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2012

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common


Core 2012

Part I Introduction and Skills for the 21st Century


Part II - History/Social Studies Literacy: Cognitive Skills and
Historical Thinking
Part III History/Social Studies Literacy: Reading
Informational Text
Part IV - History/Social Studies Literacy: Expository Writing
Part V - History/Social Studies Literacy: Academic
Vocabulary
Part VI History/Social Studies Literacy: Speaking and
Listening
Part VII - History/Social Studies Literacy: Civic Education
Part VIII Integrating History/Social Studies and English
Language Arts for English Learners
Part IX Research-Based Instructional Tools, Companion
Documents, References, Acknowledgements
2012
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common
Core 2012

Part I Introduction
and Skills for the
21st Century
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common
Core 2012

A student proficient in history/social


studies literacy is knowledgeable in content
information of one or more of the social
studies disciplines and is able to use that
knowledge contextually and in concert with
higher order thinking skills, reading skills,
writing skills, research skills, and speaking
and listening skills. Literacy in history/social
studies is expressed through critical thinking,
creative problem-solving, communication of
ideas, civic engagement, and global
understanding.
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

Geography

Economics
History

Political

Science
Civic Education
Sociology/Anthropology
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

History/social studies is a
content subject rich in facts,
knowledge, concepts, analytical
theory, and evidence but subjectmatter CONTENT is only part of
the discipline.

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

Content Knowledge

Facts and information (names, dates, people, places)


Chronological events and historical eras
Philosophical ideology, religion, and world views
Theoretical frameworks such as supply-and-demand
Discipline-specific academic vocabulary

Skills

Reading Skills
Thinking or cognitive skills such as analysis,
evaluation, and cause and effect
Research skills
Writing skills
Problem-solving skills
Collaborative and participatory skills
Listening and speaking skills

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

Reading

Standards for Literature


Reading Standards for Informational Text
Writing Standards
Speaking and Listening Standards
Reading Standards for Literacy in
History/Social Studies 6-12
Writing Standards for Literacy in
History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical
Subjects 6-12;
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

The goal of high quality history/social


studies literacy is to be able to apply
knowledge and conceptual understanding of
the past and current events to real-life
situations, socio-political issues, economics,
and the human condition of todays world.
Inquiry and research are keys to developing
this understanding. To this end, the study of
history and the related social studies
disciplines is based more on asking the right
questions than relying on adequate answers.
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

Higher-order thinking
Research skills
Expository reading skills
Writing skills such as summary, informative, point of
view, argumentation, persuasion, and evaluation
Speaking and listening skills
Problem-solving skills, creativity, and innovation
Collaborative skills
Communication skills
Academic vocabulary
Media literacy
Civic literacy
Environmental literacy and global awareness
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Academic vocabulary
The use and analysis of primary source historical
documents
Participatory skills and working collaboratively
Analytical and evaluative thinking skills
Expository reading for information
Expository writing as opinion or point of view,
informational, explanatory, argumentation,
investigative, and historical narrative
Speaking, listening, and presentation skills
Qualitative evaluation of information
Real-life applications
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11

The inclusion of history/social studies


literacy in the English-language arts
curriculum does not supplant the need for
high quality history/social studies instruction
but, rather, can support the teacher of English
language arts in providing a context for
students to see the relationships of the social
science disciplines to contemporary society
and application of skills. The skills that are
honed in high quality history instruction can
enrich and support all subjects in the
kindergarten through grade 12 curriculum.
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Social studies education is the one


common educational experience that helps all
students acquire the knowledge, skills and
dispositions to become competent and
responsible citizens throughout their lives.
Students need to acquire mastery of rigorous
core subject material as well as cognitive and
social skills to prepare students for college,
career, and citizenship. This historic civic
mission of our schools needs to be revitalized
as the central purpose of education by
strengthening civic education and workplace
skills for all students at all grade levels.
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Critical

Thinking and Problem-Solving


Communication
Collaboration
Creativity and Innovation

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P21 Framework Element


Core Subjects
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

CCSS ELA College and


Career Ready Definition
Build strong content knowledge

Communication

Respond to the varying demands of


audience, task, purpose and discipline
Comprehend as well as critique

Information Literacy

Value evidence

Self Direction

Demonstrate independence

Global Awareness

Come to understand other


perspectives and cultures
Use technology and digital media
strategically and capably

Information, Media and Technology


Skills

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Participating effectively in civic life through


knowing how to stay informed and
understanding governmental processes
Exercising the rights and obligations of
citizenship at local, state, national and global
levels
Understanding the local and global implications
of civic decisions

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Knowing how to make appropriate personal


economic choices
Understanding the role of the economy in
society
Using entrepreneurial skills to enhance
workplace productivity and career options

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17

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the


environment and the circumstances and conditions
affecting it, particularly as relates to air, climate,
land, food, energy, water and ecosystems
Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of
societys impact on the natural world (e.g.,
population growth, population development,
resource consumption rate, etc.)
Investigate and analyze environmental issues, and
make accurate conclusions about effective solutions
Take individual and collective action towards
addressing environmental challenges (e.g.,
participating in global actions, designing solutions
that inspire action on environmental issues)

(P21 framework definitions, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009)


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Using 21st century skills to understand and


address global issues
Learning from and working collaboratively with
individuals representing diverse cultures,
religions and lifestyles in a spirit of mutual
respect and open dialogue in personal, work
and community contexts
Understanding other nations and cultures,
including the use of non-English languages

