INTRODUCTION:
* The purpose of this calculation is to design Pad & Chimney foundation for "A10" type lattice steel tower structure.
* The foundation is subjected to upward, downward and horizontal forces.
2. TOWER GEOMETRY:
h = mm Tower Body Hieght
a = mm Tower Dimension at the Top
b = mm Tower Dimension at the Bottom
deg Leg Slope angel with Respect to Vertical
mm
deg
mm Tower First Leg Slope
mm Tower Second Leg Slope
3. LOADING IN THE VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL DIRECTION:
* The maximum vertical and horizontal reactions have been given in the PTS (clause: 4.09 A) for this kind of tower as follow:
Above Loads excludes over load capacity factors.
Pc0 = Compression Force
Pu0 = Uplift Force
Phx0 = Resultant Shear Force in XDirection
Phy0 = Resultant Shear Force in YDirection
Note :
1600.00 1192.00 242.00 212.00
1000
11.860
Phx0 Phy0
1021.812
1016.476
Pc0 Pu0
10.330
Date: May 26, 2014
DESIGN OF PAD & CHIMNEY FOUNDATION
By: MAK
* The purpose of the foundation is to transfer the loads from the structure to the ground without causing the ground to
fail in shear or to allow excessive settlement of the structure to occur. These requirements are met by ensuring the
bearing pressure below the foundation does not exceed permissible bearing pressure.
* Foundation loads will be obtained from the tower reactions multiplied by over load capacity factors. These factored loads will be
used in the sizing of the foundation. However, to design steel reinforcements reactions without the OCFs will be used.
Tower Type "A10"
(Towers Include: # PI  21)
26100
5000
15962
=
(
=
h
a b
2
tan
1
u
=
0
h
=
(
=
h
a b
2
tan
1

=
=
) 90 sin(
0
22
u
h
h
=
=
) 90 sin(
0
11

h
h
11
h
22
h
0
h
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 1/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
4. FACTORED LOADS:
In Compression SFc = 1.5
In Uplift SFu = 1.5 As per SESP122.06
In Shear SFs = 1.5
Pc = Pc0 SFc = KN Compression Force
Pu = Pu0 SFu = KN Uplift Force
Phx = Phx0 SFs = KN Resultant Shear Force in XDirection
Phy = Phy0 SFs = KN Resultant Shear Force in YDirection
KN
KN Horizontal Reaction
Moment Reaction
5. PROPOSED SIZE OF FOUNDATION:
Assumed Footing Width B = 4 m
Assumed Footing Length L = 4 m
Thickness of Pad Fd = 600 mm
Assumed Footing Depth h = 3.5 m
Exposed Height, including the Eh = 500 mm
300 mm structure pad
Assumed Pedestal Size a = 600 mm
Cncrete Cover cov = 85 mm
Thickness to be Ignored in T = 600 mm As per PTS (05WO307 clause 4.09 item 3)
Calculating Uplift Resistance
6. MATERIAL PROPERTIES:
6.1 CONCRETE:
= KN/m Concrete Unit Weight
= MPa Concrete Compressive Strength
PTS (clause: 4.09 A1)
= MPa Steel Yield Strength
PTS (clause: 5.02)
E = Mpa Steel Elastic Modulus
321.73
482.59
200000
24
28
420
2400.00
1788.00
363.00
318.00
GL
B
Fd
L
a
a Phx
Phy
Pu
OL
Eh
Chimney
Pad
h
= + =
2
0
2
0 0
) ( ) ( y Ph x Ph Q
= = SFs Q Q
0
0 0
0
= = M M
c
c
f '
y
f
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 2/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
6.2 SOIL PROPERTIES:
Soil Type: "S1"
= deg Angle of Internal Friction
= KN/m Unit Weight of Soil
C = KN/m Soil Cohesion
f = deg Frustum Angel
7. CALCULATIONS:
7.1 DETERMINE ALLOWABLE SOIL CAPACITY:
Df = h + Fd = m Total Depth of Foundation
= KN/m Unit Weight of Soil
by: Joseph E. Bowles
=
=
=
=
= KN/m
= KN/m SF = 4 Safty Factor Allowable Bearing Capacity
7.2 CHECK FOUNDATION DISPLACEMENT:
= 30 SPT N value
= 50 mm Tolerable Settlement
B = 4 m Footing Width
= KN/m = Min ( , q ) = KN/m 1216.034 294.112
35
17
Kpy = 35
4.10
Referance: Foundation Analysis and
Design
2.710
12.720
25.135
9.702
25
17
0
35 82
Kpy
15
20
45
18.6
25
35
52
141
0
25
30
1176.449
294.11
40
1

