You are on page 1of 21

..

.~

REPOR-:f

SIGNIFICANCE OF NON - DESTRUCTIVE


TESTING OF CONCRETE

~
'Va
. ~
.

~(. I I'.}. 26

AP;'UEC fv1ECHAIliCSDEPARTMENT
/"IV ~IVNAl. ~ Oi..Lf{;~ \,It ENf:INEER,I'4!';' ..f Chl'jOL
ur
ftlC T ~9~ ~n.,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

: ta,ke thlS "'pport mi ty to express m;' sincere tha,nks a,nd deep sense of
grati tude to my guide Hiss Vaishal1 Patel Department of Applied tlechanics, Sardar
"alla,bhbhai Regional College of EngHreering &: Technology, Surat "nthout whose
guidance and encourageroent this seminar mould not have been fulfilled.

Ja,ln Niktlll R.
BE. IV CI"IL"
CONTENT

1.0 UITRODUCTION

2, u t-[E71-iODS
FORNIT OF CONCRETE

L.,. SUPFACEHAFiDNESSHETHOD

2.1.1 INDENTATIONMETHOD

:.1.2 REBOI~1D
METHOD

2.: IBR1..TION
OR D't1lliIIC METHOD

:.2.1 RESONANT
FREQUENCY
METHOD

2.2,2 PULSEvELOSIT:METHOt

iA SONICPULSEVELOCIT, METHOD

B \ ULTRASONICPU:"SEVELOC:""',HETHOD

2.3 RADIO-ACTI''E ORNUCLE,a.R


!lETHO:

2,4. J. HAGNETI: HETHODS

2. it.: :~IELECTRJ."
liEA.SURE11Et;;'S

2.4.3 ELECTRICAL
RESISTI'IT: TES:

2.5 n'THERETHOD;;:;

2.5 1 PENETRa.TION
METHOD

2.5.2 PULLOUtMETrlOD

2.5.3 ACOUSTI~
EMISSlv~TES:

2.6 COHBINEDMETHODS

2,'" CONCLUSION

REFERENCES.

I
_S.EMINAR '99
;

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Concrete is a composite material made from cement, fine aggregate, coarse


aggregate and water. A large number of variables are involved in the production of
concrete that affect the properties of the resulting concrete. It is important to know
the properties of concrete in its final form in the structure proper. The conventional
method of ascertaining the quality of concrete is to test a number of control
specimens. This, at best, can give the potential quality of concrete as mixed.

It is desirable to have some method of testing the concrete in the structure


without damaging it. This is possible with the help of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT).
NDT can be defined as examining material or products to determine their fitness for
certain purpose or functional requirement without impairing their desirable properties.

NDT methods of testing concrete can not be expected to yield absolute values
-- of strength. Therefore these methods attempt to measure some other property of
concrete from which an estimate of its strength. Its durability and its elastic
parameters is obtained.

NDT is a quality assurance managementtool which can give impressive results


when used correctly. It requires an understanding of the various methods available,
their capabilities and limitations. knowledge of the relevant standards and
specifications for performing the tests.

This paper discuss various NDT methods which are most commonly used in
the testing of concrete. These methods include Surface methods, Vibration or
Dynamic methods, Radio-active or Nuclear methods, Electro-Magnetic methods and
some other methods.

2.0 METHODS FOR NOT OF CONCRETE

The various techniques that can be used for NDT of concrete are listed below :
1. SURFACE METHODS: (I ) Hardness: (a) Indentation
(b) Rebound
(ii) Water absorption
2. VIBRATION OR DYNAMIC METHODS: (i) Resonancefrequency method
(ii) Pulsevelocity method
(a) Sonic
(b) Ultrasonic
3. RADIOACTIVE METHODS: (i) x-ray or gamma -ray transmission
(ii) gamma-ray back scatter
(HI, Neutron moderation & scattering
(iV) ActiVation analysis

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.

I
Concrete
Impact sprong
--- ------- -- -
-
surface

.
Plunger
.

RE30UNDHAMMER
~..~
~.~

4. ELECTROMAGNETIC
METHODS: (j) Magnetic methods
(ii) For Dielectric properties
(iii) Conductivity! Resistivity
5. OTHER METHODS: (!i Penetration Test
(Ii) Pull out
(iii) Cutoff
(iv) Acoustic emission
6. COMBINEDMETHODS.

