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Study Guide Freshman Biology: Test 1

Test Date: 09.10.14

Test Score: ___ ___ ___%

Evolution
o Beginning of biology
o Charles Darwin
The Origin of Species theory of evolution by natural selection
Did not discuss the origin of life
o Tree of life
Displays adaptive radiation
Roots: first life forms
Tips: newest life forms
o Phylogeny: modern tree of life
o Natural Selection a method of evolution
Occurs on a population-based level
Certain conditions required for natural selection
The trait must have variation
The trait must be heritable
Some variants of the trait must survive more and reproduce more than
other variants
Require genetic mutation
Traits dont change during a lifetime
New traits do not appear because of necessity
There is no end product, natural selection will never end until no living things
exist
o Microevolution
HIV, new generation every few minutes
Antibiotic resistance
Peppered moths
Dark or light, for camouflage
Color change in background resulted in color change in moths in the
next generation
African Rift Lake Cichlids
o Sexual Selection
Favors traits that increase reproductive success
o Homologous Structures
Features that show common ancestry
Typically have different function
o Hair
o Bone Structure (one bone, two bones, wrist bones, digits)
Harder to find in older radiations
o Fossil Record
Help find common ancestors of species
Transitional fossils: fossils of animals during the time of a species change
Lobe finned fish
Australian Lungfish
Tiktaalik

Archaeopteryx
Quizzes on Evolution
o Quiz 1 Evolution and Natural Selection
True-False Questions
Evolution explains how life began on Earth. False
Evolution through natural selection happens across generations, not
within an organisms lifetime. True
Short Answer Questions
According to the phylogeny below, which chordate group is most closely
related to reptiles? Birds
Animals that can make a certain type of egg are called amniotes.
Amniotes include reptiles, mammals, and birds. Which group did the
amniotes most recently share a common ancestor? Frogs and
salamanders
About how long ago did the amniotes split off from the group you
mentioned above? About 380 million years ago

If pesticides were not added to a group of bugs, would the second


generations bell curve look like the first? Yes, I would expect the same
curve, since even though the trait is variable and hereditary, it did
not affect whether the organism could reproduce any better, so the
second generation would remain about the same

Bonus
How did Jean Baptiste LaMarcks explanation of evolution differ from
Darwins? LaMarck believed that things evolved through necessity
and use and disuse.

Quiz 2 Evidence for Evolution


Multiple Choice Questions
The Galapagos finches, like African Rift Lake Cichlids and Hawaiian
Silverswords are all examples of adaptive radiations
The similarity in bone structure between the limbs of humans, cats,
whales, and bats is an example of homologous structures
The Tiktaalik is a transitional form between tetrapods and fish
Essay Questions
Explain the process of adaptive radiation. How and why would a
population of organisms begin to diversity into several distinct subpopulations, which ultimately become unique species? Adaptive
radiation is when one original ancestors offspring adopt to suit the
environment. For example, the Galapagos finches. Once the finches
arrived, there were plenty of edible seeds to be eaten. However, after
a period of time, seeds were scarce. However, a baby bird happened
to be born with a thicker beak. The beak allowed the bird to eat
nuts, increasing the birds survival chance. Many small changes
occur throughout the entire population, and eventually the
differently beaked birds will become so different that they are unable
to reproduce with the other finch species
Bonus
Give an example of an example of evolutionary convergence. Annelids
and nematodes are both wormlike in shape, bats and birds both have
wings, but the path to getting wings was different