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DEVELOPING HEALTH

SCIENCES CURRICULA:
PRINCIPLES AND PROCESS
Only workbook for HSE 3704
Study Unit 7

The success of tomorrows students will be built upon the


education we design todayDr Linda Price
HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbook


Contents
Study Unit 7: CURRICULUM EVALUATION .............................................................. 3
7.1

OVERVIEW ................................................................................................... 3

7.1

Introduction ................................................................................................... 4

7.2

Definitions ..................................................................................................... 6

7.2.1 Curriculum evaluation as a process of making an informed judgement


about the merit of a programme .......................................................................... 7
7.2.2 Curriculum evaluation as a process of collecting information for decision
making 8
7.2.3

Curriculum evaluation as an effort to improve the programme ............... 8

7.2.4

A comprehensive definition..................................................................... 9

7.3

Planning the evaluation ............................................................................... 11

7.4

Purposes of curriculum evaluation .............................................................. 12

7.5

Steps in curriculum evaluation .................................................................... 13

7.6

Focus areas of curriculum evaluation .......................................................... 15

7.6.1 Evaluating the mission of the educational institution and the curriculum
outcomes .......................................................................................................... 16
7.6.2

Evaluating the official curriculum .......................................................... 18

7.6.3

Evaluating teaching effectiveness ........................................................ 19

7.6.4 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum is implemented:


learner dimension.............................................................................................. 20
7.6.5 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum is implemented:
educator dimension ........................................................................................... 21
7.6.6 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum is implemented:
delivery mode dimension .................................................................................. 25
7.6.7 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum is implemented:
organisational dimension .................................................................................. 26
7.6.8 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum is implemented:
inter-organisational dimension .......................................................................... 27
7.6.9 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum is implemented:
micro context dimension ................................................................................... 27
7.6.10
Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum is implemented:
macro context dimension .................................................................................. 28
7.6.11

Outcome evaluation .......................................................................... 29

7.7

Conclusion .................................................................................................. 30

7.8

The Reflective report ................................................................................... 30

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Week
14 - 15
16 hours

Study Unit 7: CURRICULUM EVALUATION


7.1

OVERVIEW

In the previous study units you learnt what a curriculum is and how a curriculum is
developed. In study units 2 and 3 we explained that curriculum evaluation is part and
parcel of the curriculum development process. You already learnt how to conduct a
situation analysis and use the obtained data and information to make informed
decisions during the stage of curriculum design. You also learnt what designing a
curriculum entails.

When the curriculum committee establishes a new curriculum or revises an existing


curriculum, it is often in response to the findings of a curriculum evaluation project. In
this study unit we discuss curriculum evaluation, which is a formal investigation to
judge the worth and effectiveness of an existing curriculum. Curriculum evaluation
entails judging the merits of an existing curriculum. The results are used to develop a
new curriculum or revise the existing curriculum. Furthermore, the new or revised
curriculum will be exposed to informal and formal curriculum evaluation. Informal
curriculum evaluation and making of minor revisions to rectify problem areas occur
on a daily basis when the educators implement the curriculum. In this study unit we
focus on formal evaluation of a curriculum which is a formal investigation to judge
the merits of a curriculum which has been implemented for a number of years. This
is usually done in preparation for a renewed round of curriculum development.

The content of this study unit builds upon the knowledge you gained in the first and
second levels of the Health Sciences Education course. You are now required to
revisit and apply all your previously gained knowledge to curriculum evaluation.

Specific outcomes:
After you have worked through this study unit you will be able to discuss curriculum
evaluation, based on your ability to
define curriculum evaluation
HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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analyse definitions of curriculum evaluation and explain what curriculum


evaluation entails
explain why curriculum evaluation is performed
discuss the methods, required data and judgement criteria for each focus area
which is investigated during a curriculum evaluation project.

The reading that you need to do for this study unit is not restricted to the prescribed
or suggested reading material. You need to scan the Worldwide Web for other
appropriate material such as video-clips, articles, e-books or journal articles, etc. to
contribute to your knowledge-base. You might want to start with Chapter 28 in
Billings and Halstead (2012:503-549). Focus on the sections on programme
evaluation theories and the programme evaluation plan in Billings and Halstead
(2012:506) for background knowledge. (We will come back to this at a later stage.)
**Note that the authors use the term programme evaluation'', while we use the term
curriculum evaluation''.

