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A Seminar Report on

FLUID COUPLINGS
Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement
for the 7
th
Semester course 11 ME7DC SEM
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Submitted by:
VINEET KHANDELWAL
1BM08ME128

Guided by:
Dr. L.K JAYASHANKAR
Professor





Department of Mechanical Engineering
B.M.S College of Engineering
Autonomous College under VTU
Accredited by NBA, Approved by AICTE
BANGALORE 560 019
November 2011
FLUID COUPLINGS 2011

Mechanical Dept. i B.M.S.C.E

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BMS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
BANGALORE-560019

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar entitled
FLUID COUPLINGS
Is submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the 7
th
Semester
course 11 ME7DC SEM
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Submitted by:
VINEET KHANDELWAL
1BM08ME128
Guided by:

DR. L.K JAYASHANKAR Dr. K. GURUPRASAD
Professor Prof. and Head of the Department

Department of Mechanical Engineering
BMSCE, Bangalore
Semester End Examination
Name Signature
Examiner 1

Examiner 2
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Mechanical Dept. ii B.M.S.C.E

DECLARATION

I, VINEET KHANDELWAL bearing USN 1BM08ME128, of VII semester B.E., Department of Mechanical
Engineering do hereby declare that seminar report entitled "FLUID COUPLINGS" has been compiled by me
under the esteemed guidance and supervision of Dr. L.K Jayashankar , Professor, BMSCE, Bangalore. This
work and any part of this work have not been submitted anywhere for the award of any degree.

Place: Bangalore
Date



Place: Bangalore
Date

Signature




Signature
VINEET KHANDELWAL


FLUID COUPLINGS 2011

Mechanical Dept. iii B.M.S.C.E

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction and euphoria that accomplished the successful completion of any task would be incomplete
without the people who made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crowned out effort
with success.

I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude and respect to my guide
Dr. L.K Jayashankar, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BMSCE, for his valuable
guidance. I am greatly indebted to his help, which has been of immense value and has played a major role in
bringing this to a successful completion.

I would also like to thank Dr. G .Giridhar, Seminar coordinator, BMS College of Engineering for his help
and encouragement.

I express heartfelt thanks to Dr. K. Guruprasad, Professor and Head of Department of Mechanical
Engineering, BMS college of Engineering for the help and encouragement.

Heartfelt thanks to Dr. K. Mallikarjun Babu, Principal, BMS College of Engineering for the facilities
provided and encouragement.

I wish to express sincere thanks to all the teaching and non-teaching staff, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, B.M.S. College of engineering, for extending necessary assistance without which this seminar
would not have been possible.

I would like to thank my family and friend for their constant support and encouragement throughout this
work.
FLUID COUPLINGS 2011

Mechanical Dept. iv B.M.S.C.E


ABSTRACT

Fluid couplings have been used extensively in separate several applications for decades, showing their
simplicity and naturally beneficial torque transmission characteristics. Various designs of constant-fill
(passively controlled) fluid couplings were developed to meet the ever changing drive requirements and
they continued to increase in power and complexity.

The technology continued to advance through the 1990's. In an effort to remain competitive, many mines
had to increase their net clean coal capacity and/or reduce their cost per ton. These challenges resulted in the
need for increasing the capacity and reliability of the mine's systems, which forced operators to consider
actively controlled and cooled drive systems. Various drive technologies were being developed or used to
meet the demands of complex systems, each with their unique set of advantages and disadvantages.

This paper starts with the background and history of the fluid couplings. In the net section we deal with the
working of a basic fluid coupling, the parts of a fluid coupling and the categories of the fluid couplings.

In the later part we proceed with the hydraulic analysis of one of the variant of fluid couplings namely
Reversible Fluid Couplings. In this section we express the equations of the pump, turbine and the turning
vanes.

We then summarize the power transmission and losses to different parts of the fluid coupling, and hence
define the efficiency of the fluid coupling.



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Mechanical Dept. v B.M.S.C.E
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1 Parts of a Fluid Coupling .............................................................................................. 5
Fig 2 Fluid Coupling at Rest .................................................................................................. 5
Fig 3 Fluid Coupling at Start ................................................................................................. 6
Fig 4 Fluid Coupling in Running ........................................................................................... 6
Fig 5 Fluid Coupling in Normal Running Condition.............................................................. 7
Fig 6 Fluid Coupling in Overload Condition ......................................................................... 7
Fig 7 Fluid Coupling Characteristic Graphs........................................................................... 8
Fig 8 Soft Cushioned Starts ................................................................................................... 9
Fig 9 Increased Starting Torque............................................................................................. 9
Fig 10 Overload Protection.................................................................................................. 10
Fig 11 Reduced Current Drawn ........................................................................................... 10
Fig 12 Load Balancing for Multiple Drives ......................................................................... 10
Fig 13 Power Transmitting Components of a Hydrokinetic Fluid Coupling ........................ 13
Fig 14 Components of Hydrodynamic Fluid Coupling ........................................................ 13
Fig 15 Components of Hydroviscous Fluid Couplings ........................................................ 14
Fig 16 Typical Package Hydrostatic Fluid Coupling ........................................................... 14
Fig 17 Cross Section of a Reversible Fluid Coupling Showing Key Locations in the Fluid
Cavity .................................................................................................................................. 15
Fig 18 Sketch showing subdivision of flow into stream tubes.............................................. 16
Fig 19 Velocity Triangle at the Turbine-Pump Transition station ........................................ 17
Fig 20 Geometry of a Turning Vane .................................................................................... 20

