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RA 1425:

ang Batas Rizal


(JUNE 12, 1956)

by hanabacasno in Portrait Vectors (Vector Paintings)

Ni Roland Lorenzo M. Ruben

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1425


AN ACT TO INCLUDE IN THE CURRICULA OF ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES COURSES ON THE LIFE, WORKS AND WRITINGS OF JOSE RIZAL, PARTICULARLY HIS NOVELS NOLI ME TANGERE AND EL FILIBUSTERISMO, AUTHORIZING THE PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

WHEREAS, today, more than any other period of our history, there is a need for a re-dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died; WHEREAS, it is meet that in honoring them, particularly the national hero and patriot, Jose Rizal, we remember with special fondness and devotion their lives and works that have shaped the national character; WHEREAS, the life, works and writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, are a constant and inspiring source of patriotism with which the minds of the youth, especially during their formative and decisive years in school, should be suffused; WHEREAS, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by the State, and all schools are enjoined to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and to teach the duties of citizenship; Now, therefore,

Section 1. Courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novel Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities, public or private: Provided, That in the collegiate courses, the original or unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo of their English translation shall be used as basic texts. The Board of National Education is hereby authorized and directed to adopt forthwith measures to implement and carry out the provisions of this Section, including the writing and printing of appropriate primers, readers and textbooks. The Board shall, within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act, promulgate rules and regulations, including those of disciplinary nature, to carry out and enforce the provisions of this Act. The Board shall promulgate rules and regulations providing for the exemption of students for reasons of religious belief stated in a sworn written statement, from the requirement of the provision contained in the second part of the first paragraph of this section; but not from taking the course provided for in the first part of said paragraph. Said rules and regulations shall take effect thirty (30) days after their publication in the Official Gazette.

Section 2. It shall be obligatory on all schools, colleges and universities to keep in their libraries an adequate number of copies of the original and unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as of Rizal's other works and biography. The said unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their translations in English as well as other writings of Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for required reading in all public or private schools, colleges and universities. The Board of National Education shall determine the adequacy of the number of books, depending upon the enrollment of the school, college or university.

Section 3. The Board of National Education shall cause the translation of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as other writings of Jose Rizal into English, Tagalog and the principal Philippine dialects; cause them to be printed in cheap, popular editions; and cause them to be distributed, free of charge, to persons desiring to read them, through the Purok organizations and Barrio Councils throughout the country.

Section 4. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as amendment or repealing section nine hundred twentyseven of the Administrative Code, prohibiting the discussion of religious doctrines by public school teachers and other person engaged in any public school. Section 5. The sum of three hundred thousand pesos is hereby authorized to be appropriated out of any fund not otherwise appropriated in the National Treasury to carry out the purposes of this Act.

Section 6. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.


Approved: June 12, 1956

Pagbabalik-tanaw
Sa bisa ng R. A. 1425 (Batas Rizal), mahigit 55 taon nang kinukuha ng mga mag-aaral sa kolehiyo ang kursong tumatalakay sa buhay at mga akda ni Jose Rizal. Mahalagang balikan ang konteksto ng pagpapanukala at ang mga naging kaakibat na isyu sa pagsusulong nito.

Ang Pilipinas Matapos ang Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig


1. Nagpatuloy ang dominasyon ng Estados Unidos sa Pilipinas partikular na sa aspetong pampulitika, pangmilitar at pang ekonomiya. 2. Patuloy na pakikibaka ng mga Pilipino para sa tunay at ganap na pagbabagong Panlipunan

Si Recto at ang Batas Rizal


Sa gitna ng mga panlipunang suliraning ito, isang makabayang Pilipino ang pumagitna at naghain ng akmang solusyon. Itinuturing si Sen. Claro M. Recto na mahigpit na oposisyon sa mga polisiyang isinulong nina Pang. Elpidio Quirino at Pang. Ramon Magsaysay.

Maalam sa mga akda at buhay ni Rizal, naniniwala si Claro M. Recto na integral sa pagmamahal sa bayan ang pag-aaral sa mga dakilang gawa ng ating Pambansang Bayani.
the reading of Rizals novels would strengthen the Filipinism of the youth and foster patriotism.

- C. M. Recto
Sa layuning ito, kanyang isinulong ang sapilitang pag-aaral sa buhay at mga sinulat ni Dr. Jose Rizal sa mga mag-aaral ng kolehiyo.

