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BRITISH STANDARD

BS 6399:
Part 2:1995
Loading for
buildings
Part 2. Code of practice for wind loads
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NO COPYING WITHOUT BS1 PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHI LAW

BS6399:Part2: 1995
This British Standard, having
bee prepared under the
direction of the Building and
Chil Engineering %ctor Board,
was published tinder the
authority of the Standards
Bozwd and comes into effect on
15 Ausust 1995
0 BSI 1!295
Nmt published (as CP 4)
November 1944
First revision (as CP 3:
Chapter V) Ausust 1952
%rfitd second revision (as CP3:
Chapter V : Part 1)
Becember 1967
Completion of second revision
(= CP 3: Chapter V : Part 2)
July 1970
Published as KS 6399: Fart 2:
Au@st 1995
The following 9S1 references
relate ro the work on this
stadati.
Committee reference 9/525/ 1
Draft for comment 91 I 16625 DC
ISBN06S0 23651 X
Committees responsible for this
British Standard
rhe preparation of this Britiih Standard was entrusted by lbchnical
Committee B/525, Buildings and civil engineering structures, to Subcommittee
B/525/1, Actions (loadings) and basis of desigrr, upon which the following
bodies were represented:
British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd.
British Iron arrdSteel Producem Association
British Masonry Society
Concrete Society
Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment)
Department of the Environment (Property and Buifdings Directorate)
Department of Trarrsport (Highways Agency)
Institution of Structural En@reers
National House-building Council
Royal Institute of British Architects
Steel Construction Institute
Amendments issued since publication
Amd. No. Date Text affected
I I
BS6299:Part2:
Contents
Fage
Committees responsible
Inside front cover
Foreword iv
Section 1. General
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
Scope
Informative references
Definitions
Main symbols
Outline of proceducc for calculating wirrd loads
Dyrramic claasiiication
Site exposure
Choice of method
1
1
1
2
3
7
7
8
Section 2. Standard method
2.1 Standard wind loads 9
2.2 Standad wind speeds 12
2.3 Standard pressure coefficients 20
2.4 External pressure coefficients for walls 20
2.5 External pressure coefficients for roofs 25
2.6 Internal pressure coefficients 39
2.7 Pressure coefficients for elements
41
Section 3. Directional method
3.1 Dwectional wind loads
44
3.2 Directional wind speeds
46
3.3 Dnctional pressure coefficients
51
3.4 Hybrid combinations of standard arrd dkectional methods 72
Annexes
A (normative) Necessary pruviaions for wind tunnel testing
73
B (irrfOmative) Derivation of extreme wind information
73
C (informative) Dynamic augmentation
75
D (nonnative) PmbabiIity factor and seasonaf factor 77
E (informative) l&rain categories and effective height
79
F (informative) Gust peak factor 81
lhbles
1
2
3
4
L
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Buifding-type faCtOr &
Dynamic pressure g= [in Pa)
Valves of dwection factor S,j
Factor .%,for standard methud
ExcemaA pressure cucfficients Cw for verticaI walk
Frictional drag coefficients
External pressure Cw coefficients for walls of circulm-plan buildhrgs
Extemaf pressure ceefficienta Cw for flat roofs of buiIdings
External presarrc coefficients Cw for monOpirch mOfs Of buildin@
External pressure coefficients C& for duopitch roofs of build@s
External pressure coefficients Cw for hipped roofs of buildings
Reduction factor for multi-bay roofs
7
9
17
20
21
25
25
26
31
31
32
35
i
Dcr 0.s33 : - z : 1330
Page
13 Net pressure coefficients CP for free-standing monopitch canopy roofs 36
14 Net pre~um coefficients CP for free-standing duopitch canopy roofs
15 Reduction factors for free-standing multi-bay camopy roofs
16 Internal pressure coefficients CPi for enclosed build@s
17 Internal pressure coefficients Cpi for buildings with dominant
opmings
HI Internal pressure coefficients Cpi for open-sided buildings
19 Internal pressure coefficients Cpi for open-tOpped vertical ~lindem
20 Net pressure coefficients CP for long elements
21 Net pressure coefficients CP for free-standing W*
22 Factom .SCind $
23 A@stment factors Ic and Tt for sites in town terrain
24 Gust peak factor gt
25 Values of L, and .Sh
26 External pressure coefficients Cp, for vertical walls of
rectangular-plan buildings
27 Reduction factom for zone A on verticaf walls of polygon&plan
buildings
28 External pressure coefficients CP, for vertical gable w~k adjacent tO
non-vertical walls and roofs
29 External pressure coefficients Cw for windward-facing nOn-vefiical
walls
30 ExtemaJ pressure coefficients Cw for flat roofs with sharp eaves
31 Reduction factor for zones A to D, H to J and Q to S of flat roofs
with parapets
32 External pressure coefficients Cm for flat roofs with curved eaves
33 External pressure coefficients Cw for flat roofs with mansard eaves
34 External pressure coefficients CP, for pitched roof zones A to J
35 Extemaf pressure coefficients CR for pitched roof zOnes K tO S
36 External pressure coefficients Cw for additional zones T to Y of
hipped roofs
37 Intemaf pressure coefficients Cpj for open-sided buildings
D. 1 Values of seasonal factor
Figures
1 Flowchart illustrating outline procedure 4
2 Basic deftitions of building dimensions 6
3 Dynamic augmentation factor C, 8
4
Size effect factor Ca of standard method
11
5 Definition of diagonal of loaded areas 12
6 Basic wind speed Vb (in rds) 13
7 Definition of significant topography 14
8 Definition of topographic dimensions 15
9 lbpogmphic location factors for hills and ridges 16
10 f@ographic kxation factors for cliffs and escarpments 17
11 Division of buildings by parts for lateral loads 19
12 Key to wall pressure data 21
13 Typical examples of buildhygs with m-entrant comers and recessed
bays 22
37
37
39
40
40
40
41
42
48
49
50
51
52
.52
54
55
59
60
60
61
63
66
70
72
78
ii
Page
14 Examples of flush irregular walls
15 Key for walls of inset storey
16 Key for flat roofs
17 Key to cave details for flat roofs
18 Key for inset stomy
19 Key for monopitch roofs
W Key for duopitch roofs
21 Key for hipped roofs
22 Key for mansard and multipitch roofs
22 Key for multi-bay roofs
24 Key for free-standing canopy roofs
25 Reduction factor for length of elements
26 Key for free-stamding walls
27 Shelter factor for fences
26 Key for signboards
29 Wind directions for a rectarrgulm-plan building
26 Key to overall load P
31 Key for vertical walls of builrlii
32 Key to vertical gable wrdls
23 Key for walls of buildings with m-entrant comers
24 Key for walls of buildings with recessed bays
35 Key to general method for flat rcofs
26 Examples of zones of flat roof of arbMary Plan shape
37 Additional zones around inset storey
28 Key for monopitch roofs
39 Synrmetries for pitched roofs
40 Key for duopitch roofs
41 Key for hipped roofs
42 Key to multi-bay roofs
E. 1 Effective heights br towns
F. 1 Gust peak factor gt
L&t of references
23
24
26
27
28
29
30
33
34
35
38
41
42
43
43
44
46
52
54
56
57
58
59
62
64
65
67
69
71
so
82
Inside back cover
In
Foreword
This Part of this British Standard has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/1,
Actions (loadings) and basis of design, and supersedes CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2:
1972.
Rds part of BS 6399 is a technical revision of CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2 and
incorporates the considerable advances made and experience gained in wind
engineering since that time. CP3 : Chapter V : M 2 will not be withdrawn
immediately so as to allow an overlap period with this Part of BS 6399.
The b=ic wind speed in thk British Standard is given as an hourly mean value;
this differs from CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2 in which it was based on a 3 s gust
value. However, the hourly mean basic wind speed is subsequently converted
into a gust wind speed for use in design (by a gust peak factor wh]ch takes
account of gust duration time, height of structure above ground and the size of
the structure). The adoption of the hourly mean value for the basic wind speed is
for technical reasons. Primarily it allows a more accumte treatment of
topography, but it alao provides the starting pohrt for serviceability calculations
involving fatigue or dynamic response of the stmcture. Its use is akw a move
towards harmonization as mean values (sometimes 10 min means) are often the
basis for wind loading calculations in European and international standards.
Structure factors are used to check whether the response of the structure can be
considered to be static, in which caae the use of the calculation methods in thk
standard is appropriate. If the response is found to be mildly dynamic the
methods can still be used but the resulting loads will need to be augmented.
Structures which are dynamic will alsube identified but their assessment is
outside the scope of the standard.
TWOalternative methods are given:
a) a standard method, which uses a simplified procedure;
b) a directional method, from which the simplified method was derived.
The standard method gives a conservative result within its range of applicability.
Calibration haa shown that loads on typicaf buildings obtained by the standard
method are around 14 % larger than obtained from the directional method. The
degee of conservatism can be much larger close to the ground and in towns, but
decreaaes to zero around 100 m above the gruund.
In addition to reduced conservatism, the directional method assesses the loadhg
in more detail, but with the penalty of increaaed complexity and compukitional
effort. Because of this it is anticipated that the standard method will be used for
most hand-baaed calculations and that the directional method wifl be
implemented principally by computer
Procedures are alao given to enable the standard effective wind speed to be used
with the directional pressure coefficients and for the directional effective wind
speeds to be used with the standard pressure coefficients.
CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2 allowed for the effect of ground roughness, building
size and height above gound by a single factor. This required the calculation of
separate wind speeds for every combination of reference height above gruund
and the size of the loaded area. However, a simp~] cation has been introduced in
the standard method which involves the calculation of only a single wind speed
for each reference height. The effect of size is allowed for by a separate
factor, Cc
BS 6399: Part 2 also gives values for external pressure coefficients for a greater
mnge of building configurations than did CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2.
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itseff confer immunity from
legaf obligations.
iv
BS6399:Part 2:1995
Section 1. General
1.1 Scope
lidsRutof BS 6399 gives methods for determining
the gust peak wind loads on buildings and
components thereof that should be taken into
account in design using equivalent static
procedures.
Two alternative methods are given:
a) a standard method which uses a sirnpliiled
pnxedure to obtain a standard effective wind
speed which ix uacd with standard pressure
coefficients to determine the wind loads for
orthogonal design cases.
NOTE 1. This procedure is virtually the same win CP3 :
Chapter V : Parr 2.
b) a directional method in which effective wind
s~ds ~d Preasurc coefficients arc determined
to derive the wind loads for each wind dtiction.
Other methods may be used in place of the two
methcds given in thix standard, provided that they
can be shown to be equivalent. Such methods
include wind tunnel tests which should be taken as
equivalent only if they meet the conditions defined
in armex A.
NUTE2. Wind tunnel tests are recommended when the form of
the building is not covered by the data i this standard, when
the form of the b.ifdimg cm be changed in response to the test
resulf.? in order to give an optimized design, or when loading
data are required in more derail than is awe in this standard.
Specialist advice should be sought for building
shapes and site locations that are not covered by
this standard.
The methods given in this Part of BS 6399 do not
apply tObufldkgs which, by virtue of the
structural properties, e .g, maas, stiffness, natural
frequency or damping, are particularly susceptible
to dynamic excitation. These should be asaeased
using established dynamic methods or wind tunnel
tests.
NOTE 3. See references [1] to 14] for examples of established
dynamic methcds.
NUIE 4. If a building is susceptible to excitaticm by vortex
shedding or other aemelastic instability, tie maximum dynamic
respome may occur at wind speeds lower than the maximum.
1.2 Informative references
Thii British Standard refers to other publications
that provide information or guidance. Editions of
thexe publications current at the time of issue of
this standard am listed on the inaide back cover,
but reference should be made to the latest
editions.
1.3 Defiitionx
For the purposes of this British Standard the
following definitions apply.
1.3.1 Wind speed
1.3.1.1 basic wind speed
The hourly mean wind speed with an annual risk Q
of being exceeded of 0.02, irrespective of wind
direction, at a height of 10 m over completely flat
terrain at sea Ievei that would occur if the
ruughneas of the terrabr w uniform everywhere
(inclu~l:g urban areas, inland lakes and the sea)
and equwalent to typical open country in the
United Kingdom.
1.3.1.2 site wind speed
The basic wind speed modtiled to account for the
altitude of the site arrd the direction of the wind
being considered (arrd the aeaaon of exposure, if
required).
NUlll, In the standard metbcd only, effectsof topographic
featuresareincludedintbe sitewindspeed.
1.3.1.3 effective wind speed
The site wind speed modfied to a gust speed by
taking account of the effective height, size of the
building or structural element Ming considered and
of permanent obstmctions upwind,
NCIIE. 1 the direcriomd method only: the effects of
topographic featwes are omitted from the site wind s~ed.
1.3.2 Pressure
1.3.2.1 dynamic pressure
fhe potential pressure available from the kinetic
energy of the effective wind speed.
1.3.2.2 pressrrre coefficient
The ratio of the pressure acting on a surface to the
dy-c pKS.SUP2.
1.3.2.3 exterfud pressrrre
The pressure acting on a.frexternal surface of a
building caused by the dmct action of the wind.
1.3.2.4 intemaf pressure
The preasffrc acting on an internal surface of a
buildbrg caused by the action of the external
pressures through porosity and openings in the
external surfaces of the buildlng.
1.3.2.5 net pressure
The pressure dtiference between opposite faces of
a surface.
1
BS63Y9:Part2:lYY5 Section 1
1.3.3 Height
1.3.3.1 altitude
a) when topography is not si@lcant: the height
above mean sea level of the ground level of the
site;
b) when topography is significant: the height
above mean sea level of the base of the
topographic feature,
1.3.3.2 building height
The height of a building or part of a building above
its base.
1.3.3.3 reference height
The reference height for a part of a structure is the
datum height above Wound for the pressure
coefficients and is defined with the pressure
coefficients for that part.
1.3.3.4 obstruction height
The average height above ground of buildings,
structures or other permanent obstmctions to the
wind immediately upwind of the site.
1.3.3.5 effective height
The height used in the calculations of the effective
wind speed determined from the reference height
with slfowance for the obstmction height.
1.3.4 Length
1.3.4.1 buifding length
The longer horizontal dimension of a buildhrg or
part of a building. 1,
1.3.4.2 building width
The shorter horizontal dimension of a building or
part of a building.)
1.3.4.3 crosswind breadth
The horizontal extent of a buiIding or part of a
building norrmd to the direction of the wind. l]
1.3.4.4 inwind depth
The horizontal extent of a building or part of a
building paralfel to the direction of the wind. 11
1.3.4.5 diagonrd dirnenaion
The largest diagonal dimension of a loaded area,
i.e. the dimension between the most distant points
on the periphery of the area.
1.3.4.6 scaling length
A reference length determined from the
proportions of the building used to define zones
over which the pressure coefficient is Sasmed to
be constant.
1.3.5 Distance
1.3.5.1 fetch
The distance from the site to the upwind edge of
each category of terrain, used to determine the
effect of termirr roughness changes.
1.4 Main symbols
For the purposes of this Rut of BS 6399 the
following symbols apply.
A
a
B
b
c.
Cp
c
c:
c,
D
d
G
9t
H
He
H,
Ho
h
Kb
L
LD
L,
Lu
P
P
P,
Area
Largest diagonal dimension of the loaded area
envelope (figure 5)
Crosswind breadth of building (figure 2b)
Scaling length used to define loaded areas for
pressure coefficients (2.4.1.3, 2.5. 1.2)
Size effect factor of standard method (2.1.3.4)
Net pressure coefficient (2. 1.3.3)
External prewure coefficient (2. 1.3.1)
Internal pressure coefficient (2. 1.3.2)
Dynamic augmentation factor (1.6. 1)
Inwind depth of buifding (figure 2b)
Disnreter of circular cylinders
gap across recessed bay or weU (figure 34)
gust peak factor
Buildhrg height (fw 2), eaves height or
height of inset or lower storey
Effective height (1.7.3)
Reference height (1. 7.3)
Obstruction height (1. 7.3, figure 2), or
average height of roof tops upwind of the
building
Pa.rspet height (2.5.1.4, f~re 17),
free-standhrg waif height (2.7.5.4, figure 23),
or signboard height (2.7.6, figure 24)
Building-type factor (1.6. 1)
Building length (figure 2) or length of element
between free ends (2.7.3)
Length of downwind slope of topogmphic
feature (2.2.2.2.5, figure 8)
Effective slope length of topographic feature
(2.2.2.2.4)
Length of upwind slope of topographic feature
(2.2.2.2.4, figure 8)
Net load (2.1.3.5)
Net pressure (2. 1.3.3)
Pressure on external surface (2. 1.3.1)
l) For COmPIeXpla shaWs, these lengths may be detemined from the Smalleat enclming rectangle or circle
2
Section 1 BSS399:Part 2:1995
Pi
Q
9
9.
9i
9s
r
s,
s~
s=
s~
s~
SP
s,
st
s
T,
Tt
v~
v,
v,
w
w
x
z
a
b
AS
AT
Pressure on intemaf surface (2.1.3.2)
Annual risk (pmbabi!lty) of the baaic wind
speed being exceeded (2.2.2.4, 2.2.2. 5,)
Dynamic pressure
Dynamic pressure of directional method for
external pressures (3. 1.2.2)
Dynamic presxure of dkectional method for
internal pressures (3. 1.2.2)
Dynamic pressure of standard method (2.1.2)
Radius (figure 17)
Altitude factor (2.2.2.2)
Terrain and building factor (2.2.3. 1)
Fetch factor (3.2.3.2)
Dnction factor (2.2.2.3)
lbpogmphic increment (3.2.3.4)
Probability factor (2.2.2. 5)
Seasonal factor (2.2.2.4)
Turbulence factor (3.2.3.2)
lbpographic location factor (2.2.2.2)
Fetch adjustment factor (3. 2.3.2)
fhrbulence adjustment factor (3.2.3.2)
NIC wind speed (2.2.1, figure 6)
Effective wind speed (2.2.3, 3.2.3)
Site wind speed (2.2.2)
Buildlng width (figure 2)
width of wedge in re-entnmt comers
(figure 33)
D~tance of site from crest of topographic
feature (2.2.2.2.5, figure 8) or distance in
wind direction for buifding spacing ( 1.7.3.3)
Height of crest of topographic feature above
the upwind baae altitude (figure 8)
Pitch angfe (from horizontal) of roof (2.5) or
non-vertical W* (3.3.1.4)
comer angle of walls (3.3.1.2)
.%te altitude in metres above mean sea level
(2.2.2.2)
Altitude of upwind baae of topographic
feature in metres above mean sea level
(2.2.2.3)
Reduction factor for length of elements
(2.7.3)
Average slope of the gmmnd
Effective slope of topographic feature
(2.2.2.2.4)
fhngent of downwind slope of topographic
feature (figure 7)
lkrrgent of upwind slope of topographic
feature (figure 7, 2.2.2.2.4)
Whfd direction in degrees eaat of north
(2.2.2.3)
Solidity ratio of walls or frames (2.7.5) or
blockage ratio of canopies (2.5.9, figure 24)
Wind direction of degrees from normal to
building faces (figure 2) or angle around
periphery of circular-plan buildhrg (2.4.6)
1.5 Outline of procedure for calculating
wind loads
1.5.1 The outline of procedure is illustrated in the
flow chart given in figfmc 1. This shorn the stages
of the standard method, together with the relevant
clause numbem, as the boxes outlined and
connected by thick lines. The stages of the
directional method are shown as boxes outlined
with double lines and are directly equivalent to the
stages of the standard method. Various input data
are shown in boxes outlined with singfe lines.
1.5.2 The wind loads should be calculated for each
of the loaded areas under consideration, depending
on the dimensions of the building, defined in
figure 2. These may be:
a) the structure ax a whole;
b) parts of the structure, such as walls and roofs
or
c) individual stmctural components, including
cladding urrits arrd their ftinga.
Nc71Z. Wind load on a partially completed structure may he
critical and will be dependent on the method and sequence of
construction.
3
Wstww:rartz:lxm
CSSULIU1l 1
Stage 1: Dynamic augmentation
Input building height H, input
factor C, (1 .6.1)
building type factor K, (table 1)
I
I
Stage 2: Check limits of
No
Building is dynamic. This Pert
applicability C, < 0.25, does not apply (see references
H <300 m (1.6.2)
[1] to [41)
Stage 3: Basic wind speed V,
Basic wind speed map [Figure 6)
(2.2.1)
I
Stage 4: Site wind speed V.
Altitude factor S,, directional factor
(2.2.2)
S~, seaaonal factor S,
I
Stage 5: Terrain categories,
Site terrain type, level of upwind
effective height H. (1.7.3)
rooftops Ho, separation of buildings
x
9
Stage 6: Choica of method (1 .8)
G
Directional and topographic
9
------------=
Stage 7: Standard effective wind
Directional effective wind speed
--
------:-----E=
Directional pressure coefficients
Stage 10: Wtnd Ioada P (2.1 .3)
[
Directional wind loads P (3.1)
1
)
I
Figure L Flowchart illustrating outline procedure
4
Section 1 BS63YY:MZ:1YY6
Notes to figure 1
Stage 1 Determines the dynamic augmentation factor
fmm the basic geometric and stnctuml pmpenies of the
building,
Stage 2 Depending on this value, a check is p+?rformed
on the level of dynamic excitatim to determine:
a) whether the methods given in this k%rt of ss 6399
aPPIY and the a%ew.ment may proceed; or
b) whether the methcds given in this ~ of ss 6399
do not apply and the building should be assessed by
one of the methwls for dynmnic buildings (see
references [1] to [4]) or by wind tunnel tesfs
(see annex A).
SW, % Determines the basic hourly mean wind speed
from the map for the UK.
Sfage 4 Determines a site wind speed, still
corresponding to the hourly mean wind speeds at a
height of 10 m above ground in the standard exposure,
from the basic wind speed by applying corrections for the
site altitude, wind dbwmion and season. Up to this point,
no allowance for the exposure of the particular site has
been made and the procedure is common (except in ifs
treafment of the effectsof topography) to both the
stidard and dkectional metbd.
NCflE The derivations of the b~ic wind speed map, the
adjustments for site altitude, wind direction and season
are given in annex B.
Stage 6 .ksses.ses the exposure of the site in term of the
terrain mugtmes and the effective height. llu?e
categories of terrain roughness are used to define the site
exposure. The effective height depends cm the degee of
shelfer provided by neighborig buildings or other
permanent obstmcfiom.
Stage k Having assessed the exposure of the site, this
St&3e offersthe choice between the standard nwtbcd ad
the directional method. The standard method @ves
conservative values for standard orthogonal load czses,
and a simplified method for buildin@ up to 1C4 m in
height and for signirlcant to fmgmphy. The directional
methcd gives a more precise value for any given wind
direction, particularly for sites in towns, and where
topography is significant. A simple rule for assessing the
significance of to fmsraphy is provided.
Stage 7 Determines the effective wind W&&S required
by either method. The effective wind speed is a gust
wind sp+ed appropriate to the site exposure and the
height of the building. h! the scmdard method this
correspmds to a datum size of loaded area, while in the
directional method this cmresfmnds to the size of the
loaded area under consideration.
s~e 8 Converts the effective wind speed into an
equwalent dynamic pressure.
Stage 9 Selects pressurecoefficients corresponding to
the form of the building. In the standard method these
coeffkienb correspond to a number (usually two or
three) of orthogonal load cases, while in the directional
methcd they correspond to the wind directions being
considered (usually twelve).
St-x. 10 Determines the wind loads from the dynamic
pressure, pressurecoefficients, dynamic augmentation
factor and, in the standard method, by the size effect
factor, to gtve the characteristic wind load for static
design.
5
Bsw99:Partz:lYY5 Section 1
a) Fixed dimensions length, width, height
.
44
~B
k~x
Wind
rml
D
General caae Orthogonal caaas
h) Variable dimemiom: crosswind breadth, imvind depth, wind angle
c) Obstruction height and upwind $pacig
Figure 2. Basic definitions of building dimensions
6
Section 1 BS 6299: Part 2:1995
1.6 Dynamic classtilcation
1.6.1 Dyn a m ic a u gm e n t a t ion fa c t or
Th e methods of this standard employ equivalent
static loads to represent the effect of fluctuating
loads which is applicable only to buildings which
are not susceptible to dynamic excitation.
The standard permits equivalent static loads to be
used for the design of mildly dynamic structures by
the introduction of a dynamic augmentation factor.
The value of this factor depends upon the actual
height H of the building above ground and on a
building-type factor ~b obtained from table 1, for
the form of construction of the buildlng.
The dynamic augmentation factor C, is given for
typical buildings in figure 3 .
fhble 1. Building-type fsctor ~b
&p-e of buUdf@
Welded steel unclad frames
Bolted steel and reinforced concrete
unclad frames
Fort-d sheds and similar light structures
with few internal walls
Framed buildings with structural walls
around M- and staim only (e.g. office
build~ of open plan or with
partitioning)
Framed buildmf@ with structural walk
around lifts and stairs with additional
masonry subdivision walls (e. g.
aptiment buildings), buildings of
ma.?arry construction and
timber-framed housing
:
f&
?3
4
2
1
0.5
NOTE. Thevaluesof thefacfarsKb and C, have been derived
for typical building structures with typical frequency and
damping chamcfe!tstics, under typical UK wind speeds, without
accounting for topogmphyor tsme.inroughness effects. More
accurate values of these factam may be derived using annex C
when tbe buifding characteristics am ot typical, or when the
effectsof topographyand terrain mugtmessneed tobetaken
into account.
1.6.2 Lfndts of applicability
This Part of Ef36399 does not apply when the
value of dynamic augmentation factor exceeds the
limits shown in figure 3. Buildin@ faffing outside
these !imk? should be assmsed using established
dynamic methods.
NCllll See referemes[1] to [4] for frtber information o
analysis of dynamic structures.
1.7 Site exposure
1 . 7 . 1 Ge n e r s f
Th e site wind speed V, refers to a standard open
country exposure at a height of 10 m above
ground. lb obtain the effective wind speed the
effects of varying gruund roughness, the height
and d~tance of obstructions upwind of the site and
the effects of topography should be taken into
account.
1.7.2 Ground roughness categories
Three categories of terrain are considered:
a) sea the sea, and inland areas of water
extending more than 1 km in the wind direction
when closer than 1 km upwind of the site;
b) country: all terrain which is not defined as sea
or town;
c) bum: built up aress with an average level of
mof tops at least Ho = 5 m above ground level.
NOTE 1. Permanent forest and woodland may be treated 8..s
town categmy.
NUIT 2. l&rain Categories are explained i more detail in
annex E.
1 . 7 . 3 Re fe r e n c e h e igh t an d e ffe c t i ve h e igh t
L 7 . 3 . 1 Th e reference height H, is defined for the
building form in the appropriate pressure
coefficient tables and deftition figures, but can
conservatively be taken as the maximum height of
the building above ground level.
1.7.3.2 For buifdings in country terrain, or
conservatively for buildings in town terrain, the
effective height Ife should be taken as the
reference height HP
1 . 7 . 3 . 3 For buildings in town terrain, the effective
height & depends on the shelter affofied by the
avemge level of the height Ho of the roof tops of
the buildings, or of the height of other permanent
obstructions, upwind of the site and their upwind
spacing X. These dimensions are defined in
figure 2. The effective height He should be
determined as follows.
a) Ifxs2Ho
then He is the greater of
He = Hr 0.8H0 or He = 0.4H,;
b) If X > 6H0
tiien He is given by He = Hr;
c) fn the range 2Jfo < X c 6H0
He is the greater of
He = H, - 1.2H0 + 0.2X or He = 0.4HP
NOTE. 1. the absence of more accurate information, the
obstmction bwgbt Ho may be estimated from the average
number of storeys of .pwid buildings by raking the typical
storey height as 3 m. Furrher guidance is given i annex E.
7
BsfxfYY: Iartz:lYY5 section 1
@
Limits of applicability
Shaded regionoutaidescopeof thisPart
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1 10 100 1000
Building height, H (m)
Figure 3. Dyn a m ic a u gm e n t a t ion fa c t or C,
1.8 Choice of method
1.8.1 For alf structures less than 100 m in height
and where the wind loading can be represented by
equivalent static loads (see 1.6), the wind loading
can be otained either by the standard method
described in section 2 or by the directional method
given in section 3,
1.8.2 The standard method provides values of
effective wind speed to be used with the standard
pressure coefficient (clauses 2.3 to 2.5) to
determine orthogonal load cases, corresponding to
the wind direction notionally normal or parallel to
the faces of the buifding. The standard method
uses a simplilled allowance for signiilcant
topography, as defined in figure 7.
1.8.3 The directional method gives values of the
effective wind s~ed for different wind directions,
taking into account the term.in appropriate to the
wind dnction behrg considered, to be used with
the directional pressure coefficients. It gives better
estimates of effective wind speeds in towns and for
sites affected by topography.
L 8.4 However, m the standard method gives
conservative values of both effective wind speed
(below 100 m) and pressure coefficient, it may
sometimes be appropriate to use a hybrid
combination of both methods, either
a) standard effective wind speeds with
directional pressure coefficients; or
b) directional effective wind speeds with
standard pressure coefficients.
Combination a) k aurxouriate when the form of
the building iswell defied, but the site is not; the
caaes of relocatable buildings or standard
mass- pruduced designs are typical examples.
Combination b) is appropriate when only the
standmd orthogonal load cases are required, but a
better allowance for site exposure is desired
because topogmphy is signifkant and/or the site is
in a town. Such hybrid combinations should be
app~ed only in accordance with 3.4.
-)
8
#
BS6399:Part2:lW5
Se c t i on 2 . St a n da r d m e t h od
2.1 Standard wind loads
2.1.1 Win d direction
2 . 1 . 1 . 1 The standard method requires assessment
for orthogonal load cases for wind dmections
normal to the faces of the buifdmg, as shown in
figure 2b. When the building is doubly-symmetric,
e.g. rectangular-plan with flat, equal- duopitch or
hipped roof, the two orthogonal cases shown in
figure 2b are sufficient, When the building is
singly-symmetric, three orthogonal cases are
required, e.g. for rectangular-plan monopitch
buildings: wind norrnaf to high eaves; wind normal
to low eaves; wind pwallel to eaves. When the
buifdlng is asymmetric, four orthogorwd cases are
n?quired.
2.1.1.2 For each orthogonal case, the range of
wind dmctions *45 either side of the direction
normal to the building face should be considered.
When symmetry is used to reduce the number of
orthogonal load cases, both opposing wind
directions, e.g. Q = Oormd O = 180 should be
considered arrd the more onerous dmction used.
2.1.2 Dynamic prsssure
2.1.2.1 The value of the dynamic pressure q, of
the standard method is given by
q, = 0.613Ve2 (1)
where
q, i s the dynamic pressure (in Pa*);
t, i s the effective wind speed from 2.2.3
(in rots).
2.1.2.2 Values of dynamic pressure q~for various
values of Ve are given in table 2.
2.1.3 Win d load
2 . 1 . 3 . 1 Ertemal sueace prssaurw
The pressure acting on the external surface of a
buildhg P, i s gNen by
where
9s
is the dynamic pressure from 2.1. Z
Cw is the extemaf pressure coefficient for the
buifding surface given irr 2.4 and 2.5
c, is the size effect factor for external
pressures defined in 2.1.3.4.
2. L3.2 Internal su~ace prssaurvs
The pressure acting on the internal surface of a
building, pi, is given by
Pi =
q,cpl ca (3)
where
9,
is the dynamic pressure from 2.1. Z
CPi is the internal pressure coefficient for the
buifding given in 2.6
c, is the size effect factor for internal
pressures defined in 2.1.3.4.
2.1.3.3 Nst su@ace Preasurw
The net pressure p acti ng across a surface i s gi ven
by the following.
a) For enclosed buildings
P= Pe -Pi
(4)
where
pe is the external pressure given irr 2.1.3.1;
Pi
i s the internal pressure given in 2.1.3.2.
b) For free-standing canopi es and building
elements
P = %% G
(5)
where
9,
is the dynamic pressure from 2.1. Z
Cp i s the net pressure coefficient for the
canopy surface or element given in 2.5.9
and 2.7
P, -
q,cwc, (2) Ca
is the size effect factor for external
pressures defined in 2.1.3.4.
uc pressure q~(i n Pa)
+0 +1.0 + 2.0
61
245
552
981
i Ci 3 0
74
270
589
1 0 3 0
1 5 9 0
38
297
628
1080
1660
Ih ble 2. Dyrrs
Y
e
mls
10
2 0
3 0
4 0
5 0
6 0 2210 \2280 I 2360
.l Pa-l !J/m2
T
I
1C4
120
324 353
668 709
1130 1190
1720 17!30
2430 2510
T
+ 6.0 + 6.0
136 i 57
383 414
751 794
1240 1300
1850 1920
2590 2670
a
+ 7.0 + 8.0 + 9.0
177 199 221
447 481 516
839 885 932
1350 1410 1470
1990 2060 2130
2750 2830 2920
9
BSfX399: Fart2:1995 Section 2
2 . 1 . 3 . 4 Su e @ectfactOr
The size effect factor Ca of the standard method
accounts for the non-simultaneous action of gusts
acnmsanextemalsurfaceand for the response of
internal pressures. Values of size effect factor are
given in figure4, dependent onthe site exposure
(see 1.7) and the diagonal dnenaion a.
For external pressures the diagonal dimension a is
the largest diagonal of the area over which load
sharfng takes place, as illustrated in figure 5. For
internal pressures an effective diagonal d]menaion
is defined in 2.6 which is dependent on the
internal volume.
For all individual stmctural components, claddlng
units and their ftings, the diagonal dimension
should bc taken as a = 5 m, unless there is
adequate load sharing capacity to justify the use of
a diagonal length ~eater than 5 m.
2.1.3.5 Su@ace l oads
The net load P on an area of a building surface or
element is gjven by
P=PA (6)
where
P
is the net pressure acroas the surface;
A is the loaded area.
Load effects, for example bending moments and
shear fomes, at any level in a building should be
baaed on the diagonal dimension of the loaded area
above the level being considered, as illustrated in
figure 5C.
2.1.3.6 Ovemll l oads
The ovemfl load P on a building is taken as the sum
of the loads on individual surfaces with allowances
for non-simultaneous action between faces and for
mildly dynamic response.
The overall horizontal loads are given by
P = 0.85( XPfmnt - EP,,J (1 + C,) (7)
where
,zPfmnt i s the horizontal component of surface
load summed over the
windward-facing walls and roofs;
ZP.W is the horizontal component of surface
load summed over the leeward-facing
walls and roofs;
c, is the dynamic augmentation factor
fmm 1.6.1;
but tafdng the inwind depth of the building, D, as
the smaller of width Wor length L in the
determination of Pfmnt and Prem
NOTE 1. The factor 0.85 accounts for the non-si mul taneous
acti on between faces.
NOTE 2. As the effect of i nternal pressure on the fr ont and
rear faces i s eqwd and opposi te when they are of equal si ze,
i nternal pr esmue can be i gnor ed i n the cal cul ati on-of overal l
hori zontal l oads on encl osed bui l di ngs on l evel gr ound.
Wher e the combi nati on of the orthogonal loads is
critical to the design, for example in deriving
stresses in comer columns, the maximum stresses
caused by wind in any component may be taken as
80 % of the sum of the wind stresses resulting from
each orthogonal pair of load caaes.
2.1.3.7 .@mmetri c l oads
Unless specific rules are given for particular forms
of buifdlng (e.g. free-standing canopies (2.5.9.1)
and signboards (2. 7.6)), an aUowance for
aaymmetw of loading should be made, as follows.
For overalf loads on enclosed buildhga, 60 % of the
load on each waif or roof pitch should be applied in
turn, keeping the loads on the rest of the building
at the design values.
Where the inffuence function for a structural
component haa regions of negative value, 100 % of
the design loads to areas contributing to the
positive regions and 60 % of the design loads to
areas contributing to the negative regions should be
applied.
NI X!%. hi s pr ocedwe shcml d k used to account for torsi onal
effecfs on bui l di ngs and i s equi val ent t. a bori z.ntal
di spl acement of the for ce on each face of 10 % of the face
wi dth fr om the cemxe of the face.
2.1.3.8 Fi cti onal dmg component
When deriving overalf forces on the building
(see 2.4.5 and 2.5. 10) the contribution of the
frictional forces should be taken to act in the
direction of the wind and should be added to the
contribution of the normal pressure forces
from 2.1.3.6 using vectorial summation.
10
I
Section 2 BS6299:Part2 :1995
1.m
0.%
0s0
o.m
am
7
,! ,,, ,,!
0.00
0.%
1 ?0 100 10CO
Dia gon a l dimensiona (m)
I @ to I I nes on fi gur e 4
Effecti ve hei ght Si te I n county cl osest di stance to sea (km) Si te i n town: cl osest di stance to sea
H, (km)
m Oto<z Zto <10 I ota <1oo 2100 Zto <10 10 to <100 >100
52 A B B B c c c
>2t05 A B B B c c c
>5 to 10 A A B B A c c
>10 to 15 A A B B A B B
>15 to 20 A A B B A B B
>20 to 30 A A A B A A B
>30 to 50 A A A B A A B
>50 A A A B A A B
Figure 4. Size effect factor Ca of standard method
11
BSS399:Fart2 :1995
Se c t ion 2
&aA
a) Di agonal s for l oad on i ndi vi dual b) Di agonal for toti l oad on combi ned
faces faces
a
EN
for shear at bsse of shaded parl
A+i2!xf0rc1add
C) Di agonal s for l oad on el ementi of faces
d) Di agoml for total l oad on gabl e e) Di agcmal for total l oad . r oof pi tch
Fi gu r e 5 . De ffit ion of dia gon a l of los de d m e s s
2.2 Standard wind speeds
NUl ?3 I n consi deti g the r ange of wi nd di recti ons *45, i n
acccmdam?e wi th 2.1.1.2. two amxoa.hes are uossi bl e:
2.2.1 Basic wind s pe e d
. .
a) the most oner ous val ue of each factor i n equati on 8 i s
The xeomauhi cal variation of basic wind sDeed Vb
taken, l eadi ng to a si ngl e conservati ve val ue of V,;
shou~db> ~btained directly from fisure 6.- -
NUfE. The method used to der i ve tbe basi c wi nd speed fmm
the r neteoml wjcal data i s descri i md i n annex B.
2.2.!2Site wind s pe e d
2 . 2 . 2 . 1 Geneml
The site wind speed V, for any particular direction
should be calculated from where
v,=vbx.$ax.$dxssxs~ (8)
where
Vb i s the basic wind speed from 2.2.1;
S. is an altitude factor (see 2.2.2.2);
Sd is a direction factor (see 2.2.2.3);
s, is a seaaons.1factor (see 2.2.2.4);
SD is a probability factor (see 2.2.2.5).
b) ==m . . ~ Of V, =e made at i nte~ thi n@ the ~ge
of di recti on and the l argest val ue used.
[n practi ce, opti on b) wi l l not pr oduce si gni ncantl y l ower
val ues than a) unl ess tbe cmnbi ati o of l ocati on, exposur e
and topogr aphy of the si te i s unusual .
2.2.2.2 Al ti tude factor
2.2.2.2.1 The altitude factor Sa should be used to
adjust the basic wind speed Vb for the altitude of
the site above sca level. Its calculation in the
standard method depends on whether topography
is considered to be significant, as indicated by the
simple criteria in f~re 7. When topogmphy is not
considered significant, Sa should be calculated
using the procedure in 2.2.2.2.2. When topography
is signifhint, S1 should be calculated using the
procedure in 2.2.2.2.3 for the wind direction
-1
yielding the largest value of S=, typically the
diection with the steepest slope upwind of the site.
12
I
Se c t ion 2 BS6 2 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
r
63 Cr own copyr i ght, Bui l di ng Research Establ i shment
Fi gure 6. Ba s i c win d s pe e d Vb (in r i ds )
13
BS6399:Fart 2:1995 Section 2
J
~. SI OW l ength
.) Hilland r i dge (upwi nd sl ope > 0.05; dmvmvi nd sl ope > 0.05)
Wind
P
\ d_ddow
yo< 0.05
b) Escarpment (O.3 > upwi nd sl ope > 0.05; dmvnwi nd$l ope < 0.05) andcl i ff(upwi nd
sl ope > 0,3; dmvm+i nds l ope < 0.05)
Fi gu r e 7 . De fiit ion of s i gn i t lc a m t t opogr a ph y
2.2.2.2.2 When topography is not considered
significant Sa should be calculated from
s. = 1 + o.oolzf~ (9)
where
As is the site altitude (in metres above mean
sea level).
NOTE 1 thi s cm the val ue of S=, based . the si te al ti tude,
compensates for resi dual topogr aphy effects.
2.2.2.2.3 When topography is considered
significant Sa, should be taken as the greater of
Sa= 1 + o.oolzl~ (lo)
where
A~ is the site altitude (in metres above mean sea
level); or
s= = 1 + o.oolzf~ + 1.2v& (11)
where
AT is the altitude of the upwind baae of
significant topography (in metres above
mean sea level);
we
is the effective slope of the topographic
feature;
s is a topographic location factor.
2.2.2.2.4 The relevant dmensions of the
topography are defined in figure 8. RVO
pararnetem, effective slope we and effective slope
length L, are defined in terms of these dimensions
by the following.
a) For shallow upwind slopes 0,05 < v <0.3:
v, = Vu and L, = Lu;
b) For steep upwind slopes v >0.3:
We = 0.3 and L, = Z/O.3.
14
I
Se c t ion 2 BS6 2 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
Whd
X<o X>o
G
~
a) Hilland r i dge (Vu >0.05, VD > 0.05)
kLu i
b) Escarpment (0.3 > Vu >0.0.5, WD < 0.05) and cl i ff (VU >0.3, VD < 0.05)
f@Y
J%
h
x
z
As
T
v
w
Length of the downwi nd sl ope i n the wi nd di mxti on
Length of the upwi nd sl ope i n the wi nd di recti on
Hori zontal di sfance of the si te fr om the crest
Effectiveheightof the feature
Sitealtitudei n meows above mean sea l evel
Al ti tude of upwi nd base of topogr aphi c featur e
Upr nnd SI OW Z{k i . the ~d d~On
Downwi nd sl ope ZIL~i n the wi nd di recti on
Fi gu r e 8 . De ft i t i on of t opogr a ph ic dim e n s ion s
15
BS6399:Fart 2:1995 Section 2
2.2.2.2.5 Values of the topographic location b) downwind of thecrest(X > O), the horizontal
factors are given for hills and ridges in figure 9 positiorr ratio is X/LDfor hills and ridges, and
and for cliffs and escarpments in figure 10. In XL for cliffs and escarpments.
reading the value ofs f-mm these fi&ree., the
location with respect to the crest of the feature is
In all &ses, the height ab&e ground &-~iois Z/Le.
scaled to the lengths of the upwind Lu or
NUI E. 1. c-s transitional betweenhillsandridgesinfigw? 8a
downwind LD slopes as follows:
andcliffsandexarpmenfsi n fi gur e 8b, i .e. when the
downwi nd sl ope l ength ~ i s much l onger than the upwi nd
a) upwind of the crest (X < O), the horizontal
slopel ength ~ i t may be di ffi cul t to deci de whi ch model i s the
position ratio is X/Lu for all types of topography;
moreappropriate1thi s cm, a val ue of s may b? der i ved fr om
both figures9 and 10, and the smal l er val ue used.
-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
I
X/Lu <+> x/LD
Horizontalpositionratios
Figure 9. lbpogr a ph ic loc a t ion fa c t or s for h ills an d r i dge s
16
Section 2
i
BS6299:Fart 2:1995
Upwi .d of crest .~,Cfownwi ndofcr eti
4 2.0
; 1.5
0
. -
@ 1.0
u
c
3
0
~ 0.5
a
>
2
m
g 0.2
?
0.1
-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
X/Lu <+> X/Le
Horizontal positionratios
Figure 1 0 . lbpogr a ph i c loc a t ion fa c t or s for c fi ffs an d e s c a r pm e n t s
2.2.2.3 Di rw?cti onfactor Ik ble 3 . Vfdu e s of dir e c t ion fa c t or &
Th e direction factor Sd maybe used to adjust the
Di recti on v Di recti on factor S~
bssic wind speed to produce wind speeds with the
same risk of being exceeded in any wind direction.
0 North 0.78
Values am given in table 3 for all wind dmtilons in 30 0.73
30 intervals (where the wind direction ix defined
in the conventional manner an east wind is a wind
60 0.73
direction of v = 90 an d blows from the east to
90 Esst 0.74
the site). J.fthe orientation of the building is
120 0.73
unknown or ignored, the value of the dim?ction
factor should be taken ss Sd = 1.00 for all
150
dmctions.
0.80
180 South 0.85
NU1E. When the di recti on factor i s used wi th other factom that
have a dbecdonal vari adon, val ues fr om Al e 3 shoul d be
210 0.93
i nterpol ated for the speci fi c di recti . bei ng consi deral , or ti e
l argest tsbul ated val ue i n tbe r ange of wi nd di recti on maybe
240 1.00
sel ected.
270 West 0.99
300 0.91
330 0.82
360 North 0.78
NOTE.I nterrel ati on may be used wi thi n thi s tabl e.
17
BS6299:Part2 :1995 Section 2
2.2.2.4 Seasorral factor
The seaaonaf factor S, may be used to reduce the
basic wind speed for buildings which are expected
to be exposed to the wind for specific subarmual
periods, in particular for tempmary works and
buildings during construction. Values which
maintain the risk (probabtity) of being exceeded of
Q -0.02 in the stated period are given in
annex D.
For permanent buildlrrgs and buildings exposed to
the wind for a contirrrrous period of more than
6 months a value of 1.0 should be used for S,.
2.2.2.5 Prvbabi l i tfI factor
A pmbabiity factor SP may be used to change the
risk of the basic wind speed being exceeded from
the standard value of Q . 0.02 annually, or in the
stated subannurd period if SSis alao rraed.
Equation D. 1 gives .SP, together with a number of
values for other levefs of risk.
For alf normal design applications, where
adjustments for risk arc made through the partial
factors, the standard value of risk, Q = 0.02, is
used and SP = 1.0.
2.2.3 Effective win d s pe e d
2 . 2 . 3 . 1 fbe effective wind speed V, should be
calculated from
ve=v, xs~ (1 2 )
where
V, is the site wind speed obtained from 2.2.2,
for the range 6 = +45 around the
notiorrrd orthogonal wind directions defined
with the pressure coefficient data for each
form of buifding;
.% is the terrain arrd building factor obtained
from 2.2.3.3.
2.2.3.2 For buildings with height ff greater than
the cmaswind breadth B for the wind dmction
being considered, some reduction in later-al loads
may be obtained by dividhrg the building into a
number of parts m follows
a) buildings with height H l eas than or equal to B
should be considered to be one part, as in
figure ha;
b) buildings with height II greater than B but less
than 2B should be considered to be two parts,
comprising a lower part extending upwards from
the ~ound by a height equal to B and an upper
part which is the remainder, as in figure 1lb;
c) buildings with height H greater than 2B should
be considered to be multiple parts, comprising a
lower part extending upwards fmm the ground
by a height equal to B, an upper part extending
downwards from the top by a height equal to B,
and a middle region between upper and lower
parts which may be dMded into a number of
horizontal parts, as in figure 1lc.
The reference height H, for each part should be
taken as the height to the top of that part.
2.2.3.3 The terrain and building factor Sb should
be obtained directly from table 4 and takes account
of.
a) the effective height He determined from L 7.3;
b) the closest diatarrce of the site from the sea in
the range of wind direction O = t45 around
the notional wind direction for the orthogonal
load case, as defiied with the pressure
coefficient data for each form of building
c) whether the site is in country terrain or at
least 2 km irrside town terrain.
NCTE. Forallsi tes i nsi de towns (except exactl y at the upwi nd
edge or at a di .wance of 2 km fmm the upwi nd edge) the
si mp~,cati ons of the srandard method pr cduce a huger val ue of
Sb than the di recti onal methcd. I f the l oads pr oduced by the
sfandard method are cri ti cal to the desi gn, the use of tbe
hyhr i d combi ati o gi ven i 3.4.2 shoul d & consi der ed.
18
I
Section 2
BS6399:Part 2:1995
a) One part when H s B
_FBF _
1
T
Hr=H
H
T
Hr=B
v
////////////////////////
b) Twoparts when B< Hs 7.,9
~- ~LYA.
IH, =H
1 Hr=z l;, =
A