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Comparison of Fluid Couplings against Mechanical Clutches ................................ 12
Table 2 Nomenclature Used ................................................................................................ 17
Table 3 Power Transmission and Losses ............................................................................. 21

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Mechanical Dept. vi B.M.S.C.E
CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE .................................................................................................... i
DECLARATION ................................................................................................. ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................. iii
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... iv
LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................. v
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................... v
CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... vi
CHAPTER 1: PREAMBLE .................................................................................. 1
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................. 3
2.1 HISTORY ............................................................................................................. 3
2.2 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................... 3
2.3 DEFINITION ........................................................................................................ 4
2.4 BASIC CONSTRUCTION .................................................................................... 4
2.5 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION.............................................................................. 4
2.5.1 STARTING............................................................................................................ 5
2.5.2 RUNNING ............................................................................................................. 6
2.5.3 OVERLOAD- STALL ........................................................................................... 7
2.6 CHARACTERISTIC GRAPHS OF FLUID COUPLING ...................................... 8
2.7 BENEFITS OF A FLUID COUPLING ................................................................. 9
2.8 PURPOSE OF FLUID COUPLING .................................................................... 11
2.9 EFFICIENCY OF A FLUID COUPLING ........................................................... 11
2.10 COMPARISION BETWEEN FLUID COUPLING AND MECHANICAL
CLUTCH .................................................................................................................. 12
2.11 TYPES OF FLUID COUPLINGS ..................................................................... 12
2.11.1 HYDROKINETIC FLUID COUPLINGS ........................................................... 12
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Mechanical Dept. vii B.M.S.C.E
2.11.2 HYDRODYNAMIC FLUID COUPLINGS ........................................................ 13
2.11.3 HYDROVISCOUS FLUID COUPLINGS .......................................................... 13
2.11.4 HYDROSTATIC FLUID COUPLINGS ............................................................. 14
CHAPTER 3: REVERSIBLE FLUID COUPLING............................................ 15
3.1 BASIC EQUATIONS ......................................................................................... 17
3.1.1 PUMP .................................................................................................................. 18
3.1.2 TURBINE ............................................................................................................ 19
3.1.3 TURNING VANES ............................................................................................. 20
3.2 POWER TRANSMISSION SUMMARY ............................................................ 21
CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION ........................................................................... 22
CHAPTER 5: BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................... 24



FLUID COUPLINGS 2011

Mechanical Dept. - 1 - B.M.S.C.E

PREAMBLE

In an automobile people review its engine, ergonomics and aesthetics, but what goes unnoticed is the clutch of
the automobile. It has to be understood that whatever power the engine develops is useless unless it is not
properly coupled with the output. For example, let us consider an engine can generate 3000 horse power, but
if the power loss between the input and output is high, we might end up getting only around 500 horse power
at the output. Such a major loss can be avoided by efficiently designing the clutch that transmits power from
input to output.

In the automobile, we can say that, the clutch is the least talked about. This is majorly due the fact that it is
taken for granted that the power transmission from engine to wheels has to take place. Thus the clutch plays a
major role in the making of an automobile. The new technologies evolving in the automobile field are majorly
based on the types of clutch.

In the older automobiles, the transmission was manual type and hence human effort was required while
changing the gears. As the power used to be transmitted by mechanical contact a lot of power was lost as
friction and other linkage losses. With the increase in the demand of efficiency, speed and comfort manual
transmissions have been slowly replaced by automatic transmission.

Today the big players in the automobile field are shifting their focus, apart from designing a powerful engine,
to designing an efficient clutch. If the power of the engine has to be used, it has to be efficiently transmitted to
the output. This is not possible by manual transmissions as they come with inherent frictional and linkage
losses.

