqmna, romlebic maqsimaluri sizustiTa da naklebi operaciebiT SeZleben enobriv formaTa sinTezsa da analizs. am mimarTulebiT saintereso mignebebi aqvT T.uTurgaiZes, q.daTukiSvils, k.fxakaZesa da sxvebs. samecniero literaturaSi erT-erT gzad SemoTavazebulia e.w. TandebulTa gansxvavebuli kvalifikacia; kerZod, t. futkaraZe miiCnevs, rom erTmaneTisagan unda gaimijnos Tvisebisa da funqciis mixedviT gansxvavebuli erTeulebi: brunvis niSans mirTuli Tandebuli (-ze, -Si, -gan-, ken...), calke mdgomi Tandebuli (mier, Se-saxeb, gamo, mimarT...) da naTesaobiTis formis gansazRvruli zmnisarTi (win, ukan, irgvliv...), romelsac zogi mkvlevari Tandebulad miiCnevs. t.futkaraZis mier warmodgenili saxeluri paradigma Semdegi saxisaa: martivi brunvebi:
fuZe+0/i: fuZe+m/ma/n: fuZe+s: fuZe+s(i)/is/0: miwa, kaci miwa-m, kac-ma miwa-s, kac-s wyaro-si, kac-is

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fuZe+Ti/iT: fuZe+d/ad: fuZe+o/v/0:

myofobiTi: fuZe+sas/isas: margo-sas, mezobl-isas daniSnulebiTi: fuZe+sad/isad: kac-isad; wyaro-sad, fuZe+sTvis/isTvis/Tvis: wyaro-sTvis, kaci-sTvis msgavsebiTi: fuZe+saviT/iviT: miwa-saviT, kac-iviT (aqve: fuZe+ebr||isebr) sazedao: fuZe+ze/sze: kac-ze saSidao: fuZe+Si/sSi: saxlSi TanaobiTi: fuZe+sTan/Tan: deda-sTan, kac-Tan mimarTulebiTi: fuZe+sken/isken: kac-isken, wyaro-sken TanamdevrobiTi: fuZe+sTan/Tanave/isTana/isTanave: Wam-isTanave dawyebiTi: fuZe+dan/idan: wyaro-dan, saxl-i-dan TanxlebiTi: fuZe+|iTurT: kac-iTurT miwevniTi: fuZe+mde||made: wyaro-mde, saxl-amde Sdr.: Tandebuliani brunvebi: kacis mier, kacis Semdeg, kacis gamo, kacis mimarT... Sdr.: naTesaobiTis formisa da zmnisarTis sityvaTSexameba: kacis win dgas (win dgas), kacis irgvliv trialebs (irgvliv trialebs)...

rTuli brunvebi:

wyaro-Ti, kac-iT wyaro-d, kac-ad wyaro-v, kac-o

samecniero literaturaSi warmodgenili msjelobis mixedviT (T.uTurgaiZe, 1886), msazRvrelad gamoyenebuli naTesaobiTis yalibSi -is formanti sityvamawarmoebeli sufiqsia da ara brunvis niSani; e.i. am SemTxvevaSi naTesaobiTi brunvas ar warmoadgens; misi azriT, naTesaobiTi brunvis gamoyofis safuZveli gvaqvs mxolod TandebulTa win (kacis mier, kacisken...) da "ZaRls eSinia kacisa" tipis SesityvebaSi. bevri sxva enisgan gansxvavebiT, qarTulSi saxelTa brunebis erTi tipi gvaqvs, magram specialistebi am erTi tipis farglebSi ganarCeven brunebis ramdenime saxeobas; kerZod: a. SaniZe emyareba ra brunvis niSanTa erTgvarobis princips (brunvis niSnebis sisrules), gamoyofs brunebis sam saxeobas: 1. TanxmovanfuZiani saxelebi; 2. xmovanfuZiani kvecadi
saxelebi; 3. fuZeukveceli saxelebi.

TanxmovanfuZian saxelebSi yvela brunvis niSani srulia (saxl-i, saxl-ma, saxl-s, saxl-is, saxl-iT, saxl-ad, saxl-o); kvecad saxelebSi mokvecili an arasrulia (Zma, Zma-m, Zma-s, Zm-is, - 168 -

Zm-iT, Zma-d, Zma-o); fuZeukveceli saxelebis brunebisas icvleba brunvis niSani naTesaobiTsa da moqmedebiTSi: ezo-s-i, ezo-T-i. aRsaniSnavia, rom saxelTa brunebis tipebis a.SaniZiseuli klasifikacia indoevropuli enebis mixedviTaa SemuSavebuli, magram am enebisTvis aseTi klasifikaciis safuZvelia sqesis kategoria, rac qarTulSi ar gvaqvs. amdenad, es dayofa TavisTavad logikurad sworia, magram ara qarTulisaTvis misadagebuli. arn.CiqobavasTvis saxelTa brunebis saxeobebis gamoyofisas amosavalia brunvis niSansa da fuZes Soris mimarTeba anu cvlileba rogorc fuZeSi, ise brunvis niSanSi; amis mixedviT igi ganasxvavebs saxelTa brunebis sam tips: 1. ukumSveli TanxmovanfuZian ukumSvel saxelebSi arc brunvis niSani iwvevs cvlilebas fuZeSi da arc fuZis daboloeba moqmedebs brunvis niSanze (saxl-i, saxl-ma..); meore tipis anu kumSvad da kvecad saxelebSi xmovniT dawyebuli brunvis niSani iwvevs cvlilebas fuZeSi (megobr-is, megobr-iT, megobr-ad; mT-is, mTiT; kld-is, kld-iT); mesame tipis saxelebSi fuZis bolokiduri xmovani moqmedebs brunvis niSanze, ikveceba brunvis niSniseuli xmovani (wyaro-s-i, wyaro-T-i). am kvalifikaciaSi winaaRmdegobrivia meore jgufis gamoyofa, vinaidan kvecadi saxelebis saxelobiT, moTxrobiT brunvaTa niSnebi fuZis gavleniT fonetikur cvlilebas ganicdian da am mxriv mesame tipis saxelebis jgufs miekuTvnebian. amitom v.Tofuria qarTul enaSi gamoyofs saxelTa brunebis 4 ZiriTad saxeobas (mcire qvejgufiT: kumSvad-kvecadi): ukumSveli, kumSvadi, ukveceli da kvecadi. b.jorbenaZis mixedviT, saxelTa brunebaSi gamoyofilia ori morfologiuri tipi: erTfuZiani da orfuZiani. erTfuZianSi igulisxmeba sami qvetipi:
saxelebi; 2. kumSvadi da kvecadi saxelebi; 3. ukveceli saxelebi.

1. saxelebi, romelTac aqvT yvela brunvis forma (kaci, qali... siyvaruli... bedniereba...); b) aqvT mxolod ori forma (-n da -T formantebiT nawarmoebi mravlobiTis formebi: kac-n-i _ kac-T-a); g) axasiaTebT nakluli bruneba: Sen, Tqven, Cven...

a) saerTo forma aqvs saxelobiTis, moTxrobiTisa da micemiTisaTvis, erTi mxriv, naTesaobiTisa da moqmedebiTisaTvis, meore mxriv:

orfuZianSi warmodgenilia ori qvetipi:

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me, Cem-ze (Cem-Tan, Cem-Si), Cem- (TandebulebiT), Cem-iT; b) gansxvavebulia fuZeebi saxelobiTsa da yvela danarCen brunvaSi (is, es, igi...).

I. saxels aqvs yvela brunvis forma; saxelobiTSi dairTavs -i-s; brunebisas arc saxelis fuZe icvleba, arc brunvis niSani: kac-i, kacma, kac-s, kac-is... II. saxels aqvs yvela brunvis forma; saxelobiT brunvas aformebs -i; naTesaobiT, moqmedebiT da viTarebiT brunvebSi fuZis bolo marcvlis Semqmneli a, e, o xmovnebi ikumSeba: dedali, dedalma, dedals, dedlis... III. saxels aqvs yvela brunvis forma; saxelobiTi brunvis forma ar dairTavs i-s (fuZe boloxmovniania); moTxrobiT, naTesaobiT, moqmedebiT, viTarebiT da wodebiT brunvebSi brunvis niSani reducirebulia (ma→m, is→s; iT→T, ad→d, o→v): wyaro, wyarom, wyaros... IV. saxels aqvs yvela brunvis forma; saxelobiTi brunvis forma ar dairTavs saxelobiTis i-s; brunebisas brunvis niSani ikveceba moqmedebiT, viTarebiT da wodebiT brunvebSi, xolo fuZe ikveceba naTesaobiT da moqmedebiT brunvebSi: kibe, kibem, kibes, kibis... V. saxels aqvs yvela brunvis forma; saxelobiTi ar dairTavs brunvis niSans; saxelobiT, moTxrobiT da wodebiT brunvebSi ikveceba brunvis niSani., naTesaobiT da moqmedebiT brunvebSi fuZe kargavs or bolo xmovans: fanjara, fanjaram, fanjris... VI. saxels aqvs yvela brunvis forma, magram zog brunvaSi uCveulo (/arqauli) formiT warmosdgeba: RmerTi - RvTis, ambavi ambis, Rvino - Rvinis... VII. saxels ara aqvs yvela brunvis forma (SezRuduli brunebis saxelebi): Sen, SeniT, Senamde; dRes, dReidan, dRemde; aq - aqedan aqamde... VIII. brunebisas saxeli avlens or fuZes: es - aman, amas; me - CemiT, Cem-Tvis...

t.futkaraZis azriT, brunebis Taviseburebis mixedviT qarTuli enis saxelTa (arsebiTi saxeli, zedsarTavi saxeli, nacvalsaxeli, ricxviTi saxeli, zmnisarTi) ramdenime jgufi unda gamoiyos:

samecniero literaturaSi qarTuli enis saxelis morfologiur analizs araerTi naSromi mieZRvna, magram yuradRebis miRma iyo darCenili brunvaTa semantikuri mxare; am naklis Sevsebas warmoadgens b. jorbenaZis naSromi “”brunvaTa semantikuri analizis principisaTvis qarTulSi”. avtoris azriT, aucilebelia, gansxvavdes brunvaTa morfologiuri, sintaqsuri da semantikuri aspeqtebi. magaliTad, mice- 170 -

miTi brunva formis mixedviT gulisxmobs fuZisa da -s niSnis erTianobas (qalaq-s), sintaqsurad igi SeiZleba iyos iribi obieqti, pirdapiri obieqti, garemoeba; semantikurad ki miuTiTebs adresatze (amxanags dauwera), samoqmedo sagans (saxls iSenebs), moqmedebis iaraRs (CaquCs urtyams), mimarTulebas (qalaqs miemgzavreba), miwevniTobas (qalaqs Cavida). specialistTa Soris azrTa aseTi mkveTri sxvadasxvaoba mianiSnebs, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi kvlevis axal-axali aspeqtebi Cndeba da iqmneba saWiroeba, gadaisinjos winamorbedTa debulebebi.
literatura k.gabunia, brunvaTa sistemis analizis principisaTvis qarTulSi: Jurn. "qarTuli ena da logika", Tb., 2005. v. Tofuria, wodebiTi brunvisaTvis: sbiqe, I, Tb., 1956. v.Tofuria, saxelis fuZisa da brunvis niSanTa urTierTmoqmedeba: sbiqe, Tb., 1956. v.Tofuria, naTesaobiTi da moqmedebiTi brunvebis daboloebani, Sromebi, t. II, Tb., 2002. i. imnaiSvili, saxelTa bruneba da brunvaTa funqciebi Zvel qarTulSi, Tb., 1957. i. kvaWaZe, qarTuli ena, naw. I, Tb., 1981. an. kiziria, saxelobiTisa da moTxrobiTis funqciebi Zvel qarTulSi, sbi, I, 1956. g. nebieriZe, enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1991. g. nebieriZe, wodebiTi brunva qarTulSi rogorc saxelobiTis varianti: Tsu Sromebi, 267, 1986. l. nozaZe, fuZeTanxmovnian anTroponimTa brunebis erTi tendenciis Sesaxeb qarTulSi: ike, XXVIII, Tb., 1989. al. oniani, wodebiTi brunvis sakiTxisaTvis Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi: saiub. kreb. akaki SaniZe _ 100, Tb., 1987. al. oniani, qarTvelur enaTa SedarebiTi gramatikis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1989. z. sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali, Tb., 1984.

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T. uTurgaiZe, Tandebulian saxelTa bruneba qarTulSi: kreb. arn. Ciqobavas, Tb., 1979. T. uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis saxelis morfonologiuri analizi, Tb., 1986. J. feiqriSvili, qarTuli enis morfologia, quTaisi, 1992. J. feiqriSvili, r. saRinaZe, brunvaTa raodenobis sakiTxi qarTul lingvistikaSi: qsu profesor-maswavlebelTa VI samecniero konferenciis masalebi, quTaisi, 2000. al. focxiSvili, qarTuli enaTmecnierebis istoria, Tb., 1995. t. futkaraZe, bruneba rogorc saxelis formaTwarmoebis erTerTi aspeqti (saxelis sinTezisa da analizis formalizebuli modelebisaTvis): g. rogavas saiub. kreb., Tb., 1997. t. futkaraZe, qarTuli enis bunebis amsaxveli logikuri paradigmis problemisaTvis: Jurn. "qarTuli ena da logika", Tb., 2005. a. SaniZe, qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1980. a. SaniZe, wodebiTis formis adgilisaTvis: sbi, I, Tb., 1956. arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli enis zogadi enaTmecnieruli daxasiaTeba: qegl, I, Tb., 1950. arn. Ciqobava, ratom aris aucilebeli brunvaTa rigis Secvla qarTulSi: sbi, I, 1956. arn. Ciqobava, moTxrobiTi brunvis genezisisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi: Tsu Sromebi, t. X, Tb., 1939. arn. Ciqobava, Tandebulian brunvaTa sakiTxisaTvis qarTulSi: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, t. 2, Tb., 1961. arn. Ciqobava, istoriulad gansxvavebuli ori morfologiuri tipisaTvis qarTul brunvaTa Soris: sbi, I, Tb., 1956. arn. Ciqobava, ergatiuli konstruqciis problema iberiulkavkasiur enebSi, I, Tb., 1946. arn. Ciqobava, saxelTa brunebis istoriidan qarTulSi: sbi, Tb., 1942 (Tsu Sromebi, t. XXIII). s. xundaZe, qarTuli gramatika, quTaisi, 1904. b. jorbenaZe, zmnis xmovanprefiqsuli warmoeba qarTulSi, Tb., 1983. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli zmnis formobrivi da funqciuri analizis principebi, Tb., 1980. b.jorbenaZe, qarTuli enis morfologia, Tb., 1995.

3.3. zmnis paradigma
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qarTuli zmnis kvlevis mravalsaukunovani tradiciis miuxedavad, dRemde grZeldeba kamaTi iseT mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze, rogoricaa: mwkrivTa/nakvTTa dajgufebisa da saxeldebis principebi, uRlebis tipebis raodenoba, morfologiuri yalibebisa da semantikuri konebis mimarTeba da sxv. (sakiTxis mimoxilvisaTvis ix.: b.jorbenaZe, 1980; a.arabuli, 1984; g.gogolaSvili, 1988; d.meliqiSvili, 2001; T.uTurgaiZe, 2002; t.futkaraZe, 2006). uRvlilebis erTeulis aRsaniSnavad gramatikul literaturaSi sxvadasxva termini gamoiyeneba: dro, wevri, rigi, drokilo, mwkrivi, nakvTi. amJamad damkvidrebulia mwkrivi da nakvTi; samecniero literaturaSi termini mwkrivi daamkvidra a.SaniZem, xolo nakvTi - arn. Ciqobavam. terminologiuri siWrele Tavs iCens, agreTve, calkeuli nakvTebis saxeldebisas, magaliTad, Zveli gramatikosebidan moyolebuli, wyvetilis paralelur terminebad gvxvdeba: aoristi, namyo sruli, namyo wyvetili, namyo ZiriTadi... qarTul zmnas, rogorc leqsikuri mniSvnelobis mqone erTeuls, mravali formobrivi varianti (morfologiuri saxesxvaoba) aqvs. Tanamedrove samecniero literaturaSi erTi zmnis saxesxvaobani daxarisxebulia gvarisa da qcevis formebad, aqtiur da pasiur yalibebad, diaTezebad, msgavsi uRlebis mqone jgufebad, mwkrivebad, piris formebad... franCesko-mario majos "qarTuli enis saxelmZRvaneloSi" mwkrivTa - dro-kiloTa mixedviT gamoyofil zmnur yalibTa raodenoba (11) da funqciebi laTinuris msgavsia, zmnuri formebi ki zogjer gurul kilos asaxavs:

awmyo (moval), namyo usruli (movidodi), nakleb axlo namyo usruli (me movelo), yvelaze ufro axlo namyo sruli (me mossuli var), namyo winare warsuli (me mossuli viyavi), myofadi (me moval), brZanebiTi (Sen modi), awmyo da uwyveteli (neta/neTans movidodi), namyo sruli (neta/neTans mossuli viyavi), myofadi (neTans moval), awmyo da namyo sruli (mossula/mosvla - sawyisi) (T.uTurgaiZe, 1999, gv. 40-56).

me-17 saukunis 70-ian wlebSi bernardo-maria neapoleli majos mixedviT iazrebs zmnur paradigmas, xolo XVIII saukunis - 173 -

dasawyisSi anonimi avtori (italieli misioneri) bernardos/majos principebiT warmoadgens qarTuli zmnis paradigmas, romelic gamarTulia semantikuri principiT; majos paradigmasTan SedarebiT, anonimis varianti ufro srulyofili Cans. aq erT rigSi gverdigverdaa vin-iani da man-iani formebi da sxvadasxva yalibi (m-i-yvars, Se-m-e-yvar-a...), sul 12 mwkrivi:
awmyo (miyvars), namyo usruli (miyvarda), namyo sruli (Seviyvare), meore namyo sruli (me Semiyvarebia), namyo usrulesi (me Semeyvara), myofadi (me Seviyvareb), brZanebiTi (Sen Seiyvare), awmyosa da namyo usrulis/uwyvetlis natvriTi (netamc me miyvardes), natvriTis namyo sruli (netamc me Semeyvaros), natvriTis namyo usrulesi (netamc me Semeyvara), natvriTis myofadi (rom me Seviyvaro), kavSirebiTis awmyo (me Seviyvaro) (T.uTurgaiZe, 1999, gv. 6869).

sulxan-saba orbelianis enaTmecnieruli naazrevi warmodgenilia "leqsikoni qarTulisTvis” wamZRvarebul traqtatSi: "saswavlo yrmaTa”. zmnur paradigmebs sulxan-saba mTlianad italiel misionerTa naSromebis mixedviT qmnis. avtori asaxelebs "miyvars” zmnis formebs, romlebic italieli anonimis italiur-qarTuli leqsikonSi amave zmnis paradigmas emyareba, msjelobs qarTuli enis morfemaTa fleqsiur da derivaciul funqciaTa Sesaxeb. sulxan-saba dRevandeli morfemis gagebiT iyenebs termin "arTrons”. zmnur formaTa anton kaTalikosiseuli analizi formobriv-funqciur princips emyareba. kilos (sqesis) kategoria arsebiTia formaTa ganawilebisas droebSi:
I. sazRvrebiTisa sqesisa (TxrobiTi kilo; T.uTurgaiZe): 1. awmyo (Sevhkrav), 2. namyo usruli (SevhkkrAdi), 3. namyo sruli (Sevhkar), 4. namyo usrulesi (Semikravs), 5. namyo uusrulesi (Semekra), 6. myoofadi (Sevhkra); II. brZanebiTisa sqesisa: 7. awmyo (Sehkar! nu Sehkrav), 8. myoofadi (SevhkrAdeT); III. sawadisisa sqesisa (natvriTi kilo; T.uTurgaiZe): 9. awmyo da myoofadi (vaSaTE SevhkrAde), 10. namyo usruli (vaSaTE SevhkrAdi), 11. namyo sruli da usrulesi (vaSaTE SemikrAes), 12. namyo usrulesi (vaSaTE Semekra);

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IV. Apotetika~sa sqesisa (quewyobilobiTi sqesi anu kavSirebiTi kilo; T.uTurgaiZe): 13. awmyo da myoofadi (ukeTu SevhkrAde), 14. namyo usruli (ukeTu SevhkrAdi), 15. namyo sruli da usrulesi (ukeTu SemikrAes), 16. namyo usrulesi (ukeTu Semekra)... (anton I, 1885, gv. 24-25).

gaioz reqtori (qarTuli Rrammatika, 1970) pirveli iTvaliswinebs zmnur xmovan prefiqsebs qarTuli zmnis uRlebis tipebis gamoyofisas da warmoadgens 6 saxes/yalibs. I, III, IV, V da VI uRlebaSi subieqturi uRlebis zmnebia gaerTianebuli, II uRlebas miakuTvnebs im zmnebs, romelTac ar gaaCniaT subieqturi uRleba:
1. vaqeb, 2. mhRviZavs, 3. vesvri, 4. viqm, 5. vubnob, 6. vhswer (e.nikoleiSvili, 1970, gv. 71-73; g.gogolaSvili, 1988, gv. 36-37; Sdr., al.focxiSvili, 1979, gv. 168-170).

aRniSnuli klasifikacia mxolod moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebs Seexeba. iqve avtori mianiSnebs, rom Sesabamisi vnebiTebi erTgvarad iuRvlis (gv.71-72). gaioz reqtori Tavis gramatikaSi msjelobs agreTve zmniswinis funqciaze - awmyosagan awarmoos myofadi: "...vhswer ars zmna awmyo~, martivi, sazRurebiTisa sqesisa... davhswer, romelica arRara hniSnavs awmyosa drosa, aramed myoobadsa”’ (gaiozi, 1970, gv.68). magram gaiozTan davhswer tipis formebi paradigmebSi ar aisaxa. dimitri yifianis "axali qarTuli grammatika" (1882 w.) sayuradReboa imiT, rom man pirvelma qarTul gramatikaSi III kavSirebiTis formebi calke sauRlebel erTeulad gamoyo. amasTan avtori sxvadasxva mwkrivebad warmoadgens III kavSirebiTis zmniswinian da uzmniswino formebs natvriT daxraSi. d. yifiani, gaiozis msgavsad, SesaZleblad miiCnevs yvela SemTxvevaSi zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa dapirispirebas da, rac mTavaria, zmniswiniT dapirispirebul formebs cal-calke sauRlebel erTeulebad warmoadgens ara mxolod I seriaSi, aramed II da III seriaSic. igi gaiozisagan gansxvavebiT, am princips bolomde atarebs:
vakeTeb (daxra CvenebiTi, dro axlandeli - awmyo) gavakeTeb (daxra CvenebiTi, dro momavali gasaTavebeli) vakeTebdi (daxra CvenebiTi, dro gavlili usruli) gavakeTebdi (daxra CvenebiTi, dro gavlili sruli)

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aqve aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom dro-kiloTa amgvar sistemas d.yifiani mxolod SesaZlebel variantad miiCnevs, xelovnurad garTulebulad Tvlis da SeniSnavs: "aucilebelia, unda Semokldes rogorme es uRvlileba” (gv.104). gamartivebuli sistema ki 8 erTeuls gulisxmobs. amdenad, d.yifiani 16 erTeuliani paradigmis gverdiT ganixilavs Semoklebul, 8 erTeulian mwkrivTa sistemas.
SeniSvna: erTi saukunis Semdeg es sqema (16 mwkriviani) samecniero mimoqcevaSi xelaxla Semoaqvs a.arabuls da mas "qarTuli zmnis formaTa semantikur analizs" arqmevs (ix. a.arabuli, 1984; a.arabuli, 1992).

vakeTebde (daxra pirobiTi, dro axlandeli usruli) gavakeTebde (daxra pirobiTi, dro axlandeli sruli) vakeTe (daxra CvenebiTi, dro gavlili usrulesi) gavakeTe (daxra CvenebiTi, dro gavlili usrulesi sarwmuno) vakeTo (daxra pirobiTi, dro momavali martivi) gavakeTo (daxra pirobiTi, dro momavali sruli) mikeTebia (daxra CvenebiTi, dro gavlili berZnuli aoristi) gamikeTebia (daxra CvenebiTi, dro gavlili aoristi gaTavebuli) mekeTebina (daxra CvenebiTi, dro gavlili usruli) gamekeTebina (daxra pirobiTi, dro gavlili sruli) mekeTebinos (daxra natvriTi, dro gavlili usruli) gamekeTebinos (daxra natvriTi, dro gavlili sruli).

originaluri da sainteresoa sauRlebel erTeulTa silovan xundaZiseuli dajgufeba. Tu aqamde dajgufeba xdeboda ZiriTadad kiloTa, anda sawarmoebeli fuZis mixedviT, s. xundaZe sauRlebel erTeulebs droTa mixedviT ajgufebs:
I. awmyos jgufi: vswer vswerde II. namyos jgufi: vswerdi vswere (davswere) miweria (damiweria) mewera (damewera) meweros (dameweros) vswerdi (davswerdi) III. myofadis jgufi: vswer (davswer) vswerde (davswerde) vswero (davswero) (s.xundaZe, 1907, gv. 16-19).

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s.xundaZis damsaxurebad iTvleba is faqti, rom mkvlevarma TiToeul sauRlebel erTeuls Sesabamisi kiTxva miusadaga. es kiTxvebi met-naklebad yvela tipis zmnebisTvis aris gaTvaliswinebuli. zmnuri paradigmis gamarTvis TvalsazrisiT XX saukunis manZilze gramatikosebs arsebiTi siaxle ar SemouTavazebiaT; faqtobrivad dRemdea gabatonebuli XIX saukunis bolos T.Jordanias, d.CubinaSvilis, k.dodaSvilisa da sxvaTa mier warmodgenili sauRlebeli erTeulebis rigi mciredi cvlilebebiT; samive avtori sauRlebel erTeulebs sawarmoebeli fuZis principis mixedviT alagebs, gamoyofilia dro-kiloTa ori jgufi: 1. awmyoze damyarebuli, 2. wyvetilze damyarebuli. sanimuSod warmovadgenT k. dodaSvilis mwkrivTa sistemas: I jgufi: awmyo (moTxrobiTi) - vakeTeb, momavali (moTxrobiTi) - gavakeTeb, awmyo (natvriTi) - vakeTebde, momavali (natvriTi) - gavakeTebde, namyo usruli (moTxrobiTi) - vakeTebdi, namyo sruli (saTuo) - gavakeTebdi; II jgufi: namyo mravalgziTi (moTxrobiTi) - vakeTe, namyo sruli (moTxrobiTi) - gavakeTe, awmyo (saTuo) - vakeTo, momavali (saTuo) - gavakeTo, namyo usrulesi (moTxrobiTi) - mikeTia, namyo usrulesi (saTuo) - mekeTos, namyo usruli (saTuo) - mekeTa (k.dodaSvili, 1894).

k. dodaSvilis es sqema d.yifianisas emyareba. XX saukunis dasawyisSi sauRlebel yalibTa warmodgenili sistema umniSvnelod Secvales n.marma da a.SaniZem. qarTuli zmnis uRlebis sistemis SeswavlaSi mniSvnelovania niko maris Rvawli. mis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli samecniero literaturaSi sawarmoebeli fuZis principis danergva. Tumca, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, ufro adre msgavsi principiT sauRlebel erTeulTa dajgufeba scades d. CubinaSvilma, k. dodaSvilma da T. Jordaniam. Tu sawarmoebeli fuZis principi umtkivneulod SeiZleba gatardes I da II seriaSi, sirTules qmnis III seriis nakvTebi. am sirTules n. maric grZnobs; III serias ar gaaCnia sayrdeni nakvTi. I TurmeobiTis fuZe ar aris sayrdeni danarCeni mwkrivebisaTvis. n. mari aRniSnavs: "es sami dro erTad unda iyos, radganac isini nawarmoebia erTi da imave wesiT, Tumca verc erT maTgans ver ganvixilavT rogorc sayrdenad xmarebul dros, romlisganac - 177 -

sxvebi arian warmoqmnilni”. es saerTo wesi inversiulobaa. aseve, mesame seriis formebs sintaqsuri konstruqciis erTgvarobac aerTianebs... magram dairRva ZiriTadi principi nakvTeulTa dajgufebisa: sawarmoebeli fuZis principi. akaki SaniZem pirvel seriaSi ori wre gamoyo, daazusta terminebi (awmyos kavSirebiTi, myofadis kavSirebiTi) da sabolood Semdegi sqema warmoadgina:
I seria: a) awmyos wre 1.awmyo 2.uwyveteli 3.awmyos kavSirebiTi b) myofadis wre 4. myofadi 5. xolmeobiTi 6. myofadis kavSirebiTi II seria: 7. wyvetili 8. brZanebiTi 9. II xolmeobiTi 10. II kavSirebiTi III seria: 11. I TurmeobiTi 12. II TurmeobiTi 13. III kavSirebiTi (a.SaniZe, 1973).

iqve SeniSvnaSi mkvlevari miuTiTebs, rom ori mwkrivi _ brZanebiTi da II xolmeobiTi _ dialeqtebSia Semonaxuli. amdenad, Tanamedrove qarTulisaTvis 11 mwkrivi igulisxmeba. 11 mwkrivs gamoyofs arnold Ciqobavac (1962, gv.107). avtoris azriT, "nakvTebis warmoeba aris fuZeTa warmoeba da, maSasadame, nakvTebis sistemaSi ama Tu im nakvTma is adgili unda daikavos, rac mas ekuTvnis warmoebis TvalsazrisiT” (arn. Ciqobava, 1962, gv. 102). formobrivi monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiT, mkvlevari nakvTebs or wyebad ajgufebs: ZiriTad nakvTebad miiCnevs awmyosa da namyo ZiriTads, romelTaganac uSualod Tu SualobiT iwarmoeba danarCeni mwkrivebi:
I. gardamavali zmnis awmyosagan (cvl-i-s) iwarmoeba: a) pirdapiri wyobis nakvTebi: 1. namyo usruli (cvl-i-d-a) > 3. kavSirebiTi pirveli (cvl-i-de-s). 2. myofadi (Se-cvl-i-s) > 4. myofadiseuli namyo usruli (Secvl-i-d-a).

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arn.Ciqobavam 1984 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi nakvTeulTa sistema tradiciul sam seriad warmoadgina. amdenad, sayovelTaod gaziarebuli Tvalsazrisis mixedviT Tanamedrove qarTulSi 11 mwkrivi/nakvTi gamoiyofa. ukanasknel xans kvlav wamoiWra uRlebis sistemis, sauRlebel erTeulTa kvalifikaciisa da klasifikaciis sakiTxi. giorgi gogolaSvilma Tanamedrove qarTuli zmnis uRlebis sistema formaluri TvalsazrisiT 8 erTeulis (nakvTis) saxiT warmoadgina. I seriis 6 mwkrivi 3 sauRlebel erTeulad ganixila (zmniswini CamoaSora mwkrivis fuZes). avtoris mixedviT, ramdenadac nakvTTa gamoyofa da dajgufeba sawarmoebeli fuZis princips emyareba, unda gamoiyos imdeni nakvTi, ramdeni gansxvavebuli fuZec arsebobs. uRvlilebis sistema unda gaimarTos im principze, ra principiTac aris warmodgenili II da III seriaSi. es Tvalsazrisi I seriaSi sami nakvTis gamoyofas varaudobs. Sesabamisad, axal qarTulSi zmnuri formebi dajgufdeba sam seriad da 8 nakvTad:
I seria: 1-li nakvTi (awmyo-myofadi) _ (zmnisw.)-akeTebs me-2 nakvTi (uwyvetel-xolmeobiTi) _ (zmnisw.)-akeTebda me-3 nakvTi (I kavSirebiTi) _ (zmnisw.)-akeTebdes II seria: me-4 nakvTi (wyvetili) _ (zmnisw.)-akeTa me-5 nakvTi (II kavSirebiTi) _ (zmnisw.)-akeTos III seria: me-6 nakvTi (I TurmeobiTi) _ (zmnisw.)-ukeTebia me-7 nakvTi (II TurmeobiTi) _ (zmnisw.)-ekeTebina me-8 nakvTi (III kavSirebiTi) _ (zmnisw.)-ekeTebinos

5.6.7.TurmeobiTi I, II, kavSirebiTi III gardauval orpirian zmnaTa ({Se}s-cvl-i-a, s-cvl-od-a, s-cvl-od-e-s)> b) Sebrunebuli (inversiuli) wyobisa: 8. TurmeobiTi pirveli gardamaval zmnaTa (u-cvl-i-a). II. namyo ZiriTadisagan (cval-a) iwarmoeba nakvTebi: a) pirdapiri wyobisa: 9. namyo ZiriTadis xolmeobiTi (Zvel qarTulSi): (cval-i-s) 10. kavSirebiTi meore (cval-o-s) b) Sebrunebuli (inversiuli) wyobisa: 11. TurmeobiTi meore gardamaval zmnaTa ({Se}e-cval-a). 12. kavSirebiTi mesame gardamaval zmnaTa ({Se}e-cval-o-s).

