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# University of Caloocan City

## Gen. San Miguel Street, Sangandaan, Caloocan City

A semi- detailed lesson plan prepared by
Rhodeliza D.L. Tiotangco
BSEd Science 4A

I. OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the lesson, 75% of the students with at least 70% proficiency level
should be able to:
a. define Series and Parallel circuits;
b. how to construct a simple series circuit;
c. application of equations in series circuits through Ohms law; and
d. differentiate the characteristics of series and parallel circuit.

II. SUBJECT MATTER

A. Topic: Electricity Circuits
Subtopic: Series circuit

B. References:

Physics IV
Science and technology textbook for fourth year
Authors: Eulalia N. Bentillo and Josefina Ll. Pabellon
pp. 153 156.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/circuits/Lesson-4/Series-Circuits
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys03/bsercir/default.htm

C. Materials needed:
- Battery
- Light bulb
- Copper wire
- Electric tape

1. Daily Routine

1.1 Opening prayer
1.2 Greetings
1.3 Cleanliness
1.4 Attendance

2. Review

2.1 What is the symbol for a battery?
2.2 What is the symbol for the switch?
2.3 Why do we use these symbols?

3. Motivation:

Title: Make me light up

The teacher will give various materials:
Battery
Light bulb
Copper wires
Electric tape

The students will make a way to make the light bulb light up with the given
materials and with the help of the video clip presentation.

4. Unlocking of Difficulties:

Ampere symbol I to represent the current.
Circuit is the complete path around which an electric current flows
Omega the Greek alphabet that symbols resistance
Rheostat an electrical instrument used to control a current by varying the
resistance.
Voltage is the force that causes current to flow in a circuit

5. Lesson Proper:
Series circuits

The current through series component is equal
Is that the amount of current is the same through any component in the circuit.
This is because there is only one path for electrons to flow in a series circuit, and
because free electrons flow through conductors
A device is connected in a manner such that there is only one pathway by which
charge can transverse the external circuits.
Examples:

Parallel circuits

The voltage across every parallel component is equal.
Has more than one resistor and gets its name from having multiple paths to move
along.
Charges can move through any of several paths.
Is one that has two or more paths for the electricity to flow, the loads are parallel
to each other
Examples:

Ohms Law

Is used to determine the ratio of the battery voltage and the equivalent
Define the relationship between voltage, current and resistance.

Applying Ohms Law in a series circuit

The following rules apply to a series circuit:
1. The sum of the potential drops equals the potential rise of the source.

2. The current is the same everywhere in the series circuit.

The total resistance of the circuit (also called effective resistance) is equal to the
sum of the individual resistances.

Examples:

The goal is to use the formulae to determine the equivalent resistance of the circuit
(R
eq
), the current at the battery (I
tot
), and the voltage drops and current for each of the
three resistors.

The analysis begins by using the resistance values for the individual resistors in
order to determine the equivalent resistance of the circuit.

R
eq
= R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
= 17 + 12 + 11 = 40

Now that the equivalent resistance is known, the current at the battery can be
determined using the Ohm's law equation. In using the Ohm's law equation (V = I
R) to determine the current in the circuit, it is important to use the battery voltage for
V and the equivalent resistance for R. The calculation is shown here:

I
tot
= V
battery
/ R
eq
= (60 V) / (40 ) = 1.5 amp

The 1.5 amp value for current is the current at the battery location. For a series
circuit with no branching locations, the current is everywhere the same. The current
at the battery location is the same as the current at each resistor location.
Subsequently, the 1.5 amp is the value of I
1
, I
2
, and I
3
.
I
battery
= I
1
= I
2
= I
3
= 1.5 amp
There are three values left to be determined - the voltage drops across each of the
individual resistors. Ohm's law is used once more to determine the voltage drops for
each resistor - it is simply the product of the current at each resistor (calculated
above as 1.5 amp) and the resistance of each resistor (given in the problem
statement). The calculations are shown below.

V
1
= I
1

R
1

V
1
= (1.5
A) (17 )
V
1
= 25.5
V
V
2
= I
2

R
2

V
2
= (1.5
A) (12 )
V
2
= 18 V
V
3
= I
3

R
3

V
3
= (1.5
A) (11 )
V
3
= 16.5
V

As a check of the accuracy of the mathematics performed, it is wise to see if the
calculated values satisfy the principle that the sum of the voltage drops for each
individual resistor is equal to the voltage rating of the battery. In other words, is
V
battery
= V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
?
Is V
battery
= V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
?
Is 60 V = 25.5 V + 18 V + 16.5 V ?
Is 60 V = 60 V

6. Generalization :
The students will differentiate Series and Parallel Circuits:

IV. Evaluation:

A. A power saw at the local hardware store boasts of having a 15-Amp motor.
Determine its resistance when plugged into a 110-Volt outlet.
B. A coffee cup immersion heater utilizes a heating coil with a resistance of 8.5 .
Determine the current through the coil when operated at 110 V.
C. Defibrillator machines are used to deliver an electric shock to the human heart in
order to resuscitate an otherwise non-beating heart. It is estimated that a current as
low as 17 mA through the heart is required to resuscitate. Using 100,000 as the
overall resistance, determine the output voltage required of a defibrillating device.
D. The series circuit at the right depicts three resistors connected to a voltage source.
The voltage source (V
tot
) is a 110-V source and the resistor values are 7.2
(R
1
), 6.2 (R
2
) and 8.6 (R
3
).
a. Determine the equivalent resistance of the circuit.
b. Determine the current in the circuit.
c. Determine the voltage drops across each individual resistor.

V. Assignment / Agreement: