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PSZ 19:16 (Pind.

1/07)

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA


DECLARATION OF THESIS / UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT PAPER AND COPYRIGHT

SHAFIAH BINTI DOLHAKIM


Authors full name :

21 NOVEMBER 1985
Date of birth

Title

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF INCLINED COLUMN

2007/2008
Academic Session:
I declare that this thesis is classified as :

CONFIDENTIAL

(Contains confidential information under the Official Secret


Act 1972)*

RESTRICTED

(Contains restricted information as specified by the


organisation where research was done)*

OPEN ACCESS

I agree that my thesis to be published as online open access


(full text)

I acknowledged that Universiti Teknologi Malaysia reserves the right as follows :


1. The thesis is the property of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
2. The Library of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia has the right to make copies for the purpose
of research only.
3. The Library has the right to make copies of the thesis for academic exchange.

Certified by :

SIGNATURE

851121-13-5362

IR AZHAR AHMAD

(NEW IC NO. /PASSPORT NO.)

NAME OF SUPERVISOR

Date : 25 APRIL 2008

NOTES :

SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR

Date : 25 APRIL 2008

If the thesis is CONFIDENTIAL or RESTRICTED, please attach with the letter from
the organisation with period and reasons for confidentiality or restriction.

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I hereby declare that I have read this report and in my opinion this report is
sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of
Civil Engineering

Signature

_____________________________

Name of Supervisor

IR AZHAR AHMAD

Date

25 APRIL 2008

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ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF INCLINED COLUMN

SHAFIAH BINTI DOLHAKIM

A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Civil Engineering

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

25 APRIL, 2008

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ii

ANALISIS DAN REKABENTUK TIANG CONDONG

SHAFIAH BINTI DOLHAKIM

Tesis ini dikemukakan sebagai memenuhi


sebahagian daripada syarat penganugerahan
Ijazah Sarjana Muda Kejuruteraan Awam

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

25 APRIL, 2008

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iii

I declare that this report entitled Analysis and Design of Inclined Column is the
result of my own study except as cited in the references. The report has not been
accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of
any other degree.

Signature

________________________

Name

SHAFIAH BINTI DOLHAKIM

Date

25 APRIL 2008

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iv

Specially For;
My Parent
My sisters and brothers
Nephews and nieces
For giving me support, love, advices and encourage me all the times
And not forgotten to all my friends and lecturers
Wish we are success in our own future and God Bless us all

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to extend my outmost gratitude to Allah


SWT for giving me good health, enjoyable life and guiding me in completing this
study.

I am also grateful for the invaluable guidance to my supervisor, Mr Ir Azhar


Ahmad for his continuous guidance, support, encouragement and patience
throughout my research work. His suggestions and comments have given me the
courage and confidence to handle this research work and formed a valuable part of
this thesis.

I would also like to express my gratitude to my parent for their unreserved


support and concern for me to accomplish this study. Not forgotten to my family
members, group members, classmates, schoolmates and friends for giving me
brilliant ideas and advices and for supporting me on all the decisions that I have
made.

Thank you so much..

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vi

ABSTRAK

Kajian ini dijalankan bagi menentukan prosedur, kaedah dan formula


dalam merekabentuk tiang condong. Disebabkan pembangunan yang pesat pada
masa kini, elemen struktur seperti tiang boleh direkabentuk secara unik bagi
memperlihatkan nilai-nilai kesenian senibina sesuatu pembangunan. Kini, tiang
bukan sahaja boleh direkabentuk secara tegak tetapi juga condong. Rekabentuk ini
adalah berdasarkan spesifikasi yang terdapat dalam BS8110 dan juga merujuk
kepada kajian kes Cadangan Pembangunan Taman Ekologi, Hutan Bandar, Johor
Bahru yang telah diubahsuai. Tiang condong yang direkabentuk bergantung kepada
jenis struktur kerangka yang mana tiang ini menanggung beban graviti dan
dikenakan pada jasad tegar atau sesetengah kerangka dirembat. Satu set keputusan
diperolehi daripada kajian ini dan keputusan tersebut dibandingkan dengan
keputusan yang diperolehi daripada tiang biasa. Daripada analisis dan rekabentuk
tiang condong, dapat disimpulkan bahawa momen yang wujud daripada tiang
condong adalah lebih besar daripada momen tiang tegak. Ini adalah disebabkan oleh
wujudnya kesipian dan akibat pertambahan beban.

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vii

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, people prefer to construct buildings with sophisticated design due


to the rapid development. The structural elements such as column are also design
uniquely to show its aesthetic value. For instance, column is not longer build
vertically but it can be inclined. This research done to determine the procedure,
method and formula of designing an inclined column based on BS8110 and a case
study of Cadangan Pembangunan Taman Ekologi, Hutan Bandar, Johor Bahru that
had been modified. Inclined columns results from the type of structural framing
which are gravity load only columns and apply to both rigid and some braced frames.
A set of results have been obtained from this research and these results are compared
with the results in vertical column. Analysis and designing the inclined column leads
to the conclusions that the moment in the inclined column were larger than those in
the normal one due to the existing of eccentricity and the increasing of load.

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viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

TITLE PAGE

DECLARATION

iii

DEDICATION

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

vi

ABSTRAK

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

xii

LIST OF APPENDICES

xiii

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

1.2

Statement of Problem

1.3

Objectives

1.4

Scope of the Study

1.5

Significance of the Study

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ix

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Introduction to the Column

2.2

Inclined/ Leaning Column

2.2.1 Definition

2.2.2 Leaner Column / Inclined Column

2.3

Analysis

2.4

Types of Column

2.4.1 Braced and Unbraced Column

2.4.2 Short and Slender Column

2.5

Effective Height

10

2.6

End Condition

10

2.7

Mode of Failure

11

2.8

Load and Deflection

11

2.9

Design of Short column

13

2.9.1 Braced Short Column

14

2.9.2 Short Braced Columns Supporting

14

an Approximately Symmetrical
Arrangement of Beams (3.8.4.4)
2.9.3 Short Braced Columns Support Both

14

Moment and Axial Load ( 3.8.4.5)


2.10

Design of Slender Column

15

2.10.1 Braced Slender Column

16

2.10.2 Unbraced Slender Column

17

2.11

Design of Inclined Column

17

2.12

Frame Analysis

19

2.13

Main Reinforcement

21

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CHAPTER

TITLE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

22

3.1

Introduction

22

3.2

Method use to analyze structure

24

3.3

Case study

24

3.4

Design process

25

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

27

4.1

Introduction

27

4.2

Frame analysis

43

4.3

Column analysis

29

4.3.1

Inclined column

29

4.3.2

Vertical column

32

CHAPTER

PAGE

TITLE

PAGE

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

35

5.1

Introduction

35

5.2

Results from analysis and design

35

5.3

Comparison between inclined column and 37


vertical column.

