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Chapters 18 & 20

Human-Environment
Interaction

Chapter 18, Section 3 (pgs. 424-427)

L1 HW Review Qs
Identify & Example (2 sentences)
1) erosion 2) organic 3) respiratory 4) irrigate
Main Idea (3-5 sentences)
What are some solutions for desertification?
Summarize (6 sentences)
The Process of Desertification (Merit Option x2)
Pros & Cons of Aswan High Dam (Merit Option)
Critical Thinking (5-7 sentences)
Has oil been a blessing or a curse for Nigeria?

What is Desertification?

Sahel: shore of the


desert in Arabic
Narrow strip of
grassland along
south of Sahara
Desert

Desertification:
expansion of dry
conditions into
moist areas
Human activity is
speeding up the
process

Causes of Desertification

Causes:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Overgrazing of vegetation by livestock =


soil erosion
Farming: clearing land = exposure to wind
erosion
Drilling = increased salt levels prevent
the growth of vegetation
Overpopulation: more people require more
food wastes:
a)
b)
c)

Clear land = crops


Burn wood = fuel
Overfarm = soil erosion
A + B + C = D: famine (mass starvation) =
resource conflict (war

Creative Solutions
Creative Solutions:
Two years ago, the UN
referred to
desertification as the
greatest environmental
challenge of our
times.
Solutions:
a) Wildlife/environme
ntal protection laws
b) Tree planting
(legislated)
c) Restocking soil with
organic matter
(nutrient
replenishment)

1. Great Green Belt:


plant vegetation
around edges of
desert
2. Magnus Larssons
vision: 6,000 km-long
sandstone structure
solidified by bacteria
introduced in quantity
& rapidly

Nigeria & Oil

Nigeria = 6th leading oil exporter in the


world
2 million barrels extracted/day
Oil = 80-90% of Nigerias income

1970s = high oil prices


Nigeria borrowed against future sale of oil

1990s: oil price falls = Nigeria in debt


Mismanagement, poor planning, corruption +
decline in oil prices = Nigeria poorer than
before oil boom

The Destruction of Oil

+4,000 oil spills in Niger


delta
Cleanups slow or nonexistent
Effect: fires = acid rain &
ash = respiratory diseases

1998-2000, oil pipeline


explosions killed +2,000
people
Explosions NOT accidental;
bandits & corrupt officials
drain fuel and resell it

Controlling the Nile

Throughout history, Egypt has tried to


control the Nile River

Despite efforts, Egypt experience cycles


of droughts & floods

1902: Aswan Dam was built


1970: Aswan High Dam was completed
Created artificial Lake Nasser (stretches
480km)
Controls Niles floodwater, releasing it
so farmers can irrigate effectively = 2 or
3 harvest per year
Farmable land increased by 50%

Relocation:

Dam Issues

Massive human-environment development


projects (such as dams) affect wide area with
big population

Culture loss:

Nubians relocated = lose way of life


Ancient treasures at temples at Abu Simel
moved; others lost in the lake

Sediment lacking:

Nile does not deposit silt: rich soil


Farmers use artificial fertilizers
Year-round irrigation increases soil salt
levels

Still Water issues:


Mosquitoes (carrying malaria) thrive in still
waters
Evaporation = millions of liters

Todays Issues:
Economic Development

Chapter 20, Section 1 (pgs. 460-463)

L2 HW Review Qs
Identify & Example (2 sentences)
1) extract 2) exploit 3) fluctuate 4) equity 5) wages
Main Idea (3-5 sentences)
How has colonialism affected African governance?
How has colonialism affected Africas economy today?
What is a one-commodity economy? What is the solution?
Summarize (6 sentences)
Why Education (Merit Option) A3 Poster = up to 5 MC
Critical Thinking (5-7 sentences)
Have International Economic Institutions hurt or helped
Africas economy?

A History of Problems

Colonization did not


prepare Africa for
independence
Infrastructure based on
resource extraction not
economic development

Africas resources &


people exploited
Millions sold into slavery
Millions killed obtaining
raw materials for foreign
interests (mercantilism)

Africa has been mined


& drilled with little
regard for the
environment
History of Exploitation
= political instability =
poor economic growth

Africas Economy Today

Post-independence (1960s)
many African countries =
worse off than before
Africas total economy =
Argentina

2/3 of African countries =


less than $765 Gross National
Income/person
Africa = resource &
population rich
Africa = 2.5% total world
GNP
1.5% total world exports

Infrastructure (roads,
airports, railroads &
ports + water pipelines,
electricity/telephone
poles, etc.,) not in good
condition
Most Africans dont
have access to
computers or other
high technology

Africa in Debt
African debt statistics:

International Monetary Fund


(IMF)

Founded in 1944, help world


economy recover from WWII
IMF has universal membership
Gives loans to less-developed
countries = cycles of debt

World Bank

Created to address
reconstruction post-WWII
Provides loans & technical
assistance for development
projects

