You are on page 1of 90

A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF

NAVODAYA TEACHERS
TOWARDS GUIDANCE
SERVICES AT ELEMENTARY
LEVEL

- Aman
Uppal
M.A., M.Ed., UGC-NET
INTRODUCTION

Every individual differs from others in terms of physical, mental


and intellectual abilities. Every teacher has to face variety of individual
differences in the classroom. “Deviant behavior probably receives first
notice; the very bright; the very dull; the well dressed child, the slovenly
child and the one with physical differences each assumes a role in class
Pattern. As the individualization of the class occurs, many behavior
patterns emerge” (Barr, 1965). These behavior patterns can’t be taken
lightly.
“These behavior patterns are matter of concern for parents, cause of
irritation for teachers and problem for society when the children violate
the establish behavioral norms and expectations” (Gupta, 1985)

To assist the teacher in knowing the pupils and meet his needs
better, providing aid to pupil to understand him, a group of school
services might be utilized. These pupil personal services are different in
different schools. Some schools emphasize diagnostic pupil personal
services while others are more concerned with remedial counseling for a
few problematic children. Psychological and social work approaches
emphasize diagnostic and remedial functions for the exceptional child and
hence consuming most part of specialist’s time rendering service to very
small population of elementary school population. “If a teacher can make
a practice of identifying and capitalizing on the assets of all children it is
probable that much less remedial work will be necessary” (Barr, 1965.)
Hence, teacher can provide minor guidance services to pupils and then
execution of less remedial work is a task better to be done by
professional. In addition, how with other responsibilities and lack of
professional knowledge teacher can play a vital role and therefore
concluding with very need of guidance services and its organization. Don
C. DinkMeyer (1968) has defined the elementary school guidance as,
“Guidance in elementary schools is usually interpreted as a service to all
children in making maximum use of their abilities, for their own good and
for that of society. The emphasis of this service is on early identification
of pupil’s intellectual, social and physical characteristics; development of
their talent; diagnosis of his learning difficulties if any and use of
available resources to meet this need”. All schools provide guidance
services to their pupils. They are usually unorganized and often
incidental. However much thought and effort is essential to recognize
these services and to organize them into guidance programs especially at
elementary level.

Counseling the Elementary School Child


It is a common observation that children are happy and often ignorant
about the problems of adjustment. They are usually enthusiastic and can
become interested in things easily but their interests do not last long.
Besides the home, the school engages them for most part of their waking
lives. If the school experiences are unpleasant, it could be most
unfortunate for the child. Counseling elementary school children involves
helping them with their learning problems and making their experiences at
school enjoyable and engaging.
The major aim of counseling at this level is the prevention of emotional
breakdowns. Children have problems of adjustment as they pass through a
transitional stage of being the centre of the scene in their homes to being
in a state of anonymity in the classrooms. The warmth and affective
relations, which are so vital at home, are absent in the schools and this
sense of loss of importance may make them feel disappointed with the
school. There could also be problems of learning if the curricular
materials are not adjusted to the child’s abilities. There could be problems
involving other pupils and these may lead to bullying by a few and sulking
by a lot more of the children.
It is increasingly recognized that many emotional problems experienced
by people later in life can be traced to childhood years. Early
identification and alleviation, if not elimination, of emotional problems
will go a long way towards ensuring the healthy development of children
into useful citizens.

Elementary Guidance is not just Good Teaching

“Guidance in elementary school carried on, then as a basic part of


the daily work of the teacher. The specialist who can perform his role by
working with individual pupils or consulting with individual teachers
groups to better concern child behavior supplements it.
The focus of elementary guidance is the individual child. The goal is not
therapy but self-development. It is more than just good teaching because it
recognizes and emphasizes the self-development of child in addition to
increase in skill and knowledge. Its concern is to enable each child to feel
worthy to release his capacity for growth to come to terms with both
himself and his environment” (Gordon, 1961)
Elementary guidance is not merely confined to teaching. It is
responsibility of teacher and counselor to help individuals to assess their
abilities and liabilities and to use that knowledge effectively.

Principles for Elementary School Guidance

Guidance in elementary school is foundation of better achievement.


According to Don C.Dinkmeyer (1968), elementary school guidance is
based on certain fundamental principles: -
1. Guidance is for all children, not merely deviator exceptional
children.
2. Guidance is concerned with growth of the whole child-
intellectually, socially, emotionally.
3. Guidance is developmental in nature not merely remedial or
preventive.
4. Developmental guidance is directed at helping the child know
understand and accept himself. The child becomes a participant in
self-study, not the object of child study.
5. Guidance provides the individual with assessment of self, the
opportunity to plan and choose and to be responsible for the
consequences of choice.
6. Guidance may be incidental, but it functions best when it is
based upon a well-organized, developmental and sequential program
that is continuous.
7. Guidance takes into consideration needs and developmental
tasks, while focusing on individual purposes and goals.
8. The guidance program is provided for all through teacher in the
school setting and is facilitated by an educationally oriented
counselor.
9. Guidance focuses on strength and assets of individual.
10. Guidance that is developmental focuses on encouragement
process. It strives to build self-confidence.
11. The guidance programme is most effectively activated when it
is activated when it is a cooperative enterprise between the teacher,
guidance counselor, administration and community resources.”
(Dink Meyer, 1968). Hence elementary school guidance is
developmental in nature, focusing on various aspects and best when
provided by a professional along with the teacher

Guidance programme at elementary level typically consists of -


• Pupil inventory and pupil appraisal
• Guidance consulting
• Counseling; Individual and group
• School adjustment programs
Hence, Guidance program should be well organized, if it is expected to
give good results.

Need of Guidance at Elementary Level


Growing up Child demands that his aptitudes, attitudes and
abilities should be discovered and to be properly understood physically,
mentally and intellectually and in lack of proper guidance growing up
develops complications. Delinquency is a form of learned behavior, which
may be applied to antisocial activities officially punished by courts or
police officials. “The cause of delinquency have their roots in elementary
and pre school period the problem is very real one to elementary teachers”
(Barr, 1965) Delinquency’s treatment is too complicated and it should be
detected earlier.
Competition is the basic tenet of society. Virtues of competition and
coordination are being tended to be extolled together at same time. The
danger of competition lays in the likelihood that individual limitations in
capacity or background will result in inevitable defeat. “It is known that
all children are exposed to competition in varying degrees as they proceed
through their pre school or elementary school years competition evinces
itself in sibling rivalries within the home, in academic striving for grades,
in contests within the schools through games and sports and through social
competition. Most Children will survive their competitive experiences
with benefit or with little negative effect but for a minority group those
who meet continual failures in their efforts to complete the experiences,
will be traumatic.”(Barr, 1965) and hence tenet of competition does not
suit every one’s mentality and giving him problems childhood is also seed
period of development of creative expressions and abilities “These
programs have in mind not only the prevention of delinquency but also the
enrichment of living” (Bernard, 1954) So, it is very essential to
understand a child’s emotional behavior. As the child grows older he
tends to shift from wholehearted, overt expressions to more graded and
covert forms of explosion. “A person who hides his emotions fears that
other may look under this mask and he becomes fully anxiety ridden. A
person may be a coward.”(Mathur, 1968)

Hence it is very essential to understand child’s behavioral


needs and it should be done as early as at elementary level.

Elementary school Guidance in Western Countries


Elementary guidance in western countries is given by
developmental counselor in an organized program whose role rather
comparing to that of traditional and neo traditional school counselor is not
particularly committed to curing of problem. “Diagnosis and treatment of
children in the crisis are not his principal or even minor responsibilities
though he does in fact participate to some extent in such activities. He
does not involve himself in occupational information or career counseling.
He may briefly coordinate the work of the teacher and high school
counselor in developing a career exploration program, for say sixth grade
children. This may eventuate in inviting speakers and building occupation
or career material into the regular curriculum of children in social studies,
language, arts etc. whatever direction such a program may take, the
teacher is chiefly responsible and may conceive consultation from local
high school counselor coordinated by elementary school counselor.”
(Faust, 1968). Hence a developmental counselor not only consults with
teachers but counsels with them. In western countries like USA and UK,
developmental Guidance is preferred in elementary grades and is based on
early identification of pupil’s intellectual, social and physical
characteristics; development of their talent; diagnosis of his learning
difficulties
Problems in the Indian Educational Context
The twin problems plaguing the Indian educational scenes are (1)
stagnation and (2) wastage. Stagnation is concerned with the failure of
students in examinations. The Indian educational system has an
unparalleled record of over 70% failure at annual examinations. Efforts
made to redeem the situation have not yet been successful. The Indian
population ranks between the second highest in the world. This factor
alone has been nullifying most of the efforts made to solve many of its
social problems. Consequently a significant section of the population
(around 40%) is living below the poverty line and many school and
college-going students are compelled to quit their academic careers to
earn a living and add their earnings to the insignificant family income.
India is a developing country with per capita income very low.
Indian policies are aimed much at enrolment and retention of pupils.
Indian schools are dealing with scarcity of teachers and poor
infrastructure facilities. In the light of above, it is impossible for Indian
elementary schools to have separate guidance counselors as in west. Many
measures taken in India are quantitative yet those who are enrolled must
be given qualitative treatment also.
An effective program of guidance and counseling could help students to
develop their personality, better academic achievement feelings and make
them intrinsically motivated by increasing their self- concept, self-
awareness and self-understanding. These are best achieved by clarifying
goals and conquer problems in all round development, which serve to
bridge motivation and thinking.
The child guidance center, the school psychologist, the counseling
center and other such agencies are increasingly being called upon to
shoulder the responsibilities of giving succor to alleviate the avoidable
suffering caused by developmental hazards and tensions. No society can
afford to ignore the basic need to render help to the students.
Assumptions

1. Every individual is unique and complex organism with varying


mental, intellectual, emotional and social needs, maturities and
potentialities.
2. Each individual faces a complex and dynamic environment,
which demands continuous intelligent interactions, based on wise
choices and adjustments.
3. Each individual encounters varying degrees of difficulty in
reaching self-understanding, appraising his present or probable
future environment and in integrating these two variables.
4. Guidance employs scientific methods for studying behavior.

Operational Definitions of Terms

For the purpose of the present study, the above definitions would be used.

Guidance - It is a regular service or a process, which is required at every


stage for each student (normal or special need), not only for problem
situations but for normal situations also. It is a positive program geared to
meet the needs of all students. Any teacher or counselor capable of
dealing can provide it with the problem of students.

Perception- The word perception has been taken from Latin word Percepio
that means receiving, collecting, action of taking possession or
apprehension with mind or senses. In Psychology, Perception is the
process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting and organizing sensory
information about the objects, events and places of the world directly (or
indirectly) via sensory system (Wikipedia).
Perception is the interpretation of the meanings of sensation. In seeing a
rose the various sensations of color, smell and touch are aroused. We are
given to understand these sensations that there is an object in front of us.
We known from past experience that an object of this nature is a flower
called rose. We, therefore conclude that we are beholding a rose.
It is argued that influence of the environment is cumulative
(links.jstor.org). It is with this gap in this existing knowledge of relations
between social class and educational attainment that much influences the
perception sociologically.
Perception is a mental activity, which acquaints us with situation by
giving us direct knowledge of it. In perception, there is not just a pre
functionary acquaintance with the object; there is knowledge of it too,
whereas, in sensations, the individual does not know the object. According
to International Encyclopedias of Psychology (1961), “Perception is the
process whereby organisms become aware of objects and events operates
through our sensory organs.” In laymen terms, perception can be
considered as the first hand acquisition of information form the
environment.

Acting guidance personnel- Guidance is an unorganized support service in


Navodaya, Navodaya, staff name it as and when required guidance. This
support service is given by Principal, some trained teachers, teachers and
other staff members using a team approach. There is always a person in
Navodayas to locate this service and as the person is trained in guidance
and counseling as Navodaya teachers interprets the service as guidance
and hence the person is named as acting guidance personnel in the study.
As far as investigator feels that every support service can not be
equated to guidance services and hence in the objectives, it is ‘To study
the nature of support service...’rather than ‘To study the nature of
guidance services...’
Need for the study
The need of organizing guidance services becomes more significant in
elementary school system where by and large guidance services help
individual to learn how to adjust to himself and to others about him.
Needless to say, guidance services play a vital role for students’ better
enactment.
“Guidance may be incidental, but it functions best when it is based
upon a well organized, developmental and sequential program that is
continuous” (Dinkmeyer, 1968) interprets how important the organization
of services is but in reality condition of guidance services at elementary
level is not satisfactory. Even in good public schools, guidance services
are well organized only at secondary or senior secondary level and
sometimes confined to educational and vocational guidance. One can’t
deny personal aspect of guidance viewing the increasing maladjustment
among the students these days. Personal aspect of guidance is not give due
concerns it elementary stages in Indian context but importance of this
aspect is rather more significant for one’s better enactment. An individual
is born with certain instincts and these instincts with time changes into
habits and might affect the individual’s future adversely yet guidance at
elementary level is ignored in India. Even it is rather difficult to find
Indian research and survey work on it. Fifth Survey of Educational
Research (1997) reveals that the first survey of research (Buch, 1974) had
reviewed 42 studies in field of guidance and counseling and only 13
studies were available for fifth survey.
There should be some innovative research in India related with Guidance
and Counseling specially at elementary level. At the elementary level
children find difficulties in developing certain basic concepts in language
and arithmetic. They find it difficult to develop reading skills. Also
students studying in residential schools face difficulties for school
adjustment. Guidance needs in this area require the attention of
researchers. Very little work has been done in helping children develop
concepts and reading skills. The studies should be both diagnostic and
developmental”(Third survey of research in education, 1973-78).
Dignostic studies will involve guidance at later elementary stages where
the child is not too much flexible as in early elementary grades where
guidance should be provided keeping in view the maximum development
should be accessed by the students. Hence developmental studies for need
base programmes at early elementary stages should be preferred. This
study will reveal how necessary the guidance is at elementary level from
the perception of teachers.
The study also aims at inviting suggestions from teachers’ perception for
its better organization at elementary level so that it will form a basis for
developing need based programs in future.

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas

Main stay of the Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is the administration of the


residential schools all over the country and various other activities
centering around the school education. The Schools run by the Samiti are
called Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya (JNV). 551 JNVs have been
sanctioned in 34 States and Union Territories except Tamil Nadu.
The objectives of the Navodaya Vidyalaya Scheme are as follows:
• To provide good quality modern education, including a strong
component of culture, inculcation of values, awareness of the
environment, adventure activities and physical education - to the
talented children predominantly from rural areas, without regard to
their family's socio-economic condition.

• To ensure that all students of Navodaya Vidyalayas attain a


reasonable level of competence in three languages as envisaged in
the three-language formula.

• To serve, in each district, as focal points for improvement in quality


of school education in general through sharing of experiences and
facilities.

OPENING OF JNVs
The original objective of providing one Navodaya Vidyalaya in each
district, has been actively pursued. 509 Vidyalayas are sanctioned at
present in 34 states and UTs excluding two State Level JNVs sanctioned at
Sirsa (Haryana) and Allahabad (U.P.). Out of these, 485 schools are
presently functional.
15 new JNVs have been sanctioned in the year 2003-2004. It is proposed
to open 100 new JNVs during the rest of X Plan period, bringing the total
coverage to 568 districts..
The opening of a Navodaya Vidyalaya is based on the proposal from the
concerned State/UT Governments offering 30 acres of suitable land free of
cost, sufficient temporary building and other infrastructure free of rent or
on permanent basis.
The coverage of Navodaya Vidyalaya in educationally backward districts
has been considerably high.Out of the States with literacy rate below 50%,
100% coverage has been made in Orissa, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka,
Manipur, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya and
Rajastan with the reference to the number of districts existing at the
commencement of VIIIth plan.

Facilities To Students Of Navodaya Vidyalayas

Education in the JNVs including boarding and lodging as well as expenses


on uniform, textbooks, stationery, rail/bus fare from to the homes etc. are
free for all students
Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is highlighting the factors of Qualitative
Education during the training programmes to different categories of
Navodaya Vidyalaya staff members and some of the factors of emphasis
during the training programmes are as below:
• Safety & Security of stakeholders
• Identifying training needs, prioritizing, planning, implementation &
Evaluation of the training programmes
• Making them to understand and act for Vision and Objectives for
their sense of purpose
• Implementation of National curricular plan
• Increasing competitiveness in work
• Looking to pool up the talents of professionals with a concern to
work in teams
• Full attendance of stakeholders
• Minimizing or avoiding disruptive tendencies of productivity
• Responding the accountability
• Effective communication
• Proper Interpersonal Human relationships
• Creation of congenial residential culture
• Use of vivid, audio-video teaching aids
• Space for innovative methods of teaching
• Continuous comprehensive evaluation
• Promoting excellence
• Timely completion of specific works of staff
• Remedial teaching
• Use of electronic media devices
• Inculcation of moral & value oriented education
Title of the study

A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF NAVODAYA TEACHERS TOWARDS


GUIDANCE SERVICES AT ELEMENTARY LEVEL

Objectives of the study

The objectives of the present study are: -


I. To study the nature of support services already provided in
Navodaya schools.
II. To study the perception of teachers towards provision of guidance
services at elementary school stage.
III. To study the perception of teachers towards need of guidance
counselor at elementary school stage.
IV. To study the suggestions from the perception of teachers for its
betterment at elementary level.
Review of literature

Review of literature provides an important link between the existing


knowledge and the problem that is being investigated. A good review
enhances the credibility of the research.
Broadly stated, the purpose of the review is to relate previous research to
the problem under investigation. Without a good review of literature, the
researchers are less likely to use what has already been shown to be the
most effective methods. McMillan (2000) has given the following
purposes for review of literature: -
i) Refining the research problem
ii) Developing significance for the research
iii) Identifying methodological techniques
iv) Identifying contradictory findings
v) Developing research hypotheses
vi) Learning about new information

A good review of literature has the following characteristics: -


i) The review should adequately cover previous research on the
topic.
ii) The review should cite actual findings from other studies.
iii) The review of literature should be up – to – date.
iv) The review of literature should analyze as well as summarize
previous studies.
v) The review of literature should be organized logically by topic,
not by author.
vi) The review of literatures hold briefly summarizes minor studies
and discusses major studies in detail.
vii) The review of major studies should relate previous studies
explicitly to the research problem or methods.
viii) It should provide a logical basis for the hypotheses.
ix) It should help establish the significance of the research.
Keeping in view the above, the review of literature was done for the
present study. Libraries of Ch. Devi Lal University (Sirsa), Jamia Millia
Islamia (New Delhi), J.C.D. College of Education (Sirsa), NCERT New
Delhi, NIEPA New Delhi were consulted & visited for the purpose.
Reviewed studies covered the following areas.
 Development of a need based guidance programme
 Effectiveness of guidance services
 Evaluation of guidance programme
 Guidance needs of students
 Needs and problems of adolescents
 Needs and performance of counselors
 Perception of teachers & Principals towards guidance services
 School adjustment

In the present study, investigator has divided the review into the
following sub-headings: -
A) Effectiveness and development of guidance services and programs
B) Need and problems of students
C) Perception of teachers & principals towards guidance services and
related terms

A) Studies related with development and effectiveness of Guidance


services of programs.

Dhingra (1976) investigated, the functioning of the guidance


services in Delhi Schools. He has given the findings of the
perception of concept of guidance services. 40% of principals,
28.6% of teachers hold the misconception that guidance services are
meant for only special categories of students such as problem
children, emotional disturb, Academically week children and
handicapped children.

He investigated guidance services in the schools. 35.7% of the


counselors in the boys schools and 14.3% of the counselors in the
girls schools have not given only view explaining the purpose of
guidance. It is also dissatisfactory to note 100% of teachers in boys
and girls’ schools do not maintain cumulative record. Navodayas
have provision of training related with guidance & counseling for a
few of its teachers. It will be important to investigate whether these
schools own testing or non-testing techniques for guidance &
counseling or not.
Gupta (1985) conducted a study on objectives, programs infrastructure
facilities and perceived effectiveness of guidance services in Delhi
schools. The major objectives of the study were: -
i) To study both physical and financial infrastructural facilities.
ii) To study various activities taken up under guidance in schools.
iii) To study the effectiveness of guidance services as perceived
by students, parents, teachers and principals.

The tools used were a sell made questionnaire for school counselors and
interview schedules for students and a perceived effectiveness inventory.

Major findings of the study were: -


i) A large number of counselors did not have adequate physical
facilities in the schools.

ii) No follow up guidance programme was being implemented due to


lack of cooperation from students and guidance functionaries.
iii) Most counselors judged the effectiveness of counseling service
using the criteria that student made realistic subject choices.

The investigator feels that most of the schools in India follow the same
pattern. The present study has an objective of support services already
provided in Navodaya Schools.

Saraswat (1992) conducted a study to develop a need based guidance


programme for Navodaya Vidyalaya students of class VIth. The sample
consisted of five hundred students of Navodaya Vidyalayas of different
states and union territories. A student’s problem checklist was
administered and institutional teachers were used to collect information
from students, teachers and principals.

On the basis of the problems identified, it was suggested that guidance


services should be established under a trained guidance counselor for the
welfare of the students.

The investigator will investigate in the present study whether Navodaya


teachers perceive the establishment of guidance services necessary at
elementary level or not.

Kohli (1993) in Khurana (2005) conducted a study to evaluate the


effectiveness of guidance programmes and practices in higher secondary
schools of Punjab. The sample comprised 909 X and XI class students
from 40 schools, 40 each of guidance workers, administrators and teachers
and Districts assistant Guidance counselors and 8 assistant employment
officers.
The main objective of the study was:-
1. To examine the effectiveness of the guidance programs and
practices in the higher secondary schools of Punjab in the light of
objectives set for organizing these. The major findings of the study were:-
i) Guidance programme was not being carried out effectively.
ii) The existing guidance programmes in Punjab were not able to
achieve the objectives set forth for organizing such programmes.
iii) The process has been marked by lack of financial support, lack
of administrative support, high counselor pupil ratio, lack of
awareness on the part of students and heir parents about the
utility of guidance programme, lack of adequate facilities to
guidance workers, lack of adequate inservice orientation/training
facilities in guidance for school/guidance personnel and lack of
proper coordination between schools, guidance agencies and
employment exchanges.
The present study is intended to invite suggestions from teachers
&principals for betterment of guidance services at elementary level.

Mishra (1996) studied the functions of school counselors in Govt. Sr. Sec.
Schools of Delhi. The main objectives of her study were: -

1) To study the functions of school counselors as related to


educational and vocational guidance.
2) To study the functions of the school counselor as related to
counseling services.
3) To study the functions of the school counselors as related to
functions other than the guidance programme of the school.
Tool for the study was a questionnaire of 25 items with
yes/no responses. Sample consisted of 40 counselors from
govt. Sr. Sec. Schools for Delhi. 10 Counselors were
randomly selected from ach of the four districts of Delhi
State. The counselor selected were either working in a unit
school or a cluster of two schools.
The major findings of the Study were: -
i) 95% of counselors do not maintain cumulative record
card yet all of them (100%) provide group guidance,
individual guidance and counseling services.
ii) Major engagements have been shown in which the 38
out of 40 i.e. 95% diverted their functions towards the
community motivation of illiterates towards the
education those has diverted the counselors from their
perceived roles and functions. Maintenance of
cumulative records cards, case studies, administration
of IQ test, creativity tests etc. is must for providing
guidance & counseling and these all do not occupy
place in most of the Indian Schools.

Khurana (2005) studied the effectiveness of guidance services provided in


private schools of Delhi. The major objectives of her study was:-
i) To study the infrastructural facilities available with the schools
where guidance is offered as a specialized service and where
guidance is not offered as a specialized service.
ii) To study the types of guidance services available in the schools
where guidance is a specialized service and where guidance is
not a specialized service.
iii) To study the problems (if any) faced by guidance counselors in
discharging their duties.
iv) To study the effectiveness of guidance services in schools where
guidance is provided as a specialized service and those where it
is not provided as a specialized service.
v) To compare the effectiveness of guidance services in two types
of schools.