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xi

CHAPTER

TITLE

CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

PAGE

38

6.1

Conclusions

38

6.2

Recommendations

39

REFERENCES

40

Appendices A-F

43

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xii

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE

TITLE

PAGE

2.2.2a

Inclined column.

2.4.1a

The building are braced in both direction.

2.4.1b

The building are unbraced in both direction.

2.4.1c

The building is braced in y direction but

unbraced in x direction.
2.8a

Inclined column subjected to eccentric axial

12

load.
2.8b

Simply supported column subjected to axial

13

load.
2.11

Relationship between load and bending moment

18

in inclined column.
2.12.1a

Type 1 braced frame.

19

2.12.1b

Type 2 braced frame.

20

2.12.1c

Type 3 braced frame.

21

3.1

Simplified research methodology in this study.

23

3.3

Front view of the building (case study).

25

4.2a

Roof Second Floor First Floor.

28

4.2b

First Floor Ground Floor -Foundation

28

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xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX.

TITLE

PAGE

Architecture drawing of case study

43

Frame Analysis - Braced Frame

44

Column Analysis Inclined column

46

Column Analysis Vertical column

53

Chart no 28 and chart no 29

61

Detailing of the column reinforcement

63

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

In structural engineering, a column is a vertical structural element that


transmits the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below
through compression. Columns can be either compounded of parts or made as a
single piece and frequently used to support beams, arches and slabs on which the
upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. Column refers specifically to such a structural
element that also has certain proportional and decorative features.

Design of columns is influenced by the ultimate limit state which is the


deflections and cracking during service conditions are not usually a problem, besides
correct detailing of the reinforcement and adequate cover are important.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Nowadays, people prefer to construct buildings with sophisticated design due


to the rapid development. The structural elements such as column are also design
uniquely to show its aesthetic value. For instance, column is not longer build
vertically but it can be inclined. This study done to determine the procedure, method

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and formula of designing inclined column based on BS8110 and a case study of
Cadangan Pembangunan Taman Ekologi Hutan Bandar, Johor Bahru focusing on the
analysis and designing a column only. However, the limitations of references make
the analysis of this research difficult. Thus, the specific solution cannot be obtained.
Furthermore, the design consideration in BS8110 is only specifically for vertical
column.

1.3 OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this study are:

i.

To analyze the equilibrium forces in inclined column.

ii.

To design an inclined column based on BS8110.

iii.

To find out the comparison between inclined column and vertical


column due to the method used and factors influence the designing.

iv.

As references for future uses.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scopes of this study include:

i) Literature review for analyzing and designing an inclined column in


concrete structures.

ii) Literature review for analyzing and designing an inclined column based
on specification in British Standard, BS 8110.

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1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is more focusing on analyzing and designing an inclined column


due to the specification given in BS 8110. The result of analyzing and designing this
type of column will be compared with another type of column, the vertical column.

One of the rational reasons this study were conducted is to determine the
method and formula used in designing an inclined column. With the information at
hand, standard method and formula to design an inclined column could be publicized
and more extensive researches could be planned for the future.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

As the axial load on a perfectly straight slender column is increased in


magnitude, this column will passes through three states: stable equilibrium, neutral
equilibrium, and instability. The straight column under load is in stable equilibrium if
a lateral force is applied between the two ends of the column and produces a small
lateral deflection which disappears and this column will returns to its straight form
when the lateral force is removed. If the column load is gradually increased, a
condition is reached in which the straight form of equilibrium becomes neutral
equilibrium where a small lateral force will produce a deflection that does not
disappear and the column remains in this slightly bent form when the lateral force is
removed (cl 3.8.3.2). The load at which neutral equilibrium of a column is reached is
called the critical or buckling load. The state of instability is reached when a slight
increase of the column load causes uncontrollably growing lateral deflections leading
to complete collapse.

A reinforced concrete column is extended by having the steel reinforcing bars


stick out a few inches or feet above the top of the concrete, then placing the next
level of reinforcing bars to overlap, and pouring the concrete of the next level. Steel
reinforcement in concrete columns provides compressive capacity, but its most
important role is in controlling the mode of failure. When taken beyond yield point,
concrete will suddenly fails abruptly-even explosively and therefore, reinforcement

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5
is used even in columns subject only to axial compression as small steel columns and
even though encased in concrete, their slenderness ratio must be limited with
horizontal ties.

2.2 INCLINED/LEANING COLUMN

2.2.1 Definition

Inclined or leaning means departing or being caused to depart from the true
vertical or horizontal or the property depend on a line or surface that departs from the
vertical or move away from a vertical position.

2.2.2 Leaner column/ inclined column

The general stability of a structure must be provided as it relates to the each


individual column. Therefore, the consideration must be given to the load effects
resulting from the deflected shape of the structure. The stability of a column not
involved with the lateral bracing system is therefore dependent on the rigidity of the
columns associated with the lateral bracing system or rigid bents. The columns that
are dependent on the rigid frame columns are referred to as "Leaner Columns".
Leaner columns are gravity load only columns and apply to both rigid and some
braced frames as shown in Figure 2.2.2a.

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Inclined
column

Figure 2.2.2a Inclined column

2.3 ANALYSIS

The analysis of an engineering structure ideally involves a complete


evaluation of structural behavior such as loading conditions. Fortunately, by a
process of rational elimination it is usually possible to reduce the problem to
manageable proportions.