7.1

Introduction

We all know that evaluation is important, because most often: what get measured
gets produced. Therefore, our curriculums should not be any different.

Activity 7.1: If you think of the module(s) you are currently teaching (or hope to
teach one day), what would evaluation of that module entails? In your own words,
just write down a few aspects or concepts that you think should be evaluated.
Content, data collected, Validity, standards, criteria, relevance

Would it differ from evaluation of the entire curriculum or programme? Why / Why
not?
No it will not differ because the whole curriculum would be evaluated based on the same
standards. Meaning the whole curriculum would be evaluated using the same framework.

Activity 7.2: Before you move to the other readings of this study unit, please watch
Ctrl
click

the video-clip by Richard Kiely on Programme Evaluation and Curriculum

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Development (Warning: It is an hour long, so get the popcorn and kick out the
shoes!)
Jot down the major issues and concepts that Kiely touched upon.
Documentation
Curriculum evaluation
Accountability
Motivation
Autonomy
Mentoring
Teacher professionalism types
Change
Reflect on why documentation and understanding seems to be so important in
curriculum evaluation and what does it entail?
Documentation is where all observations, research data and statistics will be kept.
When we do evaluations not only do we rely on physical observations, but also on
what has been used before, what has been observed, what did not work and where it
went wrong. We rely on documentation to be able to make recommendation,
whether is for changing or leaving everything as it is. Understanding will ensure that
one knows what to do and they that they will be able to apply knowledge to make
execute correct decisions.
Make a K-W-L summary of the video. Thus, what you:
o Already KNEW (K),
o WANTED to know (W), and
o have LEARNED (L) about the topic.
You will use this in your discussion on myUnisa.

K
Classroom observation

W
Links

between

data, Accountability

designs and theories


Evaluation is for quality How
assurance

is

evaluation Evaluation

implemented

Evaluation

support

strategies
Teacher research

Motivation and autonomy of Importance


students

documentation

make

sense to all stakeholders

Evaluation is for program Purpose of evaluation

Mentorship

must

is

set

of

Remote stakeholders
of Purpose

of

program

evaluation

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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One of the reasons we do programme or curriculum evaluation is because as


educators, we are accountable to the public for what we teach (Uys, 2005:99;
Billings & Halstead, 2012:503).Did you notice that Kiely also mentioned this in his
video? Accountability is a huge but sometimes highly neglected part of our work as
educators.

But before we drift off to responsibilities and accountabilities, lets first take a proper
look at exactly what curriculum evaluation is how will you define it?
Accountability is taking ownership of ones actions and the consequences thereof.
Taking full responsibility of ones actions or lack thereof.

7.2
Ctrl
click

Definitions

Look at the presentation by Dr Asgari. On slide 49 she describes curriculum


evaluation as:

the collection and provision of evidence, on the basis of which


decisions can be taken about the feasibility, effectiveness and
educational value of curricula.
In its broadest sense evaluation is concerned with making a judgement or appraising
something to determine its worth (Keating 2010:298). It is no coincidence that the
root word for evaluation is value or worth. According to Worthern and Saunders
(Keating 2010:381), evaluation:

includes obtaining information for use in judging the worth of a


programme, product, procedure, or objective or the potential for the
utility of alternative approaches to attain specific objectives.
Various definitions of curriculum evaluation are found in the literature; these
definitions clearly indicate the meaning of the concept and the purpose of curriculum
evaluation. See whether you can identify the central theme in each definition as
illustrated below.

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Figure 0-1: Curriculum evaluation

Does this not remind you of some of the basic steps of the nursing process?
Anyway, lets get back to our definitions. Lets take a look at the various types of
definitions.