H
A
fH=B
v
r
/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /
c) Mul ti pi e parts whenfl > ZE
Ngu r e 1 1 . Divis ion of bu ildin gs by pa r t s for
la t e r a l loa ds
H-6
19
BS6399:Fs.rt2 :1995 Section 2
fh ble 4 . I%c t n r . Sbfor s t a n da r d m e t h od
Si te i n countr y ] Si te i n town, extendi ng 22 km .pwI nd fr om the si te
Effecti ve hei ght I Cl osest di stance to sea
He
km
%----+=
5 1.65
10 1,78
15 1.s5
20 1.90
30 1.96
50 2.04
100 2.12
2
1.40
1.62
1.78
1,85
1.90
1.96
2.04
2.12
1.35
1,57
1,73
1.82
1.s9
1.96
2,04
2.12
I Effecti ve height 1Cl osest di stance to sea
I W
I
+
2100 m
1.26 52
1.45 6
1.62 10
1.71 15
1.77 20
1.85 30
1.95 50
2.07 100
k
km
2
1.18
1.50
1.73
1.85
1.90
1.96
2.04
2.12
1,15 1,07
1.45 1.36
1.69 1.58
1,s2 1.71
1,89 1.77
1.96 1.s5
2.04 1.95
2,12 2.07
NOTE 1. [nterpai ati on may be used wi thi n each mbl e.
N(TE 2. The !i Rures i n thi s tabl e have been der i ved fr om r efer ence [5]
NOTE 3. Val ues =.me a di aaon?.1 di mensi on a = 5 m
NOr 2 4. I f H, > 100 m use the di recti onal method of secti on 3.
2.3 Standsrd pressure coefficients
2 . 3 . 1 . 4 Pressure coefficients me given for spec~lc
3uIfaces. or uarta of surfaces, of buildings or
2 . 3 . 1 Ge n e r a l
2 . 3 . 1 . 1 The wind force on a building or element
should be calculated by the procedure given in
2.1.3 using appropriate pressure coefficients that
are dependent on the shape and form of the
buifdmg,
NOTE The sfandard pressure coeffi ci ents may be used for
b.i l di gs ad el ements of gener al l y si mi l ar shape. Wher e the
bui l di ng or ei mnemt shape fal l s oufsi de the scow of the
tabul ated PB.E coeffi ci ents i n Z.4 to 2.5 or i n 3.3, or wher e
mor e detai l ed data are r equi r ed, pressure cceffi ci ets may he
obfai ned fr om wi nd tunnel tests as defi ned i n 1.1.
2.3.1.2 The standd extemaf pressure coefficients
aet out in 2.4 and 2.5 apply to buifding stmctures
that me predominantly flat faced, and to walk of
circular-plan buifd@s. The majority of
conventional buildin~, such as cuboidaf, or
composed of cuboidal elements, with different roof
forms such as flat, monopitcb, duopitch, hipped
and mansard, are included.
Where considerable variation of pressure occurs
over a surface it has been subdivided into zones
and pressure coefficients have been provided for
each zone.
2.3.1.3 When calculating the wind load on
individual structural components and cladding
units and their ftings, it is essential to take
account of the pressure difference between
oPPosite faces of each elements. Extemaf pressure
coefficients are given in 2.4 and 2.5 and internal
pressure coefficients in 2.6 for use with procedures
given in 2.1,
element& V&en the procedure of 2.1. 3.~ is
applied, they give the wind loads acting in a
direction normal to that ptilcular surface,
2.3.1.5 For certain buildhgs a wind load due to
frictional drag should be taken into account (see
2.1.3.8, 2.4.5 and 2.5.10).
2.4 External pressure coefficients for
walls
2.4.1 Re c t a n gu la r -pla n bu ildin gs
2 . 4 . 1 . 1 External preesure coefficients for vertical
walls of rectangular plan buildings are given in
table 5, dependent on the proportions of the
buifdings as shown in figure 12.
2.4.1.2 Vafues of pressure coefficient for
windward and leeward faces are given in tsble 5
for buildlngs with D/H s 1 and for buildings with
D/H ? 4 where D i s the inwind depth of the
buildlng, which varies with the wind direction
being considered (see figure 2), and Hi s the height
of the wall includkg any parapet.
NOTE. Values of pressure coeffi ci ent for i ntermedi ate D/H
rati os may be i nterpol ated.
2.4.1.3 The loaded zones on the side face should
be divided into veti]ca.1 strips from the upwind
edge of the face with the dimensions shown in
figure 12, in terms of the scafing length b given by
b = B or b = 2H, whichever is the smaller, where
B i s the crosswind breadth of the building, which
depends on the wind direction being considered
(see figure 2b) and H i s the height of the wall,
including any parapet.
20
Section 2
BS6299:Part2 :1995
Plan Plan
W=D
dh
-n]
L=D
Wind
L=8
%~~=
a) Load cases wi nd on l ong face and wi nd on short face
D
Elavatimof side faca
-m
- Ix?b
Wind
],,/,
k% 1.- A B =Hr
A B c
H=Hr
////////////////////////////////
BuildingwithD > b BuildingwithD S b
h) Keytopr essur e coeffi ci ent mneson si de face
Fi gure 12. Keytowal l pressnre data
I ml -u,. . m.A-., --------- .--s4%-,..-.. P s-. .,-..+,...1 .-11. I
~edward (front) +0.8 +0.6 Side face Zone A -1.3 1.6
Leeward (rear) -0.3 0.1 Zone B 0.8 -0.9
face
Zone C -0.4 -0,9
NUIX. Interpolationmaybe usedintherange1 < D/H <4. See 2.4.1.4 for i nterpol ati on Mtween Lwl ared and funnel i ng.
2.4.1.4 Where walls of two build@s face each
other and the gap between them is less than b,
frmneflirrg will accelerate the flow and make the
pressure coefficient more negative. Values of
pressure coefficient for the side faces are given in
table 5 for each cf the eases denoted isolated and
funneling to be applied aa foUows.
a) Whefe the gap between the buiMin@ is leas
than b/4, or greater than b, the isolated vaIues
should be used;
b) where the gapbetween the buildings is
greater than b/4arrd less than b
1) either uae the fumellirrg values,
conservatively; or
2) take the furmelling values to apply at a gap
width of b/2 and the isolated values to apply at
gap widths of b/4 and at b, and intefpalate
linearly between these values for the actual
gap width in the range from b/4to b/2or the
range from b12to b.
2.4.1.5 The values in table 5 are alao valid for
non-vertical walls within t 15 of the vertical.
Values outside this range should be obtained
from 3.3.1.4.
21
,
BSS399:Fart 2:1995 Section 2
2.4.2 Polygonal buildings c) The side walls of re-entrant corne~ and
Extemaf pressuce coefficients for the vertical walls
recessed bays facing downwind, for example the
of buildlngs with comer angles other than 90
downwind wing of f~rc 13a, should be assumed
should be obtained using the procedures set out
to be part of the leeward (rear) face.
in 3 . 3 . 1 . 2 .
2 . 4 . 3 . 2 For internal wells and rcceased bays in side
2.4.3 Bu ildin gs wi t h r e -e n t r a n t c om e r s ,
r e c e s s e d ba ys or in t e r n a l we fls
2 . 4 . 3 . 1 The external pressure coefficients given in
table 5 should be used for the vertical walls of
buildings containing re-entrant comers or recessed
bays, aa shown in figure 13, subject to the
following.
a) Where the re-entrant comer or recessed bay
results in one or more upwind wings to the
building, shown shaded in figures 13a,
13b and 13c, the zones on the side walls are
defined using the crosswind breadth B = B1 and
B3 and the height H of the wing.
faces (see figure 13d) where the gap acro~ the
weU or bay is smaller than the scaling length b, the
following apply.
a) External pressure coefficient for the walls of a
well is assumed to be equal to tbe roof
coefficient at the location of the weU given in
clause 2.5;
b) External pressure coefficient for the walls of
the bay is assumed to be equal to the side wall
coefficient at the location of the bay.
Where the well or bay extends acroas more than
one pressure zone, the mea-average of the pressure
coefficients should be taken.
b) The zones on the side walls of the remainder 2.4.3.3 If the gap across the well or bay is greater
of the building are defined using the crosswind than the scaling length b, the external pressure
breadth B = B2 and the height H of the building. coefficients should be obtained fmm 3.3.1.5.
Wind
d
b)
c)
d)
Fi gu r e 1 3 . Typic a f e xa m ple s of bu ildin gs wi t h r e -e n t r a n t c or n e r s an d
r e c e s s e d ba ys
22
I
Se c t ion 2 BS6 2 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
2.4.4 Buildings with irregular or inset faces b) Cut-out upwind, as in fiire 14b and 14d.
2.4.4.1 Irrcgul arjfushfaces
The loaded zones on the face are divided into
External pressure coefficients for t h e flush waifs of
vertical strips immediately downwind of the
buildings with corner cut-outs in elevation, as
upwind edges of the upper and lower part of the
face formed by the cut-out. The scaling length bl
illustrated in figure 14, which include, for example, for the zones of the upper part is determined
buildings with a lower wing or extension built flush fmm the height HI znd crosswind breadth B1 of
with the main building, should bs derived as
the upper inset windward face. The scaling
follow. length & for the zones of the lower Dart is
a) Cut-out downwind, as in fii 14a and 14c.
det&&ed from the height H2 and &osswind
The loaded zones on the face should be divided
breadth BZ of the lower windward face. The
into vertical strips fmm the upwind edge of the
reference height for the upper znd lower pzrt is
face with the dimensions shown in figure 12, in
the respective height above ground for the top of
terms of the scaling length b, making no special
ezch part.
allowance for the presence of the cutout. The The pressure coefficients for zones A, B and C
scaling length b is determined from the height II
may then be obtained fmm table 5.
and cms-wvirrdbreadth B of the windward face.
K
+
Hr=H
A B c
v
c
I
//////////////////////////////////-
a) Cut-out downwi nd: tal l Part l ong
H,
], ,,,,,,,,,,,,:,,,,,;,,,,,,,,,,),,$J
B
t
HI _
c
c B
H2= H,
b) cut-out upwi nd: tal l part l ong
K A
v
,///,,), ,,: ,;,,,,,,B
HI
1
H,
~ B j + B
-
c CIB
t
H2= H,
v
%77//////////////
.) PUt.OUL d.ymm.id tai l partlmrrmv
@ ~.t-..t .m+.d: ~1 P~ n~w
Fi gure 1 4 . Exa m ple s of flu s h i r r e gu la r wa lla
23
BS6299:Part 2:1995 Section 2
2.4.4.2 Waifs of i nset storegs
External pres.sumcoefficients for the walls of inset
storeya, as illustrated in figure 15, should be
derived se follows.
a) Edge of fats i nset from edge of b.nuwstmwy
(see fi gure 15a). l b the inset walls, provided
that the upwind edge of the wall is inset a
distance of at least 0. 2b1 from the upwind edge
of the lower stomy (whers bl is the scaling
length for the upper storey), the loaded zones
are defined from the proportions of the upper
storey, assuming the lower roof to be the ground
plane. However, the reference height H, i s taken
as the actual heidt of the toD of the wall above
ground. -
b) Edge offmejlush with edge of lower sfm-ey
(see figure 15b). Where the upwind edge of the
wall is flush, or inset a distance of less than
0.2b1 from the upwind edge of the lower storey,
the procedure in item a) should bs followed, but
an additional zone E should be included as
defined in figure 15b with an external pressure
coefficient of C ~
~-
-2.0. The reference height
for zone E shou d be taken as the top of the
lower storey. The greater negative pressure
(suction) determined for zone E or for the
underlying zone A in item a), should be used.
The pressure coefficients for zones A, B and C may
then be obtained from table 5.
> o.2b1