The stage of designing a column representative loading cases and method of


analysis are chosen is a vital one. The calculation may usually be simplified by
making assumptions. Subject to this provision methods of analysis should be as
simple as possible and more complex techniques should only be utilized when;

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i)

The low calculated strength of a component is referring to the accuracy of


the assumptions.

ii)

More exact analysis is required to justify weight saving.

The strength design method requires service loads or related internal


moments and forces to be increased by specified load factors (required strength) and
computed nominal strengths to be reduced by specified strength reduction factors,
(design strength). Therefore, the equations in designing inclined column are based on
the equations in designing vertical column. BS 8110 has classified column as a
compression members with cross-sectional dimension does not exceed four times its
smaller dimension, h 4b but if, h > 4b it will be classified as a wall.

2.4 TYPES OF COLUMN

There are two types of column which are braced and unbraced column. For
braced column the calculation only considered on dead load and imposed load while
for unbraced column the consideration taken are dead load, imposed load and wind
load.

2.4.1 Braced and Unbraced Column

From clause 3.8.1.5 BS8110, a column may be considered as a braced


column if lateral stability to the whole structure is provided by walls or bracing to
resist all lateral forces. Therefore, braced column will only carry vertical load as
shown in figure 2.4.1a and figure 2.4.1c. With a braced column the axial forces and
moments are caused by the dead and imposed load only. If one of the braced
members is not provided, the effect of the vertical load in any direction will be
support together by column and beam.

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In the other word, this column is design to carry both vertical and horizontal
load and this is known as unbraced column as shown in figure 2.4.1b and figure
2.4.1c. With an unbraced column the loading arrangements which include the effects
of the lateral loads must also be considered.

For a braced column the critical arrangement of the ultimate load is usually
causes by the largest moment in the column, together with a large axial load. When
the moments in columns are large and particularly with unbraced columns, it may
also be necessary to check the case of maximum moment combined with the
minimum axial load.

Load
Bearing
Wall

Column

Figure 2.4.1a The building are braced in both direction

Column

Figure 2.4.1b The building are unbraced in both direction


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Column

Load
Bearing
Wall

Figure 2.4.1c The building is braced in y direction but unbraced in x direction

The axial forces due to the vertical loading may be calculated as though the
beams and slabs are simply supported. In some structures it is unlikely that all the
floors of a building will carry the full imposed load at the same instant, therefore, a
reduction is usually allowed in the total imposed load when designing columns and
foundations in buildings which are two or more storey high.

2.4.2 Short and Slender Column

Both columns will be classified into short column and slender column. A
column may be considered as a short column when the ratios of l ex / h and l ey / b are
less than 15 (braced) and 10 (unbraced). On the other hand, slender column may be
considered when the ratios of l ex / h and l ey / b are more than the limit above. Both
l ex and l ey are effective height of a column respectively with x and y axis. According
to Clements (1981), in designing a column the value of h which is the side of the
column that is parallel to the deflection direction have to be considered.

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10

2.5 EFFECTIVE HEIGHT

The effective height, l e of a column in a given plane may be obtained from equation
below in BS 8110 (3.8.1.6):

le lo

The values of are given in table 3.19 BS8110: Part 1 for braced column and table
3.20 for unbraced column as a function of the end conditions of the column while l o
is the clear height between end of the column and restraints.

2.6 END CONDITIONS

The four end conditions are: (3.8.1.6.2)

a) Condition 1
The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams on either side
which are at least as deep as the overall dimension of the column in the plane
considered. Where the column is connected to a foundation structure, this
should be of a form specifically designed to carry moment.

h beam > h column

b) Condition 2
The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams or slabs on
either side which are shallower than the overall dimension of the column in
the plane considered.

h beam < h column


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11

c) Condition 3
The end of the column is connected to members which, while not
specifically designed to provide restraint to rotation of the column will,
nevertheless, provide some nominal restraint.

d) Condition 4
The end of the column is unrestrained against both lateral movement and
rotation.

2.7 MODE OF FAILURE

The mode of failure of a column can be one of the following:

a) Material failures with negligible lateral deflection, which usually occurs


with short columns but can, also occur when there are large end moments
on a column with an intermediate slenderness ratio.

b) Material failures are caused by the lateral deflection and the additional
moment. This type of failure is typical of indeterminate columns.

c) Instability failure which occurs with slender columns and is liable to be


preceded by excessive deflections.

2.8 LOAD AND DEFLECTION

A column with a cross section that lacks symmetry may face torsion buckling
(sudden twisting) lateral buckling. Eccentricity, e of the load or defects such as initial
bent will decreased the column strength. If the axial load on the column is not
concentric, that is, its line of action is not parallel with the centrically axis of the
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12

column; the column is characterized as eccentrically loaded (3.8.2.4) as shown in


figure 2.8a and figure 2.8b. The eccentricity, e of the load, or an initial curvature,
subjects the column to immediate bending. The increased stresses due to the
combined axial-plus-flexural stresses result in a reduced load-carrying ability.

For an inclined column, these changes happened to the forces in the structural
members which is bending moment and shear force. The changes are depending on
the magnitude and the inclination direction.

M
e

Figure 2.8a Inclined column subjected to eccentric axial load

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13

Figure 2.8b Simply supported column subjected to eccentric load

2.9 DESIGN OF SHORT COLUMN

A short column usually failed in compression because the effect of bending is


smaller. Short columns usually need to only be designed for the maximum design
moment about the one critical axis (3.8.4.3). The maximum axial load that column
can support, N uz is calculated based on the ultimate capacity of the concrete and
reinforced which is:

N uz 0.45 f cu Ac 0.95 f y Asc

Where,
N uz
Ac
Asc
f cu
fy

= ultimate axial load


= nett cross section area of the column
= vertical reinforced cross section area
= concrete strength
= reinforced strength

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14

2.9.1 Braced Short Column

With considering eccentricity, the ultimate load can be calculated using


equation below after reduction of 10 percent:

N 0.4 f cu Ac 0.8 Asc f y

2.9.2 Short Braced Columns Supporting an Approximately Symmetrical


Arrangement of Beams (3.8.4.4)

In this type of column, the bending moment is small because of the nonsymmetrically arrangement of the live load at the both side of the column in a
direction.