We, too, can prosper, as other nations which have become free and have known how to rely on themselves with dignity and self-respect have prospered. Our people deserve a better fate, a destiny realized in happiness and freedom
- Claro M. Recto

Ang Batas Rizal (R.A. 1425)


Inihapag sa Senado ni Sen. Jose P. Laurel ang isang panukalang batas (Senate Bill 438) na naglalayong pag-aralan ang buhay at mga akda ni Jose Rizal noong Abril 17, 1956. Si Sen. Laurel bilang Tagapangulo ng Senate Committee on Education ang naghapag nito, subalit ang orihinal na panukala ay inakda ni Sen. Claro M. Recto.

Senate Bill 438


An Act to make Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo compulsory reading matter in all public and private colleges and universities and for other purposes.

Ang panukalang ito ay tumanggap ng maraming mga pagbatikos mula sa mga Katolikong Senador.

Ilan sa mga ito ay sina:


Sen. Decoroso Rosales Sen. Mariano Cuenco

Sen. Francisco Rodrigo


Ang mga pagbatikos ng mga senador na ito ang nagbigay-daan para sa mga debate sa pagitan ng mga laban at pumapabor dito. Si Claro M. Recto bilang orihinal na may-akda ng panukala ang siyang buong-giting na nagdepensa sa kahalagahan ng panukala para sa mas malalim na pagkakilala sa pagiging Pilipino at pagmamahal sa bayan.

Maliban sa mga nabanggit na Senador, ang Catholic Action of Manila (CAM) ang isa sa mga pangunahing organisasyon na naglunsad ng mga kampanya laban sa panukala:
(1) ang kanilang opisyal na pahayagan, Sentinel ay inilabas na araw-araw sa halip na isang beses lamang sa isang linggo at; (2) hinikayat ang mga Katoliko na sumulat sa mga Senador at Kongresman na ibasura ang Batas Rizal

Mga Pahayag Laban sa Panukalang Batas Rizal


Compulsion to read something against ones religious convictions was no different from a requirement to salute the flag, which according to the latest decision on the matter by the US Supreme Court, was an impairment both of freedom of speech and freedom of religion.
- Principal argument of Senators Rodrigo, Rosales and Cuenco

A vast majority of our people are at the same time Catholics and Filipino citizens. As such, they have two great loves: their country and their faith. These two loves are not conflicting loves. They are harmonious affections, like the love of a child for his father and for his mother. This is the basis of my stand. Let us not create a conflict between nationalism and religion; between the government and the church. - Senator Francisco Rodrigo

Rizals novels belong to the past and it would be harmful to read them because they presented a false picture of conditions in the country at that time. Noli Me Tangere is an attack on the clergy and its object was to put to ridicule the Catholic faith. The novel was not really patriotic because out of 333 pages, only 25 contained patriotic passages while 120 were devoted to anti-Catholic attack.
- Fr. Jesus Cavanna
(speaker on the symposium organized by CAM)

Since some parts of the novels had been declared objectionable matter by the hierarchy, Catholics had the right to refuse to read them so as not to endanger their salvation.
- Jesus Paredes Radio commentator

The bill was Rectos revenge against the Catholic voters who, together with Magsaysay, were responsible for his poor showing in the 1955 senatorial elections.
- Narciso Pimentel Jr. Radio commentator

Laban sa Simbahang Katoliko


Ang lahat ng pagbatikos sa panukalang batas na ito ay bunga ng paniniwala ng mga Senador na makakasira sa imahe ng Simbahan ang pagbabasa sa mga nobela at maging sa buhay ni Rizal.

Sa isang pastoral letter na inilabas ng Simbahang Katoliko, binabanggit na sa 333 pahinang edisyon ng nobela ni Rizal, 25 bahagi lamang ang naglalaman ng makabayang damdamin. 120 naman ay inilaan ni Rizal bilang pang-atake sa Simbahang katoliko.

Kasama rin sa nasabing pastoral letter ang pagbanggit sa 170 bahagi mula sa Noli at 50 bahagi mula sa Fili na naglalayong sirain ang magandang imahe ng Simbahang Katoliko.