7.2.1 Curriculum evaluation as a process of making an informed judgement


about the merit of a programme
Iwasiw, Goldenberg and Andrusyszyn (2005:222) define curriculum evaluation as:

an organised and thoughtful appraisal of those elements central to


the course of studies undertaken by students, as well as the abilities
of those students as graduates. It involves standards for judging
quality, systematic data collection, application of the standards, and
formulation of judgements about the value, quality, utility,
effectiveness or significance of the curriculum.
Kelly (2004:137) defines curriculum evaluation as:

the process by which we attempt to gauge the effectiveness of any


particular piece of educational activity.
According to Loriz and Foster (Lee 2005:112) curriculum evaluation is:

a systematic, summative examination of all components of a


curriculum that results in evaluative conclusions, such as approval or
accreditation.
HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Tyler(1949:105), one of the progenitors of curriculum development, defines


curriculum evaluation as:

a process for finding out how far the learning experiences are
developed and organised,and actually produced the desired results.
These definitions make it clear that curriculum evaluation is concerned with judging
the character, quality and effectiveness of a curriculum.

7.2.2 Curriculum evaluation as a process of collecting information for


decision making
Various definitions depict curriculum evaluation as a scientific investigation which
generates data and information on which decisions are based. In other words,
curriculum evaluation is considered to be an activity aimed at providing the
necessary data and information which will enable the curriculum committee to make
informed decisions about an existing curriculum.
Examples of such decisions are whether to leave the existing curriculum unchanged,
whether some revisions are required or whether to make radical changes to the
existing curriculum.

Reilly and Garberson (1998:2) refer to curriculum evaluation as

a systematic and continuous process of gathering and analysing data


about all dimensions of the programme (curriculum) and then using
this information for decision making about the programme quality
and effectiveness.
Did the thought of a well-planned, scientific, evidence-based decision-making
process cross your mind? That curriculum evaluation is there to assist you in making
a well-informed justifiable decision.

7.2.3 Curriculum evaluation as an effort to improve the programme


Some definitions depict curriculum evaluation in terms of how the results would be
utilised.Pendleton and Myles (1991:185-187) define curriculum evaluation as:

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Systematic collection and interpretation of evidence leading to a


process of judgment that aims at taking corrective measures.
Why else would you want to do a curriculum evaluation, if improvement of the
module and bettering the profession, is not part of your modus operandi?

7.2.4 A comprehensive definition


Lets take all the key-words that we have identified in the previous definitions that
describe curriculum evaluation:

Judgement / merit and value: character, quality,effectiveness

Collecting information: evidence-based, decision-making

Improvement: evidence-based.

Activity 7.3: Now, use these words (you may add more) to draw in MindMeister
your own diagram or mind map to compile a comprehensive definition. Paste it in the
space below and upload it to your e-portfolio.
https://www.mindmeister.com/528367844

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Billings and Halstead (2012:503) provide a comprehensive definition. Note that the
authors use the term program evaluation''.

Program evaluation is systematic assessment of all components of a


program through the application of evaluation approaches,
techniques, and knowledge in order to improve the planning,
implementation and effectiveness of programs.
The definitions tell us that curriculum evaluation:
is not a once-off event but rather a continuous process
is part and parcel of an overall curriculum development process (refer to study
units 2 and 3)
is a systematic investigation
entails the collection of data and information
involves data analysis (processing) and interpretation
involves compiling a curriculum evaluation report (communicating)

The definitions also indicate that the curriculum evaluation results (evidence) are
used to judge:
the worth of the existing curriculum based on appropriate and relevant data
its implementation
its effectiveness, namely whether it has produced the desired results.

The definitions also tell us that the curriculum evaluation results enable the
curriculum committee to make informed (evidence-based) decisions on which
corrective measures are required to improve the existing curriculum.

Quickly go back to the previous two mind-maps you have created on curriculum
evaluation. Did it include all these important aspects? Most probably not and that is
OK. As we progress, our initial definition(s) will change and evolve. The important
fact however, is that we do not stay stuck on an initial idea or definition and refuses
to adapt and elaborate. Please re-work your mind-map and paste it in the space
below.

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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**You have progressed well. How about a cup of coffee? **


Go ahead you deserve the break!