N 0.35 f cu Ac 0.70 Asc f y

This equation only can be used when,

a) The beam spans do not differ by more than 15 percent of the longer.
b) The beams are designed to support uniformly distributed loads.

2.9.3 Short Braced Columns Support Both Moment and Axial Load (3.8.4.5)

The reinforced area for this type of column can be obtained by using analysis
of section (3.4.4.1) and design charts (3.4.4.2). Symmetrically-reinforced rectangular
sections may be designed to withstand an increased moment about one axis given by:

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15

Mx My
'
h'
b

Mx Mx

Mx My
'
h'
b

My My

'

'

h'
My
b'

b'
Mx
h'

2.10 DESIGN OF SLENDER COLUMN

A slender column must be designed for an additional moment caused by its


curvature at ultimate conditions. The expression given in BS8110 for the additional
moments was derived by studying the moments curvature behaviors for a member
subject to bending plus axial load. The equations for calculating the design moments
are only applicable to columns of a rectangular or circular section and with
symmetrical reinforcement.

A slender column should be designed for an ultimate axial load (N) plus an
increased moment given by,

M t M i M add

M i Na u

Where, M i is the initial moment in the column.

M add is the moment caused by the deflection of the column.


au is the deflection of the column.

The deflection of a rectangular or circular column is given by,

a u a Kh

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16

1 le
The coefficient a

2000 b '

with b ' being generally the smaller dimension of the column section except when
biaxial bending is considered. The coefficient K is a reduction factor to allow for the
fact that the deflection must be less when there is a large proportion of the column
section in compression. The value for K is given by the equation:

N uz N
1. 0
N uz N bal

Where N uz is the ultimate axial load such that,

Nuz 0.45 f cu Ac 0.87 f y Asc

And N bal is the axial load at balanced failure and may be taken as,

N bal f cu Ac

In order to calculate K, the area Asc of the columns reinforcement must be


known and hence a trial and error approach is necessary, taking an initial
conservative value of K=1.0. Values of K are also marked on the column design
charts.

2.10.1 Braced Slender Column

The maximum additional moment M add occurs near the mid-height of the
column and at this location the initial moment is taken as,

M i = 0.4 M 1 + 0.6 M 2 0.4 M 2


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17

Where M 1 the smaller initial end moment due to the design ultimate loads and M 2 is
the corresponding larger initial end moment.

For the usual case with double curvature of a braced column, M 1 should be
taken as negative and M 2 as positive. From figure 3.2.1, the final design moment
should never be taken as less than,
M2
M i M add

M i M add / 2
Or

N emin

2.10.2 Unbraced Slender Column

The sway of an unbraced structure causes larger additional moments in the


columns.

2.11 DESIGN INCLINED COLUMN

In analyzing leaner columns, the members are considered as simple pinned


end columns, laterally supported at their ends. Lateral stability provided by rigid or
braced frames must be properly sized to provide restraint for all loading within the
structure. Figure 2.10a shows the relationship between load and bending moment in
an inclined column.

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18

L\
L2

L2 / 2

F
e

L2 / 2

P
Y

Figure 2.11 Relationship between load and bending moment in inclined column

The value of w is a total load which is imposed to a beam and will be transferred to
a column in vertical axis. The axial force P can be obtained by using equation:

wL
2

The relationship between load and moment at the mid span can be showed as:

M Pe

While, the eccentricity can be derived from the following equation:

L
cos
2

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19

2.12 Frame Analysis

After the slab analysis for determine the design load that will be carried by
beam and column, the beam and column then will be design as a fixed frame to
determine the critical shear forces, axial forces and moments acting at a column. The
frame analyses are divided into two types:

a) braced frame which are considering the live load and dead load only (3.2.1.2).
b) unbraced frame which are considering the live load, dead load and wind load
(3.2.1.3).

By the way, in this research the wind load is not considered because it can be
stated that the inclined column is braced element due to its inclined design.
Therefore, the braced frame is used to determine the forces and the moments. There
are three types of braced frame:
a) Simplification into sub-frames (3.2.1.2.1)

All beams design together with column. The ends of the column are assumed
to be fixed or pinned. The load arrangement is as showed:

Figure 2.12.1a Type 1 braced frame


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20

b) Alternative simplification for individual beams and associated columns


(3.2.1.2.3)

The moments and forces in each individual beam can be obtained by


considering a simplified sub-frame consisting only of that beam, the columns
attached to the ends of the beam. The ends of the column and beam are
considering fixed or pinned. The stiffness value of the beams considered
should be taken as half their actual values if they are taken to be fixed at the
ends. The moments in the column can also be obtain if the sub-frame has its
central beam span longer than both side beam spans.

Beam A-B
K
A

K/2
B
Beam B-C

K/2

K
B

K/2
C

Beam C-D
K/2

K
C

Figure 2.12.1b Type 2 braced frame

c) Continuous beam simplification (3.2.1.2.4)


For conservative choice, the moments and forces in beams also can be obtain
by considering the beam as a continuous beam over supports providing no
restraint to rotation.

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21

K/2
A
K/2

K/2
B&C

K/2
D

Figure 2.12.1c Type 3 braced frame

2.13 Main Reinforcement

The minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement in a column for various


condition is 0.4% bh (Table 3.25) and the minimum bar should be four in rectangular
columns and six in circular column. The size of bar should not be less than 12mm
(3.12.5.3).

The maximum area of longitudinal reinforcement should not exceed 6% bh


(3.12.6.2)

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter will discuss the method used to analyze and design inclined
column. The basic step in designing vertical column is then used to analyze and
designing inclined column. The manual calculation will be used by referring to the
project plans of the case study. The outcome from the analysis and the calculation of
the case study will be therefore used to compare with vertical column. All of the
specification and design criteria are accordance to British Standard 8110. Figure 3.1
shows the flow chart of a simplified overview of the project flow from start to its
completion.