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sauRlebel erTeulTa sruliad gansxvavebul paradigmas gvTavazobs avTandil arabuli. mkvlevarma semantikuri principis gaTvaliswinebiT, d. yifianis kvalad, yvela zmniswiniani forma calke sauRlebel erTeulad warmoadgina (sul 16 mwkrivi); avtoris azriT, mwkrivis arsebobisaTvis aucilebelia, erTi mxriv, damoukidebeli formis (fuZis), meore mxriv, damoukidebeli gramatikuli Sinaarsis (kategoriis an kategoriaTa jamis) qona. qarTuli zmnis paradigma Semdeg saxes miiRebs:
xatavs TxrobiTi+awmyo xatavda TxrobiTi+warsuli+uwyveteli xatavdes kavSirebiTi+[awmyo]+usruli daxatavs TxrobiTi+momavali daxatavda kavSirebiTi+[warsuli]+sruli daxatavdes kavSirebiTi+[momavali]+ sruli xata TxrobiTi+warsuli+usruli daxata TxrobiTi+warsuli+sruli xatos kavSirebiTi+[awmyo/momavali]+usruli daxatos kavSirebiTi+ [momavali]+usruli uxatavs TxrobiTi+warsuli+usruli+SedegobiTi dauxatavs TxrobiTi+warsuli+sruli+SedegobiTi exata kavSirebiTi+warsuli+usruli+SedegobiTi daexata kavSirebiTi+warsuli+sruli+SedegobiTi exatos " - - - - - - - -"“ daexatos " - - - - - - - -"“ (a.arabuli, 1999, gv.50).

(g.gogolaSvili, 1988, gv. 97-98).

nakvTTa dajgufebisa da uRvlilebis saxeobebi axleburad aris gaSuqebuli t. futkaraZis naSromSi: "qarTuli zmnis logikuri paradigmis sakiTxisaTvis"; mkvlevris azriT, sasurvelia, qarTuli zmnis paradigma aigos morfologiursintaqsuri (formaluri) da ara morfologiur-semantikuri principiT, miT umetes, manqanuri Targmanis modelirebisas ufro gamosadegi iqneba formaluri principiT agebuli paradigmisa da semantikuri konebis Sepirispireba; igi qarTuli zmnis sruli SesaZleblobebis warmosaCenad zmnuri formawarmoebis sistemas samsafexurovan paradigmad warmogvidgens (2006, gv. 88-95): - 180 -

I (didi) paradigma: zmnis formacvaleba yalibebis mixedviT (vakeTeb, vikeTeb, vukeTeb, vkeTdebi, vukeTdebi, vakeTebineb...); pirobiTad, am xmovanprefiqsian Tu uprefiqso saxesxvaobebs nakvTebs uwodebs; II (klasikuri) paradigma: zmnis mocemuli yalibis cvla mwkrivTa mixedviT (vakeTeb, vakeTebdi, gavakeTebdi, vakeTe...); III (mcire) paradigma: zmnis mocemuli yalibis mocemuli mwkrivis formis cvla pirTa (mxolobiTi, mravlobiTi) kombinaciebis mixedviT (me g-a-keT-eb Sen, me g-a-keT-eb-T Tqven, me v-a-keT-eb mas, me v-akeT-eb maT, Cven g-a-keT-eb-T Sen, Cven g-a-keT-eb-T Tqven, Cven v-a-keT-ebT mas...).

t. futkaraZis azriT, mwkrivTa rigi SeiZleba Seqmnas mxolod saerTo yalibisa da valentobis (ix.3.5.) mqone formebma; e.i. paradigmis SigniT gamoiricxeba e.w. inversia (v-wer m-i-weria) da erTi saxis paradigmis farglebSi sxvadasxva agebulebis yalibis monacvleoba - yalibTa sesxeba (v-mefob - v-imefe); aqve warmodgenilia vxatav zmnis uRlebis (formawarmoebis) nimuSi:
didi paradigma: me v-xat-av suraTs: miumarTavi moqmedebis gamomxatveli orvalentiani yalibi; me v-a-xat-av mas suraTs: sazedao moqmedebis gamomxatveli samvalentiani yalibi; me v-a-xat-v-in-eb mas suraTs: kauzatiuri moqmedebis gamomxatveli samvalentiani yalibi; me v-u-xat-av mas suraTs: adresatuli moqmedebis gamomxatveli samvalentiani yalibi; me v-i-xat-av suraTs: adresatuli moqmedebis gamomxatveli orvalentiani yalibi; me v-i-xat-eb-i: adresatuli moqmedebis gamomxatveli erTvalentiani yalibi; me v-e-xat-eb-i mas: uneblie moqmedebis gamomxatveli orvalentiani yalibi; me v-e-xat-v-in-eb-i mas: kauzatiuri moqmedebis gamomxatveli orvalentiani yalibi; me da-v-xat-ul-var: unaxavi da miumarTavi moqmedebis gamomxatveli erTvalentiani yalibi; me da-m-i-xat-av-s is: unaxavi moqmedebis gamomxatveli orvalentiani yalibi;

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me da-v-xat-v-i-var mas: unaxavi da miumarTavi moqmedebis gamomxatveli erTvalentiani yalibi; me miWmevs is mas saWmels: adresatuli moqmedebis gamomxatveli oTxvalentiani yalibi; me da-v-u-xat-av-var mas: TurmeobiTi da unaxavi moqmedebis gamomxatveli erTvalentiani yalibi; daxatuli var: aRweriTi erTvalentiani yalibi. klasikuri paradigma: me vxatav suraTs (awmyo/momavali dro, TxrobiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti); me davxatav suraTs (momavali dro, TxrobiTi kilo, sruli aspeqti); me vxatavdi suraTs (warsuli dro, TxrobiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti); me davxatavdi suraTs (warsuli/momavali dro, TxrobiTi kilo, sruli aspeqti); me vxatavde suraTs (awmyo/momavali dro, kavSirebiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti); me davxatavde suraTs (momavali dro, kavSirebiTi kilo, sruli aspeqti); me vxate suraTi (warsuli dro, TxrobiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti); me davxate suraTi (warsuli dro, TxrobiTi kilo da sruli aspeqti); Sen xate suraTi (momavali dro, brZanebiTi kilo da usruli aspeqti); Sen daxate suraTi (momavali dro, brZanebiTi kilo, sruli aspeqti); me vxato suraTi (awmyo/momavali dro, kavSirebiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti); me davxato suraTi (momavali dro, kavSirebiTi kilo,sruli aspeqti). mcire paradigma (TiTqmis analogiuri paradigma pirvelad warmoadgina s.xundaZem; ix.: s.xundaZe, 1904, gv. 115-116; Sdr., agreTve T.uTurgaiZe, 2002). me g-wer Sen me g-wer-T Tqven me v-wer mas

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me v-wer maT Cven g-werT Sen Cven g-werT Tqven Cven v-werT mas Cven v-werT maT me m-wer Sen me m-werT Tqven me m-wers is me m-weren isini Cven gv-wer Sen Cven gv-werT Tqven Cven gv-wers is Cven gvweren isini

Sen wer mas Sen wer maT Tqven werT mas Tqven werT maT Sen g-wers is Sen g-weren isini Tqven g-werT is Tqven g-weren isini

is wers mas is wers maT isini weren mas isini weren maT

specialistebis wreSi aseve sakamaToa zmnis kategoriaTa (dro, kilo... gvari, qceva, kauzativi...) kvalifikaciis sakiTxi, zmnis formamcvlel da sityvamawarmoebel kategoriaTa anu warmoqmnisa da uRlebis kategoriaTa gamijvna... amasTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa damana meliqiSvilis msjeloba qarTul zmnaSi gvaris cnebis winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTis Sesaxeb. mkvlevari qarTuli zmnis formisa (awmyos modelisa) da konstruqciis (pirTa relaciis gamoxatvis) mixedviT gamoyofs farTo gramatikul kategorias - diaTezas: "diaTeza aris sintaqsuri struqtura-meqanizmis organizaciisa da aqtantebis sintaqsuri relaciis morfologiuri gamoxatvis wesebis erTobliobis sistema" (d.meliqiSvili, 2001, gv. 66). diaTeza, rogorc zmnis gramatikuli (morfo-sintaqsuri) kategoria, formisa da sintaqsuri konstruqciis urTierTSesatyvisobas gviCvenebs, anu TiToeuli diaTezis mocemul konstruqcias yovelTvis erTi da igive morfologiuri struqtura Seesabameba. TiToeul diaTezaSi erTiandeba erTi struqturisa da erTi konstruqciis zmnebi da uRlebis tipebic imis mixedviT gamoiyofa; kerZod: I diaTezaSi Sedis: R-th-0 struqturis ergatiuli konstruqciis zmnebi; I qvejgufi: statikuri-gardauvali, avtoaqtivebi (vtiri, vcaxcaxeb, vboboqrob...) da II qvejgufi: di-

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namikuri-gardamavali, aqtivebi (romelTa MS brunvacvalebadia seriebis mixedviT: kveTs, texs, xvews...). II diaTezaSi gaerTianebulia R-th-i struqturis nominatiuri konstruqciis gardauvali dinamikuri zmnebi (vTbebi, viwerebi, vewerebi) da R-i struqturisa da nominatiuri konstruqciis statikuri zmnebi (weria/sweria, xatia, afenia...). III diaTezaSi moiazreba datiuri konstruqciis sxvadasxva zmnebi (miyvars, makankalebs, memRereba...) (d.meliqiSvili, 2001, gv. 66-69). amgvarad, qarTvel enaTmecnierTa da ucxoel qarTvelologTa kvlevebis safuZvelze qarTuli zmnis bevri problema saTanadod aris Seswavlili da gamokvleuli, Tumca qarTuli zmnis bunebis bolomde Secnoba da srulyofili analizi momavlis saqmed rCeba.
literatura anton I, qarTuli Rrammatika Sedgenili anton I-is mier, tfilisi, 1885. a. arabuli, zmnis formaTa semantikuri analizisaTvis: qarTuli zmnis formobrivi da semantikuri analizi: enaTmecnierebis institutis XLI samecniero sesiis masalebi, Tb., 1984. a. arabuli, qarTuli zmnis formaTa semantikuri analizisaTvis: macne (ena-literaturis seria), #4, Tb., 1992. a.arabuli, zmnis sauRlebel erTeulTa raodenobis sakiTxisaTvis qarTulSi: enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, #1, 1999. e. babunaSvili, anton pirveli da qarTuli gramatikis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1970. g. gogolaSvili, qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis sistema, Tb., 1988. T.gvancelaZe, enisa da dialeqtis sakiTxi qarTvelologiaSi, Tb., 2006. d. meliqiSvili, qarTuli zmnis uRlebis sistema, Tb., 2001. k. dodaSvili, axali gza-kvali qarTuli gramatikis kvlevaZiebisa: ”moambe", 1894, #4,6. sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, Txzulebani, t. IV, Tb., 1965. T. uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis Seswavlis istoria, Tb., 1999.

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T. uTurgaiZe, gramatikuli kategoriebisa da maTi urTierTmimarTebisaTvis qarTul zmnaSi, Tb., 2002. t. futkaraZe, qarTuli zmnis logikuri paradigmis sakiTxisaTvis: akaki wereTlis universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis Sromebi (enaTmecnieruli seria), t. VIII (I), quTaisi, 2006. a. SaniZe, qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1973. arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli zmnis nakvTeulTa dajgufebis principisaTvis: ike, XIII, Tb., 1962. А. С. Чикобава, Грузинский язык, ЕИКЯ, XI, Тбилиси, 1984. s. xundaZe, qarTuli gramatika, quTaisi, 1904. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli zmnis formobrivi da funqciuri analizis principebi, Tb., 1980.

3.4. sityvaTSexameba winadadebaSi gramatikuli wesebis Sesabamisad Seqmnil sityvaTa wyvils sityvaTSexameba (sintaqsuri kavSiri, Tavisufali Sesityveba) hqvia. samecniero literaturaSi ganasxvaveben sityvaTSexamebasa da Sesityvebas (a.daviTiani, 1973, gv. 364). zog enaSi sintaqsuri kavSiri sustia da sityvaTSexameba winadadebis wevrTa rigiT ganisazRvreba. qarTuli, rogorc aglutinaciuri (afiqsebiani) ena, mdidaria sityvaTSexamebis saxeebiT; qarTuli winadadebis azris gasagebad arsebiTi ar aris sityvaTa rigi, Tumca enobrivi normebisa da stilis TvalsazrisiT yuradReba eqceva winadadebis wevrTa Tanmimdevrobasac. sintaqsur wyvilSi sityvebs Soris kavSiris saxeebia: SeTanxmeba, marTva da mirTva. wyvilSi erTi gabatonebuli, ZiriTadi wevria, meore - daqvemdebarebuli, ZiriTadis damakonkretebeli (Sdr., sazRvruli da msazRvreli farTo gagebiT). SeTanxmeba sityvaTa iseTi SekavSirebaa, rodesac daqvemdebarebuli sityva iRebs im formas, romelic wamyvan sityvas aqvs. SeTanxmebisaTvis aucilebelia, SesityvebaSi Semaval sityvebs saziaro gramatikuli kategoria hqondes. qarTulSi saxelebisaTvis ziaria brunvisa da ricxvis kategoria, zmnisa - 185 -

da saxelisTvis ki _ ricxvisa. aqedan gamomdinare, gamoiyofa SeTanxmebis sami ZiriTadi SemTxveva: 1. saxeli iTanxmebs saxels brunvaSi; 2. saxeli iTanxmebs saxels ricxvSi; 3. saxeli iTanxmebs zmnas ricxvSi; im sityvas, romelic iTanxmebs, maTanxmebels uwodeben, im sityvas ki, romelic eTanxmeba _ SeTanxmebuls. maTanxmebeli sityva saxelia, SeTanxmebuli _ saxeli an zmna. samecniero literaturaSi SeTanxmebis erT-erT SemTxvevad gamoyofen saxelisa da zmnis pirSi SeTanxmebasac (l.kvaWaZe, i.imnaiSvili, a.daviTiani...). marTva sityvaTa iseTi sintaqsuri damokidebulebaa, rodesac erTi sityva meorisagan moiTxovs iseT formas, romelic mas ar gaaCnia saerTod an ar aqvs mocemul SemTxvevaSi. im sityvas, romelic marTavs, mmarTavi ewodeba; xolo im sityvas, romelic imarTvis, marTuli hqvia. arn.Ciqobava marTvis oTx SemTxvevas gamoyofs: 1. saxeli marTavs saxels brunvaSi (xis saxli); 2. saxeli marTavs zmnas pirSi (mwers me); 3. zmna marTavs saxels brunvaSi (daxata dedam); 4. formaucvleli sityva marTavs saxels brunvaSi (saxlis garSemo). im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mmarTavi sityva uSualod moiTxovs marTuli sityvisagan ama Tu im brunvis formas, marTva uSualoa. mag.: lamazma qalma; im SemTxvevaSi ki, rodesac marTvaSi monawileobs Tandebuliani saxeli da misi mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebuli zogierTi zmnizeda, romelic wyvilSi Sedis zmnasTan, saqme gvaqvs SualobiT marTvasTan (arn.Ciqobava, l.kvaWaZe...). mirTva srulmniSvnelovan sityvaTa iseTi SekavSirebaa, rodesac wamyvani sityva damokidebuls ikavSirebs mxolod Sinaarsobliv ise, rom amas raime gramatikuli gamoxatuleba ar axlavs. ”mirTva nulamde dayvanili marTvaa. marTvis dasustebis gziT mivdivarT mirTvisaken" (arn.Ciqobava, 1968, gv.120). mirTvis SemTxvevebia: 1. formaucvleli sityva mierTvis zmnas an nazmnar saxels (nela werda); - 186 -

2. Tandebuliani saxeli mierTvis zmnas an nazmnar saxels (saxlSi midis). martiv winadadebaSi sintaqsur wyvilTa ricxvi winadadebis wevrTa raodenobaze erTiT naklebia; ganvixiloT sintaqsuri wyvilTa saxeebi martivi winadadebis mixedviT: "Zalian lamazi qali aCqarebuli nabijiT Semovida oTaxSi". konstruqciaSi 6 sintaqsuri wyvilia. qali Semovida: gabatonebuli wevria Semasmeneli; SeTanxmeba gvaqvs ricxvSi (Sdr.: qalebi Semovidnen). qvemdebares (saxels) brunvaSi marTavs Semasmeneli (zmna): zmna iTxovs, rom saxeli iyos saxelobiT brunvaSi. amave dros, qvemdebare (saxeli) zmnas marTavs pirSi (Sdr.: Sen Semoxvedi, is Semovida), e.i. gvaqvs saurTierTo marTva - koordinacia (ix. qvemoT; 3.5.). nabijiT Semovida: gabatonebuli wevria Semasmeneli; viTarebis garemoebas (saxels) marTavs Semasmeneli (zmna). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom nabijiT Semovida wyvili samecniero literaturaSi mirTvadac ganixileba. oTaxSi Semovida: gabatonebuli wevria Semasmeneli; adgilis garemoebas (saxels) marTavs Semasmeneli (zmna): zmna saxels iTxovs Si-morfemiani formamawarmoebeli yalibiT brunviT. lamazi qali: gabatonebuli wevria qvemdebare; SeTanxmeba gvaqvs brunvaSi: lamazi (gansazRvreba) brunvaSi eTanxmeba qvemdebares (arsebiTi saxels). Zalian lamazi: gabatonebuli wevria zedsarTavi saxeli, zmnizeda mirTulia zedsarTavze, misi msazRvrelia, gansazRvrebaa (da ara viTarebis garemoeba; garemoeba, rogorc wesi, unda axldes Semasmenels). aCqarebuli[T] nabijiT: gabatonebuli wevria viTarebis garemoeba (arsebiTi saxeli), romelic moqmedebiT brunvaSi iTanxmebs msazRvrels (zedsarTavi saxelis rolSi warmodgenil mimReobas). sintaqsur wyvilTa warmodgenili kvalifikacia kargad asaxavs qarTuli winadadebis wevrTa ierarqias, romelic warmoCndeba uSualo Semadgenlebis meTodiT (ix. qvemoT 3.5.). - 187 -

sityvaTSexameba (Tavisufali Sesityveba) SeiZleba iqces myar Sesityvebad - frazeologiur erTeulad (a.daviTiani, 1973, gv. 355-368; T.gamyreliZe, 2003, gv.374-379). frazeologiuri erTeuli dauSlelia, Tumca sintaqsuri kavSiris saxeebi Tavisufali sityvaTSexamebis analogiuria; Sdr.: nemsis yunwSi (saxeli marTavs saxels brunvaSi) gaZvra; tyuils mokle fexebi (saxeli iTanxmebs saxels brunvaSi) aqvs; eg kaci wyals nayavs (zmna saxels marTavs brunvaSi da saxeli marTavs zmnas pirSi)...
literatura a. daviTiani, qarTuli enis sintaqsi, Tb., 1973. a. kiziria, martivi winadadebis Sedgeniloba Zvel qarTulSi, Tb., 1963. l. kvaWaZe, qarTuli enis sintaqsi, Tb., 1988. d.meliqiSvili, qarTuli zmnis uRlebis sistema. Tb., 2001. r. enuqiZe, birTvuli winadadeba qarTulSi: kreb. "Tanamedrove zogadi da maTematikuri enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi", t. II, Tb., 1967. J. feiqriSvili, qarTuli enis sintaqsi, quTaisi, 1996. arn. Ciqobava, zogadi enaTmecniereba, II, Tb., 1945; Tb., 1952. arn. Ciqobava, enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1952. arn. Ciqobava, martivi winadadebis problema qarTulSi, I, Tb., 1968.

3.5. winadadeba sityvas an sityvaTa jgufs, romelic dasrulebul azrs gamoxatavs, winadadeba ewodeba. winadadebas swavlobs enaTmecnierebis dargi - sintaqsi. qarTul enaSi, msgavsad sxva enebisa, winadadeba agebulebis mixedviT sami tipisaa: martivi, Serwymuli da rTuli. tradiciuli gamartebiT, martivia winadadeba, Tu igi gadmocemulia erTi an ramdenime sityviT, romlebSic ar urevia erTgvari wevrebi.

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Serwymulia (anu Tanwyobilwevrebiania) winadadeba, romelic Seicavs erT saerTo wevrTan dakavSirebul ramdenime erTmaneTis mimarT Tanwyobil wevrs. rTulia winadadeba, romelic Sedgeba ori an meti martivi Tu Serwymuli winadadebisagan (l.kvaWaZe, 1996). amjerad mxolod martiv winadadebas ganvixilavT. sintaqsis cnebebia: Semasmeneli, qvemdebare, gansazRvreba, damateba, garemoeba, CarTuli, kavSiri. tradiciuli sintaqsis cnebebis mixedviT, qarTuli winadadeba srulyofilad ganxiluli aqvs l. kvaWaZes. qarTveluri da iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis sintaqsis kvlevis (ergatiuli konstruqciis arsisa da winadadebis wevrTa Soris mimarTebis kvlevis) TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs arn. Ciqobavas. Tanamedrove meTodologiiT qarTuli enis sintaqsis gamorCeuli mkvlevaria akaki daviTiani. arn. Ciqobavas azriT, qarTul winadadebaTa sintaqsuri meqanizmis specifikurobisTvis gadamwyveti mniSvnelobisaa ori kardinaluri mniSvnelobis sintaqsuri faqti: a) zmna marTavs morfologiuri subieqtis brunvas iseve, rogorc morfologiuri obieqtisas da b) morfologiuri obieqti marTavs zmnis pirs iseve, rogorc morfologiuri subieqti. amitomac, am tipis winadadebaSi marTvis adgils iWers koordinacia. arn. Ciqobava koordinacias uwodebs iseT rTul sintaqsur urTierTobas, rodesac zmna marTavs masTan morfologiurad dakavSirebuli saxelebis - morfologiuri subieqtisa (MS) da morfologiuri obieqtis (MO) brunvebs, saxelni, Tavis mxriv, marTaven zmnis pirs da iTanxmeben mas ricxvSi. ara gvaqvs oden marTuli zmna - Semasmeneli, arc oden mmarTveli (zmnisa) saxeli - qvemdebare, arc saxeli, marTuli zmnis mier - damateba; aris mxolod koordinatebi: koordinati aris koordinaciaSi monawile sityva (saxelebi Tu zmna). koordinati SeiZleba iyos ZiriTadi, didi, mcire da umciresi. ZiriTadi koordinatia (coordinata princeps) zmna, romelic brunvaSi marTavs masTan dakavSirebul saxelebs (MS da MO); igi centria koordinaciisa.

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saxelebi (MS da MO) gvevlineba didi, mcire da umciresi koordinatis rolSi. didia is koordinati (coordinata major), romelic marTavs zmnas pirSi da iTanxmebs ricxvSi. mcirea is koordinati (coordinata minor), romelic marTavs zmnis pirs, magram ver iTanxmebs mas ricxvSi. umciresia is koordinati (coordinata minima), romelic iTanxmebs zmnas ricxvSi, magram ver marTavs zmnis pirs (arn. Ciqobava, 1968). koordinaciis Tu SeTanxmeba-marTva-mirTvis arsis garkveva gvWirdeba winadadebis sintaqsuri analizisTvis (sintaqsuri analizi ki - swori winadadebis agebisaTvis). Tavis mxriv, sintaqsuri analizis ramdenime meTodi arsebobs: a. winadadebis analizi tradiciuli sintaqsis cnebebiT: winadadebis wevrTa urTierToba ganixileba sintaqsuri wyvilebis gauTvaliswineblad; b. distribuciuli analizi: sityvaTa klasebis urTierTmimarTebis gansazRvra mTliani winadadebis fonze; es meTodi warmatebuli ver iqneba qarTulisTvis, ramdenadac igi arsebiTad gadaWarbebulad afasebs sityvaTa rigs (a.daviTiani). g. uSualo SemadgenelTa meTodiT ganisazRvreba winadadebaSi sintaqsur wyvilTa ierarqia; mag., aviRoT aseTi winadadeba: "patara (gansazRvreba) giorgi (qvemdebare) ukanmouxedavad (garemoeba) garboda (Semasmeneli)". es winadadeba oTxi komponentisagan Sedgeba: "patara", "giorgi", "ukanmouxedavad", "garboda". am winadadebaSi uSualo SemadgenelTa mixedviT analizis procesi sami saxiT gamoixateba: 1. frCxilebis saSualebiT: S (NP [patara]+N [giorgi])+adv [ukanmouxedavad]+V [garboda]) 2. grafikulad, uSualo SemadgenelTa xis saSualebiT: S NP VP

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A

N

Adv

V

patara giorgi ukanmouxedavad

garboda

3. uSualo SemadgenelTa aRmniSvneli klasebis TanmimdevrobiT gadaweris gziT: S : NP+VP; NP : A+N; VP : adv +V; sadac: S - garboda, N - giorgi, A - patara, V - garboda, Adv ukanmouxedavad. d. transformaciuli meTodi SesaZleblobas iZleva, Tvali gavadevnoT mocemuli winadadebis struqturis siRrmiseul variantebs da zustad gavarkvioT struqturul erTeulTa funqcia. e. sintagmaturi analizis mixedviT, winadadeba ganixileba, rogorc mis Semadgenel elementTa wrfivi ganfeniloba, romelic SeiZleba mxolod sintagmebad daiyos. sintagmad iTvleba winadadebis Semadgeneli erTeuli, romelic erTurTTan garkveuli logikuri, semantikuri, gramatikuli da sxv. (magaliTad, pragmatuli) kavSiriT Sexamebuli elementebisgan Sedgeba (a.daviTiani). v. relaciuri meTodiT (winadadebis analizi mimarTebaTa mixedviT) ganisazRvreba winadadebis wevris funqcia masTan dakavSirebul sityvasTan mimarTebiT; mag., am meTodis erTerTi wesis Tanaxmad, "nebismieri erTeuli, romelic mimarTebaSia zmna-Semasmenlis subieqtur pirTan, aris qvemdebare" (araiSviaTad, relaciuri wesebi sakamaToa). z. winadadebis analizi aqtantebis mixedviT. meTodi daamuSava l. tenierma; misi azriT, fraza aris speqtakli, sadac zmna mTavari moqmedi piria, xolo zmnasTan dakavSirebuli saxelebi moqmedi pirebi (aqtantebi - frang. actants "moqmedi") arian; frazis elementia kavSiric. am analiziT, sintaqsuri kavSiri mxolod daqvemdebarebiTia: maRali rigis elementi marTavs dabali rigisas. l. teniers enaTmecnierebaSi gadmoaqvs valentobis cneba, romelic asaxavs zmnis unars, dai- 191 -

kavSiros saxelTa garkveuli raodenoba (Sdr., pirianoba: zmnaSi asaxul aqtantTa raodenoba). winadadeba logikur-gramatikuli struqturaa; metyvelebis nakadSi (azris gamoTqmis dros) xdeba struqturis realizeba (aqtualizeba - a.daviTiani), Tumca, winadadebis saxes bevrad gansazRvravs intonacia (sintaqsur-semantikuri funqciis mqone fonetikuri movlena), romelic gamoixateba maxvilisa da pauzis saSualebiT. maxvilica da pauzac samgvaria: gramatikuli, logikuri da fsiqologiuri. winadadebis damatebiTi aqtualizeba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes: mimarTviT, CarTuliT, poeturi gameorebiT; agreTve: CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebiT, nawilakebiT, kavSirebiT da sxv. martivi da rTuli winadadebebis siRrmiseuli Tu zedapiruli struqturebis adekvatur analizze bevrad aris damokidebuli Tanamedrove enobrivi teqnologiebis damuSaveba da maTi aqtiuri gamoyenebiT teqstis "gaazreba" manqanis mier, avtomaturi Targmanebis ganxorcieleba da sxv..
literatura r. asaTiani, martivi winadadebis tipologiuri analizi, Tb., 1982. T. gamyreliZe, zmnis "pirianoba" da "valentoba": saenaTmecniero krebuli, eZRvneba g. maWavarianis xsovnas, Tb., 1979. a. daviTiani, qarTuli enis sintaqsi, Tb., 1973. m. damenia, qarTuli enis zmnuri morfemebis struqturuli modelebi, Tb., 1982. l. kvaWaZe, qarTuli enis sintaqsi, Tb., 1996. r. enuqiZe, birTvuli winadadeba qarTulSi: kreb. Tanamedrove zogadi da maTematikuri enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, t. II, Tb., 1967. r. enuqiZe, transformaciuli meTodi da misi gamoyeneba qarTuli enis martivi winadadebis masalaze, sakandidato disertacia, 1969. r. enuqiZe, winadadebis aqtualuri danawevreba da misi mimarTeba sintaqsuri da semantikuri analizis Tanamedrove meTodebTan: kreb. "Tanamedrove zogadi enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi", VI, Tb., 1981.

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r. enuqiZe, ZiriTadi sintaqsuri Teoriebi Tanamedrove sazRvargareTul enaTmecnierebaSi, Tb., 1987. l. kiknaZe, zmnis oTxpirianobisaTvis qarTulSi: Jurn. "komunisturi aRzrdisaTvis", Tb., 1937, #8-9. В. С.Kраковский, Истоки вервацентрической концепции предложения в русском языкознании, ВЯ, 1983, #3, с. 110-117. g. maWavariani, uniSno vnebiTi qarTvelur enebSi: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, I, Tb., 1959. m. maWavariani, refleqsivisa da qcevis kategoriebis mimarTebisaTvis: kreb. Tanamedrove zogadi enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, V, Tb., 1980. l. nozaZe, in-eniani vnebiTebis urTierTobis sakiTxisaTvis qarTulSi: ike, IX-X, Tb., 1958. l. nozaZe, medioaqtiv zmnaTa warmoebis zogi sakiTxi qarTulSi: ike, XIX, Tb., 1974. J. feiqriSvili, qarTuli enis sintaqsi, quTaisi, 1996. В. Скаличка, О грамматике венгерского языка, "Пражский лингвистический кружок", Москва, 1967. В. М. Солнцев, Относительно концепции глубинной структуры, ВЯ, 1976, 5 с. 13-25 . T. SaraZeniZe, Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebis Teoriuli sakiTxebi, Tb., 1972. arn. Ciqobava, ergatiuli konstruqciis raobis Teoriebi, Tb., 1961. arn. Ciqobava, martivi winadadebis problema qarTulSi, I, Tb., 1968. Р. А. Холл, Критика теории омского ВЯ, 1978, 5. Н. Хомский, Аспекты теории синтаксиса, М., 1972. Z.S. Harris, String Analysis of Sentence Structure, The Hague, Mouton, 1962.