S
1

N B N z N c q
s q s c ult
. . . 4 . 0 . . . . 3 . 1 + + =
a
 
1 1
tan ) 360 / 75 . 0 (   t
= e a
) 2 / 45 ( cos 2
1
2
2
 +
=
a
N
q
q
N
1
tan / ) 1 (  =
q c
N N
c
N
(
= 1
cos 2
tan
2
1


py
K
N
N
N B N z N c q
s q s c ult
. . . 4 . 0 . . . . 3 . 1 + + =
SF
q
q
ult
allow
=
allow
q
60
N
c
S
75 . 0
4 . 1
60
7 . 1 B
N S
q
c
= allow
q
allow
q
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 3/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
7.3 DETERMINE PEDESTAL SIZE:
7.3.1 BASED ON CONCRETE BEARING :
Ap = Pc / (0.35*fc) = m Gross Pedestal Area
a = < 600 OK Pedestal Size
7.3.2 PEDESTAL AS A SHORT COLUMN :
= Steel Ratio, Assumed
= m Gross Pedestal Area
a = mm < 600 OK Pedestal Size
Therefore, the assumed pedestal size of 800 mm is adequate
7.4 CHECK UPLIFT RESISTANCE:
h = 3.5 m L = 4 m B = 4 m Eh = 500 mm
T = 600 mm Thickness to be Ignored in As per PTS (05WO307 clause 4.09 item 3)
Calculating Uplift Resistance
= 1 / cos ( ) = Increasing Coefficient
f = 35 deg Angle of the Shearing Soil Plane with the Vertical "Frustum Angle"
h3 = 2.9 m Soil Height Considered in Computing Uplift
" Effective Height of Soil "
Resisting Force to Uplift = Weight of Foundation + Weight of Soil Enclosed
in the Frustum of an Inverted Cone of Pyramid
Volume of Concrete Pad Vf = L x B x Fd
= 4 x 4 x
= m
Weight of Pad Wf = Vf x
= x
= KN
Volume of Concrete Chimney Vp = a x a x x
= 0.6 x 0.6 x x
= m
Weight of Chimney Wp = Vp x
= x
= KN
mm
1.464
(h+Eh)
1.016
1.016
9.600
230.4
494.872
0.008
370.008
0.6
9.600
4
0.245
0.137
24 1.464
35.129
24
) ) 1 ( 85 . 0 ( 65 . 0
y c
c
P
f f
P
A
+
=

 u
c
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 4/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
Volume of Soil Vs =
At : Area at The Top
Ab : Area at The Bottom
Ab = L x B
= 4 x 4
= m
At = ( B + (2 x h3 x tan(f))
= m
Vs = m
Weight of Soil Ws = Vs x
= x
= KN
Weight of Soil Replaced Wr = a x a x h3 x x
by The Pedestal = 0.6 x 0.6 x 2.9 x x
= KN
Total Resistance Force to Uplift RF = Wf + Wp + Ws  Wr
= + + 
= KN
Factor of Safety Against Uplift FS = RF / Pu0
= /
= > 1.5 OK
7.5 CHECK FOR BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL:
7.5.1 CALCULATION ECCENTRICITY:
H = h + Fd Total Height of Chimney
= 3.5 + 0.6
= m
= H x tan ( ) Total Eccentricity
= x
= m
= x cos (45) Eccentricity on X Direction
= x
= m
= x sin (45) Eccentricity on Y Direction
= x
= m
17
64.98
109.454
17
1860.711
16.00
109.454
1.016
18.040
230.4 35.129 1860.711 18.040
2108.200
2108.200 1192.00
1.769
4.100
4.100 0.182
0.747
0.747 0.707
0.528
0.747 0.707
0.528
G.L
h3
B
f
f
X
Y
X
Y
( )
b t b t
A A A A
h
+ +
3
3
S

u
y
e
x
e
Total
e
Total
e
Total
e
x
e
y
e
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 5/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
7.5.2 CALCULATION MOMENTS:
H = h + Fd + Eh Total Height of Foundation
= 3.5 + 0.6 + 0.5
= m
= Pc x
= x
= K N.m "About X"
= Pc x
= x
= K N.m "About Y"
= Phy x H Bending Moment @ Base due
= x
= K N.m "About X"
= Phx x H Bending Moment @ Base due
= x
= K N.m "About Y"
= Wp x ( / 2 )
= x
= K N.m "About X"
= Wp x ( / 2 )
= x
= K N.m "About Y"
Total Moment:
=  
=  
= K N.m
=  
=  
= K N.m
7.5.3 CALCULATION RESISTING MOMENTS:
T = 600 mm Thickness to be Ignored in As per PTS (05WO307 clause 4.09 item 3)
Calculating Uplift Resistance
Fd = 600 mm
h3 = h  T " Effective Height of Soil "
= 3.5  0.6
= m
Kp =
Kp = Passive Earth Pressure Coefficient
= Kp x x h3 Passive Earth Pressure at
My1
2400.00 0.528
4.600
Mx1
2400.00
1268.23
Bending Moment due to
Downward Force Pc
Bending Moment due to
Downward Force Pc
0.528
1268.23
Mx2
318.00 4.600
1462.80
to Horizontal Force Ph  y
My2
363.00 4.600
1669.80
to Horizontal Force Ph  x
Mx3
35.13 0.264
9.28
Bending Moment due to
Weight of Chimney
My3 Bending Moment due to
35.13 0.264 Weight of Chimney
9.28
Mx2 Mx1 Mx3
1462.80 1268.23 9.28
185.28
My2 My1
392.28
2.90
2.464
My3
1669.80 1268.23 9.28
Qtp
Mxx
Myy
y
e
x
e
y
e
x
e
1 1
1 1