The study was carried over Heads and counselors of 12 private schools in
South Delhi.
The major findings of the study were: -
i) In schools, where teachers provided guidance, they used no
psychological tests or techniques.
ii) While the main problems faced by teachers include lack of time
available to them, for providing guidance inadequate books and
journals on guidance and lack of professional help.
iii) Counseling service is considered to be most important service by
most of the counselors and teachers who provide guidance to
students. Whereas, the placement services claim, the least
importance as none of the schools provide this service.
iv) While the teachers who function as counselors, do not possess
any professional training or experience in the field of guidance.
In Navodaya Vidyalayas, guidance is not a specialized service and
study reviewed above will help to study the support service already
provided in schools.

B) Review related with needs and problems of students: -


George (1968) in Singh (2001) studies the guidance needs and problems of
High School and College students.
A problem checklist was used to collect the data the sample was made up
of 1172 students of standard X and 1569 was made up of 1172 students of
standard X and 1569 students from college all over the Trivandrum. The
objectives of study were: -
i) To study the needs and problems of school & college
students.
ii) To study the nature and extent of these problems. Major
findings of the study were as follows: -
i) There were correspondence between the problems and
needs of school and college students.
ii) The area in which maximum help was sought was
educational and vocational areas.
iii) Girls had more problem then boys at school stage and
less among college students. The study above shows the
guidance needs of pupils at high school level. The
investigator feels that it is more difficult to mould
one’s personality at high School level as compared to
elementary school. It will be quite significant what
elementary school. It will be quite significant what
elementary teachers perceive about it.
Mulay (1971) in Singh (2001) conducted a study to know about the needs
and problems of adolescents. The sample was made up of 1583 boys and
369 girls. The objectives of the study were: -
To study the problems of rural and urban students with much individual
differences according to high, average or low socio economic status.
Major findings of the study were as follows: -
i) The urban boys are found to have largest number of problems as
against the urban girls having the minimum number of problems.
ii) The socio economic status is highly related to problems of
adolescents
iii) Low socio-economic status group have more problems. Problems
among rural boys and rural girls come midway between urban
boys and urban girls. Most of the Navodaya students belong to
rural areas and as investigator feels that most of them do not
belong to high socio economic status. Much & relevant studies
for Navodayas will be need of the hour.
Tripathi (1986) conducted a study to determine the various guidance
needs of the pupils of secondary and higher secondary schools situated
in the different areas of Ahmedabad. The sample was comprised of 720
students from 24 schools. The investigation was undertaken to
undertaken to determine various guidance needs of pupils and to
observe the relationship between these guidance needs and some
variables such as Sex, grade, birth order, parents, educational
qualification, family size and type of school. The major findings of the
study indicated that : -
1) A significant relationship existed between grades of pupils
2) Sex of the pupils was highly related with health, social,
personal and vocational guidance needs.

Richa (1993) studied the strategies used by the teachers in dealing with
the problem students at primary level.
The objectives of her study were: -

i) To study the strategies used by the teachers in classroom


situations as well as outside the classroom in dealing with
problem students.
ii) To evaluate the most suitable strategies from the viewpoint of
teachers in handling the problem students.
iii) To evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies used by teachers
in the light of psychological theories and empirical evidences.

Study was carried over 35 teachers of 7 M.C.D. schools. The major


findings of her study were: -
i) Although most of teachers adopted or suggested strategies of –
attending affectionately or persuading, yet they did not deny to
used punishment & scolding side by side. They expressed that if
a child repeats a problem again & again, they give punishment
through other students or give him such punishments like
scolding, sending outside the classroom, make them stand on
bench etc.
ii) According to majority of teachers, punishment and coercive
strategies should be the part of dealing so that child could
realize his mistakes, misbehavior with teachers and other
students. Some teachers were having the view that they give
punishment and beat students at their first mistake so that he
would not repeat the mistake again.

The study reveals that the teaching strategies are not up to mark for
students as it may tarnish and distort their self-image in mind.

Navodayas has majority of rural students who had left the liberty of rural
places to a close campus atmosphere. Students here, face earlier problems
at entry level. Teaching strategies may / may not help the students in a
positive way. It gives rise to need of perceiving the teacher’s view about
guidance programme or suggestions for betterment at elementary level.
Investigator, through the perception of teachers will assess to significance
of guidance services at early grades.

Prabha (1995) studied the problems of adolescent girls at secondary and


senior secondary level. The main objectives of her study were: -
i) To study various problems: -
a) From the viewpoint of adolescents.
b) From the viewpoint of parents.
c) From the viewpoint of the teachers.
ii) To offer suitable suggestions to teachers, parents and to other
social agencies who can help the adolescent girls to overcome
the problems for better adjustments with themselves and their
environment.
Study was carried over 10 adolescent girls of 3 govt. schools of East
Delhi.
Major findings of her study were: -
1) As with regard to economic area, adolescent girls belonging to low
and middle-income groups, face more problems than the upper
income group.
2) Most of the problems of adolescent girls center around sex and its
problems, the school can make provision of providing sex education
to them.
3) The administrators should see that frequent and reasonable guidance
should be given. The adolescence girls should have free access to
these guidance services.
The present study will find whether Navodaya teachers perceive it need of
hour or not for elementary grade teenagers.

Memuna (1998) made a study of the adolescents of Navodaya


Vidyalayas.The major objectives of the study were: -
1) To study the adolescent’s problems of adjustment in relation to
school.
2) To study the adolescent feeling of security – insecurity in
relation to self.
Study was conducted over 100 students of class IXth and Xth belonging to
JNVs’ Mothuka & Nagina. Tools used in study were: -
i) School adjustment inventory (Bhagia)
ii) Maslow’s security-insecurity inventory.
iii) Sell concept inventory (Saraswat, R.K.)
The findings of the study were: -
i) In academic area of adjustment only a small percentage (13%)of
the students showed good adjustment.
ii) In ‘general area’ of adjustment, not a single student was found to
be well adjusted.
iii) Overall, it was found that 50% of students were found to be
poorly adjusted.

The study revealed that Navodaya students face the problems of


adjustment at a high grade. Problem is much significant at class VI as
entry behavior of rural students totally differs from expected school
environment.

C) Studies related with perception of teacher &/or principals


towards guidance services and related terms.

Shami (1995) conducted a study on the counselor’s performance as


perceived by the principals, teachers and students. The specific objectives
of the study were: -
i) To assess the perception of principals and teachers about the
utility of guidance services for pupils & schools.
ii) To assess the perception of students about the utility of guidance
services in order to improve the functioning of themselves.
iii) To find out the overall effectiveness of the guidance services.

The study was conducted on 16 schools having guidance services. Sample


of the study comprised 16 principals, 16 counselors, and 32 teachers. The
major findings of the study were: -
i) Principals realize the importance of guidance services to some
extent. Most of principals perceive functioning of counselor in
school as must.
ii) Teachers also feel very positive about the counselors’ activities.
Teachers are also aware of a number of areas in which counselor
can contribute significantly for students’ development.
iii) The awareness of the teacher about guidance services and its
utility is encouraging and its implications lie in their active
involvement in the guidance work.
iv) The needs of the students are extensive while the guidance
services are highly truncated.
v) Need based programme for guidance should be developed so that
the gap between needs of the students and guidance activities may
be reduced.

Navodaya teachers have 24-hour touch with the pupils. The present study
will investigate the perception of teachers towards need of elementary
school counselor at Navodayas.

See Ching Mary (1996) in Lal (2001) studied the role of secondary school
counselor as perceived by administrators, counselors and teachers,
towards role definition of counselors. The study explored the perception
of secondary school counselor, administrators and teachers in peninsular
Malaysia regarding the actual role of the school counselor and the
importance of the role in meeting the needs of the students. Through the
study it was found that location, gender and age group of population
catered influences their perspectives of the actual role and importance of
role of guidance counselors for guidance services.
Keeping the variety of age group among the residential Navodayas pupils
in view, it will be good step to know teachers’ perception about separate
counselor at elementary level So that a need based programme may be
developed for elementary students.

Khan (2000) studied the perception of principals and teachers about the
need and performance of counselors in Government senior secondary
schools of Delhi. The major objectives of the study were: -
i) To find out the need of counselors as perceived by the teachers
from academic point of view.
ii) To find out the need of counselors as perceived by the principals
from academic and administrative point of view.
Study was conducted over 10 govt. schools, which have counselors for
south district of Delhi. 10 principals and 60 teachers (3 PGT’s & TGT’s
from 1 school) constituted the sample. Major findings of the study were: -
i) Most of teachers felt academic improvement in students after
counseling.
ii) A small proportion (25%) of teachers believed that counseling is
required for all round development of students.
iii) All principals believed that their counselors are able sufficient to
solve academic problems.

Singh (2001) studied the perception of primary school teachers towards


guidance services. The objectives of her study were: -
i) To study teacher’s perception regarding different guidance needs
of primary school students.
ii) To study teacher’s perception regarding the provision of
guidance services at primary school stage.
iii) To study teacher’s perception regarding the need of guidance
worker at primary school stage.
iv) To study various guidance facilities that can be provide at
primary school stage.

Study was done over 65 teachers of 10 M.C.D. Primary schools. A


questionnaire was used for collection of responses. The study revealed
that most of teachers favour the identification of guidance needs of pupils
and separate guidance counselor and guidance facilities for primary
schools.

The investigator feels that due to lack of problems at primary stage and
close relation of teacher with students, it will be a good step to view the
perception for elementary schools. Not only due to most of adolescents
belongs to upper primary grades but also due to being economic as to
provide guidance facilities to a comparatively significant population, it
will be beneficial and important to have study on teacher’s perception
regarding elementary school guidance.
The studies reviewed above provided a set up for the present study
taken by the investigator. Although, there are no. of studies related with
guidance & counseling with needs and problems of students but a few
ones have been given priority keeping in view the objectives of the study.
During review, the investigator felt that much of the studies in this field
of guidance & counseling are related with adolescents secondary & Sr.
Sec. School students and peer counseling in colleges. The investigator was
able to review a single study related with perception of teachers by Singh
(2001). A much scarcity of work is in this area. Also in the secondary and
senior secondary stages, the studies showed a sense of repetition. A lack
of sense of innovation is scattering there.
The present study is intended to investigate the teacher’s perception
towards guidance services at elementary level. Navodayas teachers of
elementary classes have been chosen. Navodayas are Innovative, pace-
setting schools. The investigator feels that what Navodaya follow today
the other schools especially the govt. ones are likely to follow it
tomorrow study is also intended to investigate the support service
already provided in Navodayas.
The study will also invite suggestions for better implementation of
guidance services at elementary level. Based on which, a further
required programme for elementary level guidance may be prepared.
The study is a significant effort to achieve this end.
METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN OF THE STUDY

In Chapter two, an attempt was made to identify studies related with


effectiveness and development of guidance services and programs, need
and problems of students and perception of teachers & principals towards
guidance services and related terms. While reviewing the related
literature, the investigator found that not much work has been done on
perception of elementary teachers towards guidance services. The
investigator was able to review just a single study related with perception
of elementary teachers towards guidance by Singh (2001).
The investigator feels that as child is a growing up adolescent at upper-
primary stages and has not so much closely related with teacher as in
primary standards, it will be comparatively a good step to view the
perception of elementary school teachers. Not only due to most of
adolescents belongs to upper primary grades but also due to being
economic as to provide guidance facilities to a comparatively significant
population, it will be beneficial and important to have study on teacher’s
perception regarding elementary school guidance.
Problem
A study of perception of Navodaya teachers towards guidance services at
elementary level

Statement of the problem


In the present study, the investigator is attempting to study teacher’s
perception regarding elementary school guidance whether the teachers
feels essential to identify students’ problems, what problems they observe
among the students and what can be done for betterment of guidance
services at elementary level. Therefore, the main emphasis is to study
teachers’ perception regarding elementary school guidance.
Objectives of the study: -
The objectives of the present study are: -
• To study the nature of guidance services already provided in
Navodaya schools.
• To study the perception of teachers towards provision of guidance
services at elementary school stage.
• To study the perception of teachers towards need of guidance
counselor at elementary school stage.
• To study the suggestions from the perception of teachers for its
betterment at elementary level.
Population
The population of present study will comprise all the elementary school
teachers of Navodaya schools in Haryana.