7.3

Planning the evaluation

Planning forms the solid foundation of most of our professional activities. Curriculum
evaluation is no different. Uys and Gwele (2005:102) list a few crucial questions that
we need to ask while planning the evaluation.
Why are we doing it?
What is the purpose of the evaluation or review?
What should be evaluated?
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Are there specific standards or benchmarks?


For what purpose will the findings be used?
What resources are needed?
How do we evaluate this?
What data are required and how can we collect them?
Who will do the evaluation?
Is outside consultation required?
Who will use the data obtained?
When will the evaluation be done?
When should results and recommendations be expected?

Once we know what needs to be evaluated and who will conduct the evaluation, we
need to compile a formal plan on the how and the when of the evaluation.

7.4

Why are
we doing
it?

Purposes of curriculum evaluation

According to Asgari, we should evaluate a curriculum to:


bring the curricular content abreast of modern advances (stay contemporary)
remove the Dead Wood from the curriculum
improve the effectiveness of the curriculum (Effectiveness = AO PO)

Do the right thing

improve the efficiency of the curriculum implementation process (Efficiency =


O I)

Do things the right way

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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review the entry behavior requirements for admission into the course
identify:
o How an Intended Curriculum is enacted
o How it becomes operational
o The factors which may affect it and result in unintended effect.

Billings and Halstead (2012:503) summarise the purposes of curriculum evaluation


as follow:
To determine how various elements of the program interact and influence
program effectiveness
To determine the extent to which the mission, goals, and outcomes of the
program are realized
To determine whether the program has been implemented as planned
To provide a rationale for decision making that leads to improved program
effectiveness
To identify efficient use of resources that are needed to improve program
quality.

Activity 7.4: Now try to write your own comprehensive purpose statement in one or
two sentences. To determine if planned actions executed produced the desired result
efficiently and to make decisions that will lead to improvement of programme and
effectiveness thereof.

7.5

Steps in curriculum evaluation

Most of the curriculum evaluations consist of the same generic steps. Uys and
Gwele (2005:102) list them as:
defining the standards
investigating the performance or data collection
synthesizing the results
formulating recommendations
feeding recommendations and lessons learned back into the programme.

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Activity 7.5: Take the 5 steps, draw a diagram (also known as a mind map) and add
the most important activities or concepts to the diagram. Paste it in the area below.
Attach this final mind map in the myUnisa discussion area created for it.
Evaluate at least 2 other students mind maps and write an educational,
evaluative response to it (also on myUnisa).

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Copy and paste the two responses on your mind map here:
Response 1: ____________________
Response 2: ____________________

Do you agree? Yes / No


Motivate your answer:
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

7.6

Focus areas of curriculum evaluation

What should
be
evaluated?

Curriculum evaluation entails scrutinising the official curriculum and its foundations,
andinvestigating whether the operational curriculum is congruent with the official
curriculum.

Operational curriculum:

Official curriculum:

What is actually taught by the teacher and


its importance is communicated to the
student

Stated curriculum framework with


philosophy and mission; recognized lists
of outcomes, competencies, learning
objectives; course outlines & syllabi

Activity 7.6: A little bit of revision: Return to study unit 1 and enter the definitions in
the blocks above. Is it clear why these should align? Yes

Very often the worth of a curriculum is judged by determining the competencies ofits
graduates, and how satisfied the employer and health care consumer are with these
graduates' services. Specific methods are employed to investigate each of the focus
areas.Billings and Halstead (2012) comprehensively covers curriculum evaluation in
Chapter 28.

The following table serves as a structure according to which you could summarise
the focus areas which we specify in sections 7.6.1 - 7.6.11.
HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Table 7.1: Structure for summarising section 7.6


Focus area

Structure

Explanation

Identify the
focus area

Summarise the data


required
Identify the relevant data
sources

Explain the aspects about which data must be


collected
What are the data source(s) relevant to each
focus area? Examples:
documents
internal stakeholders (learners, educators,
mentors)
external stakeholders (employers, health
care consumers, accrediting bodies,
professional organisations)
events

Identify the data


collection methods that
are relevant to each
focus area

Which strategies are used to obtain the data for


each focus area? Examples:
modified Delphi approach
curriculum matrix
curriculum audit
teaching goals inventory
focus group discussions
administering questionnaires
conducting interviews
observations
learning material reviews
pre-test post-test experiments
document analysis (reviewing records,
analysing existing data)

Identify the judgment


criteria which you will
use to interpret the data
and information

The theoretical elements in boxes 28.1 to 28.11 in


Billings and Halstead (2012) are the standards
with which the collected data will be compared in
order to make judgments about the curriculum.