Gone are the days when only mechanical contact was considered as a means of power transmission. Today in
the most advanced cars we find an automatic transmission, which existed because of the invention of fluid
couplings.
FLUID COUPLINGS 2011

Mechanical Dept. - 2 - B.M.S.C.E
Fluid couplings and torque converters are now commonly used in a wide variety of applications requiring
smooth torque transmission, most notably in automobiles. They usually consist of an input shaft that drives a
pump impeller which is closely coupled to a turbine impeller that transmits the torque of an input shaft coaxial
with the output shaft. The uid is usually hydraulic oil and the device is normally equipped with a cooling
system to dissipate the heat generated.

In a typical uid coupling used, for example, in a ship propulsion system, the pump and turbine are mounted
back to back with little separation between the leading and trailing edges of the two impellers. It is common to
use simple radial blades and a higher solidity (the present pump rotor has 30 vanes) than would be utilized in
most conventional pumps or turbines.

In a fluid coupling the input side is known as the Impeller and the output side is known as the Rotor. There is
no mechanical contact between the impeller and the rotor (i.e. the driving and driven units) and the power is
transmitted by virtue of the fluid filled in the coupling. The impeller when rotated by the prime mover
imparts velocity and energy to the fluid, which is converted into mechanical energy in the rotor thus rotating
it.


Not only automobiles but fluid couplings find their applications wherever there is a need for an efficient
power transmission. From underground & overland belt conveyors to crusher and mixing applications,
equipment professionals are constantly seeking better technology to protect critical production systems
against the effects of damaging shock loads. And when it comes to eliminating sudden/jarring starts, or
preventing system failure/deterioration due to overloads, nothing outperforms the system-saving capability of
the fluid couplings.

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Mechanical Dept. - 3 - B.M.S.C.E
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HISTORY
The fluid coupling originates from the work of Dr. Hermann Fttinger, who was the chief designer at the AG
Vulcan Works in Stettin. His patents from 1905 covered both fluid couplings and torque converters.
In 1930 Harold Sinclair, working with the Daimler Company, devised a transmission system using a fluid
coupling and planetary gearing for buses in an attempt to mitigate the lurching he had experienced while
riding on London buses during the 1920s.
In 1939 General Motors Corporation introduced Hydramatic drive, the first fully automatic automotive
transmission system installed in a mass produced automobile. The Hydramatic employed a fluid coupling.
The first Diesel locomotives using fluid couplings were also produced in the 1930s.

2.2 BACKGROUND

Widespread interest in hydraulic drives was created when hydraulic couplings were incorporated in several
popular automobiles. This was the outgrowth of the inventions of Dr. Hermann Foettinger in Hamburg,
Germany over 70 years ago. Dr. Foettinger developed both the hydraulic coupling and the hydraulic torque
converter for use in Diesel-powered vessels having up to 20000 horse-powers available for driving the
propeller.
The use and development of hydraulic drives spread to Sweden, where the Ljurigstrorn works further
developed the hydraulic torque converter under Lysholm-Smith patents and to England, where Vulcan-
Sinclair developed the hydraulic coupling. The Swedish applications were made largely to rail cars and the
English applications to trucks and buses.
It has been in the last four or five decades that widespread industrial development has occurred in these two
hydro-kinetic drives. The American Blower Corporation was sub-licensed by Vulcan-Sinclair to manufacture
hydraulic couplings. The Twin Disc Clutch Company licensed under Lysholm-Smith patents to manufacture
industrial hydraulic torque converters and hydraulic couplings and Spicer Manufacturing Corporation to
manufacture torque converters for automotive uses.

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Mechanical Dept. - 4 - B.M.S.C.E
2.3 DEFINITION

A fluid coupling is a hydrodynamic device used to transmit rotating mechanical power or device that transfers
power through a fluid between its inputs and outputs. A fluid coupling basically consists of two fans in a
sealed, oil-filled housing. The input fan churns the oil, and the churning oil in turn twirls the output fan. Such
a coupling allows some speed difference between its input and output shafts.

2.4 BASIC CONSTRUCTION

The internal appearance of a fluid coupling has traditionally been likened to the two valves of a grapefruit,
each facing the other with the pulp scooped out and the cell dividers left intact.
Translated into technical language, the fluid coupling may be described as consisting of two toroidally
grooved discs facing one another with a small clearance between them. Radial blades are formed across the
grooves to divide them into curved cells. This blade also supports the hollow semicircular cores for guide
rings, which reduce turbulence in the coupling.
The guide rings are offset within their torodal cavities so as to equalize flow area in the cells. One disc is
mounted from the engine flywheel via a tores cover but connects to the input shaft of the gear box and is
termed the turbine. Fluid coupling are either produced from aluminum die casting or as in later practice
fabricated from steel pressing.

2.5 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

There are three essential parts to a fluid coupling: the driving (input) section known as the impeller the driven
(output) section known as the runner and the casing which bolts to the impeller enclosing the runner providing
an oil tight reservoir. Both impeller and runner each represents half of a hollow torus with flat radial
vanes. At the inner circumference a conical baffle is attached to the impeller and a flat baffle is attached to
the runner. These components comprise the working circuit.