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23

SCOPE

START

OBJECTIVES:
i)

To analyze the equilibrium forces in inclined


column.

ii)

To design an inclined column based on BS8110.

iii)

To find out comparison between inclined column


and vertical column.

iv)

As references for future uses.

CASE STUDY

ANALYSIS &
COLLECTING
DATA

DESIGN

RESULTS

CONCLUSIONS

PREPARING FOR
COMPLETE
THESIS REPORT

Figure 3.1: Simplified research methodology for this study

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24

3.2 METHOD USE TO ANALYZE STRUCTURE

Load analysis is important to determine the equilibrium forces and moment


act to the column. The analysis must begin with an evaluation of all the loads carried
by the structure, including its own weight. Many of the loads are variable in
magnitude and position, and all possible critical arrangements of loads must be
considered. First the structure itself is rationalized into simplified forms that
represent the load-carrying action of the prototype. Then, the forces in each member
can be determined by one of the following methods:

i)

Applying moment and shear coefficients

ii)

Manual calculations

iii)

Computer methods

In this research, the manual calculation is used to determine the moments and forces
react in the column. A braced frame analysis and column analysis will be applied and
the calculation is based on the plan of a case study.

3.3 CASE STUDY

A plan of Development Proposal of Taman Ekologi Hutan Bandar, Johor


Bahru is adopted as a case study. This project involved three storeys building which
consist of inclined column, ring beam and ring slab. Besides that, this building also
construct with ranking piles which resist horizontal forces. Figure 3.3 shows the front
view of the building. While, the architectures drawing is shows in appendix.

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25

Vertical
Column
Inclined
Column

Ring beam
and Ring
Slab

Ranking Piles

Figure 3.3 Front view of the building

3.4 DESIGN PROCESS

The design process for reinforced concrete column structures consists of the
following steps:

1. Determine design data: design loads, design criteria and specifications.


Specify material properties.

2. Make a first estimate of member sizes.

3. Calculate member cross sectional properties; perform frame analysis to


obtain internal forces: moment, shear forces and axial force.

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26

4. Calculate the required reinforcement based on moment, shear forces and


axial force demands.

5. If members do not satisfy the specification, modify the design and make
changes at step 2.

6. Detail reinforcement. Develop design drawings.

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CHAPTER 4

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The objectives of structural analysis are to determine shear forces, axial force
and moments at the whole structural element. The analysis begins with the
calculation of many types of load that act at the structure. Usually, at the beginning
stage, all sizes used are been estimate first, and then the suitability will be checked.
The analysis can be done with several methods such as:

a) Calculation using moment distributed method.


b) Calculation using moment and shear coefficient in BS8110.

In this study, the structural analysis is divided into two parts which are the
frame analysis and column analysis. The frame analysis is used to determine the
critical shear forces, axial forces and moments in a column while column analysis is
used to design the column.

4.2 Frame Analysis

In this study, the frame analysis involved are based on 3.2.1.2.1 BS 8110 which
is concern each sub-frame may be taken to consist of the beams at one level together
with the column above and below. The ends of the column are assumed to be fixed.
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28

The moments and the shear forces will be obtain in this analysis. The procedures in
frame analysis invoved:

a) Determine the stiffness value of the column and beam.


b) Calculate the maximum load and minimum load.
c) Do the frame analysis.

59.5

9.31

w = 11.89 kN/m
29.8
59.5

9.31

Figure 4.2a Roof Second Floor First Floor (only one case involved - maximum)

59.5

9.31

w1
24.5
208.8

cL

w2
29.8
32.6

Figure 4.2b First floor Ground floor Foundation

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29

Case
1 max, max, max
2 max, min, max
3 min, max, min

w 1 (kN/m)
11.26
11.26
5.20

w 2 (kN/m)
4.02
2.00
4.02

Table 4.2 Maximum and minimum load

The calculations are shown in appendix.

4.3 Column Analysis

They are two column analysis involved which are:

4.3.1 Inclined column

The procedures of designing inclined column are:


a) Determine the types of column by calculating the effective length and
decides the end condition.
b) Compare the three moments obtained and take the biggest value of moment.
c) Determine the reinforcement.

Sample Calculations of inclined column

Effective Length:

l ex l ey : l o 3580 500 3080

End Condition:
Top

: Beam (500) > Column (400) .. Condition 1

Bottom : Beam (500) > Column (400) . Condition 1


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30

From Table 3.19, 0.75


Therefore;
l ex ley l o

= 0.75 3080
= 2310mm

Checking

l ex 2310

5.8
h
400
l ey 2310

5.8
b
400
Both values are less than 15, so the column is short column.

Column 1

N 1 323.67 kN
P1 307.11kN

Moment analysis

M analysis 13.09kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


= 0.05 ( 323.67) (0.4)
= 6.47 kNm < M analysis
M inclined P.e
= 307.11 ( 0.372)
= 114.24kNm > M analysis

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31

Reinforcement

N 323.67 10 3

2.02 N / mm 2
bh
400 400
M
114.24 10 6

1.785 N / mm 2
bh 2
400 400 2

d 400 25

20
365mm ,
2

d 365

0.91
h 400

Using Chart No.29,


100 Asc
0.41
bh

Asc

0.41 400 400


656mm 2
100

Use 4T16 ( As 804mm 2 )

Link
1
16 4mm . R6 mm
4
Clear Distance Maximum 12 16 192mm .150mm

Diameter minimum

Therefore, use R6 150.


Other calculations are in Appendix.

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32

4.3.2 Vertical column

a) Determine the types of column by calculating the effective length and


decides the end condition.
b) Compare the two moments obtained and take the biggest moment.
c) Determine the reinforcement.

Sample Calculations of vertical column

Effective Length:

l ex l ey : l o 3500 500 3000

End Condition:

Top

: Beam (500) > Column (250) .. Condition 1

Bottom : Beam (500) > Column (250) . Condition 1

From Table 3.19, 0.75


Therefore;
l ex ley l o

= 0.75 3000
= 2250mm

Checking
l ex 2250

9
h
250
l ey 2250

9
b
250
Both values are less than 15, so the column is short column.

