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Chemicals & Human Health Website Toxicology Problem Set

www.biology.arizone.edu/chh
NAME:
6
Chemicals & Human Health
Toxicology Problem Set: Student Sheet
Directions
1. Answer the pre-questions (circle the answer in the Pre-Questions column).
2. Go to the website www.biology.arizona.edu/chh and click on the link to the Toxicology
Problem Set.
3. Write the correct answer in the column labeled Correct Answer. All oI the answers
can be Iound in the Toxicology Problem Set.
4. Explain the correct answer.
Pre-Questions
(circle the answer
you think is correct)
Correct
Answer
(write the letter oI
the correct
answer Irom the
website)
Explain
(explain the correct answer)
Which statement is the most
correct?
A. Chemicals manuIactured by
humans are more dangerous to
human health than naturally
occurring chemicals.
B. Both natural and human-made
chemicals are potentially toxic to
humans.
C. Naturally occurring chemicals
are more poisonous to humans
than synthetic chemicals.
Give an example oI each
Natural toxic substance:
Man-made toxic substance:
One oI the items below is a
hazardous substance. Four are
sources oI a hazardous
substances. Which one is a
hazardous substance?
A. clogged Iurnace
B. cigarette
C. a dog
D. paint applied beIore 1978
E. dust mite parts
What is a common health eIIect oI this hazard?
What is the source Ior this hazard?
List 2 additional examples oI a hazard and its source:
Which oI the Iollowing is NOT a
possible route oI entry Ior a
hazard?
A. ingestion
B. absorption
C. exposure
D. inhalation
Describe the primary ways a hazard can enter the
body:
Which route oI entry may result in more oI the
toxicant in the blood and why?
All chemicals,
whether natural
or synthetic,
have the
potential to be
hazardous to
humans. The
likelihood of
harm to
humans
depends upon
the dose.
Rattlesnake poison and botulin.
Lead-based paints or pesticides, DDT.
A hazardous
substance is a
chemical that
causes harm to
our health. Dust
mite parts cause
an allergic
reaction in many
people.
Tabaco smoke, lead, mercury.
Dust mites live in carpets, bedding and
curtains.
Harmful to our health, allergies.
c. Explosure:
to cause harm it
most enter the
body.
Ingestion, inhalation, absorption.
Absorption because it can travel to all parts of the body.
Chemicals & Human Health Website Toxicology Problem Set
www.biology.arizone.edu/chh
NAME:
7
When DDT, a pesticide, enters
the human body, it is
.
A. water soluble and is easily
excreted in urine.
B. stored in the bones.
C. not toxic, but is processed by
enzymes and becomes a diIIerent
compound which is toxic.
D. Iat soluble and can be stored in
Iat tissue.
DeIine solubility:
What type oI chemical is more easily eliminated
Irom the body, water-soluble or Iat-soluble?
Based on your answer above, is DDT easily
eliminated Irom our bodies? Why?
Who took the largest dosage oI
aspirin?
A. an adult woman who weighs
125 lbs. and took 300 mg oI
aspirin
B. a teenage boy who weighs 135
lbs. and took 600 mg oI aspirin
C. a baby who weighs 20 lbs. and
took 100 mg oI aspirin
D. a chihuahua who weighs 5 lbs.
and took 50 mg oI aspirin
DeIine dose:
!
Calculate the dose Ior each person/animal in the
question (show your calculations and include units):
Which will NOT help you
determine the dose oI a hazardous
gas received by a person?
A. their respiration rate
B. their length oI exposure to the
gas
C. the source oI the gas
D. their Irequency oI exposure to
the gas
E. the concentration oI the gas
F. the gas's chemical and
biological properties
Will the dose be higher or lower iI:
a person breathes more rapidly?
a person is exposed once?
a person is exposed over years?
the gas is easily absorbed?
D.Fat soluble
and can be
stored in fat
tissue.
After a chemical
enters the body,
it is carried by
the blood to
different
locations
Whether it can dissolve in water or lipids.
