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Boiler Water Management

Water Characteristics and Quality

Fundamental Mission of Boiler Power House Management

Reliable production of steam


continuous & quality steam (no unplanned outages)

Safe production of steam


no injuries. no loss of capital equipment Food safety: FDA. Kosher

Protect the capital investment


minimize corrosion and scaling

Environmental/Regulatory Compliance Cost effective operation


efficient as possible

Water characteristics and quality Characteristics

pH Hardness Conductivity Total Dissolved Solids Alkalinity p-alkalinity m-alkalinity Total Suspended Solids

important parameter (acidity. alkalinity) combination of Ca and Mg uS/cm (relationship with dissolved solids) amount of dissolved ions (mg/l) amount of buffering titration until pH=8.3 total alkalinity (pH=4.3) everything that is not dissolved and can be filtered out

Water characteristics and quality Impurities

Cations Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Ammonium Iron Manganese

Na+ K+ Ca2+ Mg2+ NH4+ Fe2+ Mn2+

MINERALS

AIR

EARTH

Anions Bicarbonate Chloride Sulphate Nitrate Silicate

HCO3ClSO42NO3HSiO3-

Cations Anions

Oxygen Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide

Clay Silt Sand

a. Dissolved solids

b. Dissolved gases

c. Suspended matter

Water characteristics and quality pH Scale


ACIDIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 pH Hydrogen Ions (H+) decrease pH; Hydroxyl (OH-) increase pH 8 9 BASIC 10 11 12 13 14

Water Characteristics and quality Three battles

Presence of troublesome water components requires


Deposition Control Preventing overheat failures resulting from waterside deposition Corrosion Control Maintaining materials of construction. dealing with general and localized corrosion mechanisms Steam Purity Preventing carryover of boiler water salts into steam phase

Deposition

Deposition What is

Result of insolubility of inorganic scale formers Hardness Based Deposits Metal Oxide Based Deposits Can occur as a result of contaminated condensate or feedwater components Unlikely with demineralized makeup water Good pretreatment may limit deposition potential Develops at areas of highest heat input Issue becomes more critical as boiler pressure goes up

Deposition Problems caused

Loss of Boiler Efficiency


Scale reduces heat transfer Increased fuel/energy consumption

Boiler Tube Failure


Scale elevates tube temperature - causing tube overheating Partial destroyed boiler sections and even boiler explosion due to overheating of tube metal over critical temperature for steel

Under-deposit Corrosion
Caused by high localized concentration of corrosive molecules

Deposition Efficiency reduction

20

Efficiency Loss in %

18 16 14 12 10 8

6
4 2 0.4 1.6 2.8 3.6 0.8 1.2 2.4 3.2 4.4 4.8 0 2

Deposit in mm

Water tube boiler, 95 % of Scale CaCO3. No heat recovery 20 bar [290 psi], 11.3 ton/h

Deposition Increased tube temperature

Boiler tube metal wall

Boiler tube Deposit metal wall

Boiler tube Deposit metal wall Increased wall T4

Wall T2

Wal T2 T3

Boiler water T1

Boiler water T1 needed Resulting boiler water T0

Boiler water T1

A Clean internal heat transfer surface. T1 for needed steam production

B Scaled surface resulting in lower T0 while needed T1

C Scaled surface Fire side T2 is increased to T4 to reach water T1 T3 is critical for metal structure

Deposition Effect of scale on heat transfer

120

240 200
Temperature [F]

115

Tube metal temperature increase

100

95

Temperature [C]

80

160 120 80 40 0 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 Deposit thickness [mm]

70

60

50

40

25

20

Deposition Factors

Factors that contribute in waterside deposition:


Presence of ionic scale formers in feedwater (calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium, silica, iron) Presence of scale formers treatment derived (phosphate, alkalinity) Presence of particulate contaminants Interactions with existing deposition Heat input Flow parameters Microclimates Location in riser circuit

Deposition Solubilities

Compound Calcium Bicarbonate Carbonate Sulfate Magnesium Bicarbonate Carbonate Sulfate Sodium Bicarbonate Carbonate Chloride Hydroxide Sulfate

ppm as CaCO3 0 C [32 F] 1620 15 1290 37.000 101 170.000 30.700 61.400 225.000 370.000 33.600 100 C [212 F] Decomposes 13 1250 Decomposes 75 356.000 Decomposes 290.000 243.000 970.000 210.000