Sin
Sin
+
S
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 6/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
= x x Top of Pad
= KN/m
= Kp x x Passive Earth Pressure at
= x x Bottom of Pad
= KN/m
KN/m
KN/m
= x Qtp x h3 x a The Force due to Passive Earth
= x x x Pressure at the Chimney
= KN " X Direction"
= x Fd x B The Force due to Passive Earth
= x x Pressure at the Pad
= KN " X Direction"
= x + x Bending Moment due to
= x + x Passive Earth Pressure
= KN.m "About X"
= x Qtp x h3 x a The Force due to Passive Earth
= x x x Pressure at the Chimney
= KN " Y Direction"
= x Fd x B The Force due to Passive Earth
= x x Pressure at the Pad
= KN " Y Direction"
= x + x Bending Moment due to
= x + x Passive Earth Pressure
= KN.m "About Y"
7.5.4 CALCULATION NET MOMENTS AT THE BASE OF FOOTING:
Mx =  0.8 x Net Bending Moment @
17 2.464
146.603
Qbp ( h3 + Fd )
2.90
121.471
2.464 17 3.50
4.60
0.30
0.500
0.600
2.90
0.60
3.50
105.680
0.30
146.603 4.00
1.567
( Fd / 2 )
121.471 2.90 0.60
121.471
( 1 / 2 )
121.471
Ftpy
134.04 0.600
Mxp
321.688
( 1 / 2 * ( Lb + Lt ) )
105.680 1.567
0.60
0.5
Fbpx
( 1 / 2 )
262.071
105.680
321.688
( Fd + ( h3 / 3 ) )
4.00
2.90
Fbpy ( 1 / 2 * ( Lb + Lt ) )
134.04 0.600 4.00
105.680
( Fd / 2 )
105.680 1.567 321.688 0.30
Ftpy ( Fd + ( h3 / 3 ) ) Fbpy
262.071
321.688
Myp
Ftpx
Fbpx
Ftpx
0.5
Mxx Mxp
Lb =
Lt =
Wp
Ph
Wf
G.L Eh =
OL =
Fd =
T=
B =
Ws
Pc
h =
h3 =
S
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 7/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
=  0.8 x Base of Footing
= KN.m "About X"
My =  0.8 x Net Bending Moment @
=  0.8 x Base of Footing
= KN.m "About Y"
Mx = if ( Mx < 0 , 0 , Mx) Mx = KN.m
My = if ( My < 0 , 0 , My) My = KN.m
7.5.5 CALCULATION SOIL PRESSURE AT THE BASE OF FOOTING:
Where:
Mx : Net Bending Moment @ Base of Footing "Around X".
My : Net Bending Moment @ Base of Footing "Around Y".
P : Total Vertical Load.
A : Foundation Area.
I : Second Moment of Area of The Footing About The Axis of Bending.
x , y: Distance from Axis of Bending to the Position The Stress is Being Calculated.
= ( B x L ) / 12
= m
= ( L x B ) / 12
= m
Calculation Vertical Loads:
Weight of Pad Wf = Vf x
= x 24
= KN
Weight of Chimney Wp = Vp x
= x
= KN
Weight of Soil Ws = x
= x
= KN
Total Vertical Load P = Pc + Wf + Wp + Ws
= + + +
= KN
35.129 930.227
3595.756
230.4
392.28
Myy Myp
185.28 262.071
24.373
0.000
262.071
182.627
Note 1 : only for safty purpose we consider in above calculation 80 % of the total resisting moment due to
passive earth pressure
Note 2 : if Mx < 0 then we will Mx = 0 and the same will be applicable for My.
35.129
182.627
21.333
21.333
930.227
( B x L x h  a x a x h x )
2400.000
9.600
230.4
54.719 17
1.464 24
x
I
y
I
c


.