Sample
Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations)
from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly
generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen
(socialresearchmethods.net)

For the present investigation, the sample comprised of four schools and
from each school, all the teachers teaching class 6th and acting as
guidance personnel were selected as sample. Overall forty teachers (36
teachers and 4 teachers acting as guidance personnel) were selected as
sample. However, the numbers of respondent teachers were thirty-nine
only. Schools will be selected on basis of convenient sampling. Chief
guidance personnel in the school will be selected as acting Guidance
personnel. However, all teachers teaching class 6th will be selected as
teachers’ sample.
Only one type of schools-Navodaya Schools in Haryana was identified as
sample by the investigator.
The main objective of the present study was to study the teachers’
perception towards guidance at elementary level. Although the schools
have some differences in their geographical location, yet the schools have
students belonging to comparably similar socio-economic status and same
type of facilities available with teachers recruited through same process.
Hence the investigator identified such schools which had similar
administrative set-up, school environment and students coming from
similar strata of society.
Another subsidiary objective was to study the support services already
provided in Navodayas. The list of four Navodaya schools of Haryana,
District and number of teachers selected from each school is given below.
Serial No. Name of the District Number of
School Teachers
1 Jawahar Jhajjar 10
Navodaya (Haryana)
Vidyalaya, Kaloi
2 Jawahar Faridabad 9
Navodaya (Haryana)
Vidyalaya,
Mothuka
3 Jawahar Sirsa (Haryana) 8
Navodaya
Vidyalaya,
Odhan
4 Jawahar Hissar (Haryana) 9
Navodaya
Vidyalaya, Pabra
Although as stated earlier all the schools are common in some terms yet
these have some regional differences also. JNV, Odhan seemed to be more
connected to urban terms than the other JNVs. JNV, Pabra has vast green
surroundings all around but much isolation spreading there. JNV Mothuka
is not easily approachable although near Delhi. JNV, Kaloi is on highway
but in a desert like area.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


For the purpose of the present study, the above definitions would be used.

Guidance- It is a regular service or a process, which is required at every


stage for each student (normal or special need), not only for problem
situations but for normal situations also. It is a positive programme geared
to meet the needs of all students. Any teacher or counselor capable of
dealing can provide it with the problem of students.

Perception-The word perception has been taken from Latin word Percepio
which means receiving, collecting, action of taking possession or
apprehension with mind or senses. In Psychology, Perception is the
process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting and organizing sensory
information about the objects, events and places of the world directly (or
indirectly) via sensory system (wikipedia.org).
Perception is the interpretation of the meanings of sensation. In seeing a
rose the various sensations of colour, smell and touch are aroused. We are
given to understand these sensations that there is an object in front of us.
We known from past experience that an object of this nature is a flower
called rose. We, therefore conclude that we are beholding a rose.
Perception is a mental activity, which acquaints us with situation by
giving us direct knowledge of it. In perception, there is not just a pre
functionary acquaintance with the object; there is knowledge of it too,
whereas, in sensations, the individual does not know the object. According
to International Encyclopedias of Psychology (1961), “Perception is the
process whereby organisms become aware of objects and events operates
through our sensory organs.” In laymen terms, perception can be
considered as the first hand acquisition of information form the
environment.

Acting guidance personnel :


Guidance is an unorganized support service in Navodaya, Navodaya, staff
name it as and when required guidance. This support service is given by
principal, some trained teachers, teachers and other staff members using a
team approach. There is always a person in Navodayas to locate this
service and as the person is trained in guidance and counseling as
Navodaya teachers inerprets the service as guidance and hence the person
is named as acting guidance personnel in the study.
As far as investigator feels that every support service can not be
equated to guidance services and hence in the objectives, it is to study the
nature of support service................................................rather than to
study the nature of guidance services..................................

Aspects of Perception:
Vatsyayan (1981) highlighted the three major aspects of perception:

Presentative-
The presence of an object before us is the presentative aspect of the
perception.

Representative-
when a particular object is represented by another object, we have the
representation of it. It has some element of imagination
and is presentative aspect of perception.

Relational-
when we observe a particular object, it is possible not only to know it but
also have knowledge of related a connected thing, and then we shall call it
relational aspects of perception. Here the things are known by
relationship.
TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION
The investigator developed the following tools for the study: -
1) A questionnaire developed for the teachers.
2) Interview schedules for: -
a) Selected teachers
b) Teachers acting as guidance personnel
3) Checklist

1 QUESTIONNAIRE -

For the present study, the investigator did not come across any
standardized tool to assess teachers’ perception towards guidance
services at elementary level. To study teachers’ perception a
questionnaire was developed by the investigator with the help of
supervisor.
A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of
questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information
from respondents (wikipedia.org). Questionnaires have advantages over
some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not require as
much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and
often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data.
The questionnaire developed, was fulfilling the following objectives of
study: -
1) To study the perception of teachers towards provision of
guidance services at elementary school stage
2) To study the perception of teachers towards need of guidance
counselor at elementary school stage
3) To study the suggestions from the teachers for the better
enactment of these services at elementary level
The questionnaire considered the following major aspects-
 Kinds of problems students have
 Problems the teachers face during identification of
problems
 Time management and related problems
 Opportunity to discuss the problems with staff
members
 Advantages or disadvantages of being a residential
school in this aspect.
 Type of facilities that can be provided in the school
for better elementary guidance services.

Closed type questions have been asked whereby the questions were based
on the multiple-choice type. The questions have been followed by a
variety of responses that may be possible while a subject answers yet even
in the closed form, the investigator feels that to keep flexibility in
responses, it is much necessary to have space for respondents’ view. Thus
the final choice in maximum number of questions is “Any other” so that
respondent may answer separately from the alternatives provided.

2.Interview Schedules
An interview is a conversation between two or more people (The
interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the
interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee (wikipedia.org).
Interviews can be divided into two rough types, interviews of assessment
and interviews for information.

Interviews of Information-
The second class of interviews are those seeking to gather information
about a subject. These types of interviews are central to the practices of
journalism and instructional design . Such interviews are also important to
any non-fiction writer or researcher. In general the quotes and information
gathered in these interviews are used in a publication or edited for
broadcast.
In Educational research, Interviews of information are used.
As many respondents prefer to communicate verbally than in writing or
may provide information in a better way for the study during interview
rather than in a written form of questionnaire, therefore for the present
study, the following different structured interview schedules were
prepared by the investigator for-
a) Selected teachers
b) Teachers acting as guidance personnel

Interview Schedule for Selected teachers-

Interview schedule for teachers are aimed at enhancing the credibility of


the information collected by questionnaire. Interview will be taken of
selected teachers either one or two on the basis of questionnaire, whom
the investigator consider most suitable from the point of view of study.
Interview schedule will cover mainly the following areas-
Kinds of problems students may have.
Problems the teachers face during identification of problems
Time management and related problems
Advantages or disadvantages of being a residential school in this aspect.
Support services already provided in school
Type of facilities that can be provided in the school for better elementary
guidance services.

Interview Schedule for Acting Guidance Personnel-

Interview schedules for acting Guidance Personnel was prepared keeping


in view to be able to penetrate deep into their answers and perceptions.
Interview schedule for guidance personnel included the following major
aspects-
 Type of their appointment
 Time availability to them for Guidance and Counseling
 Testing and non-testing techniques used by them
 Execution of group and individual counseling
 Differences they feel while catering to needs of boys and girls
 Problems they face during Guidance and Counseling
 Provision of Guidance services at elementary level
 Suggestions for the better enactment of Guidance services at
elementary level
Interview schedule was administered over one teacher each from a
school, carrying out guidance services in the school as chief personnel.
Interview schedules were chiefly aimed at filling the Checklist by the
investigator to fulfill the following objective of the study-
 To study the nature of guidance services already provided in the
schools
However the interview schedule for acting guidance personnel will also
work for the above objective.

3.Checklist
A checklist is used to compensate for the weaknesses of
human memory to help ensure consistency and completeness in carrying
out a task (wikipedia.org).
A checklist was prepared by investigator to study the nature of guidance
services already provided in Navodaya schools on the basis of both the
interview schedules. Checklist covered the following aspects-
 Nature of Guidance services
 Availability of testing and non-testing techniques
 Records maintained by the school
 Who gives the Guidance?
 Use of Team approach
PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION
The investigator visited one of the nearby Navodaya Schools and came
across basics of Navodaya culture. Navodayas are very far from each other
not less than 40 Kms. between any two Navodayas and probably the
Geography might change. Investigator contacted Principals of all the
sample schools. With proper allocation of dates, Investigator visited the
schools one by one. After getting permission from Principal, to administer
the questionnaire, the investigator with the help of Vice-Principals
contacted the teachers teaching class 6th.Teachers were told the
importance of the study and were requested to fill the questionnaire. They
were assured that their views will be kept confidential and they can freely
express their views. They were also assured of help if they feel any
problem while filling the questionnaire. While the teachers were filling
the questionnaires, Investigator took the interview of acting Guidance
Personnel and made a look over the facilities available in the school for
Guidance services. After it, the questionnaires from the teachers were
collected. Then Investigator took the interview of the teacher, whom he
thought most suitable for the study.The criteria of selection of that teacher
depended on his availability and interest taken in the scope of the study.
In last, investigator on the basis of interviews filled the Checklist himself.
As Navodayas are very far mutually as well as from cities, it was tiring
but adventurous indeed from the point of view of investigator.
Analysis of the Data
The data collected from the four Navodaya Schools was then analyzed
both quantitatively as well as qualitatively.
Following are the terms in the study related with quantitative analysis of
data: -
(i) Items of questionnaire - Provisions of guidance services,
problems teachers observe among students, need of guidance
worker, suggestions for better enactment of guidance services at
elementary level, all from the perception of teachers.
(ii) Items of Checklist - Nature of support services already provide
in Navodaya schools. Items of checklist have been filled on
qualitative aspects of interview schedules yet for its analysis,
quantitative method will be used.

(iii) Items of interview Schedules - Most of the items of interview


schedule is so that hey would be converted into terms of items of
checklist, analyzed quantitative later yet their are certain aspects of
interview schedule that is not covered by ‘Questionnaire’ and
'Checklist' and very contributory in terms of study has been analyzed
qualitatively
Delimitations of the study
 The study was confined to Navodaya schools of Haryana only.
 The study was further confined to teachers of class 6th only.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The mass selected sample as such has no meaning unless it is arranged,
analyzed and interpreted.
Analysis of the data means to study the date by breaking it into parts.
Analysis of the data provides a logical set up for the findings and
conclusions related with data. In the present study data is analyzed
qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Much of the data has been analyzed
quantitatively and descriptive statistics has been in qualitative analysis of
data.
Following are the terms in the study related with quantitative analysis of
data: -
(i) Items of questionnaire - Provisions of guidance services,
problems teachers observe among students, need of guidance
worker, suggestions for better enactment of guidance services at
elementary level, all from the perception of teachers will be
studied quantitatively.
(ii) Items of Checklist - Nature of support services already provided
in Navodaya schools. Items of checklist have been filled on
qualitative aspects of interview schedules yet for analysis of
Checklist, quantitative method will be used.
(iii) Items of interview Schedules - Most of the items of interview
schedule is so that hey would be converted into terms of items of
checklist, analyzed quantitative later yet their are certain aspects
of interview schedule that is not covered by ‘Questionnaire’ and
'Checklist' and very contributory in terms of study has been
analyzed qualitatively: -
a) Problems of homesickness and homosexuality
b) Emphasis on practical aspects during training and orientation
program of teachers as teachers perceived.
Interview schedules will also be helpful in interpretation of the data.
Interpretation of data means interpreting and locating logic behind why a
data expressed so? Causes and logic are factors found to interpret the
data. Some teachers have filled “ If any other...............” column in the
questionnaire. Investigator will also locate the data using some informal
discussions held with staff members of Navodayas.
However, the analysis and interpretation has been done keeping in
view all the four objectives. It has been done under four heads -
(i) Nature of support services.
(ii) Problems of students and provision of Guidance services

(iii) Need of elementary school counselor


(iv) Suggestion for better enactment of guidance services
i) Nature of Support Services -
Support services are provided to students for their better enactment.
Counseling, placement services etc. all is support services. A teacher or a
trained person can either give these support services to the students.
Nature of support services means whether continuous, organized, staff and
infrastructure with tools available for support services etc.

