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saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

mitropoliti

anania jafariZe

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

gamomcemloba `alilo~ Tbilisi 2009

mitropoliti anania jafariZe


samSoblos did mamasa da moZRvars uwmidessa da une unetaress sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarq ilia meores mokrZalebiT vuZRvni am naSroms

wignSi gadmocemulia saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebeli eklesiis istoria uZvelesi xanidan vidre XXI saukunemde. naSromi sruli saxiT 1996-1999 wlebSi gamosca gamomcemloba `meranma~ oTx tomad, iqamde 1989 wels wignis pirveli tomi gamoica axalcixeSi. wignSi srulfasovnad aris aRwerili Cveni eklesiis cxovreba, uamravi wyarosa da literatur is darTviT, wmida mociqulebis epoqidanve, amasTan, literaturis mas win uZRvis qarTvelTa winaprebis sarwmunoebrivi cxovrebis mimoxilva da ufali RmerTis mier qarTveli xalxis mravalsaukunovani momzadeba qristianobis misaRebad. monografias Tan erTvis saeklesio krebaTa dadgenilebebis ganxilva. wigni gankuTvnilia farTo mkiTxveli sazogadoebisa da sasuliero akademiis studentebisaTvis, romelTaTvisac 1995 wlidan es wigni warmoadgens saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoriis saxelmZRvanelos.

meore

gamocema

redaqtorebi: kaxaber WabaSvili, Tamar revaziSvili kompiuteruli momsaxureba: viqtor daviTaSvili saZieblebi Seadgina Tamar revaziSvilma teqnikuri redaqtori: aleqsi SoSiaSvili

mitropoliti anania jafariZe gamomcemloba `alilo ~


misamarTi _ Tbilisi, leseliZis 27 E-mail: alilo@rambler.ru

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

uwmidesisa da unetaresis, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis ilia II-is wmida sinodis mier `uflis kvarTis ordeniT~ dajildovebis teqsts kiTxulobs mitropoliti anania jafariZe, sveticxoveli, 14 oqtomberi, 2008 weli.

mitropoliti anania jafariZe

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

winasityvaoba
saqarTveloSi bolos da bolos dadga dro, roca qarTul eklesias SedarebiT Tavisufali moRvaweobis saSualeba mieca. amave dros arnaxulad gaizarda sazogadoebis interesi qarTuli eklesiis warsulisadmi. magram sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi eklesiis sasargeblod momxdar aseT gardatexas qarTuli sabWoTa istoriografia maincdamainc momzadebuli ver Sexvda, ara gvaqvs qarTuli eklesiis ganmazogadebeli istoria. mravalsaukunovani qarTuli eklesiis istoriiT dainteresebuli mkiTxveli axal, Tanamedrove mecnierebis doneze Sesrulebul gamokvlevas ver waikiTxavs. qarTul istoriografiaSi aseTi CamorCenilobis mizezi, ZiriTadad, 1921 wlidan saqarTveloSi Seqmnili viTarebaa. garda imisa, rom 1921 wlis Semdeg qarTuli eklesiis istoriis kvlevas sabWoTa xelisuflebis saTanado politika maincdamainc ar axalisebda (aseT pirobebSic ki iv. javaxiSvilma, k. kekeliZem, b. lomaniZem, z. aleqsiZem da sxvebma mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanes qarTuli eklesiis istoriis calkeuli sakiTxebis saqmeSi), am mxriv arc revoluciamdel qarTul istoriografiaSi iyo kargad saqme. da ai, ratom: qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb pirveli monografia cnobilma istorikosma p. ioselianma 1845 wels gamoaqveyna, xolo 1877 wels gamocemul g. sabininis gamokvlevaSi qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxeb Txroba mxolod VI s-is bolomdea moyvanili. 1886 wels TbilisSi gamovida mose janaSvilis ,,saqarTvelos saeklesio istoria~. qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Seswavla gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri gaxda ruseTis 1904-1905 wlebis revoluciis Semdeg, roca qarTvelma sazogadoebam ruseTis saimperatoro karisa da wmida sinodis winaSe kategoriulad dasva qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis sakiTxi. am dros ramodenime sagazeTo da saJurnalo werilis (am mxriv gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos s. gorgaZis werilebi) garda Seiqmna T. Jordanias, k. cincaZis, n. durnovis, m. kelenjeriZis, n. maris monografiebi, romlebSic ZiriTadad qarTuli eklesiis avtikefaliis aRdgenis kanoniereba iyo dasabuTebuli. qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis aRdgenis moTxovna im xanad marcxiT damTavrda. isev daiwyo ganmazogadebeli naSromebis Seqmna. XIX s-Si qarTuli eklesiis sakiTxebi ganixila Tavis monografiaSi episkoposma (Semdgom kaTalikos-patriarqma) kirionma. 1910 wels romSi frangul enaze gamoica m. TamaraSvilis ganmazogadebeli monografia, 1918 wels quTaisSi - ev. nikolaZis gamokvleva ,,saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria~. amis Semdeg, qarTuli eklesiis istoriis kvleva, albaT axal safexurze avidoda, magram saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisufleba damyarda da kvlevac Seferxda. ase rom, qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb mxolod revoluciamde Seqmnili monografiebi gvaqvs, Tanac isini dReisaTvis bibliografiul iSviaTobas warmoadgens, ris gamoc qarTuli eklesiis istoriiT daintere-