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Mechanical Dept. - 5 - B.M.S.C.E

Fig 1 Parts of a Fluid Coupling
The operation of the fluid coupling requires mechanical input energy, normally provided by a standard
NEMA B electric motor which is connected to the impeller and casing. The runner, which has no mechanical
connection with the impeller, is directly connected to the driven load. A variety of mechanical connections;
couplings, sheaves, and hollow shaft mountings, are available to provide the mounting configuration best
suited to the application. Finally the fluid coupling must be initially charged by removing the fill
(fusible) plug and adding the recommended amount of oil based on the required torque.
2.5.1 STARTING
Standard NEMA B motors are recommended when using fluid couplings and will start virtually unloaded.
Since the motor is mechanically connected to the impeller and casing, the low inertia of these components and
the oil are the only loads imposed. As the electric motor accelerates to running speed, the impeller begins to
centrifugally pump oil to the stationary runner.

Fig 2 Fluid Coupling at Rest
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Mechanical Dept. - 6 - B.M.S.C.E
Transmission of oil is diffused by the conical impeller baffle, producing a gradual increase in torque, allowing
the motor to accelerate rapidly to full running speed. When all the oil is pumped into the working circuit,
continuous circulation of oil will occur between the impeller and runner forming a flow path like a helical
spring formed in a ring.

Fig 3 Fluid Coupling at Start
As soon as the transmitted torque reaches the value of the resisting torque, the runner starts rotating and
accelerates the driven load. The time required to reach full speed is dependent on the inertia of the driven
load, the resistive torque, and the torque being transmitted by the fluid coupling.
2.5.2 RUNNING
The operation of a fluid coupling is based on the hydrokinetic principles and requires that the output speed be
less than the input. This difference in speed is called slip. Further this principle provides that the output
torque is equivalent to the input torque, since windage and oil circulation losses are negligible. Therefore,
efficiency equals 100% minus the percent of slip.

Fig 4 Fluid Coupling in Running
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Mechanical Dept. - 7 - B.M.S.C.E
At full running speed fluid couplings will normally slip between 1% and 4%. The oil circulation between the
impeller and runner has formed a vortex at the outside circumference of the working circuit and is no longer
deflected by the conical baffle.
2.5.3 OVERLOAD- STALL
Should the load torque increase, the slip will increase, which causes the runner to drop in speed. The vortex
of oil circulating between the impeller and runner will expand to provide additional torque. The extent to
which this vortex can expand is limited by the flat baffle on the runner. Consequently fluid couplings provide
inherent overload protection.

Fig 5 Fluid Coupling in Normal Running Condition
If the increase in torque causes the oil in the working circuit to expand to the point of contacting the baffle,
the coupling will stall and slip will be 100%. This continuous high slip generates heat and the oil temperature
will rise unless the overload is removed.
When the temperature rises to the temperature limit of the fusible plug, the core of the plug will melt, release
oil from the coupling and effectively disconnect power to the output shaft. To prevent the loss of oil the use of
a proximity cutout switch or thermal trip plug and limit switch is recommended.

Fig 6 Fluid Coupling in Overload Condition
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Mechanical Dept. - 8 - B.M.S.C.E
2.6 CHARACTERISTIC GRAPHS OF FLUID COUPLING
Fluid coupling has centrifugal characteristics during starting, thus enabling no load start-up of prime mover,
which is of great importance.
The slipping characteristics of fluid coupling provides a wide range of choice of power transmission
characteristics which also result in speed variation, smooth & controlled acceleration, clutching and
declutching operations and other characteristics of load limiting shock & peak load absorption and dampening
etc. By varying the quantity of oil filled in the fluid coupling, the normal torque transmitting capacity
can be varied. The maximum torque of the fluid coupling can also be set to a predetermined safe value by
adjusting the oil filling.
The fluid coupling has the same characteristics in both directions of rotation.

Fig 7 Fluid Coupling Characteristic Graphs

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Mechanical Dept. - 9 - B.M.S.C.E
2.7 BENEFITS OF A FLUID COUPLING


1. Soft cushioned starts

Without the fluid coupling, the motor instantly transmits its locked
rotor torque (starting torque) to the driven machine (point A at right).
Then, it quickly reaches and applies the breakdown torque (Point B).
For common applications, locked rotor and breakdown torque often
approximates 200% or more, of the motor nameplate rating.

Damage can result if the required break-away starting torque of the
driven machine is significantly less, the machine will be abruptly
accelerated to rated speed.

With a fluid coupling installed, however, the torque to the driven machine starts at zero (point C) and
gradually increases as the coupling impeller accelerates to point D.
When the output torque of the fluid coupling exceeds the break-away starting torque of the driven machine
(point D), the driven machinery gradually accelerates (right half of chart). As the machine comes up to rated
speed, the slip of the fluid coupling decreases to (point E) and uniform power is transmitted at maximum
efficiency.


