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Chapter 2: Portland Cement (cont.)


Tests on Portland Cement
Lab. Department is consider the main department for
cement industry to determine the
(Physical, Chemical, Mechanical)
properties of cement.
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Physical properties Chemical properties
Fineness: (Blaine method).
Affect at (rate of hydration,
bleeding, durability, gypsum
quantity, etc)
1- Composition: (raw materials)
(Fe2o3, Mgo, Al2o3, Sio2, Cao)
To know proportions and compare
with standard specifications.
Consistency: (VICAT needle,
Glimore Needle)
2- Composition: (Mill materials)
Before entering kiln, determined
(Fe2o3, Mgo, Al2o3, Sio2, Cao)
To know proportions and compare
with standard specifications.
Setting Time: (mixing, initial
setting, final setting, initial
hardening, final hardening)Times
- Factors affecting setting time are:
(Fineness, Water, cement age,
Heat, cement components)
3- Composition: Raw cement
(Clinker) analysis determine
some factors and compare it with
standard.
(Silica factor, Hydraulic factor, K
factor, etc)
Soundness(Cement Swelling): 4- Composition: (ready cement
analysis)
-to know un effective materials cao.
-(Fe2o3, Mgo, Al2o3, Sio2, Cao)
-(C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF)
according to Begue.
Heat of Hydration: (thermo
couple)
- False set and flash set.
- Compressive strength.
- Loss on ignition
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The relative quantities of each of these phases affects:
setting time
rate of strength development
overall strength
durability
colour
It is important, then, to know the composition of the cement.
Chemical Properties of Portland Cement
T Chemical analysis
Compound composition
Chemical limits
& Hydraulic Cements Tests on Portland, Blended & Hydraulic Cements
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Compound Composition: (ready cement analysis)
To know un effective materials, free cao (must be less than 1%).
To determine major comp. (Fe2o3, Mgo, Al2o3, Sio2, Cao).
To calculate (C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF) according to Begue.
To determine Loss on ignition.(heated the sample to 1000C then
calculate weight before and after ignition)
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Compound Composition: (Raw cement -Clinker- analysis):
To determine free cao (must be less than 1%).
To determine some factors and compare it with standard .
(Silica factor, Hydraulic factor, K factor, etc)
1- Silica factor (S.F.):

4 ) (1. 2
Fe2o3 Mgo
2
si o

2- Hydraulic factor (H.F):



0. 6 ) - . 5 (
C Mgo
2
si o
0
3 2 3 2


ao
o Fe o Al
If H.F is very small the volume of the cement paste will increase which
lead to destroy the cement paste, but, if H.F is very high the cement
paste will be milled.
3- K factor calcium- (Kyool):

95 )% - 0 (
9
3 2 7 . 0 3 2 1 . 1 2 8 . 2
* 100

o Fe o Al Sio
Cao
K
4- A to F factor (A/F):

4 ) - (
1
3 2
3 2

o Fe
o Al
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Physical Properties of Portland Cement
Fineness
Soundness
Consistency
Setting time
False set and flash set
Compressive strength
Heat of hydration
Loss on ignition
Density
Bulk density
Sulfate expansion
Fineness
Fineness of cement is also important; it affects:
rate of hydration (rate of hydration increases with increasing fineness)
rate of setting (setting time decreases with increasing fineness)
-increase hydration-
durability (ASR) (high cement fineness reduces the durability of
concrete to freeze )
rate of carbonation during storage
cost
rate of gypsum addition (increased fineness required a grate amount
of gypsum )
bleeding (Increasing fineness tend to decrease the amount of bleeding )
However, later strength is not directly affected.
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Blaine Fineness Apparatus

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Soundness
The main purpose of the soundness test is to assess the possible
risk of late expansion due to hydration of un combined calcium
oxide and/or magnesium oxide. The test uses apparatus known as
Le Chatelier apparatus, which magnifies any expansion during
heating to a value that can be measured.
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consistency
The main purpose of the consistency test is to determine the
required quantity of water to obtain a standard or homogeneous
past ,and water quantity is enough to hydration process.
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Setting time
The time it takes for a cement to stiffen to a standard value after
addition of water is commonly known as the set time. The test
involves mixing cement with water and then measuring its
resistance to penetration of a standard probe at varying intervals of
time, until a certain value is reached.
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Factors affecting setting time:
(Fineness w/c ratio cement age Heat cement components)
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Early stiffening (False set & Flash set)
False set refers to the rapid development of rigidity without the
evolution of much heat.
Flash set (quick set) refers to the rapid development of rigidity
without the evolution of considerable heat.
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