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Discuss the cross-curricular


instructional goals that would be
supported through the integration
of English language arts and
history content. What types of
instructional strategies would
support those goals?
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Part II History/Social Studies


Literacy:
Cognitive Skills and Historical
Thinking

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Core 2012

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Thinking is not driven by answers but by


questions every field stays alive only to the
extent that fresh questions are generated and
taken seriously as the driving force in a
process of thinking.
The Center for Critical Thinking (2012)

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Historical thinking in history/social studies is the


incorporation of analytical and higher-order
thinking skills with history/social studies content.
Higher-order thinking skills are the means by
which the student of history/social studies
establishes cause and effect, makes
comparisons, develops theoretical frameworks,
applies conceptual knowledge, and determines
significance.
The synthesis of cross-discipline content
information and thinking skills is the basis for
supporting evidence in argumentation, evaluation,
and conclusive determinations.

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Foundational Knowledge - facts and recall of who, what, when,


where (recalling, recognizing, remembering)
Comprehension understanding how and incorporating contextual
information (understanding, conceptualizing, discussing,
explaining, relating)
Application - transfer and use (applying, interpreting,
demonstrating, practicing, implementing)
Analysis - the interrelationship and interdependence of
components and contextual variables that explain the why of
events and issues (analyzing, organizing, examining,
deconstructing, differentiating, attributing)
Evaluation- the evaluation of evidence to develop hypotheses,
form opinions, make judgments, and engage in reasoned decisionmaking (evaluating, checking, critiquing, prioritizing, deciding,
determining, defending)
Synthesis/Create - combining ideas, concepts, and information in
new ways and the use of meta-cognitive thinking for perspective
(creating, connecting, arranging, proposing, hypothesizing,
planning, formulating, producing)
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Chronological

and Spatial Thinking

Historical

Research, Evidence, and


Point-of-View

Historical

Interpretation

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Students proficient in history/social studies literacy


will be able to:
explain cause and effect
compare and contrast
distinguish between fact and opinion
build persuasive and logical arguments
understand the significance of historical legacy
develop in-depth understandings of diversity,
multiculturalism, and the global community
engage in citizenship responsibilities, 21st Century
skills, and informed discussion of current issues
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Identify and articulate the problem, question, or issue.


Define the purpose, goals, or objectives.
Research the topics and related issues.
Take a position.
Engage in fact-finding with attention to assumptions,
bias, intended audience, multiple perspectives, and
evaluation of sources of information.
Develop and test hypotheses with logic and evidence.
Review position and adjust if necessary.
Reflect on implications and consequences, pros and
cons, long-term vs. short term effects, alternative
perspectives, bias, and other frames of reference.
Develop reasoning that leads to conclusions, actions,
or positions.
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Recalling and recognizing foundational content knowledge


Understanding and applying concepts
Summarizing
Analyzing information
Evaluating information and ideas
Envisioning and responding to multiple perspectives
Recognizing bias
Drawing conclusions based on evidence and logic
Developing a persuasive argument (oral and written)
Taking and defending a position through fact-finding and reasoning
Becoming adept at debate skills and building logical argumentation
Synthesizing knowledge and content from related fields through
cause and effect, identification of key variables, and
mitigating/intensifying factors
Developing good decision-making skills

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Writing performance tasks that ask the students how and


why questions
Classroom discussion based on sources that inform
(articles, maps, graphs, photographs, interviews, etc.) and
provide for opportunities in which students analyze,
evaluate, consider multiple perspectives, make inferences,
and draw conclusions
The use of primary sources to discuss original intent,
evidence, questions raised, and significance for today
Student research of the variables of economics, politics,
religion, geography, and world conditions on historical
events and current issues
Discussion and writing on the significance of historical
events, decisions, and eras
Structured debate, mock trials, hearings and moot courts,
news broadcast re-enactments, student presentations, and
dramatic representations to gain in-depth understandings
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List some of the key thinking skills that


should be emphasized at each grade level
cluster (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). What are
some examples of classroom learning
activities that will help to build thinking skills
from one grade level to the next?

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Part III History/Social


Studies Literacy:
Reading Informational Text

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Core 2012

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Reading for information in history/social


studies is NOT the same as reading for other
disciplines, including literature, science, and
technological studies. Reading in
history/social studies requires an instructional
shift in use of prior knowledge, academic
vocabulary in history/social studies,
questioning strategies, and critical thinking
skills to evaluate, apply, and synthesize
information.

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History

texts are not lifeless strings of


useless facts, but the keys to unlocking the
character of human beings, people with likes
and dislikes, biases and foibles, airs and
convictions (Wineburg, 2001, p. 74).
Reading in history and social studies is
unique because the reader decodes both
the author and the text.
From reading, students construct meaning
and historical understanding.
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Students who are proficient in reading in


history/social studies.
Monitor their own comprehension
Use reading strategies when understanding
begins to break down
Summarize after each paragraph
Use headings, captions, images, maps, etc. to
enhance understanding
Determine the meanings of words and
phrases in context
Connect content to what they already know
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Primary

source documents and images


Secondary source articles and texts
Propaganda
Biographies
Diaries and letters
Charts, graphs, maps
News articles and broadcasts
Blogs and internet sources
Poetry, myths, and legends
Historical fiction
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Dissect

each sentence into the noun/subject,


verb/action, and who/what is the subject of
the action.
Clarify or define key words and concepts.
Identify relationships and patterns between
the sentences and within the paragraph.
Consider the text as a whole and create a
meaningful summary of it.
(Schleppegrell, 2009)
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Analyze primary sources