\

=
B
My
L
M
B L
P
q
x
1
x
I
My
y
I
M
A
P
q
y x
x
=
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 8/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
= max ( ) = KN/m < OK
= min ( ) = KN/m > 0 OK
KN/m
KN/m
KN/m
B = m
L = m
KN/m
KN/m
KN/m
7.5.6 CALCULATION SOIL PRESSURE DUE TO VERTICAL LOADS:
Weight of Pad KN
Weight of Chimney KN
Weight of Soil KN
Compression Force KN
Total Downward Force = + +
+
= + + +
= KN
= Total Downward Force / ( L x B )
= / 16
= KN/m < OK
241.856
4.00
4.00
207.613
207.613
207.613
2795.756
930.227
35.129
1600.000
Weight of Chimney
241.856
241.856
230.400 35.129 930.227 1600.000
Weight of Pad Weight of Soil
Compression Force
241.856
207.613
2 207.613
2
KN/m
16 21.333 21.333
3595.756 0.000
2
182.627
KN/m
16 21.333 21.333
3595.756 0.000
2
182.627
207.613
2 241.856 KN/m
16
3595.756 0.000
2
182.627
21.333 21.333
3595.756 0.000
2
21.333
2 241.856 KN/m
16 21.333
182.627
230.400
174.735
2795.756
,
= + x x + =
=  x x + =
= + x x  =
=
 x x  =
, ,
,
, ,
max
q
min
q
allow
q
max
q
max
q
max
q
1
qu
2
qu
4
qu
1
qu
1
qu
2
qu
2
qu
3
qu
3
qu
3
qu
4
qu
4
qu
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 9/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
7.6 RECALCULATE THE FORCES WITHOUT OVER LOAD CAPACITY FACTOR:
Pc0 = KN Compression Force
Pu0 = KN Uplift Force
= KN Resultant Shear Force in XDirection
= KN Resultant Shear Force in YDirection
Wf = KN Weight of Pad
Wp = KN Weight of Chimney
Ws = KN Weight of Soil
P = KN Total Vertical Load
H = h + Fd + Eh Total Height of Foundation
= 3.5 + 0.6 + 0.5
= m
= Pc x
= x
= K N.m
= Pc x
= x
= K N.m
= Phy x H
= x
= K N.m
= Phx x H
= x
= K N.m
= Wp x ( / 2 )
= x
= K N.m
= Wp x ( / 2 )
= x
= K N.m
Total Moment:
=  
= K N.m
=  
= K N.m
Bending Moment due to
"About Y"
120.43
258.43
Weight of Chimney
"About X"
Bending Moment due to
Weight of Chimney
My3
Bending Moment due to
Downward Force Pc
"About X"
Bending Moment due to
Downward Force Pc
"About Y"
Bending Moment @ Base due
to Horizontal Force Ph  y
"About X"
Bending Moment @ Base due
to Horizontal Force Ph  x
"About Y" 1113.20
Mx3
35.13 0.264
My2
242.00 4.600
4.600
Mx1
1600.00
212.00
1600.00
My1
845.49
Mx2
My2 My1 Myy
Mx2 Mx1
9.28
Mxx
35.13 0.264
Mx3
4.600
975.20
9.28
My3
0.528
930.23
2795.756
845.49
0.528
Phx0
Phy0
230.40
35.13
242.00
1600.00
1192.00
212.00
y
e
x
e
y
e
x
e
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 10/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
Mx =  0.8 x Net Bending Moment @
=  0.8 x Base of Footing
= KN.m "About X"
My =  0.8 x Net Bending Moment @
=  0.8 x Base of Footing
= KN.m "About Y"
Mx = if ( Mx < 0 , 0 , Mx) Mx = KN.m
My = if ( My < 0 , 0 , My) My = KN.m
Calculation Pressure at Four Corners:
Calculate Average Pressure:
= ( + + + ) / 4
= + + +
= KN/m
Calculate Average Pressure:
= ( + ) / 2
= KN/m
= ( + ) / 2
= KN/m
7.6 CHECK FOR PUNCHING SHEAR:
Assume = 20 mm Diameter for Bottom Steel in the Pad
a = mm Pedestal Size
d = Fd  cov  ( 3 / 2 ) Effective Depth for Section
=  
= mm
A = L x B Foundation Area
= 4 x 4
= m
b0 = 4 x ( a + d ) Perimeter Length
485
16
600
174.735
600 85 30
Mxx Mxp
120.43 262.071
89.228
Myy Myp
258.43 262.071
48.772
0.000
0.000
2
48.772
2795.756 0.000
2 174.735 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333
2 174.735 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333
2795.756 0.000
2
0.000
2 174.735 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333
2795.756 0.000
2
0.000
2 174.735 KN/m
16 21.333 21.333
2795.756 0.000
2
0.000
174.735
174.735
174.735 174.735 174.735
174.73 174.73
174.735
174.73 174.73
= + x x + =
=  x x + =
= + x x  =
=
 x x 
=
B =
1
q
2
q
3
q
4
q
ave
q
1
q
2
q
3
q
4
q
max
qa
min
qa
pb

pb

\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 11/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
= 4 x
= m
= ( a + d ) x ( a + d ) Punching Area
= x
= m
= ( + + + ) / 4
= ( + + + ) / 4
= KN/m
= x ( A  )
= x
= KN
In
The Nominal Shear Strength Provided by Concrete will be the Smallest of:
1) .
= x x x
= KN
2) . = 20 For Corner Columns
= KN
3) . = = 600 / 600 = 1
= KN
Vc = Min ( Vc1 , Vc2 , Vc3 ) Allowable Punching Shear
= KN
Check if (Punching Shear) <
If ( Qpunch <= Vc, OK , ERROR)
Qpunch = < OK
7.7 CHECK FOR ONE  WAY SHEAR:
X =  d 4
Vc (Allowable Punching Shear)
3331.193 3712.695
( ( L  a ) / 2 )
241.856 241.856 207.613 207.613
224.735
224.735 14.823
3712.695
3331.193
0.33 5.292 4340
In general, the factored shear force Q "Punch" at the critical shear section shall
be less than or equal to the shear strength:
Vn: Q "Punch"
where the nominal shear strength Vn is:
Vn = Vs + Vc
Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete, computed if
shear reinforcement is not used.
Vs = nominal shear strength provided by reinforcement.
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 11.12.2.1"
485
4.34
4
4
1.085 1.085
1.177
1085
3930.837
a / a
5569.042
3712.695
Critical Section for
Punching Shear
Fd
a
w
w
a+d
B =
Punching Shear
Perimeter
B =
d
Elevation
q
B =
Punch
A
Punch
Q Punch
A
avve
qu
1
qu
2
qu
3
qu
4
qu
avve
qu
d b f V
c c 0
'
1
3
1
=
12
. .
. 2
.
0
'
0
2
d b f
b
d
V
c s
c


.

\

+ =
o
s
o
c

6
. .
.
2
1
0
'
3
d b f
V
c
c
c


.