Sa pananalita ng isang Senador: But I cannot allow my son who is now 16 to read the Noli Me Tangere and the El Filibusterismo lest he lose his faith.
Sen. Rodrigo

Hindi na lamang sa loob ng Senado ang kontrobersiyang idinulot ng panukalang batas. Nakialam na rin ang Simbahang Katoliko tungkol sa isyu. Binantaan ng Simbahan si Recto na ipapasara nila ang lahat ng mga paaralang Katoliko sa sandaling maipasa ang nasabing panukalang batas.

Ang Tagapagtanggol ng Panukalang Batas


Sa gitna ng mainit na debateng ibinunga ng panukalang batas, nanatiling hindi natitinag ang nagpanukala nito- si Sen. Claro M. Recto. Sa Senado, hindi napigilan si Recto sa pagtatanggol para sa nasabing panukala

Sa tatlong oras na talumpati sa Senado, binatikos ni Recto ang pastoral letter ng Simbahang Katoliko. Ayon sa kanya, dinaig pa ng pastoral letter ang pagkundena ng mga Dominikano sa mga nobela na naging dahilan ng pagbaril kay Rizal sa Luneta noong ika-19 dantaon.

Dagdag pa rito, binanggit ni Recto na ang pagbabasa ng nasabing pastoral letter should open the eyes of the people to the real enemies of Rizal and true nationalism

Bilang tugon sa bantang ipapasara ng Simbahan ang mga paaralang Katoliko sa sandaling maipasa ang batas, nakita ni Recto na pabor ito sa bansa upang maisakatapuran na ang nationalization ng mga paaralan. Katulad ng Senate Bill 438, hakbang din ito upang mapalawak ang nasyonalismo sa mga Filipino.
Ayon kay Recto, They (Catholic Church) are making too much profit which they can ill-afford to give up.

Rizal did not pretend to teach religion or theology when he wrote these books.

He aimed at inculcating civic consciousness in the Filipinos, national dignity, personal pride, and PATRIOTISM, and if
references were made by him in the course of his narration to certain religious practices in the Philippines in those days and to the conduct and behavior of erring ministers of the church, it was because he portrayed faithfully the general situation in the Philippines as it then existed.

- CM Recto

Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo must be read by all Filipinos. They must be taken to heart, for in their pages we see ourselves as in a mirror: our defects as well as our strength, our virtues as well as our vices. Only then would we become conscious as a people, and so learn to prepare ourselves for painful sacrifices that ultimately lead to self-reliance, self-respect and freedom. -Senator Jose P. Laurel

Dahil humigit na sa dalawang linggo ang matindihang debate at tila walang pinatutunguhang pag-uusap tungkol sa panukala, nirebisa ni Sen. Laurel ang panukala. An Act to include in the curricula of all public and private schools, colleges and universities courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, authorizing the printing and distribution, thereof, and for other purposes.

Original text

Revised text An Act to include in the curricula of all public and private schools, colleges and universities courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filiobusterismo, authorizing the printing and distribution, thereof, and for other purposes.

An Act to make Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo compulsory reading matter in all public and private colleges and universities and for other purposes.

Malinaw na tinanggal ni Sen. Laurel ang ideya ng sapilitan (compulsion). Marami pa rin ang umasa na hindi ito maaprobahan (kabilang na si Cong. Miguel Cuenco) ngunit nabigo ang mga ito, sapagkat

Senado: Naipasa ang batas na 23 senador ang pabor (Panukalang Batas bilang 438)
Mababang Kapulungan ng Kongreso: 71 ang pabor; 9 ang hindi pabor; 2 nagpasyang di bumoto (Panukalang Batas bilang 5564) Ang pinagsamang PB 438 at PB 5564 ay naging Batas Pambansa bilang 1425. Nilagdaan ang panukalang batas ng dating Pangulong Ramon Magsaysay at naging Republic Act 1425 noong Hunyo 12,1956 na mas lalong popular sa tawag na BATAS RIZAL.

Ang Batas Pambansa 1425 noong Dekada 90


Memorandum Order 246 Pang. Fidel V. Ramos, ika-26 ng Disyembre, 1994 CHED memos:
bilang 3, 1995 bilang 6, 1996

Sa gitna ng panlabas at panloob na mga panlipunang suliraning kinaharap ng bansa noong 1950s, naniwala si Recto na ang pagaaral sa buhay at akda ni Rizal ang gigising sa natutulog na damdaming makabayan ng mga Pilipinong magaaral.