Tavi IV qarTuli samwignobro enis leqsika da sityvawarmoeba
4.1. qarTuli leqsikisa da terminologiis Seswavlis istoriis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

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enaTmecnierebis dargs, romelic leqsikas ikvlevs, leqsikologia ewodeba (berZn. lēxikos "sityvisa" da logos "moZRvreba"). leqsikas sxvadasxva kuTxiT swavlobs, agreTve: semasiologia (sityvaTa da gamoTqmaTa mniSvnelobas), etimologia (sityvaTa warmomavlobas, Tavdapirvel mniSvnelobas), onomasiologia (sityvas, rogorc saxels), leqsikografia (leqsikonis Sedgenis Teoriis sakiTxebs). varaudoben, rom enebSi saSualod naxevari milioni sityva da gamoTqmaa. leqsika enis yvelaze cvalebadi nawilia. leqsikur erTeulTa swrafi cvalebadoba aixsneba maTi mniSvnelobebis uSualo kavSiriT gareenobriv sinamdvilesTan: leqsikur maragSi TvalsaCinod aisaxeba is gardaqmnebi, romlebic samyaroSi xdeba; axali realobis gaCenasTan erTad leqsikuri erTeulic Cndeba. paralelurad zogi sityva gamodis sayovelTao xmarebidan; amis aRnusxva SeuZlebelia, amitom zustad ver davadgenT ama Tu im enaSi arsebul leqsikur erTeulTa raodenobas. leqsikologiuri muSaoba Zvel saqarTveloSi mwignobrobis warmoqmnisTanave unda dawyebuliyo. amas mowmobs uZvelesi xelnaweri Zeglebi (originaluri da naTargmni), romelTa mniSvnelovan nawils Tan axlavs sqolio, sadac warmodgenilia sityvaTa - cnebaTa ganmartebani. qarTuli terminTSemoqmedeba erT-erTi uZvelesi procesia, Sesabamisad, metad faseulia msoflios lingvisturi azrovnebis istoriisTvis. "SuSanikis wamebis" daxvewili literaturuli ena mowmobs, rom V saukunisaTvis ukve arsebobda kargad ganviTarebuli qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo da samecniero terminologia (terminus "sazRvari", "zRvari"). VIII-IX saukuneebSi grigol xanZTelis TaosnobiT Seqmnilma tao-klarjeTis literaturulma skolam axali etapi Seqmna terminologiis ganviTarebisaTvis. qarTuli enis terminTqmnadobis (leqsikis/terminebis mecnieruli gziT Seqmnis) axali aqtiuri periodi daiwyo X-XIII saukuneebidan. saqarTvelos teritoriaze Tu mis sazRvrebs gareT arsebul samecniero centrebSi (gelaTis, iyalTos akademiebSi, - 194 -

dResac erT-erTi ZiriTadi wyaroa ama Tu im dargis terminebis SemuSavebis dros. qarTuli leqsikis istoriisaTvis aseve mniSvnelovania vaxtang meeqvsis, vaxuSti batoniSvilis, anton kaTalikosis, daviT reqtoris, niko da daviT CubinaSvilebis memkvidreoba. XIX-XX saukuneebi sruliad axali etapia leqsikisa da, saerTod, enis SeswavlisaTvis. ukve yalibdeba samecniero disciplinebi, romlebic akademiurad swavloben enis yovel mxares; gaCnda leqsikis Semswavleli ramdenime samecniero dargi. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mieqca terminologias. terminologiis sakiTxebiT qarTuli sazogadoebis did dainteresebaze metyvelebs XIX saukunis qarTuli presa, romelSic sistemurad ibeWdeboda terminologiuri masalebi, terminologiis sakiTxebze gamarTuli krebebisa da diskusie-

navs, rom qarTvelebs manamdec hqoniaT leqsikoni, romelic "JamTa viTarebiTa uCinod qmniliyo"); sabas leqsikografiuli Sedevri

aTonis, Savi mTis, petriwonis literaturul skolebSi) X-XII saukuneebSi Seiqmna myari tradiciebi sityvaTa warmoebisa da Txzvisa. qarTuli leqsika am droisaTvis iseTi maRali donisa iyo, rom mas Seswevda unari, gadmoeca maSindeli msoflios goniTi miRwevis yvela niuansi. d.meliqiSvilisa da sxvaTa gamokvlevebi cxadyofs, rom XII saukuneSi qarTul enaze ukve arsebobda mdidari Teologiuri da samecniero terminologia, intensiurad viTardeboda humanitaruli dargebi, filosofiuri azrovneba... am droisaTvis qarTuli leqsikis gamorCeuli mkvlevrebi iyvnen: ioane da eqvTime aTonelebi, giorgi mTawmindeli, efrem mcire, arsen iyalToeli, "saRvTo filosofosi" - ioane petriwi, nikoloz gulaberisZe da sxvani. XIV saukunidan XVII saukunis damdegamde, saqarTvelos politikur-sazogadoebrivi da ekonomikuri cxovrebidan gamomdinare, qveyanaSi kulturul-literaturuli winsvla aRar igrZnoba. leqsikologiur sferoSic aRorZineba iwyeba XVII saukunidan, vaxtang meeqvsisa da sulxan-sabas saganmanaTleblo moRvaweobiT. sabas "leqsikoni qarTuli" mravali kuTxiTaa saintereso (didi leqsikografi gulistkiviliT aRniS-

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bis Sedegebi, recenziebi terminologiuri leqsikonebis Sesaxeb da sxv. XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi samecniero terminologias aqtiurad qmnis da qveynis masStabiT terminTqmandobis process xelmZRvanelobs didi ilia. misi TaosnobiT ganxorcielebulma enis reformam myari safuZveli moamzada momdevno periodis terminologiuri muSaobisaTvis; ilia WavWavaZem Seqmna terminologiuri muSaobis meTodologia, romelic gulisxmobda: 1. qarTuli enis leqsikuri fondis maqsimalurad amoqmedebas, rac gamoixata, erTi mxriv, miviwyebuli Zveli samecniero terminebis, meore mxriv - qarTveluri dialeqturi monacemebis moZieba-aRnusxvaSi; 2. sityvawarmoebas tradiciuli qarTveluri yalibebis mixedviT da 3. saerTaSoriso terminebis sesxebas. nasesxobebisa da barbarizmebis pirveli marTebuli gamijvna swored ilia WavWavaZis damsaxurebaa (i.vaSakiZe, 2005). XIX-XX saukuneebis moRvaweTagan unda gamovyoT, agreTve: solomon dodaSvilis, dimitri yifianis (qarTuli gramatika), konstantine da varlam yifianebis (algebra, geometria, teqnika), vasil petriaSvilis (qimia) terminologiuri moRvaweoba. mecnierebis ganviTarebis kvalad, XX saukunis pirveli naxevridan axal masStabebs iZens qarTuli terminTSemoqmedeba; 1920 wels gamoica ”rusul-qarTuli teqnikuri leqsikoni (sityvari)", ramac didi roli Seasrula Tanamedrove qarTuli terminebis Seqmnasa da danergvaSi (swored am
dros Semovida bevri cnobili termini: wneva, deni, Zrava, minarevi, sinjara, marTi kuTxe...).

XX saukunis qarTuli samecniero terminologiis gamdidreba-gamravalferovneba iv. javaxiSvilis saxels ukavSirdeba. 1936 wels man Seqmna samecniero terminologiis specialuri ganyofileba, romlis muSaobaSi imTaviTve Caebnen sxvadasxva dargis specialistebi: aleqsandre janeliZe, niko musxeliSvili, andria razmaZe, giorgi axvlediani, arnold Ciqobava, dimitri uznaZe, akaki SaniZe, simon yauxCiSvili da - 196 -

sxvebi. maTi muSaobis Sedegad aTeulobiT sxvadaxva terminologiuri leqsikoni gamovida. Tanamedrove msoflioSi adamianuri cxovrebis axali realobebi axali terminologiis swrafi qmnadobis aucileblobas qmnis. eleqtronuli proeqtebisa da samyaros axleburad xedvis Sesabamisi cnebebis aRsaniSnavad droulad unda moxdes qarTuli saleqsikono masalis gamoyeneba, rom Cveni ena gaumarTleblad ar damZimdes barbarizmebiT da, bolos, saerTod ar dakargos kulturuli enis funqcia. saqarTveloSi terminTqmnadobis Tvisobrivad axali etapi dgeba.
literatura T. gamyreliZe, z. kiknaZe, i. Saduri, n. Sengelia, enaTmecnierebis Teoriuli kursi, Tb., 2003. d. meliqiSvili, ioane petriwis filosofiur SromaTa ena da stili, Tb., 1975. d.meliqiSvili, Zveli qarTuli filosofiur-Teologiuri terminologiis istoriidan: "logosi", Tb., 1999. i. vaSakiZe, ilia WavWavaZe - terminTSemoqmedi, Tb., 2005. g. nebieriZe, enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 2003. m.tabiZe, axali Taobis qarTvel mweralTa erTi jgufis enobriv TaviseburebaTa Sesaxeb: gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis Jurnali #4, quTaisi, 2006. m.tabiZe, onomastika da leqsikologia: iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis weliwdeuli, t. XXII, Tb., 2003. m.tabiZe, leqsikur nasesxobaTa zogi sakiTxis Sesaxeb quTaisuri saubrebi: qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t.I. quTaisi, 1996. m.tabiZe, -oba sufiqsiani warmoeba musikis terminologiaSi: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, t.I. Tb., 1996. М.Табидзе, Фонетические процессы в заимствованной лексике на разных этапах развития грузинского языка. Десятый международный коллоквиум Европейского общества кавказоведов. (тезисы докладов). Махачкала, Республика Дагестан. 1998. b. foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia, Tb., 1966.

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r. RambaSiZe, qarTuli samecniero terminologia da misi Sedgenis ZiriTadi principebi, Tb., 1986. al. Rlonti, qarTuli leqsikologiis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1971. al. Rlonti, qarTuli leqsikografiis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1983.

4.2. saerTo iberiul-kavkasiuri leqsika
yovel ers ainteresebs Tavisi enis leqsikis warmomavloba; msoflios sxva enaTa msgavsad, qarTulis leqsikuri fondic sxvadasxva istoriis mqone sityvebisgan iqmneboda; kerZod, Tanamedrove qarTveluri (qarTuli) enis mravalferovani leqsika Sedgeba: saerTo iberiul-kavkasiuri, saerToqarTveluri, sakuTriv dialeqturi da nasesxebi sityvaformebisgan. qarTul samwignobro enasa da qarTvelur ena-kiloebSi gamovlenilia mTeli wyeba sityvebisa, romelTa Zirebi enaTesaveba imier-kavkasiuri (afxazur-abazur-Cerqezuli, CeCnuringuSuri da daRestnuri) enebis sityvebs. specialur literaturaSi iberiul-kavkasiur enebs Soris dadgenilia regularuli da kanonzomieri bgeraTSesatyvisobani, rac utyuars xdis am enaTa leqsikis ZiriTadi nawilis saerTo warmomavlobas (iv. javaxiSvili, arn. Ciqobava, g. rogava, q.lomTaTiZe, t. gudava, v. Sengelia, r. abaSia, m. Cuxua, c.baramiZe...). mravalricxovani masalidan sailustraciod warmovadgenT qarTvelur-daRestnur-naxur saerTo ZirTa ramdenime nimuSs (vimowmebT m. Cuxuas gamokvlevis mixedviT): saerToqarTveluri m-ze ”mze” (Sdr.: ze-viT, ze-ze), megruli bJa, Wanuri mJora, svanuri miJ/mHJ; bacburi {zDu}, CaCnuri zDM<*zM ”sxivi”, inguSuri zDH ”sxivi”, winarenaxuri zi ”id”; xunZur-lakuri i-z-an ”adgoma”, arCibuli bu-c-is ”adgoma”, lezgiuri aBÄEa-z-un ”adgoma”, Tabasaranuli zujE-uz ”adgoma”, aRuluri Ru-z-as ”adgoma”, ruTuluri luz-un ”adgoma”, waxuri ulu-z-ar-as ”adgoma”; winaredaRestnuri -z- ” zesvla" (Sdr. qarT. ze, ze-viT, ze-da...). saerToqarTveluri *wued-/wEeT-, wEeT-i, megrul-Wanuri WEaT-/wEaT-, svanuri Eid<hEid<WEed ”cvari, wveTi”; bacburi darw-, CaCnuri derz/Z, inguSuri dar ”wvimianoba”, saer- 198 -

Tonaxuri *darw- (<*daw < winarenaxuri *wad) ”wvimianoba”; xunZuri wÄad/wad, andiuri wÄa, boTlixuri wÄa~, Wamalaluri wÄK, bagvaluri wÄa~, karatauli wÄa~, axvaxuri wÄari<wÄadi ”wvima”, boTlixuri wÄai<wÄari ”wveTi, siTxe”, lezgiuri stal<*wdal ”wveTi, siTxe”, Tabasaranuli wadal ”wveTi, siTxe”, aRuluri war ”wveTi, siTxe”, kriwuli wadi ”wveTi, siTxe”, winaredaRestnuri *wad ”wveTi, siTxe”. saerToqarTveluri wod- ”wodeba”, ”kiTxva”, ”saxeli”; svanuri WEd-, li-WEd-i ”SekiTxva”, bacburi weT ”saxeli”, ”dideba”, CaCnuri w~TÄ, inguSuri w~eTÄ, winarenaxuri *wed ”saxeli”; didouri wod-er-a/jod-ir-a ”gawodeba (xelis)”; hunziburi, hinuxuri wod- ”Tqma, metyveleba”; lezgiuri, Tabasaranuli, aRuluri Wal ”Tqma, metyveleba”, arCibuli WaT ”Tqma, metyveleba”, winaredaRestnuri *wod ”gawodeba”, ”miwodeba”. saerToqarTveluri vaS-li/*vaS-al-i, megrul-Wanuri uSqur-i/uSq-ir-i, svanuri Eisg-E<EiSg-E<*EiSq-l; winarenaxuri *vaS- "vaSli"; winaredaRestnuri *veS- "vaSli". saerToqarTveluri as-ul-i, winarenaxuri *~-as "qaliSvili", winaredaRestnuri *~-as "qaliSvili". saerToqarTveluri ZEal-i "Zvali", winarenaxuri *Zal"nekni"; winaredaRestnuri *Zal(a) "nekni". saerToqarTveluri ZaR-l-i/*ZaR-al-i, megrul-Wanuri joR-or-i, svanuri JeR/JeR-E, winarenaxuri *ZoR(ar)>woy(ar-); winaredaRestnuri *ZiR(or)>wiy-(or) ”focxveri". saerToqarTveluri cici "cici-naTela" (Sdr., lazuri CiCi), winarenaxuri *cic- "mweri, winaredaRestnuri *cec "CrCili". saerToqarTveluri sueli "Srati" (Sdr., svanuri SEel "Srati"), winarenaxuri *sual ”Srati, do", winaredaRestnuri *suale ”Srati, sEeli". SedarebiT vrclad ganvixilavT ”venaxi” sityvis istorias: saerToqarTvelur doneze aRadgenen *Ein-aB formas, romelsac qarTvelur qvesistemebSi gaaCnia Sesatyvisoba: qarT. ven- 199 -

Sdr., T. gamyreliZisa da v. ivanovis azriT, Rvino, venaxi indoevropuli enebidan nasesxeb leqsemebs warmoadgens). literatura

ax-i : zan. bin-ex-i: svan. Een-aB. Ein-aB rTuli Sedgenilobisaa: Ein+ax. pirveli komponenti Ein- igive Ziria, rac *REin(o) sityvaSia. E-s win R ganviTarebulia (Sdr. svan. RvaJ ”vaJi”, RvaWar "vaWari”). komponentis meore nawili ax- dRes qarTvelur qvesistemebSi damoukideblad ar ixmareba. am sityvis etimologiuri kvlevis gasaRebs mTis kavkasiuri enebi iZleva. -ax Ziri dasturdeba daRestnur enebSi: xunZuri ax, boTlixuri, Rodoberiuli axi, axvaxuri aBi, andiuri oxi, didouri ax ”zvari”, darguuli anB, lakuri aB ”baRi”. e.i. ven-ax-i niSnavs ”Rvinis baRs”. saerToqarTveluri *Ein-(o) ”Rvino” sityvis Sesatyvisebic dasturdeba kavkasiur enebSi: naxuri ven, afxazuri a-EH(n) ”Rvino”. rogorc Cans, mTis kavkasiur enebSi calcalke dasturdeba rogorc ven-, ise aB- fuZeebi. maTi kompozicia mxolod saerToqarTvelur doneze moxda, Ein-aB sityvawarmoeba saerToqarTveluri donisaa. saerToqarTvelur enobriv cnobierebaSi venaxi erTi sityvaa (m. Cuxua, 2003;

T. gamyreliZe, sibilantTa Sesatyvisobani da qarTvelur enaTa uZvelesi struqturis zogi sakiTxi, Tb., 1959. Т. В. Гамкрелидзе, В. В. Иванов, Индоевропейский язык и индоевропейцы, т. I-II, Тбилиси, 1984. o. Tedeevi, narkvevebi osur-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan, Tb., 1988. g. rogava, iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa saero kuTvnilebis Tesvis aRmniSvneli fuZe: ike, t. VI, 1954. b. foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia, Tb., 1974. arn. Ciqobava, Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi leqsikoni, tfilisi, 1938. arn. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Seswavlis istoria, Tb., 1965. m. Cuxua, qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 20002003.

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m. Cuxua, iberiul-iCqeriuli SedarebiTi gramatika, Tb., 2006. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli da kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba, Tb., 1937.

4.3. saerToqarTveluri leqsika
qarTuli enis leqsikuri fondis ZiriTadi nawili saerToqarTveluri warmomavlobisaa. igi saerToa saliteraturo qarTulisa da qarTveluri ena-kiloebisaTvis da ar aris SeTvisebuli ucxo enobrivi samyarodan. SesaZlebelia esa Tu is saerToqarTveluri sityvaforma Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi an kidev qarTvelur qvesistemebSi ar iyos da romelime kiloSi iyos Semonaxuli. amgvari masala Zvirfasia qarTvelur ena-kiloTa leqsikis istoriuli mimarTebis dasadgenad. aqve sainteresoa saerToqarTveluri warmomavlobis sityvaTa formobriv-semantikuri transformaciebi. am TvalsazrisiT saerToqarTveluri leqsikuri erTeulebi SeiZleba or jgufad davyoT: a) pirvel jgufSi gaerTiandeba identuri masala, rogoricaa, magaliTad, megrul-WanurSi gamoyenebuli sityvebi: cxeni, zRva, ca, adre, dro, xani, Sara, kvali, mxare, kari, ezo, didi, kiseri... am SemTxvevaSi ucvlelia sityvaTa rogorc garegnuli mxare, ise mniSvneloba. vfiqrobT, gaumarTlebelia, rom saerToqarTveluri warmomavlobis sityvebi megrul-WanurSi e.w. qarTul nasesxobebad CaiTvalos; b) meore jgufs Seadgens iseTi leqsikuri erTeulebi, romlebic saxecvlilia formobrivad da semantikurad. fonetikuri cvlileba SeiZleba iyos poziciuri (kombinatoruli) da istoriuli (bgeraTSesatyvisobani). Zireul qarTul (qarTvelur) arqaul masalas umTavresad ganekuTvneba naTesauri urTierTobis, sxeulis nawilebis, cxovelebis, frinvelebis, mcenareebis, bunebrivi movlenebis, dro-Jamis aRmniSvneli leqsika, agreTve, ricxviTi saxelebi, nacvalsaxelebi, zedsarTavi saxelebi, zmnebi (masala war-

modgenilia arn.Ciqobavas ”Wanur-megrul-qarTuli leqsikonisa” da h.fenrixi-z.sarjvelaZis ”etimologiuri leqsikonis” mixedviT).

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naTesaobis aRmniSvneli sityvebi: Zma (zan. jima{l}, svan. jHmil), da (zan. da{l}, svan. udil), siZe (zan. sinja, svan. CiJe), Svili (zan. sqiri, squa, svan. sg ”Soba”), qvisli (zan. qviSili, svan. meqvSLl), asuli (zan. osuri, svan. asEiS), dedamTili (megr. dianTili, Wan. damTire, svan. dimTil), mamamTili (megr. muanTili, Wan. mTiri, svan. mimTil), kaci (zan. koCi, svan. W@S ”qmari”)... sxeulis nawilTa saxelebi: Tvali (zan. Toli, svan. Te), yuri (megr. Guji, Wan. yuji, svan. yor ”kari”), nikapi (megr. nHkH, Wan. nuku, svan. nikfa), piri (zan. piji, svan. pil), ena (meg. nina, Wan. nena, svan. nin), kbili (zan. kibiri), mxari (megr. xuji, Wan. mxuji/fxuji, xuji, svan. meB@r), frCxili (megr. bircxa, Wan. bucxa, svan. cxa), guli (zan. guri, svan. gEi), filtvi (megr. firtvi, Wan. furfu, svan. perSvda/pereStva), sisxli (megr. zisxiri, Wan. dicxiri, svan. zisx)... cxovelTa saxelebi: xari (zan. xoji, svan. B@n), furi (zan. fuji, svan. firE), cxvari (megr. Sxuri, Wan. mCxuri, svan. Sx@n), Txa (zan. Txa, svan. daBHl), ZaRli (zan joRori, svan. JeRE), daTvi (megr. TunTi, Wan. mTuTi, svan. daSdE), mela (megr. mela, Wan. meli, svan. m@l), kverna (megr. kvinori, Wan. kvenuri, svan. kven-), Tagvi (Wan. mTugi, svan. SdegE)... frinvelTa saxelebi: qaTami (meg. qoTomi, Wan. qoTume, svan. qaTal), dedali (zan. daduli, svan. d@dE), mamali (megr. mumuli, Wan. mamuli, svan. mam@l), guguli (zan. guguli, svan. g@go), ofofi (megr. ofofi, Wan. ofamfe, svan. ofof@), yvavi (megr. yvaria, Wan. yvaoji, svan. Wver), koRo (megr. koRona, Wan. koRoni, svan. koRun)... mcenareTa saxelebi: msxali (megr. sxuli, Wan. mcxuli, svan. icx), bali (zan. buli, svan. heb), Txili (zan. Txiri, svan. Sdix), broweuli (zan. berw(e)uli, svan. broweul), tyemali (zan. Gomuri, svan. baryven), wifeli (zan. wifuri, svan. wifra), cacxvi (megr. cxacxu, Wan. ducxu, svan. cacxE), wabli (zan. Wuburi, svan. hebra), mtili (megr. ortvini, Wan. ontule, svan. lert@m)... ricxviTi saxelebi: erTi (megr. arTi, Wan. {G}arT{i}), ori (megr. Jiri, Wan. Jur, svan. ~ori), sami (zan. sumi, svan. sem), oTxi - 202 -

(megr. oTxi, Wan. oTxo, svan. EoSdxE), xuTi (zan. xuTi, svan. EoxEiSd), eqvsi (megr. amSvi, Wan a{n}Svi, svan. usgEa), Svidi (zan. SqviTi, svan. iSqEid), rva (megr. ruo, Wan. {G}ovro, svan. ara), cxra (zan. Cxoro, svan. Cxara), aTi (zan. viTi, svan ~eSd), oci (zan. eCi, sv. ~erv-eSd), asi (zan. oSi, svan. aSir)... nacvalsaxelebi: me (zan. ma{n}, svan. mi), Sen (zan. si{n}, svan. si), Cven (megr. Cqi, Wan. Cqu{n}, svan. n@~), Tqven (zan. Tqva{n}, svan. sg@~), vin (zan. min, svan. ~er-v), sxva (megr. Sxva, Wan. Cqva, svan. eSxu)... zedsarTavi saxelebi: wiTeli (zan. WiTa, svan. WiSdE), Tbili (zan. tibu, svan. tebid), Zveli (zan. jveSi, svan. jEinel), Txeli (zan. T{x}iTxu, svan. dHTxel), Sua (megr. Sqa, Wan. Sqa ”weli”, svan. isga), mrgvali (megr. rgvali, Wan. murgvali, svan. girgod)... zmnebi: gazrda (zan. rd-, svan. lMrdi), zomavs (zan. zim-, svan. zum-), Txra (zan. Txor-, svan. STxar), aris (zan. ore{n}, svan. @ri), esmis (zan. sim-, svan. sem-), aRmocendeba (zan. Can-, svan. Sen-, S@n), eZaxis (zan. jox-, svan. Jaxe ”saxeli”), wuravs (zan. wir-, Wan. wor-, svan. wnur-), aRorebs (zan. Ror-, svan. liRrovi), Wedavs (zan. Wkad-, svan. Sk@d), xnavs (zan. xon-, svan. Ban-), swadia (zan. wvad-, svan. wed-//wd)... warmovadgenT ramdenime leqsikuri erTeulis vrcel etimologias: kaci-koCi-W@S formaTa mimarTeba SeiZleba ase aixsnas: megr.-laz. koC- warmoadgens qarT. kac- formis kanonzomier Sesatyviss (qarT. a > zan. o, qarT. c > zan. C). svan. W@S/WaS < *kaS < *kaC (c>C>S da k<W procesebisaTvis ix. T.gamyreliZe, 1968). saerToqarTveluri asuli ”qaliSvili” megr.-WanurSi warmodgenilia osuri-s saxiT (qarT. a : zan. o fonemuri Sesatyvisoba, l/r bgeraTa monacvleoba). svanur asEiS/asOS formaSi h ganviTarebulia, u > Ei miRebulia umlautis gziT. bolokiduri S saerToqarTveluri *l fonemis Sesatyvisia (Sdr. wuli : WuS). lazursa da svanurSi sityvam SeinarCuna Tavdapirveli semantika, xolo megrulSi sityvis mniSvneloba Seicvala: igi aRniSnavs ”qals, cols”. - 203 -

literatura T. gamyreliZe, sibilantTa Sesatyvisobani da qarTvelur enaTa uZvelesi struqturis zogi sakiTxi, Tb., 1959. T. gamyreliZe, ”gadaweris wesebi” diaqroniul fonologiaSi, Tb., 1968. v. Tofuria, m. qaldani, svanuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2000. k. kublaSvili, qarTuli enis qvemoimeruli dialeqti, Tb., 1985. g. rogava, iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa saero kuTvnilebis Tesvis aRmniSvneli fuZe: ike, t. VI, 1954. h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1990. b. foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia, Tb., 1974. t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, quTaisi, 2005. o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, t. I-III, Tb., 2001-2002. al. Rlonti, qarTul kilo-TqmaTa sityvis kona, Tb., 1984. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. I-VIII, arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, Tb., 1950-64. arn. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Seswavlis istoria, Tb., 1965. arn. Ciqobava, Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1938. m. Cuxua, qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 20002003. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli da kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba, Tb., 1937.

4.4. qarTveluri dialeqturi leqsika - qarTuli samwignobro enis ulevi wyaro
qarTvelur dialeqtebSi mravlad moipoveba iseTi sityvebi Tu gamoTqmebi, romlebic specifikuria konkretuli dialeqtis an dialeqtTa jgufisaTvis da ar gamoiyeneba samwignobro enaSi. aseTia ZiriTadad wes-CveulebebTan, SromiT saqmianobasTan, soflis meurneobis sxvadasxva dargTan dakavSirebuli leqsika. gansxvavebuli dialeqturi leqsikis warmoSobis safuZvelia gansxvavebuli bunebrivi garemo - 204 -

(landSafti, klimati, mTebi, meurneobis dargebi...). am tipis sityvebi met-naklebad yvela dialeqtSi dasturdeba. dialeqturi leqsikis ZiriTadi wyaroa sityvawarmoeba. identuri morfologiuri inventaris saSualebiT axali leqsikuri erTeuli iwarmoeba. xSirad esa Tu is ”kuTxuri” sityva calke erT an ramdenime kuTxeSi ixmareba. momijnave kuTxeebSi saziaro sityvebis arseboba bunebrivia. magram aris iseTi faqtebic, roca erTi da igive ”kuTxuri” sityva dasturdeba aramezobel, teritoriulad daSorebul dialeqtebSi, mag.: qarTl., gur. dundruca ”Casuqebuli, Camrgvalebuli”; imer., kax. (qiziy.) zazuni ”zozini”; kax., gur. katafSata ”WalafSata”; TuS. zvepa~, megr. zepua ”magrad cema, mibertyva”; TuS. TirTo~, megr. TirToli/TirTo~ ”TrTola”; TuS. gaserkva~, megr. sekua ”kargad gaZRoma”; TuS. alTva-CalTva, megr. CarTua ”Cexa, kafva”... dialeqturi sityvebi samwignobro enis leqsikasTan SepirispirebiT SeiZleba or jgufad daiyos: a) dialeqtizmebi saliteraturo formaTa dubletebs warmoadgens, mag.: bia-komSi, kvaxi-gogra, kopiti-ifani, WaWaTirkmeli, cindali-knuti, Wuri-qvevri... b) sityvebi, romelTac saliteraturo enaSi zusti Sesatyvisi (sinonimi) ar moepovebaT, mag.: qucura - moferebiT ZaRli, yvanCali - uSnod siaruli; vaSiners (megr.) ”ar egebis, akrZalulia, tabu adevs”; Tolige (megr.) ”saalerso-saficari mimarTva: Tvalo, Tvalis sinaTle, Cini”; Surige (megr.) ”saalerso-saficari mimarTva: suli Tu gwams, sulis Cino”. am tipis sityvebis SemotaniT saliteraturo enis leqsikuri Semadgenloba ufro mdidari da moqnili xdeba. sailustraciod davasaxelebT dialeqturi leqsikis nimuSebs: imeruli: anlaT ”patiosnad, alalad”; arjali ”amtani, gamZle, jansaRi”; gamolaxavs ”gamoaTrevs”; dafxavebuli ”gamxdari”; zorti ”tyeSi TavisiT waqceuli xe”; maRindara ”sityvamoswrebuli, oxunji, lazRandara”; reSi ”didi wvima, Tavsxma”; udardavi ”uamravi, bevri” (q.ZoweniZe, 1973).

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kokilo ”patara skami ori fexiT”; Rinwa ”xmarebisagan gacveTili jayva”; Rliyi ”lobios gasamagrebeli msxvili joxi”; RanRuli ”joxi, romelzedac kideben kalaTs”; gaCxakva ”gacxrilva”; sanja ”jayva” (k.kublaSvili, 1985). kaxuri: gala ”saqonlis nakvalevi biliki tyeSi an mindorSi”; niWi ”patarZlisaTvis mirTmeuli saCuqari”; pie, pio ”indauris Wuki”; siximsi ”simsuqne”; Rinkla ”patara, unayofo da TiTo-orola marcvliani simindis taro”; xveda ”didi xis CaquCi, scemen pureulis TavTavs da marcvals ayrevineben”; jini ”dawnuli mogrZo kalaTi: Tavsa da boloSi yurebi aqvs, pativis gasatanad xmaroben” (ar. martirosovi, gr. imnaiSvili, 1956). xevsuruli: baliTi ”Ralati, motyueba, gabriyveba”; bardRli ”banjgvli, balani”; bexvi ”dabjRreuli, daZvelebuli”; zeraceci ”daudegari, mousvenari, ficxi”; Tikvi ”tolis feradi an moqarguli naWeri tansacmlis samkaulad”; iSvidaCi ”iSviaTad”; nazirzena ”namusrevi, nafxveni”; ferRena ”yelTeTri cxoveli”; xinka ”slokini” (a.WinWarauli, 2005). moxeuri: gaza-i ”borkili, cxenis da sxva cxovelis wina da ukana fexebis gasabmeli”; gaisaurebs ”mixvdeba, gamoicnobs, Seismens, gaigebs”; gloTna ”fereba, alersi”; kandoli qalis axaluxi perangze sacmeli”; lokiai ”mouridebeli, msunagi, Wamis moyvaruli”; Caximaxi, Cixomaxo ”xaraxura, ragindara”; wipi ”ori TiTi erTad (ceri da Sua an saCvenebeli)”; xobzari ”SiSveli, Caucmeli” (i.qavTaraZe, 1985). TuSuri: aromebs ”atarebs, aroninebs”; barjRalati ”cxvris grZelbewviani tyavis qudi”; bayilaGi ”norCi, susti mcenare, ityvian adamianzedac”; ToTxari ”gaWirveba, xelmokleoba”; kotoSi ”nafoti”; kubati ”sagangebo uqme”; Jereba~ ”aJRereba simebisa”; taSpaSi ”gamosarCeni, xaltura, ugulod gakeTeba ama Tu im saqmisa (p.xubutia, 1969). megruli: beka ”mawanwala”; buzu ”wablis bude”; Tudo ”dabla, qveviT, Zirs”; Turi ”mogvare, sisxliT naTesavi”; Tuxua ”rTva (Zafisa), Zafis grexiT gamoyvana”; kajali ”momcro da Cafskvnili”; naca ”Tamami, gamocdili”; naxafuli ”bafoti”; okarie oTxboZze Sedgmuli oTxkuTxa mownuli saqaTme”; - 206 -

oWiSi ”zurgi, weli”; rzeni ”bari, dablobi, vake” (o. qajaia, 2001-2002). svanuri: aTxe (zs., lSx.) ”axla”; akli (zs.) ”ketavs”; gezal ”Svili”; xentyi (bq.) ”ewebeba”; diar (lSx.) ”puri”; kLnWa (bz.) ”neki”; ladg@r (bz.) ”mosaklavi (iaraRi)”; laBad (bq., lnt.) ”mosasvleli”; meSxe (zs., lSx.) ”Savi”; JRirt ”wveTi, ylupi” (v.Tofuria, m.qaldani, 2000). ganxiluli leqsikuri erTeulebi konkretuli dialeqtis (an dialeqtebis) sakuTrebas warmoadgens. Sesabamisad, igi bunebrivia am dialeqtze metyveli enobrivi koleqtivisaTvis da ucxoa sxva kuTxis warmomadgenelTaTvis. arsebobs dialeqturi leqsikonebi, romlebSic aRnusxulia calkeuli kilo-TqmebisaTvis niSandoblivi leqsikuri erTeulebi da frazeologiuri gamonaTqvamebi. qarTveluri dialeqtebidan, xalxuri sasaubro metyvelebidan momdinare leqsika samwignobro enis gamdidrebagamravalferovnebisa da saerTo leqsikuri fondis Sevsebis umTavresi wyaroa, Tumca am mimarTulebiTac garkveuli zomierebaa saWiro; grigol orbeliani erTgan SeniSnavda: ”xSirad amboben awindelni mweralni - xalxis enazed vhswerTo. maS, ra enaze unda dahsweron? magram es ki unda axsovdeT, rom xalxis ena aris mxolod masala SeumuSavebeli, vidre daxelovnebuli mwerali masalasa mas ar gadaarCevs kargsa uvargisisagan, ar gahswmends, ar gaamSvenierebs da didebulebiTa ar aRiyvans saliteraturos samflobeloSi, mere im galamazebulsa enasa gamSvenierebulis formiTa gadmohscems mosaxmareblad iseve imave xalxsa, romelic aris patroni enisa da romelica SeiTvisebs imas, viTarca sakuTrebasa... TviT vefxistyaosani" ra aris, Tu ara igive sityva qarTvelis glexisa, mxolod lamazad gawyobili da gamoTqmuli?" Sdr., agreTve, akaki wereTeli: ”xalxis metyvelebaSi bevri ramaa iseTi, rac saliteraturo enisaTvis zedmetia anda ucxo"... qarTveli mwignobarni, mwerlebi da mecnierebi odiTganve cdilobdnen, samwignobro ena gaemdidrebinaT xalxur wiaRSi Senaxuli sityvebis maragiT. am TvalsazrisiT, gamorCeulia ioane petriwis, sulxan-sabas, daviT guramiSvilis, ilia Wa- 207 -