E
B c
HI
~ L
H,
N(YIX. b, isw- lenstb of p~~ Stmwy.
a) Edgeof face i nset fmm edge of l ower storey
NOfE & isscaling bw@h of l ower stmey.
b) Edgeof faceflushwithedgeof lowerstorey
Figure 1 5 . Ke ys for wa lls of inset storey

24
Section2
BS6299:Part2 :1995
I
2.4.5 Fr ic t ion -in du c e d loa ds on wa lls
Fr ic t ion for c e s s h ou ld be c a lc u la t e d for long walls
with D > b when the wind is parallel to the wall.
The frictional drag coefficient should be assumed
to act over all zone C of such walls, with values as
given irr table 6. The resulting frictional forces
should be added to the normal forces as described
in 2.1.3.8.
h ide 6. Fr ic t ion a l dr a g c oe ffi c i e n t s
Nw OfSUrf=e
FTfctioMf drag
c oe m c ie n t
Sm oot h s u r fa c e s wi t h ou t
0 . 0 1
c or r u ga t i on s or r i bs a c r os s t h e
wind direction
Surfaces with corrugations
0.02
ccrma the wind direction
Surfaces with ribs across the 0.04
wind dkection
2.4.6 Ci r c u la r -pla n bu fldi r r ga
Th e d~t r i bu t i on of external pressure coefficient
around the periphery of a circulw-plmr buildlng is
gjven in table 7. These pressure coefficients are
also applicable to silos, tanks, stacks and chimneys.
fh ble 7. Ext e r n a l I
wa lls of Circrllsr-pl
Positron
m
perfphery
9
>
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
160
180
NOTE 1.1
;.rface m
mojection
T/d z 10
+1.0
+0.9
+0.7
+0.4
)
-0.5
-0.95
-1.25
-1.2
1.0
-0.8
-0.5
-0.4
-0.4
-0.4
rpi dati on I
. e s s u r e c oe ffk i e n t s Cm for
u r bu i ldi r
-
Hld s 2.6
+1.0
+0.9
+0.7
+ 0.4
0
-0.4
-0.8
-1.1
-1.05
-0.85
-0.65
-0.35
.-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
,ybe used
. .
@
kf.ce smooth
Y/d z 10
+1.0
+0.9
+0.7
+0.35
D
0.7
1.2
-1.4
1.45
-1.4
-1.1
-0.6
-0.35
-0.35
-0.35
the r ange
fl d z 2.5
+1.0
+0.9
+0.7
+0.35
)
-0.5
-1.05
-1.25
-1.3
1.2
-0,85
-0.4
-0.25
-0.25
-0.25
2.5< Hld 13.
NOl?32. V d for di ameters gr eater that d - 1 m.
NUTS 3. T posi ti on on the per i pher y at O - 40 wher e
%
(! i s a r egi on wher e the pressure wi l l change rapi dl y
wmh ri me, due to fl uctuati ons i n wi nd di recti on cauwd by
atmospheri c turbul ence, over the r ange Cw - *0.7. h i s
ther efor e the zeaon wi th the K&est ri sk of fati gue damage 0
cl addi ng fl ti s.
2.5 External pressure coefficients for
roofs
2.5.1 Flat roofs
2.5.1.1 Scope
The data irr this section should be used for dl roofs
of pitch a less than 5. Pree.sure coefficients are
given for the orthogonal load cases and are upper
bound values to cater for all wind d~ections
8 *45 from normal to the eaves being considered.
2.5.1.2 Loaded zones
The roof should be subdkided into zones behind
each upwind eaves(verge as shown in figure 16 for
a rectangular roof. The loaded zones, shown in
figure 16, are defiied in terms of the scaling length
b given by b = B or b = 2H, whichever is the
smaller, where B is the cms.swind breadth of the
building, which is equal to Wor L, depending on
the wind direction being corwidered, as defined in
figure 16a, and Hi s the height of the wall,
including any parapet.
2.5.1.3 Ffat m@? wi th sharp eaues
External pressure coefticienta for each zone of flat
roofs with sharp eaves are given in table 8.
2.5.1.4 Ffat majl ? wi th pampcfs
2.5.1.4.1 A parapet along any eaves or edge will
reduce the pressure coefficients for the roof in the
locaf edge areaa only. External pressure coefficients
for flat rcmfs with edge parapeta are given in
table 8, dependent upon the ratio of the height h
of the parapet, defined in fwre 17a, to the scaling
length b.
2.5.1.4.2 Loading on the parapet walls, includhrg
the effects of comem where appropriate, should be
deterrrdned as for boundary walls from 2.7.5.
2.5.1.5 FZa t r oa J %wi th c u r ve d e a r xx?
2 . 5 . 1 . 5 . 1 External pressure coefficients for each
zone are given in table 8 and are dependent on the
rrrtio of the radius r of the eaves to the scaling
length b, defined in 2.5.1.2, for that eaves. The
zones start fmm the edge of the flat part of the
mof aa defiied in fii 17b.
2.5.1.5.2 The presmrre on the curved eaves should
be linearly interpolated around the arc between
the adjacent wall and roof pres.smes.
2.5.1.6 Ffat ro@ wi th mansard eaves
2.5.1.6.1 External pressure coefficients for each
zone are given in table 8 and arc dependent on the
pitch angle a of the mansard eaves. The zones start
from the edge of the flat part of the roof a-s
defined in fii 17c.
2.5.1.6.2 The pressure on the sloping mansard
eaves shordd be aasesed using the procedure
in 2.5.4.

25
BS6399:Fart 2:1995 Section 2
Pl an Pl an
W=D
dh
o]
L=D
Wind
=6 + ~lp=
.) Loadcases. wi nd on l ong face and wmd on short face
D
A
c
b12
L ~ ~
b/1O
T
T
& x
Wind
b) Key m pressure coeffi ci ent zones.. fl at r oof
Fign r e 16. Key for fi t r oofs
Table 8. Ext e r n a l pr e s s u r e coeffkienta Cw for flat roofs of bnfi~@
FM roof type Zme
A B c D
Shzrp eaves -2.0 -1.4 -0.7 *0.2
With parapets I h/b = 0.05 -1. s 1.25 -0.7 *0.2
h/b = 0.10 1.75 1.2 -0.7 *0.2
h)b = 0.20 -1.4 -1.0 -0.7 *0.2
Curved eaves rib = 0,05 -1.0 -1.2 -0.4 *0,2
r/b = 0.10 -0.75 -0.8 -0.3 *0.2
r/b = 0,20 -0.55 -0.55 -0.3 *0.2
Mamad eaves a = 30 -0.95 -1.0 -0.3 *0.2
@ = 45.
-1.2 -1.3 -0.4 *0,2
a = 60 -1.3 1.25 -0.6 *0.2
NOTE 1. For r oofs wi th parapets or cur ved eaves, i terpol ati o may be used for i ntermedi ate val ues of hlb and rib.
NOTE 2. For rcmfs wi th mansard eaves, i nterpol ati on between a - 30 and a - 60 may be used. For a >60 i nterpol ate
between the val ues for m - 60 ad the val ues for fl at r oofs wi th sharp eaves.
NOTE 3. 1 zone D, wher e both posi ti ve and negati ve val ues are @ven, both val ues shoul d be consi der ed.
NUTE 4. Val ues of cc+ ffi ci enfs for other wi nd di recti ons are @ve i n 3.3.2,
NOTE 5. Fbr pi tched r oofs wi th cur ved or nw..sard eaves, the val ues i thi s mbl e may be compar ed wi th the appropri ate val ues i n
fabl es 9, 10 or 11 and the l east negati ve val ues used.
26
i
Section 2 BS 6299: Rut 2:1995
K
h

H
r
H
a) Parapets
Roof zonas
K
start fr om her e
r
Hr. H
b) Cur ved eaves
>b/1O
. ~-
+/!/
Roof zones
start fr om her e
a\
H L
c) Mansard eaves
Fi gu r e 1 7 . Ke y t o c a ve de t a i ls for fla t r oofs

5.1.7Fl at mqp with inset storwfp


r flat roofs with inset storeys, defined in
Nre 18, external pressure coefficients for both
e uPPer roofs and lower roofs should be derived
fouows.
a) For the upper roof the appropriate procedure
of 2.5.1.3, 2.5.1.4, 2.5.1.5 or 2.5.1.6, depending
on the form of the eaves, should be used, taking
the reference height H, aa the actual height to
the upper eaves, and Has the height of the inset
storey (from the upper eaves to the lower roof
level) for determining the scaling length b.
b) For the lower roof the appropriate procedure
of 2.5.1.3, 2.5.1.4, 2.5.1.5 or 2.5.1.6, depending
on the form of the eaves, should be used, where
H, = H and is the actual height of the lower
storey, ignoring the effect of the inset atoreys.
However, a further zone around the base of the
inset storeys extending b/2from each facing waif
should be included, where b is the safing
p-eter fmm 2.5.1.2 appropriate to the
relevant walls of the inset storey. The pressure
coefficient in this zone should be taken as that of
the zone in the adjacent wall of the upper storey
(as determined from 2.4).
Take prsssure Cneffi ci enfs on adjacsnt wal l i n thi s zone
\
A I rB A
I
~
NOTE. b is scaling l ength of upper storey.
27
BS6399:F%rt 2:1995
Section 2
2.5.2 Mon opit c h an d du opit c h r oofs
2 . 5 . 2 . 1 General
Monopitch and duopitch rrmfs of buildm are
defined as rvofs with gable ends.
NOTE. Hippedroof form aretreatedseparatelyinZ.6.3.
2.5.2.2 Loaded zones
Zones over which the extemaf pressure coefficient
is assumed to be constant for both monopitch and
duopitch rwfs am shown in figures 19 and 20.
These zones are strips parallel to the eaves and
verge and are defiied in terms of the waling
lengths ~ and bW where bf, = L or bf, = 2ff,
whichever is the smaller, and bW = W or bW = 21f,
whichever is the smaller.
2.5.2.3 Monopi tch moJ 3
External pressure coefficients for monopitch roofs
should be obtained from table 9, using the key in
figure 19, Owing to the asymmetry of this roof
form, values arc given for three orthogonal load
cases wind normal to the low eaves (0 . 0),
wind normal to the gable [8 = 90) and wind
normaf to the high eaves (6 = 180).
2.5.2.4 Duopi tch roofi
2.5.2.4.1 External pressure coefficients for
duopitch roofs should be obtained from table 10,
using the key in figure 20. Values arc given for two
wind directions: wind normal to the low eaves
(d = 0) and wind normal to the gable (0 - 900).
These coefficients are appropriate to duopitch
faces of equal pitch but maybe used without
modification provided the upwind and downwind
pitch angles are within 5 of each other. For
duopitch roofs of greater disparity in pitch angles
see reference [6].
2.5.2.4.2 When a c 7 and W < bf,, zone C for
the load case .9 = 0 should be considered to
extend for a distance bf/2 downwind from the
windward cave (as shown for flat roofs in
figure 16), replacing ridge zones E and F and part
of zone G.
2.5.3 Hipped roofs
External pressure coefficients for conventional
hipped roofs on cuboidal-plan buildings, where all
faces of the roof have the same pitch angle and are
in the range a = -45 to +75, are given in
table 11. The definitions of loaded zones and pitch
af@eS are given in tigurc 21. The data in table 11
may be applied to hipped roofs where main faces
and hipped faces have dtiferent pitch angles,
provided the pitch angle of the upwind face is used
for each wind direction, as indicated in f~re 21.
Negative pitch angles occur when the roof is a
hipped-tmugh form. For pressure coefficients for
skew- bipped roofs and other hipped rcmf forms see
reference [6].
2.5.4 Mansard roofs
External pressure coefficients for mansard roofs
and other multi-pitch roofs should be derived for
each plane face by the procedure given in 2.5.2 for
roofs with gable ver%es or the procedure given
in 2.5.3 for roofs with hipped verges, using the
pitch angle for each plane face. The key in
figure 22 indicates where edge zones should be
omitted.
28
!
Section 2
BS6W9:M 2:1995
a) Geneml
Plan
I
b) Zones for wi nd di recti ons O - 0 and 8- 180
I
bJ 70
Highcave
F-1 x
Plan
T
w/2 B
r -
Wind,.
c D
I
w
w/2 A
Y-
I
c) Zones for wi nd di recti on O = 900
I
Fign r e 1 9 . Ke y for m on opit ch r oofs
, 29
BS6399:RIrt2 :1995
Section 2
fliim!!m,
a) Gener al
~-
L
4
Plan
G
E F E ~b,111
c
A B A ~b,,l o
,<
bL/2
J f k >
Wind
bL12
b) Zones for wi nd di recti on 8 - 0
k A
b$
c) Zones for wi nd di recti on O . 90
Fi gu r e 2 0 . Ke y for du opit c h r oofs
~>!
.
30
H
Section 2 BS 6399: Fart 2:1995
Ih ble 9 . Ext e r n a l pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cmfor m on opit ch r OOfs Of bn i ld~gs
Fffch aI @e a Zone for O . 0 Zone for %= 90 Zonefor O- 180
A B c A B c D A B c
5 -1.8 -1,2 -0.6 -2.2 1.1 -0.6 -0.5 -2.3 -1.2 -0.8
15 -1.3 -0.8 -0,3 -2.8 -1.1 -0.8 -0.7 -2.6 1.0 -0.9
+0,2 +0.2 +0.2
30 -1.1 -0.5 -0.2 -1.7 -1.2 -1,0 -0.8 -2.3 1.2 -0.8
+0.8 +0.5 +0.4
45 -1.1 -0.3 +0.7 -1,5 -1.2 -1.0 -0.9 -1.3 -1.0 -0.8
+0.8 +0.6
60 +0,8 +0,8 +0,8 -1.2 -1.2 -0,4 -0.4 -1.0 -0.7 -0.7
+0.4
75 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 -1.2 -1.2 -0.4 -0.2 -1.1 -0.7 -0.7
+0.5 +0.4
NOTE1. At 0 = 0 thepressurechangesrapidlybetweenpmitiveandnegativevaluesin therangeof pitchangle1so < m
<30, w both posi ti ve and negati ve val ues are gi ven. At 8 . 90 wi th ha r oof pi tches, the press= changes between posi ti ve
and negati ve wi th fl uctuati ons of wi nd di recti on, so both !-mi ti ve and negati ve val ues are agai n gi ven.
NUTE 2. I nteml ati o for i ntermedi ate ~i tch ades mav be wed between val w of the same si re.
Ta ble 1 0 . Ext e r n a l pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cw for du opit c h r ~fs Of bu ildin gs
Pffrh @e a zone for R = 0 zone for e . 90~
A B c E F G A B c D
-45 -1.3 -1.0 -0.8 -1.0 -0.7 -0.7 -1.5 1.3 -1.0 -0.2
-30 -2.3 -1.2 -0.8 -0.9 0.7 -0.7 -1.7 1.3 1.0 -0.2
15 -2.6 -1.0 -0.9 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 -2.7 -1.4 -0.8 -0.3
- 5 -2.3 -1.2 0.8 -0.8 -0.3 -0.3 -2.2 1.5 -0.7 -0.4
+ 5 -1.8 -1.2 -0.6 -0.5 -0.3 -0.3 -2.0 -1.1 -0.6 -0.4
+ 15 -1.3 -0.8 -0.3 -1.1 -0.9 -0.5 1.6 -1.5 -0.6 -0.3
+0.2 +0.2 +0.2
+ 30 -1.1 -0.5 -0,2 0.7 -0.4 -0.4 -1.2 -1.1 -0.6 -0.2
+0.8 +0.5 + 0.4
+ 45 -1.1 -0.3 +0.7 -0.4 -0.3 -0.3 -1.2 -1.2 -0.6 -0.2
+0.8 +0.6
+ 60 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 -0.4 -0.3 -0.3 -1.2 1.2 -0.7 -0,2
+ 75 +0.8 +0,8 +0.8 -0.4 -0.3 -0.3 -1.2 -1.2 -0.7 -0.2
NOlY31.At9 - 0 the pmsare changes rapi dl y between posi ti ve and negati ve val ues i the r ange of pi tch angl e + 15 < a
< .30-, so both pmi t!ve znd egzti vc val ues are gi ven.
NU1E 2. I nterpol ati on for i ntermedi ate pi tch angl es of the same si gn may be wed between val ues of the same si gm (Do not
i nterpol ate between a - + 5 and a - 5; uw the data for fl at r oofs i n 2.6. 1.)
31
BS6299:Rwt 2:1995
Section 2
Ta ble 1 1 . Ext e &d pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cp, for Mppe d r OOfs Of bu i l~gs
Pi tch angl e a Zone for O - 0 and 8- 90
. I . I . I m
F G fi I J
7 I -0.7 I -0.7 I -0.8 I -0.8 I -0.2

