You are on page 1of 66

Copyright 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin
1-2
Overview
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMcfrLY
Dm2U
The importance of communication in business
Current challenges
The three main categories of communication
in business
Formal and informal networks
Business communication as problem solving
The contexts of business communication
The business communication process
1-3
The Importance of
Communication Skills
Ninety-four percent of over 2,000 surveyed
executives ranked communicating well as the most
important skill for success.
--NFI Research
Recruiters who assessed MBA programs rated
interpersonal and communication skills, a teamwork
orientation, personal ethics and integrity, analytical
and problem-solving abilities, and a strong work
ethic as the most important attributes.
--The Wall Street Journal
1-4
Example
A woman without her man is nothing.
A woman, without her man, is nothing.
OR
A woman: without her, man is nothing!!
Lets eat, Grandma!
OR
Lets eat Grandma!
1-5
Current Challenges for
Business Communicators
Ongoing development of new information
technologies
Increasingly global nature of business
Growing diversity in the workplace
Increased focus on ethics and social
responsibility
Main Forms of Communication
in Business
Operational
Internal
External
Personal
Example of an Internal Portal (Intranet)
1-6
1-7
Communication Networks
Formal Network
Well-established, usually along operational lines
Depends on certain established forms or genres
in the company
Planned and managed
Informal Network
Complex
Dynamic
Breakfast Club?
1-8
The Communication Networks in a Division
of a Small Manufacturing Company
1-9
Factors Affecting the
Communication in a Business
Nature of the business
Operating plan
Business environment
Geographic dispersion
People
Company culture
1-10
Business Communication
as Problem Solving
Most business-communication problems are
ill-defined problems requiring
Analysis
Creativity
Judgment
1-11
A Model of Business Communication
1-12
The Contexts for Communication
The larger context
Business-economic
Sociocultural
Historical
The relationship of the communicators
The communicators particular contexts
Organizational
Professional
Personal
The Business Communication Process
The sender . . .
Senses a need to
communicate
Defines the situation
Considers possible
solutions
Selects the best one
Composes the message
(medium, content,
structure, style, form)
Sends the message
The receiver . . .
Receives the message
Interprets it
Decides on a response
Replies (becoming a new
sender)
1-14
The Bottom Line
The goal of business communication is to
create a shared understanding of business
situations that will enable people to work
successfully together.
Copyright 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
3-2
Construction of Clear Sentences
Limit sentence content.
Economize on words.
Determine emphasis in sentence design.
Give the sentences unity.
Word sentences logically.
3-3
Limit Sentence Content
Many consumers have expressed dissatisfaction with the relatively
high prices of the new Japanese cars, but this has not prevented
large numbers of people from purchasing these cars and pushing
sales higher than many automotive experts had forecast, thus
firmly entrenching the Japanese cars in a large segment of the
automobile market.
DONT
3-4
Limit Sentence Content
Many consumers have expressed dissatisfaction with the relatively
high prices of the new Japanese cars. However, this has not
prevented large numbers of people from purchasing these cars
and pushing sales higher than many automotive experts had
forecast. The Japanese cars have thus become entrenched in a
large segment of the automobile market.
DO
3-5
Limit Sentence Content
The production planning department assigns to each production
order a number that is called a job-order number, which becomes
the identifying means of reporting to the accounting department
the direct costs relating to a production order, and which can
reveal additional information about the job through code numbers
or letters added to the job-order number.
DONT
3-6
Limit Sentence Content
The production planning department assigns to each production
order a number that is called a job-order number. This number
becomes the identifying means of reporting to the accounting
department the direct costs relating to a production order. Adding
code numbers or letters to the job-order number reveals more
information about the job.
DO
3-7
Economize on Words
(Eliminate Cluttering Phrases)
Regardless of the fact that sales increased, profits continue to
decline.
Production will decrease next month due to the fact that we
must retool for the next model.
In very few instances do the salespeople receive bonuses over
the amount of $100.
At all times the cash box is kept locked.
3-8
Economize on Words
(Eliminate Cluttering Phrases)
At whatever time we receive a special order, it is immediately
sent to the production planning department.
Contrary to our expectations, the new law will allow the
company to reduce its income taxes.
In some instances, we sell directly to the retailer.
3-9
Economize on Words
(Eliminate Cluttering Phrases)
You are hereby instructed to send all daily reports directly to
this office as promptly as possible.
Your attention is directed to paragraph 3, which summarizes
the findings of this study.
Enclosed herewith are general instructions which are sent to
you for your guidance and information.
3-10
Economize on Words
(Eliminate Surplus Words)
All the books are in readiness for the annual audit.
The charge of negligence has been denied by all four of the
officers.
It is our expectation that this plan will be successful.
It is our conclusion that production should stop.
3-11
Economize on Words
(Remove Unnecessary Repetition)
We have verified the charges to your account and find that
the account balances on our books agree with the account
balances on your books.
The manager repeatedly kept telling me over and over again.
This change will enable us to get started sooner than if we
wait for a later date.
3-12
Manage Emphasis in Sentences
Write sentences that give their contents
proper emphasis.
