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INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

PRINCIPLES, DESIGN, UTILIZATION AND


EVALUTION

EDU 555
Curriculum and Instruction
Encik Muhamad Furkan Mat Salleh

Introduction
This

lecture will consists of the


following:
1. Instructional Materials:
Principles, Design and Utilization
2. ADDIE Model
(for instructional material design)
3. ASSURE Model
(for instructional material
utilization)

Why Do We Need Instructional Materials??

Past studies have shown that information


received by the brain comes through our
senses in following proportion:
1) Sight
83%
2) Hearing
11%
3) Smell
3.5%
4) Touch
1.5%
5) Taste
1%

Why Do We Need Instructional Materials??

The result of a study shows sight (visual)


and sound (audio) consist 94% of how
information are received and processed.

This shows the importance of using


audiovisual materials or audiovisual aids
(AVA) in teaching and learning.

Why Do We Need Instructional Materials??


Past studies also show we remember, on
average:
1) 10% of what we read
2) 20% of what we hear
3) 30% of what we see
4) 50% of what we see and hear
5) 80% of what we say
6) 90% of what we say and do

Why Do We Need Instructional Materials??


Based on the result of one study:

The use of AVA will help effective


learning by providing students the
opportunity to see, hear and do

A related study on learning style also


suggest the importance of using AVA i.e.
the VAK Learning Style which suggests
three main types of learners: visual,
auditory or kinesthetic/tactile learners

ADDIE MODEL
Analysis, Design, Development,
Implementation and Evaluation Model

ADDIE Model

The ADDIE Model is commonly used in the


design of instructional materials or
instructional design

This model is commonly used in classroom


teaching and learning, as well as training
sessions

This model involves 5 stages as follows:

ADDIE Model
Analysis

Evaluation

Implementat
ion

Design

Developmen
t

Analysis
Analysis stage involves:

Identify goal and


objectives

Identify Environment and


Delivery
Identify Instructional
Strategies
Identify Assessment
Strategies

Identify content

Evaluation Procedures

Conducting needs
analysis

Identify Constraints

Design of the course


Identify the audience

Analysis
Some of the questions that are addressed
during the analysis phase:
Who are the audience and their
characteristics?
Identify the new behavioral outcome?
What types of learning constraints exist?
What are the delivery options?
What are the online pedagogical
considerations?
What is the timeline for project completion?

Design
Designing phase involves:

Identifying instructional design strategy


Selecting appropriate delivery method
Determining learning/training structure
and duration
Establishing an evaluation methodology
Developing storyboards and media

Steps Used For The Design Phase

Apply instructional strategies according to


the intended behavioral outcomes by
domain (cognitive, affective,
psychomotor).
Createstoryboards
Design the user interface and user
experience
Prototype creation
Apply visual design (graphic design)

Development
Development stage involves:

Creating the prototype


Developing the learning/training
materials
Build content, assignments,
assessments
Build course structure

Development

The actual creation (production) of the


content and learning materials are based
on the Design phase.

Create materials, select a delivery method


and design assessment / evaluation
precedures.

Implementation
Implementation stage involves:

Overview of course
Expectations
Initiate instruction
Interaction
Ask for feedback early on (formative
evaluation)

Implementation

A procedure for training the facilitators and


the learners is developed.

The facilitators' training should cover the


course curriculum, learning outcomes, method
of delivery, and testing procedures.

Ensures that the books, hands on equipment,


tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place, and
that the learning application or Web site is
functional.

Evaluation
Evaluation stage involves:

Collecting training evaluation


data
Reviewing training effectiveness
Assessing project performance
Reporting performance results

Evaluation

The evaluation phase consists of two parts i.e.


formative and summative.

Formative evaluation is present in each stage


of the ADDIE process.

Summative evaluation consists of:

tests designed for domain specific criterion-related


referenced items
providing opportunities for feedback from the
users.

Evaluation
Some of the questions that are addressed
during the evaluation phase:

Did the learners achieve expected learning


outcomes?
What have they learned?
How can the course be made better?