vWavaZis, vaJa-fSavelas, aleqsandre yazbegis, konstantine gamsaxurdias, giorgi leoniZisa da mraval sxvaTa Rvawli; kerZod, moxeuri da fSauri leqsika literaturaSi gamoiyenes al. yazbegma da vaJa-fSavelam; qarTl-kaxuri dialeqturi formebi - d. guramiSvilma, gr. orbelianma, n. baraTaSvilma, i. WavWavaZem, g. erisTavma, n. lomourma, s. mgalobliSvilma, a. furcelaZem, e. gabaSvilma, d. WonqaZem, i. gogebaSvilma, S. aragvispirelma, d. maCxanelma, i. evdoSvilma, s. SanSiaSvilma, g. leoniZem. gurulis Taviseburebani asaxulia e. ninoSvilis, W. lomTaTiZis, n. nakaSiZis, p. CxikvaZis, n. dumbaZisa da sxvaTa nawerebSi. imeruli kilos leqsika dasturdeba a. wereTlis, g. wereTlis, d. kldiaSvilis, s. kldiaSvilis, S. dadianis, d. Sengelaias, n. lorTqifaniZis, k. lorTqifaniZis, t. tabiZis, g. tabiZis, p. iaSvilisa da sxvaTa mxatvrul qmnilebebSi. megrul-svanuri - g.wereTlis, k.gamsaxurdias, s.Ciqovanis, l.qiaCelis, t.granelis, r.margianis, n.jalaRonias, t.Carqselianis, j.onianis, e.saRlianisa da sxvaTa SemoqmedebaSi. sanimuSod warmovadgenT al.yazbegis "dialeqtur" leqsikas (masala gaanalizebulia t.futkaraZis mier): alionma aiwia - gaTenda banduli - mTaSi sasiarulo fexsacmeli (Sdr., bandavs) baCa - patara tanis cxeni bWeoba - TaTbiri gaRimda - gaeRima gverdi - ferdi mTisa (Sdr. aWaruli "ferdi") gziur wasvla - pirdapir siaruli daneleba - daRupva daundo ZaRli - rusi yazaxi enacqviti - ybedi kacoba - sircxvil-namusianoba namgala - amxanagi mwyemsobaSi mgluri - cxenis ZunZuliT siaruli oCxari - dazaralebulisTvis mogrovili cxvari (Sdr., iv. qavTaraZe: "wveuleba, romelsac awyobs Raribi, raTa Semowirulobad miiRon cxvari 200 sulamde") saTauri - zegani sasjo - gansasjeli - 208 -

saCale - kalo saRmrTo - gamosamSvidobebeli puroba smuri - damRerebiT Tqmuli sadRegrZelo spars-angelozi (< spas angelozi) - qarTuli laSqris
mfarveli angelozi/RvTaeba, romlis niSi snosTan axlos wveris mTazea (S.ZiZiguri, 1971, gv. 207). qaCi - Cliqi qiSela - tyavis tomara qoSa - tariani xis jami qubi - Jolo Sekvra - moRalatis dawyevlis rituali SemowuTxuli kaba - viwrod Semokruli kaba Semcneva - SemCneva Sinauri - arayi SiSaqi - batknobidan gamosuli dedali cxvari SurTxi - gareuli indauri walo - adgili, sadac qveSagebs inaxaven wiloba - Camomavloba Cvenoba - TavisTavadoba (Temis TavisTavadoba) Cxati - CanCqeri Wiaferi - wiTeli xar-lali - irmis jogis meTauri xencela (< xel-cela) - patara namgali xeteba - xetiali jiy-jiyi - ucxo enaze laparaki, gaugebari laparaki... moxeur kiloSi sxva mravali oqro-sityvaa (prof. iv.imnaiSvilis sayvareli gamoTqmaa) davanebuli; kidev bevri saleqsikono erTeuli samwignobro qarTulis velSia mosaqcevi da am mxriv seriozuli Sroma gvaqvs gasawevi rogorc enaTmecnierebs, aseve - mwerlebs. aq warmovadgenT ramdenime saintereso sityvaformas iv.qavTaraZis mier Sedgenili vrceli "moxeuri leqsikonidan": grexili - yaiTani, Tasma gEeleSmaka - daundobeli, gaiZvera guvili - butiaoba gulkumetai - gulCaxveuli dali - rezinis sawovara, satyuara - 209 -

samwuxarod, qarTvelur kiloebSi Semonaxuli aseulaTasobiT amgvari sityva gamouyenebelia Cvens samwignobro enaSi, romelic dReniadag mZimdeba gaumarTlebeli barbarizmebiT. - 210 -

dedilai - dedis deda, bebia dedaWkuai - qalaCuna didkEeri - uro valwinai - valSi misacemi pirutyvi zavi - SiSi zaviani - saSiSi Toqi - mxdali Txarqa~ - oTxrqiani cxvari kedai - xis urduli kefali/kafeli - fena-fena moWrili qva kido - ubatkno deda cxvari kipi - Tivis didi zvini kinwi - kldis patara Sverili kori - mrgvali qva kudni - mTis Ziri kÍirti - meWeWi, kvanZi matylSi lawi - nestiani manana - ojaxis burji marBe - avi maCxi - celqi bavSvi mzori - mziani adgili midegai - mouridebeli, uceremonio miWauli - sasroli qva (mrgvali, brtyeli) moBme - ambis momtani nalo - SeSis kona naqci - pirveli matyli pewi - burusi, RinRli saocari - Zili uzmeli - uWmeli faxi - SiSi (Sdr., aWar., dafaxa - SeaSina) Rita - bruciani Satyi - wyalTova, TovlWyapi Bmiani - saxelovani...

samwignobro enis xalasi sicocxlisaTvis saWiro nakadi xalxuri sityvaTqmnadobidan modis; momavalma Taobebmac aqtiurad da zomierad unda gamoiyenon qarTvelur dialeqtebSi arsebuli maradzrdadi leqsikuri baza.
literatura m. alaviZe, daviT kldiaSvilis leqsikoni, t. I-II, Tb., 1952. i. asaTiani, saliteraturo qarTuli da megrul-Wanuri leqsika: quTaisuri saubrebi, IV, simpoziumis masalebi, quTaisi, 1997. v. Tofuria, qarTuli ena da marTlweris zogierTi sakiTxi, II gamocema, Tb., 1987. v. Tofuria, m. qaldani, svanuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2000. e. koSoriZe, saliteraturo enisa da dialeqtebis urTierTobisaTvis: respublikuri dialeqtologiuri samecniero sesia, IV, baTumi, muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi, 1982. k.kublaSvili, qarTuli enis qvemoimeruli dialeqti, Tb., 1985. a.martirosovi, gr.imnaiSvili, qarTuli enis kaxuri dialeqti, Tb., 1956. t. futkaraZe, moxeuri leqsika - qarTuli samwignobro enis ulevi wyaro, 2006 (ibeWdeba). iv.qavTaraZe, qarTuli enis moxeuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1984. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. I, Tb., 1950; t. III, Tb., 1953. o. qajaia, qarTluri kilo, n. lomouris moTxrobebi: staliniris pedagogiuri institutis mecnieruli werilebi, t. VIII, Tb., 1961. o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, t. I-III Tb., 2001-2002. al. Rlonti, qarTuli leqsikologiis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1988. arn. Ciqobava, enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1952. S. ZiZiguri, mwerlis ena, Tb., 1957. q.ZoweniZe, zemoimeruli kilokavi, Tb., 1973. q.ZoweniZe, zemoimeruli leqsikoni, Tb., 1974. a. WinWarauli, xevsuruli leqsikoni, Tb., 2005. p.xubutia, TuSuri kilo, leqsika, Tb., 1969. b. jorbenaZe, balavari mwerlobisa, Tb., 1987.

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b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, I, Tb., 1989.

4.5. sityvawarmoeba
qarTuli samwignobro enis leqsikuri maragis Sevsebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi wyaroa sityvawarmoeba - axali sityvebis Seqmna morfologiuri saSualebebiT: afiqsebiT, kompoziciiT (TxzviT), fonetikur variantTa gamoyenebiT. qarTulSi gamoiyofa nawarmoeb sityvaTa ramdenime semantikuri jgufi: kninobiT-moferebiTi sityvebi ZiriTadad dairTaven: -a, ak, -ik-(o), -uk, -an, -in, -un, -uk, -at, -it, -ut, -ot, -al, -il, -ul, -el, - uW, -uC sufiqsebs (wign-ak-i, kac-un-a, biW-iko...). abstraqtuli cneba-terminebis sawarmoeblad gamoyenebulia -eba, -oba sufiqsebi, si-e, si-ul- konfiqsebi (mSvidoba, bedniereba, simSvide,. siyvar-ul-i...). xelobis, mosaqmeobis aRmniSvneli sityvebi metwilad nawarmoebi (warmoqmnili) sityvebia, romlebic arsebiTi saxelis fuZisagan me-e, me-ur/-ul prefiqs-sufiqsis darTviT iwarmoeba: me-pur-e, me-zRva-ur-i... wina viTarebas, namyofobas gadmoscems na-, na-ev/-eb, naar(-al) mawarmoeblis mqone sityvebi: nayvavilari _ nayvavilebi _ nayvavilebi... namyofobis, wina viTarebis Cveneba qarTuli sityvawarmoqmnis erT-erT specifikur Taviseburebadaa CaTvlili, rasac yuradReba pirvelad a. SaniZem miaqcia. qarTulSi yola-qonebis saxelTa sawarmoeblad gamoyenebulia 6 sufiqsi: -ian, -ier, -osan, -ovan, -ed, -a. am mawarmoebelTa mqone sityvebs ”qonebis saxelebsac" uwodeben. am klasis sityvebSic ramdenime SemTxvevaSi dasturdeba erTi da igive fuZe sxvadasxva variantiT da erTgvari mniSvnelobiT: ”wyalsa smen aragvisasa jixvni, iremni rqianni" (vaJa) _ ”didi rqosani xarjixvi amayi sardaliviT miuZRodaT" (banovani); Sdr., sxva magaliTebi: bavSviani, niWieri, cxenosani, cxrafexa...

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kldovani, saxelovani... -ed sufiqsi araproduqtiulia, isic ramdenime sityvaSi gvxvdeba (ujredi, grZedi, ganedi...). uqonlobis gadmomcemi sityvebis jgufi warmodgenilia sxvadasxva prefiqsul-sufiqsuri mawarmoeblebiT. aseT sityvebs ZiriTadad adieqtivis funqcia aqvT da miRebulia arsebiTi saxelebis fuZeebisagan u-o, u-ur/ul afiqsebis darTviT: uyuro, ubinao, usaxuri, uferuli... aRsaniSnavia, rom erTi da igive mniSvneloba SeiZleba gadmoices sxvadasxva afiqsiT; mag., kudi: kuda "kudis ar mqone", "mokle kudis mqone", ukudo - "kudis ar mqone" da sxv. daniSnulebis an gankuTvnilebis gamomxatveli sityvebi ZiriTadad sa- prefiqsiT aris warmodgenili. am prefiqsTan erTad maT, Cveulebriv, sufiqsic axlavs: -o, -e, -ur... es sityvebi xSirad viTarebiTi adieqtivis rolSi gamodis da sintaqsur wyvilSi msazRvrelis funqcias asrulebs. aseTi msazRvreli gviCvenebs, Tu nivTi visTvis an risTvisaa gankuTvnili, ra daniSnulebisaa: saTburi, sayure, sabavSvo... daniSnulebis gamoxatva sa- TavsarTTan aris dakavSirebuli upiratesad, xolo sufiqsis monacvleoba daniSnulebis gamoxatvaze gavlenas ar axdens: saganZe/saganZuri. zogjer sa-e da sa-o konfiqsebi erTsa da imave fuZesTan gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis sityvebs qmnian. mag., saabreSumo - sagangebod mowyobili adgili, sadac abreSumis Wia hyavT, da saabreSume - abreSumis Zafis an qsovilisaTvis gankuTvnili. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom sa-o da sa-e afiqsebiT warmoqmnil saxelTa erT wyebas CamoSorebia Tavdapirvelad masTan mdgomi sazRvruli wevri da substanciis funqcia aqvT SeZenili: sastumro darbazi, sasadilo oTaxi... amJamad aseT sityvebs dakarguli aqvs adieqtivis gageba da substantivis mniSvnelobiT ixmareba: sastumro, sasadilo... calke gamoiyofa warmomavlobis saxelebi, romelTa didi nawili iwarmoeba -el, -ul da -ur sufiqsebiT. amaTgan pirveli mxolod adamianebis mimarT ixmareba: qarTveli, ingliseli, mTieli...…zogi ki nivTis warmomavlobasac aRniSnavs; Sdr.: guria - guruli da aWaruli (xaWapuri); xevsuri da kaxuri (Rvino)... Zvel qarTulSi adamianis sadaurobis saxels - 213 -

-el sufiqsTan erTad m- prefiqsic awarmoebda. mag., megreli, mroveli... zedsarTav saxelebs Tanamedrove qarTulSi xarisxis ori forma aqvs: ufroobiTi da odnaobiTi. orive maTgani miiReba warmoqmnis gziT, romelTa sawarmoeblad gamoyenebulia u-es, mo-o da iSviaTad wa-o. mo-o odnaobiTi xarisxis mawarmoebelia. aseTi sityvebi ZiriTadad feris aRmniSvnelia: moSavo, moTeTro, monacrisfro. am ukanasknelebs wa- TavsarTiani sinonimebi moepoveba: waTeTro, wayviTalo... mo-o SeiZleba agreTve aRniSnavdes adamianis fers (Tmis, Tvalebis...): moqerao, moTeTro; gemos aRmniSvnel sityvebSic gvxvdeba mo-o: momwaro, motkbo; formis aRmniSvnelia mogrZo, mobrtyo; sulier-gonebrivi daxasiaTeba: mosulelo, moZunwo. ufroobiTi xarisxis formebs awarmoebs u-es: uswrafesi, uZvelesi... zmnizedis (zmnisarTis) warmoqmna. zmnizedaTa didi nawilis fuZe warmoqmnilia brunvacvalebadi saxelis "gaqvavebiT": micemiTis, naTesaobiTis, moqmedebiTisa da viTarebiTis brunvis formebi mkvidrdeba erTi semantikur niuansiT; Sdr., mag.: dRe, dRem, dRes - dRes (drois aRmniSvneli). zmnizedis mawarmoeblad gvxvdeba -oba (marcvlobiT), -gan (yvelgan), -iv (marjvniv)... sawyisisa da mimReobis warmoqmna. zog enaSi sawyisi amosavalia zmnisTvis; qarTulSi metwilad piriqiTaa: zmnis formaa amosavali sawyisisTvis. sawyisis sawarmoeblad zmnis fuZe iyenebs -a da -ilsufiqsebs, iSviaTad - -om-a, -ol-a, -n-a rTul morfemebs: wera, qsova, Seneba... wuxili, duRili, sixaruli... xtoma, Zrwola, Sovna... mimReobis mawarmoebelia m-, sa-, na-, me-, mo-, m-el, m-ar, m-are, -il, -ul: (da)mweri, mqsoveli, msajuli, saklavi, nagleji, metexi, mozardi, dabanili, daxatuli, mkvdari, Semdrkali, mkurnali, mduRare, momCivani...… zmnis warmoqmna. zmnuri afiqsebis saSualebiT qarTulSi zmna SeiZleba warmoiqmnas nebismieri saxelisgan. mag.; zmnuri formisTvis amosavalia: a) arsebiTi saxeli: yvavili - ayvavilebs, marili - amarilebs, saxli - asaxlebs, qva - aqvavebs, - 214 -

wyali -awyalebs, mtveri - amtverianebs... b) zedsarTavi saxeli: TeTri - aTeTrebs, Savi - aSavebs, Zviri - aZvirebs, iafi - aiafebs, maRali - amaRlebs, lamazi -alamazebs... g) ricxviTi saxeli: erTi - aerTianebs, sami - asamebs... d) nacvalsaxeli: Cemi - iCemebs, sxvisi - asxvisebs... e) mimReoba: gebulobs, Rebulobs, yidulobs, Soulobs, sesxulobs... araiSviaTad, axal zmnad gvevlineba mocemuli zmnis formobrivi varianti; Sdr., mag.: myavs - mo-myavs; a-ago - da-ago, Ca-ago, mo-igo... qarTulSi sityvaTqmnadoba xdeba kompoziciis gziTac. kompoziti (a. SaniZis terminologiiT, aris Txzuli saxeli) aris rTuli sityva. rTuli sityvebi aris erTcnebiani da orcnebiani; amaTgan Txzul sityvad mxolod erTcnebiani kompoziti iTvleba. Cveulebriv, axali, rTuli sityvis Sesadgenad adgilobriv, Zireul sityvebTan erTad mimarTaven nasesxeb sityvebsac; Sdr., mag.: ciskari, mzeTunaxavi, rkinigza, qinZisTavi... da: eleqtromanqana, radiomauwyebloba, naxevarfabrikati, agroteqnika, aeroporti... kompozitis Semadgenel sityvaTa (komponentTa) formobrivi da Sinaarsobrivi urTierTmimarTeba erTgvarovani ar aris, rac ganapirobebs kidec maTi dawerilobis Taviseburebas; kerZod: Tu kompoziti miRebulia reduplikaciis (fuZis gaorkecebis) gziT da amgvari sityvis TiToeuli komponenti realuri sityvaa damoukideblad, amasTanave fuZegaorkecebul sityvas arsebiTad igive mniSvneloba aqvs, rac mis Semadgenel fuZes, maSin aseTi sityva defisiT daiwereba: bevrbevri, patar-patara, erT-erTi da a.S. xolo yvela danarCen SemTxvevaSi, anu: Tu kompozitis mniSvneloba ar udris mis Semadgenel fuZes (wamwami...), an pirveli komponenti saxelobiTi brunvis formiTaa gadmocemuli (karikar...), an da kavSiriTaa SeerTebuli (cxendacxen, pirdapir...) kompoziti daiwereba Serwymulad - erT sityvad. aseve, erTad iwereba TiTqmis yvela erTcnebiani kompoziti.
literatura

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a. arabuli, metyvelebis kultura, Tb., 2005. T.gamyreliZe, z.kiknaZe, i.Saduri, n.Sengelia, Teoriuli enaTmecnierebis kursi, Tb., 2003. g. nebieriZe, enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 2003. Е.А. Земская, Современный Русскый Язык Словообразование, Москва, 2005. b. foCxua, sityvawarmoeba da lqsikologia, ike, XV, Tb., 1966. b. foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia, Tb., 1974. al. Rlonti, qarTuli leqsikologiis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1971. al. Rlonti, qarTuli leqsikografiis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1983. ak. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1953. arn. Ciqobava, enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1952.

4.6. nasesxebi leqsika da barbarizmebi
kulturuli urTierTobebis Sesabamisad, msoflios enebs Soris aqtiurad xdeba leqsikis gacvla (sesxeba); qarTulidan bevri sityvaa Sesuli sxva enebSi da qarTulSic mravladaa ucxo enebidan Semosuli leqsikuri erTeulebi. qarTvel ers saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi msoflios mraval xalxTan hqonia urTierToba, rac ZiriTadad Sepirobebuli iyo geografiuli mdebareobiT an kulturul-ekonomikuri kavSirebiT. eTnokulturuli kontaqtebi naTlad aRibeWdeba enis struqturaSi, gansakuTrebiT - leqsikaSi. sityvebis gadasvla erTi enidan meore enaSi SedarebiT advilad xdeba, vidre gramatikuli elementebisa (fonemebi, afiqsebi). wminda, Seureveli ena ar arsebobs. qarTul enas urTierToba hqonda gansxvavebuli sistemis enebTan, rogoricaa: arabuli, sparsuli, Turquli, osuri, berZnuli, somxuri... am enaTa gavlena qarTvelur ena-kiloebze metnaklebi intensivobisaa. berZnuli enis gavlena izrdeba saqarTveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg. V saukunidan intensiurad iTargmneboda sasuliero Txzulebebi qarTul enaze. uSualod berZnuli enidan Semovida saeklesio terminebi: aiazma,

aliluia, angelosi, diakoni, eklesia, episkoposi, kaTalikosi, litania, martvili, monasteri, paraklisi...
- 216 -

berZnulidan SeiTvisa qarTulma enam saerTaSoriso sityvebi: kanoni, etimologia, musika, istoria, filosofia, gramatika, maTematika... agreTve: andamati, barbarosi, galia,

epitafia, Teatri, kalami, kitri, klite, krialosani, leqsi, milioni, melani, sabani, saponi, stafilo, fasi, wigni, haeri... krialosani momdinareobs berZnuli gamoTqmidan: kirieeleison (”ufalo, Segviwyale”). Zvelad mlocvelebi ”ufalo

Semiwyales” ramdenimejer imeorebdnen. rom ar SeSlodaT, xelSi eWiraT saWiro raodenobiT asxmuli mZivebi da ramdenjerac ityodnen, imden mZivs Caagdebdnen; roca gaTavdeboda, locvac dasruleboda. qarTulSi Seicvala gamoTqmis rogorc garegnuli mxare, ise semantika: kirie-eleison ”ufalo, Semiwyale” > krialosani ”asxmuli mZivi”, romelsac ZiriTadad moxucebi atareben. qarTulSi bevria berZnulidan mwignobrobis gziT Semosuli gramatikuli da frazeologiuri kalki. gvxvdeba berZnuli warmoSobis sakuTari saxelebic. maTi nawili zepiri gziT damkvidrda, nawili ki - mwignobruli gziT. sainteresoa saxeli ”qriste”: locva-vedrebis dros berZnulSi gamoiyeneba qriste forma, romelic mimarTvas, anu wodebiTi brunvis formas warmoadgens (Sdr. qristos - saxelobiTi brunva). qarTvelis cnobierebaSi ”qriste” aRqmul iqna rogorc saxelobiTi. amgvarad aris damkvidrebuli qarTulSi e-xmovanfuZiani sakuTari saxelebi: aleqsandre, pavle, petre, stefane, ipolite (Sdr. saxelobiTi: aleqsandros, pavlos, petros, stefanos, ipolitos...), romlebic berZnulSi os-iT bolovdeba. aseve, zepiri gziT aris Semosuli qarTulSi i-ze daboloebuli berZnuli saxelebi, romlebic berZnulis saxelobiTSi -ios-ze bolovdebian, wodebiTSi ki -i daboloebas iReben: akaki, giorgi, aleqsi (Sdr. saxelobiTi: akakios, giorgios...). qarTulSi aRniSnuli saxelebi saxelobiTwodebiTis saziaro formebs warmoadgens.

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qarTvelebs mWidro kulturul-istoriuli urTierToba hqondaT sxvadasxva iranuli modgmis xalxebTan (skviTebi, sarmatebi, midielebi...). Zveli iranuli warmomavlobis sityvebia: sakuTari saxeli farnavazi; sazogado saxelebi: ganZi, mogvi... saSualo sparsulidan aris Semosuli: amxanagi, anderZi,

bevri, bostani, brZeni, devi, koSki, laSqari, navTi, nazi, sastiki, spetaki, tani, tanjva, taZari, tomi, qaravani, Smagi, Zviri, Wabuki, WeSmariti, javSani... aivani, baRi, baRCa, varjiSi, zeimi, Tambaqo, Tasi, Tungi, iasamani, kaba, nabadi, nami, niSani, noxi, nusxa, qalaqi, qamari, qarxana, qaji, qiSmiSi, Sara, Cangali, ZiraRdani, Cirqi, xazina, xali, xaliCa, xurma, jado, jami, jildo, hava...
axali sparsulidan aris nasesxebi Semdegi leqsemebi:

sparsuli sityvebi uxvad SemoiWra qarTulSi sparsuli literaturis aqtiuri gavlenis dros - XV-XVII saukuneebSi; am droidan Semosuli bevri sityva organulad Seerwya qarTul metyvelebas: gandevna qarTuli ekvivalenti da sabolood gabatonda. sanimuSod ganvixilavT fanjaras: fanjara XVIII saukuneSi Cndeba. mis nacvlad qarTulSi ixmareboda sakumeli, sarkmeli, romelic momdinareobs zmnisagan: kumeva ”bolis amosvla” > sakumeli ”SenobaSi xvreli, saidanac kvamli amodioda". dRes sarkmeli ZiriTadad dialeqtebSia (aWar., xevs., mox., fS., qiz., raW.) daculi, saliteraturo qarTulSi ki mniSvnelobadaviwroebuli sityvaa da aRniSnavs imas, rasac rusuli Форточка. fanjara winaT erqva xis an liTonis moajirs, romelic gakeTebuli hqonda nagebobaSi sarkmels an sxva adgils, saidanac gadavardna SeiZleboda. fanjaram mogvianebiT SeiZina is mniSvneloba, rac dRes aqvs. iranuli modgmis enaa osuric. osur nasesxobebad miCneulia sityvebi: amindi, bevri, buxari, doli, virTxa, kerZo, ”yveli” da qarTuli sulguni. somxuri enidan Semosulia rogorc somxuri, ise sxva enebis sityvebi: axovani, pativi, sastiki, Jami, xarki... - 218 -

ludi, mkacri, mona, obi, oboba, ormo, fasi, qudi, cali, xavsi, xidi... Sdr., mag.: osuri kompoziti: sulu ”kveTi” + gun

gansakuTrebiT bevria arabuli warmoSobis sityvebi. VII saukunis 40-ian wlebSi saqarTvelo uSualo kontaqts amyarebs arabebTan. amave periodSi arabuli kulturuli Zeglebi iTargmneba qarTul enaze. arabuli nasesxobebia: alami,

qarTvelebs V-XIII ss.-Si mWidro urTierToba hqondaT sirielebTan. siriulidan uSualod Tu SualobiT qarTulSi Semovida sityvebi: dari, zeTi, magaliTi, Samfuri, qalaqi,

adaTi, basri, bedauri, daxli, abi, aveji, alami, arayi, badali, dava, daira, dovlaTi, veqili, eqimi, vaziri, zarali, zeTi, TamaSi, TaTbiri, TariRi, Tasi, ijara, koSki, lursmani, mandili, manZili, masala, mijnuri, nabadi, nali, nisia, nobaTi, nusxa, oqmi, ruka, saaTi, suraTi, ustari, ujra, farda, fiqri, Ralati, sigeli, yava, yasabi, Sakiki, Sarvali, cifri, xabazi, xalxi, xurjini, javri, jandaba, jilagi...

qnari, maxaTi, zvaraki...

Turqizmebi ZiriTadad zepiri gziT aris Semosuli. mravlad gvxvdeba samxreT saqarTvelos dialeqtebSi. Turqul enaTa ojaxs miekuTvneba azerbaijanuli ena. azerbaijanulidan qarTulSi Semosulad iTvleba umTavresad momTabare mecxoveleobasTan dakavSirebuli sityvebi: Toxli,

iorRa, leSi, oTaxi, yabalaxi, yaeni, yavari, yaCaRi, Coxa...

qarTulSi moipoveba Turqulidan nasesxebi leqsikuri erTeulebi: baTqaSi, baiyuSi, boRma, yoCi, fara, iaraRi,

rusul enasTan intensiuri urTierToba XIX saukunidan iwyeba. samwignobro enaSi damkvidrda: fuTi, versi, kapiki, samovari... sabWoTa imperiis dros zepir metyvelebaSi aqtiurad mkvidrdeboda rusuli sityvebi, gamoTqmebi da qarTuli enisTvis arabunebrivi sintaqsuri konstruqciebi. ucxo sityvaTa zomierma Semosvlam SeiZleba gaamdidros ena, Tumca, araiSviaTad, aucileblobis gareSe damkvidrebuli nasesxobebi - barbarizmebi - enas amZimebs da aRaribebs (barbarizmi, rogorc virusi, klavs enaSi arsebul ZirZvel sityvas); magaliTad, barbarizmebia: akoSka, aCkebi, boWka, kriSa, pasta, poli, ruCka, spiCka, stancia, stoli, tufli, feCi... misal-

yoCi, ialaRi, doli, karaqi. saWmlis saxelwodebani: tolma, buRlama, yaurma, CixirTma, bozbaSi, xizilala...

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meba-damSvidobebis formulebi: privet, zdrasti/ zdarova, paka... qarTul enaSi dasturdeba agreTve franguli, germanuli, espanuri... nasesxobani, magram maTi gamoyenebis sfero, sxva ucxoenobriv masalasTan SedarebiT, SezRudulia. XXI saukunis dasawyisis qarTulSi intensiurad (xSirad, gaumarTleblad!) Semodis inglisuri sityvebi. Tanamedrove etapze rusulenovani barbarizmebis ricxvi mcirdeba. samagierod, uxvad Semodis inglisurenovani terminebi Tu gamoTqmebi, rogoricaa: dijei, Tineijeri, kursori, marketingi, mausi, mesiji, peijeri, printeri, roumingi, treningi... nasesxebi leqsika gvxvdeba dialeqtebSic. maTi moxmarebis are garkveulwilad lokalizebulia; gvxvdeba erT an ramdenime kiloSi. nasesxobaTa ricxvi metia marginalur (ganapira) dialeqtebSi, romlebic uSualod emezoblebian ucxoenobriv garemos. kerZod, imerxeulSi, aWarulSi, mesxurSi mravlad dasturdeba Turquli sityvebi; fxour kiloebSi Tavs iCens daRestnuri da naxuri enebidan SeTvisebuli formebi; WanurSi SesamCnevia berZnulidan da Turqulidan SeTvisebuli leqsikuri erTeulebis simravle; svanur kiloebSi gvxvdeba afxazur-adiReuri da balyaruli enebidan nasesxebi masala. sesxebis sakiTxi gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria dRes, roca enaSi aqtiurad inergeba axal teqnologiebTan dakavSirebuli terminologia. sityvaTa sesxeba maSin aris gamarTlebuli, rodesac ucxo sityvis zusti Sesatyvisi ar moipoveba enaSi da SeuZlebelia misi warmoeba sakuTari enis fuZis mixedviT. arasaWiroebisamebr Semosuli sityvebi ki ar amdidrebs enis leqsikur fonds, aramed, piriqiT, amZimebs da aRaribebs saliteraturo enas. miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTul samwignobro enaSi SeTvisebuli masala sakmao raodenobiT gvxvdeba, misi xvedriTi wili sakuTar leqsikasTan SedarebiT mainc mcirea. ucxo leqsikuri erTeulebis sesxebiT qarTuli enis agebuleba ar darRveula, ar Secvlila fonematuri struqtura, sityvawarmoebis yalibebi, sintaqsuri wyoba. qarTulma enam nasesxebi masala sa- 220 -

kuTar yalibSi moaqcia da sakuTari enis kanonebs dauqvemdebara maTi fonetikur-semantikuri modifikaciebi. qarTulma enam istoriis qartexilebs warmatebiT gauZlo da TavisTavadoba dRemde SeinarCuna.
literatura m. andronikaSvili, narkvevebi iranul-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan, I, Tb., 1966. Т. В. Гамкрелидзе, В. В. Иванов, Индоевропейский язык и индоевропейцы, т. I-II, Тбилиси, 1984. o. Tedeevi, narkvevebi osur-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan, Tb., 1988. h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1990. b. foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia, Tb., 1974. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. I-VIII, arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, Tb., 1950-64. arn. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Seswavlis istoria, Tb., 1965. m. Cuxua, qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 20002003. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli da kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba, Tb., 1937.