-4 5 -1 . 3 -0 . 6 -0.8 -0.7
-30 -2.3 -0.8 0.8 -0.7 I -0.7 I -0.7 ] -0.8 I -0.8 -0.2
15 -2.6 -1.0 -
5 -2.3 1.2 -0,8 -0.3 -0.3 -0.3 -0.6 -0.6 -0,4
+ 5 -1.8 -1.2 -0.6 -0.6 -0.6 -0.3 -1.2 -0.6 -0.4
+ 15 -1.3 -0.8 -0,3 -1.0 1.2 -0.5 -1.4 -0.6 -0.3
-0.9
I -0.5 I -0.5 I -0.5 I -0.6 I -0.6 I -0.3 I
I
I +0.2 I +0.2 I +02
Ill
+ 3 0 -1 . 1 -0 . 5
. ~.
, -~. y I -0 . 7 I -0 5 , -0 . 4 I -1 . 4 I -0 8 ]-0 . 2 I
I 5 I U*
+4 5 -1 . 1 -0 . 3 +0 . 7 -0 . 6 -0 . 3 -0 . 3 -1 . 3 -0 . 8 -0 . 2
+0 . 8 +0 . 6
+ 6 0 +0 . 8 +0 . 8 +0 . 8 -0 . 6 -0 . 3 -0 . 3 1 . 2 -0 . 4 -0 . 2
+ 7 5 +0 . 8 +0 . 8 +0 . 8 -0 . 6 -0 . 3 -0 . 3 -1 . 2 -0 . 4 0 . 2
,.-. ...... . . .
+ 15 < a < +30 o, so both posi ti ve &d n&at{ve v
NO12 2. I nterpol ati on for i ntermedi ate pi tch angl es
i nterpol ate between a - +5 ad a - 5; use the data for fl at %ofs ~n 2. S.l . )
I
NI WF 1. AL O . 0 the mess.re changes rmi dl v hetwee posi ti ve and negati ve val ues i n the r ange of pi tch angl e
.al ues are gi ven.
sof thesame si mmaybe used between ti ue$ofthe=mesi !?m (Do not
I
3 2
Section 2 BS6399:Part 2:1995
->0.
,:+
r=,;+
//,//////////////////1//////////////////////// /
,=o:~
////////////////////////////////////////// /////
a ) Gener al
Plan
i+
G
I
F
c
B A
s
bLIZ
4 +L , . >
Wind
L
b) Zones for wi nd di recti on O - 0 usi ng q
Plan
J%
c) Zones for wi nd di recti on 0 - 90 usi ng am
Fi gu r e 2 1 . Ke y for ldppe d r oofs
33
BS 6299: Part 2:1995 Section 2
1
///////,,///////, ,,/, /,,,/
a) Decreasi ng pi tch mul ti pi tch (mansard)
b) I ncreasi ng pi tch mul dpi tch
Fi gure 22. Key for m a . r r a a r d an d
m r r lt i pi t c h r oofs
2.5.5 Mu lt i -ba y r oofs
External pressure coefficients on downwind bays of
multi-bay monopitch and duopitch roofs as defined
in figure 23 may conservatively be taken to be the
same as for a single-bay roof.
However, reduced values of external pressure
coefficients may be derived from table 9 or
table 10, as appropriate, using the reduction
factom given in table 12, as follows.
a) For monopitch roofs, on second and
subsequent downwind bays, any positive
pressure coefficient obtained from table 9 should
be replaced by Cw = -0.4.
b) Fbr duopitch roofs, all roof slopes downwind
of the fmt ridge should be treated as being
troughed (negative pitch angle), even when the
upwind slope is ridged as shown in figure 23c,
thus enaurirrg that the pressure coefficients on
the second and subsequent downwind bays are
always negative in value.
c) For the wind directions 6 = 0 and 180, as
shown in figure 23d, the pressure coef flcients on
the second and downwind bays may be
multiplied by the reduction factor given in
table 12.
34
I
Section 2 BS6399:Psrt2 :1995
7////// /////.///////////////////////////////////
a) Mul ti -bay monop,tcb
H,
7//,///, /,,/////,,,,,,,//////,////////////////, /,,
b) MuI t]-bay tr ougbed duopi tch
,//////////
.\
\
Treat as monopitch Treat as troughed duopitch
c) Mul ti -bayri dged dopi tch
Wind
I I
I
) I I
L
A
I
$
I I
I I
u
c
3
~All u~secuerIt bays :
.-
3
I
I
I
I
, 1.!
E II
q $
I
L
d) Key to r educti on zones
Fi gu r e 2 3 . Ke y for m u lt i -ba y r oofs
35
BS6299:Part 2:1995 Section 2
2.5.6 Fitched roofs with inset storcys
The procedure given for inset storeys on flat roofs
in 2.5.1.7 should be followed, but using the
appropriate zones for pitched roofs as derived fr om
2 . 5 . 2 to 2 . 5 . 5 .
2 . 5 . 7 Effe c t of pa r a pe t s on pit c h e d r oofs
Parapets reduce the high suction in the edge zones
around the periphefy of the roof and neglecting
these effects will give a conservative result for mof
pitches less than a = 30. For steeper roofs, the
effects of pampets should be taken hrto account by
using the procedure give n in 3 . 3 . 3 . 7 .
2 . 5 . 8 Roof ove r h a n gs
2 . 5 . 8 . 1 General
Where the roof overhangs the walls by an amount
leas than b/10, pressure coefficients should be
assessed using the procedure given in 2.5.8.2.
Ik ble 1 3 . Ne t , r e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s
Pi tch angl e Q
1
j.
10
15
20
25
30
Load case
Maximum, zdf c
Minimum C = O
Minimum C = 1
M-urn, all c
Mirrimum ( = O
Minimum c = 1
Maximum, all (
Minimum C = O
Mlnirnum ~ = 1
Maximum, all C
Minimum C = O
Minimum ( = 1
Maximum, all (
Minimum C = O
Minimum [ = 1
Maximum, all (
Mhdmum ( = O
Minimum c = 1
Maximum, all (
Minimum ~ = O
Minimum C = 1
Larger overhangs should be treated as open-sided
buildings, with internal pressure coefficients
detenwirred using the provi.+oms of 2.6.3.
2.5.8.2 Smal l overhangs
..
The net pressure across a small roof overhang
should be calculated taking the pressure coefficient
on the upper surface from 2.5.2 to 2.5.5, as
appropriate, and the preasurc coeffkient on the
lower surface as that on the adjacent wall fmm 2.4
2.6.9 Ca n opie s , gr a n ds t a n ds an d ope n -s ide d
bu ildin gs
2.5.9.1 Fkce-standi ng canopi es
2.5.9.1.1 Net pressure coefficients CP for
free-standing canopy roofs are given in tables 13,
14 and 15, which take account of the Eombmed
effect of the wind on both upper and lower
surfaces of the canopy for all wind directions.
~for fr e e -s t a n di r u ? mOnODitChcanODY roofs
-
+0,2
-0.5
-1.2
+0.4
-0.7
-1.4(-1.2)
+0.5
-0.9
-1.4(-1.1)
+0,7
1.1
-1.5(-1.0)
+0,8
-1.3
-1.5(-0.9)
+1.0
-1.6
-1.4(-0.8)
+1.2
-1.8
-1.4(-0.8)
LOmfcoefficients
4 1
+0.5
-0.6
1.3
+0,8
-1.1
-1.4(-1.2)
+1.2
-1,5
-1.4(-1.1)
+1.4
-1.8
-1.5(-1.0)
+1.7
-2.2
-1.5(-0.9)
+2.0
2.6
-1.4(-0.8)
+2.2
-3.0
-1.4 (-0.8)
: < 1 ad for i term
B
+1,8
1.3
-1.8
+2.1
-1.7
-2.6
+2.4
-2.0
-2.6
+2,7
-2.4
-2.9
+2.9
-2.8
-2.9
+3.1
-3.2
-2.5
+3.2
-3.8
-2.0
i rate pi txh ang NfYfT 1. [nter pd i .. may be usd for sol i di ty rati o i n the r ange O <
NUCE 2. Wher e two val ues are gi ven for C - 1, the fi rst val ue i s for I ocka.se to the l ow downwi nd eaves:
(i n parentheses) i s for bl ockage w the K&b do~r n.d eaves.
NOTE 3. Load cases cover al l wxsi bl e wi nd di recti on% When si x di recti onal effecti ve wi nd speeds, use:
al these val ues of C. wi th i he l amest val ue of V. found: or -
b) di recti onal val ue; of C, fr om ;fer ence [6] -
+1.1
-1.4
-2.2
+1.3
-1.8
-2.6(-2.1)
+1.6
-2.1
-2.7(-1.8)
+1.8
-2.5
-2.8(-1.6)
+2.1
-2.9
-2.7(-1.5)
+2.3
-3.2
-2.5 (-1.4)
+2.4
-3.6
-2.3 (-1.2)
the second val ue
.
36
i
Section 2 BS6299:Part 2:1995
l hbl e 14. Net n r e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s C. for fr e e -s t a n di m f du ou it . c h can on v r oofs
=
-15 Maximum, all ~
Mtimum ( = O
Minimuml=l
+
-10 M-urn, all ~
Minimum 1 = O
Minimum c = 1
-5 M-urn, all (
Miniium 1 = O
Mbdmum L . 1
-1---
+5 Maximum, fl c
Minimum ~ = O
Mfnimum c = 1
+ 10 M-urn, all (
Minimum [ = O
Mbdmum ~ = 1
m
+ 20 Maximum, all C
Minimum ~ = O
IMtimnl [ = 1
+ 25 Maximum, all c
---Ei3i
F
1
)veral l coeffi ci ents
+0.7
-0.7
-1.5
1
+0.5
-0.6
1.5
+0,4
-0.6
-1.4
+0.3
-0.5
-1.4
+0.3
-0.6
-1.2
+0.4
-0.7
1.2
+0.4
-0.8
-1.2
+0.6
-0.9
-1.2
+0,7
1.0
-1.2
+0.9
-1.0
Minimum ~ = 1 -1.2
NOTE1. hwerpolacionformlidityratioIMYbe u.wtiin therange(
NOTE2. lterpolati. for intermediatepi tch angl es maybe used I
NCl l T 3. Load casa cover al l possi bl e wi nd di recti c.s. When usi ng
a) tfww val ues of Cp wi th the l argest val ue of V, found; or
b) di recti onal val ues of Cr fr om r efer ence [6]
Ih ble 1 6 . Re du c t ion fa c t or s for fr e e -s t a n di n g
m u lt i -ba y can opy r oofs
Location Factors for au solidity ratio c
Onmaxim.. Onmhdumm
End bay 1.00 0.81
8econd bay 0.87 0.64
Third and subsequent 0.68 0.63
bays
Local coeffi ci ents

3 k
+0,8
-0.9
-1.5
+0.6
-0.8
-1.5
+0.6
-0.8
-1.4
+0,5
-0.7
-1.4
+0.6
-0.6
-1.2
+0,7
-0.7
-1.2
+0.9
-0.9
1.2
+1.1
1.2
-1.2
+1,2
1.4
-1.2
+1.3
-1.4
+1,6
-1.3
-2.4
+1.5
-1.3
-2.7
+1.4
-1.3
-2.5
+1.5
-1.3
-2.3
+1.8
-1.4
-2.0
+1.8
-1.5
1.8
+1.9
-1.7
-1.6
+1.9
1.8
-1.5
+1.9
-1.9
-1.4
+1.9
-1.9
1.3
c
+0.6
-1.6
-2.4
+0,7
1.6
-2.6
+0.8
-1.5
-2.5
+0.8
-1.6
-2.4
+1.3
-1.4
-1.8
+1,4
1.4
1.6
+1.4
-1.4
1.3
+1.5
1.4
-1.2
+1,6
-1.4
1.1
+1.6
-1.4
-1.1 -1.2
<; <1.
,tween val ues of the same si gn.
di recti onal effecti ve wi nd speeds, use:
D
+1.7
-0.6
-1,2
+1,4
-0.6
-1.2
+1,1
-0.6
-1.2
+0.8
-0.6
1.2
+0.4
-1.1
-1.5
+0.4
-1.4
1.6
+0.4
-1.8
-1.7
+0.4
-2.0
-1.7
+0,5
-2.0
-1.6
+0,7
2.0
-1.6
37
BS6299:Part 2:1996 Section 2
2 . 5 . 9 . 1 . 2 Ca n opie s s h ou ld be a ble t o r e s i s t t h e
m a xi m u m (k ge s t pos i t i ve ) an d t h e m in im u m
(la r ge s t n e ga t i ve ) n e t pr e s s u r e s , t h e la t t e r
de pe n din g on t h e de gr e e of bloc k a ge u n de r t h e
can opy. Th e bloc k a ge r a t i o (a t a n yc r os s s e c t ion i s
e qu a l t o t h e h e igh t of obs t r u c t i on s u n de r t h e
can opy di vi de d by t h e h e igh t t o t h e down win d
e a ve s of t h e can opy, bot h a r e a s normal to the wind
dnction. The value ( = Orepreeenta a canopy
with no obstructions underneath. The value c = 1
represents the canopy fully blocked with contents
to the downwind eaves. Values of CP for
---
intermediate blockages may be linearly interpolated
between these two extremes, and app!ied upwind
of the position of maximum blockage only.
Downwind of the position of maximum blockage
the coefficients for L = Omay be used.
2.5.9.1.3 The values in the columns with the
multi-column heading sLocal coefficients,
corresponding to the loaded areas defined in
figure 24, should be used for the design of the
respective areas of the canopy. Where the local
coefficient areas overlap the greater of the two
gjven values should be taken,
a > 0 for ridged
a < 0 for tmughed
0.CT
v
~ >~-?fi-~ ~
~Hr Cp,0 downwards
P
lHr C,, Odownwards
!
a) Gener al
b) Bl ockage rati o
LI
w
LI
c) Keyto zones o. nmnopi tch and duopi tch canopy roofs
Figure 24. Ke y for fr e e -s t a n di n g can opy r oofs
w
38
,
Section 2 BS6399:Part 2:1995
2.5.9.1.4 The values br the columns headed
Overall coefficients should be wed for the design
of the members supporting the canopy. For
monopitch c a n opie s t h e c e n t r e of pr e s s u r e s h ou ld
be t a k e n t o a c t a t 0 . 3 W fm m the windward edge.
For duopitch canopies the centre of pressure should
be taken to act at the centre of each slope.
Additionally, duopitch canopies should k able to
support forces with one slope at the m-urn or
minimum snd the other slope unloaded.
2.5.9.1.5 In addition to the pressure normal to the
camopy, there will be horizontal loads on the
canopy due to the wind pressure on any fascia at
the eaves or on any gable between eaves mrd ridge
on duopitch canopies. Fascia loads should be
calculated on the area of the surface facing the
wind using a net pressure coefficient of Cp - 1.3
on the windward faacitigable and Cp - 0.6 on the
leeward faacialgable acting in the direction of the
wind.
2.5.9.2 Canopi es attached to bui l di ngs
Pressures on canopies attached to buildings depend
on the shape and size of the building, the location
of the canopy and on the surrounding buildings.
Advice is given in reference [6].
2.5.9.3 Grandstands and open-si ded bui l di ngs
Buildings with permanent walls and one or more
open sides should be treated as conventional
buildings, with external pr e s s u r e coefficients
determined from 2.4 and 2.5 and the internal
pressure coefficients determined from 2.6.3.
2.5.10 Pr i c t i on in du c e d loa ds on r oofs
2 . 5 . 1 0 . 1 ROOD of bui l di ngs
Frictional forces should be considered on long roofs
away frum the upwind edges. The resulting
frictional drag coefficient should be a.smrned to act
over zone D on flat roofs (see fiire 16) for all
wind directions; and over zone D for monopitch or
duopitch roofs (see figures 19 and 20 and zone J
for hipped roofs in figure 21) only when the wind
is parallel to the ridge. Values of frictional drag
coefficient should be obtained from table 6 and the
resulting frictional forces combmed with the
no.rnralpressure forces us desmired in 2.1.3.8.
2.5.10.2 Frre-starrdi ng canopy m@
FYictionzd forces should be assumed to act over the
whole of the top and bottom sufaces of an empty
canopy or the whole of the top surface only for a
fully blocked canopy. Wdues of frictiousl drsg
coefficient should be obtained from table 6 and the
resulting frictional forces combhed with the
normal forces as described in 2.1.3.8
NGTE.[f ther e are fasci as at the eaves or ver ges (we 2.5.9.1.5)
onl y the gr eater of the fasci a or fri cti on for ces need to be taken
i nto account.
2.6 Internal pressure coefficients
2.6.1 Enclosed buildings
2.6.1.1 fn enclosed buildings, containing external
doors and windows which may be kept closed, and
where any internal doom are generally open or am
at least three ties more permeable than the
external doom mrd windows, the internal pressure
cmr be taken as uniform; appropriate intemaf
pressure coefficients are given in table 16. The
relevant diagonal dmension a for the internal
pressure may be tiken as
a= lox 3internal volume of storey (13)
lk ble 1 6 . In t e r n a l pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s CP1for
e n c los e d bu ildin gs
&p .f walls
pi
TWOopposite walls equally permeable;
other faces impermeable
- Wind normal to permeable face +0.2
- Wmd normal to impermeable face -0.3
Four walls equally permeable; mof -0.3
impermeable
2.6.1.2 When? an enclosed buildhrg is subdivided
into moms with internal doom which are not at
least three times more permeable than the external
doors, the internal pressure may differ between
rooms. This will result in net wind loads on
internal waifs. A method for calculating the
internal pressures in multi-room buildings is given
in reference [6], For external walk, provided there
me no dominant openings, the intemsl preesure
coefficient CPi should be taken as either 0.3 or
+ 0.2, whichever gives the larger net pressure
coefficient across the wall. The m-urn net
pressure coefficient Cp across internal walls should
be taken as 0.5. The relevant diagonal dmen.sion a
for the intemsl pressure may be taken as
a= lox ainternal volume of room (14)
2.6.1.3 Where an external opening, such as a door,
would be dominant when open but is considered to
be closed in the ultimate limit st&e, the condition
with door open should be considered ~ a
serviceabilityy limit state, and the loads assessed
using the appropriate partial load factom for
serviceabfity.
2.6.2 Bu ildin gs wi t h dom in a n t ope n in gs
An opening will be dominant, and control the
internal pressure coefficients, when its area is
equal to, or greater than, twice the sum of the
openings in other faces which contribute porosity
to the internal volume containing the opening. z)
21TWOor ~o,e oprdns intheme fwe wi l l contri bute to one ef fmi ve domi nat opei .g qua) to the c ombined area ad a
dwonal di mensi on a equal to Mat of the I arg@t opei ~.
!m
BS6299:Part2 :1995 Section 2
Internal preamre coefficients Cp] arc given irr
table 17 as a fraction of the avemge external
pressure CY at the dominant opening obtained
from 2.4 or 2.5 aa appropriate. The relevant
diagonal dimension a depends on the size of the
dominant opening rvlative to the internal volume
and may be taken as the greater of
a = diagonal dimension of dominant opening or
a= O.2x internal volume (15)
where the internal volume is the volume of the
storcy or room containhrg the dominant opening.
lh ble 1 7 . fn t e r n a l pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s CPi for
bu ildin gs wi t h dom in a n t ope n in gs
Ila t ioof dominantqe~
c,!
area to sumof remablhlg
opetigs and distributed
porosities
2 0.75 x (&
3 0.9 x Cw
2.6.3 Ope n -s ide d bu ildin gs
2 . 6 . 3 . 1 Internal pressure coefficients 6 i for
f open-sided buildings are given in table 8 accorrhng
to the form of the buildhg. The relevant diagonal
dimension a for use with these coefficients is the
diagonal dmension of the open face. In table 18 a
wind direction of O = O corresponds to wind
normal and blowing into the open face, or the
longer face in the case of two open faces, and
normal to the wall in the c&se of three open faces.
2.6.3.2 For buildings with two opposite open
faces, wind skewed at about # = 45 to the axis of
the building increases the overall side force. This
load case should be allowed for by using a net
pressure coefficient of 2.2, divided equally
between each side wall. More details are given in
reference [6].
2.6.4 Open-topped c ylin de r %
Th e internal pressure coefficient for an
open-topped vertical cylinder, such aa a tank, silo
or stack, is given in table 19.
.-
lk ble 1 8 . In t e r n a l pr e s s r r r e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cpi for ope n -s ide d bu ildin gs
Win d dir e c t ion O On e ope n fa c e lWo a dja c e n t ope n Th r e e a dja c e n t ope n
Sh or t er Lon ge r
fa c e s ] fa c e s ~]
*O \+0.85 I +0.68 +0.77 + 0.60
*9W -0.60 0.40 +0.77, -0.38 0
k 180 0.16 -0.16 -0.30 -0.39
+270 -0,60 -0.40 +0.77 0
1)~. ~ue~ ~ sjvenfor o . W., the p,i tl ve ~uw co~spond t. the short face downwi nd; the negati ve val ues cor r espond
to the shorf face upwi nd.
2)Apply,due~to nde=ide .f ~f ~nI y. For the si ngl e wal l , use pressure coeffi ci ents for wal l s si ven i n tabl e 5.
~
fk ble 1 9 . In t e m a f pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s CPi for
H/d <0.3 ] -0.5
40
I
Section2 BS6399:Part 2:1995
2.7 Pressure coefficients for elements
2.7.1 General
This section deals with the pressure coefficients of
elements of small crosswind breadth, typicalfy
200 mm, attsched to buildings. For sharp-edged
shapes the pressure coefficients remain
aPPmximately constant over the whole mnge of
wind speeds likely to be encountered. However, for
circular sections the pressure ccefficienta vary with
wind speed and dkuneter. For circular elements
whose diameter is greater than about 200 nun the
values in this section are conservative.
2.7.2 In dividu a l a e c t ion a
2 . 7 . 2 . 1 Ne t pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s for long circular
and sharp-edged sections, such as rolled steel
sections, plate girdem, bux sections, beams and
cimular tubes with the long axis normal to the
wind are given in table 20. These net pressure
coefficients should be taken to act on the projected
area normal to the wind.
I Ta ble 2 0 . Ne t pr e s s u r e c oe ffk i e n t a CDfor lon g
e le m e n t s
Ele m e n tt ype Cp
Ck m da r s e c t i on s I 1 . 2
Sharp-edged sections 2.0
2.7.2.2 For horizontal sections, the reference
height ffr should be taken aa the height above
ground of the axis of the section. Vertical or
inclined sections may be taken as being divided
into parts of length at leaat twice the crosswind
breadth, L z 2B, and the reference height H,
should be taken as the height above ground of the
top of each part.
2.7.3 Effe c t of le n gt h
Th e n e t pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t for in dividu a l s e c t i on s
r e du c e s wh en le n gt h L between free ends is leas
than 20 dkmeters. A reduction factor K to be
applied to the net pressure coefficient in these
cases is given by figure 25 in terms of the ratio
LIB. In the case of sections cantilevered fmm the
ground or another plane surface, such as a roof,
the length L should be taken as twice the
protruding length. For sections spanning between
two planes L should be taken as infbrite (K = 1).
2.7.4 Lattices an d u n c ls d bu ildin g fr a n r e a
2 . 7 . 4 . 1 Con a e r va t i vee s t i m a t e s of the loading on
open lattices can be determined by summing the
loads on individual members using 2.7.1 to 2.7.3.
The length L between free ends should be taken as
the length of each element, i.e. the length between
nodes of the lattice. When the lattice is dense or
shielded, as with multiple lattices frames, the
degee of conservatism can be large.
2.7.4.2 I.mads on unclad building frames camrot
exceed the loads on the fully clad building, except
when the building is very long and the wind is
skewed about O - 30 to the long axis. A
simplified method of calculating the wind loads on
unclad building frames which accounts properly for
the shielding effects is given in reference [71, based
on the full method give; in reference [6].
Y
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
,
lx ! , 1 1 1 1,: > [ , ,
&tlarp-efl!yd /\/ * I
I , ! [ ,
L-,
, ,
.
, , !,
t
,, )(,1,,!, !1 ,,, ,,!
I , ,,1 , I \ , I ,
, ) [ , , I \ [ , I ,
1 [ ,, 1 1 ,, I , ! , I
1
1 1 1 , 1 I 1{1 t , I , , ,, 1 I 1 I , I ,
J
0.1 1 10 10C
Ratioof length and breadth, L/B
I
Fi gu r e 2 5 . Re du c t ion fa c t or for le n gt h of e le m e n t s
41
BS6399:RU%2 :1995 Section 2
2.7.5 Free-standing wafls and parapets
2.7.5.1 Values of net pressure coefficients C for
\ free-standing walls and parapets, with or wlt out
return comers, are given irr table 21 appropriate to
the zones shown irr figure 26 for two values of
solidity. Solidity ( = 1 refers to solid walk, while
( = 0.8 refers to walls which are 80 % solid and
20 % open.
2.7.5.2 The high values near the free end or
return comers of solid walls (zones A and B) occur
when the wind is blowing at 0 = 45 onto that
end. Moderate porosity in this region, i.e. solidlty
0:eOD8, reduces these high loads to the vafues in
2.7.5.3 Interpolation for solidity may be used in
the range 0.8 < ~ < 1. For porous walls and fences
with solidity less than 0.8, coefficients shoufd be
derived as for plane lattice frames (ace 2.7.4).
2.7.5.4 When there are other walls or fences
upwind that are equal in height or taller than the
wall or fence height h an additional shelter factor
can be used with the net pressure coefficierrta for
boundary walk and lattice fences. The degree of
the shelter depends on the spacing between the
walls or fences and the solidity < of the upwind
(sheltering) wall or fence. Values of shelter factor
to reduce the net pressure coefficient are plotted
in f@ure 27. Shelter remains sigrr~lcant up to
spacin& of 20 wall beighta. At very close spacings
the net pressure coefficient on the downwind
(sheltered) wall can be zero or can rcveme in sigrr.
A mirrirrrumlimit to the shelter factor of 0.3 has
been set to cover this caae safely.
Ta ble 2 1 . Ne t pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cpfor free-standing WdfS
aoudity Wrdrs ZOn.s
A B c D
(=1
Without return comers 3.4 2.1 1,7 1.2
With return comers 2.1 1.8 1.4 1.2
c = 0.8 AU 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Wind
+ 1<-o.3h l<- 2h 1<-4h
I
B c D
jJ,
h=H
r
7// ///////////////// ///////////////////
Comer or fraa and
a) Key to zones
-x
Plan
> hi3
8 8 I_
Pl an
L
AB C D AS C D
Without returncorner With returncorner
b) Key to r etur n comer s
Ngur e 26. Ke y for fr e e -s t a n di n g wa fls