Compare and evaluate authors arguments and evidence
Seek and cite evidence to support ones own arguments
Recognize text structure (e.g., sequential, comparison,
cause-effect)
Distinguish among fact, opinion and reasoned argument
Differentiate and analyze the relationship between primary
and secondary sources on the same topic
Determine central ideas
Corroborate and/or challenge authors arguments
Determine meanings of words and phrases in context
Develop a coherent understanding of a topic by integrating
diverse sources

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By asking questions that inquire into the authors purpose


and audience, teachers can help students develop an
understanding of bias in text as a rhetorical artifact with a
focus on what the author was trying to accomplish.
Wineburg explains that history-social science text divulges
the authors world view, perceptions, and prejudices. This
occurs even when the author intends to hide his or her
beliefs. (Wineberg, 2001)
Providing opportunities for students to interact with the
teacher and classmates about the possible meanings of the
text emphasizes the art of historians and social scientists
while developing astute readers who attend to what lies
between the lines in all text.
By challenging students to figure out the authors beliefs,
students become readers who pay close attention and can
discern the authors intentions.
Reading and questioning go hand-in-hand as teachers help
students understand the world.
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Scaffold reading assignments


Teach academic vocabulary development
Provide support in constructing meaning from
primary and secondary sources
Utilize a wide variety of fiction and non-fiction
materials that capture student interest and help
paint a picture of other places and times
Teach about bias into the authors meaning and
beliefs
Use concept maps, questions, graphic organizers,
and opportunities for students to interact with one
another about the text

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CCSS Standard: Reading Standards for Informational Text K-5 - Integration of


Knowledge
7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the
words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where,
when, why, and how key events occur).
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

State History

Reading
Comprehension
Summarizing
Inference
Demonstration of
knowledge

Small group or
partner discussion
and task

After reading a chapter in a


grade-level history text,
students will examine
historical photographs that
correspond to the text.
Using a Thinking Map
(graphic organizer),
students will diagram their
understanding of the text
and students will note
details (such as where,
when, why) of how the
photo represents the
historical era or event.

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CCSS Standard: Reading Standards for Literacy in H-SS 6-12 - Integration of


Knowledge and Ideas
8. Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

Mongol
Invasions

Multiple
perspectives
Analysis of
information
Compare and
contrast
Fact vs.
opinion
Evaluation of
information
Identification
of bias
Inference

Informed
classroom
discussion
and notetaking

Students will read the text


chapter on the Mongol
invasions of the 13th-14th
centuries to identify
perspectives that may have
a negative connotation of
bias against the Mongols
and the resulting invasions.

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CCSS Standard: Reading Standards for Informational Text 6-12 - Craft and
Structure
6. Determine an authors point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is
particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power,
persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

11

Contemporary
American
History

Point of
view
Bias
Vocabulary
Inference
Analysis
Evaluation

Analysis of a
primary
source

Students will read President


Obamas Inauguration
speech of January 2009 to
identify rhetorical devices
used and establish the
speakers purpose. They
will evaluate the overall
persuasiveness of the
speech.

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Effective instruction uses questioning


strategies, evidence from historical
documents, evaluation of information, and
synthesis of conceptual understanding to help
students develop inquiry-based knowledge
and frame essential questions as the basis for
research in history/social studies. How can
teachers help students to develop research
skills through the framing of essential
questions of history/social studies content?
What are some examples of effective
research questions at each grade level?
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Part IV History/Social
Studies Literacy:
Expository Writing

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Core 2012

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Civilization has always been based on


codified norms and recorded through writing.
Writing is the concrete manifestation of
thinking. Writing allows for organization of the
thinking process, cognitive interactions with
content, development of logic, and creative or
unique presentation of how thinking can be
shared. This is our legacy that we share with
our students today and into the future.
(Kidwell, 2011)

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Formulate

essential questions
Use and present research
Evaluate sources of information
Differentiate between fact and opinion
Develop supporting evidence
Address the issue of significance
Communicate and present conclusions and
evaluative summaries with logic and
reasoning

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Persuasive

writing
Reflective writing
Summarizing
Reporting information
Letter-writing
Presentation of ideas and viewpoints
Narrative
Synthesizing or developing
interrelationships between events, eras, the
disciplines of history/social studies
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Explain a process
Narration of a historical event
Analyze cause and effect connections
Compare and contrast
Analyze problems and present solutions
Develop a thesis statement or reasonable hypothesis based on
factual evidence
Present and defend a position with supporting documentation
Build a persuasive argument or propose a solution
Write about literature, including historical sources and historical
fiction
Create visuals to support expository writing (timelines, graphic
organizers, charts, etc.)
Develop a multi-media presentation using quotations, key ideas,
visuals, and conclusive evidence for specific audience or purpose;

