FLUENCY FINDINGS, STRATEGIES, RESOURCES

Fluency
o The ability to read QUICKLY with SPEED and EXPRESSION
o The bridge between word recognition and comprehension
o Grouping words quickly to gain meaning from reading
o Recognizing words and comprehending at the same time
It is important because
o The ability to read QUICKLY with SPEED and EXPRESSION
o The bridge between word recognition and comprehension
o Grouping words quickly to gain meaning from reading
o Recognizing words and comprehending at the same time
What should students read
o Independent Level Text: Relatively easy text, 1 in 20 words difficult for
reader (95% success)
o Instructional Level Text: Challenging but manageable text, 1 in 10 words
difficult for reader (90% success)
o Frustration Level Text: Difficult text, more than 1 in 10 words difficult for
reader (less than 90% success)
o Oral rereading of passages of 50-200 words depending on age of student
o Materials in different content areas
o Include fiction, nonfiction, and poetry
o Print and Web media
Strategies
o Repeated and monitored oral reading
 Shown in studies to improve reading achievement
 Improves word recognition, speed, accuracy, comprehension
 Many strategies and activities for instruction and assessment
o Independent silent reading
 Implemented as Sustained Silent Reading (SSR), and Drop
everything and Read (DEAR)
 Not proven to improve reading achievement in studies
 Correlation between students who read independently and reading
achievement
o Provide opportunities to read and reread a range of stories and
informational texts
o Introduce new or difficult words and provide practice with these words
before independent reading
o Include opportunities to hear a range of texts fluently and with expression
o Suggest ideas for building home-school connections that encourage
families to become actively involved in reading development
o Encourage periodic timing of oral reading and recording information
about individual reading rate and accuracy

o Model fluent reading, then have students reread the text on their own
(REPEATED READING)
o Student-Adult Reading:
 One-on-one reading with a teacher, parent, tutor, etc.
 Adult provides model of fluent reading
 Next, student reads same passage until fluent
 Approximately 3-4 rereadings
 Adult provides assistance and encouragement
o Choral Reading:
 Students read along in a group with you
 Students must be able to see text and follow along
 Encourage students to read in unison as they are able to
o Tape-Assisted Reading:
 Students read along in their books as they hear a fluent reader read
the book on audiotape
 Book should be read at 80-100 words per minute
 No sound effects or music on tape
 Have students read along with tape, silently at first and then aloud
o Partner Reading:
 Paired students take turns reading aloud to each other
 Pair more fluent readers with less fluent readers
 Stronger reader reads aloud first, providing model of fluent reading
 Students provide feedback and encouragement to eachother
o Reader’s Theatre:
 Students rehearse and perform a play for peers or others
 Script derived from books rich in dialogue
 Provides fun way to necessitate reread texts and practice speaking
with expression
Resources
o FluencyFinder (iOS and Google Play)
o Read with Me! (iOS only)
o One Minute Reader (iOS only)

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