4 2
I
Section 2
BS6399:Part 2:1995
0.200.5 1 2 5
10 20 5(
Spacing X/h (log scale)
Fi gu r e 2 7 . Sh e lt e r fa c t or for fe n c e s
I
h
B14
* : 1
.. .
Hr
I
Fi gu r e 2 S. Ke y for s i gn boa r ds
2.7.6 . %@bon r ds
the board, then it should be treated as a
The net prcs.sure coefficient Cp fOr si@bO~ds,
free-standing waif in accordance with 2.7.5. The
separated from the ground by at least half their
normal fome should be taken to act at the height
height as defined in figure 28, should be taken aa
of the centre of the board, but the horizontal
Cp- 1.8. If the gap is lee-sthan half the height of
position should be taken to vary between *0.25B
from the centre of the board.
43
1
BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5
Se c t i on 3 . Di r e c t i on a l m e t h od
3 . 1 Dir ect ion al win d loa ds
3.1.1 Win d dir e c t ion
3 . 1 . 1 . 1 Th e dir e c t ion a l wind load method requires
knowledge of the wind dkection in two forms:
a) in degrees east of north, represented by p,
used to determine wind speeds and dynamic
pressure;
b) in degrees relative to normal to each building
face (or around the periphery of a circular-plan
building), represented by 8, used to determine
the pressure coefficients.
NC1l E. I n practi ce, i t i s usual l y most conveni ent to rel ate troth
q and the vari ous val ues of efor each face, 01,ez, 83,et., to a
srandard val ue of O, mmqxmdi mg m a pri mi pal axi s or
r efer emx face of the bui l di ng. TM i s i l l ustrated i n fi gur e 29 for
the case of a rectangul aqi an bui l di ng.
3 . 1 . 2 Dyn a m ic pr e s s u r e
3 . 1 . 2 . 1 Th e value of the dynamic pressure q
(in F@ of the directional method is given by
Q
= 0.613Ve2
(16)
where
V, i s the effective wind speed (in m/s) from
3.2.3.1.
3.1.2.2 The reference value of dynamic pressure
for deriving pressure on external surfaces is
denoted by g, and the reference value for deriving
internal pressures by qi.
3.1.2.3 Values of dynamic pressure for various
values of wind speed are given in table 2.
3.1.3 Win d load
3 . 1 . 3 . 1 Directional suflace pressures..
3.1.3.1.1 The pressure acting on the external
surface of a building, p,, is given by
Pe = %Cpe (17)
where
is the dynamic pressure (3. 1.2.2) from the
effective wind speed in wind direction p for
the external surface defined in 3. 1.2;
is the external pressure coefficient for the
buildhg surface in wind direction .9given in
3.3.
3.1.3.1.2 The pressure acting on the internal
surface of a building, pi, is given by
pi =
where
qi
Cpl
qi cpi (18)
is the dynamic pressure (3.1.2.2) from the
effective wind speed in wind direction p for
the intemaJ surface defined in 3. 1.2;
is the internal pressure coefficient for the
building in wind direction Ogiven in 3.3.5.
3.1.3.1.3 The net pressure acting across a surface
p is given by the foUowi ng.
a) For enclosed build@s
P= P, P,
(19)
where
A
e3=li30-e
Ar7
0 2 =9 0 -0
e4 =9 0 +e
d
I
Fi gu r e 29. Win d di r e c t i om for a r e c t a n gu la r -pla n bu i fdi n g
*
m
,
I
Sect ion 3 BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5
p, is the external pressure given in 3.1.3. L 1 ;
P,
i s t h e in t e r n a l pr e s s u r e given in 3.1.3.1.2.
b) For canopies or building elements
P = %CP
(20)
where
%
co
is the dynmrric pressure from the
effective wind speed for the canopy
surface or element defined in 3.1.2;
is the net pressure coefficient for the
element given in 2.7.
3.1.3.2 Di recti onal sufl ace bad-s
The net wind load P on a building surface or
element is given by
P=PA (21)
where
P
is the net pressure across the surface;
A i s the loaded mea.
3.1.3.3 Di nxti onal oueml l l ads
3.1.3.3.1 Th e ove r a ll load P on a building maybe
taken as the vectorial sum of the loads on
individual surfaces, multiplied by (1 + Cr) to
account for mildly dynamic response. However,
since peak loads on each face of buildings do not
act simultaneously, the resulting summation would
be conservative.
3.1.3.3.2 Accordk@y, the ovendl load on a
building of arbkrary shape may be represented by
the csaes shown in figure 30 hr which all
windward-facing walls or mof faces are categorized
as front and all leewan-facing walls or roof faces
as rear, when the overall load in the wind
difection, ~ may be taken as
P -0.85 [X(Pfmnt C0Sr9) -
z(Pmm CoSe)] (1 + c,) (22)
where
P~mnt i s the norizontai component of net
wind load acting on windward-facing
WSk and roofs;
P
rear
i s the horizontal component of net
wind load acting on leewami-fachg
waifs and roof%
e is the angfe of the wind frum normal
to the WSU or to the roof in the
horizontal plane;
c, is the dynamic augmentation factor
from 1.6.1.
NOTE 1. The factor 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous
actionof wi nd pressures.
N(YI !3 2. The hori zontal component of the net wi nd l oad for
each l oaded area k r esol ved i nto the wi nd dkcti on by
mul ti pl yi ng wi th the appropri ate val ue of cm 6 befor e bei ng
summed
For buildings with flat roofs, or where the
contribution to the horizontal loads from the roof is
insi~lcant, the oversll load in the wind direction
P may be taken, without siwlcant loss of
accuracy, as
P = 0.85 q, [Z(cw,fmt ACOS20-
~(cw,-ear A cOs@] (1 + G)
(23)
where
Cw, fmt
c
pe,rear
is the pressure coefficient for
windward walls in the standard
method from table 5;
is the pressure coefficient for leeward
walls in the standard method fmm
table 5;
NOTE 3. Equati on 23 i mpl i es that the pmi ti .e pressure acti ng
o each wi ndwar d-faci ng wai l r educes wi th wi nd angl e normal
to ti e wal l i n pr opor ti on m cm 0, wher eas the negati ve
pressure acti ng 0. l eewar d-faci ng wal l s i s taken as consfam
wi th wi nd angl e. Face l oads are then r esol ved vecbmi al l y to
3i ve the OVeI dl l oad i n the wi nd di recti on. Wal l s al i ~ed exactl y
paral l el to the wi nd gi ve no r esol ved component i n the wi nd
di r.xti on. fn the case of rectangul ar bui l di ngs, the Pmedur e
@v= the exact resul t of the or thogonal cases i n 2.1.3.6 of the
sfandard methcd at the wi nd di recti ons O - O and 8 - 90
and ver y cl ose to the combi nati on of or thogonal l oads case i n
2.1.3.6 of the sfandard metkd at the wi nd di recti on 8 - 45.
3.1.3.3.3 In the case of re-entrant comem and
recessed bays, (see 3.3.1.5 and 3.3. 1.6), the
boundary of the wedge should be taken as a solid
surface normsl to the flow (cosz@ = 1) as indicated
in figure 30b.
3.1.3.4 Di recti onal jki cti onal dmg component
Itisrecommended in 3.3.1.9, 3.3.2.8, 3.3.3.9 and
3.3.4.3 that frictional forces on long walls and
roofs are determined in addition to the forces
generated by normal preesures. When determining
overall forws on the building, the contribution of
frictional fomes should be taken to act in the wind
d~ction and added to the norrnsl pressure load
given by R
3.1.3.5 Di recti onal cl addi ng l oada
3.1.3.5.1 A simp~lcation of the full dkectional
methud which leads to fewer calculations may be
used to determine directional cladding loads. The
basis of the simplification is to calculate all
external surface pressures corresponding to a
nominal diagonal dimension a = 5 m, and then to
adjust these pressures for the actual diagonal size
of cladding element using the size effect factor of
the standard method C= gNen in figure 4.
BS 6 3 9 9 : Par t 2 :1 9 9 5
Sect ion 3
w
(3 A
Smallaatenclosing/7
win d dir e c t ion
rectangle
a) Generalcasefor arbi trary shaped b.ddmg
b) Bui l di ng wi th r e-entmnt cor ner (see fi gur e 33)
Fi gu r e 3 0 . Ks y t o ove r a ll load P
3.1.3.5.2 For this method the expression for the
3 . 2 Dir ect ion al win d s pe e ds
directional external surface pressure Pe given
bv 3.1.4.1.1 becomes
3.2.1 Ba a i c wind speed
P. = 93cpefZ
(24)
where
%
is directly equivalent to the dynamic
pressure of the standard method but is
determined from the equivalent effective
wind speed V_ of the directional method for
a Wst peak factor (see 3.2.3.3) of
9t = 3.44, corresponding to the nominal
diagonal dimension a = 5 m,
The expression for the directional internal surface
pressure p, given in 3.1.3.1.2 remains unchanged.
The geogmphlcal variation of basic wind speed Vb
should be obtained directly f mm figure 6.
NI YCE. l be method used to der i ve the basi c wi nd speed fr om
tbe meteoml o@cal data i s desmi bed i n annex B,
3.2.2 Site win d s pe e d
Th e site wind speed V, should be calculated fmm
equation 8, following the procedure given in 2.2.2,
except for the determination of the altitude
factor Sa.
NU1E. 1. tbe di recti onal method, topogr aphi c effects are
deter mi ned separatel y fr om al ti tude effects
.
m
Sect ion 3 BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :l!W5
When topography is not to be considered, the
altitude factor S= should be determined from
s a = 1 + O.oolzts (25)
where
As is the site altitude (in metres above mean
sea level).
When topo@aphy is to be considered, the altitude
factor Sa should be determined from
s . = 1 + &@)lLt T (26)
where
ztT k the altitude of the base of the topography
(in metres above mean sea level).
3.2.3 ~ecti ue wi nd speed
3.2.3.1 Th e effective wind speed V. for each wind
direction for a building on a particular site should
be determined from
v, = v, x s ~ (27)
where
v, i s the site wind speed for each wind
dmction given by 3.2.2;
s~ i s the terrain and buifdhg factor
aPPMPfiate to the wind direction king
consdered, determined from 3.2.3.2.2 for
sites in country terrain and from 3.2.3.2.3
for sites in town te-.
The effective wind speed should be crdculated at
the effective height He, determined from the
reference height Hr in accordance with 1 . 7 . 3 .
Reference heighta H, are defined with the pressure
coefficient data for each form of buifdirrg.
For brdldm& whose height Hi s greater than the
cmsawind breadth B in the wind direction king
considered, some reduction in lateral loads may be
obtained by dlvidmg the building into a number of
parts in accordance with 2.2.3.
3.2.3.2 Terrai n and bui l di ng factor
3.2.3.2.1 General
The terrain and building factor & should be used
to modtiy the site wind speed to take account of
the effective height He of the boildhrg or part, the
dimensions of the building, the local topography
and the terrain upwind of the site. It also modifies
the hourly mean site wind speed to an effective
gust wind speed.
The te- and building factor Sb should be
determined from 3.2.3.2.2 for sites in country
terrain and from 3.2.3.2.3 for sites in town terrain,
taking the following into account:
a) the effective height He determined in
accordance with 1.7.3 from the reference height
H, defined for the form of the building or part
(see 2.2.3.2).
b) the distance of the site from the sea in the
wind direction being considered;
c) for sites in town terrain, the distance of the
site fmm the edge of the town in the wind
direction being considered;
d) the largest diagonal a of the area over which
load sharing takes place as defined in figure 5.
Load effects, e.g. bending moments and shear
forces, at any level in a building should be based
on the diagonal dlmerrsion of the loaded area above
the level being considered, as illustrated in
f~re 5C.
3.2.3.2.2 Sites in counlry terrain
In country terrain Sb should be determined from
& = S.(1 + @t X SJ + Sh] (28)
where
SC is the fetch factor obtained from table 22;
s~ is the turbulence factor obtained from
table 22;
9t
is the gust peak factor (see 3.2.3.3);
Sh is the topographic increment (see 3.2.3.4).
BS 6 3 9 9 : Far t 2 :1 9 9 5
Section 3
lhble 22. Factors SCand St
Effecti ve hei ght Factor Upwi nd di stance fr om sea to si te
He
km
m
so. 1 0.3 1.0 3.0 10 30 2Km
52 SC 0.873 0.840 0.812 0.792 0.774 0.761 0.723
St 0,203 0.215 0.215 0.215 0.215 0.215 0.215
5 SC 1.06 1.02 0.990 0.966 0.944 0.928 0.882
st 0.161 0.179 0.192 0.192 0,192 0.192 0.192
10 SC 1.21 1.17 1.13 1.10 1.07 1.06 1.00
St 0.137 0.154 0.169 0.175 0.178 0.178 0.178
15 s, 1.28 1.25 1.21 1.18 1.15 1.13 1.08
s~ 0.131 0.141 0.156 0.167 0.171 0.171 - 0.171
20 s. 1.32 1.31 1.27 1.23 1.21 1.19 1,13
s~ 0.127 0.132 0.145 0.157 0.163 0.164 0.166
30 SC 1.39 1.39 1.35 1.31 1.28 1.26 1.20
St 0.120 0,122 0.132 0.145 0.155 0.159 0.159
50 s= 1.47 1.47 1.46 1.42 1.39 1.36 1.30
St 0.112 0.113 0.117 0.125 0.135 0.145 0.149
100 s. 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.57 1.54 1.51 1.43
St 0.097 0.100 0.100 0.100 0.110 0.120 0.132
200 SC 1.74 1.74 1,74 1.73 1.70 1.67 1.59
s~ 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.078 0.083 0.093 0.111
300 SC 1.84 1.64 1.84 1.83 1.82 1.78 - 1.70
St 0.065 0.065 0.065 0.067 0.068 0.80 0.098
NUIE1. I nterpol ati on may tm used.
NOTE 2. The fmres i n thi s tabl e have been der i ved fr om r efer ence [8].
o
m
Sect ion 3 BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5
3.2.3 .2.3 Sites in town tarain
In town terrain Sb should be determined from
s ~ = SCT. [1+ @~ X St X TJ + Sh] (29)
where
Sc
T,
s~
Tt
9t
s~
is the fetch factor obtained from table 22;
is the fetch adjustment factor obtained from
table 23;
is the turbulence factor obtained from
table 22;
is the turbulence a@ustment factor
obtained fmm table 23;
is the gust peak factor (see 3.2.3.3);
is the topographic increment (see 3.2.3.4).
3.2.3.3 Gust peak factor
3.2.3.3.1 The gust IY?ak factor gt used in the
calculation of the terrain and building factor Sb
allows for the i n flu e n c e of the dnenaioms of the
building on the maximum gust speed. The
dimension of the building which determines the
value of the gust peak factor is the length of the
dlWOnd a of the loaded area over which Ioad
sharing takes place (see figure 5). Separate values
should be used depending upon whether wind
loads are being calculated for the whole buifdlng,
portions of the buifding or individual components
3.2.3.3.2 For external pressures on whole
buildings and portions of buildings, the values of gt
should be obtained from table 24 using the
effective height He of the top of the building and
the diagonal of the loaded area, a,
lh ble 2 3 . . 4 r @s t m e n t fa c t or s TCa r r d Tt for s i t e s in t own t e r r a i n
Effe c t ive h e igh t He Fh c t Or Upwin d di s fa n c e fr om e dge of r ow. t o s it e
1
km
m
o.I 0.3 1.0 3.0 10 230
=2 T. 0.695 0.653 0.619 0.596 0.576 0.562
Tt 1.92 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93
5 TC 0.846 0.795 0.754 0.725 0.701 0.684
Tt 1.41 1.60 1.63 1.63 1.63 1.63
10 T. 0,929 0.873 0.828 0.796 0.770 0.751
Tt 1.16 1.34 1.50 1.52 1.52 1.52
15 T. 0.969 0.911 0.863 0.831 0.803 0.783
Tt 1.04 1.22 1.38 1.47 1.47 1.47
20 T, 0.984 0.935 0.886 0,853 0.824 0.804
Tt 1.00 1.17 1.35 1.44 1.45 1.45
30 T, 0.984 0.965 0.915 0.880 0.851 0.830
T, 1.00 1.06 1.21 1.33 1.43 1.43
50 T. 0.964 0.984 0.947 0.912 0.881 0.859
Tt 1.00 1.00 1.12 1.24 1.38 1.42
100 TC 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.948 0.917 0.894
Tt 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.14 1.28 1.38
200 Tc 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.980 0.947 0.924
Tt 1.00 1.00 100 1.07
1,19
1.31
300 T= 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.964 0.940
Tt 1.00 l.oil 1.IXI 1.04 1.14 1.24
NUTE 1. I nterpol ati on may be wed,
NOI E 2 . For s it es in towns l ess than 0.1 km fr om the edge i n the upwi nd di recti on the si te shoul d be assumed to be i n open
c@u~tv r e~n (=. 3.~.3.2.2).
NCl l T ?. The fi gures i thi s tabl e have been der i ved fr om r efer ence [8].
BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
Ik ble 24. Gu s t n e a k fa c t or a.
Effe c t ive h e igh t Di a gon a f dim e n s ion a
.
He
m
m
<5 10 20 40 100 Zwl am
510 3.44 3.19 2.90 2.62 2.23 1.97 1.77
20 3.44 3.24 2.98 2.69 2,27 2.04 1.83
50 3.44 3.30 3.02 2.75 2.36 2.10 1.89
100 3.44 3.33 3.07 2.79 2.40 2.14 1.95
200 3.44 3.40 3.13 2.84 2.47 2.18 2.01
300 3.44 3.44 3.17 2.86 2.49 2.21 2.04
NCTE Interpolationmaybe used.
3.2.3.3.3 When asseasing the loads on individual 3.2.3.4.3 Depending on whether the topographic
stmctural components, cladding unita and their increment S~ is uacd, care should be taken to
ftings a vafue of gt = 3.44 should be taken, unless
ensure that the altitude factor S=, used to
there is adequate load sharing capacity to justify determine the site wind speed V,, i s derived from
the use of a lower value (i.e. a diagonal length a the appropriate definition of altitude A ~or A~
greater than 5 m) in which caae table 24 should be in 3.2.2.
used to obtain the appropriate value for the gust
peak factor gt. fhis value of gt = 3.44 should also
be taken when using the previsions of 3.1.3.5.2 or
3.4.2 in conjunction with the size effect factor C.
of the standad method.
3.2.3.3.4 For internal pressures, the values of g~
should be obtained from table 24 using the
effective height He of the top of the building or
part of the building containing the relevant storey,
and the diagonal of the loaded area a is determined
from the volume of the building, storey or room as
defined in 2.6.
Nf7fE The deri vati on of the gust peak factor i s descri bed i n
annex F, whi ch al so i ncl udes mathemati cal equati ons to der i ve
9,. Note that the si ze effect factor of the sfandard method C.,
@ven i n fi twe 4, W= dete~i ned fmm g, - 3.44 hy the
method gi ve i n 3.2.3. Z and 3. Z.3.3 for a umber of typi cal si te
exposur es.
3.2.3.4 l bpogmphi c i ncrement
3.2.3.4.1 Th e topographic increment Shshould be
used to modify the terrain and building factor to
allow for local topo~phical features such as KI1ls,
valleys, cliffs, escarpments or ridges which can
significantly affect the wind speed in their vicinity.
Values of Sh should be derived for each wind
direction cofraidercd and used in conjunction with
the corresponding direction factor Sd.
3.2.3.4.2 Where the average slope of the ground
does not exceed 0.05 within a kilometre radius of
the site the terrain should be taken as level and the
topographic increment Sh should be taken as zero.
When tbe topography is defined as not significant
by the simple criteria in figure 7, the terrain may
be taken as level and the topographic increment Sh
may be taken as zero, but implementation of the
topogmphlc increment will produce a more
accurate assessment.
3.2.3.4.4 In the vicinity of local topographic
features the topographic increment .9his a function
of the upwind slope and the position of the site
relative to the summit or crest. It should be noted
that Sh will vary with height above ground level,
from maximum near to the ground reducing to zero
at higher levels, and with position from the crest,
from m-urn near the crest reducing to zero
dktant from the crest.
3.2.3.4.5 Values of topographic increment are
cotilned to the range O < Sh < 0.6 and apply only
to the simple topographic features defined in
figure 8. fn situations of multiple Km or ridges,
th~ procedure is appropriate when applied to the
single bill or ridge on which the site is situated.
3.2.3.4.6 In certain steep-sided enclosed valleys
wind speeds may be leas than in level terrain.
Before any reduction in wind speeds is considered
specialist advice should be sought. For sites in
complex topography speciahst advice should be
sought (see references [5] to [8]) or a maximum
value of Sh = 0.6 used.
NUIE Values of Sh may be der i ved fr om model -scal e or
ful l . scal e measurements or fr om numeri cal si mul ati ons.
3.2.3.4.7 In undulating terrain it is often not
possible to decide whether the local topography of
the site is significant in terms of wind flow. In
such cases the average level of the terrain upwind
of the site for a distance of 2 km should be taken
as the baae level from which to as-seasthe height Z
and the upwind slope Vu of the feature.
3.2.3.4.8 Values of the topographic increment Sh
should be obtained from table 25 using the
appropriate values for the upwind slope Vu, the
effective length Le and the factors which should
be determined from figure 9 for hills and ridges or
figure 10 for cliffs and escarpments.
!=.n
m
Sect ion 3 BS6 3 9 9 :E%Z %2 :1 9 9 5
I fk ble 2 5 . Va lu e s of L, s n d . Sh
slope Shfdrow steep
(W = Z/ Lu) (0.05<vu >0.3) ( 1#~>0.3)
Effective I L. = LIT IL. = ZIO. 3
length
f@graphic s~ = 2.ol/@ .5&= 0.6s
increment
3.2.3.4.9 In cases transitional between hills and
ridges in figurY 8a and cliffs and escarpments in
figure 8b, i.e. when the downwind slope length LD
is much longer than the upwind slope length Lu, it
may be difficult to decide which model is the more
aPPmPfiate. In this case, a value ofs may be
derived from both figures 9 and 10 and the smaller
value used.
3.2.3.4.10 At some distance from a topographic
feature the effect of local topography is replaced
by the general effect of altitude. In many cases, it
will not be clear whether topogmphy or altitude
dominates. As each is assessed differently by the
directional method, it is necessary to calcufate the
effective wind speed Ve twice, as follows, and to
take the larger value of V, obtained:
with topo.gaphy, using Sa for the terrain
base altitude and the appropriate value
of Sh; and
without topography, using Sa for the site
altitude and Sh = O.
fhii procedure is recommended to determine the
limit of topographic influence downwind of a cliff
or escarpment.
3.2.3.4.11 Where the downwind slope of a hfl or
ridge is greater than wfI = 0.3 there will be large
regions of reduced acceleration or even shelter and
it is not possible to give precise design roles for
these circumstances. Values ofs from figure 9
should be used as upper bound values.
3 . 3 Dir ect ion al pr e s s u r e coefficien t s
3.3.1 Ext e r n a l pr e s s u r e c oe ffk i e n t s Cm for
Wttfk of bu ildin gs
3 . 3 . 1 . 1 Verti cal wai fs of rectangul ar-pl an
brfi l di ..rgs
3.3.1.1.1 Pressure coefficients for walls of
rectangular-plan buildin~ are given in table 26 for
the zones as defined in figure 31. Zones A and B
should be defined, measuring their width from the
upwind edge of the wall. If zones A and B do not
occupy the whole of the wslf, zone D should be
defined from the downwind edge of the wall. If
zone D does not occupy the remainder of the face,
zone C is then defined as the remainder of the face
between zones B and D.
3.3.1.1.2 The wind direction Ois defined as the
angle of the wind from normal to the wall being
considered (see 3.1. 1 ). Th e reference height If, is
the height above ground of the top of the wall,
including any parapet, or the top of the Part if the
building has been divided into parts in accordance
with 2.2.3. The crosswind breadth B and inwind
depth D are defined in figure 2. The scaling length
b for defining the zones is given by b = B or
b = 2H, whichever is the smaller.
3.3.1.1.3 Where walls of two buildin@ face each
other and the gap between them is less than b and
greater than b/ 4some funneling of the flow will
occur between the build@s. The maximum effect
occurs at a spacing of b/ 2and is maintained over a
range of wind angles *45 from normal to the axis
of the gap. In this circumstance, the following
apply.
a) Over the range of wind angle
45 < b < + 45 the windward-facing wall is
sheltered by the leeward-facing wall of the other
building. The positive pressures in table 26 apply
where the wafl is directly exposed to the wind
but gjve conservative values for the whole wall.
b) Over the ranges of wind angle
-135 < @ < 45 and +45 c 6 c +135
funneling occurs. Vshres for zone A at 6 = * 90
should be multiplied by 1.2. Values for zones B
ate= *90 should be multiplied by 1.1 and
applied to aU Parts of zones B to D which face
the other building over these mnges of wind
angfe. These funnellhrg factors give the
maximum effect which corresponds to a gap
width of b/ 2and interpolation is permitted in the
~ge of gaP widths from b14to b (see 2.4.1.4).
c) Over the ranges of wind angfe
-180 <@< 1350and +1350 <tr <+1800
the values of pressure coefficient remain the
same as given in table 26.
3.3.1.2 Verti cal wai fs qfpol ~gonal -pl an
bui l di ngs
3.3.1.2.1 The pressure coefficients given in
table 26 should also be used for the vertical walls
of po! ygonal-plan buildings, In such cases there
ma~ be any number of faces (greater than or equal
to 3). The wind dkection, principal dimensions and
scaling length remain as defined in 3.3. L 1.2.
NUTE.:nstead of cal cul ati ng the crosswi nd breadtb B mi d
i nwi nd depth D for the compl ex bui l di ng pl an, these di mensi ons
may be deter mi ned fr om the smal l est rectagJe or ci rcl e whi ch
encl oses the pl an shape of the bui l di ng.
3.3.1.2.2 Provided the length of the adjacent
upwind face is gzeater than b/ 5the peak suction
coefficients for zone A given in table 26 can be
reduced by multiplying them by the reduction
factor appropriate to the adjacent corner angle B
given in table 27.
NCfl T A recta@w comer b - 90 gjves th, hi ghest l ocal
scti o i n zone A.
BS6 3 9 9 :l%r t 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
Ibble 26. External PI
Wfn d dir e c t ion O
1
*15
*300
*45
*60
*75
*90
i 105
* 1200
*135
* 150
* 165
* 180
NOTE 1. I nterpol ati on mq
Nc71z 2. When the resul t
s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s CP, for ve r t i c t d wa
D/H s 1
k
+0 . 7 0
+0 . 7 7
+ 0 , 8 0
+0 . 7 9
+ 0 . 2 4
-1 . 1 0
-1 , 3 0
-0 . 8 0
-0 . 6 3
-0 . 5 0
-0 . 3 4
-0 . 3 0
-0 . 3 4
B
+ 0,83
+0.88
+0.80
+0.69
+0.51
-0.73
-0.80
-0.73
-0.63
-0.50
-0.34
-0.30
-0.24
c
+0 . 8 6
+0 . 8 0
+0 . 7 1
+ 0 . 5 4
+0 . 4 0
+0 . 2 3
-0 . 4 2
-0 . 4 8
-0 . 4 5
-0 . 4 0
-0 . 2 6
-0 . 2 3
0 . 2 4
D
+ 0.83
+0.68
+0,49
+ 0.34
+ 0.26
+0.08
*0.20
-0.26
-0.29
-0.33
-0.32
-0.28
-0.24
J of r e c t a n gu la r -pla n bu ildin gs
r )/ H> 4
A
+0 . 5 0
+ 0 . 5 5
+0 . 5 7
+ 0 . 5 6
*0 . 2 0
-1.10
1.30
-0.80
-0.63
-0.50
-0.34
-0.20
-0.17
B
+ 0 . 5 9
+ 0 . 6 2
+0 . 5 7
+0 . 4 9
+0 . 3 6
0 . 7 3
-0 . 8 0
-0 . 7 3
-0 . 6 3
-0 . 5 0
-0 . 3 4
-0 . 1 7
-0 . 1 5
l< D/ H< ? used between @ven W d di recti ons and for D/ fl n the r ange
nterpol ati w between posi ti ve ad negati ve val ues s i n the r ange 0.2 <
weffi ci ent shoul d b+ taken as Cp
. i 0.2 and both possi bl e val ues used.
c
+0.61
+0.57
+0,51
+ 0.38
+ 0.29
+ 0.23
-0.42
-0.48
-0.45
-0.40:.
-0.26 ~~
-0.15
-0.15
>
+0 . 5 9
+0 . 4 9
+0 , 3 5
+0 . 2 4
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
-0 . 2 6
-0 . 2 9
-0 . 3 3
-0 . 3 2
-0 . 1 8
-0 . 1 5
, < +0.2, the
- TJ 51
&
I
I
Fi gu r e 3 1 . Ke y for ve r t i c a l wa lls of buildings
~
lhble 27. Reduction factors for zone A on
vertical WSIIS of polygon al-plan bu ildin gs
A
NQTE. I nterpol ati on i s al l owed m the r ange 60 <8 < 150.
..3
=
Sect ion 3
BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5
3.3.1.2.3 Whenever the value of pressure
coefficient for peak suction in zones B and C are
more negative than the reduced pressure
coefficient in zone A, the reduced zone A values
should be applied to these zones alao.
3.3.1.3 %angul ar gabl e rods
3.3.1.3.1 Preaaure coefficients for the triangular
gable wdl.s formed by steep duopitch roofs or
non-vertical walls (A-frame buildinga) in the
range 30 s a s 75 are given in table 28 for
zones H to K as defined in figure 32. For gable
walls formed by duopitch roofs of pitches less than
a = 30 or by non-vertical walk of pitches greater
thama = 75 (nearly vertical) the general method
given in 3.3. L 1 should be used.
3.3.1.3.2 The wirrd direction 6 is defined as the
angle of the wind from normal to the wall being
considered (see 3.1. 1 ). Th e reference height H, is
the height of the peak of the gable.
3.3.1.3.3 Where gables of two buildhrgs face each
other and the gap between them is leas than b
some funneling of the flow will occur between the
buildings. The maximum effect occum at a spacing
of b/ 2and is maintained over a range of wind
angl~ *45 frum psrallel to the axis of the gap. In
this crmumstance, the folfowing apply.
a) Over the range of wind angle
-45 <8 < + 45 the windward-facing gable is
sheltered by the leeward-facing gable of the
outer buifding. The positive pressures in table 28
appl Y where the gable is dhectly exposed to the
wind but give conservative values for the whole
gable.
b) Over the ranges of wind angle
-135 < e < -45 and +45< e < +135
funneling occurs. Values for zone H at 8 = *90
should be multiplied by 1.2. Values for zone I at
e=
+90 should be multiplied by 1.1 and
applied to all ParW of zones I to K which face
the other building over these rsnges of wind
angle. These furmelling factors give the
maximum effect which corresponds to a ga p
width of b/ 2snd interpolation is permitted in the
mge of gap Widtk from b/ 4to b (see 2.4.1.4).
c) Over the ranges of wind angle
-180 < e < 135
and + 135 < .9 < + 180 the vrdues of pressure
coefficient remain the asme as given in table 28.
3.3.1.4 Non-uerti cal wrdf.s
3.3.1.4.1 Pressure coefficients for
windward-facing non-vertical wslls irr the range
b= *90 are given in table 29 for zones A to D
defined in figure 31. Fur all other wind angles,
pressures on non-vertical wallx should be taken as
the same as for vertical walls
3.3.1.4.2 The wind direction # is defined as the
a@e Of the wind from normal to the wa ll being
considered (ace 3.1. 1 ) an d i s lirrdted here to the
range O = *90. The pitch angle a is defined as
the angle fmm horizontal, hence a = 90 for
vertical walls. The reference height If, is the height
above ground of the top of the wall.
NUI X. The pressure coeffi ci ents for non-veti i cal wal l s i n
tabl e 29 are essenti al l y i denti cal to the pressure cc.effi ci ents for
steep pi tched mfs i n 3.3.3, al l owi ng for the di ffer ences i n
de fti ti on of mne% ther efor e at l arge pi tch angl es (a > 454)
the di sti ncti on between wal l and rc@ i s l argel y i rrel evant.
However , stee~ pi tched surfaces whi ch meet al ong the top edge
to for m a r i dge, e.g. A-framehuildin.gs, arebetterinterpreted
as.duopifchrwfs, fallingundertheprovisionsof 3.3.3.
3.3.1.5 Bui l di ngs wi th re-entmnt comers
3.3.1.5.1 The prucedure given in 3.3.1.1 should be
used for vertical walls of buildhgs containing
re-entrarrt comers, such as L, T, X and Y shaped
buildings in plan. Iterns a) to e) define the zones,
using figure 33 aa reference.
a) For the faces of the upwirrd wing, the
cruaswind breadth and the height of the wing
should be used to determine the scaling
p-eter b. For all other wings the overall
crosswind breadth of the building should be
used.
NOTE. h!stead of cal cul ati ng the crosswi nd breadth B and
i mvtnd depth D for the compl ex bui l di ng pl an, these di mensi ons
may be detemded fr om the smal l est rectangl e or ci rcl e whi ch
encl oses the pl an shape of the upwi nd wingor of the whol e
bi l d~, respecti vel y.
b) For faces with two external comers, zones A,
B, C arrd D are defined in accordance with
3.3.1.1.
c) For faces with one upwind (external) comer
srrd one downwind re-entrant comer, zones A, B
and C are defined (zone D does not apply).
d) For faces with one upwind m-entrant comer
and one downwind external comer, zones C
an d D arc defined (zones A and B do not apply).
e) In reentrant comers that face directly into
