You are on page 1of 18

DERIVATION OF THE DIFFUSIVITY EQUATION

WELL TESTING CONCEPT


During a well test, the pressure response of a reservoir to changing production (or injection) is monitored.
Input
Rate

Reservoir
Pressure

Output

Time

Time

KEY CONCEPTS TO BE USED

Conservation of mass: mass balance Darcys law: equation of motion (relationship between flow rate, formation and fluid properties and pressure gradient) Equation of state: relationship between compressibility, density and pressure

DERIVATION OF THE DIFFUSIVITY EQUATION

Basic assumptions:

Single phase radial flow One dimensional horizontal radial flow Constant formation properties (k, h, ) Constant fluid properties (, B, co) Slightly compressible fluid with constant compressibility Pore volume compressibility is constant (cf) Darcys law is applicable Neglect gravity effects

RADIAL SYSTEM
r+r r

RADIAL SYSTEM

r mass in mass out r+r

volume element

CONSERVATION EQUATION
(Mas flow in) r - (Mass flow out) r+r = Mass accumulation Mass flow rate = Area velocity density time Mass accumulation = change of mass over time t Bulk vo lu m e b etween r and r+ r = [(r+ r) 2 -r 2 ] h = [r 2 +2r r+( r) 2 -r 2 ] h 2 r r h (Mass flow rate in) r = [2 rhv ]r t (Mass flow rate out) r+r = (2 rhv ) r + r t Mass accumulation = ( 2 r rh )t + t ( 2 r rh )t

CONSERVATION EQUATION
(Mas flow in) r - (Mass flow out) r+ r = Mass accumulation ( 2 rhv ) r t ( 2 rhv ) r + r t = Divide both sides by 2 r rh t

( 2 r rh )t + t ( 2 r rh )t

( )t + t ( )t 1 ( rv ) r - (rv ) r + r [ ]= t r r 1 ( rv ) ( ) = t r r The above equation is call the continuity equation.

DARCYS LAW
k p r Substitute Darcy's law into the continuity equation p ( ) 1 k [r ]= r t r r Expand the derivat ives of the products of terms p p 1 k + [ (r ) + r ( )( )] = r r r r t t r Apply the chain rule to th e derivatives of and 1 k p p 2 p [ (r ) + r ( )( ) ] = [ ] + r r r p r p p t v=

EQUATION OF STATE
The relationship between compressibility, density and pressure is given by: 1 co = p The definition of pore volume compressibility is: 1 cf = p Use the above equations to replace the derivatives of a nd 1 k p p p [ (r ) + rco ( ) 2 ] = [ co + c f ] r r r r t

DIFFUSIVITY EQUATION
Divide both sides of the above equation by k and multiply by to obtain: 1 p p 2 ct p (r ) + co ( ) = r r r r k t ct = co + c f The above equation is called the diffusivity equation. It is non-linear partial differential equation due to the p 2 term co ( ) . To be able to solve it using analytical r techniques it needs to be linearized.

LINEARIZATION OF THE DIFFUSIVITY EQUATION

To linearize the diffusivity equation we need to make the assumption that the pressure gradients are small and use the assumption that fluid compressibility is small. p 2 Therefore the term co ( ) is small compared to other r terms and can be neglected. The linearized diffusivity equation becomes: 1 p ct p (r ) = r r r k t

OIL FIELD UNITS


k = permeability (md) h = formation thickness (ft) = porosity (fraction) = fluid viscosity (cp) r = radial distance (ft) rw = wellbore radius (ft) t = time (hours) p = pressure (psig or psia) pi = initial reservoir pressure (psig or psia) q = flow rate (STB/D) B = formation volume factor (res. bbl/STB) ct = total system compressibility (psi-1)

DIFFUSIVITY EQUATION IN OIL FIELD UNITS

ct 1 p 2 p 1 p p (r ) = 2 + = 4 r r r r r r 2.637 10 k t The above equation is second order (highest derivative with respect to space is two) linear partial (it has derivatives with respect to two
independent variable r and t) differential equation. To solve it we need two boundary conditions and an initial condition.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
1. The flow rate at the wellbore is given by Darcy's law: kh p q= (r ) r=rw at r = rw for t 0 . 141.2 B r q p 141.2qB (r ) r=rw = r kh
Rate

Time

2. If we consider a system large enough so that it will behave like an infi nite acting system, then far away from the wellbore the pressure will remain at p i .
Pressure

p = p i as r for any value of any time.

pi

Radius

INITIAL CONDITION
Since the promlem under investigation is time dependant, the initial pressure should be known at time t = 0. Using uniform pressure distribution throughout the system at t = 0. p(r,0) = pi at t = 0 for all values of r .
Pressure
pi

Radius

DIMENSIONLESS VARIABLES
T o m ak e th e eq u atio n an d its so lu tio n m o re g en eral fo r an y flu id an d reservo ir system it, is m o re co n ve n ien t to ex p ress it in d im en sio n less varialb les. D im e n sio n less p r essu r e: kh ( p i p ) 1 4 1 .2 q B D im en sio n less tim e: pD = tD 2 .6 3 7 1 0 4 kt = c t rw2

D im en sio n less rad iu s: r rD = rw

DIMENSIONLESS VARIABLES
Differential equation: 2 pD 1 pD pD + = 2 rD rD rD t D Boundary conditions: p D (rD ) rD =1 = -1 rD p D = 0 as rD for any value of t D Inital condition: p D (rD ,0) = 0 at t D = 0 for all values of rD (1)

(2) (3) ( 4)