Deposition Hardness precipitation

Precipitation of insoluble hardness 2 HCO3- CO32- + CO2+ H2O CO32- + H2O CO2 + 2OH Ca2+ + CO32- CaCO3

100% 60 - 80% boiler scale

Mg+2 + OH- MgOH+ H2SiO3 H+ + HSiO3 MgOH+ + HSiO3- MgSiO3 + H2O


Scaling & Deposits Heat transfer limitation Boiler tube failure

Exceeding saturation through evaporation, resulting in crystallization eg. CaSO4.SiO2

Deposition Why Hardness is Such an Issue

Soluble Amount

Most materials are more soluble at increasing temperature

Ca. Mg. Ba. Sr solubility decreases at increasing temperature

Temperature

Deposition Boiler deposits


Name Acmite Analcite Anhydrite Aragonite Basic magnesium phosphate Brucite Calcium hydroxide Calcite Copper Cuprite Ferrous oxide Goetnite Gypsum Hematite Hydroxyapatite Magnetite Serpentine (magnesium silicate) Sodium ferrous phosphate Tenorite Thenardite Xonotlite Formula Na2OFe2O34SiO2 Na2OAl2O34SiO22H2O CaSO4 CaCO3 (gamma form) Mg3(PO4)2Mg(OH)2 Mg(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 (beta form) Cu Cu2O FeO Fe2O3 H2O (alpha form) CaSO42 H2O Fe2O3 Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 Fe3O4 3MgOSiO22 H2O NaFePO4 CuO Na2SO4 5 CaO5 SiO2 H2O

Deposition Silica

Forms deposits in boilers Occurs as magnesium silicate or silicic acid


Selective silica carryover Silica is selectively dissolved into the steam Controlled by limiting the silica concentration in the boiler water Controlled by limiting boiler pressure Controlled by maintaining high pH Cannot be controlled mechanically by steam separators Not usually a problem with boilers with less than 40 bar (600 psig) pressure

Deposition Iron scale

Iron is usually found in a boiler as one or more of the following:


A complex with calcium A complex with phosphate Hematite - Fe2O3 Magnetite - Fe3O4

Corrosion

Corrosion What is

Definition
The deterioration of a material by the interaction with its environment

Impact
Feedwater piping Feedwater heaters Economizer Boiler Condensate system

Oxygen corrosion in flame pipe (6 bar boiler)

Corrosion Problems caused

Impact corrosion on boiler reliability


Premature replacement need of boiler boilers should last very long upon correct use Water side corrosion should be nihil and not a factor contributing to the life time of the boiler Unscheduled maintenance to boiler or feed water lines Unscheduled maintenance to the condensate system Filthy steam and condensate traps can cause leaking of steam into condensate system due to malfunctioning valves

Oxygen corrosion in flame pipe (6 bar boiler)

Corrosion Boiler metal passivation

Natural passivation:
Formation of a protective barrier on metal surface by reaction with water Fe + 2 H2O Fe(OH)2 + H2 3Fe(OH)2 Fe3O4 + H2 + 2H2O Black magnetite film - Fe3O4 Rate of Magnetite formation is Temperature dependent Spontaneous above 180 C (360 F) Reduces general corrosion Difficult to quantify results

Oxygen scavenging Metal passivation

SHIKORR REACTION
T < 180 C
3 Fe + 6 H2O 3 Fe(OH)2 + 3 H2

2 Fe(OH)2 + 2 H2O
Fe(OH)2 + 2 Fe(OH)3

2 Fe(OH)3 + H2
Fe3O4 + 4 H2O

T > 180 C
3 Fe + 4 H2O Fe3O4 + 4 H2

Corrosion Solubility of magnetite in water

Corrosion Effect of pH

Do we have a better picture ?? Check advanced training series

Corrosion Types

Types of Corrosion
Oxygen corrosion Alkalinity concentration Caustic corrosion Acid corrosion Chelant corrosion Erosion/Corrosion
Condensate return pipe with deep attack due to the combined effect of CO2 and O2