\

+ =

Punch
Q
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 12/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
= m
d
= KN/m
= Direct Shear Load
= KN
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 11.3.1.2 and clause 11.3.2.3"
Allowable Direct Shear Force will be the Smallest of :
1) . Ag = B x Fd
= x
= m
= KN
2) .
= KN
Vc = Min ( Vc1 , Vc2 ) Allowable Shear Force
= KN
Check if (Shear Force) < Vc (Allowable Shear Force)
If ( Qshear <= Vc, OK , ERROR)
Qshear = < OK
7.8 FLEXURE DESIGN:
7.8.1 COMPRESSION LOAD:
The Critical Section for The Design for Flexural Reinforcement Should be Taken at The Face of The Column.
X1 =
= m
= KN/m
1117.486
( ( L  a ) / 2 )
4
1833.128
1117.486 1833.128
2093.310
0.6
4
2.400
1.215
218.015
1.7
222.167
1833.128
Fd
a
w
w
B =
Critical Section
for Shear
B =
d
Elevation
q
a
X
( )
L
X
q q q q
u u u ux
.
min max min
+ =
X B q q
u ux
. ). (
2
1
max
+
d B
f
Ag
Pc
V
c
c
. .
6 14
1
'
1


.

\

+ =
d B
f
Ag
Pu
V
c
c
. .
6
. 3 . 0
1
'
2


.

\

+ =
shear
Q
shear
Q
L
X
q q q q
u u u ux
1
min max min 1
) ( + =
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 13/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
= +
= KN.m
Required Rn =
= 0.9 Strength Rediction Factor
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 9.3.2"
Rn = KN/m
=
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 7.12.2.1"
If ( > , , )
Required As = x B x d
= x x 485
= mm
Use Steel with 20 mm A = mm
= round (( Required As / A ) + 1 ) Number of Steel Reinforcement Required
=
= Spacing of Steel Reinforcement
= mm
Provided As = x A
= x
= mm
If ( Provided As > Required As , "OK" ," Revise" ) OK
7853.98
SPb ( B  2 cov ) / ( NPb  1 )
160
NPb
25 314.16
7503.98
314.16
NPb
25
0.003868
4
4
1284.123 44.629
1328.752
1569.127
0.0018 Minimum As Required for Footings
of Uniform Thickness, for Grade 60
Reinforcement
1.7
0.0039
0.0039 4000
Elevation
Fd
a
w
w
B =
Critical Section
for Flexure
B =
d
q
a
X1=
) 3 / ) . ). (( 2 / ) . . (
1 1 max
2
1 1 1
X B q q B X q M
ux u ux ux
+ =
2
1
. . d B
M
ux


(
(
=
\
\
. 85 . 0
2
1 1
. 85 . 0
c y
c
f
Rn
f
f
=
min
=
min
min
 


\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 14/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
7.8.2 UPLIFT LOAD:
= Pu  Wp  Wf Load Carried by The Pad During Uplift
=  
= KN
= / ( A  AP ) A : Area of Foundation
= / AP : Area of Pedestal
= KN/m
X1 =
= m
= KN.m
Required Rn = = 0.9 Strength Rediction Factor
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 9.3.2"
Rn = KN/m
=
If ( > , , )
Required As = x B x d
= x x
= mm
Use Steel with 20 mm A = mm
= round (( Required As / A ) + 1 ) Number of Steel Reinforcement Required
=
= ( B  2 cov ) / ( NPt  1 ) Spacing of Steel Reinforcement
= mm
Provided As = x A
= x
=
If ( Provided As > Required As , "OK" ," Revise" ) OK
3492.00
3769.911
0.0018
0.0018
NPt
314.16
12
0.0016
314.16
348
12
Minimum As Required for Footings of Uniform Thickness, for Grade 60
Reinforcement " Reference ACI 318  02, clause 7.12.2.1"
Punet
1522.47 15.64
4000 485
NPt
SPt
0.0018
97.345
( ( L  a ) / 2 )
1.7
664.437
1788.00 35.129
Punet
562.652
1522.47
230.4
net
qu
2
2
1
X
B qu Mu
net net
=
2
1
. . d B
M
ux