mitropoliti anania jafariZe

sebuli farTo mkiTxveli sazogadoebisTvis xelmisawvdomi araa. dasaxelebuli naSromebidan mxolod p. ioselianis, m. janaSvilis, m. TamaraSvilisa da ev. nikolaZis monografiebSi aris qarTuli eklesiis istoriis ganmazogadebeli Txroba. aq Tu imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom p. ioselianis monografia garda imisa, rom rusul enazea da Zalze moZvelebulia, xolo m. TamaraSvilisa - frangul enaze, gamodis, rom saqarTvelos eklesiis Sesaxeb qarTulad mxolod ori wigni gvaqvs. da isinic siZvelisa da sqematurobis gamo sruliad ar Seesabamebian mecnierebis Tanamedrove donis moTxovnebs. yovelive zemoTqmulidan, vfiqrob, kargad Cans, raoden savalalo mdgomareobaSia dReisTvis qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Seswavlis saqme. amitom misasalmebelia, rom am didi laqis Sevseba, ukanasknel xanebSi saistorio wyaroebSi axlad gamovlenili masalebisa da Tanamedrove qarTuli istoriografiis miRwevebis gaTvaliswinebiT, isev sasuliero pirma - mitropolitma anania jafariZem iTava. mitropolit ananias uzarmazari gamokvleva mravalwliani Tavdauzogavi kvlevis nayofia. igi didi siyvaruliT da rudunebiT aris Sesrulebuli. SeiZleba, gadauWarbeblad iTqvas, rom qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb aseTi yovlismomcveli gamokvleva revoluciamdel saqarTveloSic ki ar Seqmnila. qarTuli eklesiis istoria, ra Tqma unda, qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis istoriis nawilia da am grandiozul naSromSic qarTuli eklesiis istoria saqarTvelos istoriasTan mWidro kavSirSi da mis fonzea gadmocemuli. aRniSnuli garemoeba, vfiqrob, naSromis erT-erT did Rirsebad unda CaiTvalos. farnavazis xanidan (Zv.w. III s.) mokidebuli XVIII s-is CaTvliT, ar darCenila rogorc saqarTvelos istoriis, ise qarTuli eklesiis istoriis metad Tu naklebad aqtualuri problema, romlis Sesaxebac a. jafariZes Tavisi Tvalsazrisi ar hqonodes gamoTqmuli. yovelive es avtoris farTo ganaTlebaze miuTiTebs. misasalmebelia, rom sasuliero saqmeebiT dakavebuli piri wlebis manZilze Tvals adevnebda qarTul (da ara marto qarTul) istoriografiaSi Seqmnil yvela im werils da monografias, romelic mas gamokvlevaSi ganxiluli calkeuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas gamoadgeboda. aRniSnulis gamoa, rom mis monografiaSi axali samecniero literatura saTanado sisruliTaa asaxuli. avtori axerxebs ara marto srulyofilad gadmosces qarTuli eklesiis itoria, aramed qarTuli eklesiisTvis dRes metad aqtualuri problema axleburad dasvas. bevri sakamaTo sakiTxi monografiaSi axali masaliTaa gamyarebuli da saTanado daskvnebicaa miRebuli. naSromis erT-erT siaxled unda CaiTvalos mociqulTa droindeli saqarTvelos vrceli da detaluri istoriis gadmocema, rasac aqamde saTanado yuradReba ar eqceoda. I-II ss-Si saqarTvelos teritoriaze mo-