When colonization ceased to be


profitable for colonizers, they left
Africa without money for
transportation, education & business

1970: $11 billion


2002: $295 billion
Debts owed to IMF & World
Bank: $153 billion

All that we had borrowed up


to 1985 or 1986 was around $5
billion and we have paid about
$16 billion yet we are still being
told that we owe about $28
billion. That $28 billion came
about because of the injustice in
the foreign creditors' interest
rates. President Obasanjo of
Nigeria

Third World Debt Kills

Poor countries must sacrifice


health & education spending
and prioritize debt repayment
Rich countries protect their
agricultural markets but force
poor to open their markets =
flooding of products = local
people lose businesses and
livelihoods
11 million children die per year
due to poverty (children
defined as under the age of five)

No Children = No
Future

According to UNICEF, over 500,000 children under the age of five died
each year in Africa and Latin America in the late 1980s as a direct result
of the debt crisis and its management under the International Monetary
Funds structural adjustment programs. These programs required the
abolition of price supports on essential food-stuffs, steep reductions in
spending on health, education, and other social services, and increases in
taxes. The debt crisis has never been resolved for much of sub-Saharan
Africa. Extrapolating from the UNICEF data, as many as 5,000,000
children and vulnerable adults may have lost their lives in this
blighted continent as a result of the debt crunch.
Ross P. Buckley, The Rich Borrow and the Poor Repay: The Fatal Flaw in
International Finance, World Policy Journal, Volume XIX, No 4, Winter
2002/03
Source cite: http://www.globalissues.org/article/30/the-scale-of-the-debt-crisis

Economic Solutions

Economies of many
African nations based on
export of raw materials,
or little/no
manufacturing
Most African nations =
one-commodity
countries: export one or
two main products
(agricultural or mining)

Commodity prices
fluctuate based on
worldwide supply &
demand
One-commodity countries
= unstable economies

Solution = diversification:
create variety in economy
& promote manufacturing

And of course, Education

Education =
High level skills
Job training/preparation
Innovation/creativity

2004, African primary school


enrollment rate = 67% (lowest of
any world region)
42% of African school children will
drop out before end of primary
education
141 million East Africans live on
less than $2/day
Cost of education = main obstacle

Brain Drain: the


departure of African
professionals to Western
countries
Pull factor: better jobs,
higher salaries, better
technology, better quality
of life
Push factors: lower
salaries, lack of
resources/tools, poor
quality of life

Why Education?
Innovation
Peaceful Voice
a) Lessens armed conflict
b) Youth less likely to engage
in crime, violence or armed
militias

Gender Equity
a) Increased wages for women
= better families
b) Women with careers marry
later = smaller families (less
children)

Improved Health Ed.


a) Lessens infant mortality rate
b) Smaller families = healthier

a) Every year of math learned =


62% of girls more likely to
start business as an adult

Economic Growth
a) More job opportunities
b) No country has ever achieved
continuous economic growth
with less than a 40% adult
literacy rate

Higher Wages
a) Every year of education =
boys earn 10% higher wages,
girls earn 25% higher wages

Health Care in Africa

Chapter 20, Section 2

L3 HW Review Qs
Essay Question (500-1000 words)
What is the status of Health Care in Africa?
a) Have a thesis = most important argument
b) Specifically address all causes (do more research if necessary)
c) Do not isolate facts, analyze them

Health Care Issues

Developed nations:
Good health care
Universal education
Family planning
assistance
Healthy nutrition
options

Africa:
Few people have access
to medicine and
malnutrition is a
constant threat

Disease causes:
Lack of clean water
Inadequate sanitation

Malaria:

Carried by mosquitoes
Marked by chills & fevers
Often fatal
Malaria becomes resistant to
drugs over decades

AIDS/HIV

Stats: 70% child cases/80%


adult cases worldwide = in
Africa
Botswana/Zimbabwe:
+20% adult pop. is
infected
Millions of children have
been orphaned due to the
disease

Causes:
Insufficient educational
programs & financial
resources

Underlying Causes of
Health Care Issues
Causes:
Causes:
1) Lack of political will: avg.
govnt. expenditure on
health is 8%
2) Humanitarian aid money
not targeting health care
systems
3) Lack of access:
a) 46 countries in Africa have
less than 2.5 health
workers/1,000 people

4) Poverty:
a) 76% of African live on less
than $2/day; 45% less than
$1/day

5) Conflict: 10 countries deal with


internal conflict & insecurity

GDP is 2.2% less during civil


war

6) Poor nutrition: cycles of


poverty = inability to purchase
enough food
7) Gender inequity:

Tradition does not allow


women to have a say in their
health care needs
No education = no career =
early marriage (40% African
girls marry while still a child)
= larger families

Underlying Causes of
Health Care Issues (continued)
8) Lack of education:

49 million children not enrolled in primary school


22% of girls attend secondary school
+30% women 15-24 years old are illiterate

9) Lack of health infrastructure or facilities


Lack of access to water & sanitation
Lack of access to soap due to poverty

10) Inter-country inequity


75% of doctors (65% of nurses) work in urban areas

11) HIV/AIDS & other diseases


Sick kids cant go to school
Sick adults cant go to work = earn less = cycles of poverty

Solutions to
Health Care Issues

Country

1. Condom distribution:
Health education = good
decisions
Family planning
strategies

2. HIV/AIDS testing
Mobile testing that
reaches rural areas
Prevent mother-to-child
transmission of HIV

HIV % of pop.

