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Ryan Jacobs 8th grade Social Studies American History: Thirteen Colonies to American Civil War Unit: Creating

the Constitution Sparta Middle School Class Period: 55 minutes Average Class Size: 32

Table of Contents 1. Inventory 2. Course Outline 3. Unit Overview Material 4. Daily Lessons 5. Unit Evaluation 6. Summary Evaluation

Inventory
Teaching Methods 1. Lecture a. Using power point 2. Reading accompanied by written responses a. Textbook and supplemented reading 3. Videos 4. Discussion a. Recaps b. Current Events i. Teacher facilitated discussion 5. Debate a. Students debate topics online 6. Character Profiles a. Students create Facebook profiles for historical figures 7. Simulation a. Class votes on end of the year party Resources 1. Supplemented reading a. Intro to the Articles of Confederation b. Howard Zinn c. Federalist Papers No. 10 and 51 2. Textbook a. Each student has a History Alive textbook 3. Character Profiles a. Each student will have a character description sheet from History Alive workbook 4. Computer lab a. Students will need to be in the computer lab for a 3 lessons during the unit 5. Worksheets a. Pretest/Posttest b. Bubble Note sheet c. Chapter 7 Packet from History Alive 6. Videos a. 2 videos for Electoral College b. Anticipatory Set: Why do we care about Constitution? 7. Power points a. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation b. Northwest Ordinance

Course Outline
Big Ideas 1. How is having a strong national government good or bad for society? 2. What does it mean to be an American? 3. How has human diversity either helped or hindered human progress?

Unit Overview Material


Unit Guide Questions I. II. Why was the U.S. Constitution created? Why did delegates disagree on so many issues? How did they fix those issues?

Course Goals This unit specifically targets content level expectations for the state of Michigan in regards to 8th grade Social Studies. At the beginning of the unit the students will learn about the Articles of Confederation and the weaknesses it possessed that led to political, economic, and civil instability in the United States. Student will learn how the troubles experienced by the nation and citizens were in direct connection to the Articles of Confederation. Next, the major issues of the Constitutional Convention will be discussed and the compromises that were made to resolve these issues. Lastly, students will gain an understanding of the ratification of the Constitution and the subsequent development of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist political parties and their connection to the major issues in the Constitution. This unit is important for students because it can be directly tied to their lives. This unit in history covers the creation of our current form of government. The key political, economic, and social issues today are still handled by the same government body which our Founding Fathers created over 200 years ago. To better understand the way our government and politics function today, it is paramount that students are knowledgeable about the origins, creation, important figures, and key issues that resulted in the development and ratifying of our Constitution. Unit Objectives Students will be able to list the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Students will be able to describe major political, social, and economic problems under the Articles of Confederation Students will be able to explain the need for a new Constitution Students will be able to identify and analyze key issues during the Constitutional Convention and the compromises that were made Students will be able to explain the Electoral College Students will be able to describe how the Constitution was ratified Students will be able to list the two main competing political factions of the time and describe their characteristics

State Standards All of these state standards will be addressed in the Unit Plan. Each individual unit will target a specific standard(s). 8 U3.3.1 Explain the reasons for the adoption and subsequent failure of the Articles of Confederation (e.g., why its drafters created a weak central government, challenges the nation faced under the Articles, Shays Rebellion, disputes over western lands). (C2) 8 U3.3.2 Identify economic and political questions facing the nation during the period of the Articles of Confederation and the opening of the Constitutional Convention. (E1.4) 8 U3.3.3 Describe the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention including the distribution of political power, conduct of foreign affairs, rights of individuals, rights of states, election of the executive, and slavery as a regional and federal issue. 8 U3.3.4 Explain how the new constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues including sharing, separating, and checking of power among federal government institutions, dual sovereignty (state-federal power), rights of individuals, the Electoral College, the Three-Fifths Compromise, and the Great Compromise. 8 U3.3.5 Analyze the debates over the ratification of the Constitution from the perspectives of Federalists and Anti-Federalists and describe how the states ratified the Constitution. (C2) (National Geography Standard 3, p. 148) 8 U3.3.6 Explain how the Bill of Rights reflected the concept of limited government, protections of basic freedoms, and the fear of many Americans of a strong central government. (C3) 8 U3.3.7 Using important documents (e.g., Mayflower Compact, Iroquois Confederacy, Common Sense, Declaration of Independence, Northwest Ordinance, Federalist Papers), describe the historical and philosophical origins of constitutional government in the United States using the ideas of social compact, limited government, natural rights, right of revolution, separation.