ASSURE MODEL

ASSURE MODEL
This model is intended to as a guide to
design instructional materials and assure
effective use of media and materials in
instruction
A Analyze Learners
S State Objectives
S Select Methods, Media, and Materials
U - Utilize Media and Materials
R Require Learner Participation
E Evaluate and Revise

Analyze Learners
1.
2.

3.

General characteristics background, etc


Specific entry competencies prerequisite
knowledge and skill entry test or preassessment measure
Learning Styles

Analyze Learners
1) Who are they?
-what they already know
-what are their learning characteristics
-what they need or want to learn
- why they need it
- in what environment will they apply the
learning

Analyze Learners
2) What knowledge, skills and attitudes need to
be taught??
3) How much content do you need in your
instruction??
- set the scope of the content to be covered
time required and topic areas

State Objectives
Why it is important??
1. We must know our objectives in order to
make appropriate selection of method and
media
2. To help assure proper evaluation whether
students achieved an objectives
3. Learning and teaching become objective
oriented

State Objective
1)
2)
3)
4)

What are your objectives?


What skills, knowledge and attitudes are
you trying to develop?
What resources and strategies will you see
in your instruction?
How will you structure the content of your
learning materials?

State Objectives
ABCDs of well stated objectives
Audience
Behaviour
Conditions
Degree
REMEMBER:
Objectives are not intended to limit what
students learn but rather to provide a
minimum level of expected achievement

Select Methods, Media and Materials


3 steps:
1) Deciding on the appropriate method
2) Choosing a media format that is suitable for
carrying out the method
3) Selecting, modifying or designing specific
materials within that media format

Select Methods, Media and Materials


1)

2)

Deciding on the appropriate teaching


methods lecture?? Simulation?
Discussion??
Choosing a media format
- the physical form in which a message is
incorporated and displayed

Select Methods, Media and Materials


2) Choosing a media format
media format include flip charts, slides,
audio, film, video, computer
each has different strengths and
limitations
Consider instructional setting or
situation, learner variables, nature of the
objectives

Select Methods, Media and Materials


2) Selecting, modifying or designing specific
materials within that media format
a) Selecting available materials
off the shelf: ready made and available
how to make an appropriate choice from
available materials??
- involving the Media Specialist
- surveying the sources

Select Methods, Media and Materials


a)

Selecting available materials


Selection criteria:
- does it match the curriculum?
- Is it accurate and current?
- does it contain clear and concise language?
- will it arouse motivation and maintain
interest?
-is it of good technical quality?

Select Methods, Media and Materials


a)

Selecting available materials


Selection criteria:
- is there evidence of its effectiveness?
-is it free from objectionable bias and
advertising?
- is a user guide or other documentation
included?

Select Methods, Media and Materials


b) Modifying available materials
-if we cannot locate entirely suitable materials
off the shelf, we might be modify what is
available
WARNING: do not violate copyright laws and
restrictions

Select Methods, Media and Materials


c) Designing new
materials
Consider:
Objectives
Audience
Cost
Technical expertise
to design and produce
the materials

Equipment to produce or use the


materials

Facilities available or not??

Time do have a time to design new


materials??

Utilize Media and Materials


Involved in teaching students how to make
use of learning materials
Follow the 5 Ps:
1) Preview the materials
- to avoid embarrassment
- to avoid sensitive content
2) Prepare the materials
-determine in what sequence the materials
will be used

Utilize Media and Materials


3) Prepare the environment
- location
- situation
4) Prepare the learners
Proper warm-up:
-overview of the lesson, rationale of the lesson
5) Provide the learning experience
- showmanship
-teacher centred or students centred??

Require Learner Participation

Some media formats can attract students to


participate more than others

Evaluate and Revise


1) Evaluation of learner achievement
- whether the students are learned what
supposed to be learned?
- method of evaluation depending on the
nature of the objectives
- By both teachers and students
- Provide the basis for improvement and
development of the materials (instruction)

Evaluate and Revise


2) Evaluation of Media and Methods
- were the instructional media and method
effective??
- could they be improved?
- through: class discussion, interviews and
observation of student behavior

Evaluate and Revise


Revision
- Sit back and look at the results of our
evaluation data gathering
- where are there discrepancies between what
we intended to happen and what did happen?
- how did the students react to our materials?
- are we satisfied with the materials?