the wind a wedge that extends from the internal
comer with the face of the wedge normal to the
wind direction is defined. The width of the
wedge w should bs taken as w = b or w = the
width of the wedge Iirrrited by an extemaf comer
(marked limit of wedge), wh]chever is the
smafler.
3.3.1.5.2 The pressure coefficients for zones
defined in 3.3.1.5.1 should be obtained from
table 26 appropriate to the wind angle f?measured
frum normal to each wsll.
The pressure coefficients for the zones that lie
within the defined wedge should be taken for
zone C at O = 0 from table 26.
BS6 3 9 9 :Far t 2 :1 9 9 5 Se c t ion 3
Wind
-+? A
I
H
J
K
H,
A B c D
I
+
/ / / / / / . / / / / , , , / / / / / , , / / / / / / / , / / / / / / , / / / H
@Duopi tch r oof
,,:ti jm+al
b) Monopi tcb r oof
Fi gu r e 3 2 . Ke yt ove r t i c a l ga ble wzdls
Ih ble 2 8 . Ext e t i pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cwfor ve t i i c d ga ble wdls a ~a c e n t t e n on -ve r t ic a lwa lls
m d r oofs
W, n d dir e c t ion o Pit ch of a dja c e n t m dlorr oof 3 1 Y s a s 7 5 e
D/ H s 1 DIH z 4
H I J K H 1 J K
1 +0 , 2 5 + 0 . 8 0 + 0 . 8 0 +0 . 2 5 +0 . 1 8 +0 . 5 7 + 0 . 5 7 +0 . 1 8
*3 0 +0 . 7 0 + 0 . 7 5 +0 . 5 0 +0 . 2 + 0 . 5 0 +0 , 5 4 + 0 . 3 6 *0 . 2 0
f6 0 + 0 . 5 0 + 0 . 4 0 *0 . 2 -0 . 2 5 + 0 . 3 6 + 0 . 2 9 *0 . 2 0 *0 . 2 0
*9 0 -1.10 -0.80 -0.70 -0.60 -1.10 -0.80 -0.70 -0.60
*lZoo -1.30 -0.75 -0.60 -0.50 1.30 -0.75 -0.60 -0.50
* 1500 -0.30 -0.25 -0.25 -0.25 0.21 -0.18 -0.18 -0.18
i180 -0.25 -0.25 -0.25 -0.25 -0.18 -0.18 -0.18 -0.18
NOIT 1. lnte~latiomayku~d~twwn givenwid directiom.mdforD/lfintberage 1 < D/ f{ <4.
NUI E2, Wbe"rhe msul tof i nteml ati ng ktween~si ti ve andnegati ve val ues i si ntbemnge -0.2 < Cm < +(),2, the
coeffi ci ent shoul d be take as Cy
. iO.2a.d Lwjtbpossiblevalues$ed.
K
Sect ion 3
BS 6 3 9 9 : Par t 2 :1 9 9 5
m
BS6 3 9 9 :Far t 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
ABCD
61
i
A
Upwind :
Wind
B
wing for
wind
Limkof wedge
c direc tion c
.-.~--=b--
Shown
~ y~) (01< o)
~.-if-
....-:,. :
-,-.=,. ,..,, ,. .,
CD
,..
A A
B B
c
c
D
D
AB c
c
cc D
D D
ABCD
Fi gu r e 3 3 . Ke y for wa lls of bu ildin gs wi t h r e -e n t r a n t
c om e r s
3.3.1.6 Bui l di ngs wi th recessed ba~s 3.3.1.6.2 Where the recessed bay is limited in
3 . 3 . 1 . 6 . 1 Bu ildin gs wh e r e t h e r e a r e r e c e s s e d
h e igh t bya floor or a s offi t , t h e pr e s . s u r e in t h e
open in gs , s u c h a s por c h e s a r r d ba lc on ie s or
r e c e s s s h ou ld be t a k e n t o a c t on t h e floor an d s off]t
be t we e n t h e win m o fa bu ildln ~, s h ou ld r e t r e a t e d
in a ddit ion t o t h e wa lls .
as follows, using &ure 34 as relerence.
a) The p-eter b should be determined in
accordance with 3.3.1.1.2
NOTE.Inste&of&culating thecm=rnnd b~adthBand
i nwi nd depth Dfor the cmnpl ex bui l di ng pl an, these di mensi ons
may bedetemdned fr om the smal l est r ecfangl e m ci rcl e whi ch
encl osed the rel evant pl an shaw defi ned i n i temsb) or e).
b) IfG < b/2therecesa iscategorized aa narrow.
The wall in which the recess should be assessed
as if the recess d]d not exist, as shown in
figure 34a. fhepressur ecoefficient
corresponding to the position of the recess
should be applied to all the walls inside the
recess. Forpeak cladding loads at the mouth of
the narrow recess, additional locti zones A at the
external edge of the walls of the recess should be
defined aaindkatedinfigurc 34a. The relevant
pku-shape for calculating b is that of the whole
building.
c) If G > b/ 2the recess is categorized as wide,
The procedure in 3.3.1.5 for buildings with
re-entfant cornem should be applied as indicated
in figure 34b. The relevant plan-shape for
calculating b is that of any upwind wing, or of
the whole building, respectively.
3.3.1.7 Bui l di ngs wi th i nternal wel fs
3.3.1.7.1 For buildlngs with internal wells, the
pressure coefficient for the external walls are
unaffected by the well and should be derived as if
the well d]d not exist.
3.3. L 7.2 Pressure within the well is dominated by
flow over the roof and should be derived as
follows.
a) When the gap across the well G is smaller than
b/ 2the pressure in the well is taken aa uniform
and equal to the pressure on the roof containing
the well.
b) When G > b12the procedure for re-entmnt
comem in 3.3.1.5 should be used.
3.3.1.8 Irrvgul arfaccs and i nset wai fs
l b determine pressure coefficients for the irregular
faces of buildings with re-entrarrt comers in
elevation (i. e. walls formed by more than one
rectangle) the procedure given for the standard
method in 2 . 4 s h ou ld be used with dkectional
pressure coefficients obtained from table 26
appropriate to the wind angle # from normal to
each face.
*
Co
.
I
Sect ion 3
BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5
D A c BA
< >
G < b1 2
\
%-
e v
a) Nar r ow recess
b) Wide r e c e s s
Figu r e 3 4 . Key for wa fls of bu ildin gs wi t h r e c e s s e d
ba ys
3.3.1.9 FHcti on i nduced l oads on uxdfa
Friction forces should be determined for long walls
with D > b when the wind i s pa r a lle l t o t h e wa ll.
Th e fr ic t ion a l dr a g c oe ffi c i e n t s h ou ld be a s s u m e d
t o a c t ove r all zon e C an d D of s u c h wa lls , wi t h
va lu e s a s give n in t a ble 6. The resulting frictional
forces should be applied in acconhwe
with 3.1.3.4.
3.3.2 Ext e m a f pr e s s u r e coefficien t s for fla t
r oofs n f bu i ld@s
3 . 3 . 2 . i Ch oic e of method
3.3. 2.! 1 A geneml methcd for deterrninhg the
wind pressures on flat, or nearly flat roofs of
buifdings with any arbitrary plan shape is given in
the fodowing section. lhii general method also
accounts for the variations in high local suction
around the periphery of the roof caused by various
common forms of eaves detail.
3.3.2.1.2 A simpler method, restricted to
rectangular-plan buildings only, is given in 3.3.3.3,
assuming the flat roof to be a monopitch roof with
zero pitch angle. The general method should be
used for afl roofs of pitch less than u = 50 on
non-rectangular plan buildings.
3.3.2.2 General method
3.3.2.2.1 Th e roof should be subdivided into
sections by lines drawn in the wind direction
through each upwind-facing comer.
Zones of pressure coefficient are defined for each
section from the upwind comer as given in
figure 35. The shape of the roof in figure 35
represents a typical arbitrary roof plan.
BS6 3 9 9 :I%r t 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
t
e
Fi gu r e 3 5 . Ke yt oge n e r a l m e t h od for ffa t r oofs
3.3.2.2.2 Thewind direction 8.isdefined as the
angle of the wind from nornmlto the eaves of the
section of roof Ming considered, as defined in
figure 35. Thereference height Hris the height
above ground of the top of the roof. The crosswind
breadth B zn d inwind depth D are defined in
figure 2.
NUTE.insteadofcalc.latingthecmsswindbreadthBand
inwinddepthDfor thecomplexbuildingplanat ever y wi nd
angl e, the- di mensi ons may bedetemni ned fr om thewnal l est
r ectandeor ci ml e whi ch encl oses the pbi n shape of the
bui l d,ng.
The scaling length b for defining the zones is given
by b= Borb= 2H, whichever is the smaller.
3.3.2.2.3 Application of the zones as defined in
figure 35 should be repeated for every section of
the mof until pressure coefficients for all zones
over the whole roof have been defined. Figure 36a
shows the completed assignment for the arbitrary
shape and wind direction used in figure 35.
Figure 36b shows the zones for the same shaped
roof but a different wind direction. The examples
in figure 36 cover most conditions likely to be
encountered.
3.3.2.3 Ffat roofi wi th sharp eaves
External pressure coefficients for each zone of flat
roofs with sharp eaves are given in table 30. Sharp
eaves represent the most onerous loading condition
(highest suction). Pressure coefficients for other
common types of eaves are given in 3.3.2.4
to 3.3.2.6.
3 . 3 . 2 . 4 Ffat roo~ wi th parapets
3.3.2.4.1 A pampet along any eaves or edge wilf
reduce the pressure coefficients in zones A and D
immediately adjacent to that eaves but the
pressures in zones E, F and G will be unaffected.
tie external pressure coefficients given in table 30
for zones A to D for flat roofs with sharp eaves
should be multiplied by the appropriate reduction
factors given in table 31, dependent on the height
of the parapet h, az defined for the standard
method in figure 17, and the eaves height H or
crosswind width B.
Nf7113. The r efer ence hei ght H, i sthe hei ght above gr ound of
the top of the parapet.
3.3.2.4.2 I.aadlng of the parapet walls should be
determined fmm 2.7.5.1 for free-standing parapets
and from 2.7.5.4 for downwind parapets
3.3.2.5 Ffat roo~ wi th curved eaves
For flat roofs with curved eaves, as defined for the
standard method in figure 17, the zones start from
the edge of the flat part of the roof. External
pressure coefficients for each zone are given in
table 32 dependent on the mtio of the corner
radius r of the eaves to the scaling length b.
3.3.2.6 Ffat mop wi th mansard eaves
For flat roofs with mansard eaves, as defined for
the standard method in figure 17, the zones start
from the edge of the flat part of the roof. External
pressure coefficients for each zone are given in
table 33 dependent on the pitch of the mansard
eaves a.
K
Se c t ion 3 BS6 3 9 9 :l%t 2 :1 9 9 5
/
6
a) Assi gnment of zones for arbi trary shape accor di ng to wi nd di recti on of fi gur e 35
b) As.si gnmet of zones for arbi trary shape accoti l ng to a di ffer ent wi nd di recti on
Fi gu r e 3 6 . Exa m ple s of zon es of fla t r oof of a r bi t r a r y plan
s h a pe
lh ble 3 0 . Ext e r n a l pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cw for fla t r oofs wi t h Sk e a ve s
~i a l win d Zon e
dir e c t ion e
A B c D E F G
o -1.47 -1.25 -1.15 -1.15 -0.69 0.71 *0.20
+15 1.68 1,47 -1.24 -1.14 -0.61 -0.70 *0,20
*30 -2.00 -1.70 -1.38 -1.03 -0.66 -0.67 *0,20
*450 -1.90 -1.49 -1.18 -0.86 -0.59
*60
-0.54 *0.20
1.70 -1.24 1.10 -0.64 -0.61 -0.42 *0,20
i75 -1.45 -0.85 -CI.69 -G.35 0.61 -0.21
*0,20
t90 - i,43 -0.75 -0.52 -0.24 -0.62 *0.20 *0.20
NOTE1. IMerpdatio. mayheused.
NOTE2. W!tereboi l , posi ti ve and negati ve val ues are gi ven buth val ues shoul d be consi der ed.
BS6 2 9 9 :Paxt 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
Ta ble 3 1 . Re du c t ion fa c t or for zon es A t o D,
H t o J an d Q t o S of fla t r oofs wi t h pa r a pe t s
k wd win d Fa m Pe th e igh tr a t i o hlb
di recti on O
0 0.05 0.10 20.20
0 1.00 I 0.76 I 0.67 I 0.56
h ble 3 2 . Ext e t i vr e s s we c oe ffi c i e n t s CP, for fla t r oofs wi t h c u ~e d e a ve s
, a ve s r a diu s
t t ie . / b
.05
1.10
,MO
LOCa l win d
dir e c t ion . 9
o
*15
f30
*450
i60
*750
*90
o
*15
*30
*450
*60
*75
i90
o
* 15
+30
*45
*60
*75
i-90
bri e
i
-0.81
-0.79
-0.66
-0.61
-0.66
-0.79
-0.81
-0.77
-0.64
-0.56
-0.49
-0.56
-0.64
0.77
0.51
-0.46
-0.40
-0.38
-0.40
-0.46
-0.51
B
-1.00
1.06
-0.97
-0.80
-0.64
-0.48
-0.48
-0.73
-0.65
-0.60
-0.51
-0.40
-0.39
-0.43
-0.54
-0.49
-0.43
-0.41
-0.38
-0.35
-0.40
-1.15
-1.16
-1.07
-0.92
-0.69
-0.53
-0.39
-0.79
-0.70
-0.62
0.56
-0.43
-0.36
-0.37
0.54
-0.52
-0.47
-0.43
-0.40
-0.31
0.36
D
-1 . 2 6
-1.09
-1.06
-0.35
-0.62
-0.48
-0.29
-0.79
0.69
-0.63
-0.58
-0.46
-0.36
-0.37
-0.56
0.53
-0.51
-0.43
-0.38
-0.28
-0.23
-0.39
-0.37
-0.35
-0.35
-0.35
-0.37
-0.39
0.30
-0.29
-0.29
0.28
-0.29
-0.29
-0.30
-0.30
~0.28
-0.26
-0.26
-0.26
0.28
-0,30
NOTE 1. I nterpol ati on maybe used
NCI TE2. Wher e bvthpmi ti ve and negati ve val .es.aI ? gi ven botbval .es sho.l d r econsi der ed.
F
*0 . 2 0
-0 . 2 2
-0 . 2 9
-0 . 3 5
-0 , 3 8
-0 . 4 0
-0 . 4 3
-0 . 2 1
-0 . 2 2
-0 . 2 5
-0 . 2 8
-0 . 3 0
-0 . 3 0
0 . 3 0
-0 . 2 1
-0 . 2 2
0 . 2 5
-0 . 2 7
-0 . 2 9
-0 . 2 9
-0 . 3 0
:
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 , 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 , 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 , 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
*0 . 2 0
io. 2 0
*0 , 2 0
*
m
*
I
Sect ion 3 BS6 3 9 9 :Far t 2 :1 9 9 5
h ble 3 3 . Ext e r n a f m e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s C. . for fla t r oofs wi t h d e a ve s
fa n s a r d pit c h
@e a
100
15
;0
{(JTE 1.Interpolar
iarE2. Fbra>f
WrE 3. where b+
Local win d
dir e c t ion O
o
*1 5 0
*3 0
i4 5
+ 6 0
*7 5
*9 0 Q
o
*1 5 0
*3 0
+4 5
+6 0
*7 5
+9 0
0 0
*1 5
*3 0
i4 5
*6 0
k 7 5
*9 0
ti ne
&
-0.93
-0.76
-0.66
-0,60
-0.66
-0.76
-0.93
-1.19
-1.10
-0.98
-0.87
-0.98
-1.10
1.10
-1.27
-1.37
-1.32
-1.21
1.32
-1.37
-1.27
ud a-60
-0.98
-0.85
-0.73
-0.59
-0.40
-0.34
-0.39
-1.24
-1.22
-1.06
-0.89
-0.62
-0.50
0,56
-1.27
-1.25
-1.22
1.11
0.81
-0.70
-0.69
may be us
m a - 60
=---
=J--
-0.75
-0.63
-0.42
-0.30
-0.30
1.29
-1.22
-1.05
0.88
-0.64
-0.45
-0.41
-1,27
-1.27
-1.08
-0.97
-0.73
-0.54
-0.48
D
-0.98
-0.94
-0.88
-0.66
-0.36
-0.23
-0.22
1.34
-1.24
1.05
-0.80
-0.34
-0.24
-0.21
-1.23
-1.17
-1.02
-0.77
-0.35
-0.23
-0.21
-0.27
-0.22
-0.20
-0.21
-0.20
-0.22
-0.27
-0.44
-0.39
-0.35
-0.35
-0.35
-0.39
-0.44
-0.59
-0.54
-0.49
-0.45
-0.49
-0.54
-0.59
F
*0.20
*0.20
*0.20
*0.25
-0.30
-0.30
-0.26
*0,20
*0.20
+0.24
*0,36
-0.46
-0.48
-0.46
*0.20
*0.20
-0.26
-0.45
-0.60
-0.66
-0.66
:
*0.20
*0.20
*0.20
*0,20
*0.20
*0.20
*0.20
*0,20
*0.20
*0.20
*0.20
*0,20
*0.20
*0.20
*0,20
*0.20
*0.20
*0.20
*0,20
*0.20
*0.20
m between a - 30
,0 i nterpol ate between the val ue k tabl e 33 and the val ues gi ve i tabl e 30.
I posi ti ve and negati ve val ues are gi ven, both val ues shoul d be consi der ed.
3.3.2.7 Fl at r@b wi th i nset storc~
For flat roofs with inset storeys, pressure
coefficients for both the upper and lower roof
should bc derived as foffows.
a) For the upper roof 3.3.2.3 to 3.3.2.6,
depending on the form of the eaves, should be
used, taking the reference height H, as the
actual height to the upper eaves but taking H as
the h e igh t of the inset storey (from the upper
eaves to the lower roof level) for determining the
scafing length b.
b) For the lower roof 3.3.2.3 to 3.3.2.6,
dependhrg on the form of the eaves, should be
used, where H, - H, the actual height of the
lower storey, ignoring the effect of the inset
storeys. In addkion, two further zones, X and Y,
around the base of the inset storeys are defined
in figure 37, where the scaling parameter b is
bawd on the dimensions of the upper, irrsct
Storey.
c) In zones X and Y the pressures shalf be taken
as the pressure appropriate to the waif zones A
to D on each adjacent inset stcmcywall from 3.3. L
3.3.2.8 Fri cti on i nduced l oads on fl at roqfk
Friction forces should be determined for long flat
roofs with D > b/2 i n al f wind directions. The
frictional drag coefficient should be assumed to act
over alf of zone G of such roofs, with values as
given in table 6. The resulting frictional forces
should be applied in accordance with 3.1.3.4.
3.3.3 External pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s for pit c h e d
r oofs of bu ffdfn gs
3 . 3 . 3 . 1 Gc n e r d
Th e pressure coefficients for windward-facing steep
pitched roofs (a > 45) given irr th~ section are
easentiafly identical to the pressure coefficients for
windward-facing non-vertical waifs in 3.3. L4 and
table 29, affowing for the differences in definition
of zones. fhereforc at large pitch angles (a > 45)
the dutinction between wall and mof is largely
irrelevant Steep-pitched surfaces attached to the
top of vertical walls are better interpreted 6s
pitched roofs, fafling under the provisions of 3.3.3,
Steep-pitched surfaces springing directly from the
ground which meet along the top edge to form a
ridge, e.g. A-frame buildirr@, are also better
interpreted as duopitch roofs, frdfing under the
pmtilons of 3.3.3
BS6 3 9 9 :Paxt 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
Plan
b
L<
Y
x
Upper storey
Y
/2~
x
,1
k-J
y
b/2
Lower storey
/
Wind
e
Fi gu r e 3 7 . Addit ion a l zon es a r ou n d i n s e t s t or e y
3.3.3.2 Scaling l ength and tyference hei ght
3.3.3.2.1 TWOvalues are needed for the scaling
length b: ~ = L or bL = 2H, whichever is the
smaller, and LW= W or tW = 2H, whichever is the
smaller.
3.3.3.2.2 The reference height H, is the height
above ground of the h@est point on the roof, the
high eaves in the case of monopitch and troughed
duopitched roofs, and the ridge inthe case ridged
duopitch and hipped roofs.
3.3.3.3 Monopi tch roofi
3.3.3.3.1 External pressure coefficients CP, for
monopitch roofs are given in table 34 for zones
A to J defined in fieure 38. These zones are
3.3.3.3.2 When all wind directions are considered,
smmetv leads to four possible patterns of zones
for each form of roof, as shown in figure 39a. Wind
nornmf to either the eaves (6 = 0 ) or the verge
(6 = 90) provides special cases where either of
two patterns in figure 39a could apply. Because of
the fluctuations of wind direction found in practice
and in order to give the expected range of
asymmetric loading, both patterns should be
considered. In the special case O = 0 the two load
cases have symmetrically identical values, whereas
in the special case O = 90 the two load cases
differ one with the pitch angle positive and the
edge zones along the low eaves; the other with the
pitch angle negative and the edge zones along the
high eaves.
defined from the upwind comer,
NOTE The pi tch angl e a i s taken as posi ti ve when the l ow
eaves i s upwi nd and negati ve when the hi gh eaves i s upwi nd.
Sect ion 3
K
BS6 3 9 9 :M2 :1 9 9 5
Wc h a n gle a
h ble 3 4 . Ext e r n a l pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cp, fOr pit c h e d r OOf zOn e s A t O J
act i win d Zon e
Ur e c t i one
A r
-45.
-30
-15
-5.
+ 5.
+ 150
+60.
+o.75~
,.
-0.61
k30. -0.53
k60 -1.11 I
E----R
2---I-R
%
k so. -1.66
* go. -1.30
P -1.47
*30. -2.00
&60. -1.70
* ew -1.43
). -1.39
+30. -1.78
+60 -1.67
*90 \ -1.21
P I -0.91
5
+0.20
+30 -0.84
+0.20
* 60. -1.27
+0,20
*WY -1.20
W -0.38
+0,50
*30. -0.60
+0.75
i 6W -0.14
+0.50
* eo~ -1.13
0= +0,52
t30
I
+0.80
* 60. +0.60
=
J!90 -1.17
00 +0.57
+30. +0.80
* 60 +0.70
* !30.
-0.44
0. +0.81
T
c
0.58 -0.56
.0.50 -0.49
.1.29 -1.36
.0.81 -0.62
0.68 -0.60
1.02 0.89
-i
-2.33 -2.17
-0,94 -0,70
-1.05 -0.97
-2.37 -1.71
.2.15 -1.85
*
-2.21 -1.63
-1.57 -1.28
*
-1.70 -1.38
-1.24 1.10
%-t-%%
=
-1.64 -1.34
-1.33 -1.12
-0.83 -0.55
-0.33 -0.78
+0.20 +0.20
-0.88 -0,82
+0.20 + 0.20
-0.86 -0.70
+0.20 +0.20
-0.84 -0.58
-0.50 -0.50
+0.50 +0.50
-0.50 -0.50
+ 0.55 +0.40
-0.50 -0.45
+0.43 +0.30
-0.94 -0.77
+ 0.50 + 0.50
-4-
+0.78 + 0.48
+0.45 +0.35
-0.76 -0.86
+0.57 +0.57
-i-
+0.79 +0.59
+ 0.47 +0.37
-0.44 -0.44
+ 0.81 +0.81
t 0.83 +0.3s
+ 0.55 +0.55
-0.43 -0.43
0.41
0.56
0.96
0.42
0.50
0.79
1.22
-0,37
.0.92
-1.00
-1,02
-0.31
-1.12
-1.04
-0.77
-0.27
-1.15
-1.03
-0.64
-0.24
-1.19
-1.09
-0.71
-0.25
-0.81
+0.20
-0.83
+0.20
-0.61
+0.20
-0.27
-0.50
+0.50
-0.50
+0.45
-0.40
+0.26
-0.19
+0.60
+0.55
+ 0.30
-0.33
+0.80
+ 0.62
+0.35
*0. !20
+ 0.81
+0.73
+0.41
-0.55 -0.81
-0,97 -0.91
-0.84
-1.03
-0.70
-0.88
-0.93
-0.76
-0.60
-0.83
-0.82
-0.66
-0.59
-0.69
-0.66
-0.61
-0.62
-0.56
-0.62
-0.64
-0.61
-0.21
+0.20
-0.21
+ 0.20
-0.54
+0.20
-0.64
-0.20
+0.39
-0,20
+ 0.41
0.30
+0.20
0.60
+ 0.49
+0.45
+0.28
-0.55
+ 0.57
+0.59
I
+0.37
-0.44
+0.81
I :::
+0.20 \-0.43
0.76
0.80
:0.20
0.82
.0,85
-0.72
-0.20
-0.82
-0.77
-0.54
-0.20
-0.71
-0.67
-0.42
to.20
-0.59
-0.60
-0.42
ko. zo
-0.31
+0.20
-0.37
+0,20
-0.33
+0.20
*0,20
-0.25
+0.40
-0.20
+ 0.26
-0.20
+0.20
-0.20
+ 0.70
,+0.45
+0.21
-0.28
+0.80
+ 0.62
+0.35
*0.20
+0.81
+().73
+ 0,41
~
-0.62 I -0.79
-0.52 -0.58
-1.05 -0.97
+%--&%
-1.17 -0,87
-1.69 -1.18
-1.54
-1.10
-2.75
-2.44
-1.51
-1.47
-2.24
-2.10
-1.65
-1,43
-1.70
-2.00
-1.47
-1.39
-1.75
-2.05
-1.48
-0.90
+0.20
-0.63
+0.20
1.57
+0.20
-1.42
-0.60
+0.20
-0.40
3
+0.40
-1.25
+0,42
+IJ.65
+0.50
-1.25
+0,50
+0.77
k
+().59
-1.21
+0.58
+0.85
+0.78
*(),20I-1.21
1.10
.0.96
1.66
1.60
1.15
-0.91
-1.30
-1.67
.1.15
.0.75
-1.24
-1.70
-1.25
-0.69
-1.02
-1.51
-1.15
-0.36
+0.20
-().35
+0.20
-1.21
+().20
-1.15
-0.30
+(1.20
-0.30
+0.,50
-0.89
+0.40
-1.15
+0.40
+{1.60
+0.50
1,15
+0.50
+[).77
+().59
-1.21
+().58
+!1.85
J
-0.94
0.58
-1.17
-0,97
-0.90
-0.73
-1.21
1.01
-0.83
1,11
-1.07
-1.10
-().67
-0.91
-1.09
1.l U
0.52
-1.10
1,38
-1.16
-0.43
-0.76
-1,05
-1.10
-0.30
+0,20
-0.32
+0.20
-0.93
+0.20
-1.10
-0.25
+0.20
-0.25
+0.47
-0.83
+0.33
-1.10
+0.35
+().55
+0.50
-1.15
+0.5,(1
+(),77
+0.59
-1.21
r
+0.58
+0.85
+ [1.78 + 0.7$
1.21 -1.21
NOTE 1. I nterpol ati on may be betwem val ues of the same si gn.
NUTE r!. P,essure chamze rmi dl v fr om nemti ve to wsi ti ve wi th i nm=i mz pi tch between a - 15 and a - 30 ~d v~ues for
both si gns are @en. - - -
NCI TE 3. When i merpdati ng hetwee a - 15 and a - 30, i nterpol ate between negati ve val ues to gi ve I ad case for upwar d
l oad and between pai ti ve val ues to @ve l oad c= for dmvmvar d l oad.
BS6 3 9 9 :Far t 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
2iz2EE
Pitch angle positive Pitch angle negative
a) Gener al
b)Keyto zones
Figure 3S. Key for m on opit ch r oofs
3 . 3 . 3 . 3 . 3 Loa din g of r e c t a n gu la r -pla n fla t or
n e a r ly-fla t roofs in the range 50 < a < 5 may
be assessed as monopitch roofs as a simpler
alternative to the general method for flat roofs
in 3.3.2. In this case, when the roof is long in the
wind direction, i.e. D > b/ 2, a downwind zone
equivalent to zone G in figure 3 5 m a y be de fin e d
for which Cw = +0.2,
3.3.3.4 Duopi tch mor
3.3.3.4.1 External pressure coefficients Cp, for
duopitch roofs are given in table 34 for zones A
to J and table 35 for zones K to S defined in
figure 40. These zones are defined from the
upwind comer of each face.
NUI E The pi tch angl e a i s taken as posi ti ve when the r cmf has
a central r i dge and negati ve when the r oof has a central
tr ough.
3.3.3.4.2 When all wind directions are considered,
symmetry leads to four possible patterns of zones
for each form of roof, as shown in figure 39b.
Wind normal to either the eaves (0 = 00, or the
verge (0 = 90 ) provides special cases where either
of two patterns in figure 39b could apply. Because
of the fluctuations of wind direction found in
practice and in order to give the expected range of
Wmmetric loading, both patterns should be
considered.
3.3.3.4.3 When a < 10 and W < B, zones E
and F should be considered to extend for a distance
B/2 downwind from the windward cave, replacing
zones L, M and N and part of zones O and P. This
load caae should be compared with the standard
load case defined in figure 40 and the more
onerous condition should be used.
.
Sect ion 3
m
BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5
Wind
m
I
E F
J
EiLiEl
Wind
A
a) Symmetri es for monopi tch r oofs
4
Wind
w
I
E F
J
R
o P
s
H
s
o P
R
J
E F
I
Wind
A
W, Sym m et r ies for du opi t c h r oofs
Fi gu r e S9 . Sym m e t r i e s for pit c h e d r oofs
Wmd
m
m
F
Wind
%
I
F E
J
R
P o
s
a
s
P o
R
J
F E
I
wind
R
Bs 6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
k i ble 3 5 . Ext e m
T
1
-4 5
-3 0
-1 5
- 5
+5
+ 1 5
+ 3 0
+4 5
+ 6 0
+7 5
1 pr e s s u r e c oe i
Loc . s f win d
i i r e c t i on 8
)
*300
*60
*900
1
*30
*60
+90
3
*30
t60
*90
1)
*30
*60
*90
0
*30
*60
*90
0
+30
+60
*90
o
*30
*60
*90
o
*303
*60
+90
o
+30
+60
*90
o
*30
*60
*90
NOTE 1, I nterpdati r mmaybe.sed, excel
NOTE2. When theresul t of i nterpol ati ng
:ie n t s CPe for pit c h e d r oof zon es K t o S
Con e
T
K L
-0.92 -0.92
-1.12 -1.12
1.04 -1.04
-1.17 -0.96
-0.78 -0.78
-0.44 -0,44
-0.74 -0.74
1.13 -0.94
T
-0.69 -0.69
*0.20 *0.20
-0.67 -0.67
-1.20 -0.84
-0.34 -0.34
*0,20 *0.20
-0.69 -0.69
-1.21 0.83
-0.32 -0.27
-0.70 -0.46
-1.04 -0.90
-0.90 -0.83
T
-0.8 0.81
1.32 -1.14
-1.31 -0.92
-0.81 -0.74
T
-0.29 *0.26
-0.74 -0.63
-1.04 -1.05
-0.661-0.61
~
-0.21 -0.20
0.54 0.54
-0.55 -0.46
i
-0.49 -0.49
0.63 -0.62
-1.00 -1.OC
-0.72 -0.72
-0.54 -0.54
-0.71 -0.71
1.13 1.1:
-0.79 0.7s
1! N o P
Q
E s
-0.92 -0.75 -0.75 -0.75 -0.63 -0.63 -0.63
-1.12 -0.52 *0.20 -0,52 -0.32 -0.32 -0.32
-1.04 -0.24 -0.73 -0.24 -1.05 -1,05 -1.05
-0.86 -0.33 -0.88 -0.28 -1.25 -1.08 -1.36
-0.78 -0.66 -0.47 -0.66 -0.40 -0.40 -0.40
-0.44 -0,52 *0,20 0,52 *0.20 *0.20 *0.20
-0.74 -0.27 -0.62 -0.27 -1.01 -1,01 -1.01
-0.77 -0.19 *0.20 -0.19 -1.25 -1.06 -1.36
-0.69 -0.52 -0.26 -0.52 -0.21 -0.21 -0.21
*0.20 *0,20 *0,20 *0.20 -0.55 0.55 0.55
-0.67 *0.20 -0.65 *0.20 -1.03 -1.03 -1.03
-0.58 -0.27 -0.64 *0.20 -1.42 -1.10 -1.30
-0.34 -0.25 -0.25 -0.25 -0.28 -0,28 -0.28
*0.20 *0.20 0.26 *0,20 0,48 -0.48 0.48
0.69 *0.20 0,66 *0,20 -0.88 -0.88 0.88
-0.55 -0.25 -0.61 *0.20 -1.48 -1.12 -1.30
-0.28 -0.28 *0.20 *0.20 -0,36 -0.30 -0.24
-0.30 -0.23 0.31 *0.20 0.71 -0.59 -0.46
-0.52 *0.20 -0.56 *0.20 -0.97 -0.83 -0.73
-0.58 *0.20 -0.60 *0.20 -0.89 -0.89 -1.09
-0.80 -0.78 -0.39 -0.40 -0.85 -0:55 -0.39
-1.11 -0.88 -0.46 0.34 -0.47 -1:25 -0.81
-0.72 -0.58 -0.57 -0.23 -1.45 -1,08 -0.75
-0.54 *0.20 -0.58 *0.20 -0.83 -0.77 -0.92
0.25 -0.30 -0.30 -0.30 -0.31 -0.32 -0.33
-0.52 -0.43 -0.39 -0.43 -0.76 -0.51 -0.40
-0.90 -0.64 0.58 -0.47 -1.02 -0.67 0.64
-0.491-0.21 I -0.49 *0.20 -0.671-0.581-0.69
-0.211-0.201-0.231-0.231 -0.211-0.241-0.26
-0.20 0.27 0.23 -0.26 -0.20 0.21 -0.22
-0.51 -0.41 -0.44 0.38 0.55 0.47 0.50
-0.38 -0.20 -0.40 *0.20 -0.60 -0.45 -0.47
-0.40 -0.40 -0.30 -0.30 -0.57 -0.57 -0.57
-0.71 -0,69 -0.40 -0.40 -0.67 -0.67 -0.67
-0.60 -0.42 -0.74 -0.63 -0.91 -0.91 -0.91
-0.241 *0.201 -O.60 *0.201 -1.21 -1.211-1.21
-0.431 0.431 0.301 0.301 -0.581 0.581 -0.58
-0.64 -0.63 -0.40 -0.40 -0.70 -0.70 -0.70
-0.67 -0.31 -1.15 -0,61 -0.97 0.97 0,97
-0.42 -0.21 -0.80 *0.20 -1.21 -1.21 -1.21
etween.z - +5 anda - 5.
wee posi ti ve and mgati ve val ues i s i n the r ange 0.2 < C= < +0.2, the
I
ccefi i ci ent shoul d be taken as Cm - + 0.2 and both Pssi bl e val ues used.
I
m
Sect ion 3 BS6 3 9 9 :Pm t 2 :1 9 9 5
+ +. <0
0= =
I%dged, pitch angle positiie
Troughed, pitch angle negative
Plan
bwti
bJl O L M N
A
J
bJ 4~
E F
BIC D
@lo 1 $ 4 l@
Wind
7 e
o) Key t. zones
Figu r e 4 0 . Ke y for du opit c h r oofs
)L/l o
t
w
BS 6399: Part 2:1995 Section 3
3.3.3.5 Hi pped roo~
3.3.3.5.1 TheprOvisiOns in3.3.3.5.2 t03.3.3.5.4
aPPIY tOconventionalKlpped roofs on
rectarrgulw-plarr buildings, where the pitch of the
main ridged faces have pitch angle al and the
triangular side faces have pitch arrglea2. Zones of
external pressure coefficient are defined in
figare 41. Local wind dmctions O1and f12are
defined from normal to the longer and shorter
eaves, respectively, where 6z = 90 01.
3.3.3.5.2 Thas, forthemain ridged faces the pitch
is al, the wind dwection is 61 and the zones are AI
toY1, arrdfor thetriangular side faces the pitch is
CX2,the wind diretilonis62 and the zones are A2 to
Y2. Therefererrce height Hristhe height above
ground of the ridge.
3.3.3.5.3 External preasure coefficients for
zones A to E on the upwind faces are given irr
table 34. External pressure coefficient.s forzones O
and Ponthedownwind faces sregiven in table 35.
The size of each of these zones is given in
figure 40.
3.3.3.5.4 Extema.l pressure coefficients for the
additional zones T to Walong the hip ridges and for
zones Xarrd Yalong the main ridge arc given in
table 36. The width of each of these additional
zonesin plan isshowrrin figare 41b. The boundary
between each pair ofadditional zones, T-U, V-W
and X-Y, is the mid-point of the respective hip or
main ridge.
3.3.3.6 Mi red gabl es and hi pped roofi
Roofs with a standard gable at one end and a hlp
at the other are a frequent occurrence. In such
cases, the governing criterion is the form of the
upwind comer for the wind dlrectirm being
considered.
3.3.3.7 Effect of parapets on pi tched m@
3.3.3.7.1 Th e effects of parapets should be taken
into account to determine external pressure
coefficients on pitched roofs. Owing to the way
that parapets around roofs change the positive
pressures expected on upwind pitches with large
positive pitch angles to suction, neglecting their
ef feet is not always conservative. Pressures on the
parapet walls should be determined using the
procedure in 2.7.5.1 for free-standing parapets and
from 2.7.5.4 for downwind parapets.
3.3.3.7.2 Morrqitch mqfs
a) Lurueat.%with pampet upwind. For the part
of the roof below the top of the parapet,
external prwssure coefficients should be
deterrrrirredin accordance with 3.3.2.4, i.e. the
roof should be treated as a flat mof with
parapets, irrespective of actual roof pitch. For
anY Par t of the roof that is above the top os the
parapet, i.e. if the top of the parapet is below
the level of the h@fr eaves, external pressure
coefficients should be determined in accordance
with 3.3.3.3 as if the parapet did not exist.
b) High eaves upwind. External pressure
coefficients should be determined in accordance
wi th 3.3.3.3, The reduction factors of table 31
should be used for upwind eaves and verge
zones A to D and H to J, with the parapet height
h determined at the upwind comer of each
respective zone. Thus, for parapets level with the
high eaves the parapet height should be taken as
h = Ofor zones A to D and H, so that the
reduction factor is less than unity only for zones
for zones I and J.
3.3.3.7.3 Daopitch roofs
a) Upwind fbxe. For the part of the roof below
the top of the parapet, exterrmf pressure
coefficients should be determined in accordance
with 3.3.2.4, i.e. the roof should be treated as a
flat roof with parapets, irrespective of actual
roof pitch. For any part of the roof that is above
the top of the parapet, i.e. if the top of the
parapet is below the level of the ridge, external
pressure coefficients should be determined in
accordance with 3.3.3.4 as if the parapet did not
exist.
b) Drrrmnuindfbce. External pressure coefficients
should be deterrrrined in accordance with 3.3.3.4
for the downwind pitch of duopitch roofs. The
reduction factorx of table 31 should be used only
for the verge zones Q to S with the parapet
height h deterrrrined at the upwirrd comer of
each respective zone.
3.3.3.7.4 Hipped roofs
a ) Upwind main arui hip fwes. For the part of
the roof below the top of the parapet, external
pressure coefficients shorrfd be determined in
accordance with 3.3.2.4, i.e. the roof should be
treated as a flat roof with parapets, irrespective
of actual rcmf pitch. For any part of the mof that
is above the top of the parapet, i.e. if the top of
the parapet is below the level of the ridge,
external pressure coefficients shoald be
determined trraccordance with 3.3.3.5 as if the
parapet did not exist.
b) Downwind main and hip fax%. External
pressure coefficients should be determined in
accordance with 3.3.3.5 as if the parapet did not
exist. The reduction factors of table 31 should
not be applied to any zone.
3.3.3.8 Pi tched ra@ wi th i rrset ston?vs
External pressure coefficients should be
determined in accordance with 3.3.2.7, using the
aPPmPriate zones for the pitched roofs as derived
from 3.3.3.3 to 3.3.3.5.
m
Se c t ion 3 BS6 3 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
%>0.
a.>c-J7-
,:+
(,J,,,,,,,,,,,,L,,, ,/,>,
H,
,:+-
//
A
,:+
H,
,!>
7//,////,,//,//////// ,,, /,,,/,,,/,,/,/,,,,, ,,
a) Oeneml
Pl an
b /2
~
bL/l O
Q
.-
W