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33

Column 1

From frame analysis, moment at roof is,

M analysis 5.29kNm

N 1 207.67kN

Moment Analysis

M analysis 5.29 kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


0 . 05 207 . 67 0 . 25 ........ 0 . 05 h 0 . 05 250 12 . 5 20 ...... ok !
2 . 60 kNm 6 . 74 kNm

Therefore, use

M analysis 5.29kNm

Reinforcement

d 250 25

So,

12
219mm
2

d 219

0.88 0.85
h 250

Use Chart No. 28 with

f cu 30 N / mm 2 , f y 460 N / mm 2 and

d
0.85
h

M
5.29 10 6

0.34
bh 2 250 250 2
N 207.67 10 3

3.32
bh
250 250

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34

From the chart, use the minimum reinforcement for column which is:

4T12 with As 453mm 2

Other calculations are in Appendix.

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CHAPTER 5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

From the analysis and design, the moments, axial load and reaction force
which is the vertical and horizontal force increase due to increasing of load. The
results are summarized between the inclined column and vertical column based on
the size of column use, the eccentricity, loads, moments and reinforcement obtained.
The results then compared with each other where this two column have same
structural criteria but different in the loadings and the moments.

5.2 Results from analysis and design

For inclined column, the value of moments from frame analysis is quite
small, but because of the existing of eccentricity the value of moment taken became
bigger. Column below needs more reinforcement because it supports large number of
loading which is from the roof until the ground floor. For these inclined columns, the
minimum reinforcement area is 640mm 2 while the maximum reinforcement area is
9600mm 2 .

On the other hand, for vertical column, the value of moment taken is small
and the minimum of reinforcement has to be used in almost of the vertical column
except for Column 4. The moment in Column 4 is quite big because it supports all
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36

the loading from the roof to the ground floor. The minimum reinforcement of these
vertical columns is 453 mm 2 and the maximum reinforcement is 3750 mm 2 .
INCLINED COLUMN ( e = 0.372m )
Column size 400 400 mm
Column 1

VERTICAL COLUMN ( e = 0.05h )


Column size 250 250 mm
Column 1

N = 323.67 kN

N = 207.67 kN

M = 114.24 kNm

M = 5.29 kNm

4T16 (A s = 804 mm 2 )

4T12 (A s = 453 mm 2 )

R6 150

R6 125

Column 2

Column 2

N = 761.07 kN

N = 440.9 kN

M = 253.66 kNm

M = 21.14 kNm

4T25 + 4T16 ( A s = 2767mm 2 )

4T12 (A s = 453 mm 2 )

R8 150

R6 125

Column 3

Column 3

N = 1212.99 kN

N = 666.15 kN

M = 415.60 kNm

M = 8.91 kNm

4T32 + 4T25 (A s = 5180 mm 2 )

4T12 (A s = 453 mm 2 )

R8 300

R6 125

Column 4

Column 4

N = 1765.54 kN

N = 1017.34 kN

M = 600.50 kNm

M = 32.43 kNm

6T40 + 4T25 (A s = 9503 mm 2 )

4T20 + 4T10 (A s = 1571


2

mm )
R10 300
R8 100
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37

5.3 Comparison between Inclined column and Vertical column

Inclined Column

Vertical Column

Frame Analysis
a) Stiffness value considered the
inclined length.

a) Stiffness value considered


the vertical length.

Column Design
a) The effective length take the
inclined length, l e .
b) Considered the eccentricity.

a) The effective length take


the vertical length, l e .
b) Considered only a small
eccentricity, 0.05h

min

or

zero eccentricity.

Result
a) Has a large value of moment
due to the eccentricity and
load.
b) Big size of column.
c) Need more reinforcement.
d) Have horizontal force to

a) Has small value of


moment.
b) Small size of column.
c) Averagely used minimum
reinforcement.
d) No horizontal force exists.

support the column.

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CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 CONCLUSIONS

From the analysis and design, it can be concluded that:

i)

The equilibrium forces (moments, axial load and reaction force) act in
a column is important to get correct detailing of reinforcement.

ii)

The equations, methods and formula used in designing inclined


column are similar with designing vertical column only in inclined
column the existing of eccentricity have to be considered..

iii)

The moment increase due to the increasing of load.

iv)

The existing of the eccentricity will increase the moment.

v)

The increasing in inclination of the column will increase the


eccentricity.

vi)

The horizontal force increase when the inclination of the column


increases.

vii)

Manual calculation is quite complicated compare to software


application.

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39

6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

Stated here are some recommendations that can be organised for future studies:

a) Use different materials in designing the structure such as steel and wood.

b) Do analysis and designing inclined column based on other design standard.

c) Do the analysis by using finite element. ( if can )

d) Do the analysis and designing inclined column for slender column and
unbraced frame.

e) Use different shape of column. For example; U column or round column.

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REFERENCES

1. Structural Design (A Practical Guide For Architecture) by Rod Underwood,


Michele Chiuini.

2. Reinforced Concrete Designer Handbook by Charles E Reynolds.


3. Reinforced Concrete Design, 3rd Edition by W.H. Mosley and J.H. Bungey.

4. Structural Engineering and Construction Management by Mohd Salleh Jaafar,


Salihuddin Hasim, Mohd Razali Abd Kadir, Izian Abd Karim.

5. Introduction to Stress Analysis: Engineering Officers Course.

6. Effects of Axial Load on Shear Behavior of Short RC Columns under Cyclic


Lateral Deformations.

7. Structural Engineering Reference Manual.

8. British Standard, BS8110.

9. Principles of Structural Design, edited by W.F. Chen and E.M. Lui.

10. Nota Kuliah SAB 4333 Rekabentuk Konkrit Bertetulang 2, berpandukan BS 8110
1997, disediakan oleh Prof. Madya Dr. Ramli Abdullah.