2. Increased starting torque

With a fluid coupling, the breakdown torque of a standard NEMA
B squirrel cage motor can be used to provide additional torque to start
the machinery.
In this example of a high horsepower application, the NEMA B motor
will initially exert only 80% of its rated torque (point A).

Only if the motor can accelerate to 85% of its synchronous speed can it
take advantage of its 175% breakdown torque (point B).
However, with a properly selected fluid coupling, the motor can start
under no load (point C), and reach its breakdown torque in only a few
shaft revolutions.

If a fluid coupling is not utilized, an oversized motor or a special high starting torque motor may be required.
These solutions are costly, and introduce undesirable variables into the system. A properly selected and filled
fluid coupling can provide an initial starting torque ideally matched to the needs of the driven machine.
Attainable initial starting torque values range from 40% of normal running load minimum, up to a maximum
initial starting torque value that equals the full breakdown torque of the motor.




Fig 8 Soft Cushioned Starts
Fig 9 Increased Starting Torque
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Mechanical Dept. - 10 - B.M.S.C.E
3. Overload protection

When a machine jams, the life of individual components may
be drastically reduced. Without overload protection, the
stored energy of the machine is absorbed in the first second
following the jam, increasing stresses on components to many
times their normal running values.

The fluid coupling slip characteristics spreads the absorption
of the impact over a period of time, reducing stress on the
components and therefore, protecting your machinery.

4. Reduced current draw when starting

The electric current draw at startup is dramatically reduced when a fluid coupling is present. The motor starts
without any meaningful load yet applied by the driven machinery
(point A, Figure 1). In the absence of load, the motor quickly
accelerates to approximately 90% of its full load speed (point B,
Figure 1).

The result is that low current draw (point C, Figure 1) is achieved
within several shaft revolutions. At this point the inertia of the
motor has been accelerated, and the application of load from the
driven machine will not cause subsequent periods of high inrush
current.

With a fluid coupling, the duration of high current draw is reduced substantially as shown in the shaded area
of Figure 2. This results in electrical savings and extended service life of the motor.

5. Load balancing for multiple drives
Loads can be easily balanced on multiple drive systems when fluid couplings are installed at each motor.
Refer to the illustration at the right, two motors, each equipped with a fluid coupling. Load sharing between
the two motors has been achieved by appropriately adding
fluid to one coupling, or withdrawing fluid from the other
coupling.

As an added benefit, motors on multiple drive systems can
be individually started because of the ability of one
coupling to temporarily operate at 100% slip. Starting one
motor at a time provides extended and even softer starts on
multiple drive conveyors. Since the motors are started as
separate events, the system maximum inrush current will be
approximately half the system maximum inrush current experienced when both motors are started
simultaneously.
Fig 10 Overload Protection
Fig 11 Reduced Current Drawn
Fig 12 Load Balancing for Multiple Drives
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Mechanical Dept. - 11 - B.M.S.C.E
2.8 PURPOSE OF FLUID COUPLING

The purpose of using fluid coupling are listed below according to their application
1. In vehicle transmission system it is generally used to secure the following:

a. Absence of direct mechanical contact between the driving and driven members minimizes the
transmission of shock and torsional vibration between the engine and the drive line.

b. No positive disengagement or engagement of drive allows a smoother starting characteristic
this being particularly advantageous when restarting up a steep hill

c. Protect against harmful laboring of the engine at low speeds, since the fluid coupling will
merely slip and allow the engine to increase speed when overloaded.


2. In Aviation transmission system it is used in the engine's exhaust gases and then, using three fluid
couplings and gearing, converted low torque high-speed turbine rotation to low-speed, high-torque output
to drive the propeller.
2.9 EFFICIENCY OF A FLUID COUPLING
The power is transmitted hydraulically from the driving shaft to driven shaft and the driven shaft is free from
engine vibrations. The speed of the driven shaft B is always less than the speed of the driving shaft A, by
about 2%. The efficiency of the power transmission by fluid coupling is about 98%. This is derived as given
below

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Mechanical Dept. - 12 - B.M.S.C.E
2.10 COMPARISION BETWEEN FLUID COUPLING AND MECHANICAL CLUTCH

MECHANICAL CLUTCHES FLUID COUPLINGS
The power transmission is
via mechanical contact
The power transmission is
via fluid movement
The efficiency of power transmission
is low
The efficiency of power transmission
is as high as 98%
As the clutch wears the cable needs
to be adjusted
The absence of cables makes it self
adjusting
Initial cost of installation is low Initial installation cost is comparatively
higher
Requires human effort Does not require human effort
Requires a clutch paddle to be actuated
hence an added extra part
No extra components are required as
it shifts automatically
Suitable for manual transmissions Suitable for automatic transmissions
Table 1 Comparison of Fluid Couplings against Mechanical Clutches