Table1
Counselor 0(0)
Trained teacher 2(50)
Class Teacher 1(25)
Principal 1(25)
P.T.I. 0(0)
Others 0(0)
(Organization of guidance services in Elementary classes by)

Support is organized by
percentage schools

60
50
40
30 Series2
20
10
0
Trained

Teacher
Counselor

teacher

Principal

Others
P.T.I.
Class

Table1 indicates that in 50%schools by trained teacher and 25% School


by Principal, support services are organized in elementary classes. As
Navodayas have provision for training of teachers in guidance &
counseling. Therefore each & every school has teachers with any
prior training in guidance &counseling. However in one school (25%)
trained teacher is available yet in school there is lack of coordination;
support services are the major function of class teacher. All the acting
guidance personal are part time and they it with other duties also.
Table2

Yes 4(100)
No 0(0)
(Support is as and when required?)

Table 2 indicates that in 100% school support is ‘As and when


required’. As in Navodayas, students have daily 24 hr touch with
teachers, teachers do not face any difficulty to identify the problems
yet support is provided to student only in case of problematic areas
i.e. Academic, behavioral, sexual etc.

Table3

Yes 4(100)
No 0(0)
(Support is unorganized?)
Table 3 indicates that support is an unorganized service in all the 100%
schools like NVS had provided 5000 rupees for adolescence education.
Although Doctor's support is also services provided yet there is no
pattern wise provision of guidance services. As support is not a
permanent function of one or discharged to many, any problem may be
remain unidentified leaving the support function on other, hence
supports is unorganized service in all the 100% schools.

Table4
Educational 0(0)
Vocational 4(100)
Personal 0(0)
(Aspect of Guidance is emphasized?)
Table 4 shows that in 100% school vocational aspect of support is
more emphasized and it is much available to student of secondary &
senior secondary classes. Most of teachers perceive guidance
&vocational guidance synonymous. Some kind of occupational
information can be given to elementary school students but investigator
feels that much needed areas are educational and personal at this level.
Support is also given in these areas but only for problematic cases.

Table5
Yes 0(0)
No 4(100)
(Whether the School has hostel warden?)

120
100
80
60 Series1
40
20
0
Yes No

Table 5 shows that in 100% schools there is no hostel warden. Duties


are assigned to teachers according to schedule. Investigator feels that
hostels are roots cause of problems in Indian schooling. Students may
face drastic problems in absence of regular hostel warden.
Homosexuality is one of these problem pointed out by teachers in 2
Navodayas (50%).

Table6
Less than one for a class 3(75)
More than one for a class 1(75)
(Number of trained teachers)

Table 6 shows that in 25% schools, teachers trained in guidance &


counseling are adequate (more than one per class) and in 75% schools
have trained teachers are inadequate (less than one per class)
Table7

Yes 0(0)
No 4(100)

(Room availability for Guidance & Counseling)


Table 7 shows that in all the 100% schools, there is no separate room
available for guidance counseling. In all the schools group is given to
students in multipurpose counseling hall, which is also meant for other
activities. However principal, teachers, trained teachers or
housemasters to whom the student or problem is concerned do the
individual counseling.

Table8
Yes, always 4(100)
Sometimes 0(0)
No 0(0)
(Whether the team approach is used?)

Table 8 shows that in all the 100% schools, team approach are used
instead of support as being an unorganized service. Support is
unorganized in terms of specific support services- visit of Counselor,
Doctors, specific and regular financial allocations yet Principal,
trained teacher, acting guidance personnel, housemasters, class in
charges, class teachers, P.T.I.'s or school nurse all contribute to
identify students problems and take necessarily steps.
Table9
Interesting material 4(100)
Vocational/ occupational 4(100)
information
Educational information 4(100)
General information 4(100)

(Information displayed for the students)


Table 9 shows that in all the 100% schools there is a display corner in
which all the useful information –interesting material so that they can
read more, occupational information, educational information and general
information is made accessible to student. Although Navodayas have a
rural background yet school make each and every effort to connect the
students with progressive face of world.

Table10

Yes, always 3(75)


Most of times 1(25)
Rarely 0(0)
Never 0(0)

(Students have interest in displayed material)

Table10 shows that student always show interest in displayed material


in 75% schools. However in schools material is not will updated as in
other schools yet students most of times show interest in displayed
material.

Table11
Educational information 4(100)
Career Information 4(100)
General Information 4(100)
Psychology related 4(100)
Guidance related 4(100)

(Information displayed for teachers)

Table 11 shows that in all the 100% Navodayas educational


information, vocational/ career information, psychology related &
guidance related material are displayed on separate display corner for
teachers. Principal updates the display corner with the help of vice
principal and some senior staff members and it is aimed for teachers to
help their students in all these as etc.

Table12

Yes 2(50)
Just adequate 1(25)
Not enough 1(25)
No book 0(0)

(Libraries have books on G & C)

Table 12 indicates that in 50% school libraries, there are adequate


books/journals on guidance. In 25% schools, these are ‘just adequate’
and in other 25% schools these are ‘not enough’. Although Navodayas
are innovative and much connected with updating of teachers by
orientation programmers etc yet the data shows that there is some lack
of effort in being library material made available to teachers.

Table13

Yes 2(50)
Just adequate 2(50)
Not enough 0(0)
Never 0(0)

(Use of books by teachers on G &C)

Table13 shows that in 50% schools teachers always use books on


Guidance & Counseling. While in the other 50% schools, the use is
‘just adequate’. These school are situated in much geographical is
isolated areas and teachers have much duties with them yet they use
these journals and books whenever they have time from their duties
TABLE14

Yes, for every student 4(100)


Shares records maintained by 0(0)
teacher
Prepare record for those coming for 0(0)
Guidance
For problem cases only 0(0)
Don’t have any such record 0(0)

(Maintenance of CRC)

Table 14 shows that in all the 100% schools, cumulative Record card
(CRC) is maintained for each and every students and it is updated
regularly.

Table15

For all students 0(0)


Most of students 0(0)
A few 0(0)
None 4(100)

(Use of Pupil Inventory tests except Intelligence Tests)


Table16

For all students 0(0)


Most of students 0(0)
A few 0(0)
None 4(100)

(Use of Non testing techniques except Case Studies)


Table17

For all students 0(0)


Most of students 0(0)
A few 1(25)
None 3(75)

(Use of IQ test & Case Study)

Use of IQ test & Case studies


Percentage of schools

80
60
40 Series2
20
0
None
students
students

A few
Most of
For all

Table 15-17 shows the use of testing and non-testing techniques in


Navodayas. In all the 100% schools, pupil inventory tests like- Interest
invertory, Aptitude test, Attitude test or personality test is not used
However in 25% schools (1school), Intelligence test has been used on the
expenditure of a teacher himself and only for a few students. It also
applies for the non-testing techniques like sociometry test, Anecdotal
records, Rating scale is not used. However in schools (25%)case study is
done only for a few students. This shows that support given in Navodayas
as one not advanced. The techniques above mentioned need financial
support and there should be provisions to be stepped towards
advancement.

ii) Problems of students & Provision of Guidance Services –

The Second head under which the analysis is to be done, whether teachers
feel necessity to know learners problems, ways to come through their
problems, problems observed by them, competency to identify the
problems etc. Analysis is also to be done on teachers’ perception on
provision of guidance services whether teachers feel guidance and its
organization important at this level, why guidance is important and
necessary as compared to other stages etc.
Table19

Yes, Always 27(75)


Mostly 9(25)
Sometimes in a few cases 0(0)

(Necessity to know learner's problems at elementary level)

Table 19 indicates that 75% teachers believe that it is always necessary to


know students problems at elementary level. However 25% teachers
believe that some problems at elementary level are common. However
only in few extreme cases, learners’ problems should be known.
Table20

Yes, Always 3(8.33)


Mostly 15(41.66)
Few of them 15(41.66)
Rarely 3(8.33)
Never 0(0)

Willingness to Share Problems


%age of teachers

50
40
30 Series2
20
10
0
em

er
y
tly
s

el
ay

ev
os

th

ar
lw

N
R
M

of
,A

w
s

Fe
Ye

Table 20 indicates that 8.33% teachers believe that students are always
willing to share their problems. Students easily share their problems to
them. 41.66% teachers believe that ‘Most of Times’ share their problems.
The students-like girls to male teachers and boys to female teachers are
not always competent to share their problems. Students hide problems like
homosexuality in hostels from them. 41.66% teachers believe that a ‘Few
of the students’ are willing to share their problems. These students are
closer to them and don't feel any problem while conveying their problems.
Only 8.33% teachers believe that students are ‘Rarely’ willing to share
their problems. These teachers believe that students at this level, as much
they can, try to hide their problems and rarely in extreme cases, are
willing to share their problems.
Table21

During teaching 24(66.6)


Themselves told 17(47.22)
Parents 5(13.88)
Other teacher 5(13.88)
No major problem 0(0)
Others 2(5.54)

Ways to identify problems


%age of Teachers

80
60
40 Series2
20
0
Themselves

No major
teacher
teaching

Others
Parents

problem
Other
During

told

Table 21 indicates that 66.66% of teachers identified the students’


problems during teaching. The problems identified are chiefly academic.
47.22% teachers believe that they came across students’ problems as they
told themselves. As parents are less in interaction with their wards, hence
a small population of teachers (13.88%) believes that they came across
students’ problem through parents. While the 13.88% teachers believe that
they came across students problems through any other teacher. A very
small population (5.54%) believes that they came across student's
problems through observation also.
Table22

Physical defects 4(11.11)


Shy 18(50)
Remains Ill 8(22.22)
Restless 16(44.44)
Short tempered 10(27.77)
Depressive 14(38.88)
Quarrelsome 19(52.77)
School Phobia 13(36.11)
Do not help classmates 10(27.77)
A boy, not boyish in activities 4(11.11)
A girl, not girlish in activities 1(2.77)
Sexual problems 1(2.77)
Sad/ Anxious 3(8.33)
(Observed Problems among the students)

Problems observed
%age Teachers perceive

60
50
40
30 Series1
20
10
0
Quarrelsome

Do not help
Remains Ill

Short

A girl, not

Sad/
Physical

Table 22 indicates that problems of physical defects was observed by


11.11% teachers, remains ill by 22.22%, restless by 27.77%, short
tempered by 38.88%, quarrelsome by 36.11%, school phobia by 27.77%,
not helping classmates by 11.11% boys not boyish and girls not girlish in
activities by 27.77% teachers and 8.33% teachers observing sexual
problems in the students. However, the investigator did not probed the
problems further. All the 7 interviewed teachers, 4 interviewed acting
guidance personnel and few teachers (2) in questionnaires, discussed
problem of homesickness at this level. As students are far from their
homes first time for schooling, they do not adjust well and with
homesickness, develop problems of anxiety (observed by 44.44% teachers)
and depression (observed by 52.77% teachers). Investigator feels that no
doubt, an average Navodaya teacher is best among the teachers belonging
to number of schools in India but the students admitted in Navodayas do
not easily cope with he vast storage of knowledge and develop the
problem of shyness as observed by 50% teachers.
All the teachers (100%) observes some or any type of problem among
students as the choices are attempted by each and every teacher.

