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DeMoivre's Theorem

Lesson 5.3

Using Trig Representation

Recall that a complex number can be


represented as

z r cos i
sin

Then it follows that

z r cos i sin r cos i sin



2

r 2 cos 2 i
sin 2

What about z3 ?
2

DeMoivre's Theorem

In general (a + bi)n is

z r cos n
i sin
n
n

Apply to

3 cos 330 i sin 330


o

Try

2
2
i

2
2

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Using DeMoivre to Find Roots

Again, starting with


sin
a + bi = z r cos i

z r cos n
i sin
n
n

also

works when n is a fraction


Thus

we can take a root of a complex


number

1/ n

1/ n

360 k
360
k
cos
sin
i

n
n

Using DeMoivre to Find Roots

Note that there will be n such roots

1/ n

1/ n

One

360 k
360
k
cos
sin
i

n
n

each for k = 0, k = 1, k = n 1

Find the two square roots of


Represent

is r?
What is ?

1 i 3

as z = r cis

What

Graphical Interpretation of Roots

2
6
i
2
2

Solutions are:

1 i 3
2 cos120 i sin120

1/ 2

120
120

2 cos
i
sin
2
6

2
2

2
2
120 360
120 360

and 2 cos
i
sin

2
2

Roots
Rootswill
willbe
beequally
equallyspaced
spaced
1/2
around
aroundaacircle
circlewith
withradius
radius rr1/2
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Graphical Interpretation of Roots

Consider cube root of 27

27 27 cis 0

Using DeMoivre's Theorem

360
k
1/ 3
27 27 cis

3 3 3

2
2

3 cis 0, 3 cis 120, and 3 cis


240
Roots
Rootswill
willbe
beequally
equallyspaced
spaced
1/3
around
aroundaacircle
circlewith
withradius
radius rr1/3

3 i 0

3 3 3

2
2
7

Roots of Equations

Recall that one method of solving


polynomials involves taking roots of
both sides
x4

+ 16 = 0
x4 = - 64

Now we can determine the roots


(they are all complex)

0 16i

1/ 4

Try
Tryout
out
spreadsheet
spreadsheetfor
for
complex
complexroots
roots
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Assignment

Lesson 5.3
Page 354
Exercises 1 41 EOO