2.1 SURFACE HARDNESS METHOD

2.1.1 INDENTATION METHOD

In this method a certain amount of force is applied to the surface of the


material to be tested through a suitable indenter forming a permanent impression.
The size of this mdentation is measured and that indicates the hardness. Smaller the
indentation, harder the material using the same indenter and the same force.

The dlstnbutlon of stress and strain around the actuai indentation-the contact
zone-have been analysed in detail indicating that a definite thickness below the
surface is affected, about 2 times the size of the indentation.

A calibration curve can be established for a material like concrete relating the
siZe of indentation and the strength of concrete.
T'" . . .
lie Inden.er use.d are (Ii
t " \1\1"1"." t
~

v ~!,,~ums.es t mg pISt 0,I


(II~ FranK spring hammer
(lit) Elnbeck pendulum hammer

2.1.:! REBOUND METHOD

The S\IVISSEngineer Ernst Schmidt developed rebound hammer in 1940.


Rebouna hammer consists of a spring-controlled hammer mass that slides on a
plunger with a tubular rousing.The plunger retracts against a spring when passed
aga'"st the concrete surface and this spring is automatically released when fully
tensioned causing t'1e I1arnmern"tassto impact against the concrete through the
plunger When sprin~ controllec.mass rebounds, it takes with it a rider which slides
along 2 scale and IS risible.. IIou~... a sMa:! window in the side of the casing. The
'"'cer ca- be "eld 11pos'''OJ' G' ..,e sr-ale tJy depressHlg the locking button. The
olunger IS "'''e<;s~'~SI'"O:-
'g''" ar d steaa"y against the concrete at right angle to its
surface,untlll tne spnng loadeo .1ass IS tnggerea from ,ts locked position. The scale
"eading is .u".Clm as the rebound number and is an arbitrary measure. since it
deperds or the energ.. s~orec"I r""e~. ter sprirg artc en the mass used

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.
~S.E_M_. .I.N_.A=CDR_'_9_
9

This test is most suitable for concrete in the 20-60 N/mm2 strength range. as
1881 part 202 recommends 12 readings taken over an area not exceeding 300 mm2,
with the impact points not less than 20mm from each other or from an edge.
A calibration curve can be established relating the
Rebound No. & compressive strength.
Rebound No. & flexural strength.
Rebound No. & modulus of elasticity.
Rebound No. & wall thickness.

FACTOR AFFECTING SURFACE HARDNESS METHOD (LIMITATIONS

(I ) Smoothness of surface under test.


(ii ) Size, Shape & rigidity of the specimen
(iii ) Age of test specimen.
(IV ) Surface & internal moisture condition of concrete.
(V ) Tvpe of coarse aggregate.
(VI J Type of cement_
(vii) Carbonation of concrete surface.

APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE HARDNESS METHODS (SIGNIFICANCE ..

(i ) Checkingthe uniformity of concrete quality


fll, Comparing a given concrete with a specified requirement.
(iii) Approximltv estimation of strength.
(iv) Abrat,ionresistance classification

\n recent years an elec~ronicversion of the schimidt concrete test hammer


has been introduced. ThiS Instrument delivers much more precise information on
strength than the scale instrumentused to date. This is because the electronic version
automatically compansates for vanous factors such as direction of impact, form
factor and age of the concrete.

2.2 VIBRATION OR DYNAMIC METHOD

2.2.1 RESONANT FREQUENCY METHOD

It is based upon the determination of the fundamental resonent


frequency of vibration of a specimen, the continuous vibration being generated
electromechanically.This freque,lcy was read accurately from the graduated scale of
the variabledrM.1gaudiooscillatorusuallykn",wn as a sonometer.

This methods al e used for the purpose of calculating young's


modulus of elasticity and rigidity, fo, determiningthe poisson's ratio.

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.

I
.
TRIGGEr.
I

DISPLAYU~lI

I
,
PL1..SEGENERATOR LI DELAY
I
I I

TIME MEASL'RING I
, CIRCUIT I
AA'ItLIfIER

TRANSMITTER
i
,/-
.
l" "oF
i '
j"
i , RECEIVER
',;,1 i ./1,/,, I
I~' ./0' /' .'~
,/./ I .'.' I
./ / ...i/ / iI
1//...///1 ,

F="IG.NO.1.