7.6.1 Evaluating the mission of the educational institution and the


curriculum outcomes
Billings and Halstead (2012:508-513) described the concepts that need attention
when the mission and the outcomes of a curriculum are evaluated.

The process starts with an in-depth look at the philosophical underpinnings and
outcomes of the module or program. Firstly one needs to identify and determine the:

HSE 3704 Curriculum Development workbookCreated by: Dr JC (Irene) Lubbe

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Mission
Philosophy

Are aligned with

Program goals

Mission of the
University / NEI

Outcomes

When deciding whether the mission of the nursing department/school is aligned with
the mission of the university/institution, you will need to look for similar key-phrases.

Next you have to consider the stakeholder expectations:


Internal:
- Students

Do you think that the students are also part of the stakeholders? Yes students are
part of the stake holders because they are products of the programme. If so, add
them to the stakeholder block where they belong. You can consult Uys and Gwele
(2005:99). (It is a free e-book.)

The lecturers form an important part of the stakeholders and it is essential that they
also have consensus amongst themselves regarding the mission and philosophy of
the NEI. A modified Delphi-technique might be useful here.

Table 7.2: Mission and outcomes


Focus area

Structure

area: Data required:


mission
expectations of
philosophy
internal
and goals
Data sources:
external
printed
stakeholders
interviews
discussions
Focus

Explanation
Explanation
intentions of the institution
Narrative statement of beliefs or values
Outcomes
Examples:
questionnaires
surveys
advisory committees

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forums
Data collection:
outcomes
job placement
rates
program
satisfaction
licensure and
certification
pass rates
Criteria for data
interpretation:
mission and
governance
mission and goals
reviewed
periodically in a
defined process
communities of
interest have input
into program
process and
decision making

debates
Data collection strategies:
Questionnaires
surveys
internet
brochures
catalogues

The theoretical elements :


Congruency between nursing departments
mission and the universitys mission
Mission and goals reflected in the
documents
Programme goals and professional
standards are congruent
Nursing program advisory committees
meaningful input into program

7.6.2 Evaluating the official curriculum


Study Billings and Halstead (2012:514-516) and summarise this section according to
the structure provided in table 7.1. Note that the authors use the term curriculum
evaluation'' when they refer to evaluation of the official curriculum document. Refer
to previous study units to familiarise yourself with the term official curriculum. Copy
the definition here: Stated curriculum framework with philosophy and mission; recognized lists of
outcomes, competencies, learning objectives; course outlines & syllabi

Table 7.3: Official curriculum


Focus area
Focus
definition
discipline
knowledge

Structure
area: Data required:
Skills
of
of

Methods of enquiry
Ways of knowing
Data sources:
mission
outcome
statements

Explanation
Explanation
What students will be able to do after
completion
Blooms taxonomy
Blooms taxonomy
Examples:
goals
Objectives of programmes
competencies of learners

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philosophy
organisation
congruency

values
vertical/horizontal organisation
linear congruency

Data collection:
objectives
subject matter
learning activities
outcomes
link between
objectives and
mission
Criteria for data
interpretation:
Placement of
major concepts in
flowing conceptual
framework
Entry level skills
required to
progress
sequentially
Representation
matching
competencies to
courses and
learning objectives

Data collection strategies:


matrix
curriculum audit
determine prerequisites
linear congruency
triangulation

The theoretical elements :


Course level objectives demonstrate
sequential learning (vertical organisation)
Course objectives are congruent with level
objectives
Course sequencing defined with
appropriate rationale for pre-requisitions
Support course enhance learning
experiences and provide foundation in the
arts.