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

ciqulTa mimosvlisa da qadagebis Sesaxeb Zvel wyaroebSi arsebuli masala, mas Semdeg, rac 1900 wels iv. javaxiSvilma andria pirvelwodebulis qarTlSi Semosvla uaryo ( im xanad aseTi Sexeduleba mxolod patrma avrelio parmierim ar gaiziara), specialurad aRaravis ukvlevia. ax.w.aR-is I-II ss-is saqarTvelos istoriisTvis es metad mniSvnelovani sakiTxi uyuradRebod iyo mitovebuli. ra Tqma unda, yovelive imaze, rac saqarTvelos istoriisa da qarTuli eklesiis fesvebis kvlevas naTels mohfens, uaris Tqma ar SeiZleba. umciresi masalac ki, saTanado gaanalizebis Semdeg, qarTuli kulturis samsaxurSi unda iqnes Cayenebuli. swored am mxriv miudga avtori saqarTveloSi mociqulTa Semosvlis sakiTxs. rogorc monografiidan Cans, saqarTveloSi mociqulTa mosvlis Sesaxeb (garda imisa, rom dabejiTebiT miuTiTebs Zveli qarTuli werilobiTi saistorio tradicia), mogviTxroben Zveli berZeni da laTini avtorebi. amitom, misasalmeblia, rom sarecenzio monografiaSi es sakiTxi farTod da amomwuravadaa warmodgenili, detaluradaa gaanalizebuli saqarTveloSi mociqulTa Semosvlis gzebi da maTi qadagebis geografiuli areali. damajerebladaa naCvenebi, rom Zvel avtorTa mier dasaxelebuli skviTeTi, sadac andria pirvelwodebulma qristianuli rwmena iqadaga, amave avtorTa (mag. dionise periegiti) cnobebidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos teritoriad unda CaiTvalos. rogorc motanili masalidan dasturdeba, andria pirvelwodebulis garda saqarTveloSi ramdenime mociquls uqadagia, romelTagan simon kananeli anakofiaSi gardaicvala da iq arsebuli misi saflavi avtoris mier samarTlianadaa miCneuli saqarTveloSi mociqulTa yofnis erT-erT damadasturebel faqtad. avtoris daskvniT, andria pirvelwodebulma ax.w.aR-is I sSi ara marto gaaqristiana qarTvelTa erTi nawili, aramed awyurSi pirveli saepiskoposo eklesiac daaarsa. damajerebelia Zvel qarTul saistorio wyaroebis monacemebze dayrdnobiT gamoTqmuli mosazreba, andria pirvelwodebulis qarTlSi pirvelad ax.w.aR-is 30-35 wels, mefe aderkis zeobis dros Semosvlis Sesaxeb. naSromSi aseve saTanadodaa dasabuTebuli saqarTveloSi sxva mociqulTa (mataTa da sxva) yofna da maT mier axali rwmenis qadageba. ra Tqma unda, rogorc avtoric miuTiTebs, ax.w.aR-is I-II ssis qarTlis samefos siZlieresa da mis saerTaSoriso avtoritets Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, maSin mociqulebi saqarTvelos marTlac ver auvlidnen gverds. saqarTveloSi mociqulTa moRvaweobis Sesaxeb naSromSi motanili masaliT avtori miznad isaxavs ufro didi problemis gadawyvetas. kerZod, mociqulTa mier (ax.w.) I-II ss-ebis saqarTveloSi qristianobis danergva episkopos ananias safuZvels aZlevs, mociqulTa droindeli saqarTvelos eklesia avtokefalurad miiCnios. naSromSi damajerebladaa dasabuTebuli im droisaTvis iseTi gziT warmoqmnili yvela avtokefaluri eklesiis Tanas-