(
(
=
\
\
. 85 . 0
2
1 1
. 85 . 0
c y
c
f
Rn
f
f
=
min
=
min
min
 


\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 15/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
7.9 PEDESTAL DESIGN:
7.9.1 CALCULATIOM MOMENT:
H = h + Eh Total Height of Pedestal
= +
= m
= Pc x
= x
= K N.m "About X"
= Pc x
= x
= K N.m "About Y"
= x Bending Moment @ Base due
= x
= K N.m "About X"
= x Bending Moment @ Base due
= x
= K N.m "About Y"
= Wp x ( / 2 )
= x
= K N.m "About X"
= Wp x ( / 2 )
= x
= K N.m "About Y"
= Pu x
= x
= K N.m "About X"
= Pu x
= x
= K N.m "About Y"
Total Moment with Downward Force:
=  
=  
= K N.m
=  
=  
= K N.m
Pd = +
= +
= KN
Phy
0.528
H
1823.13
Pc Wp
1788.00 35.13
1788.00 0.528 Upwnward Force Pc
Bending Moment due to
1788.00 0.528 Upward Force Pc
5.52
9.28
9.28
363.00
9.28
Mx3
1272.00 1268.23 9.28
174.48
Myc My2 My1 My3
1452.00 1268.23
0.264 Weight of Chimney
Mxc Mx2 Mx1
Mx4
My4
944.83
944.83
Bending Moment due to
My3 Bending Moment due to
35.13 0.264 Weight of Chimney
Mx3 Bending Moment due to
35.13
Bending Moment due to
to Horizontal Force Ph  x
1452.00
4.000 to Horizontal Force Ph  y
1272.00
H Phx
4.000
My2
318.00
Bending Moment due to
3.5 0.5
Downward Force Pc
0.528 Downward Force Pc
1268.23
My1
1268.23
Mx2
2400.00
2400.00
4.000
Mx1
Wp
Ph
Wf
G.L
Ws
Pc
Loads on Foundation when
Subjected to Compression
y
e
x
e
y
e
x
e
y
e
x
e
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 16/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
Total Moment with Upward Force:
=  
=  
= K N.m
=  
=  
= K N.m
Pf = 
= 
= KN
7.9.2 ESTIMATE EQUIVALENT UNIAXIAL BENDING MOMENT:
h0 = m Section Height
b = m Section Wedth
= mm Vertical Bar Diameter
= mm Ties Diameter
d = h0  cov  Sd  Effective Depth
=   12 
= mm
=
= K N.m
= KN.m
7.9.3 DESIGN FOR COMPRESSION:
Try to use : NP = 32 Total Number of Steel Reinfocement in Pedestal
= 25 Vertical Bar Diameter
Smin = ( If 1.5Asd > 40 mm, 1.5 Asd , 40 mm )
= mm Minimum Bar Spacing
S =
= < CHANG NO. OF BARS
As = Area of Steel Prvided
= mm 15707.963
Asd
40 Smin
22.625
490.50
0.65
585.98
88.44
40
Sd 12
( Asd / 2 )
600 85 12.5
1752.87
0.6
0.6
Asd 25
497.88
Pu Wp
1788.00 35.13
My3
1452.00 944.83 9.28
317.88
Myu My2 My4
Mx3
1272.00 944.83 9.28
Mxu Mx2 Mx4
Wp
Ph
Wf
G.L
Ws
Pu
Loads on Foundation when
Subjected to Uplift
cov
Sd Asd
h0
1

1
1
1 0



.

\

+ =
b
h
Myu Mxu Mu
1
1
1 0



.

\

+ =
b
h
Myc Mxc Mc
Asd
NP
Asd Sd h
+ + ))) 2 / ( (cov 2 .( 4
0
NP
Asd
4
.
2
t
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 17/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
= 1.4 / fy Minimum Steel Ratio
= 1.4 / 420 " Reference ACI 318  02, clause 10.5"
=
= Maximum Steel Ratio
= As /
=
Check if the Steel Ratio is : OK
Check if the Steel Ratio is : OK
= x 0.5 =
= Mc / Pc
= /
= m
e1 = d  +
=  +
= mm
d1 = cov + Sd +
= 85 + 12 +
= mm
m1 = = 420 / =
Pc1 =
= KN > KN
If ( Pc1 <= Pc , "OK" , Error" ) OK
7.9.4 CHECK FOR UPLIFT:
Pf = KN Adjusted Uplift Load Test
Mu = K N.m
= 0.5 x As Area for Tension Steel
= 0.5 x
= mm
= 0.5 x As Area for Compression Steel
= 0.5 x
= mm
= Maximum Concrete Strain
E = Steel Elastic Modulus
0.003
200000
36.849
15707.963
7853.98
( h0 x b )
0.04363
585.98
Asc
Ast
15707.963
7853.98
( h0 / 2 )
0.0033
0.05
0.03685
0.04363 0.02182
e copm.
88.44 2400.00
Asd / 2
490.50 300
227.35
e comp.
12.5
109.5
28 17.647
10146.69 2400.000
1752.87
min
actual
max
min
actual
actual
max
actual
= 5 . 0
(
(
+ + 
.

\

+ +
d
e
d
d
m
d
e
d
e
d b f
c
1 1
1
2
1 1 '
) 1 ).( 1 ( . . 2 1 1 . . . 85 . 0
'
. 85 . 0
c
y
f
f
c
c
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 18/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
x = mm Distance of the Neutral Axis from the Compression Face
= fy / E
= 420 / =
= (( x  d1 ) / x ) x = Strain in the Compression Steel
fs = = Mpa
Cs = Asc . ( fs  0.85 fc ) = KN Compression Force in Steel
Ts = Ast x fy = x 420 = KN Tension Force in Steel
Cc = = KN Compression Force in Concrete
Eq = Ts  Cc  Cs =
Check Equation if ( Ts  Cc  Cs = 0 , OK , Change x )
Xts = = mm Tension Steel Distance from the center
Xcs = = mm Compression Steel Distance from the center
Xc = d  Xst  = mm
= 0.9 * ( Ts.Xst + Cs . Xcs + Cc. Xc ) Section Moment Capacity when P = 0
= KN.m
= Section Axial Load when M = 0
= KN
= +
= <
If ( IR <=1 , "OK" , " ERROR" ) OK
Final Vertical Reinforcement for Pedestal:
NP = 32 Number of Steel Reinforcement Bars
= 25 Diameter of Steel Reinforcement Bars
0.5 * ( d d1 )
5937.610
0.261 0.497
Asd
In order to calculate the iteraction curve due to the uplift force, it is necessary to calcuate the bending capacity of
the section Mu0 when the axial load is zero, Also we need to determine Pu00 the maximum axial capacity of the
section in the absence of the moment.
we will assume the x value " distance of the center of rotation from the center line of the section" and then it will
be adjusted to be as foolow
144.64
200000 0.0021
3298.672
190.5
2 * 0.5*x
145.759
957.867
7853.98
0.5 * ( d d1 ) 190.5
0.85 x fc x 2 x x x b 1755.604
585.201
0.00073
0.758 1
238.529 Center of Concrete Compression Block from
the Center
Muo
1106.670
Pu00 0.9 . ( fy . As )
y
c
s
c
c
c
y y s
f ) / ( c c
1 . 1
0
1 . 1
00