7.6.3 Evaluating teaching effectiveness


Study Billings and Halstead (2012:516-521) and summarise this section according to
the structure provided in table 7.1.
Table 7.4: Teaching effectiveness
Focus area

Structure

area: Data required:


Teaching
teaching
effectiveness
effectiveness
Data sources:
Instructional
materials
Teaching
strategies
Syllabi
Focus

Explanation
Explanation
To evaluate student performance

Examples:
Lesson plans
Technical
textbooks
assignment

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Data collection:
Qualitative
assessments
Assessment
methods
Teaching
strategies
Assessment of
student learning

Data collection strategies:


Student feedback
Focus group discussions
Peer review
Formal testing
Assessment of student learning

Criteria for data


interpretation:
Ability of chosen
strategy to
accomplish course
objectives
Opportunities to
expand student
knowledge base
Evaluation of
student
performance

The theoretical elements :


Obtain student feedback
Review goals before peer review visit
List teaching strategies
Describe effectiveness of teaching strategy
Application of prior knowledge to build new
knowledge
Methods of evaluating student performance
are valid
Evaluation of individual student
performance

7.6.4 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum is implemented:


learner dimension
Study Billings and Halstead (2012:512-524) and summarise this section according to
the structure provided in table 7.1.
Table 7.5: Learner dimension
Focus area

Structure

area: Data required:


Sufficient number
mission
and
of students
goals
of
the
enrolled

Trends in health
institution
care
Focus

Explanation
Explanation
Methods of recruitment need attention
Admission policies should be clear

Data sources:
Demographic
profiles
Academic profiles

Examples:
Marketing materials
Aptitude tests
Discipline specific tests
Essays

Data collection:
Standardized tests

Data collection strategies:


entrance requirements

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essays
assignments
annual review

surveys
interviews
reasons why student leave course

Criteria for data


interpretation:

The theoretical elements :


Adequate number of qualified students
recruited
Admission policies are clearly defined
support program goals
Records of student satisfaction and formal
complaints used as ongoing improvement
process

7.6.5 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum isimplemented:


educator dimension
Study Billings and Halstead (2012:525-530) and summarise thissection according to
the structure provided below.
Table 7.6: Educator dimension
Focus area

Structure

area: Data required:


credentials
accomplishment
experience of
of
mission,
educators
Focus

philosophy

and

Data sources:
qualifications
outcomes of the profile of faculty
course material
program
expected

Explanation
Explanation
Educators must have more than minimum
requirements in qualifications
Educators must be educated enough in
their field of work
Examples:
masters
doctorates
degrees

Data collection:
Goals set
expectations
professional
development
research

Data collection strategies:


coaching
Mentoring programs
Continuing education
Institutional handbooks

Criteria for data


interpretation:
Effective
mentoring system
Research efforts
supported
Judging the merit

The theoretical elements :


Qualified faculty members sufficient to
accomplish mission, philosophy and
program outcomes
Faculty receives orientation that prepares
their success
Faculty receive adequate support for

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of scholarly
acitivities

professional development
Evaluation of faculty performance promotes
quality improvement
Aggregate faculty outcomes are consistent
with achievement of programs mission,
goals

The following aspects need consideration when evaluating the educator or faculty
dimension. These factors include:
The number of qualified faculty
Qualifications of faculty
Faculty development
Faculty scholarship
Evaluation of faculty performance
7.6.5.1

The number of qualified faculty

It is difficult to provide a specific number or ratio that will work in all institutions, as
many factors influence the number of educators that should be appointed. Some of
the major factors are the:
nature of the program;
expectations of the parent institution (if any); and
Requirements of accrediting bodies (such as SANC and CHE).
Activity 7.7: In the institution where you are currently employed, what is the
prescribed number of faculty members for your department? How was that number
calculated? You might need to consult the HoD (Head of Department), Campus
Manager or Principal for this answer.
I am currently not working in an education department, however in our hospital there is one
training and development consultant (head of training) and two clinical facilitators working
under training and development consultant, where they are both responsible each for half of
the hospital.