Corrosion Oxygen Corrosion

Oxygen. O2

Hydroxide OH-

Corrosion products

Metal ions dissolve

CATHODE

Electron transport

ANODE

ANODE:

Fe0 Natural Metal 2eElectrons +

Fe+2 Metal ion +

2eMetal electrons 2(OH-) Charged Ion

CATHODE:

1/2 O2 Oxygen

H2O Water

Corrosion Factors Oxygen corrosion

Can be found throughout the system Mechanism same as other oxygen corrosion cells Corrosion mechanisms affected by: pH
Minimize corrosion: pH >9.0

Temperature
Higher temperatures reduce O2 solubility, but significantly increase corrosivity

Dissolved oxygen concentration


Higher O2 concentrations increase corrosivity

Fluid velocity
Enhances effect of other corrodents More diffusion - better mass transport

Corrosion Oxygen Corrosion

Dissolved oxygen as function of temperature at atmospherical pressure

5.5 ppm O2

2.5 ppm O2

50C (122 F)

85C (185 F)

Corrosion Oxygen Corrosion

Problems associated with oxygen:


Crack formation in degassers - deaerator cracking Corrosion pits that require immediate remedy to obtain approval after periodic inspections by authorities Corrosion damage to gray cast iron in feed water pumps Leaking feed water pipes, leaking economisers, pits and craters in boiler tubes (low pressure boilers)

Oxygen corrosion in feed water line

Corrosion Oxygen Corrosion

Economical impact of oxygen corrosion


Increased energy consumption Oxygen corrosion introduces additional iron and copper oxides in the water
Deposition on heated surfaces (limiting heat transfer)

Oxygen corrosion in feed water line (pH 7.5. 50 C)

Increased blowdown due to turbidity water Increased conductivity due to addition of oxygen scavengers (e.g. sulfite) requires increased blowdown

Corrosion Caustic Damage

There are two forms of damage caused by caustic soda to high pressure boilers, namely:
Do we have a picture Steef??
Caustic corrosion Caustic embrittlement

Corrosion Caustic Corrosion

Do we have a picture Steef??

Two conditions are necessary for caustic corrosion to occur: Presence of a corrosive material in the boiler water (caustic soda) Mechanism for concentrating this material, usually due to deposits Usually found only in high pressure boilers
Fe3O4 Fe2O3 + FeO (Magnetite dissolution) Fe2O3 + 2 NaOH 2 NaFeO2 + H2O (soluble) FeO + 2 NaOH Na2FeO2 + H2O (soluble)

Localized in boiler Also called crater attack or caustic gouging No embrittlement of metal

Corrosion Caustic Embrittlement

Steef, kan deze slide eruit? Zo nee, do we have a picture Steef?

Embrittlement is a special form of stress corrosion cracking


Should not be confused with caustic corrosion Three conditions must be present Concentrating mechanism present Metal under high stress Must contain silica Inhibited by improved fabrication techniques and by organic and nitrate-based inhibitors

Check last remark!! Nitrate??!?

Corrosion Concentration mechanism

Steam blanketing
Under deposit / concentration to dryness
Excessive heat input Insufficient coolant flow Deposits
Elongated gouge caused by steam blanketing
Magnetite NaOH

Steam Out NaOH NaOH NaOH Water In

Fe3O4 porous deposit

NaOH

Corrosion Concentrating Mechanisms

The following conditions can result in dangerously high localized caustic soda concentrations
(Porous) metal oxide deposits Operation above rated capacity Excessive rate of load increase Excessive localized heat input Localized pressure differentials Restrictions in generating tube(s)

Corrosion Acid corrosion

Causes of acidity
Feedwater acid contamination Acid leaks from demineralizer, e.g. acid regenerant Breakdown of organic materials Condenser leaks MgCl2 + 2 H2O Mg(OH)2 + 2 HCl Organic chlorides R-X + 2 H2O R-OH + HCl

Corrosion Acid corrosion


% Conversion

Special form of acid corrosion can be found in condensate system:


Alkalinity of BFW breaks down in Boiler
2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O Na2CO3 + H2O 2 NaOH + CO2

CO2 leaves with steam and reacts with condensed water droplets to Carbonic Acid
CO2 + H2O H2CO3

The H2CO3 acid attacks metals by reducing pH

Steam purity

Steam Purity What is

Defined as the amount of non-water components of the steam


Priming Foaming Misting Selective carry-over

Normally measured in terms of ppb sodium ion and ppb silica.


