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Activity 1.1.

1 History of Civil Engineering and


Architecture
Introduction
Can you name any of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World? Each was a feat of
civil engineering and architecture. What causes structures such as these to fill us
with awe even today? What is it that makes them seem more wondrous in our time
of modernization? These structures have paved the way for many new advances in
the design of the structures you see today.
In this activity you will learn about the history of civil engineering and architecture.
You will see differences between the two professions and learn of their beginnings.

Equipment

History of Civil Engineering and Architecture presentation

Procedure
In this activity you will investigate the history of civil engineering and architecture.
You will see differences between the two professions and learn of their beginnings.
1. Define civil engineering.
An engineer trained in the design and construction of public works, such as
bridges, dams, and other large facilities.
2. Define architecture.
Art and Science of designing buildings for human habitation.
3. Describe the origination of the concept of architecture?
Architecture was born when people began to live in constructed dwellings and
within communities. This dates as far back as 8000 BC.
4. In ancient times how were building materials chosen?
Materials were chosen based on availability and climate.
5. Give two examples of vernacular architecture.
An igloo or an African Hut.
6. Name and describe the type of system used to create many early buildings.

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Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 1.1.1 History Civil Engineering and Architecture Page 1

7. What was the purpose of the Egyptian pyramids? Mexican pyramids?


Egyptian pyramids were built as monuments for pharaohs, & Mexican
pyramids were built for religious or scientific uses.
8. What kind of construction method was used to build the Parthenon? Make a
simple sketch to illustrate.
The construction method used to build the Parthenon was called the Post-andLintel Method.
9. What problem in architecture led to this form of construction?
Attempting to figure out how can doors and window openings be provided in
bearing walls without sacrificing support
10. Explain how an arch is created.
An arch was created to overcome the obstacle of supporting the weight of large
structures across openings.
11. How is the vault used in civil engineering?
The Vault design is used in highway tunnels.
12. Give an example of an arch and dome system.
Bridges & indoor football stadiums.
13. Give an example of a modern material we have that was not available to the
ancients. How did the absence of this material restrict construction in ancient
times?
The Absence of Steel. The structures now are much stronger than the ones in the
past the consisted only of stone.

14. What was the purpose of the Roman aqueducts?


To bring water to places that didnt have any.

15. Compare ancient Greek roads to ancient Roman roads.


Greek roads had a width of 8 or 9 feet and a depth of 3 to 4 inches. Their roads
werent anywhere as impressive as the Romans. Romans had roads made of
Stratumen, and had 50,000 miles of paved roads.
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Describe an ancient Roman bridge.


Most ancient Roman bridges used the arch as the basic structure and were
typically made of stone and concrete

16. How did building materials and methods change after the Romans?
The methods & materials didnt change much until the 18 th Century, where
iron became easier to obtain.

Conclusion
1. Give an example of a modern pyramid not shown in the presentation. How does
its function differ from that of the Egyptian pyramids? What do you think accounts
for this difference?
A modern day pyramid example is the Louvre Pyramid in Paris, France. Its
function is only for presentation, why the Egyptian pyramids were created for the
pharaohs. In the present, we have more materials to be able to just create
pyramids while in the past, itd take much longer to do so.
2. Give an example of a modern structure that uses an arch and dome system.
The Taj Mahal
3. What is the main purpose of modern roads? How is the cost of modern roadways
defrayed?
The main purpose of modern roads are for daily transportation. Nearly everyone
drives to get to their location. Through taxes, our modern roadways are paid for.

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