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Write a letter to a congressional representative stating a


position
Describe a day in the life of a historical figure
Outline the similarities and differences of historical events,
eras, cultures, political regimes, etc.
Summarize a community issue or problem and pose a
solution
Analyze historical cause and effect factors on the Crusades,
Imperialism in Africa, the Boston Tea Party, the French
Revolution, the industrial revolution, World War I, World War
II, or other historical events
Explain the historical significance of an event or era
Explain the effects of economic, geographic, cultural, or
political issues in contemporary society or global relations
Support or present opposition to a law or regulation
Describe primary sources to support/oppose court rulings
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Direct instruction on the writing process


Teacher-directed discussion on expectations and
requirements with particular attention on the avoidance of
plagiarism
Rubric review and examination of samples of writing
Direct instruction and discussion on how to research
credible sources of information, how to differentiate
secondary from primary resources, how to evaluate sources
of information, and how to identify bias and opinion
Modeling of patterns of logic and reasoning
Identification and teaching of the appropriate academic
vocabulary that applies specifically to the topic as well as
generic words that pertain to the genre in which students
are writing
Provision of adequate time for students to review and revise
for ongoing improvement
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Analyze the writing prompt and place it in the


proper context
Determine the purpose
Consider the audience
Develop a thesis statement
Collect, research, and sort information
Share and discuss knowledge among students
regarding the topic
Evaluate information that is significant, identify
related variables, and determine how to reconcile
seemingly incongruent facts

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Develop an outline or graphic organizer into an essay with an


introduction, body and conclusion.
Start the essay with a hook such as a quotation or an interesting
fact
Direct the reader to the essential question and the thesis in the
introductory paragraph
Develop the thesis in straightforward and concise wording using
opinion authoritatively with supporting detail
Compare draft outline to assignment or writing prompt
Construct each paragraph with a main idea, general and specific
details (three to four details), and a transition or conclusion. In the
body of the essay, students should start with the weakest
argument and progress to other questions raised.
Review the conclusion paragraph for clarity, specificity, and logic.
Rather than offering a simple summary, the formal history/social
studies essay concludes by restating the thesis and applying the
analysis to a broader context to show significance.
Review the introduction paragraph for overall consistency
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Provide support over time for ongoing improvement


Use tools such as word sorting activities,
computerized word banks, or a thesaurus for word
choice variety and specificity
Utilize strategies such as peer review, read-alouds,
and question-the-author
Verify that the message is clear, logical, and supported
Reread for consistency, coherency, and clarity
Check for punctuation, complete sentences, capitals,
grammar, and paragraph structure
Review for appropriate and consistent text features
such as font sizes, bold and italicized print, labels,
charts, maps and pictures
Include the source citations, bibliography, and
footnotes in the appropriate format
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CCSS Standard: Writing Standards K-5 - Text Types & Purposes


3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short
sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use
temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

In the Past

Sequencing
Chronological

Interviewing
Paragraph
development
by direct
instruction

After interviewing a
grandparent, the teacher
will provide guided
instruction on paragraph
development and linking
of events in a sequential
format in summarizing a
story from the past.
Students demonstrate
their knowledge of
sequencing through
appropriate vocabulary
and paragraph structure.

development
Temporal
vocabulary
Related detail
and information
Summarize

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CCSS Standard: Writing Standards K-5 - Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of
different aspects of a topic.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic or Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

Spanish Colonial Period

Research
Writing
Summary
Multiple
perspectives
Use of detail
Compare and
contrast

Writing - historical
imagining and use
of factual detail

Students will write


accounts of the
founding of the
Spanish Missions in
California from the
perspective of the
American Indian, the
Spanish Explorer, the
missionary, and the
first woman to travel to
the mission from the
Eastern United States.

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CCSS Standard: Writing Standards 6-12 - Text Types and Purposes


1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and address alternate or opposing claims, and organize the
reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) or counterarguments with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using
accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among
claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument
presented.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic or
Unit

Skill Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

Ancient Rome

Writing to
support a position
Reading
comprehension
Use of
supporting
evidence
Analysis and
evaluation
Logic and
reasoning

DocumentBased
Question
Format

Students will be given the prompt,


What were the primary reasons for
the fall of Rome? They will analyze 56 primary source documents including
maps, excerpts, charts, artwork, etc.
Using evidence from the documents,
they will introduce and support their
claim regarding the cause of the fall of
Rome as well as acknowledging
opposing claims.

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CCSS Standard: Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12 Text Types and Purposes
1. Write arguments focused on U.S. History content.
a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the
claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s),
counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence
for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a
discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audiences knowledge level, concerns, values, and
possible biases.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create
cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and
between claim(s) and counterclaims.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of
the discipline in which they are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

11

Industrial
Revolution

Taking a position and


defending it
Analysis of primary
sources
Persuasive writing
Evaluation of
information
Multiple perspectives
Writing fluency and
form

DocumentBased
Question
format

Students will be given the prompt,


The Gilded Age: Captains of Industry
or Robber Barons? They will analyze
a variety of primary and secondary
sources about the Big Business
leaders of the Gilded Age. Using
evidence from the sources, they will
introduce and support their claim with
logical reasoning as well as
acknowledge opposing57claims.

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

What are some examples of critical


elements that need to be included in a welldeveloped history/social studies writing
prompt? What elements should be included
in the corresponding rubric?