Sodium Limits to turbines Old industrial turbines - max. of 20 ppb New industrial turbines - max. 5 ppb Silica Limits to Turbines - 20 ppb

Steam Purity Problems caused

Effects of low steam purity


Process Contamination Loss of Turbine Efficiency Turbine Imbalance Operational Problems Plant Shut-down

Water Quality guidelines

Water quality guidelines

Drum-type boilers using softened (not deionized) feedwaters


Boiler Water component [ppm] Drum Pressure. psig (bar)
150 (10) 300 (20) 600 (40) 900 (60) 1200 (80) 1500 (100)

Check Etienne source???

TDS (max) Phosphate (as PO4) Hydroxide (as CaCO3)

4000 30-60 300-400

3500 30-60 250-300

3000 20-40 150-200

2000 15-20 120-150

500 10-15 100-120

300 5-10 80-100

Sulfite

30-60

30-40

20-30

15-20

Not recommende d
5 2 50-70

Not recommende d
3 1

Silica (as SiO2. max) Total Iron (as Fe. max) Organics

100 10 70-100

50 5 70-100

30 3 50-70

10 2 50-70

Different for all boiler types. feed water quality and region ASME: USA Krachtwerktuigen: Holland TUV: Germany British Standard: UK

Water quality guidelines High purity Feed water


Drum-type boilers using high purity (deionized) feedwaters
Boiler Water Component Drum pressure psig (bar)

Check Etienne source???


TDS (max) Phosphate (as PO4) pH Silica (as SiO2. max) Total iron (as Fe. max) Hydrazine

Upto 600 (40)

900 (60)

120 (80)

1500 (100)

1800 (120)

2400 (160)

500 15-25 9.8-10.2 10 2 Idem soft water

500 15-25 9.8-10.2 10 2 0.04-0.06

300 15-25 9.8-10.2 5 2 0.04-0.06

200 5-10 9.4-9.7 2 1 0.04-0.06

100 5-10 9.4-9.7 1 0.5 0.04-0.06

50 5-10 9.4-9.7 0.25 0.25 0.04-0.06

Different for all boiler types. feed water quality and region ASME: USA Krachtwerktuigen: Holland TUV: Germany British Standard: UK

Water quality guidelines general remarks

Limits on TDS will vary with the design of the boiler and with the needs of the system Despite TDS maximums. industrial type boilers (as opposed to utility type) should not be operated above 100 cycles of concentration Silica may be carried at higher levels if there are no condensing turbines in the cycle. In any case. maintain an "O"/SiOratio of at least 3/1 to inhibit silica deposition. Iron levels shown are theoretical levels based on feedwater iron multiplied by cycles of feed water concentration

ASME Guidelines for Feedwater Quality

Water tube

Boiler Pressure [bar] 0 - 20

Boiler Pressure [psi] 0 300 301 450 451 600 601 750 751 900 901 1500

Hardness [ppm] 0.300 0.300 0.200 0.200 0.100 N/D

Iron [ppm] 0.100 0.050 0.030 0.025 0.020 0.010

Copper [ppm] 0.050 0.025 0.020 0.020 0.015 0.010

Make again in PPT format

21 - 31 32 - 41 42 51 52 62 63 - 103

Fire tube 0 - 20 0 300 1.0 0.100 0.050

Feedwater Quality requirements France - Softened Feedwater

Operating pressure Feedwater pH Total Hardness Oxygen Huil

bar

< 15

15 - 25

25 - 35

35 45

8.5 [F] < 0.5 remove absent

8.5 < 0.2 remove absent

8.5 < 0.2 Remove absent

8.5 < 0.1 Remove Absent

Boiler water TAC TA Silica SiO2 / TAC Total dissoloved solids Chlorine Phosphate pH [Mg/L] [Mg/L] [Mg/L] [F] [F] [Mg/L] 100 0.7 TAC 200 2.5 < 4000 800 30 - 100 10.5 - 12 80 0.7 TAC 150 2 < 3000 600 30 - 100 10.5 - 12 60 0.7 TAC 90 1.5 < 2000 400 20 - 80 10.5 - 12 40 0.7 TAC 40 1 < 1500 300 20 80 10.5 - 12