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41

11. Mohd. Azrul Helmi bin Yusof (2004), Carta Rekabentuk untuk Keratan Tiang
Konkrit Tidak Seragam. Projek Sarjana Muda. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

12. Nazarina bt. Munjiyat (2007), Analisis Tiang Condong. Projek Sarjana Muda.
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX B
FRAME ANALYSIS
Roof - Second Floor - First Floor

26.18
0.18
0.6
5.98
19.42
0.4
0.4
19.42
5.98
0.6
0.18
26.18

0.2
-48.55
9.71
-14.95
2.99
-1.5
0.3
0.46
0.09
-52.37

-10.57
-0.03
-0.29
-0.93
-9.32
0.192
0.192

0.616
48.55
-29.9
4.86
-2.99
1.5
0.92
0.15
0.09
21.16

-9.32
-0.93
-0.29
-0.03
-10.57

Table 1
First Floor - Ground Floor - Foundation

Case 1 - maximum, maximum,maximum


15.41
0.09
1.56
13.76
0.203
0.713

0.084

0.31

-67.79
5.69
-7.73
0.65
-0.43
0.04

54.15

-74.56

48.33
5.51

0.301
65.79
-15.46
2.85
-0.86
0.33
-0.1

-6.28
-0.04
-0.33
-5.91
0.115
0.401
-20.6
-1.14

-0.13
54.55 21.87

0.183
-16.42
-9.4
0
-0.63
0
-0.07
-26.52

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Case 2 - maximum, minimum,maximum


15.66
0.08
1.82
13.76
0.203
0.713

0.084
-67.79

48.33
6.4
0.31
55.04

6.91
-8.98
0.75
-0.43
0.04
70.72

0.301

-7.23
-0.04
-0.33
-6.86
0.115
0.401

67.79

0.183
-8.17

-17.95 23.91
2.85
-0.86 -1.14
0.38
-0.11 -0.15
52.1 -25.2

-10.91
0
-0.52
0
-0.07
-19.67

Case 3 - minimum, maximum, minimum


6.85
0.04
0.45
6.36
0.203
0.713
22.32
1.6
0.14
24.06

0.102
-31.31
2.63
-2.24
0.19
0.2
0.02
-30.91

0.301
31.31
-4.48
1.32
-0.4
0.1
-0.03
27.82

-1.87
-0.01
-0.15
-1.71
0.115
0.401
-5.97
-0.53
-0.04
-6.54

0.183
-16.42
-2.72
0
-0.24
0
-0.02
-19.4

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APPENDIX C

COLUMN ANALYSIS

Inclined column

Effective Length:

l ex l ey : l o 3580 500 3080

End Condition:

Top

: Beam (500) > Column (400) .. Condition 1

Bottom : Beam (500) > Column (400) . Condition 1


From Table 3.19, 0.75
Therefore;
l ex l ey l o

= 0.75 3080
= 2310mm

Checking
l ex 2310

5.8
h
400
l ey 2310

5. 8
b
400

Both values are less than 15, so the column is short column.

Column 1
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N 1 323.67 kN
P1 307.11kN

M analysis 13.09kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


= 0.05 ( 323.67) (0.4)
= 6.47 kNm < M analysis
M inclined P.e
= 307.11 ( 0.372)
= 114.24kNm > M analysis

N 323.67 10 3

2.02 N / mm 2
bh
400 400
M
114.24 10 6

1.785 N / mm 2
bh 2
400 400 2

d 400 25

20
365mm ,
2

d 365

0.91
h 400

Using Chart No.29,


100 Asc
0.41
bh

Asc

0.41 400 400


656mm 2
100

Use 4T16 ( As 804mm 2 )

Link
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1
16 4mm . R6 mm
4
Clear Distance Maximum 12 16 192mm .150mm
Diameter minimum

Therefore, use R6 150.

Column 2

N 2 761.07 kN
P2 681.88kN

M analysis 52.36kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


= 0.05( 761.07) (0.4)
= 15.22 kNm < M analysis

M inclined P.e
= 681.88 ( 0.372)
= 253.66kNm > M analysis

N 761.07 10 3

4.76 N / mm 2
bh
400 400
M
253.66 10 6

3.96 N / mm 2
bh 2
400 400 2

d 400 25

20
365mm ,
2

d 365

0.91
h 400

Using Chart No.29,

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100 Asc
1. 5
bh

Asc

1.5 400 400


2400mm 2
100

Use 4T25 + 4T16 ( As 2767mm 2 )

Link

1
25 6.3mm . R8 mm
4
Clear Distance Maximum 12 16 192mm .150mm
Diameter minimum

Therefore, use R8 150.

Column 3

N 3 1212.99kN
P3 117.24kN

M analysis 20.92kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


= 0.05 (1212.99) (0.4)
= 24.26 kNm > M analysis
M inclined P.e
= 1117.24 ( 0.372)
= 415.6kNm > M analysis

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N 1212.99 10 3

7.58 N / mm 2
bh
400 400
M
415.6 10 6

6.49 N / mm 2
2
2
bh
400 400

d 400 25

20
365mm ,
2

d 365

0.91
h 400

Using Chart No.29,


100 Asc
3.1
bh

Asc

3.1 400 400


4960mm 2
100

Use 4T32 + 4T25 ( As 5180mm 2 )

Link
1
32 8mm . R8 mm
4
Clear Distance Maximum 12 25 300mm .300mm

Diameter minimum

Therefore, use R8 300

Column 4

Effective Length:

l ex l ey : l o 1020 500 520mm

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End Condition:

Top

: Beam (500) > Column (400) .. Condition 1

Bottom : Beam (500) > Column (400) . Condition 1


From Table 3.19, 0.75
Therefore;
l ex l ey l o

= 0.75 520
= 390mm

Checking
l ex 390

0.98
h 400
l ey 390

0.98
b 400

Both values are less than 15, so the column is short column.