Table23- A

Yes, Always 4(16)


With Class teacher 1(4)
With school Nurse 6(24)
With Mother 5(20)
With girl peers 4(16)
No 6(24)
Others 1(4)

Others
4

24

No
16

With girl peers


20

With Mother
24

With school Nurse


With Class teacher
4

Yes, Always
16

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Series1
Table23-B

Yes, Always 2(18.18)


With Class Teacher 2(18.18)
With P.T.I. 1(9.09)
With Friends 4(36.36)
No 1(9.09)
Others 1(9.09)

Table 23-A indicates that 16% of male teachers believe that girls are always comfortable
to share their problems. It is very less are as it mean girls are not comfortable enough to
share their problems with male teachers. 4% teachers believe that girls are comfortable to
share their problems with class teacher. 24% teachers believe that them comfortable with
school nurse, 20% with mothers and 16% with girl peers. 4% teachers believe they are
comfortable with housemothers and 24% teachers believe that they are not equally
comfortable. The data is quite scattering and not a single person, to whom girls are much
comfortable, could be segregated from the point of view of male teachers. It means that
girls may face quite adequate difficulties while sharing their problems. The need of
counselor for girls, to whom girls comfortable enough certainly arises.

Table 23-B indicates that 18.18% female teachers believe that boys are always
comfortable to share their problems. Boys are more comfortable with class teacher than
girls as 18.18% teachers believe they are comfortable with class teacher only 9.09
teachers believe that they are comfortable with physical training instructors while only
9.09% teachers believe that they are not comfortable. Maximum numbers of teachers
(36.11%) believe that they are equally comfortable with friends. Data again here is
scattering and shows as teachers perceive, they are much far from teacher must far from
teachers perceive, they are much far from teachers and P.T.I.'s. Need of counselor also
arises here. Data also reveal that teacher must be friendly with boys so that they can
easily convey their problems to teacher.
Both the tables above indicates that
Table 24

Yes, Always 13(36.11)


Mostly 15(41.66)
Sometimes, In few areas 8(22.22)

Table 24 indicates that 36.11% teachers have always time to listen to various problems of
students. These teachers are either house masters/ mothers’ class in charges or P.T.I.'s.
They are always in contact with students and enough time to listen to various problems of
students maximum 41.57% teachers have mostly enough time to listen to various
problems of students. These are class teachers, dealing with their academic problems
mostly, However, they have major engagement like duties in Hostel, mess etc. therefore
they cannot afford always time for listening to problems of students 22.22% teachers
believe that they have time to listen to various problems of learners some times, in a few
cases. These are preferably computer teachers and some other s teachers who carry heavy
administrative work load with them.

Table25

Yes, Always 10(27.77)


Mostly 7(19.44)
Sometimes in a few cases 19(52.77)

Table 25 shows that 27.77% teachers believe that they always get opportunity to discuss
various problems of students with other staff members. Navodayas are residential schools
and teachers and staff members have enough time to interact. Also, 19.44% teachers
believe that they mostly get opportunity to share their problems of students at this level
themselves. As teachers are expected to solve routine problems of students and as they
can, hence 52.77% teachers believe that they get opportunity only in few cases to discuss
the problems of students with other staff members.
Table 26
Yes, always 24(66.6)
Most of Times 12(33.3)
No 0(0)

Table 26 indicates that 66.6% teachers always believe that guidance services are meant
for all students but 33.3% teachers belief that guidance services are meant most of times
for all students. During interviews, it was revealed that not all children do require
guidance all times, as teachers perceive. There is no need of special academic guidance
for those who are academically gifted. These teachers also belief that those who are
personally well-adjusted, personal guidance remains a formality for them.

Table 27
Received professional training 5(13.88)
Had paper of G & C 12(33.33)
Not at all 13(52.77)
Otherwise trained 6(16.67)

Table 27 shows that only 13.88% teachers had received professional training to carry out
guidance activities keeping in view, Navodayas have provision to train teachers for
guidance and counseling region wise in a systematic way, the number is quite low. Only
33.33% teachers have paper of guidance and counseling in pre-service teacher education.
Maximum number of teachers (52.77%) is far away from any type of previous knowledge
related with guidance and counseling. 16.67% teachers believe that they are otherwise
trained but not trained to carry out the guidance activities.

Table 28
Personality development of the Students 30(83.33)
For better academic achievement 26(72.22)
For maintaining discipline 21(58.32)
For improvement in teaching 13(36.11)
No assistance 0(0)
Table 28 shows that all the 100% teachers believe that guidance services are helpful at
the elementary level in some certain aspect. 83.33% teachers believe that services are
helpful for personality development of the students. 72.22% teachers believe that it may
be helpful for better academic achievement of students. 58.32% teachers believe that it is
helpful for maintaining discipline in the class room 36.11% teachers believe that it is
helpful in improvement of teaching. Overall, each and ever teacher recognizes the
importance of guidance services at elementary level.

Table 29
The Child is flexible 28(77.76)
As parents are more actively associated 4(11.11)
Readiness for future life 7(19.44)
Rapid changes in stages 5-8 6(16.67)
Guidance at this level not necessary 0(0)

Table 29 indicates that as compared to other stages, necessity of guidance services at


elementary level is more than other stages as 77.76% teachers perceives child as flexible
and it can be directed to a desirable behaviour. Only 11.1% teachers perceive active
association of parents with children. Rest believe that due to residential schools, and
parents being rural, there is no chance of active association of parents with children.
However in terms of parental case, they create obstacles to teaching-learning and other
services. 19.44% teachers perceive guidance at this level important for readiness of future
life and 16.67% teachers perceive rapid physical, sexual and emotional changes at upper
primary stages.
However each and ever teacher denies that guidance at this level is not necessary.
Table 30
Yes, Always 21(58.34)
Most of times 10(27.77)
Sometimes in specific areas 5(13.88)

Table 30 indicates that 58.34% teachers believe that better organized guidance services
are more beneficial at elementary level. 27.77% teachers believe that most of times, the
services are more beneficial but a few times, services and its organization remain burden
on administrations Navodayas teachers have already a heavy work load. However
13.88% teachers believe that most of the problems are easily controllable by teachers as
in Navodayas 24 hour touch is available but sometimes in some problematic areas the
organized guidance services are more beneficial.

Suggestions for better enactment of guidance services -


As study is also inviting the suggestion from the teachers point
of view, the broad areas under which the analysis is to be done
is :-
a) Suggestions for financial allocation of guidance services.
b) Modifications in PSTE and In-service teacher training programs.
c) Suggestions for encouragement of volunteers.
d) Expectations from Parent's side.

Table 31
Made Compulsory for all PSTEs 30(83.33)
Pupil Teachers may opt it voluntarily 6(16.67)
Do not need paper of G & C 0(0)
No change required 0(0)

Table 31 indicates that 83.33% teachers believe that paper of guidance and counseling
should be made compulsory at all pre-service teacher education programs. Whereas
16.67% teachers believe that all universities/ boards should offer it and pupil teachers
may opt it voluntarily.
These teachers believe that no doubt, paper of guidance and counseling is important but
as it cannot be given by each and every teacher and rather than solution, they can spoil
the problematic cases, so its knowledge should be given to volunteers only. However the
teachers believe that practical aspect of paper should be concentrated much to have its
beneficial effect.

Table32
Training to each and every elementary 27(75)
teacher
To only 5 year experienced teachers 2(5.54)
Teachers as volunteers 3(8.33)
No training required 0(0)
Others 3(8.33)

Table 32 indicates that 75% of teachers believe that training should be given to each and
every teacher of elementary schools. The teachers think that each and every elementary
teacher should be capable to identify and diagnose the problems of students they face
5.54% teachers believe that training to carry out guidance services should be given to
teachers having 5 years experience. These teachers had become the expertise of child
psychology practically and much efficient to carry out guidance activities 8.33% teachers
believe that as teachers have much workload with them, hence it should be given only to
teachers as volunteers. 8.33% teachers held the other view. They believe that only those
teachers who have inborn personality traits and willing to work as guidance personnel,
should be given the training to carry out guidance activities.
Table 33
Emoluments should be increased 5(13.88)
Workload should be deducted 9(25)
Both above 20(55.54)
No specific benefit should be given 2(5.54)

Table 33 indicates that 13.88% teachers believe that teachers who voluntarily participate
in guidance training programme and also provide guidance; their emolument should be
increased. 25% teachers believe their workload should be deducted. However 55.54%
teachers believe that both the above benefits, deduction of workload and increase of
emoluments should be done for these teachers. However 94.72 percent teachers believe
that some benefits should be given to such teachers because in participation of guidance
training programmes and provision of guidance services as it consumes time, effort and
energy. Hence, encouragement should be there. However 5.54% teachers believe that no
benefit should be given to such teachers. They consider it part of their duty.

Table 34
Support & Encourage Guidance Services 17(47.22)
Have contact with teachers 19(52.77)
Take care of child Growth & Development 21(58.32)
Not disturb Guidance services 0(0)

Table 34 indicates that 47.22% teachers believe that parents should support and
encourage guidance services. Parents in terms of parental care, create problems for
development of their words and hence rather than been obstacles, they should support and
encourage the services. 58.32% teachers expect from parents to take case of child growth
and development, it is rather surprising because Navodayas are residential, and students
have closer contact to teacher rather than parents. Teachers feel that students follow their
parents very much and whenever they have time, they should take are of their growth and
development. Whereas 52.77% teachers believe that parents should have contact with
teachers. This will help teachers to diagnose their problems and to take effective remedial
actions.
Table 35
Separate Financial support 22(61.11)
Encourage using funds from allocated 7(19.44)
funds
Guidance needs no Financial support 3(8.33)
Others 4(11.11)

Table 35 indicate that 61.11% teachers believe that separate financial provisions should
be there for elementary level guidance within the total allocation for guidance services,
guidance for elementary classes may remain hidden and they may not get as benefit as
expected. 19.44% teachers believe that Navodayas have adequate funds and provision
with encouragement should be there using guidance funds from these funds. Teachers
believe that guidance requires administration of tests, case studies etc. and these require
funds. Hence 91.66% teachers favour funds in any way. As other 11.11% teachers
believe that encouragement should be there to use allocated funds whereas elementary
classes must have a specific part in it. 8.33% teachers believe that guidance at elementary
level need no financial support. These teachers believe government should arrange for
adequate training facilities merely, it will be enough to carry out the guidance activities
successfully.
iv) Need of Counselor -
Counselor is a specialized person able to solve someone problems by making him
enabling him to grapple with problems.
The analysis is to be done under following aspects:-
a) Is it important to have counselor at this level?
b) What should be the nature of counselor's appointment?

Table 36
Yes, Always 19(52.77)
For many Students 9(25)
As a teacher, I can do it 8(22.22)
Table 36 indicates that 52.77% teachers believe that counselor can play a significant role
in elementary classes while 25% teachers believe that he can do so far many cases
22.22% teachers believe that as teachers are confident enough over their relations with
students and have some previous knowledge of guidance and counseling.

Table 37
Separately for elementary classes 8(22.22)
Should be in nearby senior secondary 6(16.67)
school and elementary school may get
benefit
Appointed counselor must visit the school 13(36.11)
after a regular interval

Table 37 indicates that 22.22% teachers believe that trained counselors should be
appointed separately for elementary classes while 16.67% teachers believe that it should
in nearby senior secondary school and elementary schools may get benefited. Whereas
36.11% teachers believe that appointed counselor must visit the school after regular
interval. These 52.78% teachers (16.67+36.11) believe that teachers have enough time for
their students at primary level and even at upper primary level; the problems are not hap
hazardous. Hence there is no need of separate counselor for elementary school.