Feedwater Quality requirements France - Demineralized Feedwater

Operating pressure Feedwater pH Total Hardness Oxygen Huil Iron Copper

bar

40 - 60

60 - 75

75 - 100

8.5 [F] < 0.05 remove Mg/l Mg/l Mg/L < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.03

8.5 < 0.05 remove < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.03

8.5 < 0.05 Remove < 0.05 < 0.03 < 0.01

Boiler water TAC TA Silica SiO2 / TAC Total dissoloved solids Free NaOH Phosphate pH [Mg/L] [Mg/L] [Mg/L] [F] [F] [Mg/L] 25 0.5 TAC 15 <1 < 500 < 20 10 - 60 10 - 11 10 0.5 TAC 10 <1 < 300 < 300 10 - 40 10 - 11 5 0.5 TAC 5 <1 < 100 < 100 5 20 9.5 10.5

Feedwater Quality requirements France Fire tube boilers

Operating pressure Feedwater pH Total Hardness Oxygen Huil

bar

10

10 - 15

15 25

8.5 [F] < 0.5 remove Mg/l absent

8.5 < 0.5 remove absent

8.5 < 0.2 Remove Absent

Boiler water TAC TA Silica SiO2 / TAC Total dissoloved solids [Mg/L] [F] [F] [Mg/L] 120 0.7 TAC 200 2.5 5000 100 0.7 TAC 200 2.5 4000 80 0.7 TAC 150 2 3000

Free NaOH
Phosphate pH

[Mg/L]
[Mg/L]

< 20
30 - 100 10.5 - 12

< 300
30 - 100 10.5 - 12

< 100
30 - 100 10.5 - 12

Feedwater Quality requirements Germany - VGB


Scope Continuous operation Fully demineralized feedwater Continuous operation Demineralized feedwater Alkalized boiler water Na3PO4 recommended Pressure area PH (25 C) Neutral operation Combined operation Alkaline operation Conductivity (25 C) [uS/cm] [bar] > 68 7-8 8-9 9-10 < 0.25 < 50 < 50 < 5 (for < 250 kW/m2) < 3 (for > 250 kW/m2) < 0.2 68 - 136 9.8 10.2 Continuous operation Demineralized feedwater Alkalized boiler water Na3PO4 recommended > 136 9.3 9.7 Alkaline Continuous operation Demineralized feedwater Volatile agents Continuous operation Steam for condensing turbines

Oxygen Neutral operation Combined operation Alkaline operation Iron Copper

[mg/l] 0.050 - 0.250 0.030 0.150 < 0.100 [mg/l] [mg/l] [mg/l] [mg/l] [mg/L] < 0.02 < 0.03 < 0.01 < 0.02 <6 <3 NA < 0.020 < 0.030 < 0.010 < 0.020

Na Silica If Na3PO4 is dosed PO4

Boiler water Quality requirements Germany - TV

Scope Pressure area Appearance Conductivity (25 C) Hardness Oxygen Phosphate PH (25 C) p-alkalinity CO2 fixed Iron Copper Silica Organic carbon Oil [ppm CaCO3] [mg/l ] ppm Ppm [mg/l] [ppm as KMnO4] ppm [S/cm] [ppm CaCO3] ppm [mg/l ] [bar]

Softened feedwater 1 <> 68

Boiler water on softened feedwater 1 <> 22 22 <> 44 44 <> 68

Demin. feedwater < 68

Boiler water based on demin. feedwater < 68 < 68

Colourless, free from suspended matter < 10,000 < 1.0 < 0.02 10 20 10.5 12 50 600 < 25 < 0.03 < 0.005 NR < 10 <1 Graph Graph < 10 < 0.03 < 0.005 < 0.02 <3 <1 <4 <4 5 - 15 10 11.8 25 - 300 5 - 15 10 11 5 50 >9 < 0.1 <6 9.5 10.5 >7 < 5,000 < 2,500 < 0.2 < 150 <3

Boiler water Quality requirements Italy

Scope Pressure area Appearance Conductivity (25 C) Hardness Oxygen Phosphate [S/cm] [ppm CaCO3] ppm [mg/l ] [bar]