b) Key to zones
Ngu r e 4 1 . Ke y for i dppe dm ofs
BS6 2 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5 Sect ion 3
Oi ble 36. External uressure coefficients C- For additional zones T to Y of hiDDed roofs I
? t t c h a n gle a
+ 5
+ 15
+30
+ 45
Local wi nd
di recti on .9
0
f30
*60
*90
o
+30
*60
*!900
0
*30
*60
*90
0
t30
*60
I *90
WTCE. I nterpol ati on may be used.
T
-0.56
-0.62
-1.13
-1.19
-0.31
-0.37
-0.94
-1.09
-0.40
-0.26
-0.99
-1.10
-0.74
0.55
1.11
-1.22
u
-0.56
-0.62
-0.63
-0.76
-0.31
-0.37
-0.52
-0.77
-0.40
-0.26
0.47
1.01
0.74
-0.55
-0.33
-0.71
v
-0.31
-0.60
-0.76
-0.89
0.44
-1.00
-1.43
-0.97
-0.53
-0.74
1.25
-1.40
-0.65
-0.52
-0.67
-1.35
w
-0.45
-0.46
-0.51
-0.50
0.83
-0,99
-0.71
-0.59
-0.33
-0.55
0.82
-0.62
0.24
-0.22
-0,35
-0.43
x Y
-0.58 -0.58
-0.47 -0.54
-0.38 -0.36
-0.61 *0,20
-1.17 -1.17
-1.31 -1.13
-0.78 -0.80
-0.64 *0.20
-0.28 ~0.28
-0.51 ;0.50
-0.77 -0.49
-0.78 *0.20
-0.20 -0.20
-0.22 -0.28
-0.32 -0.41
-0.88 -0.28
3.3.3.9 fi cti on i nduced l oads on pi tched roo~
Friction forces should be determined for long
pitched roofs when the wind is parallel to the
eaves or ridge, i.e. 8 = 90. The frictional drag
coefficient should be assumed to act over zones F
and P only of such roofs, with the values as gjven
in table 6. The resulting frictional forces should be
applied in accodance with 3.1.3.4.
3.3.4 Multipitch and multi-bay roofs
3.3.4.1 Mul ti pi tch roofi
3.3.4. L 1 Multipitch roofs are defined as roofs in
which each span is made up of pitches of two or
more pitch angles, as shown in figure 22 for the
standard method. The form in figure 22a is
commonly known as a mansard roof.
NCJTE Fl at r oofs wi th mansard eaves are deal t wi th i n 3.3.2.6.
3.3.4.1.2 External pressure coefficients for each
pitch should be derived in accordance with 3.3.3.4
or 3.3.3.5, according to the form of the verges, but
omitting the eaves edge zones along the change in
slope where indicated in figure 22.
NOTE The l etters desi gnati ng the zones i n fi gur e 22 whi ch
cmr espmd to the standard method shoul d be i gnor ed.
a) The eaves edge zones A to D on the bottom
edge Of df windward faces should be included
when the pitch angle of that face is less than
that of the pitch below, including the lowest face
forming the actual eaves of the windward side,
as shown in figure 22a. The eaves zones A to D
should be excluded when the pitch angle is
greater than that of the pitch below, as shown in
figure 22b.
b) The ridge zones K to N for gabled roofs or
ridge zones X and Y for hipped roofs should be
included only on the highest downwind face
along the actual ridge, as shown in figures 22a
and 22b. Ridge zones on all other downwind
faces should be excluded.
c) Verge zones H to J on gabled roofs or hip
zones U to W on hipped roofs should be included
for all faces.
m
Section 3 BS6399:Part. 2:1995
3.3.4.2 Mul ti -bag rooJ %
3.3.4.2.1 Multi-bay roofs are defiied as roofs
made up of a series of monopitch, duopitch, hlpped
or similar spans as shown in fwres 23a to 23c.
3.3.4.2.2 pressure coefficients on the fmt span,
i.e. the upwind pitch of multi-bay monopitch roofs
and the upwind pair of pitches of duopitch roofs,
may be taken to be the same as for single span
mof, However, these preasurss w.? reduced in value
for the downwind spans.
3.3.4.2.3 Account may be taken of th~ reduction
by following the procedure in 2.5.5 of the standard
method, but using the key in figure 42 to define
regions of shelter at any given wind direction.
NUI E. When the wi nd di recti on i s normal ta the eaves, i .e.
8- 0, tl l re 42 becomes i denti cal to the standard method
case of fwr e 23d. When the wi nd i s normal to the gabl es, i .e.
e . 90, ther e are no regkms of shel te~
3.3.4.3 Fri cti on i nduced l uarfs on mul ti pi tch
and mul ti -bag mojk
Friction forces should be determined for long
pitched roofs when the wind is parallel to the
eaves or ridge, i.e. 6 = 90. The frictiorvd drag
coefficient should be assumed to act over only
zones F and P of such roofs, with values as given in
table 6. The resulting frictional forces should be
added to the normal pressure forces in accordance
with 3.1.3.4.
3.3.5 fnternal pressure coefficients
3.3.5.1 It is recommended that the procedures for
internal pressure coefficients given in 2.6 for the
standard method are used. When necessary,
interpolation should be used between the
orthogonal wind directions to obtain values for the
other wind directions.
3.3.5.2 Table 18, giving internal pressure
coefficients for open-sided buildin&, has been
expanded in table 37 to give values for 30
increments of wind direction.
NCTE. I f mor e accurate val ues are r equi r ed, i nternal PI WSUreS
i n .mcl wed bui l di ns or bui l di ngs wi th domi nant openi n@ may
al so be deter mi ned fmm the di stri buti on of external pressures
by cal cul ati ng the bal ance of i nternal fl ow (W r efer mce [6]).
\
Linsa in wind difWlon through upwind comer of bay
m
A Upwi nd bay
B Second bay
C AU subsequent bays
Fi gu r e 4 2 . Ke y t u m u lt i -ba y r oofs
BS6 3 9 9 :Par t 2 :1 9 9 5 Section 3
Ea ble 3 7 . fn t e r n s lpr e s s u
7
Wfn d dk e c t ion 8 On e ope n fa!
(
T
* o. +0.85
* 30~ +0.71
*600 +0.32
* 600 -0.60
* 120~ -0.46
* 150~ -0,31
e c oe ffi c i e n t s Cpi for ope n -s ide
Longer
Upwind
t h fr d
+0.68
+0.54
+0.38
-0.40
-0.46
-0.40
-0.16
Mi ddle
t h ir d
+ 0.68
+0.70
+0.44
-0.40
-0.46
-0.40
-0.16
third
+0.66
+0.80
+0.54
-0.40
-0.46
-0.40
0.16
bu ildin gs
IWOm mor e adjacent OP.
~w= a n d on e s h or t e r ]
+ 0.77
+0.77
+0.77
+0.77, 0.38
-0.53
-0.60
-0.33
P: the posi ti ve val ues cmr eymnd to the short face dmvmvhd; the m
fa c e s
I. m we r a n d bot h
, h or t e $ ]
+0.60
+0.50
+ 0.30
0
-0.63
-0.49
i 180 -0.16
) TWOval ues are gWen f.. @ - !
to the short face upwi nd.
2)APP,Y dues ~0 ndemi de Of m~f OI I I Y.FOr the si ngl e wal l , use pressure coeffi ci ents for wai l s @en i n tabl e 26. .:
3 . 4 Hybr id com bin at ion s of s t a n da r d
s n d dir ect ion al m e t h ods
3 . 4 . 1 St a n ds r d effect ive win d s pe e ds wi t h
di r e c t i om d pr e s s u r e c oe ft lc i e n t s
3 . 4 . L 1 Appl i cabi l i ty
Standsrd effective wind speeds should be
combmed with directional prcasure coefficients in
csaes where the form of the building is well
defined but the exposure of the site is not well
defined.
NME. &@cal exampl es are rel ocatabl e Or patabl e bui l di ngs,
or m-pr oduced desi gns
3 . 4 . 1 . 2 Appl i cati on
As the standsrd effective wind speeds apply to the
~ge o = *45 either side of the rmtional
orthogonal wind directions, the appropriate
standsni effective wind speed to be used with each
of the directiorwd pressure coefficients should be
selected from this range. This results in a load case
for each wind direction for which pressure
coefficients are given, usually tweive.
3.4.2 Dfrectionsf effective win d s pe e ds wi t h
s t s n ds r d pr e s s u r e c oe ffi c i e n t s
3 . 4 . 2 . 1 Appl i cabi l i ty
Directional effective wind speed should be
combined with standmd pressure coefficients if a
more precise estimate of site exposure is required,
particularly when there is significant topography or
when the site is in a town. In the standard method
the method for significant topography (2. 2.2. 2) was
derived assuming the turbulence characteristics for
open country terrain and some advantage may be
gained by using the actual site characteristics. The
standard method for effective wind speeds sssumes
that the site is 2 km from the edge of a town, with
sites closer to the edge treated as being in country
terrain snd sites further into the town treated as
being at 2 km, thus, the potential benefits of
shelter from the town exposure are not exploited
for any locations except those at exactly 2 km from
the edge.
-0.39
,tive values cor r espond
,,: ,.,
3.4.2.2. Appl i cati on
3.4.2.2.1 Th e directional effective wind speeds
should be determined in each of the twelve wind
directions using the value of gust fsctor m = 3.44,
for the datum diagonsl dlme&ion a = 5-m as
follows:
a) from p = O to p = 330 in 30 intervals,
aligned from north, for which values of
directional factor are given in table 3; or
b) from @ = 0 to d = 330 in 30 intervals,
alied with respect to the building axes,
interpolating corresponding values of directional
factor from table 3; or
c) in 30 intervxls from normal to the steepest
slope of the signtilcant topographic feature,
interpolating corresponding values of directional
factor from table 3.
Option a) is the simplest to implement when
topography is not si~tilcant; option b) ensures
that estimates will correspond exactly with the
building axes; option c) ensures that the most
onerous topographic effects are included.
3.4.2.2.2 For each orthogonal load case the largest
value in the range O = *45 either side of the
notional wind direction should be selected from the
directional wind speeds. llreae vslues may be taken
to be equivalent to the stsndard effective wind
speeds and used in the standard method.
Annex A BS6 3 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
Am e xe s
An n e x A (n or m a t ive )
Ne c e s s a r y pr ovis ion s for win d t u n n e l
t e s t i n g
A. 1 Stati c structures
Tests for the determination of wind loads on static
structures should not be considered to have been
properly conducted unless
a) the natural wind has been modelfed to
account for
1) the variation of mean wind speed with
height above ground appropriate to the terrain
of the site; and
2) the intensity and scale of the turbulence
aPPmPriate to the terrain of the site at a
deterrrrined geometric wile;
b) the brdldhg has been modelled at a geometric
scale not more than the following mrdtiples of
the geometric scale of the simulated natural
wind, with appropriate corrections applied to
account for any geometric scale discrepancies
within this range:
3 for overall loads; and
2 for cladding loads;
c) the response characteristics of the wind tunnel
instrumentation are consistent with the
measurements to be made;
d) the testa enable the peak wind loads with the
required annual risk of being exceeded to be
predicted.
A.2 Dynamic structures
l%stsfor the determination of the respmse of
dynamic structures should not be considered to
have been properly conducted unless the previsions
for static stmctures in items a) to d) of A. 1 are
satisfied, together with the additional provision
that:
the structural model is represented (physically or
mathematically) in maw distribution, stiffness
and damping in accordance with the established
law of dimensional scaling.
NOTE. I nfor mati on to enabl e desi gmem t.o make a consi der ed
judgment of the faci l i ti es offer ed when commki oni ng wi nd
tunnel tests i s avai l abl e i n r efer ence (9]. Mvi ce may al so be
sought fr om the Bui l di na Research Advi sory Servi ce, Bui l di ng
Research Establ i shment, Gamtmn, W.tfmd, Hats WD2 7JR.
l kl 01923 ~S46&!.
An n e x B (in for m a t ive )
De r iva t ion of e xt r e m e win d in for m a t ion
B. 1 Introduction
The wind data archived by the Meteorological
Office are derived from continuously recording
anemographs, normally exposed at a height of
10 m above ground in open, level terrain or, in
other terrains, at a height equivalent to the
standard exposure. Currently, the network
numbers about 130 stations and the main archi ve
comprises hourly mean wind speeds and wind
directions, together with details of the maximum
gust each hour. Many of these stations have past
rvcords spanning several decades, although the
computer-held ones generally begin in about 1970,
Conventionally, estimation of the extreme wind
clinratc in temperate regions has involved the
analysis of a series of annual maximum wind
speeds, for example using the method proposed by
Gumbel [8]. The main dffiadvantage of methods
using only annual maxbnum values is that many
other useful data within each year are discarded.
For the preparation of the basic wind speed map
given in f= 6, a superior technique involving
the m-urn wind speed during every period of
windy weather (or storm) was used. This approach
.gmatly incnmaed the amount of data available for
anrdy%.sand enabled the directional and seasonal
characteristics of the UK wind climate to be
examined.
A storm was defined as a period of at lea.%
10 consecutive hours with ruroverall mean wind
speed greater than 5 tis. Such periods were
identified for 50 anemogr-aph stations, evenly
dtiributed over the United Kingdom and mostly
having standard exposures, using their records
during the period 1970 to 19S0. At the majority of
these stations, the average number of storms each
year was about 140. The maximum hourly mean
wind speed blowing from each of twelve 300 wind
direction sectors (centred on 0, 30, 60, etc.)
was calculated for each storm.
Three types of new extreme wind information were
needed: an improved map of basic wind speeds Vb;
dmction factors Sd; and seasonal factors S~.
Analyses of extreme wind speeds are performed in
terms of their probability of occurrence. The
standard measure of probability is the cumulative
distribution function (CDF), conventionally given
the symbol P (used elsewhere in this standard for
wind load), and corresponding to the annual risk of
not being exceeded.
73
BS6 3 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5 Annex B
)
Desigm to fesist extreme winds is based on the
annual risk (probability) Q of the hourly meam
wind speed being exceeded given by Q = 1 F?
The reciprocal of the annual risk is sometimes
referred to as the return period and is best
interpreted as the mean interval between
recurrences when averaged over a very long
period. The definition of return period rapidly
becomes invafid for periods less than about
10 years The period between individual
recurrences varies considerably fmm this mean
vafue, so the concept of return period is not very
useful and is open to misinterpretation. The
concept of annual risk is less open to
misinterpretation and should be viewed as the risk
of exceeding the design wind speed in each yeaf
the building is exposed to the wind.
B.2 Baaic wind apeed
B.2. 1 Storm mczri ma
The baaic wind speed Vb i s estimated to have a risk
of Q = 0.02 of being exceeded in any year lb
obtain this speed for each station, all the maximum
wind speeds in storms v, were first abstracted,
irrespective of direction. The cumulative
d~tribution function P representing the risk of a
particukw value not being exceeded was
determined by the method of order statistics. In
this method, the m-a were sorted into
ascending order of value and assigned a rank m
where rn = 1 for the lowest value and m = N for
the highest value, then P was estimated for the
storm maxima v~by F(v,) = m/(N + 1).
B.2.2 Annual mama
Maxima from different storms can be regarded as
statistically independent, m the CDF Hv) of annual
maximum wind speeds v was found from
flu) = V(U,), where r is the average annual rate
of storms. This CDF of annual maxima was fitted to
a Fisher-Tippett Type 1 (FTl ) distribution, defined
by
F(v) = exp[ - exp( - y)] (B.1)
where
Y
=a(v-fl);
U i s the mode;
I/a is the dispersion
Hence
-1 [-[[fin
(B.2)
and a plot of y vemus v~ led to estimates of the
annual mode and dispemion. The wind speed V
associated with a certain annual cumulative risk P
of not being exceeded may be found from:
v= U+*]
[
(B.3)
N~: Equati on B. 3 fol l ows fr om equati on B.2 because the
a!wmxi mati .n - l n( 1 P) =P hol ds wel l for smal l val ues of P
B.2.3 Best extreme model
When the maximum wind speed in each storm v, is
replaced by its square v~z and thk is multiplied by
half the density of air, the dynamic pressure q is
obtained. Extreme-value theory predicts that the
ETl distribution should be a better fit to dynamic
pressure than to wind speed. The above, e,tireme
value analysis method was repeated for~each
station using g as the variable. It was found that
the rate of convergence of storm maxima to the
FTl model was faster for the g model than the v,
model. The wind speed corresponding to the
dynamic pressure having a risk of Q = 0.02 of
being exceeded at least once per year was used to
derive the value at each station. Corrections were
then made to the individual station estimates to
ensure that when all the values were plotted on a
map, they represented a height of 10 m above
ground in open, level termin at mean sea level.
Isotachs were then drawn to be a best fit to the
wind speeds plotted.
Fkting the dynamic pressure g to the FTl model
has been standard practice in most of Europe for
many yeas, whereas the practice in the UK had
previously been to fit the wind speed V. The
dtiference between the two models at the design
riak Q= 0.02 is small, about 4 %. At very small
risks, for example at Q = 10-4used for nucleaf
installations, the q model predicts smaller wind
speeds than before. Whereas at higher risks, for
example for frequent service conditions, the q
model predicts higher wind speeds than before.
While adoption of the better q model brings the UK
into line with European practice, it fdao implies
that previous practice at small risks was
overconservative, but that service conditions may
have been unconservative. Tlese changes are alao
reflected in the expression for probabtity factor SP
in annex D.
B.2.4 Extensi on to Northern Irel and
There were insufficient anemograph stations to
define the isotachs for Northern Ireland, so it was
necessary to incorporate addkionzd data from Eire
in order to allow interpolation up to the national
border. This was done by comparing results from
the storms analysis for Northern Ireland with a
map, prepared by the Irish Meteorological Service,
showing isotach.sof gust speeds having an annuaf
risk of being exceeded of Q = 0.02.
Annex B
BS6 2 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
B.3 Direction factor
The same analyais was performed on the series of
maximum wind speeds from each 30 wind
direction sector, to yield ratios of the sectorial
extreme to the al-direction extreme for wind
speed and dynamic pressure. After correction for
site exposure, the directional characteristics of
extreme winds showed no significant variation with
location anywhere in the United Kingdom, with
the strongest winds blowing from dmctions south-
west to west. This enabled one set of direction
factom to be proposed. The ratios calculated refer
to a given risk in each sector. However, due to
contributions from other sectom, the overall risk
wiIl be greater than the required value. The
direction factor Sd has been derived by adjusting
sectorial ratios to ensure an evenly distributed
overall risk.
B. 4 &aaonaf factor
The overall storm maxima (irrespective of wind
direction) were arralysed for each month, using a
technique similar to that used for the annual
arralyaes. Given the risk of a value being exceeded
by month, the risk in any longer period is the sum
of the monthly risks. The seasonal characteristics
of strong winds also show no significant variation
across the UK so, again, one set of factors could be
proposed .S,. The strongest winds usually occur in
mid-winter and the leaat windy period is between
June and August.
B.5 Verification of the data
Since this analysis was performed, a further
10 years of data has become available which
doubles the data record and includes the severe
storms of October 1987 and of JanuaIY and
February 1990. A more recent anaiyais of the full
21-year records for ten of the original 50 sites
showed an improved analysis accuracy but the
values were not signfilcantly different from the
original analysis. This gives further cotildence that
the 1l-year period of the original analysis was
representative.
B. 6 Further information
References [8] and [ 10] to [14] give further
information on the derivation of extr eme wi nd
information.
Advice can also be obtained from the
Meteorological Office at the following addresses.
England and Wales Meteorological Office, Advisory
Service, London Road, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12
2S2. lkl: 01344856856 or 01344856207
Scotland: Meteorological Office, Saughton House,
Broomhouse Drive, Edinburgh EH11 3XQ. Tel:
01312448362 or 0131 2448363
An n e x C (in for m a t ive )
Dyn a m i c a u gm e n t a t i on
C. 1 Dy-c augmentation factor
C. 1.1 General
The dynamic displacement of a structure in its
lowest-frequency mode can be related to the
comespondlng quaai-static displacement by the
product of two parametem: the buildlng height
factor Kh and the buifding type factor Ifb. The full
analysis of the governing relationships leads to
equations which are too complex for codification
purposes. A numerical evaluation and curve-fitting
exercise carried out for practical prismatic
buildings, including portd-fmme structures,
showed that simplifications could be made to the
algebraic relationships with only marginal loss of
accuracy within a range of mildly dynamic
structures.
C. 1.2 Ful l equati on
The peak deflection (and hence peak stresses) can
be obtained by applying a factor to the static
deflection, where this factor is the ratio of the
actual peak deflection to the static peak deflection.
This ratio is defined here as (1 + C,) in terms of
the dynamic augmentation factor Cr given by
,- .>
(Cl)
sg is the gust factor appropriate to
the size of the structure and
terrain and is given by
Sg = 1 + gt.$ for country terrain;
and Sg = 1 + g$t Zt for town
termin;
St> Tt, gt are obtained from tables 22,
23 and 24, respectively.
Kh and I& are parameters depending on the
building height and location and
on the form of constmction of the
building (see C.2). VahI eS of ffb
arc given in table 1.
Northern Ireland: Meteorological Office,
Pmgrssive House, 1 College Square Eaat,
Belfast ml 6BQ. Tel: O123? 328457
75
BS6 3 9 9 :Rt r t 2 :1 9 9 5 Annex C
C. 1.3 Range of ual i di tff
As long as the dynamic augmentation factor
remains in the mnge O s C, s 0.25 the method
works weU, and this range can be used as the
definition of mildly dynamic buifdings. With fully
dynamic buildings, which give val ues of Cr >0.25,
the method becomes leas accurate and generally
more conservative. The limits of C, < 0.25 and
If< 300 m in figure 3 serve to exclude these fuUy
dynamic structures from the protilons of this Part
of BS 6399.
C. 1.4 Si mpl e equati on
Using the curve-fitted expressions for the buildlng
height factor F& and the buildhg type factor&
enables presentation of the values of C, to a good
aPPmximation by the family of curves presented in
figure 3. The equation for this family of curves is
&(~/&, )075
Cr = 800 log (If/ho)
(C.2)
where
ho is a dimensional const&t with value
ho = O.lm.
C.2 Building height factor and building type
factor
C.2. 1 Deri vati on of val ues
The product Ifh x & given in equation (C. 1) is
given with ordy marginal 10SSof accuracy by
Kh X
where
Kb =
[b x 63231 x [al C3)
is the terrain arrd building factor for mean
values given in 3.2.2, so that
So = Sc (1 + S~) for country termin;
and SO = & T.(1 + ~h) fOr tOWn tetrain
(from tables 22 and 23);
is the natural frequency of the
fundamental mode of vibmtion (in Hz);
is the diagonal size of the buildlng (in m);
is the stmctural damping of the building
as a fraction of critical;
is the basic hourly mean wind speed
(in m/s);
is a terrain correction factor such that
Kt = 1.33 at the sea coaat; and Kt = 0.75
at least 2 km inside town terrain.
C.2.2 Default values of parameters
In figure 3 and equation (C. 2) standard @ues of
p-eters have been assumed tn be given by the
fouowing,
-E
(C.4)
Vb = 24 (C.5)
Kh -
&2/3 ~ ~/3 ~ &
(C.6)
Kb=& (C.7)
The building height factor Kh defined by
equation (C. 6) varies only weakly with change of
terrain roughness, so that a simple
terrain-independent form given by
Kh = (0.8H)075
SC.8)
where Hi s the buUding height in metres, can be
used without sitilcarrt loss of accuracy. This
sirnp~lcation is used in figure 3 and
equation (C.2).
Values of the building type factor Kb given in
table 1, have been derived from data obtained
from a large number of completed buildings and
other structures.
C.3 More accurate assessment of dynamic
augmentation
If the assumptions used to derive the value of
dynamic augmentation factor C, are inappropriate
for the patilcular building, or if a more accurate
assessment is required, then the expression for the
product & x ffb @Ven by eqUatiOn (C.3) can be
used in conjunction with relevant values of the
parameters In particul=, values of Vb, & and K~
can be derived for the actual location and exposure
of the building, and values of no and ~ obtained
from measurements or predictions for the
stmcture.
NOTE I ntermedi ate val ues of Kt coul d l x? obtai ned by
i nterpol ati on, taki ng the vari ati on of SO = a gui de.
Annex D
BS6 3 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
An n e x D (n or m a t ive )
Pr oba bilit y fa c t or a n d s e a s on a l fa c t or
D. 1 Probability factor
The basic wind speed as defined in clause 2.2.1 has
arr annual risk of being exceeded of Q = 0.02. lb
vary the basic wind speed for other such annual
probabilities the basic wind speed should be
multiplied by the probability factor SP @ven by
pEx%iY
(D. 1)
where Q is the snnusl probability required. This
expression corresponds to a Fisher-Tippett type 1
(FTl) model for dynamic pressurs that has a
characteristic product (mode/dLspemion ratio) value
of 5, which is vslid for the UK climate ordy.
A number of vslues of Sp for standard values of Q
sre relevant:
p -0.749 for Q = 0.632 (see note 1);
S, = 0.S45 for Q = 0.227 (see note 2);
p - 1.000 for Q = 0.02 (see note 3);
p = 1.048 for Q = 0.0083 (see note 4);
p -~1.4f0r Q= 5.7 x 10-4 (see note 5);
p = 1.263 for Q = 10-4 (see note 6).
NI JTE 1. The annual mcde, cor r espondi ng to the most l i kel y
annual maxi mum val ue.
NCfl E 2. fi r the servi ceabi l i ty l i mi t, assumi ng tbe parti al factor
for l oads for the ul ti mate l i mi t i s y~ - 1.4 and for the
servi ceabi l i ty l i mi t i s Yf - 1.0, gtvi ng
s, - m - o~s
NUI T 3. The standard desi gm val ue, cor r espondi ng ta a mean
r ecur r ence i nterval of 50 year n.
NOTE 4. The desi gn ri sk for bri dges, cor r espondi ng t. a mean
r ecunwnce i nterval of 120 year n.
NUTE 5. The annual ri sk comqm.di ng to the standard parti al
fr wr or for l oads, cor r espondi ng m a mean r ecur r ence i nterval of
1754 yeas. Eack-cal cul ated awnni ng the parti al factor l oad for
the ul ti mate l i mi t i s YC- 1.4 and al l ri sk i s ascri bed to tbe
r ecur r ence of wi nd.
NI JTE 6. The desi gn ri sk for nucl ear i nstal l ati ons, cor r espondi ng
to a mean r ecur r ence i nterval of 10 COOyew.
D.2 Seaaomd factor
The seasonal factor S, maybe used for buildings
which are expected to be exposed to the wind for
specific subamrual periods, reducing the basic wind
speeds while maintaining the risk Q of Lr.ing
exceeded at a value 0.02 in the stated period. The
seasonal factor S~ may also be used in conjunction
with the probabfity factor Sp for other risks Q of
bebrg exceeded in the stated period. If values of S,
are used they should be taken fmm table D. 1.
77
BS6 3 9 9 :RUt 2 :1 9 9 5 Annex D