DIEREC; TRANSl\USSIOl-1 SE1dI.DIERECT SURFACETRA..'iSMISSION


, TRANSMISSION \' "
tl II );
tI i'1 rI
.. ..
0 .. .. 0 .. .. ..o .. · . .. II

..0" .. ..
0
.. 0-
..
. ...
.. . .. 0 .. . 0
0 III· .. a.
. .
.. 0 ..
.. .. ..
· 0..
.

FIG. NO.2

I
iii ~

'" SEMINAR '99 ~

2.2.2 PULSE VELOCITY METHOD

This method subdivided mto two parts:

(a) SONIC PULSE VELOCITY METHOD

This involves measurement of the time of travel of longitudinal or


compressional 'Navesgenerated by a slllgie impact hammer blow or repetitive blow's.
In this method the galvanometer is used for measurent of time interval. cathode-ray-
oscilloscope are also used for this purpose.

tb) ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY METHOD

The ultrasonic pulse velocity method consists of measuringthe time


of travel of an ultrasonic pulse passing through the concrete to be tested. The pulse
generator circuit consists of electronic circuit!)' for generating pulses of voltage and a
transducer for transforming these electronic pulses into wave bursts of mechanical
energy having vibration
Irequencie~..1the range of 15 t050 KHz. contact with the concrete is made through a
suita':)i!ecoP;" 19 Tec'um.t4, s!mil8r transducer is coupled to the concrete at a
measUleo d1sta"Ice "tom the first. This transducer receive pulse by changing
mechanical energy into electronic energy of the same frequency. TI1is way time of
travel aT pulse ''3 mea';lo:-edelectronically. The path length between transducers
c"idee. ~y:, e "'l"1e"'ITtrave ~ives the average velocity of wave propagation.

Recommendation for the use of this method are given in as 1881:part 203.
The wave velocity depends upon the elastic properties and mass of the medium and
~eatlce IT t"'e f'Y'ass 8"'d "elo,-,ty of wave propagationare known it is possible to
assess the elastIc properties. I=orthis method generally "Portable Ultrasinic Non -
Dest:-uctlVeDiqitallndicatlng Tester" (PUNDIT) instrument used.

T'1e basic circuitf"l-,requirements are shovm in figure :

AS PER FIG. NO. .


T!"Iere are three basic ways 111
which the transducers may be arranged.

~s PER 1=G "JC 2

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.
GO
I
All concretes similar apart
from aggregate type
I
" 50
E
E
"-
Z f Gravel
.c 40
c.'
c I Gri1/liIC
VI
<1)
>
iii 30 .-
VI
OJ
a. I .-- ./ ./ LlIl1CSIO/le
E
0
u
<1) 20 I
J:) I ./ ./ ,
:J
U

10
4.3 4.4 <1.5 4.6 4.7 48 4.9

Pulse velocity (kill/see)

60
"
"- 50
z
-'"
VI
:J
-g 40
.
VI
"
Q .-
30
co
>-
0
20
36 38 4.0 42 4.4 4G 4.8 50

Pulse velocitv (km/sE'c)


f.j
~.-
SEMI NAR '99~~

FACTOR AFFECTING MEASUREMENT OF PULSE VELOCITY

(i) Smoothness of contact surface under test


(il ) Influenceof pathlengthon pulsevelocity.
(iii) Temperature of concrete.
<Iv Moisture condition of concrete.
(V Presence of reinforcing steel.

APPLICATION ! SIGN~FICANCE).

(i) Establishinguniformity of concrete.


(ii ) Pulsevelocity is related to elastic -modulus.
(iii) Estimation of strength of concrete.
(iv) Studies on durability of concrete.
,v) Measurement & detection of cracks.
(vi) Determinationof time for removal of formwork.
(llin Inspectionof reinforcedconcreteflexturalmembers.

2.3. RADIO-ACTIVE OR NUCLEAR METHOD

The basic princIple of radiographic inspection is that the object to be


examined is placed In the path of a beam of radiation from an X-ray and gamma- ray
source. A recording medium, usuallyfilm is placed close to object being examined but
on the opposite side from the beam source. some of the radiation will be absorbed by
the object but some wiUtravel through the object and impinge on the film, producing a
latent image. \lVhen the film has been developed there will be an area of different
image density, which corresponds to the flaw In the material. This shadow may be of
lessor or greater density than the surrounding image, depending on the nature of the
defect and its relative absorptive characteristics.

X-ray or GaMma-ray interact INith any substance, causing a reduction in their


intensiN ~ differential at~enuatlon of such radiation can indicate differential properties
of the materia, - espacially the density-which can be used for NOT.