PH (25 C)
p-alkalinity CO2 fixed Iron Copper Silica Organic carbon [ppm CaCO3] [mg/l ] ppm Ppm [mg/l] [ppm as KMnO4]

Oil

ppm

Boiler water Quality requirements Spain Firetube: UNE 9-075-92

Feedwater 0.5 bar Appearance Colourless and without suspended solids [ppm CaCO3] [mg/L] 10 8-9

Feedwater > 0.5 bar

Boiler water 0.5 bar

Boiler water 0.5 < 13 bar

Boiler water > 13 bar

Hardness Oxygen PH (20 C)

5 0.2 8-9 10.5 12.5 10 - 12 10 12

CO2 fixed
Organic carbon Oil Conductivity ( 40 kg/m2) Conductivity (> 40 kg/m2 p-alkalinity Phosphate Silica

[mg/l ]
[ppm as KMnO4] ppm [mg/L] [mg/L] [ppm CaCO3] [mg/l P2O5 ] [mg/l SiO2]

25
10 3

25
10 1 6,000 5,000 1,000 30 250 6,000 5,000 800 25 200 4,000 3,000 600 20 150

Boiler water Quality requirements Spain - water tube: UNE 9-075-92

Maximum allowed values

Hardness [mg/L]

Alkalinity [mg/L] 700 600 500 400 300 250 100 40 10 2

TSS [mg/L] 150 100 80 60 40 20 10

pH (20 C)

Phosphate [Mg/L P2O5]

Silica [mg/l] 140 50 50 50 10 10 4 4 4 4 4 140 50

< 20 21- 32 33 40 41 53 54 64 65 70 71 126 127 165 166 180 181 203 > 98 < 20 20 - 40

Natural circulation Natural circulation Natural circulation Natural circulation Natural circulation Natural circulation Natural circulation Natural circulation Natural circulation Natural circulation Forced circulation Forced circulation with continuous steam formation Forced circulation with continuous steam formation

3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,250 100 50 25 15 0.05 2,000 1,000

9.5 - 11 9.5 - 11 9.5 - 11 9.5 - 11 9.5 - 11 9.5 - 11 9.5 10.5 9.5 10.5 9.5 10.5 9.5 10.5 9.5 10.5

25 25 10 10 10 3 3 3 3 3 3 -

400 200

100 50

Boiler water Quality requirements Netherlands


Parameters Krachtwerktuigen KEMA

Waterpijp

CHECK I do not have the original!

Low pressure boilers


<80 <15

Pressure area [bar] Phosphate [mg/l ] PH (25 C) p-alkalinity [ppm CaCO3]

0.5-20 30-80

9.8-10.2 250-750

Chloride [mg/l] Silica [mg/l]

<2 <5

TDS Conductivity [S/cm] Organic carbon [ppm CZV] Iso ascorbic acid [mg/l] < 6000 (pH=8.3) <150 <2500 (after cation filter)

Boiler water Quality requirements UK Shell tube upto 30 bar

Parameter

Unit

Feedwater

Boiler water

Boiler water Demineralized feedwater

Heat flux

300 Clear, no foam 8.5 9.5 Mg/kg CaCO3 Mg/kg Mg/kg CaCO3 Mg/kg CaCO3 Mg/kg Mg/kg 30 70 0.1 1.0 120 160 15 30 0.1 1.0 (FW) Mg/kg Mg/kg Mg/kg Mg/kg uS/cm 30 60 150 200 3500 7000 1 1000 350 2 10.5 12.0

> 300

CHECK Is there an update, have seen the draft!