Unit Calendar

Day 1: Chapter 7 Pretest Chaper 7 Vocabulary HW: Vocab 1-6

Day 2: Introduction Day 3: Weakness to the Articles of of the Articles of Confederation- End Confederation of the year party Q: Why do we care Q: Why was it so about the hard to agree on Constitution? one thing? What were the major weaknesses Hw: Finish Vocab of the Articles? Hw: Finish Bubble Notes

Day 4: Howard Zinn Reading Q: Was the Constitution created for everyone? Hw: Finish Zinn reading and questions

Day 5: Chapter 8 Sect. 8.3 and the North West Ordinance Q: Why is the Northwest Ordinance regarded as the one thing the Articles did right? Hw: Question 8.3

Day 6: Read Sections 8.4 to 8.8 Q: What were the major issues and compromises during the convention? Hw: Questions 8.4 to 8.8 Day 11: We the Ppl Q: How did your historical figure feel about key issues? Hw: Finish prompts

Day 7: We the Ppl Q: How did my historical figure feel about various political issues?

Day 8: We the Ppl Q: How did my historical figure feel about various political issues? Hw: Finish about me and online prompts

Day 9: Electoral College Q: How did the Electoral College settle the fears of the framers? Hw: Questions 8.9 to 8.12

Day 10: Federalist Papers No. 10 & 51 Q: How is a strong national government good or bad for society? Hw: None

Day 12:Review for Chapter 8 Posttest Hw: Study

Day 13: Chapter 8 Posttest

Yearly Calendar
September: First Week o Introduction to teacher, classroom, and classmates Second and Third Week o Colonial America Fourth Week o Road to Revolution

October Fifth Week o Road to Revolution Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Week o The American Revolutionary War Ninth Week o Creating the Constitution

November Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Week o Creating the Constitution o Thanksgiving Break

December Thirteenth and Fourteenth Week o The Constitution: A More Perfect Union

Lesson Plans
Day 1 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Attendance and Good things Objective: Students are learning key vocabulary terms so they can better understand the creation of the Constitution. Chapter 6 Possttest Chapter 7 Pretest Chapter 7 Vocabulary Homework a. Students need to finish 1-6 of their vocabulary

Day 2 I. II. III. Attendance and Good things Objective: Students will be able to list and describe at least three out of the five major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Current Events a. Pull up prompt asking students: i. How do you define poverty? ii. How do you define wealth? b. Have students discuss it within their groups for 5 minutes c. Call on students to share what they think d. Show video i. Distribution of Wealth in America 1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPKKQnijnsM ii. Ask students how they feel about the video and what are some things they could do to help their future. Intro to Articles of Confederation a. Randomly pass out a deck of cards to the students i. Cards are arranged to guaranteed there will be 13 separate groups with 2-3 students b. Tell students that they are having an end of the semester party, but only if they can agree on the same thing to eat i. Has to be specific Cant just be pizza or Mexican food ii. Tell students they have 2 minutes to discuss it within their groups iii. While students are discussing move around to 5 groups and discretely tell them not to vote iv. When time is up tell students that they will need 9 out of the 13 groups to agree in order to have an end of the year party

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1. Have one group nominate something to eat and explain that it needs a second by another group to go to class vote. Have the class vote if nomination gets a second 2. Because the game is rigged there will never be a conclusion c. Repeat exercise d. After another failed attempt to agree on a food, explain to class how activity is a metaphor to show them the issues the states had under the Articles of Confederation Homework a. Students need to finish up their Vocabulary packets

Day 3 I. II. III. IV. Attendance and Good things Objective: Explain the reasons for the adoption and subsequent failure of the Articles of Confederation (e.g., why its drafters created a weak central government, challenges the nation faced under the Articles, Shays Rebellion, disputes over western lands). (C2) Correct Chapter 7 Vocabulary a. Before correcting walk around the class to give students credit for completion b. Put master copy of Vocabulary under Elmo so students can write down correct information i. Read through answers Why do we care about the Constitution? a. Anticipatory Set i. Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-RYlAPjyNm8 ii. Talk about how the Constitution sets up a government which derives its power from the people and guarantees us rights, without which, we could be oppressed by a brutal tyrant 1. No freedom of religion, speech, due process, etc. Pass out supplemented reading to students on the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation a. While students are silently reading it to themselves pass out the Bubble Worksheet Weakness of Articles Power Point a. Tell students they will need to fill out their bubbles with the 5 main weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation b. Lecture like a boss Following lecture have students fill out the question on the back of their Bubble Worksheets Homework a. Finish Bubble Worksheet

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Day 4 I. II. Attendance and Good things Objective: Explain the reasons for the adoption and subsequent failure of the Articles of