The basic relatiol' used Is


I = IC' Be '-I"t I
I = Intensity of radiation after passing through a thickness
.::f material
!0= 1'1ltia:intensit~ of radiation.
t'! = Linear absorption coefficient (connected with density).
B = Build-up factor.

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.

I
POWER. SOURCE

Fit;. NO.3

I
~S.E_M.. .I.N_.A..R._' 9_9~

SIGNIFICANCE

The itwestigations included the study of


II) Direct observations of the arrangements of aggregate of particles, with special
reference to spacing and thickness of paste films separating aggregate
particles
(it ) Threedimensiona!observatIon"f enclosedair \iOids from bothentrapedand
entrained air.
(ill) Theeffect of segregation.
(iv) The Presence of cracks regardless of their origin.
(V) X-radiography are significantto show variations in density and to locate
reinforcing bars.
(vi) Gamma-radigraphy has been used for determiningthe position and condition
of reinforcement, voids in concrete, voids in the grouting of posttensioned
prestressed concrete

LIMITATIONS

(I ) It tends to be an expensivetechnique compared with other NOT test methods.


(Ii
, 1 F~r those method considerable space is needed for a radiography laboratory,
includinga dark room for film processing.
(III) The operation cost for radiography are also high.
\IV ) The setting -up time for radiography is often lengthy.
(v ) !t is dangerous highvoltage equipment.
(Vi \
The equipment requires skilled person for its operation.

2.J ELECTRO - MAGNETIC METHODS

2.4. atMAGNETIC METHODS (For location of reinforcement and cover)

The patchometer ana co\/er methods are magnetic devices and are based on
the principle that the presence of stee! affects the field of a highly permeable V-
shaped magt'et'c core or. Nhlcr wo cnils are mounted. An alternating current IS
passed through one of these coils and the current induced in the other coil is
l'Y'easureo.The inducted current ISaffected by the presence and proximity of the steel
bars, so this can be used for determiningthe size of the bars and cover of concrete.
fAS PER FIG. ...~O.3}

III heavllv I einforced sectiof1~, the effect of secondary reinforcement can not
be eleminareo eriU the.satisfac.tufy determination O'~the cover to steel is practically
impossible

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.

I
...--.....

~~)
I - 0)
I l~~.C.SUPPL'r AA:,'!ETER
I
I
I ":)L ~r,IE";"ER

{S
--s'
I

.I, CTjP.t;:E 'T' J, ..L.


I

, I t:i'''~-.""'~-"'T"'\~~ I
t I
~"",~I._J.,","~~j,.,ftJ
.~ I
~, I
"' t
Jl!/
T"\.J
b.L! .

-. ~.,
... ...,.,
~.
--- --- - ~-
--.

FIG.NOA.

J
~s- -E-M---IN_ A_R__ .'-9-g9

2.4.2. DIELECTRIC MEASUREMENTS (For moisture content)

Dielectric properties of hardened concrete change with change in its moisture


content. This approach is based on measurement of the dielectric constant and
dissipation factor. The properties of a capacitor formed by two parallel conductive
plates depend upon the ~haracter of the separating medium. The dielectric constants
defined as the ratio of capacitances of the same plates when separated by the
medium under test and by a vaccum. When a potential difference IS applied to the
J

plates, opposite charges will accumulate, and if the separating medium is ideal these
will remain constant and no current will flow. In practice, electron drift will occur and a
'conduction' current flows, and the ratio of this current to the initial charging current is
the dissipation factor. When these measurement is carried out at frequency range of
10-100MHz, the effect 01 dissolved salts and faulty contact with electrodes are
minimised.

2.4.3. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TEST (For thickness of conc. pavement)

Electrical resstivity tests have been used for soil testing for many years and
now, has been developed for applicationto in-situ concrete. In this test four electrods
are placed In a straight line on, or just below, the concrete surface at equal spacing~
as shown in fig 4. a low frequency alternating electrical current is passed between the
two outer electrodes whilst the voltage drop between the inner electrodes is
measured.The apparent resistivity is calculated as :
R=JrISV/I
S=Electrode spacing.
V=Voltage drop.
'=Current.

The resistivity is usually expressed in ohm-cm.

The electrode spacings are varied and a change of slope of the


resistivity/spacing piot will occur as a proportion of the current flows through the base
material. A concrete pavement has a resistivity characteristic that usually differs from
that of the underlying subgrade iayers, thus a change in the slope of the resistivity
versus depti" curve is used to estimate the depth of concrete pavement.