7.6.5.2

Qualifications of faculty

It is important that lecturers are appropriately qualified for their teaching role. The
rule of thumb is that the lecturer needs at have at least one qualification (degree)

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higher than the qualification she is teaching. The minimum formal qualification for a
lecturer facilitating or teaching an associate or baccalaureate nursing degree
program is a Masters degree in the appropriate field (Billings & Halstead, 2012:525530).

Allocation of teaching workload (modules or subjects to teach), should thus be


according to the lecturers qualification, experience and area of specialisation. It
makes little sense to assign the community health-students to a lecturer with a
Masters degree or PhD in ICU, but with no experience or formal qualification in
community health. Unfortunately, we all know of cases where, due to shortage of
appropriately qualified lecturers, this type of scenario is happening. This is not
conducive for teaching or learning. Therefore, there should be a continued
commitment to doctoral prepared faculty.

But, before you and all your colleagues register at your current institution where you
are employed: Billings and Halstead (2012:525) warns against a situation called
inbreeding, where all the faculty members acquired their qualifications at the same
institution. This is not a healthy situation as it does not allow for diversity in contexts
or openness to new ideas. We need to allow new blood and though-patterns into
our community of practice.

Important in an academic institution is the different levels of seniority in ranks. These


levels are often directly linked to qualifications and level of scholarship. Institutions
with few high-ranked members might find that they have limited participation in
governance of the institution. Unfortunately very often we find a correlation between
rank and physical age of the faculty member. A great concern is the impeding braindrain where many of our experienced faculty members are approaching retirement
age; leaving less experienced and less qualified lecturers behind.

When you visit the South African Nursing Councils website (www.sanc.co.za), the
statistics on age distribution can be retrieved. The diagram below contains the age
distribution of professional registered nurses (PRN) in South Africa (including nurse
educators). Nearly half of the PRNs on the diagram is 50 years or older. That paints
a daunting picture for our profession.
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Figure 0-2: PRN age distribution according to SANC

At the beginning of 2013, there were only 12 400 (out of a possible 129 015) PRN
with an additional qualification in nursing education on SANCs register. However,
not every PRN with a qualification in nursing education is in a teaching post.

Activity 7.8: Look at the faculty age distribution in the institution where you are
currently working. Make a pie-diagram and paste it in the space provided
below.Write one or 2 sentences to elaborate.
There are only few staff members with an education qualification in the institution I work in.

Percentage RN's with education qualification

2.30%
<30 years
31-39 years
40-49 years
50-59 years
6.40%

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7.6.5.3

Faculty development

One cannot over-emphasise the importance of life-long learning and continuous


professional development (CPD) for all categories of nurses and that includes
faculty members. Each one of us needs to take responsibility for their own
development to prevent stagnation as the latter leads to situations where faculty
members teaches out-dated content, using out-dated teaching strategies. Therefore,
when one evaluate a programme, it is important to look at aspects of CPD.

7.6.5.4

Faculty scholarship

Academic scholarship forms an integral part of who we are as academics. We need


to provide evidence-based content to broaden the field of nursing. As faculty
members we have a duty to be actively involved in research to contribute to the
growing body of knowledge. We need to claim our place in the multi-disciplinary
team by not merely be consumers of knowledge, but also contributors. The number
of research publications by faculty members will therefore also be noted when a
programme is evaluated.

7.6.5.5

Evaluation of faculty performance

The strength of a programme depends to a great extend also on the capabilities of


the faculty member who facilitate teaching and learning. Therefore the inputs and
outputs of the faculty member involved in the programme need to be evaluated as
well.