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Confederation (e.g., why its drafters created a weak central government, challenges the nation faced under the Articles, Shays Rebellion, disputes over western lands). (C2) Supplemented Reading a. Howard Zinns Peoples History of the United States i. Excerpt from Kind of Revolution chapter b. Each student will receive their own copy of the reading c. Students will read the excerpt silently and individually in their seats d. Students will be directed to the following questions on the smart board i. Do you think the Constitution was really made for everyone? ii. What were some of the framers potential motives? iii. How is having a strong national government good or bad for society? e. Students will be expected to write written responses to these questions on a separate piece of paper Homework a. Finish Zinn reading and answer questions

Day 5 I. II. III. Attendance and Good things Objective: Identify economic and political questions facing the nation during the period of the Articles of Confederation and the opening of the Constitutional Convention. (E1.4) Discuss students written responses from previous day i. Do you think the Constitution was really made for everyone? ii. What were some of the framers potential motives? iii. How is having a strong national government good or bad for society? b. Ask students if they found anything surprising about the various perspectives and point of views in the Zinn reading c. Ask how the Zinn reading compares to the content they read the other day on the Articles of Confederation Chapter 8 Question Packets a. Pass out Chapter 8 packets to students and have them open up their History Alive text books to page 103 b. Group read p. 103-105 i. Read the first section to students and have the students popcorn read the rest of the sections for the day c. Students will be needing to answer question 8.3 in their packet Northwest Ordinance Power Point Homework a. Packet Question 8.3

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Day 6 I. Attendance and Good things

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Objective: a. Describe the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention including the distribution of political power, conduct of foreign affairs, rights of individuals, rights of states, election of the executive, and slavery as a regional and federal issue. b. Explain how the new constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues including sharing, separating, and checking of power among federal government institutions, dual sovereignty (state-federal power), rights of individuals, the Electoral College, the ThreeFifths Compromise, and the Great Compromise. Recap a. Tell students to discuss within their groups what was talked about in class the previous day. After a minute ask students what they remember Packet Questions a. Tell students to get out their books and open up to page 106 b. They will need to read up to page 112 and answer packet questions 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8 c. Give the students the choice to work alone or within their groups d. Periodically walk and around and check students answers to make sure they are on track Homework a. Packet questions 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8

Day 7 I. II. Attendance and good things We The Ppl a. Hand out We the Ppl directions i. Read directions to class b. After reading out directions, pass out character profiles to students i. Character profiles were copied from History Alive workbook ii. Give more active/creative students the more well-known characters c. Dismiss students to the media center one group at a time Homework a. None

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Day 8 I. II. Attendance and good things Objective: a. 8 U3.3.3 Describe the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention including the distribution of political power, conduct of foreign affairs, rights of individuals, rights of states, election of the executive, and slavery as a regional and federal issue. b. 8 U3.3.4 Explain how the new constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues including sharing, separating, and checking of power among federal government

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institutions, dual sovereignty (state-federal power), rights of individuals, the Electoral College, the Three-Fifths Compromise, and the Great Compromise. c. 8 U3.3.5 Analyze the debates over the ratification of the Constitution from the perspectives of Federalists and Anti-Federalists and describe how the states ratified the Constitution. (C2) (National Geography Standard 3, p. 148) Current Events a. Show students Youtube videos on the technology of the future and how it can affect education in the classroom i. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZkHpNnXLB0 We The Ppl a. Take students back to the lab so they can finish their About Me b. Students also need to create prompts created by teacher Homework a. Finish About Me and answer online prompts

Day 9 I. II. Attendance and good things Objectives: a. 8 U3.3.3 Describe the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention including the distribution of political power, conduct of foreign affairs, rights of individuals, rights of states, election of the executive, and slavery as a regional and federal issue. b. 8 U3.3.4 Explain how the new constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues including sharing, separating, and checking of power among federal government institutions, dual sovereignty (state-federal power), rights of individuals, the Electoral College, the Three-Fifths Compromise, and the Great Compromise. c. 8 U3.3.5 Analyze the debates over the ratification of the Constitution from the perspectives of Federalists and Anti-Federalists and describe how the states ratified the Constitution. (C2) (National Geography Standard 3, p. 148) Pass out printed off Quizlet sheet to students a. This is a study guide for the students Recap a. Ask students to discuss in their groups about some of the things they remember from the readings in regards to the Constitutional Convention Textbook Reading a. Have students open books to 113 and tell them to get out their packets b. Read the first section and then do popcorn reading for the rest of the chapter till page 117 Videos a. Schoolhouse Rock Electoral College i. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyIFqf3XH24 b. Electoral College in Plain English

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i. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ok_VQ8I7g6I After videos, have students finish packet questions 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12 Homework a. Finish packets