.

\

+


.

\

=
Mu
Mu
Pu
Pf
IR
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 19/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
7.9.5 TIES:
Use Steel Bars of Diameter 12 mm @ 200 mm Spacing
ds = 12 mm Diameter of Ties
Ass = Area of Ties
= 0
Ns = Number of Ties
=
7.10 CHECK FORCE TRANSFER AT INTERFACE OF COLUMN AND FOOTING:
1 Bearing Strength of Column:
fc = 28 MPa Compreesive Strength of the pedestal Concrete
=
A1 = Ap = 0
Bearing Strength of Column
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 10.17"
= KN > OK
2 Bearing Strength of Footing:
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 15.8"
A1 is the column (loaded) area and A2 is the plan area of the lower base of the largest frustum of the pyramide , cone
or tapered wedge cotained wholly within the support and for having its upper base the loaded area , and having side
slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.
4
4
0.6
0.6
1.2 1.2 0.6
1.2
0.6
1.2
360000
5569.2 3595.756
The bearing strength of the footing is increased by a factor Sqrt ( A2 / A1 ) <= 2 due to the large footing area
permitting a greater distribution of the column load.
21
0.65
(( h + Eh  cov ) / 200 ) + 1
113.10
45
45
a
w B =
B =
Fd=
a
Fd =
4
2
s
d t
) . . 85 . 0 .(
1
'
A f P
c nb
  =

\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 20/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
A1 = Ap = 0
A2 = ( + + ) x ( + + )
= 0
= > =
= KN > OK
7.11 REQUIRED DOWEL BARS BETWEEN COLUMN AND FOOTING:
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 15.8.2.1"
= x Ap Ap Area of Pedestal
= x
= 0
Provide 5 Bars of 25 dia ( As = 0 )
7.12 DEVELOPMENT OF DOWEL REINFORCEMENT IN COMPREESION:
dc1 =
dc1 = mm
dc2 =
= mm
dc3 = mm
dc = max ( dc1 , dc2 , dc3 )
= mm
This length may be reduced to account for excess reinforcement.
As ( required ) / As ( provided ) = / =
Reqiured dc = x = mm
1800
2290.9
496.08
1800
Asmin 0.005
0.005 360000
Note that bearing on the column concrete will allways govern until the strength of the column concrete exceeds
twice that of the footing concrete
11138.4 3595.756
Even though bearing on the column and footing concrete is adequate to transfer the factored loads, a minimum area of
reinforcement is required across the interface.
9000000
5 2 2
360000
0.6 1.2 1.2 0.6 1.2 1.2
2290.9 0.786
420
200
Shorter development lengths are required for bars in compression than in tension since the weakening effect of
flexural tension cracks in the concrete is not present. The development length for deformed bars or deformed wire in
compression is dc = (db.fy) / (4.Sqrt (f c)), but not less than 0.04.db.fy or 200mm.
" Reference ACI 318  02, clause 12.3"
496.08
496.08 0.786 389.78
1 2
/ A A
1 2
/ A A
1
2
1
'
). . . 85 . 0 .(
A
A
A f P
c nb
  =
b
c
d
f
f y
'
4
db f
y
04 . 0
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 21/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
Available length for development in footing :
= Footing Thickness  Cover  2.( Footing Bar Diameter )  Dowel Bar Diameter
=   
= > OK Therefore, the dowels can be fully developed in the footing
7.13 CALCULATION MATERIAL QUANTITIES:
7.13.1 EXCAVATION:
L = m
B = m
h = m
Fd = mm
H = h + Fd = m
X = m
= deg
Y = H x
tan ( s )
= x
= m
Vs = Volume of Soil to be Excavated
Ab = Bottom Area
= m
At = ( L + 2 X + 2 Y ) * ( B + 2 X + 2 Y ) Top Area
= m
Vs = m
7.13.2 CONCRETE QUANTITY:
L = m Footing Length
B = m Footing Width
h = m Footing Depth
Fd = mm Thickness of Pad
4
4
3.5
600
0.5
20
450 389.78
600 85 40 25
Note: If case the avilable development length is less than the required length, either increase footing depth or use
larger number of smaller size dowels. Also note that if the footing dowels are bent for placement on top of the
footing reinforcement , the bent portion cannot be considered effective for development the bars in compression.
0.5
0.6
4
3.5
4
4
3.5
600
175.9
4.1
4.1 0.364
1.492
63.75
( L + 2 X ) * ( B + 2 X )
25
X
20
G.L
Eh =
Fd =
B =
h =
X
Y
( )
b t b t
A A A A
H
+ +
3
\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 22/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
Eh = mm
300 mm structure pad
a = mm Pedestal Size
Volume of Concrete Pad Vf = L x B x Fd
= x x
= m
Volume of Concrete Chimney Vp = a x a x x
= x x x
= m
Total Volume of Concrete Vc = +
= +
= m
7.13.3 BACKFILL:
Vbf =   Volume of Exposed Height of Chimney
=  
=  
= m
7.13.4 STEEL QUANTITY:
1 Chimney Rebars (Vertical Bars ):
OL = h + Eh + Fd
= m
m
A1 = OL  Fd + dc
=  +
= m m
A = A1 x
= x
= m
B = 12 x
= 12 x
= m
LP = A + B Total Pedestal Vertical Bar Length
= +
= m
2 Chimney Rebars (Ties ):
a1 = a 
=  a1
= m
LS = Total Tie Length
= m a1
3 Footing Rebars:
2.02
0.43
2. cov
0.6 0.17
0.43
( 4 x a1 ) + 0.3
0.43
25
0.30
4.46 0.30
4.76
4.390 1.016
4.46
Asd
0.30
4.6 0.6 0.3898
4.390
164.72
4.6
4.46
1.016
Vf Vp
9.600 1.464
1.464
11.064
11.064 ( a x a x ( Eh  0.3 ))
4 0.6 4
0.6 0.6 4
(h+Eh)
500
600
Exposed Height, including the
175.9 11.064 0.072
Vs Vc
9.600
175.9
A =
B =
200