N1 1765.54kN
P1 1614.26kN

M analysis 69.39kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


= 0.05 (1765.54) (0.4)
= 35.31 kNm < M analysis
M inclined P.e
= 1614.26 (0.372)
= 600.5kNm > M analysis

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N 1765.54 10 3

11.03 N / mm 2
bh
400 400
M
600.5 10 6

9.38 N / mm 2
2
2
bh
400 400

d 400 25

20
365mm ,
2

d 365

0.91
h 400

Using Chart No.29,

100 Asc
5.5
bh

Asc

5.5 400 400


8800mm 2
100

Use 6T40 + 4T25 ( As 9503mm 2 )

Link

1
40 10mm . R10 mm
4
Clear Distance Maximum 12 25 300mm .300mm

Diameter minimum

Therefore, use R10 300.


Minimum Reinforcement
0.4 % bh =

0.4
400 400 640mm 2
100

Maximum Reinforcement
6% bh =

6
400 400 9600mm 2
100

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APPENDIX D

COLUMN ANALYSIS

Vertical Column

Effective Length:

l ex l ey : l o 3500 500 3000

End Condition:

Top

: Beam (500) > Column (250) .. Condition 1

Bottom : Beam (500) > Column (250) . Condition 1


From Table 3.19, 0.75
Therefore;
l ex l ey l o

= 0.75 3000
= 2250mm

Checking
l ex 2250

9
h
250
l ey 2250

9
b
250
Both values are less than 15, so the column is short column.

Column 1

From frame analysis, moment at roof is,


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M analysis 5.29kNm
N 1 207.67kN

Moment Analysis
M analysis 5.29 kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


0.05207.67 0.25..................0.05h 0.05 250 12.5 20......ok!
2.60kNm 6.74kNm

Therefore, use

M analysis 5.29kNm

Reinforcement

d 250 25

So,

12
219mm
2

d 219

0.88 0.85
h 250

Use Chart No. 28 with

f cu 30 N / mm 2 , f y 460 N / mm 2 and

d
0.85
h

M
5.29 10 6

0.34
bh 2 250 250 2
N 207.67 10 3

3.32
bh
250 250
From the chart, use the minimum reinforcement for column which is:
4T12 with As 453mm 2

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Column 2

From frame analysis, moment at second floor is,


M analysis 21.14kNm

N 2 440.9kN

Moment Analysis
M analysis 21.14kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


0.05440.9 0.25..................0.05h 0.05 250 12.5 20......ok!
5.51kNm 21.14kNm
Therefore, use

M analysis 21.14kNm

Reinforcement

d 250 25

So,

12
219mm
2

d 219

0.88 0.85
h 250

Use Chart No. 28 with

f cu 30 N / mm 2 , f y 460 N / mm 2 and

d
0.85
h

M
21.14 10 6

1.35
bh 2 250 250 2
N 440.9 10 3

7.05
bh
250 250

From the chart, use the minimum reinforcement for column which is:

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4T12 with As 453mm 2

Column 3

From frame analysis, moment at second floor is,


M analysis 8.91kNm

N 3 666.15kN

Moment Analysis
M analysis 8.91kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


0.05666.150.25..................0.05h 0.05 250 12.5 20......ok!
8.33kNm 8.95kNm

Therefore, use

M analysis 8.95kNm

Reinforcement

d 250 25
So,

12
219mm
2

d 219

0.88 0.85
h 250
Use Chart No. 28 with

f cu 30 N / mm 2 , f y 460 N / mm 2 and

d
0.85
h

M
8.91 10 6

0.57
bh 2 250 250 2
N 666.15 10 3

10.66
bh
250 250

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From the chart, use the minimum reinforcement for column which is:
4T12 with As 453mm 2

Link

Diameter minimum =

1
12 3 mm.. use R8
4

Clear Maximum Distance = 12 12 144mm


So, use R8 125

Column 4

From frame analysis, moment at second floor is,


M analysis 32.43kNm

N 4 1017.34kN

Effective Length:
l ex ley : l o 1000 500 500

End Condition:
Top

: Beam (500) > Column (250) .. Condition 1

Bottom : Beam (500) > Column (250) . Condition 1


From Table 3.19, 0.75
Therefore;
l ex l ey l o

= 0.75 500
= 375mm
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Checking
l ex 375

1.5
h 250
l ey 375

1.5
b 250

Both values are less than 15, so the column is short column.

Moment Analysis

M analysis 32.43kNm

M column 0.05 Nhmin


0.051017.34 0.25................0.05h 0.05 250 12.5 20......ok!
12.72kNm 32.79kNm

Therefore, use

M analysis 32.79kNm

Reinforcement
d 250 25

So,

20
215mm
2

d 215

0.86 0.85
h 250

Use Chart No. 28 with

f cu 30 N / mm 2 , f y 460 N / mm 2 and

d
0.85
h

M
32.43 10 6

2.08
bh 2 250 250 2
N 1017.34 10 3

16.3
bh
250 250
From the chart,
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100 Asc
2.2
bh

Asc

2.2 250 250


1375mm 2
100

Therefore, use 4T20 + 4T10 with As 1571mm 2


Link

Diameter minimum =

1
20 5 . Use R8
4

Clear Distance Maximum = 12 10 120mm


So, use R8 100

Minimum Reinforcement
0.4 % bh =

0.4
250 250 250mm 2
100

But in BS8110 stated that, minimum area of reinforcement in a column at least 0.4%
bh (Table 3.25) and the minimum bar should be 4 in rectangular columns and the
size of bar should not be less than 12mm. So, in this research the minimum
reinfoecement used is 4T12 ( As = 453mm 2 ).

Maximum Reinforcement
6% bh =

6
250 250 3750mm 2
100

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FIRST FLOOR PLAN


FOOTING PLAN

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

DATA-DATA TERLIBAT
1. fcu = 30N/mm2

2. fy = 460 @ 250 N/mm2, fy(slab)= 250 N/mm2


3. Ruang Pameran (Exhibition)
4. Dinding Kaca = 26.7kN/m3
5. Bearing Capacity = 150kN/m2
6. qk(w/tah) = 3.kKN/m2,
gk(finishes) = 1.0kN/m2
7. Tebal papak = 150 mm
8. Saiz rasuk(mm) = 200x500
9. Saiz tiang(mm) = 250x250
10. Saiz asas(foundation) = 2500x2500
11. Penutup=25 mm
ROOF PLAN
SECOND FLOOR PLAN

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