Discussions: -
Elementary classes students face much problems in Indian schools.
Navodaya teachers perceive behavioral, academic and psychological
problems among the students. Students are shy, depressive, quarrel some
and enough to share their problems always but boys are perceived much
comfortable with friends. Although all the teachers perceive it necessary
to identify learner's problems yet a few teachers find it difficult to
identify learners problems. Majority of teachers lack any prior knowledge
related with guidance and counseling. Teachers favour encouragement for
volunteers, who participate in guidance and counseling orientation
programmes. Teachers also expect from parents that they should support
and encourage guidance services. No doubt, the students have guidance
needs but Navodaya schools has not good infrastructure for support
services of students. Guidance is unorganized and as and when required in
maximum number of schools. Not a single school has hostel warden and
use of testing and non-testing techniques is rare. Also majority of teachers
identify guidance needs of students and favour for maintaining an
organized guidance service.
SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND THE CONCLUSIONS OF STUDY

Every individual differs from others in terms of physical, mental and


intellectual abilities. Every teacher has to face variety of individual
differences in the classroom To assist the teacher in knowing the pupils
and meet his needs better, providing aid to pupil to understand himself, a
group of school services might be utilized. These pupil personal services
are different in different schools. Guidance in elementary school is
foundation of better achievement. According to Don C.Dinkmeyer (1968),
elementary school guidance is based on certain fundamental principles: -
1. Guidance is for all children, not merely deviator exceptional
children.
12. Guidance is concerned with growth of the whole child-
intellectually, socially, emotionally.
13. Guidance is developmental in nature not merely remedial or
preventive.
14. Developmental guidance is directed at helping the child know
understand and accept himself. The child becomes a participant
in self-study, not the object of child study.
15. Guidance provides the individual with assessment of self, the
opportunity to plan and choose and to be responsible for the
consequences of choice.
16. Guidance may be incidental, but it functions best when it is
based upon a well-organized, developmental and sequential
program that is continuous.
17. Guidance takes into consideration needs and developmental
tasks, while focusing on individual purposes and goals.
18. The guidance program is provided for all through teacher in the
school setting and is facilitated by an educationally oriented
counselor.
19. Guidance focuses on strength and assets of individual.
Guidance that is developmental focuses on encouragement process. It
strives to build self-confidence. The twin problems plaguing the Indian
educational scenes are: (1) stagnation and (2) wastage. Stagnation is
concerned with the failure of students in examinations. The Indian
educational system has an unparalleled record of over 70% failure at
annual examinations. Efforts made to redeem the situation have not yet
been successful. The Indian population ranks between the second highest
in the world. This factor alone has been nullifying most of the efforts
made to solve many of its social problems. Consequently a significant
section of the population (around 40%) is living below the poverty line
and many school and college-going students are compelled to quit their
academic careers to earn a living and add their earnings to the
insignificant family income.
India is a developing country with per capita income very
low. Indian policies are aimed much at enrolment and retention of pupils.
Indian schools are dealing with scarcity of teachers and poor
infrastructure facilities. In the light of above, it is impossible for Indian
elementary schools to have separate guidance counselors as in west. Many
measures taken in India are quantitative yet those who are enrolled must
be given qualitative treatment also.
An effective programme of guidance and counseling could help students to
develop their personality, better academic achievement feelings and make
them intrinsically motivated by increasing their self- concept, self-
awareness and self-understanding. These are best achieved by clarifying
goals and conquer problems in all round development, which serve to
bridge motivation and thinking.
The child guidance center, the school psychologist, the counseling
center and other such agencies are increasingly being called upon to
shoulder the responsibilities of giving succor to alleviate the avoidable
suffering caused by developmental hazards and tensions. No society can
afford to ignore the basic need to render help to the students.

Need for the study


The need of organizing guidance services becomes more significant in
elementary school system where by and large guidance services help
individual to learn how to adjust to himself and to others about him.
Needless to say, guidance services play a vital role for students’ better
enactment.
In reality condition of guidance services at elementary level is not
satisfactory. Even in good public schools, guidance services are well
organized only at secondary or senior secondary level and sometimes
confined to educational and vocational guidance. One can’t deny personal
aspect of guidance viewing the increasing maladjustment among the
students these days. Personal aspect of guidance is not give due concerns
it elementary stages in Indian context but importance of this aspect is
rather more significant for one’s better enactment. An individual is born
with certain instincts and these instincts with time changes into habits and
might affect the individual’s future adversely yet guidance at elementary
level is ignored in India. Even it is rather difficult to find Indian research
and survey work on it. Fifth Survey of Educational Research (1997)
reveals that the first survey of research (Buch, 1974) had reviewed 42
studies in field of guidance and counseling and only 13 studies were
available for fifth survey.
There should be some innovative research in India related with Guidance
and Counseling specially at elementary level. At the elementary level
children find difficulties in developing certain basic concepts in language
and arithmetic. They find it difficult to develop reading skills. Also
students studying in residential schools face difficulties for school
adjustment. Guidance needs in this area require the attention of
researchers. Very little work has been done in helping children develop
concepts and reading skills. The studies should be both diagnostic and
developmental”(Third survey of research in education, 1973-78).
Dignostic studies will involve guidance at later elementary stages where
the child is not too much flexible as in early elementary grades where
guidance should be provided keeping in view the maximum development
should be accessed by the students. Hence developmental studies for need
base programmes at early elementary stages should be preferred. This
study will reveal how necessary the guidance is at elementary level from
the perception of teachers.
The study also aims at inviting suggestions from teachers’ perception for
its better organization at elementary level so that it will form a
basis for developing need based programmes in future.

Title of the study: -

A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF NAVODAYA TEACHERS TOWARDS


GUIDANCE SERVICES AT ELEMENTARY LEVEL

Objectives of the study

The objectives of the present study are: -


V. To study the nature of support services already provided in
Navodaya schools.
VI. To study the perception of teachers towards provision of guidance
services at elementary school stage.
VII. To study the perception of teachers towards need of guidance
counselor at elementary school stage.
VIII. To study the suggestions from the perception of teachers for its
betterment at elementary level.
Methodology of the Study:

Population: -The population of present study will comprise all the


elementary school teachers of Navodaya schools in Haryana.

Sample: -The sample of the present study will comprise 40 Navodaya


school teachers (36 teachers teaching class 6th and 4 teachers acting as
guidance personnel). Schools will be selected on basis of convenient
sampling. Chief guidance personnel in the school will be selected as
acting Guidance personnel. However, all teachers teaching class 6th will
be selected as teachers’ sample.

Tools: -
The investigator developed a questionnaire for 36 elementary school
teachers and interview schedule for 4 teachers acting as guidance
personnel and selected teachers (different for both) keeping in view the
objectives, with the help of supervisor.
Also, a checklist was prepared to study the Guidance services already
provided in Navodaya Schools. The checklist will be filled himself on the
basis of Interview schedules.

PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION

The investigator visited one of the nearby Navodaya Schools and came
across basics of Navodaya culture. Navodayas are very far from each other
not less than 40 Kms. between any two Navodayas and probably the
Geography might change. Investigator contacted Principals of all the
sample schools. With proper allocation of dates, Investigator visited the
schools one by one. After getting permission from Principal, to administer
the questionnaire, the investigator with the help of Vice-Principals
contacted the teachers teaching class 6th.Teachers were told the
importance of the study and were requested to fill the questionnaire. They
were assured that their views will be kept confidential and they can freely
express their views. They were also assured of help if they feel any
problem while filling the questionnaire. While the teachers were filling
the questionnaires, Investigator took the interview of acting Guidance
Personnel and made a look over the facilities available in the school for
Guidance services. After it, the questionnaires from the teachers were
collected. Then Investigator took the interview of the teacher, whom he
thought most suitable for the study. In last, investigator on the basis of
interviews filled the Checklist himself. As Navodayas are very far
mutually as well as from cities, it was tiring but adventurous indeed from
the point of view of investigator

Analysis of Data:-
The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively both, keeping in
view the objectives of study.
Delimitations:-
1. Study will be confined to teachers of Navodaya schools in Haryana
only.
2. Study will further be confined to teachers teaching class 6th only.

Findings of the study


The major findings of the study are as follows-
1 A very less population of Navodaya teachers have any prior knowledge
of Guidance and counseling may be in PSTE or as orientation
programme But as the Navodayas have provision to train some selected
teachers in Guidance & Counseling regionwise. Therefore there are a
few teachers who had passed PG Diploma in Guidance and Counseling
or received orientation programmes from RIEs. Hence in most of the
Navodayas, there are trained teachers who act as Guidance Personnel.
In one of Navodayas, it was found that inspite of adequate trained
teachers, the professional qualifications were not in use and support
was main function of class teachers.Hence all the support workers are
part-time and unpaid for this duty. Support is unorganized and as and
when required.Vocational aspect of support is emphasized and that is
contented to students of secondary and senior secondary classes.
Educational and personal support is available to elementary students
only for problematic students. All the Navodayas have no Hostel
warden and teachers have to fulfill this duty. Most of the Navodayas
have inadequate trained teachers in Guidance and Counseling with one
of Navodayas, it was found that inspite of adequate trained teachers,
the professional qualifications were not in use and support was main
function of class teachers. There is no separate room for counseling of
students. All the Principals, Vice Principals, House Masters/ Mothers,
Class Incharges, Class teachers, P T I s and School Nurses work as a
team for support services. Informations are displayed on separate
displayed corner for teachers and students and they use it with interest.
Books and Journals are also available in Library related with Guidance
and Counseling. Schools have maintained CRCs for each and every
student. Use of pupil inventories and non-testing techniques is almost
nil whereas a small population of schools uses Intelligence Tests and
Case Studies for a few students. Overall, the support services to
students are unorganized and suffer in lack of funds.

2 Most of the teachers believe Guidance services are meant for all
students and It is important to identify students’ problems at
elementary level. A very less population of teachers believe that
students are always willing to share their problems. Also a small
population of male teachers believes that girls are always comfortable
to share their problems. Similarly in case of female teachers believing
that boys are equally comfortable to share their problems. Boys are
perceived to be more comfortable with friends as perceived by female
teachers. Most of the teachers identify problems during teaching. A
very small population of teachers uses observation or tries to find
themselves the problems. Most of the teachers have enough time to
listen to various problems of learners but as some problems are
expected to be solved by the teachers themselves. Hence a considerable
proportion of teachers believe that they sometimes get opportunity to
solve their problems. A very small number of teachers believe that
sometimes, they find it difficult to identify problems but most of the
teachers believe that a better organized guidance service can be helpful
at elementary level. Majority of teachers believe better-organized
Guidance services to be beneficial at elementary level. Most of
teachers believe that Guidance is helpful for personality development,
better academic achievement and maintaining discipline in the
classroom. However a considerable number of teachers also believe
that it is helpful in improvement in teaching. Majority of teachers
believe that child is flexible at this stage and hence Guidance services
are more beneficial at this level as compared to other stages. However,
not a single teacher denies the importance of guidance at this level.
3 A small population of male teachers believes that girls are always
comfortable to share their problems. Similarly in case of female
teachers believing that boys are equally comfortable to share their
problems. Boys are perceived to be more comfortable with friends as
perceived by female teachers. It gives rise to need of a friendly
counselor as perceived by teachers. A considerable population of
teachers believes that counselor can play a significant role in
elementary grades. However a small number of teachers also believe
that as a teacher, they can do perform the guidance activities in a
better way. Teachers, however donot demand for separate counselor as
such.Maximum number of teacher favor for a regular visit of appointed
counselor while almost quarter of teachers favor for separate counselor
at elementary grades.
Teachers had also suggested ways for betterment of guidance services at
elementary level. Most of the teachers believe that a better-organized
guidance service can be helpful at elementary level. Majority of teachers
favor counselor for better enactment of guidance services at elementary
level. Most of the teachers believe that training should be given to each
and every teacher of elementary school. Also during training, practical
aspect should be more concentrated rather than theoretical aspects.
Majority of teachers believe that paper of guidance and counseling should
be made compulsory at all pre-service teacher education programmes.
Most of teachers favor separate financial allocations for elementary
school guidance as Guidance services requires administering the tests, fee
for specialists etc. Teachers who voluntarily participate in training
programmes related with Guidance and counseling, their emoluments must
be increased as well as workload should be deducted as they have to
consume time, effort and energy on it.
Teachers expect from the side of the parents that they should take care of
children growth and development whenever they have time and must make
regular contact with the teachers and inspite of being hurdles, should
support and favor guidance services.