2.11 TYPES OF FLUID COUPLINGS
All fluid couplings may be broken into 4 types
1. Hydrokinetic
2. Hydrodynamic
3. Hydroviscous
4. Hydrostatic
2.11.1 HYDROKINETIC FLUID COUPLINGS
Basic Principle
In the hydrokinetic drive, commonly known as a fluid drive or hydraulic coupling, oil fluid particles are
accelerated in the impeller (driving member) and then decelerated as they impinge on the blades of the runner
(driven member). Thus, power is delivered in accordance with the basic law of kinetic energy:
E =
1
2
H(I
1
2
I
2
2
)
Where E represents energy, M is the mass of the working fluid, V
1
is the velocity of the oil particles before
impingement, and V
2
is the velocity after impingement on the runner blades.
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Mechanical Dept. - 13 - B.M.S.C.E

Components
1. Housing
2. Impeller
3. Vortex
4. Rotor




2.11.2 HYDRODYNAMIC FLUID COUPLINGS

Basic Principle
In the most common forms of hydrodynamic drives, planetary gear trains utilize some components as oil
pumps. Throttling the discharge of these pumps creates
back pressure and increases drive torque.
Components
The input shaft, supported by a bearing either on an
independent bearing pedestal or on a packaged sub base
assembly, drives the housing, endplate, manifold and
planetary gear shafts. These planet gears are partially
surrounded by the manifold, which forms a pump cavity.
The sun gear drives the output shaft. The control yoke
moves the internal valve.
2.11.3 HYDROVISCOUS FLUID COUPLINGS

Basic Principle
Hydroviscous drives operate on the basic principle that oil has viscosity and energy is required to shear it.
More energy is required to shear a thin film than a thick one. The Hydroviscous drive varies its torque
capability by varying the film thickness between driving and driven members.
Components
1. Housing
2. Rotor
3. Disks
4. Piston
Fig 13 Power Transmitting Components of a Hydrokinetic Fluid Coupling
Fig 14 Components of Hydrodynamic Fluid Coupling
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Mechanical Dept. - 14 - B.M.S.C.E

Fig 15 Components of Hydroviscous Fluid Couplings

2.11.4 HYDROSTATIC FLUID COUPLINGS

Basic Principle
There are many variations of hydrostatic variable-speed drives, but in one form or another they invariably use
positive displacement hydraulic pumps in conjunction with positive displacement hydraulic motors.
In some cases, varying amounts of fluid are bypassed from the pump discharge back to the pump suction. This
provides a controllable variable flow to the positive displacement motor and therefore a variable output speed.
This system has no particular advantages over the more common variable-speed drives. The higher-than-
average first costs and above-average maintenance required explain why this type of hydrostatic system is
seldom used.
Components

Fig 16 Typical Package Hydrostatic Fluid Coupling
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Mechanical Dept. - 15 - B.M.S.C.E
REVERSIBLE FLUID COUPLING

The present section presents the hydraulic analysis of a variant of fluid couplings namely a Reversible Fluid
Couplings. The device was developed and built by Franco Tosi in Italy in conjunction with SSS Gears Ltd.
in the U.K. Tests on the device conducted by the US Navy (NSWC Philadelphia) and are documented in
Nufrio et al.

This section presents a method of analysis of the performance of such devices and uses one of the Franco Tosi
designs tested by NSWC as an example. As shown diagrammatically in gure 17, the reversible uid coupling
has an added feature, namely a set of guide vanes.

Fig 17 Cross Section of a Reversible Fluid Coupling Showing Key Locations in the Fluid Cavity
With the vanes retracted the device operates as a conventional uid coupling and the direction of rotation of
the output shaft is the same as the input shaft. When the vanes are inserted, the direction of rotation of the
output shaft is reversed. In traditional terms, the reversible uid coupling can, in theory, operate over a range
of slip values from S = 0 to S = 2. In this section, we utilize overall coupling performance data obtained by
NSWC and several investigations of ow details carried out by WesTech Gear Corporation
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Mechanical Dept. - 16 - B.M.S.C.E
A number of recent papers have demonstrated how complex and unsteady the ow is in torque converters.
Due to the need to operate the machines over wide ranges of slip values, the incidence angles on the impeller
blades tend to be very large thus generating substantial ow separation at the leading edges as well as much
unsteadiness and high turbulence levels. To accommodate these violent ows and to force the ow to follow
the vanes at impeller discharge, the solidity of the impellers is usually much larger than would be optimal in
other turbo machines.
Though several efforts have been made to compute these ows from rst principles such complex, unsteady
and turbulent ows with intense secondary flows are very difficult to calculate because of the lack of
understanding of unsteady turbulent ows.
In the present paper we begin with a simple one-dimensional analysis of the ow in a reversible uid
coupling. This one-dimensional analysis may be used as a rst order estimate of the coupling performance.
Alternatively it can be applied to a series of streamtubes into which the coupling ow is divided. Such a
multiple streamtube (or two-dimensional ow) analysis allows accommodation of the large variations in ow
velocity and inclination which occur between the core and the shell of the machine.
In the multiple streamtube analysis the ow is subdivided into streamtubes as shown in gure 18; all the data
presented here used ten streamtubes of roughly similar cross-sectional area. The ow in each streamtube is
characterized by meridional and tangential components of uid velocity, u