Southern Africa

South Africa

18

Botswana

23

Swaziland

27

West Africa

Senegal

0.5

Cameroon

4.5

Nigeria

3.1

East Africa

Kenya

6.1

Uganda

7.2

Tanzania

5.1

Useful Sources

HIV and AIDs in sub-Saharan Africa by AVERT


http://www.avert.org/hiv-aids-sub-saharanafrica.htm

World Vision Africa Facts & Statistics


http://www.worldvision.de/_downloads/allgemein
/Africa_fact_sheet.pdf?mysid=4m9aiuiqkqv38v8svjcd
ss2jip78te0s

Research Project:
Save Africa

Assignment Instructions

Research

Research 3 non-governmental organizations that are


doing helpful work (related to the
economic/health/political) issues we have studied
Think about:
What are the root causes of the issue they are trying to
solve?
Where are they working?
What are their solutions to the issue?
How do they carry out their work?
Are they focusing on short-term solutions or longterm progress?

Technical Instructions

Title Page
Title
For example, Saving Africa: How the World Health
Organization, Doctors Without Borders & Right to Play are
Making a Difference

Name, Assignment Title, Class, Date


Right-indent, bottom of the page

Use subtitles in your Research Report

Per issue/NGO = 3 sources


Sources cited in footnotes (at least 1/paragraph)
All sources listed in bibliography
Appendix optional; graphics can be incorporated into the
Research Report

Useful websites

UNODC NGO advanced search:


https://www.unodc.org/ngo/showExtendedSearch
.do
Ten most innovative NGOs in the world:
http://www.fundsforngos.org/free-resources-forngos/ten-innovative-ngos-world/
Top 100 NGOs:
http://theglobaljournal.net/top100NGOs/
Doctors Without Borders: http://www.msf.org/
Right to Play:
http://www.righttoplay.com/Pages/default.aspx

Effects of Colonialism

Chapter 20 Case Study

L4 HW Review Qs
Identify & Example (2 sentences)
1) oppress 2) segregation 3) irony
Main Idea (3-5 sentences)
How did colonialism affect post-independence African
governments?
Summarize (6 sentences)
Mercantilism (Merit Option)
The Scramble for Africa (Merit Option x3)
Critical Thinking (5-7 sentences)
How ironic is it that the most resource rich continent is
blighted by crises of poverty, health care and poor
governance?

Africas
Riches
Start of 1800s: Africa =
home to great empires
& rich cultures (Zulu,
Ashanti, Hausa)
End of 1800s: Africa =
place of European
colonial power &
oppression
Today: poverty &
violence = direct result
of colonialism

The Scramble for Africa

1450s: Portugal searching


for trade routes to India
(for spices)
Set up plantations off
West coast of Africa =
beginning of slavery

The Scramble for Africa:


other European countries
set up colonies to exploit
rich natural resources

The goal of colonialism:


mercantilism
Raw materials = fuel for
industrialization
Africa = markets for
Euro. manufactured
goods

Infrastructure = resource
extraction
NOT for in-country
transportation &
communication

1884 Berlin Conference

Post-Independence
Challenges

1960s: most African


countries gain
independence
Govnt in Africa modeled
on European colonial rule:
no rule of law,
oppression, violence
Effect: no democratic
experience
Africa has suffered
through dictatorships &
civil wars = poor economy
& lack of human rights

Africa = incredible African


diversity
During scramble for
Africa Europeans grouped
different ethnicities in
national borders
Some groups are historical
enemies
Hutu vs. Tutsi in Rwanda &
Burundi = genocide (1990s)

Effect: no cooperation = no
stable govnt

Case Study:
South Africa

Apartheid: system of
govnt & legislation
that enforced majority
segregation by white
minority rule
Apartheid ended in
1994, ending decades of
racial discrimination &
social injustice

Case Study Qs:

A. What types of terrorist


tactics did King Leopold
II of Belgium use to
extract rubber from the
Congo?
B. How did European justify
their oppression of
Africa?
b) What is Kwame
Nkrumahs African
solution?

C. According to Ron Daniels,


why is African debt a tragic
irony?
D. How was Ghana able to
peacefully transition from a
military dictatorship to a
constitutional democracy?
E. How does Alan Kings
cartoon convey the
international communitys
lack of political will to help
Africa?