4.7. leqsikonebi
berZnuli sityva leqsikoni (lexikon) orgvarad ganimarteba: 1. wigni, romelSic anbanzea gawyobili ama Tu im enis sityvebi da mocemulia maTi ganmarteba imave enaze an Targmani romelime sxva enaze; 2. visime sityvebis maragi; leqsika. - 221 -

leqsikoni ori saxisaa: enaTmecnieruli da enciklopediuri. enaTmecnieruli leqsikonebi SeiZleba iyos erTenovani, orenovani da mravalenovani. erTenovani leqsikonebi. erTenovania ganmartebiTi, dialeqtologiuri, calkeul mweralTa leqsikonebi... ganmartebiTi leqsikonebi SeiZleba Sedgenili iyos calkeuli dargebis mixedviT. eseni dargobrivi anu terminologiuri leqsikonebia. ganmartebiTi leqsikoni SesaZlebelia asaxavdes Zveli enis leqsikasac. enaTmecnierulia agreTve ucxo sityvaTa, sinonimebis, frazeologiis, orTografiuli, etimologiuri, fsevdonimebis, sakuTar saxelTa, pirTa anotirebuli, inversiuli, simfonia-leqsikonebi... ganmartebiTi leqsikonebi. Cvenamde moRweuli pirveli ganmartebiTi leqsikoni ekuTvnis efrem mcires. esaa fsalmunis Targmanebis SesavalSi CarTuli sityvari. aq ganmartebulia asamdis leqsikuri erTeuli. ”fsalmunTa Targmanebis Sesavlis Sua nawili SeiZleba CaiTvalos qarTul enaze Sedgenil pirvel leqsikonad" (mz. SaniZe). sulxan-saba orbelianis `qarTuli leqsikoni" anu ”sityvis kona" Sedgenilia 1685-1715 wlebSi. am leqsikonSi qarTuli sityvebi qarTuladvea axsnili. sabasTan qarTuli dawerilobiT mocemulia somxuri, Turquli an italiuri sityvebic da maTi Targmani; ase rom, sabas ganmartebiT leqsikonSi TargmniTi leqsikonis elementebic aris warmodgenili. ucxouri warmomavlobis sityvebTan miTiTebulia, Tu romeli enidan aris Semosuli gansamartavi sityva qarTulSi. "sityvis kona" qarTuli enis Cvenamde moRweuli pirveli ganmartebiTi leqsikonia. ”sityvis konaSi" Setanilia aseve dialeqturi sityvebi; ”saba aqa-iq uCvenebs sityvis gamoyenebis regions (kaxeTi, mTiuleTi, mesxeTi, imereTi, guria, samegrelo...), Tumca bevri sxva sityvac, romelTac miTiTebuli ara aqvT mxare, dialeqturi warmomavlobisa aRmoCnda... sulxan-sabas ”sityvis konaSi" mocemuli faqtobrivi masala amtkicebs debulebas, rom didi klasikosis enaTmecnieruli naSromi aris pirveli qarTuli dialeqturi leqsikonic" (m.alaviZe).

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sulxan-saba orbelianis ”sityvis kona" pirvelad gamosca poetma rafiel erisTavma 1884 wels. bolo gamocema daTariRebulia 1991 wliT. is fototipurad imeorebs 1965-1966 wlebSi s. orbelianis TxzulebaTa oTxtomeulSi ilia abulaZis mier gamoqveynebul teqsts. axali gamocema, romelsac ewodeba ”leqsikoni qarTuli", Seivso i. abulaZis gamokvleviTa da mis mierve Sedgenili iseTi sityvebis saZieblebiT, romlebic ganmartebebSia naxmari, xolo leqsikonSi saleqsikono erTeulebad gamoyofili ar aris. rogorc gamokvlevas, ise saZiebels udidesi samecniero Rirebuleba aqvs: gamokvlevaSi sabas leqsikologiur moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebiT araerTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia ganxiluli da garkveuli. Tavisi mdidari masaliT (igi cxra aTasamde sityvas Seicavs) saZiebels uTuod didi daxmarebis gaweva SeuZlia im mkvlevarTaTvis, romlebic qarTuli leqsikis istoriis SeswavliT arian dainteresebuli. qarTuli erovnuli kulturis didi SenaZenia `qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni", romelic Seicavs 112 949 sityvas da 14 536 idiomatursa da sxva xasiaTis gamoTqmas. sityvis ganmartebas axlavs mdidari sailustracio masala, romelic mwerlobidan aris amoRebuli, zogjer ki sasaubro enis Cveulebrivi frazaa gamoyenebuli. zmnis piriani formebi leqsikonSi calke leqsikur erTeulebadaa Sesuli. `qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni" arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT daibeWda rva tomad 1950-1964 wlebSi. ucxo sityvaTa leqsikonebi. ucxo sityvaTa leqsikonebis Sedgena ganapiroba XIX-XX saukuneebSi evropis qveynebidan bevri ucxo sityvis Semosvlam. es sityvebi gadmoscemen mecnierebis, teqnikis, xelovnebis ZiriTad cnebebs. saWiro gaxda am sityvaTa ganmartebebis dazusteba. qarTul enaze arsebobs ucxo sityvaTa ramdenime leqsikoni. kerZod, 1904, 1918 da 1928 wlebSi gamoica i. imedaSvilis ”ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni”, 1928 wels _ ”ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni” avtorTa koleqtivis xelmZRvanelobiT. 1933 wels gamovida g. axvledianis mier Sedgenili leqsikoni. 1964, 1973 da 1983 wlebSi _ m. WabaSvilis ”ucxo

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sityvaTa leqsikoni”, romelic Seicavs 15500-ze met saleqsikono erTeuls. bolo gamocemaSi dazustebulia bevri sityvis ganmarteba. gasworebulia meore gamocemaSi SeniSnuli Secdomebi qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediis im periodSi gamosuli tomebisa da zogi sxva wyaros mixedviT. Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonebi. Zveli da saSualo qarTulis ZeglTa mraval gamocemas axlavs mokle axsnaganmartebiTi leqsikonebi. leqsikonTa avtorebsa da maT mier Catarebul samuSaoze cnobebs gvawvdis al. Rlonti wignSi: ”qarTuli leqsikografiis sakiTxebi" (1983, gv. 221-223). 1973 wels e. metrevelisa da c. qurcikiZis redaqtorobiT daibeWda i. abulaZis ”Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni”. aq warmodgenilia 11800-mde sityva Zveli qarTuli enis 150-ze meti Zeglidan. yvela sityva dokumentirebulia saTanado masaliT wyaroebidan. 1995 wels gamovida z. sarjvelaZis ”Zveli qarTuli enis sityvis kona". am wignSi Sesulia 10000-mde iseTi leqsikuri erTeuli, romlebic ver aisaxa an gansxvavebuli formiTa da mniSvnelobiTaa damowmebuli ilia abulaZis ”Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonSi". mTlianad naSromSi 28400-ze meti leqsemaa. z. sarjvelaZis ”Zvel qarTul enaSi" (1997 w.), teqstebis garda moTavsebulia leqsikoni. wigni sami nawilisagan Sedgeba. mesame nawilSia mocemuli leqsikoni, romelic gamoirCeva ganmartebis maqsimaluri lakonurobiT. leqsikonSi asaxulia am wignSi gamoqveynebuli, aseve sxva Zveli qarTuli Zeglebis leqsikuri erTeulebi. "qarTuli enis morfemebisa da modaluri elementebis leqsikoni" 1988 wels gamoqveynda. manamde aseTi leqsikoni ar gvqonia. masSi ganmartebulia TiTqmis yvela is morfema an modaluri elementi, romlebic gamovlenilia qarTvelur enobriv samyaroSi. naSromSi danarTis saxiT mocemulia im morfemaTa leqsikoni, romelic nasesxeb sityvebs Semohyva qarTulSi. wignis avtorebi arian: b. jorbenaZe, m. kobaiZe da m. beriZe. ”qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis" rvatomeulis safuZvelze g. gogolaSvilma, c. kvantalianma da d. Sengeliam 1989 wels gamosces "qarTuli enis zmnuri fuZeebis - 224 -

leqsikoni", romelSic 5744 zmnuri fuZea Setanili. TiToeuls axlavs sqema, romelic SesaZlebels xdis budobriv iqnes warmodgenili ama Tu im zmnuri fuZisagan nawarmoebi yvela forma, rac ganapirobebs TiToeuli qarTuli zmnis srul gramatikul daxasiaTebas. qarTuli literaturis klasikosTa Txzulebebis leqsikonebi. mweralTa calkeul gamocemebs darTuli aqvs ama Tu im avtoris TxzulebaTa leqsikoni. ase, magaliTad: vaJa-fSavelas krebulebs, romlebic gamodioda 1922, 1928, 1930, 1956 wlebSi, darTuli aqvs a. SaniZis mier Sedgenili ”vaJas TxzulebaTa leqsikoni”. al. yazbegis TxzulebaTa oTxtomeulis 1948-1950 wlebis gamocemas erTvis ”al. yazbegis TxzulebaTa leqsikoni” (Semdgeneli S. ZiZiguri). ”e. ninoSvilis TxzulebaTa leqsikoni” (T. kikviZis mier Sedgenili) darTuli aqvs s. xundaZis redaqciiT gamocemul e. ninoSvilis TxzulebaTa I-II toms (1932 w.). leqsikoni erTvis sxva gamocemebsac. m. alaviZis Sedgenili ”d. kldiaSvilis TxzulebaTa leqsikoni” darTuli aqvs d. kldiaSvilis TxzulebaTa I-II toms (1952 w.). manve Seadgina ”Soreuli landebis" leqsika 1961 wels. i. griSaSvilma ”al. WavWavaZis TxzulebaTa leqsikoni” daurTo al. WavWavaZis Txzulebebis 1940 wlis gamocemas (gv. 347-365). ”g. erisTavis Txzulebebis leqsikoni” Seadgina o. uridiam. T. razikaSvilisa da baCanas TxzulebaTa leqsika Sedgenili aqvs iv. qeSikaSvils (1969 w.). mecnierebma leqsikonebi daurTes qarTuli xalxuri Semoqmedebis Zeglebsac. S. ZiZigurma 1956 wels gamosca ”qarTuli dialeqtebis qrestomaTia leqsikoniTurT". aseve, mcire leqsikonebi da sityvarebi erTvis q. sixaruliZis (sabavSvo folklori), al. Rlontis (guruli folklori), mix. Ciqovanis (qarTuli xalxuri poezia) gamocemul saxelmZRvaneloebs. - 225 -

1976 wels ”vefxistyaosnis" xelnaweri leqsikonebis teqsti gamosacemad moamzada i. waqaZem. daibeWda s. caiSvilis redaqciiTa da winasityvaobiT. ganmartebiTi leqsikonebis saerTo struqturis Camoyalibebamde aris Sedgenili S.rusTavelis ”vefxistyaosnis" teqstis leqsikoni, romelSic axsnilia poemaSi gamoyenebuli iSviaTi sityvebis mniSvneloba da funqcia Sesabamis konteqstebSi. sakuTar saxelTa leqsikonebi. sulxan-saba orbelianis ”qarTul leqsikons” darTuli aqvs qveyanaTa da adamianTa saxelebi (t. II, 1993, gv. 601-654). sakuTari saxelebis, gvarsaxelebis, toponimebis, saqarTvelos mxareebisa da xeobebis saZieblebi darTuli aqvs ”qarTlis cxovrebas", vaxuStis wigns: ”aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa", iv. imnaiSvilis mier Sedgenil ”qarTuli oTxTavis simfonia-leqsikons”, r. TofCiSvilis gamokvlevas: ”rogor warmoiqmna qarTuli gvarsaxelebi" (1997 w.). al. Rlontis ”qarTul leqsikologiaSi" (1964, 1988 ww.) calke Tavi aqvs daTmobili qarTul onomatologias. aq ara marto ganmartebulia onomatologiis raoba, aramed calkeul paragrafebSi avtori mkiTxvels awvdis cnobebs adamianis saxelebis, qarTuli da nasesxebi anTroponimikis, metsaxelebis, svanuri da megruli onomastikonis, gvarovnuli saxelebis, toponimikis, toponimebisa da sxvaTa Sesaxeb. pirvelad 1967, Semdeg ki 1986 wels daibeWda al. Rlontis ”qarTveluri sakuTari saxelebi - anTroponimTa leqsikoni" sakuTari saxelebis pirveli leqsikoni. es leqsikoni Cveulebrivi tipis leqsikonebisagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom iZleva leqsikur erTeulTa ara ganmartebebs, aramed gvaCvenebs maT warmoTqma-marTlwerasa da xmarebis adgils werilobiTi wyaroebisa da zepiri tradiciis mixedviT. sakuTari saxelebis erTi nawili axsnilia z. WumburiZis wignSi: ”ra gqvia Sen" (1966, 1971 ww.). naSromi ramdenime Tavisagan Sedgeba. aq axsnilia ara marto adamianTa qarTuli saxelebi (vaJisa - calke, qalisa - calke), aramed qarTuli gvarebi, miTiTebulia maTi warmoSobis Sesaxeb, axsnilia saxelis mniSvnelobebi. - 226 -

z. WumburiZis am naSroms win uZRoda patara wigni ”rogor gaCnda sityva", sadac ori patara Tavi - ”ra gqvia Sen" da ”sadac vSobilvar, gavzrdilvar" - sakuTar saxelebs eTmoba. aq axsnilia adgilTa vinaoba, qalaqebis, soflebis, kurortebis, mdinareebis... saxelebi. mag., dabaZveli - soflebs hqvia aWarasa da imereTSi, niSnavs ”Zvel sofels", zestafoni - am qalaqis saxelwodeba ori nawilisagan Sedgeba: zesta da foni. II sityva foni wyalSi gasasvlel adgils niSnavs. zesta ki miRebulia Zveli qarTuli sityvisagan zesTa (zeSTa) da igivea, rac zeda", ”zemoTa". amrigad, zestafoni niSnavs ”zedafons". 1981 wels daibeWda i. maisuraZis ”qarTuli gvar-saxelebi” (saleqsikono bibliografiuli masalebi). toponimTa leqsikonebi gamocemulia regionebis mixedviT. al. Rlontis ”qarTuli leqsikografia" gvaZlevs toponimTa leqsikonebis srul sias 1973 wlamde. mas Semdegac araerTi mniSvnelovani leqsikoni Seiqmna. fsevdonimebis leqsikoni. g. miqaZis ”fsevdonimebis leqsikoni" pirvelad 1966, 1969 wlebSi da bolos 1984 wels daibeWda. masSi mocemulia fsevdonimebi an inicialebi, romlebic saqarvelos wignis palatis mier gamocemul fundamentur SromaSi: ”qarTuli wigni" gaSifruli ar aris an SecdomiT aris warmodgenili, zogjer ki gvarebadaa miCneuli. leqsikoni Sedgeba ori ganyofilebisagan: pirvelSi mocemulia fsevdonimebis anbanuri saZiebeli. fsevdonimebi dalagebulia anbanis rigze. aq vxvdebiT inicialebs, gvars an fsevdonimebis Semoklebebsa da sruli saxis fsevdonimebs. leqsikonis meore ganyofilebaSi mocemulia im avtorTa anbanuri saZiebeli, romelTa fsevdonimebic gaxsnilia winamdebare leqsikonSi. avtoris namdvili gvaris, saxelisa da mamis saxelis Semdeg aRniSnulia dabadeba-gardacvalebis TariRebi, misi saqmianoba, fsevdonimebi. pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII saukuneebis qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT (I -1991 w., II- 1993 w.), gamosacemad moamzades d.kldiaSvilma, m.surgulaZem. naSromi Seicavs qarTuli dokumenturi wyaroebidan amokrebil pirTa saxelebs, romlebic dalagebulia gvarsaxelebis anbanuri principiT. im SemTxvevaSi, roca gvarsaxeli ucnobia, - 227 -

saleqsikono erTeulad gatanilia piris saxeli. leqsikoni daibeWda saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis saredaqciosagamomcemlo sabWos dadgenilebiT. miTologiuri leqsikonebi. 1972 wels gamovida n. gafrindaSvilis mier Sedgenili ”miTologiuri leqsikoni", romlis redaqtoria a. uruSaZe. 1983 wels daibeWda a. gelovanis ”miTologiuri leqsikoni" (redaqtori - l. sanikiZe). wigni vrceli enciklopediuri tipis cnobaria antikuri miTologiis personaJTa Sesaxeb; aqvea ganxiluli Zvelegvipturi miTologiac. vrcladaa warmodgenili cnobebi Sumeruli, babilonuri, Zveli sparsuli, induri, skandinaviuri, polineziuri miTologiidan. leqsikonSi TvalsaCino adgili eTmoba qarTul miTologiasac. qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikonebi. 1941 wels gamovida v. Tofuriasa da i. gigineiSvilis ”orTografiuli leqsikoni" (saskolo). leqsikonSi Setanili masalebi amoRebulia mxatvruli, politikuri, samecniero da saswavlo literaturidan, Jurnal-gazeTebidan da gansakuTrebiT moswavleTa nawerebidan. es leqsikoni Seicavs 15 aTasamde sityvas. 1946 wlis gamocemaSi 18 aTasamde sityva Seitanes avtorebma. mesamejer saskolo orTografiuli leqsikoni 1949 wels gamovida da masSi 19 aTasamde sityva Sevida. v. Tofuriasa da i. gigineiSvilis ”qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikoni" pirvelad 1968 wels gamovida v. Tofurias redaqciiT; igi emyareba qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis masalas. am leqsikonis daniSnulebaa, aRnusxos da warmogvidginos, Tu rogoraa mogvarebuli enaSi orTografiis anu marTlweris sakiTxebi. masSi Sesulia, agreTve, mecnierebisa da teqnikis sxvadasxva dargis terminebi, sasaubro enisa da kuTxuri leqsikis nimuSebi, Zveli an moZvelebuli sityvebi, romlebic gvxvdeba Zvelsa Tu axal mxatvrul mwerlobasa da specialur literaturaSi da romelTa dawerilobis mowesrigeba aucilebelia. leqsikonSi warmodgenilia qarTuli sityvebis marTebuli formebi, amdenad, bunebrivia, masSi ar aris mocemuli sityvis mniSvnelobebi. miuxedavad amisa, roca mniSvnelobis gansxvave- 228 -

baa aucilebeli, leqsikonSi sityvis mniSvnelobazec gvxvdeba miTiTeba; magaliTad: bali (blisa) - xili da bali (balisa) wveuleba; cifrobrivi niSani. adresati - werilis mimRebi da adresanti - werilis gamgzavni da a.S. sakuTriv orTografiuli sakiTxebis mogvarebisas leqsikonSi naCvenebia erTi savaldebulo forma, magram, roca saqme morfologiis, sityvaTwarmoebis Tu leqsikis sferos exeba, maSin variantebicaa mocemuli. Tanabari formebi paraleluri xazebiTaa aRniSnuli: aagznebs/aRagznebs, momwamvleli/ momwamlavi... leqsikonSi Setanilia umarTebulo formebi saTanado kvalifikaciiT: bartyi [da ara bRarti], moqmedi [da ara momqmedi]... leqsikons darTuli aqvs qalisa da vaJis saxelebis sarekomendacio sia, romelic SeimuSava mecnierebaTa akademiis specialurad gamoyofilma komisiam. wigns erTvis, agreTve, geografiul saxelwodebaTa sia, romelSic Setanilia msoflios ZiriTad geografiul saxelwodebaTa qarTuli dawerilobani. qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikonis gamocemidan 30 wlis Semdeg, 1998 wels, gamovida ”qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikonis” meore Sevsebuli gamocema. leqsikoni sagrZnoblad Seivso ”qarTuli sityvis kulturis sakiTxebis" oTxi tomis masalebiT, romlebic im periodSi iyo gamocemuli. leqsikonis axal gamocemaSi damatebiT Sesuli masala 30000 erTeuls aRemateba, xolo mTlianad saleqsikono erTeulTa raodenoba daaxloebiT 80000-s aRwevs. ”qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikonis” meore gamocemaSi ar SeutaniaT sakuTar saxelTa siebi im varaudiT, rom axlo momavalSi unda momzadebuliyo sakuTari saxelebis specialuri orTografiuli leqsikonebi. marTlac, qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediis bazaze momzadda xuTi axali leqsikoni: berZnul-romauli saxelebis, saqarTvelos, sabWoTa kavSiris, sazRvargareTis geografiuli saxelebisa da ucxour pirTa gvar-saxelebisa. ”berZnuli da romauli sakuTari saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni”“ Seadgina k. gigineiSvilma 1985 wels. - 229 -

”saqarTvelos ssr geografiuli saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni (masalebi)" gamovida 1987 wels (redaqtorebi: c.afxazava, i.gigineiSvili, a.kobaxiZe, d.ukleba, m.WabaSvili). am leqsikonSi Sesulia saqarTvelos yvela dasaxlebuli punqtis, qedebis, mTebis, mwvervalebis, uReltexilebis, mdinareebis, tbebisa da sxva geografiuli obieqtebis saxelwodebani, sul 9350 erTeuli. maT Soris: 4450 sofeli, 40 qalaqi, 40 daba, 1455 mdinare, 555 mTa, 180 qedi, 132 mwvervali, 138 uReltexili da sxva. ”sabWoTa kavSiris geografiuli saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni” gamovida 1987 wels saqarTvelos ssr ministrTa sabWos 1970 wlis specialuri dadgenilebis Sesabamisad (saredaqcio sabWo: i.abaSiZe (Tav-re), a.kobaxiZe, q.lomTaTiZe, a.sayvareliZe, c.cercvaZe, m.WabaSvili). ”sabWoTa kavSiris geografiuli saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni” Seicavs qveynis umniSvnelovanesi geografiuli obieqtebisa da administraciul-teritoriuli erTeulebis mxolod Tanamedrove saxelwodebebs. adrindeli saxelebi masSi gaTvaliswinebuli ar aris. leqsikons safuZvlad udevs qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediidan da didi sabWoTa enciklopediis uaxlesi gamocemebidan xmarebuli masala. saleqsikono erTeulebis orTografia Sejerebulia uaxles normatiul leqsikonTan ”Словарь географических названий СССР” (II gamocema, 1983). ”sazRvargareTis qveynebis geografiuli saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni” gamovida 1989 wels (saredaqcio sabWo: i.abaSiZe (Tavmjdomare), a.kobaxiZe, q.lomTaTiZe, a.sayvareliZe, c.cercvaZe, m.WabaSvili, b.jorbenaZe). leqsikonSi mocemulia saxelTa sruli daweriloba. ganmarteba mocemulia mokled. geografiuli saxelebi ZiriTadad Sesulia im saxiT, rogorc qse-Sia. leqsikonSi Sesulia geografiuli saxelebi, romlebic gvxvdeba qarTul enciklopediasa (t.I-XI, 1975-1987 ww.) da did sabWoTa enciklopediaSi (III gamocema, t. I-XXX, 1969-1978 ww.). 1989 wels gamovida ”ucxour pirTa saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni” (redaqtorebi: a.kobaxiZe, m.WabaSvili). - 230 -

ucxour sakuTar saxelTa unifikaciis mizniT saqarTvelos ssr ministrTa sabWos 1970 wlis dadgenilebis Sesabamisad aris Sedgenili ”sazRvargareTis qveynebis geografiul saxelTa orTografiuli leqsikoni” da ”ucxour pirTa saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni”. leqsikonis mizania, uCvenos mkiTxvels, Tu rogor iwereba qarTulad esa Tu is ucxouri saxeli. amave dros mocemulia mokle ganmarteba, Tu vin aris esa Tu is pirovneba da dabadebagardacvalebis TariRebi. dialeqturi leqsikonebi. dialeqturi leqsikonebis Sedgenas didi yuradReba daeTmo XX saukunis dasawyisidan. gamoqveynda T. razikaSvilis, k. gvaramaZis, v. beriZis, m. janaSvilis, a. SaniZis, v. Tofurias, iv. gigineiSvilis, i. qavTaraZis, T. uTurgaiZis, S. niJaraZis, q. ZoweniZis, st. menTeSaSvilis, m. alaviZis, l. kaiSauris, s. WiWinaZis, s. JRentis, T. berozaSvilis, m. mesxiSvilis, l. nozaZis, p. jajaniZis, n. rostiaSvilisa da sxvaTa mier Sedgenili dialeqturi leqsikonebi. TuSuri kilo (leqsika) 1969 wels gamoaqveyna p.xubutiam. 1974-1975 wlebSi pirvelad daibeWda or tomad al. Rlontis ”qarTul kilo-TqmaTa sityvis kona". meore gamocema 1984 wels erT wignad ganxorcielda. naSromi warmoadgens mokle qarTuli dialeqturi leqsikonis Sedgenis pirvel cdas da igi ZiriTadad sacnobo xasiaTisaa. am wignSi Setanilia qarTuli enis 18 dialeqturi erTeulis leqsikuri saganZuridan 40 aTasamde sityva im publikaciebis mixedviT, romlebic ganxorcielda qarTveli enaTmecnierebis mier 1910-1980 wlebSi. 1976 wels daibeWda p.gaCeCilaZis ”imeruli dialeqtis saleqsikono masala", romelSic Sesulia imeruli kilos erTi Tqmis - xaniswylis xeobis leqsikuri erTeulebi (4000-ze meti sityva). ganmartebebs axlavs sityvis mniSvnelobis sailustracio frazebi. 1978 wels gamovida n.rostiaSvilis ”ingilouri leqsikoni”.

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T.berozaSvilis, m.mesxiSvilisa da l.nozaZis ”qarTluri dialeqtis leqsikoni” gamoica 1981 wels. redaqtoria m.WabaSvili. leqsikoni 7 000 sityvas Seicavs. al. kobaxiZem Seadgina da 1987 wels gamosca ”raWuli dialeqtis leqsikoni” (masalebi). wignSi SerCeulia raWuli dialeqtis 4000-ze meti sityva da myari gamoTqma. saleqsikono erTeulebis umetes nawils Tan axlavs saTanado sityvis xmarebis sailustracio gamoTqmebi, rac ufro gasagebs xdis sityvebis mniSvnelobas. 1988 wels gamovida r. RambaSiZis ””qarTuli enis ingilouri kilos leqsikoni" (a. SaniZis redaqciiT), romelic moicavs 7000-mde saleqsikono erTeuls. J. feiqriSvilis ””mesxuri dialeqtis saleqsikono masala" gamovida 1992 wels. 2000 wels gamovida v. Tofuriasa da m. qaldanis ”svanuri leqsikoni", romelic moicavs 160000-mde sityvas. wminda leqsikologiur kvalifikaciasTan erTad masSi bevri saintereso cnobaa eTnografiuli sinamdvilis Sesaxeb. 2001-2002 wlebSi gamovida o. qajaias ”megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni”, t. I (a-v), t. II (z-s), t. III (t-h). samive tomis redaqtoria z. sarjvelaZe. ”...o. qajaias naSromi megrul kiloSi gamoyenebuli sityvebis yvelaze srulyofili da kargad Sesrulebuli leqsikonia. megruli kilos monacemebi samwignobro qarTulTan Tvisobrivad iseTsave mimarTebaSia, rogorc TuSuri, ingilouri, an qarTuli kiloebis saleqsikono masala; kerZod, megrulSic gvaqvs samwignobro enidan damkvidrebuli (da ara nasesxebi) sityvebi da ,piriqiT; qarTvelTa am kiloSic mravladaa sakuTriv dialeqturi Tu ucxo enebidan nasesxebi enobrivi erTeulebi, magram ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondi zogadqarTulia (qarTveluria); Sesabamisad, ufro marTebuli da istoriuli mimarTebis amsaxveli iqneboda, leqsikons darqmeoda ”megruli leqsikoni", miT umetes, o. qajaiasa da leqsikonis saredaqcio sabWos kargi magaliTi hqondaT cnobili mkvlevrebis - v. Tofuriasa da m. qaldanis avtorobiT axlaxan gamocemuli ”svanuri leqsikonis" saxiT" (t.futkaraZe, e.dadiani, 2003).

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8 aTasze meti sityvaa ganmartebuli g. xornaulis ””fSaur leqsikonSi", romelic 2002 wliT aris daTariRebuli. sxva mraval sityvasTan erTad aq ganmartebulia fSauri toponimebi da hidronimebi. aq fSauri sityvebis garda warmodgenilia Zveli qarTuli enidan momdinare leqsika. yoveli sityvis ganmartebisas avtori miuTiTebs pirvel Camwerganmmartebels. a. WinWaraulis ”xevsuruli leqsikoni" gamovida 2005 wels; Seicavs 25 aTasamde saleqsikono erTeuls. mas avtori mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis manZilze qmnida. wignis redaqtoria avTandil arabuli. leqsikoni did samsaxurs uwevs ara marto lingvistebs, aramed - literatorebs, folkloristebs, eTnografebs da, saerTod, istoriuli qarTuli kuTxeebiT dainteresebul pirebsac. SedarebiTi da etimologiuri leqsikonebi. 1910 wels gamoqveynda n. maris ”Wanuri enis gramatika qrestomaTiiTa da leqsikoniTurT”. 1910 wels p. Waraiam Seadgina megrulis ”SedarebiTi leqsikoni", romelic ori nawilisagan Sedgeba: 1. qarTulmegruli 2. megrul-qarTuli. orive nawils alag-alag afxazuri paralelebic erTvis. arn. Ciqobavas ”Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi leqsikoni" (1938 w.) Wanuris leqsikas ganixilavs megrulisa da sxva qarTveluri qvesistemebis leqsikasTan SedarebiT. qarTveluri leqsikis istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodiT SeswavlaSi didi wvlili miuZRvis k. h. Smidts. misi sadoqtoro disertaciis (”qarTveluri fuZeenis bgeriTi sistemis rekonstruqciisaTvis”, 1962) meore nawili - ”indeqsi” - warmoadgens qarTvelur enaTa mokle etimologiur leqsikons. mas arn.Ciqobavas leqsikonis Semdeg qarTvelur enaTa SedarebiT leqsikons uwodeben. naSromma farTo gamoxmaureba pova rogorc CvenSi, ise - ucxoeTSi. igi ganixileba rogorc axali safexuri am enaTa kvleva-ZiebaSi (g.Tofuria, v.imnaiSvili). "Этимологический словарь картвельских языков" (avtori g. klimovi) gamoica moskovSi 1964 wels. am naSromSi gaanalizebulia 400-mde leqsikuri erTeuli. calkeul sityvaTa - 233 -

etimologiuri analizis safuZvelze avtori aRadgens zogadqarTul fuZeTa modelebs da gvaCvenebs maT variaciebs, rasac adgili unda hqonoda qarTvelur fuZeenaSi. qarTveluri leqsikis SedarebiTi da etimologiuri SeswavlisTvis mniSvnelovania T. gamyreliZisa da g. maWavarianis monografia: ”sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi", romelic 1965 wels gamoqveynda. h. fenrixisa da z. sarjvelaZis "qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni" 1990 wels qarTul enaze pirvelad gamoqveynda. am leqsikonis meore Sevsebuli da gadamuSavebuli varianti ganxorcielda 2000 wels. leqsikoni warmoadgens cdas, erTgvarad Seajamos qarTveluri leqsikis Seswavlis miRwevebi. masSi aisaxa rogorc winamorbed da Tanamedrove mklevarTa Ziebis Sedegebi, aseve, naSromis avtorTa dakvirvebani. wignis redaqtoria prof. k. danelia. 2003 wels TbilisSi gamoica m. Cuxuas ”qarTvelur enakiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni" (damatebiTi masalebi istoriuletimologiuri leqsikonisaTvis). leqsikonSi mocemulia Ziebani qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikidan, gamovlenilia saerTo qarTveluri fuZeenidan momdinare aseulobiT leqsikuri erTeuli, romelzec adre ar iyo miTiTebuli saenaTmecniero literaturaSi. ”qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiT leqsikonSi" meTaur sityvad gamotanilia svanuri varianti. qarTuli enis inversiuli leqsikoni 1967 wels daibeWda (redaqtorebi: b. foCxua, m. WabaSvili). masSi sityvebi dalagebulia bolokiduri asoebis anbanze. am leqsikons safuZvlad udevs qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeuli. inversiuli leqsikoni warmoadgens qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi moTavsebuli saleqsikono erTeulebis indeqss. sityvebis inversiuli dalageba saSualebas aZlevs mkiTxvels, gaerkves qarTuli sityvis mniSvnelovan bgeriTsa da gramatikul TaviseburebebSi. qarTuli enis fonetikur-gramatikul daxasiaTebas emsaxureba erTgvardaboloebian sityvaTa raodenobis daangariSebac, romlis Sedegebi warmodgenilia leqsikonis vrcel ”SinaarsSi". simfonia-leqsikonebi. saqarTveloSi ramdenjerme gamoica ”vefxistyaosnis" simfonia (1933, 1956, 1973 ww.). - 234 -

ak. SaniZem 1944 wels gamoaqveyna ”xanmeti leqcionari", romelsac daurTo simfonia. jer 1948-1949 wlebSi da Semdeg1986 wels iv. imnaiSvilma gamosca ”qarTuli oTxTavis simfonia-leqsikoni” (redaqtori - a. SaniZe). leqsikonSi Sesulia ara marto srulmniSvnelovani sityvebi, aramed kavSirebi, Tandebulebi, nawilakebi. 1984 wels l. qajaiam gamoaqveyna ”xanmeti teqstebi", romelsac daurTo simfoniac. 1986 wels gamovida ”qarTlis cxovrebis" simfonialeqsikoni, I-II nakveTi; I nakveTi warmoadgens leonti mrovelis TxzulebaTa (”cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa" da ”arCilis wameba") simfonia-leqsikons, II nakveTi - juanSeris (”cxovreba vaxtang gorgasalisa"...) leqsikas. simfonia-leqsikonSi warmodgenili Znelad gasagebi leqsikuri erTeulebi ganmartebulia. Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetSi momzadda ””samociqulos" qarTuli redaqciebis simfonia-leqsikoni. xelnawerTa institutis TanamSromlebma ki Seadgines ”qarTuli agiografiuli literaturuli Zeglebis simfonia-leqsikoni”. 1961 wels k. kekeliZis mier gamocemul monografiaSi: ”akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebi" moTavsebulia ”Tornike erisTavis simfonia”. ”nikoloz baraTaSvilis TxzulebaTa simfonia” 1973 wels gamosca g. gogatiSvilma. 1982-1983 wlebSi gamovida T. sanikiZis mier Sedgenili ”akaki wereTlis poeziis leqsikoni", 1986 wels ki - ”ilia WavWavaZis poeziis leqsikoni”. T. sanikiZes ekuTvnis pirveli sixSiris leqsikoni (”iliasa da akakis poeziis sixSiris leqsikoni", Tb., 1988). ”galaktion tabiZis enis leqsikoni” sam tomad gamosca avtorTa koleqtivma (T. sanikiZe, c. sanikiZe, n. tabiZe) 19901993 wlebSi. qarTuli Jargonis leqsikoni. 1999 wels qarTul leqsikografias Seemata l. bregaZis mier Sedgenili ”qarTuli Jargonis leqsikoni". - 235 -

biT, aq sityva warmodgenilia mxolod im mniSvnelobiT, romelic mocemul Temas Seesabameba; sityvis sxva mniSvnelobebi ugulebelyofilia. mag., ”boCiki" irmis Svilsac aRniSnavs da gamozamTrebul xbosac, magram naSierTa klasSi is mxolod pirveli mniSvnelobiT Seva).