and :

, at each of the transition


stations, i =1, 2, 3, between the turbine and the pump (i =1), between the pump and the turning vanes (I =2)
and between the turning vanes and the turbine (i =3).

Fig 18 Sketch showing subdivision of flow into stream tubes

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Mechanical Dept. - 17 - B.M.S.C.E
A typical velocity triangle, in this case for the transition station i = 1, is included in gure 19; the velocity
triangles for the other transition stations are similar. Flow is from the right to left, the direction of rotation is
upward and the angles are shown as they are when they are positive.

Fig 19 Velocity Triangle at the Turbine-Pump Transition station
3.1 BASIC EQUATIONS
The nomenclature used is as shown in Table 2
Table 2 Nomenclature Used

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The process of power transmission through the coupling (operating under steady state conditions) will now be
delineated. In the process, several loss mechanisms will be identied and quantied so that a realistic model
for the actual interactions between the mechanical and uid mechanical aspects of coupling results.
3.1.1 PUMP
The power input to the shaft is clearly N
P
T
P
. some of this is consumed by windage losses in the fluid annulus
between the pump shell and the stationery housing. This is denoted by a pump winding torque, T
pw
, which
will be proportional to N
P
2
. Included in this loss will be the shaft seal loss as it has the same functional
dependence on pump speed. It is convenient to denote this combined windage and seal torque, T
pw
, by a
dimensionless coefficient, C
pw
, where
T
pw
= C
pw
R
5
N
P
2
........................(1)
Furthermore the labyrinth seal in the core between the pump and turbine rotors causes direct transmission of
torque from the pump shaft to the turbine shaft. This torque which is proportional to (Np- Nt)
2
will be denoted
by Ts and is represented by a seal windage torque coecient, C
sw
, dened as

T
S
= C
xw
pR
3
(r
h
2
r
c
2
)(Np Nt)
2
........................(2)
Experimentally the value of C
sw
is found to be 0.014. In referring, to this labyrinth seal, we should also
observe that the leakage through this seal has been neglected in the present analysis.
It follows that the power available for transmission to the main flow through the pump is N
p
(T
p
- T
w
T
s
)
and this manifests itself as an increase in the total pressure of the flow as it passes through the pump.
The power balance between the mechanical input, the losses and the ideal fluid power applied to the pump
yields
N
p
(T
p
- T
w
T
s
) = QH
pi
..........................(3)
Where, from the application of angular momentum considerations in the steady flow between pump inlet (i=1)
and pump outlet (i=2) the pump head rise, H
pi
, is given by
H
pi
= N
p
(r
2
v
2
r
1
v
1
).......................(4)
More specifically, H
pi
, will be referred to as ideal pump total pressure rise in the absence of fluid viscosity
when the pump would be 100% efficient. However, in a real viscous flow, the actual total pressure rise
produced, H
p
, is less than H
pi
; the deficit is denoted by H
pl
where
H
p
= H
pi
- H
pl
.....................(5)
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This total pressure loss, H
pl
, is difficult to evaluate accurately and is a function, among other things, of the
angle of attack on the leading edges of the vanes.
The angle of attack,
p
, on the pump blades is given by
u
p
= tan
-1
]
u
1
-r
1
N
p
u
1
6
p
....................(6)

3.1.2 TURBINE

We now jump to the turbine output shaft . the power delivered to the turbine shaft is N
t
T
t
. As in the pump
there are windage losses, N
t
T
tw
, where the windage torque, T
tw
, is described by a dimensionless
coefficient,C
tw
= T
tw
(pN
t
2
). Then the power delivered to the turbine rotor, N
t
(T
t
+ T
tw
T
s
), by the main
flow through the turbine is related to the ideal total pressure drop through the turbine, H
ti
, by
N
t
(T
t
+T
tw
T
x
) = QH
t|
.................(7)
Where again from angular momentum considerations
H
t|
= N
t
(r
t
u
3
r
1
u
1
).....................(8)

With an inviscid fluid, H
t|
would be the actual total pressure drop across the turbine. But in a real turbine the
actual total pressure drop is greater by an amount, H
t|
, which represents the total pressure loss in the turbine,
an hence
H
t
= H
t|
+ H
t|
.....................(9)

The angle of attack, u
t
, on the turbine blades is given by
u
t
= tan
-1
]
u
3
-r
2
N
t
u
3
6
t
......................(10)



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Mechanical Dept. - 20 - B.M.S.C.E
3.1.3 TURNING VANES
The geometry of a turning vane used in the coupling discussed here is shown in figure 20.