Appearance pH (25 C) Total Hardness Oxygen Total M-alkalinity O- and P-alkalinity Oil and grease Oxygen scavenger Sulfite, or Hydrazine, or Tannin, or Iso ascorbic acid, or DEHA Phosphate Silica Suspended solids Dissolved solids Conductivity (25 C)

9.5 10.5

100 20

Assess 0.1 1.0 Assess Assess 0.1 1.0 (FW) 10 30 5 20 1000 2000

Boiler water Quality requirements UK Fired Water tube


CHECK - Is there an update, have seen the draft!
Parameter Unit 0 - 20 21 40 41 - 60 61 - 80 81 - 100 101 - 120 121 Feedwater pH (25 C) Total Hardness Oxygen Fe, Cu, and Ni Mg/kg CaCO3 Mg/kg Mg/kg 8.5 9.5 2 0.02 0.05 8.5 9.5 1 0.02 0.05 8.5 9.5 ND 0.01 0.03 8.5 9.5 ND 0.005 0.02 8.5 9.5 ND 0.005 0.02 8.5 9.5 ND 0.005 0.02 8.5 9.5 ND 0.005 0.02

Boiler water O- and P-alkalinity Oxygen scavenger Sulfite, or Hydrazine, or Tannin, or Iso ascorbic acid, or DEHA in FW Chloride Phosphate Silica Dissolved solids Conductivity (25 C) Mg/kg Mg/kg Mg/kg uS/cm 30 70 0.4 x O & P alkalinity 3000 6000 20 50 0.4 x O & P alkalinity 2500 5000 20 40 20 1000 2000 Mg/kg CaCO3 Mg/kg 50 - 300 50 - 150 25 50 10 20 5 - 10 2-5 1-5

30 50 0.1 10 120 160 15 30 0.1 0.25

20 40 0.1 0.5 NR 15 30 0.1 0.25

15 - 20 0.1 0.2 NR 15 30 0.1 0.25

NR 0.05 0.1 NR NR 0.1 0.25


Assess 15 30 5 200 450

NR 0.05 0.1 NR NR 0.1 0.25


Assess 10 20 2 50 150

NR 0.05 0.1 NR NR 0.1 0.25


Assess 3 10 1.5 20 60

NR 0.05 0.1 NR NR 0.1 0.25


Assess 35 0.5 10 35

Boiler water Quality requirements UK Other boilers


CHECK - Is there an update, have seen the draft!
Non-fired Water Tube Parameter Unit 0 - 40 Non-fired Water Tube 41 - 80 Non-fired Water Tube > 80 Once through Coil boiler < 40 Coil boiler > 41 Electrode boiler 101 120

Feedwater
pH (25 C) Total Hardness Oxygen Fe, Cu, and Ni Mg/kg CaCO3 Mg/kg Mg/kg 9.3 9.8 ND 0.02 0.05 9.3 9.8 ND 0.01 0.03 9.3 9.8 ND 0.005 0.02 0.005 0.005 0.02 8.5 9.5 8.5 9.5 1 8.5 9.5 ND 7.5 9.5 1 Nil 0.2 Cond 400 Boiler water

O- and P-alkalinity Total


Oxygen scavenger Sulfite, or Hydrazine, or Tannin, or Iso ascorbic acid, or DEHA in FW Phosphate Silica Dissolved solids Conductivity (25 C)

Mg/kg CaCO3
Mg/kg

25 - 50

10 - 50

25

300

150

300 600
50 100 pH > 9.5 Hardness 0 - 10

15 - 20 0.1 0.5 120 160 15 30 0.1 0.25 Mg/kg Mg/kg Mg/kg uS/cm 20 - 40 20 1000 2000

0.05 0.1 NR 15 30 0.1 0.25 15 30 5 200 400

0.05 0.1 NR 15 30 0.1 0.25 3 10 1-5 50 100 0.02 200 0.2

10 - 20 0.05 0.1 NR NR 0.1 0.25 Assess < 0.4 X O&P alk 8000

NR 0.02 0.05 NR NR 0.02 0.05 3-5 < 0.4 X O&P alk 5000

400 2000

Boiler water Quality requirements UK Fired Water tube


Feedwater
Parameter Unit 0 - 20 21 40 41 - 60 61 - 80 81 - 100 101 - 120 121

Pressure Appearance

bar Clear, no foam

300

pH (25 C)
Total Hardness Oxygen Fe, Cu, and Ni Mg/kg CaCO3 Mg/kg Mg/kg

8.5 9.5
2 0.02 0.05

8.5 9.5
1 0.02 0.05

8.5 9.5
ND 0.01 0.03

8.5 9.5
ND 0.005 0.02

8.5 9.5
ND 0.005 0.02

8.5 9.5
ND 0.005 0.02

8.5 9.5
ND 0.005 0.02