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis ideografiuli leqsikoni. 1987 wels gamovida b. foCxuas mier Sedgenili ”Tanamedrove qarTuli enis ideografiuli leqsikoni” (I). aq warmodgenilia qarTuli enis sami dargobrivi klasis: aracocxali bunebis, mcenareebisa da cxovelebis erTi semantikuri rigis leqsika; gamoyofilia am klasebSi Semaval sityvaTa mniSvnelobebis ZiriTadi jgufebi da qvejgufebi. naSroms uZRvis Teoriuli Sesavali, sadac mocemulia ideografiuli leqsikonis Sedgenis meTodologiuri safuZvlebi. leqsikons darTuli aqvs sityvaTa anbanuri saZiebeli (sxva leqsikonebisagan gansxvave-

qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmebis leqsikonebi. xuTi aTeuli wlis Sromis Semdeg mweralma da enaTmecnierma T. saxokiam Seadgina `qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani". is Zvirfasi sacnobaro wignia, romelSic Tavmoyrilia mxatvrul literaturasa da xalxis metyvelebaSi gavrcelebuli brZnuli gamoTqma-sentenciebi, andazisebri frazebi, xatovani, figuraluri gamoTqmebi, frazeologiuri erTeulebi. ama Tu im xatovan sityva-TqmasTan naCvenebia misi pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvneloba. aqve moTavsebulia sailustracio masala da Semdgenlis SeniSvnebi. masala avtors amokrebili aqvs qarTvel mweralTa Txzulebebidan. pirvelad ”qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani" sam wignad gamoica 1950-1955 wlebSi. mcireodeni cvlilebiT erT wignad daibeWda 1979 wels. T. SaviSvilis "figuraluri sityva-Tqmebis krebuli" pirvelad gamovida 1957 wels, meorejer ki - 1960 wels. meore gamocemaSi damatebulia 49 axali gamoTqma. aq ZiriTadad axsnil-ganmartebulia saerTaSoriso gavrcelebis gamoTqmebi: babilonis godoli, barTlomes Rame, gaTiSe da ibatone, herostrates dideba, homerosuli xarxari, alfa da omega, amerikis aRmoCena, balzakis asaki da sxva. avtori mkiTxvels acnobs ara marto gamoTqmebis dedaazrs, misi warmoSobis istorias, Tqmebis avtorebs, agreTve nawarmoebs, saidanac es - 236 -

Tqma Sevida enaSi, aramed arCevs iseT citatebs, romlebic axali kuTxiT aSuqebs ama Tu im sityvas. al. onianis ”qarTuli idiomebis" leqsikonSi (1966 w.) Sesulia XIX-XX saukuneebis qarTveli mwerlebis Txzulebebidan, qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonidan da Tedo saxokias naSromidan (”qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani") amokrebili idiomebi. calkea gamocemuli S. Rlontis ”vefxistyaosnis" frazeologiuri leqsikoni" (1968 w.). sinonimTa leqsikonebi. al. neimanis ”qarTul sinonimTa leqsikonSi" (1951, 1961, 1978 ww.) gaanalizebulia XIX da XX saukuneebis qarTul enaSi arsebuli sinonimuri sityvagamoTqmebi. masSi Sesulia sityvebi rogorc mxatvruli literaturidan, ise sxvadasxva dialeqtebidan. sinonimebs ar axlavs sailustracio masala. terminologiuri leqsikonebi. jer kidv 1878 wels quTaisSi gamovida ”qarTuli gramatikuli terminologia" silovan xundaZis winasityvaobiT. mas Semdegac specialistebis mier araerTi terminologiuri leqsikoni Seiqmna. magaliTad: literaturis, saenaTmecniero (1923 w., g. axvlediani), teqnikuri, ekonomikuri, samedicino, soflis meurneobis, iuridiuli, metalurgiis, radioteqnikuri, fizikisa da eleqtromeqanikis, avtosatransporto, mTis miwaTmoqmedebis, geologiuri, sportuli, virusologiuri terminebisa da specialuri gamoTqmebis, maTematikuri da a.S. 1925 wels gamovida l. leoniZis ”mesaqonleobis leqsikoni", romelic Seicavs qarTuli klasikuri mxatvruli mwerlobidan da qarTuli leqsikografiuli literaturidan amokrebil nimuSebs. gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasia is ucnobi masala, rac TviT avtors moupovebia. mas Semouvlia saqarTvelos kuTxeebi, Seuswavlia yvela qarTveluri kilo; leqsikoni Sedgenilia a. SaniZis xelmZRvanelobiT. wignis 100 gverdze moTavsebulia 2174 leqsikuri erTeuli. zust ganmartebebs axlavs frazeologiac. sinonimTa axsnisaTvis mkvlevars gamouyenebia budobrivi principi. leqsikons wamZRvarebuli aqvs ”Sesavali" da ”SemoklebaTa ganmarteba".

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1949, 1961 wlebSi gamovida ”botanikuri leqsikoni” (a. mayaSvili). 1979 wels r. metrevelma ”qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediis” masalebis safuZvelze Seadgina ”saqarTvelos istoria”, leqsikoni, a-v (I wigni). leqsikoni sacnobaro xasiaTisaa; is mkiTxvels awvdis informacias saqarTvelos istoriis, istoriuli geografiis, arqeologiis, xelovnebis istoriis, folkloris sakiTxebze. 1984 wels gamovida "qarTuli mwerloba" _ leqsikonicnobari, wigni I. aq mocemulia ZiriTadi cnobebi qarTveli mwerlebis Sesaxeb V saukunidan 1977 wlamde. dRemde gamoqveynebulia bevri sxva terminologiuri leqsikoni (ix. leqsikonTa CamonaTvali). orenovani, samenovani da mravalenovani leqsikonebi. orenovani da samenovani leqsikonebidan pirvel rigSi unda davasaxeloT nikifore ColoyaSvilisa da stefane paolinis `qarTul-italiuri leqsikoni", romelic gamocemulia romSi 1629 wels. leqsikoni Seicavs 3084 qarTul vokabulasa da mis italiur Targmans. pirvelad 1898 wels m. janaSvilis mier da meored 1941 wels v. fuTuriZis mier aris gamocemuli farsadan gorgijaniZis "qarTul-arabul-sparsuli leqsikoni"; aq sul 900 sityvaa Targmnili. ”qarTuli leqsikoni rusuli TargmaniTurT" Seadgina n. CubinaSvilma. marTalia, leqsikoni Sedgenilia 1815-1825 wlebSi, magram pirvelad gamoica 1961 wels al. Rlontis redaqciiTa da gamokvleviT. es leqsikoni ganmartebiTic aris da TargmniTic. esa Tu is sityva jer qarTulad aris axsnili, Semdeg ki maTi rusuli Sesatyvisebia mocemuli. e.i. es leqsikoni, rogorc mas avtori uwodebs, aris ”qarTuli leqsikoni rusuli TargmaniTurT". avtors am leqsikonSi ar Seutania sakuTari saxelebi (es aris gansxvaveba sulxan-sabas leqsikonisagan). samagierod, leqsikoni werilobiTi Zeglebidan axali masaliT aris Sevsebuli. iqve avtors miTiTebuli aqvs wyaro, saidanac esa Tu is sityvaa amoRebuli. leqsikons axlavs qarTuli enis mokle gramatikuli mimoxilva. - 238 -

n. CubinaSvils ekuTvnis ”rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni" (or tomad). I t. gamovida 1971 wels, II t. ki - 1973 wels. es leqsikoni avtors 1812-1825 wlebSi Seudgenia. arsebobda xelnaweris saxiT. is samzeoze gamoitana al. Rlontma sakuTari redaqciiTa da winasityvaobiT. d. CubinaSvilma Seqmna ”qarTul-rusul-franguli leqsikoni" (1840 w.) da ”qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni” (1887 w.). meore gamocema 1984 wels ganxorcielda (sastambod moamzada da winasityvaoba daurTo a. SaniZem). d. CubinaSvilis qarTulrusuli leqsikoni ganmartebiTic aris da TargmniTic. am leqsikonis uSualo wyaros warmoadgens n. CubinaSvilis ”qarTuli leqsikoni rusuli TargmaniTurT". amitomac emsgavseba kidec mas, Tumca ufro vrcelia. aq gazrdilia saleqsikono erTeulTa raodenoba. axali sityvebi avtors XIX saukunis II naxevris literaturuli Zeglebidan aqvs amoukrebili. 1960-1974 wlebSi ciurixSi sam tomad daibeWda kita Cxenkelis "qarTul-germanuli leqsikoni". k. Cxenkeli ver moeswro leqsikonis bolomde dabeWdvas; misi saqme cnobili emigranti qarTvelologis - viqtor nozaZis xelmZRvanelobiT daasrules k. Cxenkelis TanaSemweebma: lea flurma, iolanda marSevma da ruT noikomma. 1965 wels naSromi ukve gamzadebuli iyo, magram iolanda marSevis redaqtorobiT sabolood mTlianad daibeWda 1974 wels. leqsikonis saerTo moculoba 2500 gverdia. am leqsikonis wyaroebad gamoyenebulia sulxansaba orbelianis ”sityvis kona", ”qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni" (rvatomeuli). ama Tu im qarTuli sityvis germanul Targmans leqsikonSi darTuli aqvs laTinuri Sesatyvisebi. saleqsikono erTeulebs axlavs sailustracio nimuSebi. qarTuli zmnis originaluri damuSavebiT, frazebis simdidriT, dialeqtizmebis farTod warmodgeniTa da sxva TvisebebiT es leqsikoni sruliad gansakuTrebulia. ”qarTulgermanul leqsikons" maRali Sefaseba misces rene lafonma, Jerar garitma, hans fogtma, karl horst Smidtma, iulius asfalgma, robert stivensonma, arnold Ciqobavam, akaki SaniZem da sxvebma. 2001 wels hamburgSi gamoica m. ieldenis "germanulqarTuli da qarTul-germanuli leqsikoni". - 239 -

2004 wels gamovida 45000 sityviani "germanul-qarTuli leqsikoni" (Semdgeneli: r.zeqalaSvili; redaqtori d.fanjikiZe). qarTul-franguli leqsikonis Sedgenis pirveli cda a. sulxaniSvils ekuTvnis. man 1939 wels gamoaqveyna ”qarTulfrangul-rusuli leqsikoni". arsebobs agreTve i. rotinovis Sedgenili ”Semoklebuli qarTul-francizuli leqsikoni” (II gamocema, Tb., 1877). 1953 wels gamovida e. oqropiriZis mier Sedgenili ”qarTul-franguli leqsikoni”. 1998 wels gamoica amave leqsikonis I tomi (redaqtori s.koxreiZe). wigni daaxloebiT 30000 sityvas Seicavs. i. gvarjalaZis ”qarTul-franguli leqsikoni” (12 aTasi sityviT) daibeWda 1946, 1967 wlebSi; Semdeg ki avtorma 40 aTas sityviani leqsikoni gamoaqveyna. 2005 wels TbilisSi gamovida Tematur-dargobrivi "qarTul-franguli leqsikoni" (saswavlo-pedagogiuri leqsikoni); mTavari redaqtoria n. qadeiSvili. 1928 wels daiwyo da 1939 wels daasrula ”qarTulinglisuri leqsikonis” Sedgena inglisSi moRvawe qarTvelologma ekaterine CerqeziSvilma (eka Cerqezma), magram am leqsikonis gamocemas xeli SeuSala II msoflio omma. leqsikoni gamoica 1950 wels oqsfordSi. leqsikonis saboloo redaqcia oliver uordrops ekuTvnis. es leqsikoni eZRvneba oliver uordropis xsovnas da gamocemulia oqsfordis universitetis marjori uordropis saxelobis fuladi fondis xelSewyobiT. leqsikoni Seicavs 15 aTas sityvas. eka Cerqezis ”qarTul-inglisuri leqsikoni” pirveli cdaa am saxis leqsikonis Sedgenisa. leqsikoni emyareba Zveli da axali aRTqmis qarTul da inglisur teqstebs, S. rusTavelis ”vefxistyaosnis" marjori uordropiseul Targmans, d. CubinaSvilis ”rusul-qarTul leqsikons” (1886 w.). sacnobarod gamoyenebuli yofila mari brosesa da niko maris Sromebi (e. Cerqezis leqsikonze ixileT T. uTurgaiZis recenzia: ike, XXII, 1980 w.).

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1946, 1965 wlebSi gamovida T. gvarjalaZisa da i. gvarjalaZis "qarTul-inglisuri saswavlo leqsikonis" mokle redaqcia (12 aTasi sityviT). es leqsikoni Sevsebuli saxiT gamovida pirvelad 1974 wels (20 aTasi sityva) da meored - 1979 wels (40 aTasi sityva). 2005 wels gamovida "qarTul-inglisuri leqsikoni" (mTavari redaqtori m.megreliSvili, pasuxismgebeli redaqtori m.miqaZe), romelic 165000 sityvisagan Sedgeba. qarTuli saleqsikono erTeuli aRebulia "qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonidan" da Sedarebulia i.galperinis saerTo redaqciiT gamocemul "did inglisur-rusul leqsikonTan". wigni Sevsebulia oqsfordis, uebsteris, kobildis da sxva leqsikonebis monacemebis mixedviT. enciklopediuri leqsikonebi. enciklopediur leqsikonSi mocemulia arsebiTi xasiaTis cnobebi codnis yvela an romelime calke dargidan. Sesabamisad, enciklopediuri leqsikoni orgvaria: zogadi da specialuri. zogadSi codnis yvela dargis monacemebia warmodgenili, specialurSi - romelime dargidan. zogadi enciklopediuri leqsikonebia: ”qarTuli enciklopedia”, ”sabavSvo enciklopedia”... ”qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia” (1975-1987 ww.) gamosca saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiam (redaqtori i.abaSiZe). saredaqcio kolegiis SemadgenlobaSi Sevidnen sxvadasxva dargis specialistebi, gamoCenili mecnierebi da kulturis moRvaweni. 1997 wels gamovida“”saqarTvelo” (enciklopedia), t. I, gamosca qarTuli enciklopediis saredaqcio sabWom. enciklopedia xuTtomeulia. misi mizania mkiTxvels srulad miawodos informacia saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebTan dakavSirebul yvela mniSvnelovan movlenaze. ”sabavSvo enciklopedia” (1963-1980 ww.) Sedgeba 10 tomisagan: I tomi (”dedamiwa”), II tomi (”dedamiwis qerqi da wiaRi, ciur sxeulTa samyari”, III tomi (”ricxvebi da figurebi”), IV tomi (”mcenareebi da cxovelebi”), V tomi (”teqnika”), VI tomi (”adamiani”), VII tomi (”kacobriobis war-

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sulidan”), VIII tomi (”Cveni samSoblo”), IX tomi (”sazRvargareTis qveynebi”), X tomi (”literatura da xelovneba”). 1974-1975 wlebSi gamoica“”folkloris leqsikoni” (redaqtori m.Ciqovani). aq Tavmoyrilia Zvirfasi sacnobaro masala da ganmartebulia asobiT specifikuri sityva-termini. 2002 wels gamovida ivane javaxiSvilisadmi miZRvnili enciklopediuri leqsikoni (mTavari redaqtori r.metreveli). leqsikoni praqtikulad pirveli qarTuli enciklopediuri wignia, romelic erTi pirovnebis cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebas exeba. aqve warmovadgenT ganxilul da sxva leqsikonTa vrcel CamonaTvals, agreTve calkeul gamokvlevebs:
i.abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tb., 1973. iust. abulaZe, iranuli enis gramatika qrestomaTiiTa da leqsikoniT, Tb., 1937. agiografiuli literaturuli Zeglebis simfonia-leqsikoni (Sedgenili xelnawerTa institutis TanamSromelTa mier). n.adamia, qarTul-germanuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1963. adamianis uflebaTa leqsikoni, Seadgina f.sayvareliZem, Tb., 1999. g.advaZe, g.goguaZe, e.erqomaiSvili, g.Tofuria, v.keSelava, n.kikvaZe, b.lutiZe, v.SariqaZe, gardaqmnis leqsikoni, Tb., 1988. avtotransportis terminologia (rusul-qarTul da qarTulrusul enebze, Tb., 1987. m.alaviZe, leCxumuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1938. m.alaviZe, d.kldiaSvilis leqsikoni: al. wulukiZis saxelobis quTaisis saxelmwifo pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi, VI, 1946. m.alaviZe, qvemoaWaruli toponimikuri leqsikoni: al. wulukiZis saxelobis quTaisis pedinstitutis Sromebi, XVII, 1957. m.alaviZe, Soreuli landebis leqsika: d. banovani, Soreuli landebi, Tb., 1961. m.alaviZe, sulxan-saba orbelianis ”sityvis kona" da qarTuli dialeqturi leqsikonis sakiTxebi: respublikuri dialeqtologiuri samecniero sesia, miZRvnili qarTuli enis dialeqtologiuri atlasis principebisa da dialeqtologiisa da enis istoriis zogadi sakiTxebisadmi,

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q. baTumi, 1982, 2-3 dekemberi, muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. n.alania, b.doborjginiZe, m. duduCava, n.Wolokava, a.xinTibiZe, literaturismcodneobis terminTa mokle leqsikoni m.duduCavas saerTo redaqciiT, Tb., 1966. a.aleqsiZe, ofTalmologiis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1989. n.amiranaSvili, m.quTelia, c.mgalobliSvili, m.RibraZe, l.anTaZe, c.Cqareuli, qarTul-germanul-inglisurfrangul-rusuli farmacevtuli leqsikoni, I gamocema (red. l. amiranaSvili, e.vider-winamZRvriSvili), Tb., 2000. arqeologiuri leqsikoni, Sedgenili a.afaqiZis, m.inasariZis, a.sixaruliZis, m. afaqiZis mier, Tb., 1980. g.axvlediani, ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni, Tb., 1933. i.bagrationi, sabunebismetyvelo ganmartebiTi leqsikoni; redaqtorebi: g.mWedliZe, al.Rlonti, Tb., 1986. i.basilaSvili, merqniani jiSebisa da zogierT subtropikul mcenareTa leqsikoni, Tb., 1982. g.baxtaZe, a.qistauri, Terapiuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1991. v.beriZe, sityvis kona imerul da raWul TqmaTa, sankt.peterburgi, 1912. T.berozaSvili, m.mesxiSvili, l. nozaZe, qarTveluri dialeqtis leqsikoni, red. m.WabaSvili, Tb., 1981. r.berulava, T.berulava, qarTul-inglisur-rusuli profesiuli ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1999. n.bregaZe, mTis miwaTmoqmedeba dasavleT saqarTveloSi (dargoblivi leqsika), Tb., 1969. l.bregaZe, qarTuli Jargonis leqsikoni, Tb., 1999. n.gamrekliZe, v.mgalobliSvili, qarTul-rusuli frazeologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1964. T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tb., 1965. ganmartebani kerZo samarTalSi: samagido wigni iuristebisaTvis, ekonomistebisa da saqmiani adamianebisaTvis, sakanonmdeblo aqtebis krebuli, Tb., 2000. n.gafrindaSvili, miTologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1972. p.gaCeCilaZe, imeruli dialeqtis saleqsikono masala, Tb., 1976. l.geleniZe, adamianis anatomia-fiziologiasTan dakavSirebuli leqsika Zvel qarTulSi, Tb., 1974. a.gelovani, miTologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1983.

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T.gvarjalaZe, i.gvarjalaZe, qarTul-inglisuri saswavlo leqsikoni, Tb., 1946, 1965, 1974, 1979. i.gvarjalaZe, qarTul-franguli leqsikoni, Tb., 1946, 1967. k.gigineiSvili, berZnuli da romauli sakuTari saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1985. g.giorgaZe, g.beriSvili, r.fanculaia, citologiur-genetikuronkologiuri leqsikon-cnobari, Tb., 1978. v.giorgobiani, plastikuri anatomiis cnobari, Tb., 1985. T.giorgobiani, qsenofontis leqsikoni, Tb., 2005. g.gogatiSvili, n.baraTaSvilis TxzulebaTa simfonia, Tb., 1973. g.gogolaSvili, c.kvantaliani, d.Sengelia, qarTuli enis zmnuri fuZeebis leqsikoni, Tb., 1989. f.gorgijaniZe, qarTul-arabul-sparsuli leqsikoni, gamocemuli m.janaSvilis mier 1989 wels. meored gamoica v.fuTuriZis mier 1941 wels. i.griSaSvili, al.WavWavaZis TxzulebaTa leqsikoni: al.WavWavaZis Txzulebani, Tb., 1940. q.daTikaSvili, qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, I - 1948, II - 1953, III 1967; a.daTikaSvilis TanaavtorobiT. r.dgebuaZe, a.abesaZe, qarTul-rusul-laTinuri mokle samedicino ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1988. r.dvali, r.RambaSiZe, teqnikuri terminologia (mesame gamocema), Tb., 1989. r.dvali, r.RambaSiZe, qarTul-rusuli teqnikuri terminologia, Tb., 1982. ekologiuri terminologiis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni (Semdgenlebi: e.gamyreliZe, q.cxakaia; redaqtori r.saRinaZe), Tb., 2002. r.erisTavi, Semoklebuli laTinur-rusul-qarTuli mcenareTa leqsikoni, tf., 1873. r.erisTavi, mokle qarTul-rusul-laTinuri leqsikoni mcenareTa, cxovelTa, liTonTa samefoebidgan, Tb., 1884. r.zeqalaSvili, germanul-qarTuli leqsikoni, redaqtori d.baxtaZe, Tb., 2004. Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso samarTali (leqsikoni-cnobari), avtorebi: l.aleqsiZe (pasuxismgebeli redaqtori), l.giorgaZe, z.daviTaSvili, m.kvaWaZe, k.korkelia, d.pataraia, i.qurdaZe; Tb., 2003; Targmanis leqsikoni, Tb., 2005.

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a.TamaraSvili, mokle musikaluri leqsikoni, redaqtori k.kakitaZe, Tb., 1999. v.Tofuria, i.gigineiSvili, orTografiuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1941, 1946, 1949. v.Tofuria, s.iordaniSvili, qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1942, 1950. v.Tofuria, i.gigineiSvili, qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1968, 1998. v.Tofuria, m.qaldani, svanuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2000. g.Tofuria, g.imnaiSvili, karl horst Smidti, Jurnali ”burji erovnebisa", 2000, #5. r. TofCiSvili, rogorc warmoiqmna qarTuli gvarsaxelebi, Tb., 1997. gr. iaralovi, sagamomcemlo-poligrafiuli cnobari, Tb., 1956. i.iedliCka, el.erisTavi, Cexur-qarTuli da qarTul-Cexuri leqsikoni: Cexuri ena (g.axvledianis redaqciiT), Tb., 1872. m.ieldeni, germanul-qarTuli da qarTul-germanuli leqsikoni, hamburgi, 2001. i.imedaSvili, ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni, Tb., 1904, 1918, 1928. iv.imnaiSvili, qarTuli oTxTavis simfonia-leqsikoni, redaqtori a.SaniZe, Tb., 1948-1949, 1986. italiuri-qarTuli leqsikoni; avtorebi: luiji mantovani, marine ocxeli, Tb., 2006. l.kaiSauri, mTiuluris dargobrivi leqsika, Tb., 1967. m.kankava, mokle rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1964. m.kankava, mokle qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1965. k.kekeliZe, ”Tornike erisTavis" simfonia: k.kekeliZe, akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebi, Tb., 1961. m.kekeliZe, sportuli terminologia Zveli qarTuli literaturis ZeglTa mixedviT: qarTuli ena da literatura skolaSi, 1969, #1. n.kereseliZe, sociologiis mravalenovani leqsikoni (inglisur, qarTul, rusul, germanul, frangul enebze), Tb., 1988. T.kvirkvelia, xuroTmoZRvruli ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1973. T.kikviZe, e.ninoSvilis TxzulebaTa leqsikoni: e.ninoSvilis Txzulebani s.xundaZis redaqciiT, t.I-II, Tb., 1932. z.kiknaZe, Suamdinaruli miTologiis leqsikoni; redaqtori T.gamyreliZe, Tb., 1984.

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Г.А.Климов, Этимологический словарь картвельских языков, Москва,1964. al.kobaxiZe, raWuli dialeqtis leqsikoni (masalebi), Tb., 1987. konstituciuri (saxelmwifo) samarTali (cnobari), avtorSemdgeneli p.cnobilaZe, Tb., 1998; m.korZaxia, m.WiWinaZe, embriologiur terminTa mokle ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1986. S.kutubiZe, frinvelebis nomenklaturuli terminologia, Tb., 1973. i.laCaSvili, mokle biologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1877. l.leoniZe, mesaqonleobis leqsikoni, Tb., 1925. g.leJava, virusologiuri terminebisa da specialuri gamoTqmebis leqsikoni, Tb., 1972. g.lindemani, h.bekhofi, xelovnebis leqsikoni, sxvadasxva stili da mimarTuleba eqvs tomad, t.I, germanulidan Targmnes l.narouSvilma da l.ramiSvilma, Tb., 1992. literaturismcodneobis ZiriTadi cnebebi, Sedgenili a.Wilaias mier, Tb., 1971. g.lomTaTiZe, g.fofxaZe, k.javriSvili, geologiuri terminologia akad. g.axvledianis redaqciiT, Tb., 1941. z.maisuraZe, medicinis terminologia, v.m.beriZis redaqciiT, Tb., 1947. i.maisuraZe, qarTuli gvarsaxelebi (saleqsikono bibliografiuli masalebi), Tb., 1981. maTematikuri terminologia r.aRlaZis, v.beriZisa da n. qaSakaSvilis redaqciiT, Tb., 1946. n.mari, Wanuri enis gramatika qrestomaTiiTa da leqsikoniTurT, Tb., 1910. ar.martirosovi, gr.imnaiSvili, qarTuli enis kaxuri dialeqti (leqsikoni), Tb., 1956. a.mayaSvili, botanikuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1949, 1961. c.mgalobliSvili, n.amiranaSvili, l.erisTavi, g.reviSvili, l.kinwuraSvili, d.WeliZe, farmacevtuli leqsikoni (laTinur-qarTuli da qarTul-laTinuri), Tb., 1996. i.megreliZe, mcire Teatraluri leqsikoni, Tb., 1980. c.menabde, inglisur-rusul-qarTuli biologiuri leqsikoni, redaqtori g.TumaniSvili, Tb., 1983. st.menTeSaSvili, qiziyuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1943. st. menTeSaSvili, qarTluris saleqsikono masala: iberiulkavkasiuri enaTmecniereba, t. XVII, Tb., 1970.

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metalurgiis terminologia, pasuxismgebeli redaqtorebi: n.qaSakaSvili da r.RambaSiZe, Tb., 1959. m.metreveli, turistul terminTa ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 2005. r.metreveli, saqarTvelos istoria, leqsikoni, I wigni (a-v), Tb., 1979. g.miqaZe, fsevdonimebis leqsikoni, Tb., 1966, 1969, 1984. al.naTiSvili, normaluri anatomiis terminologia, Tb., 1962. al.neimani, qarTul sinonimTa leqsikoni, Tb., 1951, 1961, 1978, 2006. S.niJaraZe, qarTuli enis zemoaWaruli dialeqti (leqsikoni), baTumi, 1961. v.omiaZe, avtosatransporto terminologia v.beriZis redaqciiTa da winasityvaobiT, Tb., 1950. al.oniani, qarTuli idiomebi, Tb., 1966. j.oniani, n.CikvaiZe, hidroekologiuri terminebis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 2001. j.oniani, hidrobiologiuri terminebis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, redaqtorebi: n.aleqsiZe, T.gabelaia, Tb., 2002. sulxan-saba orbeliani, qarTuli leqsikoni anu sityvis kona, Tb., 1884, 1991. e.oqropiriZe, qarTul-franguli leqsikoni, Tb., 1953. e.oqropiriZe, qarTul-franguli leqsikoni, t.I (redaqtori s.koxreiZe), Tb., 1998. pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni (XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT), I-1991; II-1993. gamosacemad moamzades d.kldiaSvilma da m.surgulaZem. s.JRenti, guruli kilo (leqsikoni), Tb., 1936. e.raqviaSvili, mokle politikuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1986. n.rostiaSvili, ingilouri leqsikoni, Tb., 1978. sabavSvo enciklopedia, t. I-X, Tb., 1963-1983. sabiblioTeko terminebis leqsikoni, Sedgenili g.giorgaZisa da m.kartozias mier, Tb., 1962. sabWoTa kavSiris geografiuli saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni, saredaqcio sabWo: i.abaSiZe (Tav-re), a.kobaxiZe, q.lomTaTiZe, a.sayvareliZe, c.cercvaZe, m.WabaSvili, Tb., 1987. saerTaSoriso samarTlis leqsikoni-cnobari, avtorTa koleqtivi, Tb., 2004.

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saerTaSoriso histologiuri nomenklatura; Semdgenlebi: m.korZaia, m.WiWinaZe. redaqtori n.javaxiSvili, Tb., 1977. sazRvargareTis qveynebis geografiuli saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni, saredaqcio sabWo: i.abaSiZe (Tav-re), a.kobaxiZe, q.lomTaTiZe, a.sayvareliZe, c.cercvaZe, m.WabaSvili, b.jorbenaZe, Tb., 1989. samoqalaqo samarTlis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 2004. ”samociqulos" qarTuli redaqciebis simfonia-leqsikoni, (momzadda Tsu-Si). p.a.sanakoevi, qarTul-osuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1953. T.sanikiZe, c.sanikiZe, n.tabiZe, galaktion tabiZis enis leqsikoni, t. I-II, 1990-1992. T.sanikiZe, c.sanikiZe, galaktion tabiZis enis leqsikoni, t. III, Tb., 1993. T.sanikiZe, akaki wereTlis poeziis leqsikoni, Tb., 1982-1983. T.sanikiZe, ilia WavWavaZis poeziis leqsikoni, Tb., 1986. T.sanikiZe, iliasa da akakis poeziis sixSiris leqsikoni, Tb., 1988. sarkinigzo terminebis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 2005. z.sarjvelaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni (masalebi), Tb., 1995. z.sarjvelaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis sityvis kona, Tb., 2001. z.sarjvelaZe, leqsikoni: Zveli qarTuli ena, Tb., 1997. saqarTvelo, enciklopedia, t. I, gamoica enciklopediis saredaqcio sabWos mier, Tb., 1997. saqarTvelos ssr geografiuli saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni, redaqtorebi: i.afxazava, i.gigineiSvili, a.kobaxiZe, d.ukleba, m.WabaSvili, Tb., 1987. T.saxokia, qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani, sam wignad, Tb., 19501955; erT wignad, Tb., 1979. b.svani, l.nakaSiZe, fsiqiatriis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1977. e.siraZe, d.nadareiSvili, qarTul-germanuli Tematuri leqsikoni da saubris nimuSebi, Tb., 1957. soflis meurneobis terminologia, saredaqcio kolegia: n.kecxoveli (mT. redaqtori), T.goniaSvili, a.mayaSvili... Tb., 1959. m.surgulaZe, Zveli qarTuli paleografiuli terminebi, Tb., 1978. a.sulxaniSvili, qarTul-frangul-rusuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1939. o.uridia, g.erisTavis Txzulebebis leqsikoni: g.erisTavi, Txzulebebi, Tb., 1961.

