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ior< denstt qq rfr
production) frq Eralr

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qq$t,F( l "An esserili

Technique of Production and Social Change


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production to lauour

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of Political Economy, Moscow Publication First Chapter)

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sqt Estlei-{ Gil'Fl

Leontyev, Political Economy, Moscow Publication, 1974p.

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"Labour is a purposeful activi,ty,Of the human beings, object of labour are all the things
upon which man's labour is .usbd; and means of labour are all the things with the aid of which
peopte act upon object of

Eq,nE{

known as relations'of

qTtE[ {frg6{

Technique of Production and social change


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w{ftiFId | "An essential of any production process, therefore, is the marriage of the means of
s.|ir rdefcEet En rf{

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production to larrour power."


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(productioir relation), "The relation arising between people in the process of production are
known as relations of production or relation oipeople to production."

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"qqtilfut s cfrqr{1{ lmurual cooperation and assistance;:ro;{frhrrq.+-rr r lr<firqftct <rcm
a, qtfrcqmrdrft qqrs e mrqiotfu{ T{M qM <risr$ c'H fi6 rrqtq, qrw{ra rrsnci s
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"fu either a feast or a fast" ffiDI
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basic type of production relation in primitive society was
simple cooperation.
Jh1
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fruis oi other people,s labour, was
impossible. V{a, .lotmr e atfr-q e ,f(rs? qtl fii \$fr{ qt{ffi{t qr+qt
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weapons with which


the bourgeoisie

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itself, its has also

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Efr qFr6u1i ,rrrpcalir w{Er6r \eq
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cal!

working ctass the Prol


*1qm1-,$F-si-{
q5{-q gqelmn

qfr

* "{*{

c{rErcro.q <F

qttfrrs**,q-fird
?tt65 <lu I q frrpl {
production, a striP d
performs work. The f

The serf gives, the Pti


has not. The serfstad

Es{c-{

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)ec

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{ffi

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qfirdl

tsqa qrtFtio rftrd cfi{ Bgq qd r XE't \{.fftG< qilerio grclrl, "l$ fur< ${
ftRTr, 6ffi{ vtfurd, sfqTr Iffi, eorqf-qft< A{gfr"-s {R-T6 tqfr qmirsrq< s{ittF-rrro
\{ffi .a Effi q<( 'i&-fiq'? Bcs{ qnrfi r q q?pe[t-t vnrcq q${s Eqm c{ft $ocq i Bs"[F{
rrrffi qtft-{ e cffis rfqlo nE{ aft r wr<ff s e<rB ctft qrco sr qg{ffi{ qqm frrs qrrs
qm r TFfm< mo o:tq ot & rt< c{frF ftq qrs qrc< 1 {&--fiq'Ee'ftE-{ ao1-{qq-qqqrs e'6'n{['R

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ry
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apqrs {tGI qt r nEq<:6s {ffi crrrq? q<mr cnQ rrE.ffi? ns 6{ssrcdt 'ttsrs$? tnq-qn<
.lfuclg6{r q1Frc{ yrn calgrr+ qr< frt-uq ioircs flifiq {I r "........ a society that has conjured

q|fi

such gigantic means of production and of exchange, is,like the sorcerer, who-is no longer able
to control the powers ofthe nether wbrld whom he has called up by his

spells."

s{& Eqettc-{ Eliil q.SftE qE ,frg r d&arfuf Bqertfrs qEff o<' Eq"rE{'tB ftE ftq
qgIF
K(rr Trd 6{F6rs <|$ q{ r slirl ryr{ <IqR c'{EI s'Gt, tfllrt"{GTrrq qEsl qfi-s {dsl {6 I
qq<firs *rril urgru yq6r I 6r q@ 1csfut Oft qrwrfro r,T{rr<i 1frcfie' ,{h
s151
cc w qi srcrs fr*cq EI-Ig r cq rra sIm{ gr v<rrfrv, {ffi$ oft rr cae w3F 'rlfi, er{
or*re {rfl m w{ <rd6t ?Fi-rir, qr{ i561 qq r*l{ft-$ ,r{qril rE< ctft r "The
6dTlT EEtt

ry

"iffi

1B

weapons with which the bourgeoisie felled feudalism to the ground"aropgw turired against
the bourggoisie.itself. But not only has the bourgeoisie forged the weapons that bring dealh to

itself, hs iias also called into existence the men who are to wield those weapons, the modprn

working ciass the proletariats. qffitg[a< qsGr{

qfr cI{ c{rs @-{lcn-{ es'qq.tr{ql;tf{ {d-s'I


q{q
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DI{cT|'r,
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ffi

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<* at r qfrnra< om q{qrm c$ <lfuqs-src< Tttq qme q< tF
iEEg {tf, I 14 qF[fq qfuf{q ?lf,ffl, "The serf has the possession and use of an instrument of

q(q

frF

ffi'

production, a strip of tand, in return for which he hands over a portion of the'yield or
performs work. The proletarian works with instruments of production belonging to another.
The serf gives, the proletarian is given. The serf has a guaranteed subsistance. The protetarian
has nol The serf stands outside ofthe competition, the proletarian stands in it."

5es

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Communjst Manifesto_cs

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r cfrqrv-rcq
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r 0!o

society.is

nevertheless picture{I
of the nature of mant

*tr{sj-

(Scientific Socialim*l

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ffirw I&qc {qs c$ft qq{r6r-{e Itr{c

I "The history of all


tlTkq
hither to existing society is the history of class struggles." Et'Ig$, {lr[Oet{l e<(
o q ry{cqt6"l1 qsfr{ t :l'FR qqrcq? EXG e
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qm{ .e.E-{R <6 r e ercFl mqfre}fr mfiut Ccoenig) {F,FI, "Despite his plrinstaking
(Scientific Socialism) I sffif$?

distinction between modem scientific socialism and historical utopian movements, he


nevertheless pictured an ideal social systtim which, in the light of our present-day knowledge
of the nature of man and society, must be considered definitely utopian.

flA
1

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A

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2)

p.d
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"F{fu Iffi srd- A[ orbod is the cause of ,Ail,or
The whole sociat life is the cause of the
whole social life," (o-g
9"0''
\-'q' v\Sorokin,
Contemporara
Sociological theories, pp. 533_535)

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9.MaxWeber,TheProtestantEthicandSpritsofCapitalism.

8.

Marx
197

c.
e.

&

Engles, Manifesto .of the Communist Party- Progress,publishers, Mosoow,

l.

Sorokin, Contemporary Sociological Theories 1928.


Koenig Sociology Reprinted, 1969.

1,

qry

v.

Arens and Beuden, Jhagrapur : Poor peasants and women in a village in Bangladesh,

<ifrq, qn1qfrE6

lft+{,

)b1\

1977.

b.

Westergaard, K, "Mode of production in Bangladesh." Journal of Social Studies No-2.

lo. Chowdhury A. Agrarian Social Relation and Rural Development in

Bangladesh,

Delhi,'Oxford 1982.

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sociology of Bangladesb: Problems and prospects, (1987.

in Chowdhury. A(ed)

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