Day 10 I. II. Attendance and good things Objectives: a. 8 U3.3.4 Explain how the new constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues including sharing, separating, and checking of power among federal government institutions, dual sovereignty (state-federal power), rights of individuals, the Electoral College, the Three-Fifths Compromise, and the Great Compromise. b. 8 U3.3.5 Analyze the debates over the ratification of the Constitution from the perspectives of Federalists and Anti-Federalists and describe how the states ratified the Constitution. (C2) (National Geography Standard 3, p. 148) Federalist Papers a. Federalist Papers No. 10 & 51 i. Pass out the two Federalist Papers to the students ii. Allow the students to work with a partner to read the documents iii. Once the students have finished reading the two primary sources have a class discussion on the following questions 1. Does Madison believe a strong national government is good or bad for society? 2. What are Madisons major fears regarding strong national government? 3. How does he plan to prevent the national government from becoming too powerful? iv. If the class is struggling with the document and its meaning, help facilitate discussion for the remainder of the class period. Homework a. None

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Day 11 I. II. Attendance and good things Objectives: b. 8 U3.3.3 Describe the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention including the distribution of political power, conduct of foreign affairs, rights of individuals, rights of states, election of the executive, and slavery as a regional and federal issue. c. 8 U3.3.4 Explain how the new constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues including sharing, separating, and checking of power among federal government institutions, dual sovereignty (state-federal power), rights of individuals, the Electoral College, the Three-Fifths Compromise, and the Great Compromise.

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d. 8 U3.3.5 Analyze the debates over the ratification of the Constitution from the perspectives of Federalists and Anti-Federalists and describe how the states ratified the Constitution. (C2) (National Geography Standard 3, p. 148) Chapter 8 Packets a. Walk around class and give students check if packet is completed b. Go over answers to packet by selecting popsicle sticks and having students read their answers We the Ppl a. Edmodo Constitutional Convention i. Take students to lab ii. Have them answer all prompts available to them on Edmodo Homework a. Finish prompts on Edmodo

Day 12 I. II. Attendance and good things Objectives: a. 8 U3.3.1 Explain the reasons for the adoption and subsequent failure of the Articles of Confederation (e.g., why its drafters created a weak central government, challenges the nation faced under the Articles, Shays Rebellion, disputes over western lands). (C2) b. 8 U3.3.2 Identify economic and political questions facing the nation during the period of the Articles of Confederation and the opening of the Constitutional Convention. (E1.4) c. 8 U3.3.3 Describe the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention including the distribution of political power, conduct of foreign affairs, rights of individuals, rights of states, election of the executive, and slavery as a regional and federal issue. d. 8 U3.3.4 Explain how the new constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues including sharing, separating, and checking of power among federal government institutions, dual sovereignty (state-federal power), rights of individuals, the Electoral College, the Three-Fifths Compromise, and the Great Compromise. e. 8 U3.3.5 Analyze the debates over the ratification of the Constitution from the perspectives of Federalists and Anti-Federalists and describe how the states ratified the Constitution. (C2) (National Geography Standard 3, p. 148) Review for Chapter 8 Posttest a. Have struggling students go to media center to practice Quizlet for Chapter 8 test b. Play Jeopardy with the remaining students i. The groups they are already in will be their team for the game ii. Have the supply runners in each group grab a white board, marker, and eraser for every group member iii. Students will answer the questions individually and flip their white board upside down when they finish writing their answer

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iv. Have all students hold up their boards at once so I can see student answers and correct any misconceptions when I see them IV. Homework a. Study for test

Day 13 I. II. Attendance and good things Chapter 8 Posttest

Unit Evaluation
Students will be formally assessed in two main ways: 1. Posttest a. At the end of the Unit, students will take a summative assessment measuring their mastery of content b. This test will evaluate students on their knowledge of the content through multiple choice questions and matching key vocabulary terms 2. Edmodo Debate a. During the course of the Unit, students are participating in a series of online assessments b. Students will be asked a prompts which will challenge them not only to describe content, but to analyze specific issues and decisions made during the Constitutional Convention i. Students will develop Historical Thinking because they are not answering the questions how they would, but instead how their historical figure would answer

Summary Evaluation
I am currently teaching this Unit to my 8th graders in my teaching assisting placement. I really like my We the Ppl activity. I think it is a creative way to implement technology and get students engaged in the content. I am not too sure how I feel about the other things in my unit. Many of the materials are either borrowed from past teachers or work sheets from History Alive. For future references I would like to use more primary resources to show the students the different point of views the delegates had on key issues at the Constitutional Convention. From this I would like there to be more discussion within the classroom, because after all, they are learning about one of the greatest debates in history. I would also change my summative assessment. The summative assessment used in this Unit is borrowed from another teacher. I would rather create my own assessment for the end of the unit.