I
. .;

.:. .

Annex E
BS6 3 9 9 :Fa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
Annex E (in fom t ive )
lk r r a . in c a t e gor i e s a n d e ffe c t i ve h e i gh t
E. 1 Terrain categories
E. 1.1 Geneml
The roughness of the ground surface controls both
the mean wind speed and its turbulent
characteristics and is described by an effective
aemdynrunic roughness length Zo. Over a smooth
surface such as open country the wind sp+ed is
higher near the ground than over a rougher surface
such as a town. By deftig three basic terrain
categories wind speeds can be derived for any
interrnediate category or to account for the
influence of differing upwind categories to that of
the site. The three basic categories defined in 1.7
are as foffows.
a) Sea. This applies to the sea, but also to infmrd
lakes which are large enough and close enough
to affect the wind speed at the site. Although
this standard dots not cover offshore structures,
it is necessary to define such a category so that
the gradual deceleration of the wind speed from
the coast inland can be quantitled and the wind
speed for any land-baaed site can be determined.
The aerodynamic rmrgbnesa length for sca is
taken as 20 = 0.003 m.
b) Cuutiry. This covers a wide range of terrain,
from the flat open level, or nearly level country
with no shelter, such as fens, airt3elds, moorland
or farmfand with no hedges or walls, to
undulating countryside with obstmctions such as
occasional buildings and windbreaks of trees,
hedges and walls. Examples are farmlands and
country estates and, in reality, all terrain not
othe- defined or sea or town. The
aerodynamic roughnesa length for country is
taken as% = 0.03 m.
c) Tbwn. This terrain includes suburban rcgioms
in which the general level of ruof tops is about
5 m above @und level, encompassing all two
storey domestic housing, provided that such
buildings are at least as dense as normal
suburban developments for at least 100 m
upwind of the site. Whilst it is not easy to
quantify it is expected that the plan area of the
buifriings is at least 8 % of the total area within a
30 sector centred on the wind direction beiig
considered. The aerodynamic roughness length
for town is taken as% = 0.3 m.
NOTE.The aer odynami c mugbn- of foresk3 and mature
vmdand i s si mi l ar to town terrai n (z. - 0.3 m). I t i s
i nadvkabl e to take advan-age of the shel ter pr ovi dr n by
woodl and unl ess i t i s per manent (not l i kel y to be cl ear
fd.+.
E. 1.2 Vari ati on qffetch
Fetch refers to the terrain directly upwind of the
site. The ar@tment of wind speed characteristics
as the wind flows from one terrain to another is
not inatantr.neuus. At a change frum a smoother to
a rougher surface the mean wind speed is gradually
slowed down near the ground and the turbulence
in the wind increases.
This adjustment requires time to work up through
the wind prufde and at any site downwind of a
change in terrain the wind speed is at some
intermediate flow between that for the smooth
terrain and that for the fufly developed rough
terrain. The resulting gradual deceleration of the
mean speed and increase in turbulence has been
accounted for in tables 22 and 23 by defining the
site by ita distance downwind from the coast and,
in addition if it is in a town, by its distance from
the edge of the town.
Shelter of a site from a town upwind of the site has
not been allowed for, other than if the site is in a
town itself. lb do su would introduce too much
complexity with only a marginal saving irr the
resulting wind loads. However, [8] and [15] give
information on how to take such effects into
account.
It is important, if directional effects need to be
considered, to take full account of the effects of
te- upwind of the site in conjunction with the
direction factor. This becomes even more important
if the effects of topography also need to be
considered, as the topographic increment Sh can be
large.
E.2 Effective height
E.2. 1 In rough te-, such as towns and cities,
the wind tends to behave as if the ground level was
raised to a height just below the average roof
height, leaving an indeterrninate rc@on below
which is often sheltered. This displacement height
ffd is a fUI I Cti OXI of the plan area density and
general height of the buildings or obstructions. The
effective height, He of any build~ that is higher
than its surroundings in such terrain is thus the
reference height H, less the d~placement height
Hd. Thus He = H, Hd.
E.2.2 The d~pfacement height has been
determined by ESDU [16] from available references
for urban and wcedlzwd terrain. Ehacd on this
work the normal practical range of duplacement
heights has been found to be
0.75H0 < Hd < 0.90H0. A value of Hd = 0.8H0 has
been adcpted in 1.7.3.
79
BS6 3 9 9 :1 4 U%2 :1 9 9 5
Annex E
E. 2.3 This does not apply where the buildlng to be E. 2.5 Accelerated wind speeds occur close to the
designed is a similar height or lower than its baae of buildings which are si@lcantly taller than
surmundhigs, A minimum effective height of the displacement height. When considering low-rise
He . 0.47, has been adopted. buildings which are close to other tall buildinm the
E.2.4 The displacement height reduces with
rules for effective height wilf not necessarily ~ead
separation distance X between buildin&
to conservative values and specialist advice should
be sought,
particularly across open spaces within, or at the
edge of, a built up area, as described in 1.7.3.3 and
illustrated in figure E. 1.
6 Ho
Wind
f-,, T - ,],,]/,,,>
2HO>
~Hd
JK
He Hr
--
~
>- . -
0. 8 Ho A -. -N
//, , //
k 4
x
Figure E. 1 Effective heights in towns
I
Annex F BS6 2 9 9 :Fa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
Am e x F (in for m a t ive )
Gu s t pe a k fa c t or
A simplified formula [8] for gt given by
9t
= 0.42 in (3600/t), where t is the gust duration
time in seconds, has been shown to be within a
few percent of more complex formulations as
proposed by Gm?enway [17] and ESDU [18]. For the
purposes of these procedures the simplifkd formula
was thus considered adequate. However, the value
of the gust factor in terms of the gust period t is
not of direct application to design. The problem is
rather to determine, for static structures, the
appropriate gust speed which will envelop the
stmcture or component to produce the maximum
loading thereon.
Fortunately for bluff type structures, such as
buildings, which can be designed statically, there is
a simple empirical relationship between the period
t and the characteristic size of the structurs or
element a given by
t= 4.5a/VO (F.1)
where
V. i s the relevant mean wind speed at height
H, given by V. = V& for country terrain;
and V. = V& T=for town terrain
NOTE. Accel erati on of the wi nd speed by tqwgmphy dws not
si gni fkanti y affect the si ze of the gusts, w that topogr aphi c
i ncr ement Sk i s not i ncl uded i n the equati ow for Vw
By combining these two equations, a gmph can be
plotted of height against a/V, for town te- to
give values of the gust peak factor gt. Thii is
shown in f~rc F.1. For design purposes it is likely
that V~wi l l l i e within the range
20 m/s < V, <30 m/s so that for a size of, for
example, 20 m, a/V, l i es i n the range
0.67s < aJ V, < 1s. For a height of 20 m above
grrmnd, gt wind speed would be within * 1.8 %
over this range of site mean speed. Simifar
percentage changes would apply for different sizes
and heights. Comequently for these purposes the
vrdues of gt adopted have been based on a si ngl e
val ue of V, - 24 m/s, representative of the whole
of the UK. The resulting values of size a are then
shown as the abscissa on the graph of figure F.1
which enables gt to be read directly for given
heights and sizes. Factor gt is given in table 24 for
various heights and building sizes.
81
BS6 2 9 9 :Pe r t 2 :1 9 9 5
Annex F
o 0
0 0
0 N
m.
(I@ /./ @!eq aA!pfJ e#q
o
m
0
)
.,

BS6 3 9 9 :Pa r t 2 :1 9 9 5
Lis t of r e fe r e n c e s (see cl ause 2 )
In for m a t i ve r e fe r e n c e s
[1] ENGINEERING SCIENCES DATA UNIT (ESDU). Wind Engineering. London: ESDU InterrrationaL~l
(2] CONSTRUCITON INDUSTRY RESEARCH AND INFORMATION ASSOCIATION (CIRIA). Wind
Engi neeri ng in thsEighties. London: CIRfA, 1981.4)
[3] SIMIU, E., and SCANLAN, R.H. Wind Effects on .StWturws. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978.
[4] NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CANADA. Suppfernent totAsNational Building COCI%of Canada, 1980. NRCC
No. 17724, Ottawa: National Council of Canada, 19S0.
[5] COOK, N.J. Tlwasawmmi of dssign wind spsed data: manual works~ets with ready-reckoner tabfes.
(Supplement 1 to The &signers guids to wind foad of building struzturws [6,S] ). Gamton: Building
Research Establishment, 1985 (Reprinted with amendment 1991).
[6] COOK, N.J. The &?.signers gaide to wind foading of building structures. Rmt 2: Static structures.
London: Butterworth Scientific, 1985.
[7] WILLFORD, bf.R., and ALLSOP, A.C. Dssign guids fb-r wirui loads on urrzfadfranwd building
structures during construction (Supplement 3 to W dssigrums guide to wind faadirrg of buildiny
structures [6, 81). Gamton: Building Research Establishment, 1990.
[8] COOK, NJ, The de-signers guirk to wind foading of imilding structures. F&t 1: Background, damage
SWTS?Y,WirJ -ddata ad St?%cturaL cfa.sst~ication. London: Butterworth Scientific, 1985.
[9] REINHOLD, T.A., ed. Wind Tunnel ModAlirrg fm Civil EWirreering Applications. Cambridge:
Cambridge Unive~ity Press, 1982.
[ 10] COLLINGBOURNE, R.H. Wind data available in the Meteorolo~cal Office. .Juur_nulof hrdu.sttia~
Aer vdwwmi cs. 1978, 3, 145-155.
[11] COOK, N.J. lbwards better estimation of extreme winds. J o-urnal of Wind Errginsering and Industrial
Aerudynnmics. 19S2, 9, 295-323.
[12] COOK, N.J. Note on directional and seaaonal assessment of extreme winds for design. J vurrzd of Wind
Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 1983, 12, 365-372.
[13] COOK, NJ,, and PRIOR, M.J. Extreme wind climate of the United Kingdom. J ournal of Wind
Engineering and Industrial Aervdy?ramirs. 1987, 26, 371-3S9.
[14] MAYNE J R. The estimation of extreme winds. J ournal of Industrial Aerodynamics. 1979, 5, 109-137.
[15] COOK, N. J., SMfTH, B. W., arrd HUBAND, M.V. BREprvgram STRONGBLOU? users manual
(Supplement 2 to The dssignerk guids to wrrd foadirrg of &uildirrg structures [6,S]). BRE Microcomputer
package, Garston: Building Research Establishment, 1985.
[16] ENGINEERING SCIENCES DATA UNIT. Strong winds i. thx atmospheric bouruiarg faym Ftzrt 1:
Mean hourly wirrd speeds. Engineering Sciences Data Item S2026. London: ESDU International, 1990.
[17] GREENWAY, M.A. An smdytical approach to wind velocity gust factors. J ournal of Industrial
Aerodynamics. 1979, 6, 61-91.
[1S] ENGINEERING SCIENCES DATA UNIT. Strung winds i. tfrz atmospheric bwundary kzym F&t 2:
Disc-r%%gust speeds Engineering Wiences Data Item S3045. London: ESDU International, 19S3.
3) Avai l abl e fr om: ESD~ I ntemati .nal , 27 Cmham street, L.ordoc, N1 6UA. Tel . 0171 4905161.
4) Avai l abl e fr om: CI RI A, 6 Storeys Gate, London, sWI P :3AU. Tel . {1171 222 S891.
BS 6399 :
Part 2:1995
B81
389 Chiswick H@ Road
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W44AL
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