Short sentences stand out (an item standing
alone gets emphasis).
Long sentences de-emphasize content (the
two or more items share emphasis).
3-13
All Short Sentences
(Choppy Effect)
The main building was inspected on October 1. Mr. George Wills
inspected the building. Mr. Wills is a vice president of the
company. He found that the building has 6,500 square feet of
floor space. He also found that it has 2,400 square feet of storage
space. The new store must have a minimum of 6,000 square feet
of floor space. It must have 2,000 square feet of storage space.
Thus, the main building exceeds the space requirements for the
new store. Therefore, Mr. Wills concluded that the main building is
adequate for the companys needs.
3-14
Some Subordination
(But not Logical)
Mr. George Wills, who inspected the main building on October
1, is a vice president of the company. His inspection, which
supports the conclusion that the building is large enough for
the proposed store, uncovered these facts. The building has
6,500 square feet of floor space and 2,400 square of feet of
storage space, which is more than the minimum requirements
of 6,000 and 2,000 square feet, respectively, of floor and
storage space.
3-15
Good Subordination
(Important Points Emphasized)
The main building is large enough for the new store. This
conclusion, reached by Vice President George Wills following his
October 1 inspection of the building, is based on these facts: The
buildings 6,500 square feet of floor space exceeded the minimum
requirements by 500 square feet. The 2,400 square feet of storage
spaced exceeded the minimum requirement by 400 square feet.
3-16
Give the Sentences Unity
(Relate Ideas Logically)
The Passman shredder was the first manufactured, and we have had a
Timmons since 1996.
The weather was unusually bad last month, and sales of Drummond
products increased 12 percent.
We value your satisfaction, and we have carefully looked into the handling
of your order.
3-17
Give the Sentences Unity
(Limit the Details in Each Sentence)
Both hotels can guarantee the 250 rooms we will require,
although the Marriott is new (since 2002) and its rooms are
more modern and therefore more appealing, but the 69-year
old Westgate is well preserved and comfortable.
3-18
Give the sentences unity
(Limit the Details in Each Sentence)
I rented offices in Marina Towers, a downtown office building,
and the suite rents for $3,000 per month for three executive
offices which open into a single support office which is large
enough for two administrative assistants.
3-19
Word Sentences Logically
We cleared the site, and then the foundation was
constructed.
Because our inventories have decreased has increased our
back orders.
The price of this copier is inexpensive.
3-20
Word Sentences Logically
I would give Ralph high marks as far as being a team player.
Looking into the matter, the product appears to have been
defective.
I have experience resolving customer complaints, supplier
delays, and I have managed a sales team.
3-21
Construction of Clear Paragraphs
Give the paragraphs unity.
Keep paragraphs short.
Make good use of topic sentences.
Leave out unnecessary detail.
Make paragraphs coherent.
3-22
Give Paragraphs Unity
At the university I studied all the basic accounting courses as well as
specialized courses in taxation and computer security. I also took
specialized coursework in the behavioral areas, with emphasis on
human relations. Realizing the value of human relations in business, I
also actively participated in organizations such as Sigma Nu (social
fraternity), Delta Sigma Pi (professional fraternity), and University
Sing. I selected my elective coursework to round out my general
business education. Among my electives were courses in
investments, business report writing, and business ethics. A glance
at my resume will show you the additional courses that round out my
training.
How would you give this paragraph better unity?
3-23
Keep Paragraphs Short
Heavy paragraphs make the
writing appear to be dull and
difficult.
Short paragraphs give well-
organized effect -- invite the
reader to read.
3-24
Make Good Use of Topic Sentences
In constructing a chart line, you should plot the item to be illustrated
as a continuous line on a grid. On the grid, you should plot time on
the horizontal axis (X-axis) and the value of the series on the vertical
axis (Y-axis). You must create the scale values and time periods for
the axis lines.
You may also compare two or more series on the same line chart. In
such a comparison, you should clearly distinguish the lines by color
or form (dots, dashes, dots and dashes, and the like). You should
clearly label them by a legend somewhere in the chart. But the
number of series that you may compare on one chart is limited. As a
practical rule, four or five series should be a maximum.
3-25
Leave Out Unnecessary Detail
In reviewing the personnel records in our company database, I found
that several items in your file were incomplete. The section titled
work history has blank lines for three items of information. The first
is for dates employed. The second is for company name. And the
third is for type of work performed. On your record only company
name was entered, leaving two items blank. You did not indicate
years employed or your duties. This information is important. It is
reviewed by your supervisors every time you are considered for
promotion or for a pay increase. Therefore, it must be completed. I
request that you sign on the company portal and complete this form
at your earliest convenience.
This paragraph tells more than the reader needs to know:
3-26
Make Paragraphs Coherent
Before buying plants you should know which varieties are
adapted to your area. Adapted varieties usually are sold by
local nurseries.
Preferably you should state the problem in writing. Stating
the problem this way is good for many reasons.
The order of your findings depends much on the plan you
followed in your research. This research plan probably was
the product of the preliminary analysis you made of your
problem.
Verbs contain the action in the sentence. As the action
words, they give your writing energy and impact.
Show coherence through repetition of key words.