The electrical resistivity method can also be used for estimating the position of
steel reinforcement.

The resistivity Of concrete is highly dependent on its moisture and salt content
and its temperature, which is the limitation of this method.

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.
~s. E-M--I-N--A-R-'-9w9
I:!I- .~
:<\

2.5. OTHERMETHODS

2.5.1. PENETRATION(For compressivestrength)

The technique ot firing steel nails or bolts into a concrete surface to provide
fixings is well established, and It is known that the depth of penetration is influenced
by the strength of the concrete. A strength determination method based on this
approach, uSing a specially designed bolts and standerdized explosive cartridge is
knbNnas the windsor prob test.

The windsor prob equipment consists of a powder-actuated gun or driver,


hardened alloy probes, loaded cartndges, depth gage for measuring penetration of
probes and other related equipment. The probe is driven into the concrete by the
firing of a precision powder charge. The exposed lengths of the individualprobes are
measured by a calibrated depth gage The manufacturer of the windsor prob
equipment has published calibration tables relating exposed length of the probe with
compressive strength of concrete.

This method cause some localized damage but damage is sufficiently small to
cause no loss in structural performance. The results are affected by the type of
aggregate and so proper calibration with particular type of aggregate is required.

2.5.2 PULL OUT TEST

A pull out test measures the force required to pull out from the concrete a
specially shaped rod whose enlarged end has been cast into that concrete. The
stronger the concrete. the more ISthe force required to pull out. The ideal way to use
pullout test in the field would be to incorporate assemblies in the structure. These
standard specimens could then be pulled out at any point of time. The force required
denotes the strength of concrete. Another way to use pullout test in the field would be
to cast one or t vo large blocksof concrete incorporating pullout assemblies. Pullout
test could then be per''Jrmed to assess the strength of concrete. The damage to the
concrete surface must be required. The pullout tests do not measure strength in the
interior of mass concrete.

2.5.3. ACOUSTIC EMISSION

Acoustic emission are small amplitude elastic stress waves created by


localized deformations in concrete at points being strained beyond their elastic limit.
During the deformation process, kinetic energy is related to propagate rapid elastic
waves throughout the specirT1er. At the surface they are detected as small
displacements by transducer,Jpositioned on the surface of the test specimens. The
variations in the time 0: arrival of stress waves at each sensor position are used to
locate the source of deformation

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.

I
I. I
i 01
\.. at
I ..'
'.J '
-, , ~, r
10 ~
.
. ~
I
.......

" ,
.

"\...
PREAMPLIFIER
l
7ILTEF:
:---1
P"' OI' E\""f J~P
... ~ o.)>j.. HI ORCOI'I1PUTER
. RECORDERj PRI~!TER :
I

: _I TRANSDUCER
",
.01
. I

flC "10 5.

I
The detected acoustic emissions are then amplified, selectively filtered
processed and then channeled to either a magnetic tape recorder or tc a specially
developed digital computer for recording and analvsls. \.Nhichshows in Fig. NO.5.

These techniques have been used to study the rate of cracking and the
presence and gro\l~1hof fatigue cracks ;n metals.

The equipment available commercially is very expensive and proper test


methods have yet to be developed.

2.8. COMBINED METHODS

Because of the limitations of the individual methods as discussed so far It is


felt that a better picture can emerge and more reliable interpretation can be obtained
by usingtwo or more methods Of NDT in combination.

One of the many objectives of non-destructive methods of testing concrete is


to estimate the compressive strength of concrete in structures. To predict the
compressive strength of in-situ concrete more accurately investigators have tried to
I

apply more than one non destructi\le test method at the same time.

Some of the combined methods used in the laboratory or field are described
bp-Ioy,. .
ii \ D~rra"'lc modulus of elasticity and damping constant(determined by resonallce
tests )
(II l Ultrasonic pulse velocity and damping constant.
(Hi) IItrasulliC'pulse 'eloci~) ad pulse at~er"Jation
\

(IV \ Ultrasonicpulsevelosit)'-andreboundnumber.

In this last test approach, ultrasonic pulse velosit)'-measurements are


taken on conclere specimens or ill-S'tU concrete. At the same time the surface
hardness is determined by rr'ealls ot the schmidt rebound hammer. The pulse
velosity and rebound number are then combined to obtain a multiple linear regression
equation witn compressive strength as the dependent variable. the regression
equations tl)us developed appear to give a somewhat higher degree of accuracy in
the predictic'1 of compressive strength. The regressior' equations developed by
weibenga are of the following form .