Taong 1956 nang ipasa at ipatupad ang R.A. 1425. Makalipas ang 55 taon, nananatili pa rin ang mga suliraning panlipunan; nananatili pa rin ang pangangailangan ng bansa sa mga bayani; nananatili pa rin ang bisa ng mga sinulat ni Rizal. At nananatili pa rin ang panawagan ni Rizal na mahalin at paglingkuran ang Inang Bayan.

Sa panahon natin ngayon na puro banyagang gamit, wika, kultura na lang ang tinatangkilik natin hindi maiwasan na mawala ang pagmamahal natin sa sarili nating bayan o ang nasyonalismo na nabaon na sa limot

Nasaan ang kabataang dapat mag-alay ng kanyang kasariwaan, ng kanyang mga panaginip at sigasig ukol sa kabutihan ng kanyang Inang Bayan?...Hinihintay namin kayo, o mga kabataan! Halikayo sapagkat hinihintay namin kayo!
Padre Florentino El Filibusterismo

Thoughts to ponder
The most predominantly Catholic country in Asia and it chooses a mason and anti-cleric to be its national hero. Either the Filipino is a split personality or the greatest practioner in the art of uniting opposites. What a nation! Voltaire de Leon 31 May 2008 at 1pm

Web source: http://philippinesfreepress.wordpress.com/2006/05/05/the-church-underattack-may-5-1956/#comments

PAGPILI NG PAMBANSANG BAYANI

Komisyong Taft (1901)


Governor-General William Howard Taft: kinakailangang magkaroon ang Pilipinas ng Pambansang Bayani. Ang pambansang bayani na ito ang magiging pambansang huwaran ng mga mamamayang Pilipino.

Komisyong Taft
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wiliam Howard Taft Morgan Shuster Bernard Moses Dean Worcester Henry Clay Ide

Komisyong Taft
6. 7. 8. 9. Trinidad Pardo H. de Tavera Gregorio Araneta Cayetano Arellano Jose Luzurriaga

Pamantayan
1. 2. 3. 4. Isang Pilipino Yumao na May matayog na pagmamahal sa bayan May mahinahong damdamin

Mga pinagpilian

Marcelo H. del Pilar

Graciano Lopez Jaena

Jose Rizal

Antonio Luna Emilio Jacinto

Graciano Lopez-Jaena (1856-1896)


Jaro, Iloilo Filipino journalist Orator Revolutionary from Iloilo Founder, editor of La Solidaridad Died of tuberculosis on Jan 20, 1896 in Barcelona, Spain

Marcelo H. del Pilar (1850-1896)


Born on August 30, 1850 in Cupang, Bulacan, Bulacan Filipino writer, journalist, satirist Revolutionary leader Died of tuberculosis in Barcelona, Spain on July 4, 1896

Jose P. Rizal (1861-1896)


Born in June 19, 1861 in Calamba, Laguna Filipino polymath Foremost Filipino Patriot Wrote the Noli and Fili Founder of La Liga Filipina Executed by the Spanish on Dec 30, 1896 in Bagumbayan

Emilio Jacinto (1875-1899)


Born in Trozo, Tondo on Dec 15, 1875 Filipino revolutionary The Brain of the Katipunan Studied in San Juan de Letran College then in UST Writer Dimasilaw Contracted malaria and died in Magdalena, Laguna in April 16, 1899

Antonio Luna (1866-1899)


Born October 29, 1866 in Urbiztondo, Binondo, Manila Filipino pharmacist Wrote for La Solidaridad revolutiionary Brigadier-general who fought in the PhilippineAmerican War Killed by fellow Fililipinos on June 5, 1899

Si Rizal ang napili dahil


1. Siya ang kauna-unahang Pilipino umakit upang ang buong bansa ay magkaisang maghimagsik laban sa kolonyalistang Espanya, sa pamamagitan ng dalawa niyang nobela, ang Noli Me Tangere at El Filibusterismo. 2. Huwaran siya ng kapayapaan.

3. Ang mga Pilipino ay sentimental o maramdamin.

Maraming Salamat!
Mabuhay ang mga Kabataang Para sa Bayan!

Salamat kina: G. Jely A. Galang , Bb. Janet S. Reguindin at G. Bernard Esternon

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