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a.ustiaSvili, b.kopaleiSvili, sameano-ginekologiuri terminologia, Tb., 1958. ucxour pirTa saxelebis orTografiuli leqsikoni (redaqtorebi: a.kobaxiZe, m.WabaSvili, Tb., 1989. S.falavandiSvili, geografiuli terminebisa da cnebebis leqsikoni, baTumi, 2002. S.falavandiSvili, g.TavdgiriZe, ekologiuri terminebis leqsikoni, baTumi, 2004. r.fareuliZe, CeCnur-qarTuli leqsikoni, Tb., 2003. J.feiqriSvili, mesxuri dialeqtis saleqsikono masala, Tb., 1992. h.fenrixi, z.sarjvelaZe, ZvelqarTul-germanuli leqsikoni, redaqtori i.giperti, hamburgi, 1999. h.fenrixi, z.sarjvelaZe, qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1990, 2000. fizikis terminologia a.gaCeCilaZis da r.RambaSiZis redaqciiT, Tb., 1960. fizikisa da eleqtromeqanikis terminologia a.didebuliZisa da b.yifSiZis masalebis mixedviT, Tb., 1928. filosofiuri leqsikoni i.florovis redaqciiT (meoTxe gamocema); qarTuli Targmanis saredaqcio kolegia: v.keSelava (redaqtori), k.gogsaZe, T.nanobaSvili, s.cincaZe, n.xurcilava, Tb., 1987. S.fiCxaZe, t.sixaruliZe, n. papalaSvili, n. maxvilaZe, safeiqro masalebis qimiuri terminologiis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1986. b.foCxua, Tanamedrove qarTuli enis ideografiuli leqsikoni, I, Tb., 1987. b.foCxua, m.WabaSvili, qarTuli enis inversiuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1967 t.futkaraZe, e.dadiani, zogadqarTuli (qarTveluri) samwignobro enisa da megruli kilos mimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis o.qajaias ”megrul-qarTuli leqsikonis" mixedviT: XXIII respublikuri dialeqtologiuri samecniero sesiis masalebi, 2003, 17-18 oqtomberi. `qarTlis cxovrebis" simfonia-leqsikonis I da II nakveTi, Tb., 1986. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeuli, arn.Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, Tb., 1950-1964. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, erTtomeuli, arn.Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, Tb., 1986.

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qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, or nakveTad, arn.Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, Tb., 1990. qarTul-franguli leqsikoni (saswavlo-pedagogiuri leqsikoni), mT. redaqtori n.qadeiSvili, Tb., 2005. qarTuli mwerloba - leqsikoni-cnobari, wigni I, Tb., 1984. qarTul-inglisuri leqsikoni (mT. redaqtori m.megreliSvili, pasuxismgebeli redaqtori m.miqaZe), 2005. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, t.I-XI, Tb., 1975-1987. qarTuli folkloris leqsikoni, qarTuli folklori, IV-1974, V-1975 (redaqtori m.Ciqovani). l.qajaia, simfonia-leqsikoni, ”xanmeti teqstebi", Tb., 1964. o.qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, t. I, t.II, t.III, Tb., 2001, 2002. i.qerqaZe, cxovelebis aRmniSnveli leqsika Zvel qarTulSi, Tb., 1974. iv.qeSikaSvili, T.razikaSvilis TxzulebaTa leqsika: T. razikaSvilis Txzulebani, Tb., 1969. qimiis terminologia (rusul-qarTuli), masalebi; Seadgines r.nikolaZem da d.gvaramaZem. r.nikolaZisa da r.RambaSiZis redaqciiT, Tb., 1970. W.qiria, germanul-qarTuli da qarTul-germanuli leqsikoni, Tb., 2001. r.RambaSiZe, qarTuli enis ingilouri kilos leqsikoni (akad. a.SaniZis redaqciiT), Tb., 1988. al.Rlonti, qarTveluri sakuTari saxelebi-anTroponimTa leqsikoni, Tb., 1967, 1986. al.Rlonti, qarTul kilo-TqmaTa sityvis kona, I-II, Tb., 1974-75; 1984 (meore gamocema, erT wignad). al.Rlonti, qarTuli zRaprebi da legendebi (leqsikoni), Tb., 1948. al. Rlonti, guruli folklori (leqsikoni), I, Tb., 1937. al.Rlonti, qarTuli leqsikografiis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1983. T.Rlonti, m.Sac-mSveliZe, c.CxikviSvili, T.malaSxia,m.jibuti, klinikuri nevrologiis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1978. S.Rlonti, ”vefxistyaosnis" frazeologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1968. s.yauxCiSvili, laTinur-qarTuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1961 (axlavs qarTul-laTinuri Sesatyvisobanic). T.SaviSvili, figuraluri sityva-Tqmebis krebuli, Tb., 1957, 1960.

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a.SaniZe, damatebani ingilouri leqsikonisaTvis, Tb., 1915. a.SaniZe, vaJas TxzulebaTa leqsikoni: vaJa-fSavelas krebuli, Tb., 1922. a.SaniZe, simfonia-leqsikoni, xanmeti leqcionari, Tb., 1944. a.SaniZe ”vefxistyaosnis" simfonia, Sedgenili akaki SaniZis xelmZRvanelobiT, misive winasityvaobiT da gamokvleviT, Tb., 1956. mz. SaniZe, Sesavali efrem mciris fsalmunTa Targmanebisa: Tsu Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, II, Tb., 1968. r.SamelaSvili, enaTmecnierul terminTa mokle leqsikoni, Tb., 1975. g.SaraSiZe, guruli leqsikoni, qarTvelur enaTa leqsika, I, masalebi, zemoimeruli da leCxumuri leqsikonebi, Tb., 1938. g.SatberaSvili, nafiqri (dargoblivi leqsika), Tb., 1959. g.SatberaSvili, WaSniki (dargoblivi leqsika, neologizmebi, dialeqtizmebi), Tb., 1964. l.Selia, anatomiis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni; redaqtori n.javaxiSvili, Tb., 1979. l.Selia, k.gunia, dasuraTebuli anatomiuri terminologia, Tb., 1989. i.SilakaZe, Zveli somxuri enis gramatika qrestomaTiiTa da leqsikoniT, Tb., 1955. i.SilakaZe, axali somxuri enis gramatika qrestomaTiiTa da leqsikoniT, Tb., 1971. k.h.Smidti, qarTveluri fuZeenis sistemis rekonstruqciisaTvis, 1962. g.SublaZe, savaWro-ekonomikuri cnobari, Tb., 1988. arn.Ciqobava, Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1938. e.CerqeziSvili (e.Cerqezi), qarTul-inglisuri leqsikoni, oqsfordi, 1950. m.Ciqovani, toponimikuri leqsikoni: Tsu Sromebi, IX, 1939. m.Ciqovani, leCxumuri leqsikoni: a.s.puSkinis saxelobis Tbilisis samaswavleblo institutis Sromebi, t. I, 1941. n.ColoyaSvili, st.paolini, qarTul-italiuri leqsikoni, romi, 1629. d.CubinaSvili, qarTul-rusul-franguli leqsikoni, 1840. n.CubinaSvili, qarTuli leqsikoni rusuli TargmaniTurT, redaqtori al.Rlonti, Tb., 1961,

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n.CubinaSvili, rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni (or tomad), t.I- 1971, t.II-1973; redaqtori al.Rlonti. n.CubinaSvili, qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, 1887 (meore gamocema, 1984), sastambod moamzada da winasityvaoba daurTo a.SaniZem. m.Cuxua, qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 20002003. k.Cxenkeli, qarTul-germanuli leqsikoni avtoris sikvdilis Semdeg gagrZelebuli da dasrulebuli iolanda marSevis mier lea fluris, ruT noikomisa da viqtor nozaZis TanamonawileobiT, ciurixi, 1974. i.CxikviSvili, saqarTvelos xerxemlianTa nomenklatura, tf., 1926. g.cocaniZe, TuSuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2000. i.cucqiriZe, r.RambaSiZe, geofizikis terminologia, Tb., 1988. p.cxadaia, onomastikur terminTa ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1989. S.ZiZiguri, al.yazbegis TxzulebaTa leqsikoni: al.yazbegis TxzulebaTa oTxtomeuli, Tb., 1948-1950. S.ZiZiguri, qarTuli dialeqtebis qrestomaTia leqsikoniTurT, Tb., 1956. q.ZoweniZe, zemoimeruli leqsikoni, Tb., 1974. i.waqaZe, ”vefxistyaosnis" xelnaweri leqsikonebis teqsti, Tb., 1976. b.wereTeli, zemoimeruli leqsikoni (qarTvelur enaTa leqsika), I, Tb., 1938. m.WabaSvili, ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni, Tb., 1964, 1973, 1983. p.Waraia, SedarebiTi leqsikoni, 1910. s.Wanturia, S.sulamaniZe, inglisur-qarTuli da qarTulinglisuri leqsikoni, quTaisi, 1998. e.WeliZe, Zveli qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo terminologia, t.I, Tb., 1996. a.WinWarauli, xevsuruli leqsikoni, Tb., 2005. z.WumburiZe, rogor gaCnda sityva, Tb., 1963. z.WumburiZe, ra gqvia Sen? Tb., 1971. b.WumburiZe, T.WumburiZe, q.baramiZe, T.turZelaZe, q.papuaSvili, v.akobia, samkurnalo saSualebaTa saxelwodebebis saxelmZRvanelo cnobari (generiuli, saerTaSoriso, safirmo, savaWro saxelwodebebi da sinonimebi), Tb., 1997.

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i.Wyonia, ”sityvis kona", niko maris redaqciiTa da winasityvaobiT, peterburgi, 1910. d.xmiadaSvili, radioteqnikuri terminologia v.beriZis redaqciiT, Tb., 1947. g.xornauli, fSauri leqsikoni, Tb., 2002. p.xubutia, TuSuri kilo (leqsika), Tb., 1969. s.xundaZe, qarTuli gramatikuli terminologia, quTaisi, 1887. o.xuciSvili, T.xatiaSvili, qarTul-germanuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1977. iv.javaxiSvili, enciklopediuri leqsikoni (mTavari redaqtori r. metreveli) Tb., 2002. m.janaSvili, ingilouri leqsikoni, Tb., 1913. p.jajaniZe, masalebi imeruli kilos leqsikonisaTvis, quTaisis pedinstitutis Sromebi, t. IX-1949, t. X-1950-1951. p.jajaniZe, guruli dialeqti, I, teqstebi, leqsikonis masalebi, Tb., 1977. evg.jeiranaSvili, qarTul-udiuri leqsikoni: udiuri ena, Tb., 1971. b.jorbenaZe, m.kobaiZe, m.beriZe, qarTuli enis morfemebisa da modaluri elementebis leqsikoni, Tb., 1988. s.jorbenaZe, inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni (saavtoro samarTali, samrewvelo sakuTreba), Tb., 1998.

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Tavi V qarTuli saliteraturo enis normirebis sakiTxebi
5.1. normirebis istoria
saliteraturo ena normirebuli sistemaa, winaswar SemuSavebul wesebsa da kanonebze damyarebuli enaa. igi ar Tanxvdeba arc erT dialeqts, aramed aris zedialeqturi movlena, Tumca mWidro kavSiri aqvs rogorc dialeqtebTan, ise cocxal metyvelebasTan. dialeqtebi warmoadgens masazrdoebel, gamamdidrebel wyaros saliteraturo enisaTvis. cocxali metyvelebac did zegavlenas axdens masze. enis ganviTarebis bunebrivi procesi cocxal metyvelebaSi aisaxeba. enaSi momxdari cvlilebebi jer cocxal metyvelebaSi iCens Tavs, Semdeg SeiZleba iqces normad da damkvidrdes saliteraturo enaSi. qarTul saliteraturo enas didi xnis tradiciebi aqvs. Cvenamde moRweuli wyaroebis mixedviT TandaTan yalibdeboda gaazrebuli midgoma standartuli enis normirebisadmi, Tumca erTiani normebi yovelTvis ar iyo miRebuli da gabatonebuli (gansakuTrebiT XII-XVIII saukuneebSi). adreuli (V-XI saukuneebis) qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi SedarebiT mtkicea: erTgvarovania brunvis niSanTa sistema da zmnis uRleba, saerTod - metyvelebis nawilTa formacvaleba da sityvaTwarmoeba. ar SeimCneva gramatikul formaTa siWrele da nairgvaroba. udavoa, rom es aixsneba saliteraturo enis xangrZlivi tradiciiT. saerTod, saliteraturo enis normebis siaxlove xalxuri metyvelebis formebTan ganapirobebda Zveli qarTuli enis monoliTurobas (i.qavTaraZe, 1981, gv. 128). rasakvirvelia, es imas ar niSnavs, rom V-XI saukuneTa qarTul saliteraturo enaSi normebidan gadaxvevebi araa da dialeqtizmebi ar SeimCneva. Cans, saliteraturo ena ZvelTaganve ganicdida cocxali metyvelebis gavlenas, rac werilobiTs ZeglebSic aisaxeboda. amitom ar aris V-XI saukuneTa Zeglebi enobrivad erTgvarovani. amaze metyvelebs xanmetoba-haemetobisa da sannarevobis periodebis arsebobac: VVII saukuneebSi zmnis meore subieqturi da mesame obieqturi - 254 -

piris niSani iyo x- prefiqsi, VIII saukunis meore naxevridan normad iqca h-, IX saukunis meore naxevarSi h- gaqra xmovnebis win, cxra Tanxmovnis (d, T, t, Z, c, w, j, C, W) win mas Caenacvla s-. ase gaCnda sannarevi Zeglebi. zogierTi enaTmecnieri uaryofs normaTa arsebobas saliteraturo enis normatiuli gramatikis Seqmnamde. amis sapirispirod SeiZleba Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo skolebis (aTonis, Savi mTis, gelaTis…) mkacrad Camoyalibebuli normebis araerTi magaliTis dasaxeleba. marTalia, V-XI saukuneTa qarTul werilobiTs ZeglebSi cnobili araa raime gramatikuli traqtati an normaTa krebuli, magram am periodis ZeglTa Seswavla cxadyofs, rom saliteraturo enis normebi mtkicedaa Camoyalibebuli da mwerlebi da gadamwerebi mkacrad icaven mas. swored amitomaa TvalSi sacemi yoveli gadaxveva saliteraturo enis normaTagan (z. sarjvelaZe, 1984, gv. 89). normirebis istoriis TvalsazrisiT uadres dokumentur wyarod jerjerobiT miCneulia XI saukunis ucnobi avtoris gramatikuli traqtati "sityuaÁ arTronTaTÊs”, romelic Seiswavla da gamosca prof. mz. SaniZem. rogorc a. SaniZe aRniSnavs, Txzuleba mowmobs, rom Zveli mwignobrebi kargad erkveodnen enis sakiTxebSi, cdilobdnen qarTuli enis bunebisa da gramatikuli wesebis Seswavlas. V-XI saukuneebi sasuliero mwerlobis klasikuri periodia; masTan SedarebiT XII-XVII saukuneTa saero xasiaTis werilobiT ZeglebSi cvlilebani ufro metia, ris gamoc am periods enis demokratizaciis xanasac uwodeben. XII saukunidan mwerloba Janrobrivad da Tematurad ufro gamravalferovnda. kulturis sxvadasxva centrebSi sasuliero mwerlobis paralelurad Seiqmna saero mxatvruli literaturis (prozauli, poeturi), istoriuli, filosofiuri, samedicino da samarTlebrivi Txzulebebi, saxelmwifo dokumentebi, brZanebebi, oqmebi, sigel-gujrebi, kerZo pirTa nasyidoba-garigebisa Tu sxva xasiaTis sabuTebi, romlebSic normebiT dakanonebuli formebis gverdiT Tavi iCina adgilobrivi sametyvelo Cvevebis damaxasiaTebelma Taviseburebebma, dialeqtizmebma. am periodis enaSi aRiniSneba sami erTmaneT- 255 -

Tan axlos mdgomi da erTisagan gamomdinare sametyvelo nakadis - Zveli qarTulis gadmonaSTebis, inovaciebisa da dialeqtizmebis Serwyma. saero mwerlobis enis normirebis istoriaSi mniSvnelovania ”vefxistyaosnis” ena. misi avtori saliteraturo enis TvalsazrisiTac gvevlineba udides novatorad da reformatorad. man gaaerTiana sasuliero mwerlobis enisa da cocxali metyvelebis formebi da sruliad axali elferi SesZina saliteraturo enas. qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis grZel gzaze tao-klarjeTisa da aTon-Savi mTis literaturuli tradiciebis Semdeg qarTuli saliteraturo enis reformis TvalsazrisiT sami didi moRvawea aRsaniSnavi: ioane petriwi, anton kaTalikosi da ilia WavWavaZe. TiToeuli maTgani warmoadgens dagvirgvinebas gansazRvruli drois TaobaTa Tavdadebuli moRvaweobisa qarTuli saliteraturo enis SeqmnisaTvis brZolaSi. ioane petriwi mwvervalia XI-XII saukuneTa samwerlobo enis ganviTarebaSi. am dros moxda qarTuli saliteraturo enis axali sasicocxlo energiiT aRvseba klasikuri qarTuli samwerlobo enisa da xalxuri sametyvelo enis SerwymiT (d. meliqiSvili, 1986, gv. 225). XII saukunis Semdeg saliteraturo enis ganviTareba sxvagvarad warimarTa. qveynis sazogadoebriv-politikuri cxovrebis Seferxebas mohyva ukontroloba, normirebis safuZvlebi Seirya. saSual saukuneTa werilobiTi Zeglebis enaSi SeimCneva formaTa siWrele, erTiani normebis uqonloba. XVIII saukunis miwuruls qarTuli ena, misi leqsika TiTqmis waleka aRmosavlurma nakadma. qarTul saliteraturo enas safrTxe daemuqra. iqmneboda aRmosavleTis bazris ena. anton kaTalikosma scada, SeeCerebina es saSiSi da damRupveli talRa; man da misma skolam sasuliero mwerlobis enas SeunarCuna V-XI saukuneTa qarTulis yvela niSani, filosofiuri TxzulebebisaTvis daamkvidra SedarebiT dabali stili, xolo saero xasiaTis nawarmoebebisTvis - xalxur metyvelebasTan daaxloebuli ena. anton kaTalikosma Camoayaliba gramatikuli da orTografiuli wesebiT mkacrad - 256 -

normirebuli saliteraturo ena. man daiwyo qarTuli saliteraturo enis demokratizacia xalxuri metyvelebis formaTa gabeduli gamoyenebiT. amiT igi saenaTmecniero literaturaSi ”samocianelTa” winamorbedadaa miCneuli. antoni iyo didi aTonelebisa da ”RvTaebrivi filosofosis” - ioane petriwis xelSi gamovlili qarTulis tradiciebis gamgrZelebeli. ”mas Segnebuli hqonda erTiani saliteraturo enis didi roli erovnuli mTlianobis SeduRabebaSi". T. uTurgaiZis azriT, "is didi Sedegi, romelsac anton pirvelma miaRwia saliteraturo qarTulis normirebaSi, Sualeduri da amave dros SemakavSirebeli rgolia XII saukuneSi i. petriwisa da misi skolis, xolo XIX saukuneSi i. WavWavaZisa da progresulad moazrovne qarTveli inteligenciis mier Catarebuli enobrivi reformebisa” (1989, gv.43). i. WavWavaZis meTaurobiT XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi saliteraturo enis normirebisaTvis brZola warimarTa ori mimarTulebiT: gatarda orTografiuli reforma da daiwyo brZola mwerlobaSi dialeqtizmebis, dauxvewavi formebis, frazebisa da kalkebis ganukiTxav SemotanasTan. ilia da misi Tanamoazreni miiCnevdnen, rom saliteraturo ena unda daaxloeboda xalxur metyvelebas (ilia: ”xalxia enis kanonis damdebi da ara anbanT Teoretika”). aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom XIX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi TaobaTa Soris ganxeTqilebis mizezi ar yofila anton kaTalikosis Rvawlis Sefaseba; mas orive mxare mowiwebiT ixseniebda. TaobaTa Soris enis sakiTxebze davas iwvevda, ZiriTadad: sintqasuri konstruqciebi, Zveli asoniSnebi, stilisturi Taviseburebani da sxv. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Zveli aso-niSnebis siWarbeze saubari daiwyo ilias cnobil statiamde (”oriode sityva…”) xuTi wliT adre (1855 w.) d. CubinaSvilma; kerZod, peterburgis qarTvelologTa skolam uaryo ~, Ê, Ë, ð, Ì asoebi. amas qarTuli enis sauniversiteto kursSi acnobdnen qarTvel studentebs, maT Soris i.WavWavaZesac. sabolood, reforma qarTul anbanSi iliam gaatara. XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi saqarTvelo ruseTis kolonia iyo; Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo ar zrunavda qarTuli enisaTvis. saliteraturo enis ganviTareba da srulyofa mowi- 257 -

nave qarTulma sazogadoebam iTava: ilias xelmZRvanelobiT ganxorcielda aramxolod anbanis reforma, aramed mis mier mowveulma qarTulis enis mcodneTa krebam daadgina bevri enobrivi norma. XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi ”mamaTa” da ”SvilTa” erToblivi ZalisxmeviT qarTulma saliteraturo enam miiRo iseTi saxe, rogoric Seefereboda mravalsaukunovani istoriis mqone samwerlobo enas (T.uTurgaiZe, 1989, gv. 47). XIX-XX saukuneTa mijnaze kidev ufro gaaqtiurda damokidebuleba saliteraturo enis normirebisadmi. magaliTad, 1899-1900 wlebSi quTaisSi am mizniT sagangebo wrec ki yofila, mogvianebiT aseTi wre TbilisSic Seqmnila. XX saukunis dasawyisSi, roca ar arsebobs saliteraturo enis normaTa damdgeni oficialuri organo, calkeuli pirovnebani, mwerlebi cdiloben garkveuli kontrolis dawesebas, axdenen enobrivi movlenebis unificirebas. SeimCneva tendencia normirebisaken, e. i. xdeba enobrivi normis aucileblobis gacnobiereba. ”axla yvela gamsworebels Tavisi gramatika udevs jibeSi da imis mixedviT asworebso”, - werda gazeT ”Sinauri saqmeebis” redaqtori s. mWedliZe (r. saRinaZe, 1997, gv.2). aseT pirobebSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda cnobili mecnier-gramatikosis silovan xundaZis moRvaweobas. igi iTvleba Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis erT-erT pirvel damdgenad. mis mier SemuSavebuli normebi im dros savaldebulod ar iTvleboda, magram, radgan is cocxal salaparako enas emyareboda, Tu mTlianad ara, nawilobriv mainc mis marTlweras yvela icavda. s. xundaZem bevri ram gaakeTa qarTuli saliteraturo enis normirebisaTvis. g. axvledianma mas uwoda ”tipiuri da klasikuri nimuSi saliteraturo enis damcvelisa” (l. leJava, 1998, gv.9). enis normebTan dakavSirebiT XX saukunis dasawyisSi saintereso diskusia mimdinareobda s. xundaZesa da a. SaniZes Soris; xSir SemTxvevaSi marTebuli iyo s. xundaZis Sexedulebani; SemdgomSi a. SaniZem zogi misi iseTi SeniSvnac gaiziara da normad aqcia, risTvisac s. xundaZes Zalze mwvaved akritikebda. dRes saliteraturo qarTulSi s. xundaZiseuli bevri normaa damkvidrebuli. mag., uTandebulo da Tandebu- 258 -

lian saxelTa bruneba, kompozitebis marTlwera, zogierTi nacvalsaxelis, gansakuTrebiT nawilakSezrdili (Sexorcebuli) nacvalsaxelis, bruneba; metad sagulisxmoa s. xundaZiseuli gageba qarTuli zmnisa. igi zmnaSi meore subieqturi piris niSans zedmetad miiCnevda; progresulia misi mosazrebani e. w. ”meore mimoxris” zmnaTa (myavs, maqvs, miyvars, mZinavs, meSinia, mwyenia…) Sesaxeb. a. SaniZis sapirispirod, igi axdens zmnis ara mxolod formalur, aramed semantikur analizsac da am gziT midis inversiis aRiarebamde; calke unda gamoiyos s. xundaZis damsaxureba sintaqsis sferoSi. igi msazRvrel-sazRvrulis gardamaval (nawilobriv Sekvecil) saxeobas amkvidrebda. mogvianebiT a. SaniZemac gaiziara misi Tvalsazrisi; a. SaniZe uaryofda s. xundaZis mier SemoTavazebul kanons, rom qarTul enas Zireul sityvebSi ar uyvars erTnairi Tanxmovnebis Tavmoyra (ekklesia, grammatika…), Tumca qarTulma saliteraturo enam swored es kanoni airCia… s. xundaZe quTaisSi moRvaweobda. mravali Taoba aRizarda mis saxelmZRvaneloebsa Tu naSromebze, rogoricaa: ”qarTuli zmnebi”, ”saliteraturo qarTuli”, ”qarTuli gramatika”, ”qarTuli marTlwerisa da sworenis safuZvlebi” da sxva. SeiZleba zogierT mis mosazrebas mecnieruli dasabuTeba aklda, isic SeiZleba, rom enis Semdgomma ganviTarebam zogierTi misi debuleba ukan Camoitova, magram Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normirebaSi misi damsaxureba udavoa. XX saukunis dasawyisSi saliteraturo enis normirebis istoriaSi garkveuli roli Seasrula: p. Waraias, s. gorgaZis, iv. javaxiSvilis, i. yifSiZis, k. kekeliZis, p. ingoroyvas, iust. abulaZis, a. SaniZis, g. axvledianis, d. uznaZis, s. janaSias, arn. Ciqobavas, s. yauxCiSvilisa da sxva mecnierTa naSromebma da gamosvlebma. 1918 wels Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis daarsebam Seqmna safuZveli enobrivi politikis sferoSi araerTi RonisZiebis gatarebisa. 1920 wels gaimarTa enis mcodneTa konferencia. saorganizacio komisiam (wevrebi: a. SaniZe, g. axvlediani, k. kekeliZe, - 259 -

s. gorgaZe, vuk. beriZe) 1921 wels gamosca wignaki ”saliteraturo qarTulisaTvis” (proeqti qarTuli orTografiis sadavo sakiTxebis mosawesrigeblad), romelSic pirvelad iyo warmodgenili ramdenime sadavo sakiTxi: daviwyeboda Tu daviwyebiyo? saqme isaa Tu saqme imaSia? da sxva. 1921 wels qarTuli ena saqarTvelos damoukidebeli respublikis saxelmwifo enad gamocxadda. xangrZlivad devnili da Seviwroebuli ena saWiroebda daxvewas, leqsikiT gamdidrebas, pirvel rigSi samecniero terminologiiT Sevsebas. 1925 wels samTavrobo doneze daarsda centraluri saterminologio komisia, romelsac vukol beriZe xelmZRvanelobda. 1934 wels ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatTan Camoyalibda qarTuli saliteraturo enis normaTa damdgeni respublikuri komisia (30 wevris SemadgenlobiT), romelmac ganixila Tbilisis universitetis normaTa damdgeni samuSao komisiisa da enisa da terminologiis komitetis mier Catarebuli muSaoba da 1936 wels calke wignad gamosca ”saliteraturo qarTulis normebi” (I). masSi warmodgenilia normaTa dadgenis principebi da rekomendaciebi sadavo sakiTxebze. 1946 wels mTavrobis dadgenilebiT saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis prezidiumTan Seiqmna normaTa damdgeni komisia, romelsac jer s. janaSia Tavmjdomareobda, Semdeg a. SaniZe. 1953 wels saqarTvelos ministrTa sabWosTan Seiqmna Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normaTa damdgeni mudmivi saxelmwifo komisia, romlis xelmZRvaneloba avtomaturad ekisreboda ministrTa sabWos Tavmjdomares, xolo komisiaSi Sediodnen cnobili qarTveli mecnierebi, mwerlebi, presis muSakebi. saliteraturo enis ZiriTadi sadavo formebis mogvarebam, normebis dadgenam xeli Seuwyo v. Tofuriasa da iv. gigineiSvilis ”qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikonis” damuSavebasa da gamocemas 1941 wels. maSin am leqsikonSi 15000 erTeuli Sedioda, saboloo gamocema ki, romelic 1998 wels ganxorcielda, 80000-mde erTeuls Seicavs.

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1970 wels gamoqveynda ”Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi” (krebuli pirveli), romelSic Setanilia saqarTvelos ministrTa sabWosTan arsebuli Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normaTa damdgeni komisiis mier damtkicebuli normebi. misi gamocema ganmeorda 1986 wels. komisiis xelSewyobiT enaTmecnierebis institutSi daarsda specialuri krebuli ”qarTuli sityvis kulturis sakiTxebi”. pirveli wigni 1972 wels gamovida. krebulSi gamoqveynebuli werilebi saliteraturo enis normirebas exeba. 1991 wels, erovnuli xelisuflebis mosvlis Semdeg, ministrTa sabWosTan arsebuli Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normaTa damdgeni mudmivi saxelmwifo komisiis reorganizaciis Sedegad Seiqmna saqarTvelos prezidentTan arsebuli saxelmwifo enis mudmivi saxelmwifo komisia. maSasadame, komisia gadavida uSualod qveynis prezidentis daqvemdebarebaSi da misi funqciac gafarTovda. mas evaleba ara mxolod normaTa dadgena, aramed qveynis enobrivi politikis gansazRvra da regulirebac. amave sferos kontroli akisria saqarTvelos parlamentis saxelmwifo enis qvekomitets. qveynis garTulebuli sazogadoebriv-politikuri mdgomareobis gamo komisiis saqmianoba ramdenime wliT Sewyda. saorganizacio muSaoba ganaxlda 1994 wels. 1995 wlis oqtomberSi gaimarTa komisiis pirveli sxdoma. 1996 wels q.quTaisSi Seiqmna saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis funqcionirebis makontrolebeli komisia da enis samsaxuri, xolo 1997 wels daarsda saqarTvelos enis saxelmwifo palata. Tanamedrove etapze, ucxoenovani kulturis moZalebis pirobebSi, isev aqtualuria saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis normebis dacva. normirebis problemaTa mogvareba qarTuli saliteraturo enis erTianobis SenarCunebis sawindaria, erTiani saxelmwifo ena ki - qveynis Zlierebis safuZveli.
literatura a. arabuli, qarTuli metyvelebis kultura, Tb., 2004. S. afridoniZe, Cveni ena qarTuli, Tb., 2002.

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e. babunaSvili, T. uTurgaiZe, anton I-is “qarTuli Rrammatika” da misi erovnul-istoriuli mniSvneloba, Tb., 1991. g. gogolaSvili, qarTuli - enaÁ Semkuli da kurTxeuli, Tb., 2004. k. danelia, narkvevebi qarTuli samwerlobo enis istoriidan, Tb., 1998. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi, I, Tb., 1986. v. Tofuria, qarTuli ena da marTlweris zogierTi sakiTxi, Tb., 1965; Tb., 1988. l. leJava, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis normalizaciis istoriidan: qsks, XI, Tb., 1998. l. leJava, Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normalizaciis istoriidan: qsks, XII, Tb., 2004. l. leJava, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis normalizaciis istoria da principebi, Tb., 2004. d. meliqiSvili, ioane petriwis filosofiur SromaTa ena da stili, Tb., 1975. d. meliqiSvili, gelaTis skola da qarTuli mecnieruli enis ganviTarebis sakiTxebi: Tsu Sromebi, X, Tb., 1986. z. sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali, Tb., 1984. r. saRinaZe, silovan xundaZe da saliteraturo qarTuli: quTaisis universitetis moambe, I, 1996. r. saRinaZe, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis Camoyalibebis gzebi: sakand. disertacia, Tb., 1997. T. uTurgaiZe, ilia da saliteraturo qarTuli: qsks, IX, Tb., 1989. i. qavTaraZe, enis istoriis wyaroebi da maTi gamoyenebis principebi: qess, Tb., 1981. a. SaniZe, saliteraturo qarTulis saWirboroto sakiTxebi, Tb., 1979. mz. SaniZe, sityuaÁ arTronTaTAs - Zveli qarTuli gramatikuli traqtati, Tb., 1990. arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli enis zogadi enaTmecnieruli daxasiaTeba, qegl, Tb., I, 1950. arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli ena, rogorc polivalentovani saliteraturo ena, qsks, I, Tb., 1972. arn. Ciqobava, saliteraturo ena da norma: qsks, II, Tb., 1979. S. ZiZiguri, qarTuli enis Tavgadasavali, Tb., 1969. s. xundaZe, qarTuli marTlwerisa da sworenis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1927.