Log S;;AV+BR-C.
S;; Cube compo strength t<N/cm2
V;;pulse velosity m/Sec.
R;;Rebound number.
A, BIC=Constant

Applied Mechanics Department

S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.

I
.....

I.S-E-M--I-N--A-R-'-9-9:l\
'" ~

2.7. CONCLUSIOill

rHe conventional testing of control cubes can at best ~ ,ndicate the potential
J

quality of concrete assummg that the composition IS same as that going Into the
structure Two mOle steps"compaction and curing- can be different for cubes and the
structure. so tile USe u; NOT can give a better understanding of the quality of
;ol1cre£eHI lS finalv~sitlor

Anotner Qreat advantage IS the possibility of repeating the NDT 111case ot any
doub~. ThiS IS not possible in case of destructive testing. So there IS no scope for
rt'\ar"i'u~~ ~~:.

These met'"tod$ are basicaliy applicable to both metals as well as non me[als.
HO'vvever 1/ gere. t:.. ~"e emphasis in the case of metals is on locating the local
~e~ects \r 1isl"'ol1tir".:i;ies. :... case ::/ "'')t'\crete, on the hand, the emphasis ..:; :).1
eS(~ing tf'\e grcss prQf)ert:es c,. ;:ua'ity Of concrete This is because the concrete is
always full of featUres that: can be cailed as defects.

F"O 1"1 t;1e bas'c structure Ofthe materia! it can be expected that any change in
ore p:-opert: :":)JiC affect a" {..~e: properties as \/eillhis ,s the main reason wny
IndireCt tests are useful. In Otner -NOms, It is deslrabie to determine the quality of tt,e
entire ilolume o~ concrete III tel liS Jf the property i eqUired for end use strength I:I
gerera.. ;hlS is jJst net possible USing conventional destructIve tests With NOT it IS
possible to CO'/ert"'e er t!re lol~r"'e, with appropriate tests

\Nhen estimating say strengtn trom anyone ot tne NDT methods the question I

of accuracy IS always raised. "lilt..flproper correlation, It may be passable to get tne


"esults Nell with 511".In difficult situations alsc., it would still be possIble to estimate
tre resultsWlt';::--
ahoL:~25°fr)accuracy

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.

I
(.,iSEMINAR
'" '99~~

REFERENCES..
...
~',";~I'I:'J':.""':~ ,- ~:"""= ~ p~ :PEPTIE~"F ,..".,If'P E~E P ~JD
CO'l'=FE"~~ ~lA- ",''3 'I;: ""E"'ALS (ASTFII~
1984.

J h. HUN0t: i ES rfl~(-; ,F COt,iCRETE IN STRUCTURES, SuRREy


~i~' iEPS.T'a RES': .E'.. r:P ~98Q.

... ,,1/ I...HO"qJ.\,TES riNG LfARDEHrD:rJ~CRE"'E '. ~"C~l


DESTRUCTI\tE .l~ETuODS ,11':'\A.MERL~IlN";iJ"'CRETE I"JST.
MONOG~AP~ SE~IESi 1976.

f{.G. L/rv1AYt=, rHE INDIA'! t.ONCRETE JOURNAL (JANUARY 1993,

CIVIL ENGINEERING & CCNS I RU~TION REVIEW JOURrlAL (AUG03T


~998

- - - - T-~I-I!!c:.L~&Y 5. cHAf'JO Af'lO CO. f rD'J j.99b.


M.5. Sf-/£TTY -' r;()"'CJ~E,E J

Applied Mechanics Department


S. V. Regional College of Engineering & Technology, SURA T.

I
I"'flacl fllungor
Housing comfll.
3 nidor wilh \1uido rod
6 12
Pushbullon compl.
7 Hammor guide ber
8 ~isk 23-
9 Cap 8--
10 Two-pert ring
11 Reor cover
12 Comprossion spring . '
',,- 6
13 Powl
14 Hammer moss
15 Roiolnlng spring
16 Impect spring 7--
17 Guide Sl00'/8

18 Folt wosher
.!j
19 Plexlgloss window -3
scole prlntod on window
20 Trip scrow
21 Lock nul
22 Pin
23 Powl spring

" .

j
I