\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 23/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
C1 = (( Fd  2. cov ) / 2 ) + 0.1
= m
C2 = L 
= 
= m
= C2 + C1 C2 = C1=
= +
= m
= = m Total Pad Bar Length
7.13.5 STEEL WEIGHT:
1 Chimney Rebars (Vertical Bars ):
= 25 mm Diameter of Steel Reinforcement Bars
NP = 32 Number of Steel Reinforcement Bars
LP ( Total ) = LP x NP Total Pedestal Vertical Bars Length
= x 32
= m
= W : Weight of Chimney Rebar (Per Meter)
= x
= Kg
2 Chimney Rebars (Ties ):
ds = 12 mm Diameter of Ties
NS = 21 mm Number of Ties
LS ( Total ) = LS x NS
= x 21
= m
= W : Weight of Ties (Per Meter)
= x
= Kg
3 Footing Rebars:
= 20 mm Diameter for Bottom Steel in the Pad
= + x 2 Number of Pad Bars
= +
=
LPP ( Total ) = x
= x
= m
= W : Weight of Bars (Per Meter)
= x
= Kg
Saudi Services For Electro Mechanic Works Ltd.
S.S.E.M Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
152.39
41.56 0.888
36.927
2.02
41.56
LPPW LS ( Total ) x W
74
74.00
330.04
330.04 2.468
814.539
( LPB , LPT )
4.46
NPP
NPP ( NPb NPt )
50 24
LSW LS ( Total ) x W
4.76
152.39
LPW LP ( Total ) x W
587.644
3.856
LPT LPB 4.46
LPB
0.63 3.83
4.46
( 2 x C1 )
Asd
3.83 0.315
4 0.17
3.83
( 2 x cov )
0.315
pb

\\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_3\230673500.xls.ms_office 24/25
Date: May 26, 2014
By: MAK
= KN = m
= KN = m
= KN = mm
= KN = m
= KN = mm
= KN = mm
= = mm
= = mm
=
=
= m = m = Kg
=
= m = Kg
=
= m = m = Kg
=
=
C1 = C1 =
a1=
C1 = C1 =
a1=
=
DESIGN OF PAD & CHIMNEY FOUNDATION
0
Tower Type "A10"
(Towers Include: # PI  21)
SUMMURY FOR DESIGN
F
a
c
t
o
r
e
d
L
o
a
d
s
Pc
Pu
Phx
Phy
Q
M
363.00
318.00
482.59
0.00
2400.00
1788.00
B
L
Fd
h
Eh
a
G
e
o
m
e
t
r
y
4.00
4.00
600.00
3.50
500.00
600.00
cov
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
P
r
o
p
e
r
t
i
e
s
C
f
420.00
25.00
deg
85.00
T 600.00
KN/m
KN/m
Vs 175.9
Steel of Chimney
NPt
NPb
12
25
Top reinforcement for
Pad
4.46
Total
0.30
C2
C2
3.83
3.83
0.315
0.315
0.43
0.43
QUANTITY SURVEY " One Footing"
Chimney Vertical
Bars
1439
STEEL REINFORCEMENT
CHIMNEY
BACKFILLING
Vbf 164.7
Vp
Ties ( Stirrups )
35.00
Bottom reinforcement
for Pad
PAD
KN/m
MPa
MPa
deg
24.00
17.00
0.00
28.00
EXCAVATION
Steel of Pad
Total Weight of Concrete
LPPW 815
LPSW 625
STEEL CONCRETE
Vf 10
Volume of Pad
Vc
1
11
Volume of Chimney
Total Volume of Concrete
GL
B
Fd
L
a
a Phx
Phy
Pc
OL
Eh
Chimney
Pad
h
A =
B =
200
c
c
f '
y
f
1

S
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