7.6.6 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum isimplemented:


delivery mode dimension
Study Billings and Halstead (2012:530+) and summarise this section according to
the structure provided in table 7.1.
Table 7.7: Delivery mode dimension
Focus area

Structure

Explanation

Focus area:

Data required:

Explanation

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Data sources:

Data collection:

Criteria for data


interpretation:

Examples:

Data collection strategies:

The theoretical elements :

7.6.7 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum isimplemented:


organisational dimension
Study Billings and Halstead (2012:533+) and summarise thissection according to the
structure provided in table 7.1.
Table 7.8: Organisational dimension
Focus area

Structure

Explanation

Focus area:

Data required:

Data sources:

Data collection:

Criteria for data


interpretation:

Explanation

Examples:

Data collection strategies:

The theoretical elements :

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7.6.8 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum isimplemented:


inter-organisational dimension
Study Billings and Halstead (2012:537+) and summarise thissection according to the
structure provided in table 7.1.
Table 7.9: inter-organisational dimension
Focus area

Structure

Explanation

Focus area:

Data required:

Data sources:

Data collection:

Criteria for data


interpretation:

Explanation

Examples:

Data collection strategies:

The theoretical elements :

7.6.9 Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum isimplemented:


micro context dimension
Study Billings and Halstead (2012:538+) and summarise thissection according to the
structure provided in table 7.1.
Table 7.10: Micro context dimension
Focus area

Structure

Explanation

Focus area:

Data required:

Explanation

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Data sources:

Data collection:

Criteria for data


interpretation:

Examples:

Data collection strategies:

The theoretical elements :

7.6.10Evaluating the environment in which the curriculum isimplemented:


macro context dimension
Study Billings and Halstead (2012:539) and summarise this sectionaccording to the
structure provided in table 7.1.

Table 7.11: Macro context dimension


Focus area

Structure

Explanation

Focus area:

Data required:

Data sources:

Data collection:

Criteria for data


interpretation:

Explanation

Examples:

Data collection strategies:

The theoretical elements :

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7.6.11Outcome evaluation
Outcome evaluation is conducted to determine to what extent existing graduates
meet thehuman resources needs of the health care system and how competent the
graduates are incomparison to social expectations.

Study Billings and Halstead (2012:539) and summarise thissection according to the
structure provided in table 7.1.
Table 7.12: Outcomes evaluation
Focus area

Structure

Explanation

Focus area:

Data required:

Data sources:

Data collection:

Criteria for data


interpretation:

Explanation

Examples:

Data collection strategies:

The theoretical elements :

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7.7

Conclusion

This concludes the module on the principles and process of curriculum development.
We trust that you enjoyed working through this challenging module. We anticipate
that you will now be able to participate in curriculum development activities and apply
what you have learnt to improve your teaching practices.

End that is (nearly) the end of this module! You deserve a good cup of coffee! Make
yourself one and please come back there is just ONE more thing left to do before
this module id done-and-dusted

7.8

The Reflective report

As a faculty member, reflection should form part of our daily activities. I hope that
you make use of this in your own classes as well.
Reflective report: Please write a short reflective paragraph (minimum 200 words)
on how you have experienced these activities (study unit 1-7). Your reflection can be
positive or negative (as long as it is honest). You will be rewarded for your effort with
an additional 5 points added to the marks of your portfolio.

These activities were very challenging. They forced one to consult many sources in
order to complete them. The manner in which they were structured made in way that
resulted in me understanding most concepts better. All information one acquired
from first year finally made sense when applied top this module. The correlation of
the data acquired to this very practical module made it easier to understand why we
had to learn what we learned in the preceding module.

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HSE3704 would have been impossible to understand if the modules were not
structured in the manner in which they are now. Some activities I found to be straight
forward, which is very useful if one is eager to go forward with the rest of the work.
The activities were structured in a way that makes distance learning an enjoyable
experience. All those activities that required mind maps made understanding even
the most difficult concepts very easy. They compelled one to challenge own
technology skills in a very pleasant way. I think if more modules are structured this
way, not only will the students be able to name facts in exams and get high marks
like we always do because we memorize facts, but we will be challenged to know
how to apply the knowledge gained. The beginning was not as smooth as the end
when I finally understood what it was all about.

Informed consent: I Lindiwe Mashinini hereby **give** permission to my lecturer to


collate my feedback with those of other students (thus protecting my identity and
ensuring anonymity).
My feedback will be used for quality control purposes and to adapt the HSE-module
as well as for possible research purposes.
** Please choose by deleting the not applicable option, e.g. I, Dr.JC Lubbe(insert
your name) hereby **gives/ do not give** permission to

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