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SIX SIGMA

A SCIENTIFIC
& PRACTICAL
METHOD TO
ACHIEVE
IMPROVEMENTS IN A
COMPANY

A PRESENTATION ON SIX SIGMA
WHAT IS SIX SIGMA ?
A Statistical Concept that measures a Process in
terms of Defects at the Six Sigma level, there
3.4 defects per million opportunities
A Philosophy and a Goal : as Perfect as
Practically Possible
A Methodology and a Symbol of Quality
WHAT IS SIX SIGMA ?
A Systematic Approach to Process Improvement
and Elimination of Defects
It Focuses on Quality & Customers both
Less Defects>Better Quality
It can be applied to Design, Manufacturing and
Administrative Processes
SIX SIGMA MEASUREMENT
SIX SIGMA = 99.9997%
ACCURACY !
WHY SIX SIGMA ?
Why Not
Four Sigma
Or
99.379% ?
Every hour the postal service
would lose 20,000 pieces of
mail!
Every day our drinking water
would be unsafe for almost 15
minutes!
Every week there would be
5,000 Surgical operations that
go wrong in some way!
Every month we would be
without Electricity for almost
seven hours!
WHY SIX SIGMA ?
FINANCE
CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION
QUALITY
COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE
EMPLOYEE
PRIDE
GROWTH
WHY SIX SIGMA ?
At GE, Six Sigma added more than $ 2 billion to
the bottom line in 1999 alone.
Motorola saved more than $ 15 billion in the first
10 years of its Six Sigma effort.
AlliedSignal reports saving $ 1.5 billion through
Six Sigma.
SIX SIGMA PHASES
A Systematic
Approach to
Process
Improvement
to eliminate
defects
VARIATION REDUCTION..
HAVE YOU EVER DONE
THIS ?
WHO DO YOU THINK IS A BETTER
PLAYER ?
PLAYER
A
PLAYER
B
SIX SIGMA PHASES
SIX SIGMA PHASES
Define
Measure
Analyze
Improve
Control
SIX SIGMA PHASES
Define
Defining the problem in Six
Sigma involves narrowing the
focus.

The goal of Six Sigma is to
reduce the defects as close to
zero as possible.

The processes may have many
inputs and defects.

Narrowing the focus of the Six
Sigma project will help provide
specifics.
SIX SIGMA PHASES
Define
Measur
e
Gathering accurate data is the
second step in the process.

Mapping the specific steps in
the existing process provides
data to be analyzed & helps to
identify possible problems.

Verifying the quality of the data
gathered at this step is vital to
producing an accurate analysis.


SIX SIGMA PHASES
Define
Measur
e
Analyze
Defects or errors are identified
during the analysis process.

Actions that should be taken
but are not or not providing for
quality control at each step are
other errors.

Once the analysis is complete
an action plan to make
improvements is the next step.


SIX SIGMA PHASES
Define
Measur
e
Analyze Improve
Recommendations based on
the previous analysis are made
in this step.

Elimination of duplicate
procedures or additions to
regulate quality can reduce the
defects.

The addition of technology may
also be considered as an
improvement.


SIX SIGMA PHASES
Define
Measur
e
Analyze Improve
Control
Control in Six Sigma means
measuring and sustaining the
'new' process.

Improvements must be
measurable to show
quantifiable changes.

If the improvement can't
produce measurable changes it
shouldn't be implemented.

Verify Improvements.

SIX SIGMA
A
Short Video on
Six Sigma Holders,

Mumbais
Dabbawala
(Dabba Service)
MUMBAIS DABBAWALA..
SOME SIX SIGMA
COMPANIES..
Companies who have successfully adopted Six
Sigma strategies include:
DR. GENICHI
TAGUCHI
- QUALITY
TAGUCHIS QUALITY & ROBUST DESIGN
STAGES
DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI
Widely acknowledged leader in the U.S.
industrial quality movement.
Credited for starting the Robust Design
movement in Japan in 1950s.
Helped correct postwar Japan's telephone
system.
In 1980 introduced Taguchi method to
AT&T.
TAGUCHIS QUALITY
The quality of product is the minimum loss imparted
by the product to society from the time the product is
shipped. Financial as well as Quality loss.
What is loss?
Returns
Warrant
Customer complaint
Time and money spent by the customer
Eventual loss of market share

TAGUCHIS QUALITY LOSS


Scrap Cost
LSL USL
Target
Cost
The Taguchi Quality Loss function
the quality loss is zero only if we are on target
The Traditional Quality Loss function
the quality loss is zero only between LSL & USL
TAGUCHIS QUALITY
Products and services should be designed to be
inherently defect free and of high quality
Meet customers expectations also under non-ideal
conditions
Disturbances are events that cause the design
performance to deviate from its target values
Taguchi divide disturbances into three categories
External disturbances: variations in the
environment where the product is used
Internal disturbances: ware and tare inside a
specific unit
Disturbances in the production process: deviation
from target values
ROBUST DESIGN
ROBUST DESIGN
EXAMPLE
Noise Factors for braking distance of a car
External
Wet or dry road
Unit-to-Unit Variation
Friction characteristics of brake pads
Deterioration
Wear of brake pads

TAGUCHIS
METHODOLOGY
A Three step method for achieving robust
design:
Robust Design
Toleranc
e Design
Paramet
er
Design
System
Design
Involves creating a
working prototype
Involves
experimenting to
find which factors
influence product
performance most
Involves setting tight
tolerance limits for the
critical factors and
looser tolerance limits
for less important
factors.
SYSTEM DESIGN

The process of examining competing
technologies for producing a product - Includes
choices of technology and process design
A prototype design that can be produced and
meets customers needs under ideal conditions
without disturbances

PARAMETER DESIGN

The selection of control factors (parameters) and
their optimal levels
The objective is to make the design Robust!
Control factors are those process variables
management can influence.
Ex. The Procedures used and the type and amount of training
The optimal parameter levels can be determined
through experimentation.


TOLERANCE DESIGN

Development of specification limits
Necessary because there will always be some variation in the
production process
Taguchi fiercely advocates aiming for the target value not just
settle for inside the specification limits!
Occurs after the Parameter design
Often results in increased production costs
More expensive input material might have to be used to meet
specifications


SUMMARY
Six Sigma is a strategic approach
towards process improvement that
focuses on:
1. Eliminate Defects
2. Quality & Customer Focused
3. Variation Reduction

Taguchis Quality focuses on:
1. Designing to make Products &
Services Defect Free by Controlling
the factors in Process
2. Focus on Zero Defect