Water-solute, because it separes itself.
No because it gets stored in fats and can
remain in the body for a very long time.
Specic amount of a chemical that enters the body.
D. A chihuahua
who weighs 5 lb
and took 50 mg
of aspirin.
Woman: 300 mg divided by 125 pounds or
2.4 mg/lb
Teeage: 600/135= 4.44...
Baby: 100/20 = 5mg/lb
Dog: 50/5= 10.
C. the source of
the gas
Knowing the
source of a
hazard will help
the scientists to
reduce exposure
in the future,
but will not
help to
determine how
much a person
has in their
body.
If they are breathing quickly, they will breathe in more
of the gas than if they are breathing slowly. Yes, high.
Is likely to have a smaller dose than a person exposed
many times.
Exposed for a short time will have a lower dose than a
person exposed for a long length of time.
Some gases are not easily absorbed by the human
body.
Chemicals & Human Health Website Toxicology Problem Set
www.biology.arizone.edu/chh
NAME:
8
Most hazardous substances
exhibit a "dose-response
relationship." What does this
mean?
A. The harm caused by the
hazard increases as the amount oI
hazard entering the body (dose)
increases.
B. It does not matter how big a
dose you receive, you will always
have same amount oI
harm/sickness.
C. Exposure to the hazard always
results in harm.
D. FiIty percent oI the people will
die when exposed to 0.1 mg/kg.
Draw a dose-response curve:
A Iamily home has a clogged
Iurnace that is producing carbon
monoxide, a hazardous gas.
Which Iamily member is likely to
be harmed the most?
A. Billy, the son who is in 1st
grade
B. Baby Shea, who is going to be
in preschool next year
C. Karla, the nanny who cares Ior
the toddler every weekday
morning
D. Ms. Nguyen, the mother who
works at home.
E. Mr. Nguyen, the Iather who
works at the University
Give 2 reasons Ior your answer:!
All oI the people listed below live
in the same house. Who is
most likely to experience toxic
eIIects Irom the second-hand
smoke?
A. the grandmother, who is very
Iit
B. the mother, who smokes
C. the Iather, who smokes
D. the teenage daughter, who has
asthma
E. the son, who is in 5th grade
Explain your answer:
A. The amount
of damage
(response)
caused by a
chemical that
has entered the
body depends
on the dose, or
amount entering
the body, and
the relationship
follows a
predictable
pattern
B.Baby Shea,
who is going
to be in
preschool next
year
The three
important
factors here are
length of
exposure, age
and size.
1) he is the youngest and therefore smallest person
in the house.
2) along with his mother, Mrs. Nguyen, he spends
the most time in the home.
D. A person's
health status can
affect their
response to a
hazard.
Because her lungs are already experiencing
an illness and are less healthy than the other
people who live there.
Chemicals & Human Health Website Toxicology Problem Set
www.biology.arizone.edu/chh
NAME:
9
There are several ways to control
or reduce your exposure to a
hazard. Opening a window in a
room Iull oI people who are
smoking is an example oI
controlling your exposure to
environmental tobacco smoke by
.
A. treating the symptoms oI the
hazard
B. diluting the hazard
C. distancing yourselI Irom the
hazard
D. removing the hazard
Explain your answer:
Give 2 additional examples oI how to control or
reduce exposure to a hazard:
Which environmental health
scientist would determine ways to
prevent and reduce exposure to
second hand smoke?
A. a toxicologist
B. an epidemiologist
C. an industrial hygienist
D. an occupational and
environmental medicine
physician
E. a pharmacologist
Do any oI the careers described in this question
interest you? Why or why not?
B.
By opening the
window, fresh
air will enter the
room and the
concentration of
cigarette smoke
will be reduced.
Removing the source of the hazard, wearing
protective gear, distancing yourself from the hazard,
and treating the symptoms caused by the hazard.
C.An industrial
hygienist.
Yes, becaue each one has
different way to help. They
do different works that can
help in their specics.
Somehow they can relate..