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Part V History/Social
Studies Literacy:
Academic Vocabulary

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Core 2012

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The student who is proficient in academic


vocabulary in history/social studies will have had
specific instruction in vocabulary from the
domains of geography, economics, history, and
civic education. The student will be able to
access meaning and inference of the domainspecific vocabulary to read, understand, and
interpret historical documents, historical
literature, primary sources, graphic
representations, quantitative information, and
other sources of information.
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Vocabulary development is critical to both a


students ability to read with a high level of
comprehension in all social studies domains and
to write effectively with purpose and clarity. To be
an effective reader of social studies, a student
must be able to:
access the content
recognize subtexts and connotation
make inferences
use essential vocabulary in his or her writing to
convey ideas and demonstrate understanding of
historical concepts and content.
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1)
2)

3)
4)
5)
6)

The teacher provides a description,


explanation or example
Students re-state or re-explain meaning in
their own words
Students construct a picture, graphic, or
symbol for each word
Students engage in an activity to expand
their word knowledge
Students discuss vocabulary words with one
another
Student play games with the words
(Marzano, 2004)
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62

One of the most essential components in


teaching and learning history is the integration
and use of primary source material to discover
and evaluate the past; however, integrating
primary sources in the classroom is often
more difficult than it sounds. Reading and
analyzing historical documents often include
antiquated and unfamiliar language and the
conventions can be challenging. Teachers
must be able to help students recognize the
terms that are the critical to maximizing
historical understanding.
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63

A model lesson on Abraham Lincoln begins with framing the


research question, Was Lincoln a Racist? The teacher may use the
following primary source excerpt of Douglas speech in the first debate
between Lincoln and Douglas at Ottawa, Illinois on August 21, 1858 as one
source for students to analyze differing perspectives. To help students fully
comprehend the passage, vocabulary instruction is necessary.
If you desire Negro citizenship, if you desire to allow them to come
into the State and settle with the White man, if you desire them to vote on
an equality with yourselves, and to make them eligible to office, to serve on
juries, and to judge your rights, then support Mr. Lincoln and the Black
Republican party, who are in favor of the citizenship of the Negro. For one,
I am opposed to Negro citizenship in any and every form. I believe this
government was made . . . by White men, for the benefit of White men and
their posterity forever. . .Mr. Lincoln believes that the Negro was born his
equal and yours, and that he was endowed with equality by the Almighty,
and that no human law can deprive him of these rights.
Stephen A. Douglas, argument in the first Lincoln-Douglas debate at Ottawa, Illinois, August 21, 1858.
http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2221:1.lincoln (Stanford History Education Group, 2009)

IN THE SELECTED EXCERPT, WHAT VOCABULARY


WORDS MAY NEED PRE-TEACHING?
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Part VI History/Social
Studies Literacy:
Speaking and Listening

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common


Core 2012

65

History/social studies, like any discipline


that teaches meaningful interaction between
concepts and cognitive skills, also provides
opportunities for students to present their
knowledge, engage in dialogue with those
who have expertise, explore new ideas
through discussion, and to learn how to
consider multiple perspectives through
listening and speaking.

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66

A critical learning goal for students


includes the ability to develop effective
participatory skills and interactions.
Beginning in the earliest grades, students are
learning how to function in a group and how to
participate in social systems with fairness,
courtesy, and respect. Speaking and listening
skills provide the structure through which
students can engage in informed discussion,
civil discourse, disagreement with respect,
and an understanding of the rights of
individuals to hold disparate views and
philosophical orientations.
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67

Speaking and presenting information on


knowledge, positions, and issues
Posing questions and engaging in dialogue
Using listening skills to gain understanding
Working in groups
Learning from others and constructive criticism
Building consensus
Debating and discussing
Gathering information and considering multiple
perspectives
Compromising
Engaging in civil discourse
Learning respect, restraint, and taking turns

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68

Pair-share

activities
Oral reports
Group presentations
Structured debate
Informed classroom discussion
Round-robin discussion contributions
Service learning project presentations
Use of multi-media aids
Voting by thumbs-up
Presenting before a panel of judges
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

69

CCSS Standard: Speaking & Listening Standards K-5 - Comprehension and


Collaboration
1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1
topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care,
speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
b. Build on others talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others
through multiple exchanges.
c. Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under
discussion.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic or
Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

Civic
Education
participatory
skills

Listening
Speaking
Participating
in a group
Civil
discourse and
respectful
dialogue
Formulating
questions

Class
discussion
and
democratic
participation

Students develop classroom rules


about large group discussion
sessions through participatory
dialogue. The teacher will
facilitate the session and record
the rules. Students will vote on
the rules to be adopted. The rules
will be posted in the classroom.

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70

CCSS Standard: Speaking & Listening Standards 6-12 - Presentation of Knowledge


& Ideas
5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual
displays in presentations to clarify information.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic or
Unit

Skill Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

Ancient
Civilizations

Speaking skills
Communication
skills
Summary of
information
Compare and
contrast
Creative
presentation

Power Point
presentation to
present a
specific topic
and
summarize
information

Using Power Point


presentation, students will
create a slide show
demonstrating their
knowledge of how the roots
of democracy and rule of
law was practiced in
Mesopotamia, ancient
Greece, and ancient China.

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71

CCSS Standard: Writing Standards for Literacy in H/SS, etc. 6-12 Text Types and Purposes
2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/experiments or technical processes.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into
broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g.
charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
information and examples.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships between ideas and
concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation
presented.

Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

Bill of Rights;
Constitutional
Convention;

Analytical
Thinking
Creative
Application of
Ideas
Participating in a
group
Civil discourse
and respectful
dialogue

Research skills
Analytical and
evaluative skills
Taking a position and
defending it
Small group to large
group discussion
Graphic organizers

In small groups, discuss the


reasons for inclusion of the Bill of
Rights in the Constitution. Share
reasons with the larger group .
Conduct a class discussion on why
they have or have not proven to be
significant in American history.
Students will summarize the
discussion with graphic
organizers.

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72

Part VII History/Social


Studies Literacy:
Civic Education

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common


Core 2012

73

Civic education provides the information on how


a democracy works but includes the teaching of
cognitive skills and participatory skills that support
active engagement in governance and social wellbeing. Civic education requires skills in expository
reading and writing for students to become informed
citizens. Civic education provides relevancy in the
curriculum for our future leaders and citizens.
The four components of high-quality civic
education are:

Knowledge and foundational content information

Cognitive or higher-order thinking skills


Participatory skills
Civic attitudes and dispositions

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

74

Historical information and content knowledge in


geography, economics, socio-demographics, and
government;
An understanding of how the disciplines of
government, economics, geography, and history are
interrelated and interconnected;
An understanding of how government works;
Knowledge of the philosophical and political
foundations of democracy;
Synthesis of the foundations of democracy and the
effect of globalization on geo-political issues, socioeconomic principles, domestic policy, and international
affairs;
An awareness and understanding of current events.
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

75

Recalling and recognizing foundational content


knowledge
Comparing and contrasting information
Understanding and applying concepts, structures, and
models
Analyzing information
Evaluating ideas, theories, and proposals
Evaluating sources of information
Drawing logical conclusions
Defending a position through fact-finding and
reasoning
Synthesizing knowledge and content from related
fields through cause and effect, identification of key
variables, and mitigating/intensifying factors
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

76

Speaking

and listening skills


Working together in groups
Consensus building to reach decisions
Debate and informed discussion
Gathering and analyzing information and
multiple perspectives
Recognition of bias and point-of-view
Compromise
Civil discourse
Respect for diversity and individual
differences
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

77

Democratic

values and principles


Informed decision-making processes
Participation in civil society with an
understanding of the common good and a
sense of community while protecting the rights
of individuals
Reasoned commitment
Civic engagement
Respect for legitimate authority and the rule of
law
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78

Begin with a strong foundation in history and the foundations of


democracy knowledge but reinforce with classroom activities in
which students:
Prepare and participate in structured debate
Engage in informed discussion with civil discourse
Analyze current events
Develop presentations such as proposals for community issues
and improvement
Interview public figures and government staff
Research and present positions, defending it with supporting
documentation and facts
Work collaboratively in student work groups to propose public
policy, create a mock trial, hold a mock hearing, or develop service
learning projects
Explore active citizenship and community projects
Make sense of a democratic system based on multiple
perspectives and competing interests.
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79

CCSS Standard: Writing Standards K-5 Text Types and Purposes

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which
ideas are logically grouped to support the writers purpose.
Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g. consequently, specifically).
Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

Constitution
of the United
States,
government,
democracy

Analytical
Thinking
Creative
Application of
Ideas
Participating in a
group
Civil discourse
and respectful
dialogue
Expository
Writing

Class discussion
Group collaboration
Informative and
Summary Writing

Engage students in a process to


develop a Preamble and Bill of
Rights for their classroom. Begin
by asking students to:
Identify the rights and
responsibilities of the school, the
teacher, and the students.
Identify specific problems or
potential problems that may violate
the rights of the school, teacher,
and students.
Post the Preamble and the Bill of
Rights in the classroom and ask
students to write
informative/explanatory text that
conveys the process, purpose,
rationale, and ideas of their Bill of
Rights.

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80

CCSS Standard: Reading Standards for Informational Texts 6-12 Key Ideas and
Details
Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the
course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic or
Unit

Skill Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

Ancient Rome
and
foundations of
democracy

Reading a
Primary Source
document
Participatory
skills including
civil discourse
and consensus
building
Analytical and
evaluative skills
Communication
skills

Small group
discussion and
collaboration;
Analysis of an
historical
primary source;
Class
discussion
Collaborative
group work;

In small groups, students


select one of the tables of
the 12 Tables of Roman
Law and read the included
laws. Determine the key
ideas and central purpose
of each law. Draw
inferences about Roman
society and political values
of Roman society. Students
present their findings.

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

81

CCSS Standard: Speaking & Listening Standards 6-12 Presentation of Knowledge


& Ideas
4. Present claims and findings (e.g., argument,
narrative, response to literature presentations), emphasizing salient points in a
focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and wellchosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear
pronunciation.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill Development

Instructional
Strategy

Participatory
Service
skills including
Learning
civil discourse
and consensus
building
Research skills
Analytical and
evaluative skills
Interviewing
skills
Communication
skills
Creative
thinking
Presentation
of 2012
History/Social Studies Literacy
& the Common Core
Current
Issues, Local
government

Classroom Activity

As a class project, students will


research a public policy issue
and interview appropriate
officials to develop a class
proposal that will be presented in
four parts: the problem or issue,
possible solutions or policies, a
class-developed policy, and an
action plan to present the class
policy. Students will present the
project to the appropriate
authority agency or board.
82

CCSS Standard: Writing Standards for Literacy in H/SS, etc. 6-12 Text Types and Purposes
2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/experiments or technical processes.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into
broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g.
charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
information and examples.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships between ideas and
concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation
presented.
Grade
Level

History/Social
Studies Topic
or Unit

Skill
Development

Instructional
Strategy

Classroom Activity

11

20th Century
and PostWW1

Research skills
Analytical and
evaluative skills
Taking a position
and defending it
Expository
Writing

Research and
expository writing

Evaluate President Woodrow


Wilsons Fourteen Points and other
sources of information about the
time period to explain how the
principle of self-determination of
people became a rallying point for
ethnic minorities in European
empires and colonized peoples in
Africa and Asia. Present
conclusion and supporting detail in
essay form.