3-27
Make Paragraphs Coherent
Transitional sentences are essential to good writing. They
are the mortar that holds bricks of thought together.
If you think Mr. James is most interested in the conclusion,
begin with the conclusion. A direct beginning will permit
himto make his decision without delay. If he has
confidence in your work, he may not choose to read beyond
this point.
Show coherence through the use of pronouns.
3-28
Make Paragraphs Coherent
The promotion failed for two reasons. First, we had very little
preparation time. Second, we were extremely short of
experienced salespeople.
For three years we had no funds for maintaining the equipment.
As a result, we have suffered a succession of breakdowns.
After the incident, we installed two additional video cameras.
Nevertheless, theft losses continued to increase.
They built the building on the site that had been filled.
Consequently, the foundation cracked.
Show coherence through the use of transition words.
3-29
Give Paragraphs Forward Movement
We at Digex take care of all the needs of your online business. First,
we supply the hardware and software necessary to get your site up
and running. Next, we make certain you are online 24/7/365 with
our world-class data centers and networks. In addition, we provide
the administration, monitoring, and security that ensures your sites
success.
The transitional expressions help this paragraph move steadily
forward to reach its goals.
Copyright 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
5-2
Objectives
Describe the writing process and effective writing strategies
Explain the importance of readable formatting
Describe the development and current usage of the
business letter
Describe the purpose and form of memorandums
Understand the phenomenal growth and nature of email
Follow email conventions and organize and write clear
email messages
Understand the nature and business uses of text messaging
and instant messaging
Understand the nature and business uses of social
networking
5-3
Overview
The Writing Process
The Importance of Readable Formatting
The Main Types of Business Messages
Letters
Memorandums
Email
Text messaging
Instant messaging
Social networking
5-4
The Writing Process
5-5
The Writing Process
Planning the Message
Determining goals
Analyzing the audience
Gathering and collecting information
Analyzing and organizing the information
Choosing a form, channel, and format
5-6
The Writing Process
Drafting the Message
Avoid perfectionism.
Keep going.
Use your own favorite strategies.
5-7
The Process of Writing
Revising
Revising
Editing
Proofreading
5-8
The Importance of Readable
Formatting
Avoid an intimidating document.
Use formatting devices to enhance readability
and comprehension:
White space
Headings
Typographical emphasis (e.g., bold, italics)
Bulleted lists
Diagrams and pictures
5-9
Main Types of Business Messages
Letters
Memos
Emails
Text &
Instant
Messages
Online Social
Networks
5-10
Letters
The most traditional type of business message
Format (Appendix B)
Formality
Audience
5-11
Memorandums
Memorandums (Memos)
Format
Date
To
From
Subject
Formality
Audience
A traditional genre being replaced by email
5-12
Emails
Email
Advantages of Email
Eliminates telephone tag
Saves time
Speeds up decision making
Is cost effective
Provides a written record
Disadvantages of Email
Not confidential
May not communicate writers emotional intent
May be ignored
5-13
Email Structure
Subject line
Is short (5 7 words)
Captures the main point
Is capitalized as you would a book or article title
Beginning
Name of the recipient
Generic greeting
Formal salutation
Purpose
5-14
Email Structure
General organization
Important information first
Additional information in descending order of
importance
Other options
Direct approach (Ch. 6)
Indirect approach (Ch. 7)
Business report format and structure
5-15
Email Structure
Informal Writing
Retains some casual qualities (personal pronouns,
contractions).
Is conversational.
Example: Ive read your excellent proposal. I predict
the administrators will approve it.
5-16
Email Structure
Formal Writing
Maintains distance between writer and reader.
Avoids personal references and contractions.
Example: The proposal is excellent. The executives are
likely to approve it.
5-17
Email Structure
Conciseness
Keep sentences and paragraphs short
Use words economically
Paraphrase previous messages concisely
Quote selectively
Clarity
Practice clear writing techniques (Ch. 2 4)
Use concrete, vigorous, precise language
5-18
Email Structure
Etiquette
Be courteous and fair.
Build goodwill with every email.
Never write when angry.
Avoid flaming.
Correctness
Use the spell checker.
Use standard business English.
Remember: Correctness affects professional image.
5-19
Email Structure
The closing
Informal
The writers name
No name
More formal
Thanks, Regards
Formal
Sincerely
Signature block
5-20
Email Structure
Emphasis devices
Italics
Bold type
Color
Asterisks
Dashes
Solid caps
Initialisms
BTW
FYI
FAQ
TTFN
TIA
LOL
5-21
Text & Instant Messaging
Used for promotions, brand awareness, customer
relations
Typically limited to 150 characters
Tips
Cover all critical information.
Keep it short.
Strive for clarity.
Maintain a conversational tone.
Adapt messages to the audience.
Keep language and content professional.
5-22
Social Networking
Examples
Facebook, MySpace
Twitter, LinkedIn
Personal and corporate blogs
5-23
Social Networking
Uses
External communication with customers or clients
Publicity or product promotion
Internal communication
Evaluate potential employees
Reminder: Nothing on these sites is
confidential. Your employer (or a potential
employer) may view them.