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Agriculture Notes

What are the types of farming?


Livestock & Poultry: Meat, Dairy, and Eggs; Utilizes Rangeland
Agriculture: growing one crop (monoculture) or many crops (polyculture)
Aquaculture: raising aquatic organisms for food
What happens when food isnt available?
Malnutrition: a condition caused by not consuming enough necessary nutrients
Famine: a food scarcity so widespread that it causes severe malnutrition throughout
large geographic areas
Why do people go hungry?
Crop Failure due to
Drought, Soil Deterioration, Disease
Population size > Crop yield
What happens when food is overabundant?
Overnutrition: Food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes excess body fat
Similar health problems to those who are underfed
Lower life expectancy
Greater susceptibility to disease and illness
Lower productivity and life quality
How have we farmed in the past?
The first agricultural revolution began as early as 9000 BC
Nomads Settlements
Cross pollination first began
Grew enough to support
family & trade
How did the Green Revolution change farming?
GOALS:
Agriculture Notes
STOP HUNGER
INCREASE crop yield
Minimize Crop Losses/Failure
METHODS:
New, high-yield grain varieties
Pesticides
Fertilizers
Better Management Practices
More technologically advanced machinery
How did the Green Revolution change farming?
Vision: Treat agriculture as a business (agribusiness). Plant a large amount of a single
species (monocropping)
DRAWBACKS:
Too expensive
Air, soil, and water pollution due to toxic chemicals
Uneven distributionpoorer countries still cant transport food
Practices of Conventional Farming (Since Green Revolution)
Maximize OutputHigh Efficiency
Minimize Space
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOS)
Genetically Modified Crops (temperature and chemical resistance)
Heavy equipment (Fossil Fuels)
Chemicals (pesticides and fertilizers)
CAFOs
Sustainable Farming Practices
Sustainable Output
Agriculture Notes
Takes more Space
Pasture/Rangeland Feeding
Incorporates more human and animal labor
Minimize Chemical Usage (Biochemicals)
POLYCULTURE
Benefits
Conventional
Lower food costs
Fast production times (more growing seasons in a given year)
Meets increased demand
Sustainable
Healthier for humans and organisms alike
Higher quality foods (in terms of energy)
Conserves energy and water resources
Lower biodiversity/environmental impact
Risks/Impact
Conventional
Biodiversity/Habitat Degradation
Soil, Water, and Air Pollution
Erosion/Desertification
Energy and Water Loss
Contamination of Human Foods
Pesticide and Antibiotic Resistance
Sustainable
Higher food costs
Agriculture Notes
Low yield
Decreased availability
More susceptible to storms, pests, changes in environment, etc.