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

83

What types of student presentations and


exhibitions would prepare students for roles
as citizens, future leaders, and collaborative
participants? At which grade levels would
these types of learning activities be most
effective?

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

84

Part VIII Integrating


History/Social Studies and English
Language Arts for English
Learners

2012

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common


Core 2012

85

For English learner (EL) students, the


traditional channels through which students
learn History/Social Studies content via
English language arts instruction may be
blocked with cultural and linguistic obstacles.
There are specific challenges facing the EL
student to consider and there are strategies
that have proven effective in assisting EL
students in the classroom.
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

86

An abundance of idioms and figurative language in English


language arts texts
Density of unfamiliar vocabulary
Use of homonyms and synonyms
Grammar usage; especially the exceptions to the rules
Word order, sentence structure, and syntax
Difficult text structure with a topic sentence, supporting details and
conclusion
Unfamiliarity with the connotative and denotative meanings of
words
Possible lack of experience and practice with expressing an
opinion about the text
Use of regional U.S. dialects
Literary terms for story development are not understood
Unfamiliarity with drawing conclusions, analyzing characters, and
predicting outcomes
Imagery and symbolism in text
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

87

Use

role plays to make abstract concepts


concrete
Create analogies to help students link the
unfamiliar with the familiar
Pre-teach reading assignments to help
struggling readers
Use graphic organizers and representation
to assist in understanding
Create opportunities for jigsaw learning to
provide reading and study support
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

88

The student that is proficient in


history/social studies will have had
opportunities to explore and develop in-depth
understandings of the role of history-social
science content knowledge, diversity and
multiculturalism, civic education, 21st century
skills, and current events. How will the full
spectrum of high quality history-social studies
instruction be evaluated and assessed for all
students?
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

89

Part IX Research-Based
Instructional Tools, Companion
Documents, References,
Acknowledgements
2012

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common


Core 2012

90

Simulated Hearings and Mock Trials


`
Simulated hearings and mock trials offer students an opportunity to
show what they know through prepared presentation as well as the followup questioning and persuasive discourse to strengthen the notion that
applied knowledge will sharpen the skills of writing, reading, speaking and
listening. Most often, students are working on these projects in
collaborative groups and they are going outside of the school milieu to gain
insights and knowledge of the justice system, local government, governing
agencies, and community. This type of activity has been shown to engage
students with active learning and reinforces participatory skills,
collaborative skills, critical thinking, creative thinking, and development of
anticipatory response to the audience and the question.
Economic Simulations
In economic simulations and activities, students learn about the
how-to of microeconomics, monetary policy, the stock market, supply and
demand, international trade, and the world of finance. Students experience
the opportunity cost of decisions and trade-offs. Students that have the
opportunity to discuss the real-world implications of the economic
simulation will better understand the complexity of political, environmental,
social, and current events issues. Simulations require students to use all of
the critical thinking skills, organization of information, and collaborative
skills that mirror real-world decision-making, public policy, and
contemporary social issues.
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

91

Informed Classroom Discussion


Classroom discussion that is structured to explore issues and confront
misconceptions and bias can be one of the most effective teaching strategies in
promoting reasoned thinking and decision-making skills. Listening and speaking skills
are reinforced as well as civil discourse, learning to disagree with respect, and
recognizing that multiple perspectives are part of our democratic foundation of
diversity and respect for the individual. Effective strategies include appropriate
preparation for students with factual information, differing viewpoints, understanding
bias, determination of purpose, and evaluating sources of information. Expository
reading, note-taking, civil discourse, questioning strategies, and supporting evidence
are skills that are reinforced in classes that practice informed group discussion.

Environmental Education Initiative


This curriculum is available at no cost through the California Department of
Education. The curriculum provides modules that connect history-social studies,
science, and environmental studies in lessons for grades K-12. The curriculum
reinforces the integration of disciplines and encourages the students to understand the
inter-connectedness of variables in learning about the environment, geography,
community, and issues of public concern. The curriculum is downloadable at
www.CaliforniaEEI.org

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

92

Interactive Mapping and Historical Resources


Numerous websites, including the teacher tools on the National
Geographic Society website, have maps and activities for instruction with
interactive white boards, on computers, and as demonstrations. Many
websites host a plethora of primary source documents, teacher tools,
writing prompts, and lesson activities in all ranges of history/social studies
literacy.