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5.2. normirebis principebi
ena icvleba da viTardeba istoriulad Tavisi Sinagani impulsebis wyalobiT. sametyvelo CvevaSi momxdari cvlilebebi dakavSirebulia saWiroebasTan, romlis mixedviTac adamiani cdilobs, ufro gasagebi gaxados Tavisi azrebi da survilebi. cvlileba enaSi yovel molaparakeze vrceldeba, Tumca TiToeul enobriv movlenas Tavisi sazRvrebi aqvs. yovelma molaparakem rom daiwyos enaSi cvlilebebis Setana, igi Sewyvetda Tavisi daniSnulebisamebr funqcionirebas. normis gamomuSaveba enobrivi sistemis kanonzomierebaTa da enis istoriisa da ganviTarebis perspeqtivis gaTvaliswinebiT unda warmoebdes. am mxaris movla, normisaTvis obieqturi safuZvlis Seqmna enis specialists evaleba, wesis dadgenaSi specialisti monawileobs, magram mwerals, sainformacio saSualebaTa warmomadgenlebs, saerTod samwerlo enis momxmarebelTa farTo wres eweva angariSi. arn. Ciqobavas miaCnda, rom movlenis axsna normis dadgenas unda uswrebdes. “movlenis axsna esaa “"diagnozis dasma”, normis dadgena “"mkurnalobas” udris. "Tu movlena axsnilia, mkurnaloba diagnozze iqneba damyarebuli. Tu movlena auxsnelia, Tu ar viciT, ra rogor miviReT, mkurnaloba alal bedze iqneba damyarebuli”. norma saliteraturo enis erTianobis safuZvelia. normis SemuSaveba, savaldebulo wesebis dadgena myar mecnierul wanamZRvrebs, principebs unda emyarebodes. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normirebis principebis Camoyalibebas win uZRoda TaobaTa fiqri, Sroma, kamaTi Teoriul sakiTxTa garSemo. metad faseulia XIX saukunis meore naxevrisa da XX saukunis 10-20-iani wlebis moRvaweTa naazrevi saliteraturo enis normirebis principebTan dakavSirebiT. qarTul periodikaSi (”ciskarSi”,“”saqarTvelos moambeSi”,“”iveriaSi”, ”droebaSi”, ”kvalSi”…) asaxulia ilia WavWavaZis, daviT yifianis, grigol orbelianis, dimitri yifianis, petre mirianaSvilis, aleqsandre naneiSvilis, vaJa fSavelas, grigol yifSiZis, - 263 -

aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis, akaki wereTlis, niko nikolaZis, silovan xundaZis, giorgi wereTlis… ZiriTadi debulebebi, msjeloba, kamaTi. specialur literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom mkveTrad daupirispirda erTmaneTs ori ”banaki” - amerlebi da imerlebi… sakamaTo ara marto or “”banaks” Soris, aramed TiToeul ”banakSic” bevri iyo. sagulisxmoa, rom maT Soris saerTo ufro meti iyo, TiTqmis yvela principul sakiTxSi es moRvaweni erTi azrisani iyvnen. magaliTad, erTxmad iyo miRebuli da gaziarebuli ilia WavWavaZisa da misi erTguli TanamebrZolis - daviT yifianis Tvalsazrisi istorizmis principis Sesaxeb: “”xSirad iqneba, rom kanonebi erT dros saWironi, sxva dros uvargisni arian xolme, amitom axali ena Zvel enas ar hgavs” (ilia); ”ena win midis, icvleba, mdidrdeba axali sityvebiT” (vaJa fSavela); “”mTels msoflioSi uZravi ara aris ra… enac amgvars daucxromels moZraobaSi aris” (dim. yifiani). normirebis principebis SemuSavebis TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebuli amagi dasdo saliteraturo qarTuls silovan xundaZem. man am sakiTxs miuZRvna ramdenime wigni da statia, sadac konkretul sadavo sakiTxTa mogvarebasac cdilobda da normirebis sayrden, amosaval debulebebsac ayalibebda. normirebis principebi ufro srulad warmoCinda wignebSi: ”saliteraturo qarTuli” (1901 w.), ”qarTuli marTlwera” (1911 w.), ”qarTuli marTlwerisa da sworenis ZiriTadi safuZvlebi” (1927 w.). saukunovani gansjisa da Ziebis Sedegad Camoyalibda is principebi, romlebic SeimuSava da daamtkica qarTuli saliteraturo enis respublikurma komisiam (arn. Ciqobavas moxsenebis mixedviT). es principebi daedo safuZvlad 1936 wels gamocemul qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis krebuls da Semdeg 1970 wels gamocemul krebuls “"Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi, I”. am principebs emyareba dResac saliteraturo enis normaTa dadgena. enis specifika, rasac unda eyrdnobodes TviT principebis dadgena, gulisxmobs Semdeg ZiriTad mxareebs: 1. ena siste- 264 -

maa; 2. ena socialuri movlenaa; 3. ena azrovnebisa da urTierTobis iaraRia (l. leJava, 2004, gv.49). Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normirebis principebi aseTia: 1. qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis SemuSavebis dros maqsimalurad gamoyenebuli unda iqnes damkvidrebuli ena qarTuli literaturis klasikosebisa, ar unda Seiqmnes xelovnuri normebi, cocxali enisagan daSorebuli. 2. gadasinjvas ar moiTxovs da ucvlelad unda darCes iseTi leqsikuri, morfologiuri da sintaqsuri monacemi, romelic saliteraturo qarTulSi mxolod erTi saxiT gvxvdeba, maSinac ki, roca is savsebiT umarTebuloa qarTuli enis gramatikuli TvalsazrisiT (daRma, aqauri, iqauri, vdgavar, vzivar), rasac uyoymano socialuri sanqcia aqvs, is sakiTxad ver iqceva. 3. roca saliteraturo qarTulSi ori an meti mocile morfologiur-sintaqsuri movlena iCens Tavs, sakiTxi unda gadawydes imis sasargeblod, romelic: a) ufro gavrcelebulia klasikosTa enaSi da egueba qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis tendencias; b) gamarTlebulia qarTuli enis dRevandeli gramatikuli sistemiT, ese igi, gramatikulad kanonieria da ar arRvevs am sistemiT nagulisxmev Tanamimdevrobas; g) sxva Tanabar pirobebSi warmoebis principis mixedviT ufro martivia da d) sxva Tanabar pirobebSi mniSvnelobis mixedviT ufro naTelia.
SeniSvna: iSviaT SemTxvevaSi, roca erTmaneTis mociled gamodis ori an meti paraleluri forma, romlebic Tanabrad kanonieria gramatikuli sistemis TvalsazrisiT, magram xmarebis mixedviT klasikosebis enaSi gadaWriT arc erTs ara aqvs upiratesoba, SesaZlebelia isini darCnen paralelurad.

4. orTografiuli sakiTxebis mogvarebisas savaldebuloa darCes erTi forma. am SemTxvevaSi mocile movlenaTagan upiratesoba unda mieces, romelic: a) ufro gavrcelebulia saliteraturo qarTulSi; - 265 -

b) gamarTlebulia etimologiurad da morfologiurad; g) misaRebia qarTuli enis bunebriv kompleqsTa TvalsazrisiT. maSasadame, saliteraturo enis normaTa dadgenisas aucileblad unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli: 1. gavrcelebuloba 2. tradicia 3. ramdenad sworia gramatikulad amosavali forma 4. enis sistemis unificireba, enis ganviTarebis Sinagani kanoni da perspeqtiva. gavrcelebulobasa da enobrivi sistemis unifikacias saliteraturo enis normaTa dadgenisas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs. normirebisas aucilebelia gaTvaliswineba enis ganviTarebis Sinagani kanonebisa da formaTa Camoyalibebis perspeqtivisa, rac enis sistemis SenarCunebis safuZvelia. enis ganviTarebis Sinagani kanonzomiereba, unifikaciis Zlieri tendencia swored enis sistemis Seqmnas emsaxureba. Tu es principi ugulebelyofilia, sistema enisa zaraldeba, sabolood, sistema irRveva, rac zogjer enaSi arsebuli Secdomebis safuZvelic xdeba. magaliTad, Tu ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli norma, mxolod gramatikuli wesis gamoyenebiT Secdomas Tavidan ver avicilebT. aseTi winaaRmdegoba xSiria piris niSanTa marTlwerasTan dakavSirebiT. gavixsenoT erTpiriani zmnebi: gastans, gaswia, hyvavis… an kidev: Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebiT mesame pirdapir obieqtur pirs niSani ar unda, Tumca gvxvdeba zmnebi, romlebSic 0 3 piris prefiqsi fuZesaa Sexorcebuli: aswevs, gamoscems, gamosca, gascems, gasca da sxva. es formebi Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebiT misaRebia, dasaSvebia, sxva zmnebSi ki, rogoricaa: sTqva, gadaswyvita, dastova… piris niSani zedmetia da formebic mcdaria. marTebulia: Tqva, gadawyvita, datova… maSasadame, pirvel SemTxvevaSi Zlieria tradicia, meoreSi - gramatikuli wesi. enis ganviTarebis sxvadasxva safexurze Tavs iCens formaTa Widili, variantebi, paralelizmi. ”saliteraturo enis norma, SesaZloa, paralelur variantTagan erT-erTs - 266 -

amkvidrebdes, sxvas ki uaryofdes, magram es srulebiTac ar niSnavs imas, rom sakuTriv enis TvalsazrisiT damkvidrebuli forma savaldebuloa, uaryofili ki - arasavaldebulo. enaSi SemTxveviT araferi ar Cndeba. “enis TvalsazrisiT orive ”savaldebuloa”, kanonzomieria, Sepirobebulia enis Sinagani SesaZleblobebiT, oRond maTgan erT-erTs saliteraturo ena Tavisi principebis Sesabamisad aniWebs upiratesobas” (b. jorbenaZe, 1985, gv. 20). saliteraturo enis norma unda iyos zedmiwevniT zusti, risi safuZvelic zemodasaxelebul principebTan erTad aris moTxovna - erTma formam gamoxatos erTi mniSvneloba, gansxvavebuli semantika ki diferencirebuli formebiT gamoixatos. sadac es principi gatarda, iq moxda kidec formalursemantikuri diferenciacia. magaliTad: gardaicvala gadaicvala, aRizarda - aizarda, karnaxobs - ukarnaxebs, pasuxobs - upasuxebs da sxva. Sdr.: damixatavs (is me mas) damixatavs (me is). Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebiT marTebulia myofadi-TurmeobiTis gaudiferencirebeli formebi. samagierod, formaTgamijvnis procesi cocxal metyvelebaSi gatarda da -av (agreTve -am) TemisniSnian zmnaTa I TurmeobiTSi -ia daboloebiani formebi (damixatia...) gavrcelda. normaTa dadgenas safuZvlad edeba obieqturi analizis principi. es imas niSnavs, rom gaanalizdeba ama Tu im enobrivi faqtis istoria, gairkveva, ramdenad egueba es movlena enis ganviTarebis tendenciebs, ramdenad gamarTlebulia dRevandeli qarTuli enis gramatikuli sistemis TvalsazrisiT, ramdenad gavrcelebuli da damkvidrebulia enaSi (e. i. aqvs Tu ara socialuri sanqcia), rogoria misi gamoyenebis sixSire klasikosTa enaSi, aris Tu ara sxvaze ufro martivi warmoebis principis mixedviT da naTeli - mniSvnelobis mixedviT (l. leJava, 1989, gv. 89). saliteraturo ena saerToerovnuli enaa. is unda iyos daxvewili, erTiani, rasac ganapirobebs normaTa dadgenis principTa logikuroba, sizuste da srulyofileba.

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literatura a. arabuli, qarTuli metyvelebis kultura, Tb., 2004. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi, I, Tb., 1971, Tb., 1986. v. Tofuria, qarTuli ena da marTlweris zogierTi sakiTxi, Tb., 1965, Tb., 1988. v. Tofuria, iv. gigineiSvili, qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1998. l. leJava, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis normalizaciis istoriidan: qsks, IX, Tb., 1989. l. leJava, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis normalizaciis istoriidan: qsks, XI, Tb., 1998. l. leJava, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis normalizaciis istoria da principebi, Tb., 2004. r. saRinaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis normirebis sakiTxebi: saiubileo kreb., SoTa ZiZiguri-90, Tb., 2002. r. saRinaZe, zmnur formaTa variaciuloba da normirebis sakiTxebi qarTulSi: gelaTis mecn. akad. Jurn., #2, Tb., 2003. arn. Ciqobava, saliteraturo ena da norma: qsks, II, Tb., 1979. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli enis fakultatiuri gramatikis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1985.

5.3. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo
enis normebi
Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi ukve didi xania dadgenilia. miuxedavad amisa, enis ganviTarebis cocxali procesi xSirad eurCeba, ewinaaRmdegeba dakanonebuls, iqmneba winaaRmdegoba normasa da metyvelebas Soris, Tavs iCens Secdomebi. metyveli individi, romelic cdilobs sakuTari enobrivi sistema daamTxvios enobriv ideals (saliteraturo enas), arCevanis winaSe dgeba. igi valdebulia daicvas saliteraturo enis norma. sxva SemTxvevaSi metyveli (romelic angariSs ar uwevs saliteraturo enis normas) ar dgeba ar- 268 -

Cevanis winaSe, Tavisuflad, yovelgvari uxerxulobis gareSe warmoTqvams formebs. msgavsi faqtebi damafiqrebelia. SesaZloa, swored aq ikveTeba enobriv erTeulTa damkvidrebis, normad qcevis tendencia. sainteresoa Tanamedrove qarTul enaSi mimdinare formaTwarmoebisa da formaTdamkvidrebis procesi. dRes winaaRmdegoba SeimCneva ara mxolod saliteraturo enis normebsa da cocxal metyvelebas Soris, aramed TviT normebSic. amis Sedegia normaTa darRvevis SemTxvevebi, enobriv formaTa variantebi. ena mudmivad ganviTarebadi, cvalebadi fenomenia. masSi devs bunebrivi meqanizmi, romelic Tavidan icilebs siWreles, paralelizms, orazrovnebasa da gaugebrobas... nairgvar formaTagan zogi mxolod werilobiTs Zeglebs SemorCeba, zogi ki saliteraturo enis kuTvnilebad anu normad iqceva. ase moxda, magaliTad, v bgeris cvlilebasTan dakavSirebiT: dRes qarTulSi aris sityvebi: bavSvi, bavSi, bovSi, boSi. pirveli saliteraturo enis kuTvnilebaa, danarCeni - dialeqtebisa. sainteresoa, rogor gaCnda an erTi, an danarCeni variantebi da rogor moxda maTi damkvidreba? arn. Ciqobavas mixedviT, am sityvaTa Ziria Sev, baTavsarTia. Tavdapirvelad unda yofiliyo baSvi, bavSi sityvis cvlis Semdgomi safexuria. v daikarga iq, sadac Tavdapirvelad iyo da damkvidrda iq, sadac Semdeg gaCnda: baSvi→bavSvi→bavSi→bovSi→boSi. amaTgan saliteraturo enaSi bavSvi damkvidrda. analogiurad moxda bevr sxva SemTxvevaSic. magaliTad, Tanamedrove qarTulSi normadaa qceuli:
abinavebs (<abinaebs<bina) atyvevebs (<atyveebs<tyve) aqvavebs (<aqvaebs<qva) axevebs (<axeebs<xe)

sxva SemTxvevaSi ufro iyo mosalodneli v CarTuli formebi o-ze daboloebul saxelTagan nawarmoeb eb TemisniSnian zmnaTa awmyoSi, magram saliteraturo qarTulSi v-s ga-

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reSea warmodgenili: aboloebs, adroebs, aviwroebs, auToebs, afarToebs, awarmoebs, ajadoebs, ajildoebs… Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebiT dakanonebulia v CarTuli formebi wyvetilSi: daabolova (da ara daabolava), adrova, daaviwrova (an Seaviwrova), gaauTova (an daauTova), gaafarTova, awarmova, moajadova, daajildova… analogiis gziT sasaubro enaSi aRniSnul zmnaTa v CarTuli formebi gavrcelda awmyoSic, e. i. gaCnda variantebi, romelTagan: mcdaria:
abolovebs adrovebs aviwrovebs auTovebs afarTovebs awarmovebs ajadovebs ajildovebs

marTebulia:
aboloebs adroebs aviwroebs auToebs afarToebs awarmoebs ajadoebs ajildoebs

o-s Semdeg da -eb sufiqsis win v-s CarTva V-XI saukuneTa qarTulisTvis Cveulebrivi movlena iyo. werilobiTs ZeglebSi dadasturebulia: saTnovebaÁ, sarwmunovebaÁ, usjulovebaÁ, ucxovebaÁ… Semdgom safexurze am formebSi daikarga v da saliteraturo qarTulSi damkvidrda: saTnoeba, sarwmunoeba, usjuloeba, ucxoeba… zogjer paraleluri viniani da uvino formebi normiTac aris daSvebuli. magaliTad, v. Tofuriasa da iv. gigineiSvilis "“qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikonis” mixedviT marTebulia:
(gauRonivrdeba; gauRonivrda; gaRonivrebia||) gauRonierdeba; gauRonierda; gauRonierebia (gaRonivrda||) gaRonierda (gaRonivrebula||) gaRonierebula masd.: (gaRonivreba||) gaRoniereba

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nebieri-sagan miRebul zmnur da saxelzmnur formebSi arCevani gakeTebulia: viniani formebia dakanonebuli. uvino formebi arc gvxvdeba. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis mixedviT, zogjer v-s CarTva-CaurTveloba semantikur sxvaobas qmnis. magaliTad:
gacieba (<cieba) - gaaciebs gaciebuli (visac gaacia) Sdr.: viniani gaciveba (<civi) - gaacivebs gacivebuli (vinc an rac gaacives an gacivda)

mimR.: (gaRonivrebuli||) gaRonierebuli (gv.182). Sdr.: Ronieri (<Rone) - nebieri (<neba) nebieri→nebivroba, ganebivreba, ganebivrebuli, bivrebs…

ane-

(qarTuli enis orT. leqs., gv.184). xSirad sasaubro enasa da dialeqtebSi v dakargulia, darRveulia norma: gaaciebs, gaciebula, gaciebuli (gacivebis mniSvnelobiT). Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi, cocxal metyvelebasa da dialeqtebSi v-s CarTva-dakargvis nairgvari faqtebi dasturdeba. bagismieri o-s gverdiT kbilbagismieri v SeiZleba daikargos an gaCndes.
mcdaria: aitkio uTao, uTaoba udao, sadao magram: gambedavoba gahyinvoda gahyidvoda gahpranWvoda dahfantvoda marTebulia: aitkivo uTavo, uTavoba udavo, sadavo gambedaoba gahyinoda gahyidoda gahpranWoda dahfantoda

rogorc wesi, normirebisas did rols TamaSobs gavrcelebuloba. zogjer zogierTi movlena imdenad farTod gavrceldeba enaSi, rom aSkarad gamoikveTeba winaaRmdegoba normasa da metyvelebas Soris. magaliTad, Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebiT -ob TemisniSniani zmnebis I TurmeobiTSi Warbia v. unda iyos: vcnob, vecnobi _ micnia, - 271 -

gamicnia da ara: micvnia, gamicvnia; vgrZnob _ migrZnia da ara: migrZvnia. sasaubro ena vinian (micvnia, migrZvnia) formaTa damkvidrebis tendencias avlens. xSirad gavrcelebuloba normebSi arsebul variantul formaTa arCevanis saSualebaa. magaliTad, "Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebSi” rekomendebulia rogorc Tanabaruflebiani paraleluri formebi:
Sevcilebivar / Sevscilebivar mivCerebivar / mivsCerebivar vkiTxe / vhkiTxe movwonvar / movswonvar vZulvar / vsZulvar vgavar / vhgavar movTxove / movsTxove movtace / movstace

umjobesia, upiratesoba mieces pirvel variants. normis dadgenisas aucilebelia angariSi gaewios enis Sinagan kanonebsa da miswrafebas unificirebisa da sistemis erTianobisaken, simetriulobisaken. Tumca zogjer ama Tu im normis Semotana xdeba TviTneburad, individualuri enobrivi alRoTi. magaliTad, viTarebiT brunvaSi donis dayruebas xels uwyobda moqmedebiTi brunvis niSnis analogia. doniani formis dakanonebiT Seferxda brunvaTa sistemis unifikaciis tendencia. miuxedavad imisa, rom dRes viTarebiTis daboloeba doni normaa da aucilebelia misi dacva, zepir metyvelebaSi metwilad mainc Tani ismis. enobriv darRvevaTa safuZveli zogjer swored normis uzustobaa. magaliTad, Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebiT micemiTSi dasmul I-II piris nacvalsaxelTa Tandebulian da zmnisarTian formebTan marTebulad usano formebia miCneuli: mcdaria:
Cemsken (Cvensken…) Cems (Cvens…) winaSe Cems (Sens…) win Cems (Sens…) mier

marTebulia:
Cemken (Cvenken...) Cem (Cven...) winaSe Cem (Sen...) win Cem (Sen...) mier

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sasaubro enaSi ufro gavrcelebulia saniani formebi. Tandebul- da zmnizedadarTul formaTa marTlweras safuZvlad ar udevs erTiani principi, sxva SemTxvevaSi saliteraturo enis normebiT gamarTlebulia saniani formebi: Cems (Sens, Cvens, Tqvens) iqiT, Cems (Sens…) Semdeg (Semdgom). am formaTa analogiiT zemoT aRniSnul formebSic gaCnda s. maSasadame, miswrafeba unifikaciisaken, sistemurobisaken bunebrivad aisaxa cocxal metyvelebaSi. norma zusti ar aris ismis _ ismeba formebTan dakavSirebiTac. ismis kiTxva Tu ismeba kiTxva? qegl: ismis - 1. yurTasmenamde aRwevs, gasagoni xdeba moismis, gaismis. zaris xma ismis. 2. gadat. ician da laparakoben visime, risame Sesaxeb. maT Sesaxeb aRaraferi ismis. ismeba || ismeva _ 1. sma (daleva) SeiZleba: sufraze bevri Rvino ismeba. 2. SeiZleba dasvan, dasvamen. orT. leqs.: 1. ismeba || ismis; ismeboda || ismoda (kiTxva). 2. ismeba (wyali) [ismeva || ] ismeba. yovelive es normis uzustobaze metyvelebs. kiTxva ismeba da ara kiTxva ismis, e. i. ar aris momxdari formaTa diferenciacia. analogia xSirad aris normis darRvevis mizezi. magaliTad, kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli arsebiTTan erTad ise ibrunvis, rogorc TanxmovanfuZiani msazRvreli sazRvrulTan erTad. gansxvaveba imaSia, rom Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis mixedviT kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelebs micemiTsa da viTarebiTSi unda daerTos -s niSani: Cems (Sens, mis) megobars, megobrad, Cvens (Tqvens, maTs) megobars, megobrad. TanxmovanfuZiani msazRvrelis analogiiT sasaubro enaSi gvxvdeba darRvevebi: Cem megobars, Cem megobrad, maT megobars, maT megobrad… analogiis gziT fuZedrekadi uTemisniSno zmnebis paralelurad enaSi gavrcelda TemisniSnianic. - 273 -

Cems (Sens…) magier Cems (Sens…) axlos Cvens (Tqvens) Soris

Cem (Sen...) magier Cem (Sen...) axlos Cven (Tqven) Soris

mcdaria:
glejavs||glijavs grexavs||grixavs Cxrekavs||Cxrikavs
wyvetavs||wyvitavs

marTebulia:
glejs grexs Cxreks wyvets

aseve gamovyofT meSvelzmnian formebs. mcdaria: marTebulia:
vicinivar vtirivar vmRerivar vcekvavar vxtivar vyvirivar vicini vtiri vmReri vcekvav vxti vyviri

umeSvelzno formebi Zveli yalibia. Sdr.: vzi-vzivar, vrbi-gavrbivar. am SemTxvevaSi meSvelzmniani warmoeba ganviTarda, Zveli daikarga. sxva SemTxvevebSi ki dakanonebulia Zveli yalibi: vtiri, vyviri… normirebis TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa sxva meSvelzmnian formaTa variantebic. mcdaria: marTebulia:
vgevar vdgevar vyevar mivyevar mimyevxar vgavar vdgavar vyavar mivyavar mimyavxar

agreTve: narian sawyisTa analogiiT (povna, Sovna) enaSi gaCnda zmnuri variantebi, romelTagan: mcdaria: marTebulia:
ipovnis ipovna ipovnos upovnia iSovnis iSovna iSovnos uSovnia ipovis ipova ipovos upovia iSovis iSova iSovos uSovia

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analogia saerTod enaSi Zlier moqmedi principia. igi xSirad sistemis unifikaciis safuZvelicaa. asea dauxatavs _ dauxatia, daubams _ daubia… zmnaTa SemTxvevaSic. enaSi paralelur formaTa diferenciacia momxdaria: cocxal metyvelebaSi -ia daboloebiani TurmeobiTia gavrcelebuli. dauxatavs, daubams… ormag semantikas gamoxatavs. aq norma CamorCeba enis ganviTarebas. saliteraturo enaSic aucilebelia diferencireba. -ia daboloebian formaTa normad qceva enis Sinagani ganviTarebis kanoniT, unifikaciis principiTaa Sepirobebuli. amis sasargeblod metyvelebs agreTve sasaubro enaSi uTemisniSno paradigmis gavrceleba: normis mixedviT unda iyos davubamvar, daubamxar, dauxatavxar, magram salaparako enaSi gavrcelebulia uTemisniSno formebi: davubivar, daubixar, davuxativar, dauxatixar. I-II piris uTemisniSno formaTa paradigmis gagrZelebaa dauxatia, daubia. zogjer arasworadaa gagebuli enaSi arsebuli formebi. magaliTad: iRebs _ Rebulobs, igebs _ gebulobs… es zmnebi sinonimebad aRiqmeba, Tumca isini gansxvavdebian rogorc warmoebis, agebulebis, ise semantikis (momenturobagangrZobiTobis) TvalsazrisiT. maTi normirebac am ukanasknelis safuZvelze moxda da saliteraturo enaSi orive forma damkvidrda. b. jorbenaZis mixedviT, aseTia, agreTve, iwvis (SeSa iwvis) - cecxli ukidia da iwveba (kartofili iwveba) cecxlze Zalian ficxdeba. qegl-is mixedviT, iwvis da iwveba sinonimebia. Sesabamisi moqmedebiTi ki sxvadasxva semantikis orive formisaTvis aris wvavs. is, rac moqmedebiTSi mxolod konteqstiT gansxvavdeba an zmniswins iyenebs am mizniT (dawvavs-Sewvavs), vnebiTSi orgvari (adrindeli-iwvis da gviandeli-iwveba) yalibiT gansxvavda. enam swored amisTvis mimarTa paralelur warmoebas, romlis daniSnuleba sruliadac ar aris mxolod leqsikur mniSvnelobaTa dapirispireba. enas paralelur formaTa diferenciaciisaTvis nairgvari saSualebebi moepoveba: a) erT-erTia gvaris mixedviT diferencireba: magaliTad, malavs _ imalvis || imalebis… mas Semdeg, rac vnebiTis yali- 275 -

bis saboloo gaformeba awmyoSi moxda -a sufiqsiT, gaCnda erTi semantikis imalvis || imaleba formebi, romelTagan dRes normaa imaleba. sxva SemTxvevaSi sworia orive: iRimeba || iRimis an, piriqiT, -s sufiqsiani formaa marTebulad miCneuli: [iqadneba ki ara] iqadis, [icoxneba ki ara] icoxnis… b) zogjer diferenciaciis safuZveli SeiZleba iyos drois kategoria. magaliTad: pasuxobs _ upasuxebs, karnaxobs _ ukarnaxebs … pirveli awmyoa, meore - myofadi … Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis formebi gamijnulia, Tumca Secdomebi mainc arsebobs. darRvevebi gvxvdeba sxva zmnur formebTanac. magaliTad: gardamaval orpirian zmnaTa I-II TurmeobiTis formebSi gaCenilia n. mcdaria: marTebulia:
gauyidnia, gaeyidna ucemnia, ecemna dauTesnia, daeTesna uTamaSnia gauyidia, gaeyida ucemia, ecema dauTesia, daeTesa uTamaSia

eTamaSa || eTamaSna SemTxvevaSi n madiferencirebelia, amdenad, aucilebelia: eTamaSa is mas (wyvetili) da eTamaSna mas [is] (II TurmeobiTi). Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebiT -eb TemisniSnian gardamaval zmnebs I TurmeobiTsa da III kavSirebiTSi Temis niSnis Semdeg in daerTvis. mcdaria: marTebulia:
aeSenebia, aeSenebios daebadebia, daebadebios gaekeTebia, gaekeTebios daeSavebia, daeSavebios aeSenebina, aeSenebinos daebadebina, daebadebinos gaekeTebina, gaekeTebinos daeSavebina, daeSavebinos

xSirad enaSi adgili aqvs sufiqsTa monacvleobas. zmnaTa erT nawilSi (amkobs, axSobs, aTbobs, aWknobs, angariSobs, Tavobs, didobs...) -ob sufiqsi damkvidrebulia da meryeobis SesaZlebloba TiTqmis ar arsebobs. paraleluri formebi dasturdeba saliteraturo enaSi: sayvedurobs// esayvedureba, patronobs//epatroneba...

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zogjer -ob | -eb sufiqsebi ganasxvaveben sxvadasxva Ziris zmnebs: iwyobs_iwyebs (dawyoba_dawyeba), icxobs_icxebs (dacxoba_dacxeba)... zogjer -ob | -eb monacvleoba SecdomaTa mizezic xdeba. mcdaria: marTebulia:
warmoiSveba ixrCveba ifvleba warmoiSoba ixrCoba ifloba

sxva SemTxvevebSi kanonierad -eb sufiqsiani formebia miCneuli. mcdaria: marTebulia:
aswrobs awobs uSobs gamouSobs bibinobs kuntruSobs WikWikobs apirobs kiskisobs laqlaqobs titinobs CuxCuxobs trialobs wrialobs Rrialobs frialobs brWyvialobs aswrebs awebs uSvebs gamouSvebs bibinebs kuntruSebs WikWikebs apirebs kiskisebs laqlaqebs titinebs CuxCuxebs trialebs wrialebs Rrialebs frialebs brWyvialebs

Tu sawyisi -va marcvalze bolovdeba, Temis niSnad zmnas -av moudis, Tu -ma-ze, _ -am. mcdaria: marTebulia:
vabav vicvav vsvav davartyav vabam vicvam vsmam davartyam

xSirad Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi darRveulia zmniswinian formebSic.

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mcdaria:
avRniSne avRwere vanxorcieleb ansaxierebs gaanTavisuufla anviTarebs inkurneba gaancvifra waadgens Rzrdis RZravs anzogadebs anrisxebs ancalkevebs ansxvavebs

marTebulia:

aRvniSne aRvwere vaxorcieleb asaxierebs gaaTavisufla aviTarebs ikurneba ganacvifra//gaacvifra waradgens zrdis Zravs azogadebs arisxebs acalkevebs asxvavebs

kidev uamravi magaliTis dasaxeleba SeiZleba. Tumca warmodgenili masalac mowmobs, rom zogjer ara mxolod metyveli individi, aramed TviT enis ganviTarebis cocxali procesic eurCeba, ewinaaRmdegeba dakanonebuls. enaSi yovelTvis Cndeba zogierTi formis fonetikurad Tu morfologiurad Sepirobebuli variantebi, iwyeba paralelur formaTa Widili. swored maTi gamijvnis procesi aisaxeba enobrivi sistemis sxvadasxva rgolSi da Sedegad miiReba axal-axali enobrivi erTeulebi, romelTagan mxolod mciredi nawili aRmoCndeba sayovelTao damkvidrebisaTvis saWiro monacemebis mqone. amdenad, normaTa darRvevis mizezia ara mxolod, rogorc v. Tofuria aRniSnavda, ”Cveni daudevari, uyuradRebo mopyroba literaturuli enis normaTa dacvisaTvis” (v. Tofuria, 1965, gv. 45), aramed enaSi mimdinare procesebi, enis Sinagani ganviTarebis kanonis moqmedeba. aucilebelia enis normebis codna, radgan ena savsea paraleluri formebiT da, roca arCevanis winaSe davdgebiT, unda SegveZlos, upiratesoba mivaniWoT standartul, kanonier formas.

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literatura a. arabuli, qarTuli metyvelebis kultura, Tb., 2004. S. afridoniZe, Cveni ena qarTuli, Tb., 2002. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi, I, Tb., 1989. v. Tofuria, qarTuli ena da marTlweris zogierTi sakiTxi, Tb., 1985, Tb.,1988. iv. gigineiSvili, qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1998. al. kobaxiZe, rogor vicavT qarTuli enis normebs? qsks, XI, Tb., 1998. d. meliqiSvili, qarTuli zmnis uRlebis sistema, Tb., 2001. r. saRinaZe, qarTuli marTlwerisa da swormetyvelebis sakiTxebi, quTaisi, 1995. r. saRinaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis normirebis sakiTxebi: krebuli - SoTa ZiZiguri 90, Tb., 2002. r. saRinaZe, zmnur formaTa variaciuloba da normirebis sakiTxebi qarTulSi: gelaTis mecn. akad. Jurn., #2, Tb., 2003. r. saRinaZe, v bgeris cvlilebis ramdenime SemTxveva da normireba: humanitarul mecn. fakultetis Sromebi, VIII, quTaisi, 2006. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, I-VIII, Tb., 1950-1964. qarTuli sityvis kulturis sakiTxebi, I-XII, Tb., 1966-2004. arn. Ciqobava, saliteraturo ena da norma: qsks, II, Tb., 1979. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli zmnis formobrivi da funqciuri analizis principebi, Tb., 1980. b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli enis fakultatiuri gramatikis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1985.

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pirTa saZiebeli

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