Conclusions
The major conclusions from the study can be drawn as follows-
1) Support services in Navodayas are unorganized and as & when
required. Teachers trained by Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti chiefly
impart it.
2) Team approach is used while imparting support services. All the
Principals, Vice Principals, House Masters/ Mothers, Class In charges,
Class teachers, P T I s and School Nurses work as a team for support
services.
3) Teachers perceive Guidance and Vocational Guidance synonymous
terms and a less emphasis is given at its Educational and Personal
aspects as support service.
4) Navodaya schools have lack of infrastructure related with support
services.Navodaya school impart support service without testing and
non-testing techniques which is becoming quite essential for any
support service like guidance services these days.
5) At primary level, the child is flexible and can be directed to any
desirable behaviour and hence it is the duty of Elementary school
teacher to provide support whatever he/she can.
6) Navodaya students have many problems like shyness, depression as the
students are firstly got into hostel atmosphere away from rural life.
Teachers should behave friendly with them to be well adjusted.
7) Much teachers perceive Guidance as an important factor for students’
all-round development. It is helpful for their personality development
and better academic achievement.
8) Teachers believe that paper of Guidance and Counseling should be
made compulsory at all PSTE programmes and practical aspect of
Guidance should be more emphasized.
9) Teachers who voluntarily participate in training programmes related
with Guidance and Counseling, there emoluments must be increased as
well as workload should be deducted.
10) Teachers believe that for a quality support financial allocations
must be there. It can be given as whole and sole to a school or may be
separately for elementary classes but allocations must not coincide
with those of senior secondary classes.
11) Teachers believe that in terms of parental care, some parents
become hurdle for their child growth and development process. They
should positively contribute to guidance services and should take care
of their wards’ growth and development.
12) There is no need of fulltime counselor as most of the teachers either
favoring for counselor in nearby senior secondary school or appointed
counselor must visit the school after a regular interval as maximum
teachers place this view.
Suggestions
1) Navodaya schools should have school hostel warden as a part time
person can not execute his duties as well as a regular can and as
investigator feel that Hostels are the root cause of problems in
Indian schooling.
2) Navodayas are advance, pace setting government schools. Like
other Government schools these do not follow matters of quantity.
Most of the good private schools use testing and non-testing
techniques for their students. Navodayas should also cope with the
changing time to ensure better future of students.
3) Students entering in Navodayas are from rural background. They
should given some induction knowledge while entering in
Navodayas rather than traditional teaching pattern. Most of the
interviewed teachers favored the view.
4) Government should fund adequately to schools for Guidance and
Counseling. It may lead to better adjustments of students resulting
in decrease of dropout rates.
5) Provision of visit of counselor should be there in elementary
schools after a regular interval as most of the problems at this level
is easily identified and diagnosed by teachers.
6) Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti should take concrete provisions for
organizing training programmes for teachers as a very small
population of teachers have been found to have prior knowledge
related with Guidance and Counseling. Teachers should be
encouraged with emoluments or decreased workload etc. so that
they are motivated for Guidance and Counseling. It must seem that
their work is getting recognition.
7) Principals and administrators should have knowledge of trained
teacher and resources available with them related with Guidance
and Counseling so that plan accordingly for support services.
8) Most of the teachers perceive that students are comfortable enough
with peers and friends rather than teachers. Teachers should create a
friendly environment so that the students feel convenient to share
their problemswith teachers. At least one single person should be
there to whom the students are competent to share their problems. It
gives rise to need of personality preferably Counselor.
Suggestions for Further Studies
The investigator feels that following studies must/may be done in the
related aspects of the study-

Studies Related With Elementary Level Guidance-


1) A study can be done with more sample of other organizational
schools such like KVS, good private schools related with
perception of teachers towards elementary school Guidance as
these schools are easily accessible
2) A study can be done on the development of need based
programmes for elementary school Guidance.

Studies Related With Navodaya Schools-


1) A study can be done on the sense of dissatisfaction among the
Navodaya School teachers as they are suffering more workload
as compared to other institutions like KVS etc. with similar
salaries and a isolated life.

2) ‘Navodaya teachers are academically brighter while the students


are not so.” A comparative study of achievement of Navodaya
teachers can be done with good private school teachers and its
direct/inverse relationship with achievement of students can be
accessed.
Questionnaire
Instructions

1. The questionnaire is based on guidance, its importance and betterment at


elementary level.

2. Questionnaire contains 20 items.

3. If you face any problem in understanding the questionnaire, please take help of
SIMPLIFICATION OF TERMS.

4. You may opt more than one choice in item no. 5, 11, and 17(Items having
checkboxes “ ” ).

5. Item no. 6(a) is to be filled by male teachers&6(b) by female teachers only.

6. Item no. 20 is to be filled only by those teachers who have opted `a’ `b’ or `c’ in
item no.19.

SIMPLIFICATION OF TERMS

Elementary level-
Elementary level consists of standards 1-5(primary) & 6-8(upper
primary).However, in case of teachers teaching to different standards should fill it
keeping in view standard 6.

Guidance services-
Services given to pupils so that they are able to solve their problems
themselves for their better enactment.

Counselor-
Person who is professionally trained to carry out guidance/counseling
activities.

Guidance personnel-
A person, with other full time duties provides guidance services
with/without training.
1. Do you think that guidance services are meant not only for a group of
children but for all students?

Yes, always.
Most of times.
No.

2. Is there any necessity to know learners’ problems at elementary level?

Yes, always.
Sometimes, in few cases.
No.

3. Are the students willing to share their problems?

Yes, always.
Mostly.
Few of them.
Rarely.
Never

4. Through what way, you came to know about students’ problems?

During teaching.
Sometimes, students themselves share their problems.
Parents of students tell us.
Through the other teachers.
No, there is no major problem.
If, any other, please specify………………………………....
…………………………………………………………..
5. What kind of problems among the students, you have observed?

Physical defects.
Remains ill.
Sad/anxious
Restless
Short tempered
Shy
Depressive
Quarrelsome
School phobia
Does not help classmates.
A boy, not boyish in his activities.
A girl, not girlish in her activities.
Sexual problems.
If, any other, please specify………………………
………………………………………………………

6. (a) Are the girl students equally comfortable to share their problems?

Yes, always.
With the class teacher.
With school nurse.
With girl peers.
With mother.
No
If, any other, please specify……………………………….
……………..………………………………………………………

6. (b) Are the boy students feel comfortable to share their problems?

Yes, always.
With, class teacher.
With physical training instructor.
With friends.
No
If, any other, please specify…………………………………

7. Do you have enough time to listen to various problems of students?

Yes, always.
Mostly.
Sometimes, in few cases.
I have not been able to do it so far.
I hardly have time.
If, any other, please specify ………………………………
…………………………………………………………………

8. Do you get opportunity to discuss various students’ problems with


other staff members/ principal?

Yes, always
Mostly
Sometimes, in few cases
If, any other, please specify……………………………….
……………………………………………………………….

9. Have you got any professional training to carry out the guidance
activities?

If yes,
a) Please, give the details of training programme…………
……………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………...
b) Please, give the details of workshops etc. ..………..…
………………………………………………………......
……………………………………………………………...
c) If any other, please specify ……..……….…………….
…………………………………………….....................
Had a paper of guidance and counseling in B.Ed. / J.B.T.
/E.T.E. etc.
Not, at all.

10.Do you find yourself competent to identify the problems?

Yes, always
Most of times.
Sometimes, I find it difficult.
It is difficult to identify students’ problems.

11.Guidance services are/ may be helpful at the elementary level in the


following aspect/aspects-

Personality development of the students.


For better academic achievement of students.
For maintaining discipline in the classroom
For improvement in teaching.
No assistance
If any other help, please specify…………………………..
……………...………………………………………………....

12. Guidance at elementary level is necessary because-

The child is flexible and has less time for problems that would
become deeply rooted in their personality.
Parents are more actively associated with children.
Readiness can be developed for future life.
Rapid physical, sexual & emotional changes at stages 5-8.
I do not feel guidance at this level necessary.
If any other, please specify…………………………………
…......................................................................................................
13. Do you think better-organized guidance services are more beneficial
at elementary level?

Yes, always.
Most of times.
Sometimes, in specific areas.
Only for a few students.
If any other, please specify ……………………………………
………………………………………………………………………

14. Role of teacher for providing guidance services is quite significant.


Keeping it in view, the paper of guidance & counseling should be-

Made compulsory at all pre services teacher education


programmes {B.Ed. / J.B.T. /E.T.E. etc.}
Offered by all universities/boards and pupil teacher may opt
it voluntarily.
Teachers do not need paper of guidance and counseling.
No change required.
If any other, please specify ……........................................
…………………………………………………......

15. For betterment of guidance services, it is favorable that –

Financial support should be given separately for elementary


classes.
Govt. should only encourage using guidance funds from
allocated funds.
Guidance at this level needs no financial support.
If any other, please specify ………........................................
………………………………………………………………….
16. Training programme equips the teacher/guidance personnel for carrying
out the guidance services. Keeping it in view-

Training should be given to each and every teacher of


elementary schools.
Training should be given to one-fourth of population of
teachers.
To only 5 yrs. experienced teachers.
Teachers with inborn personality traits can execute this
work.
Teachers as volunteers.
No training required.
If any other, please specify
…………................................... ............................
………………………………………………

17. Teachers who voluntarily participate in training programme and also


provide guidance. Their-

Emoluments should be increased.


Workload should be deducted.
Both above
No specific benefit should be given
If any other, please specify ..............................……………………
………………………………………………………….........................

18. Parents have more time to deal with their children. So, they should-

Support and encourage guidance services.


Have contact with teachers.
Take care of their children growth and development.
Not disturb guidance services.
If any other, please specify ………….............................................
…………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………….

19. Do you think counselor can play a significant role in elementary classes?

Yes, always.
For many students.
As a teacher I can do it better.
Never feel the importance of counselor.

20. Trained counselors should be appointed-

Separately for elementary classes.


Should be in nearby senior secondary school and elementary
schools may get benefit.
Appointed counselor must visit the school after a regular
interval.
If any other, please specify ....................................................
……………………………………………………………................
Interview schedule
(For teachers)
1. What type of problems you have faced among the students?
(Academic failures, underachievers, language problems,
behavioral problems, sexual problems etc.)

2. Does it obstruct or not? How much the above stated problems


obstruct smooth teaching-learning process?

3. Do you feel that guidance services at this level are important? If


yes/ not, then why?

4. How do you overcome with language problems among students


(specific to problems)?

5. How do you help the students with mathematical problems


(specific to problems)?

6. How do you overcome with physical/sexual problems (specific to


problems)?

7. How do you overcome with behavioral problems (specific to


Problems)?

8. How much the individual attention successful for remedy of


these
problems?

9. Do you think individual student can be attended?

10.When do you refer a student to counselor/guidance personnel in


your school?

11.How many times, you have referred a case to specialist/


counselor?

12. What records do you maintain for students?


13.What type of training /change in pre service teacher education
programme will help more to provide better guidance services at
elementary level?

14.According to you, what type of facilities can be provided at


elementary stage to solve various problems?
Interview schedule
(For Guidance Personnel)
1. For how many schools, you are providing guidance services?

2. How much time do you render guidance services in the school?

3. How much teaching experience and/or guidance services experience


you have?

4. What is the nature of your appointment and its effect on guidance


services? (Full time, part time, contractual etc.)

5. Who and how help you for managing the guidance services in school?
(i.e., school nurse etc.)

6. How do you execute the group guidance/counseling?

7. In what situations, you offer individual counseling to students?

8. How do you execute the individual guidance/counseling?

9. How do you cater to children having academic problems? (Language


problems, mathematical problems etc.)

10.How do you cater to children having behavioral problems?

11.What are the duties assigned to you other than guidance/counseling?

12.What types of tests are used by you?


All Most A few None
Intelligence test
Interest inventory
Aptitude test
Attitude test
Personality test
Creativity test

Any other test used…………………………………………………


13.What types of non-testing techniques (CRC, Anecdotal etc.) are used
by you?

14.What differences do you feel while catering to the needs of boys and
girls?

15.Do you use a team approach for guidance? Who are the other
members of this team? SIMPLIFY IT

16.Why do you think guidance at elementary level too important? If not


then why?

17.What is your opinion about adequacy of material for rendering


guidance services in the school?

18.What difficulties do you face while rending guidance services?

19.What kind of responses you met by students?

20.When do you meet the parents to discuss the problems faced by their
children?

21.Being hostellers, how much additional benefits the guidance services


receive?

22.How much satisfaction you feel regarding enactment of your job?

23.What suggestions would you like to introduce for betterment of these


services?

24.Your comments/suggestions.