Debate
Student debate is an exceptional way for authentic assessment of
student knowledge and applied thinking skills. As students develop a forand against-position, they are using skills of reading, writing, research,
listening, speaking, and higher-order thinking. The formal structure of
opening statement, rebuttal, position, and closing argument mirrors legal
formats and provides an opportunity to present knowledge in a civil
discourse model.
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93

Service Learning
The California Department of Education defines service-learning as an
instructional strategy whereby students learn academic content standards by
participating in organized service that addresses community needs and fosters civic
responsibility. Students learn through active participation in projects that meet the
needs of a community issue identified by youth and driven by youth voice. It meets a
real community need and is often coordinated with community organizations and
partners. Service learning fosters civic responsibility, civic understandings, and civic
engagement. It is integrated into and enhances the curriculum of the students and
incorporates all of the literacy skills as outlined in the Common Core State Standards.
Curricula such as Project Citizen (Center for Civic Education) and the Civic Action
Project (Constitutional Rights Foundation) are service learning projects that feature
public policy development, active involvement, public presentation, and group
projects.

Problem-Based Inquiry and Project-Based Learning


An effective hook for student engagement and high student involvement in the
learning process is to pose a problem to students and allow the natural curiosity and
student interest to take initiative in developing a project based on research, inquiry,
creative problem solving, and presentation. Project curricula is available from
institutions such as the Buck Institute for Problem-Based Learning, the Choices
Project from Brown University, and other non-profit learning organizations.

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94

Document-Based Questions (DBQs)


The DBQ Project is a well-developed product that
provides students in-depth interaction with primary and
secondary source historical documents about United States
and world history events. DBQ tasks/activities support the
English language arts standards through the study and
analysis of primary source and secondary source historical
documents, critical thinking skills, discussion activities,
group work, and writing. The materials provide a step-bystep process for students to develop the thinking process as
they organize the structure of their essays and build their
arguments. Students use the material within those
documents to support their own thesis in answer to a
meaningful focus question, as they develop a persuasive or
point-of-view essay.
95

History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

California Department of Education, Californias Common Core Content


Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies,
Science, and Technical Subjects (2010) http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cc/
California Department of Education, History-Social Science Framework for
California Public Schools Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, (2005)
http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/documents/histsocsciframe.pdf
California Department of Education, History-Social Science Framework
Update (2010) http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/hs/cf/index.asp
Herczog, M. et. al., Preparing Students for College, Career and
CITIZENSHIP: A Guide to Align Civic Education and the Common Core
State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social
Studies, Science and Technical Subjects (2011) www.lacoe.edu
Guardian of Democracy: The Civic Mission of Schools produced by the
Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools in partnership with the Leonore
Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the
University of Pennsylvania, the National Conference on Citizenship, the
Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement at
Tufts University, and the American Bar Association Division for Public
Education Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools: Educating for
Democracy (2011). http://www.civicmissionofschools.org/thecampaign/guardian-of-democracy-report

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California Department of Education (2010). Californias Common


Core Content Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in
History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects.

Californias Common Core State Standards


http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cc/

California Department of Education (2005). History-Social Science


Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten through
Grade Twelve.
http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/documents/histsocsciframe.pdf
California Department of Education (2010). History-Social Science
Framework Update. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/hs/cf/index.asp
Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools: Educating for
Democracy (2011). Guardian of democracy: The civic mission of
schools, Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics, University of
Pennsylvania, CIRCLE, National Conference on Citizenship,
American Bar Association Division for Public Education.
http://www.civicmissionofschools.org/the-campaign/guardian-ofdemocracy-report
Center for Civic Education, Los Angeles County Office of
Education, and the California, Department of Education (2003).
Education for Democracy: California Civic Education Scope and
Sequence
History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

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The Center for Critical Thinking (accessed 2012).


http://www.criticalthinking.org
Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching at Iowa State
University (2012). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and
Assessing: A Revision of Blooms Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives. Accessed August 27,2012 at
www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/RevisedBlooms1.html
Herczog, Michelle, et al (2011). Preparing Students for College,
Career and CITIZENSHIP: A Guide to Align Civic Education and
the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and
Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects.
www.lacoe.edu
Hess, Diana E. (2009). Controversy in the Classroom: The
Democratic Power of Discussion. New York: Routledge.
Kahne, J., Middaugh, E. (2008). Democracy for Some: the Civic
Opportunity Gap in High School. CIRCLE Working Paper 59.
Kidwell, F.L., Branson, M., Croddy, M., Hale, J., (2008). Civic
Education in California: Policy Recommendations: Educating for
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Linking Service-Learning and the California History-Social


Science Standards (2002). Los Angeles County Office of
Education. www.lacoe.edu/servicelearningla
Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building background knowledge for
academic achievement: Research on what works in schools.
Alexandria, VA: ASCDPartnership for 21st Century Skills (2011).
P21 Common Core Toolkit: A guide to Aligning the Common Core
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Schleppegrell, M. (2009). History Summit III Presentation.
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Stanford History Education Group. Sam Wineburg. (2009).
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Torney-Purta, J. & Wilkenfeld, B.S. (2009). Paths to 21st Century
Competencies Through Civic Education Classrooms: an Analysis
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Frances L. (Cricket) Kidwell, Ed.D., Trinity County


Office of Education
Avi Black, Alameda County Office of Education
Lisette Estrella-Henderson, Solano County Office
of Education
Deborah Granger, Ed.D., Orange County
Department of Education
Michelle Herczog, Ed.D., Los Angeles County
Office of Education
Marsha Ingrao, Tulare County Office of Education
Laurie Mosier, San Diego County Office of
Education
Leslie Smith, San Bernardino County Office of
Education

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