Fig 20 Geometry of a Turning Vane
The total pressure rise produced by the pump, H
p
, is equal to the pressure drop across the turbine, H
t
, plus the
total pressure drop across the turning vanes, H
v
, so that
H
p
= H
t
+ H
u
with the turning vanes inserted
H
v
= 0 with the turning vanes retracted
It is this balance which essentially determines the flow rate, Q, and the meridional velocities, u

. The total
pressure drop across the vanes H
v
, is described by a loss coefficient defined by
C
u
= 2H
u
(p(u
3
2
+u
3
2
))..................................(11)
Though both H
v
and C
v
will vary with the angle of attack of the flow on the vanes, u
u
, we have not exercised
that option here since there is no independent information on the turning vane performance. Estimates suggest
that 0.3 < C
v
< 1.0




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3.2 POWER TRANSMISSION SUMMARY
This completes the description of the power transmission through the coupling which is summarized in Table
3.
Table 3 Power Transmission and Losses


The overall eciency of the coupling, , is given by
q =
N
t
T
t
N
p
T
p
=
QH
t|
N
t
T
tw
+N
p
T
x
QH
p|
+N
p
T
pw
+N
p
T
x
.

Or substituting from equations (5) and (9)

q =
N
t
(r
2
u
3
r
1
u
1
) (N
t
T
tw
+N
t
T
x
)Q
N
p
(r
2
u
2
r
1
u
1
) + (N
p
T
pw
+ N
p
T
x
)Q



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Mechanical Dept. - 22 - B.M.S.C.E

CONCLUSION
After a thorough survey of fluid couplings we can conclude that the fluid couplings come with their own
advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages being:
1. A fluid coupling is smoother in operation compared to the mechanical clutches
2. Fluid couplings give the following benefits
2.1 Soft cushioned starts
2.2 Increased starting torque
2.3 Overload protection
2.4 Reduced current drawn when starting
2.5 Load balancing for multiple drives

3. The efficiency of power transmission is very high
4. No mechanical linkages and hence less wear and tear
5. The characteristics of a fluid coupling remains the same in both the directions
6. A reverse fluid coupling is advancement in the fluid couplings where in the power can be transmitted
by the introduction of a turning vane.
7. Fluid coupling technology has a lot of scope for further research and hence is a competitive field.
8. Torque converters are the other form of a fluid coupling which are rigorously used in the automatic
transmissions.
9. Fluid couplings not only find their application in the automobile field but also in the conveyors, and
anywhere else where power transmission is required.


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However apart from these advantages the fluid couplings also have certain disadvantages they are listed below
1. The installation cost of fluid couplings is higher when compared to mechanical
counterpart.

2. You need to check clutch fluid level and top up when necessary.

3. Wear is less prominent to feel in fluid couplings and hence one might be completely
unaware of the wear.

4. There might be a risk of leakage across the seals and the housing.

5. The fluid in the coupling plays an important role. The fluid may change its properties
along with the changing ambience. Hence a fluid coupling which is 98% efficient at one
place might just be 80% efficient in the other depending on the topology.






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BIBLIOGRAPHY

TECHNICAL PAPERS:

1. Charles N Mckinnon, Danamichele Brennen and Christopher E Brennen, Hydraulic Analysis of a
Reversible Fluid Coupling
2. Klaus Maier, modern drive technology with hydrodynamic coupling for coal mine applications, for
VOITH turbo.
3. Nicholas A Darcy Jr., hydro-kinetic drives, Hydraulic Torque converters and Hydraulic Couplings,
Engineering and science monthly, 10-11.
4. Conrad L Arnold, Fluid Couplings, 1-15

BOOKS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS:

1. A text book of fluid mechanics and fluid machinery by R K Bhansal
2. Term paper on fluid coupling Yaba College of technology, Yaba, Lagos.
3. True torque Fluid Couplings by FALK TRUE COUPLINGS.

INTERNET SOURCES

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_coupling
2. http://members.fortunecity.com/nedians2/fluid_coupling.htm
3. http://www.twindisc.com/IndustrialProducts/IndFC.html?pid=154
4. http://www.ehow.com/about_4596360_hydraulic-clutches.html
5. http://www.voithturbo.com/startup-components.htm
6. http://www.fluidomat.com