mitropoliti anania jafariZe

woruflebianoba. saTanado masaliT Semagrebul aseT mosazrebas avtori cnobili bizantieli kanonistis, T. balsamonis (XII s.) cnobiT adasturebs. naSromSi sainteresodaa gadmocemuli qarTuli saxelmwifos, qarTveli erisa da qarTuli enis Camoyalibebis procesi. naCvenebia, rom qarTvelebiT gansaxlebuli teritoriis sazRvrebi im uZveles droSi qarTuli eklesiis samwysos emTxveoda. qarTvel mecnier-istorikosTa naSromebze dayrdnobiT avtori im daskvnamde midis, rom farnavazis droidan mokidebuli qarTli da egrisi erTiani qarTuli qveyana - `yoveli saqarTvelo~ iyo, ris gamoc mas ganmanaTlebelic erTi hyavda. aseTi mosazrebis erT-erT damadasturebel sabuTad motanilia qarTlis cxovrebis is cnoba, romlis Tanaxmad qarTlis ganmanaTlebelma wmida ninom `naTeli sca yovelTa iverTa~. rogorc cnobilia, aseTi Sexeduleba adre n. marma gamoTqva da maris mosazreba saTanadod miTiTebulia kidec monografiaSi. naSromSi didi adgili aqvs daTmobili imis mtkicebas, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispira teritoria aseve iberiad (qarTlad) iwodeboda. es sakiTxi jer kidev akad. s. yauxCiSvilma gaarkvia, magram misgan gansxvavebiT mitropoliti anania zogjer iberiis teritoriad mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos gulisxmobs da askvnis rom, radgan am erTian qarTul teritoriaze erTiani qarTveli xalxi cxovrobda, erTiani SegnebiT, erTiani kulturiT, mTel am teritoriaze IV s-dan wirva-locva qarTul enaze iyo. IV-V ss-ebis saqarTvelos istoriis amsaxvel qarTul saistorio wyaroebSi (`moqcevaA qarTlisaA~, vaxtang gorgaslis `cxovreba~), radgan qarTuli eklesiis meTaurad TiTo piria dasaxlebuli, qarTuli eklesiis istoriis iseTi cnobili mkvlevari, rogorc akad. k. kekeliZe iyo, im daskvnamde mivida, rom avtokefaliis mopovebamde (k. kekeliZe avtokefaliis mopovebas 468-472 ww. gansazRvravda) qarTlis samefo erT saepiskoposos warmoadgenda. k. kekliZis mosazrebas iziareben b. lomaniZe da a. bogveraZe. marTalia, k. kekeliZis mosazreba Tanamedrove qarTul istoriografiaSi gabatonebuli araa, magram mainc misasalmebelia, rom qarTuli eklesiisTvis aseT prestiJul sakiTxs mitropolitma ananiamac miaqcia yuradReba. misi daskvniT, qristianobis Semosvlidan da gamarjvebidan moyolebuli, saqarTveloSi ramdeni saerisTaoc iyo, imdeni saepiskoposo unda yofiliyo. aseTi mtkicebis erT-erT damadasturebel sabuTad monografiaSi samarTlianadaa miCneuli `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~-Si qarTlis eklesiis meTauris mTavarepiskoposis tituliT moxsenieba da vaxtang gorgaslisdroindel qarTlSi episkoposTa arseboba. miuxedavad imisa, rom Zvel qarTul wyaroebSi mecnierTa araerTma Taobam imuSava, vaxtang gorgaslis `cxovrebis~ avtoris juanSeris gamoTqmiT, rom qarTvelebma `keTilad ver i pyres wesi ioanes mcnebisa~, aravin dainteresebula. mitropolitma ananiam miaqcia yuradReba da azri gamoTqva, rom juanSeris sityvaSi, am SemTxvevaSi ioane naTlismcemeli an ioane mociqu-

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

li ki ar igulisxmeba, aramed qarTlis eklesiis pirveli meTauri ioane. iqve daasabuTa, radgan ioane episkoposis mier saqarTveloSi Semotanili nikeis rwmenisaTvis qarTlis eklesias SemdgomSi aRar uRalatia, maSin, roca TviT romis imperiaSi mravali mwvalebloba warmoiSva, juanSeris gamoTqmaSi ioane episkoposis mier qarTlSi danergili rwmenisadmi erTguleba igulisxmeba da qarTuli wyaro zustad asaxavs im saeklesio politikas, romelic 451 wlis qalkedonis krebis Semdeg bizantiis imperiaSi arsebobda. vfiqrob, juanSeris gamoTqmis aseTi interpretacia V s-is viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT swori Cans da siaxlea rogorc qarTuli eklesiis istoriisaTvis, ise TviT juanSeris cnobaTa gagebis saqmeSi. qarTuli eklesiis istoriis gadmocemisas mkvlevari, ra Tqma unda, gverds ver auvlis vaxtang gorgasalsa da miqael episkoposs Soris momxdar konfliqts. am sakiTxs mitropolitma ananiamac miaqcia yuradReba. da iqve saintereso mosazreba gamoTqva _ Tu ratom dawyevla miqaelma vaxtangis spa. avtoris Tanaxmad, vaxtangi samefo laSqarze dayrdnobiT ebrZoda simdidriT aRzevebul miqaels da am ukasasknelma amitom dauwyevla spa. konfliqtis mizezTa kvlevisas am detalisTvis yuradReba aravis miuqcevia. vfiqrob, miRebuli daskvna sayuradReboa. rogorc iTqva, saTanado wyaroebis monacemebsa da samecniero literaturaSi (i. troicki) gamoTqmul mosazrebze dayrdnobiT, mociqulTa dros saqarTveloSi Seqmnili qristianuli Temebi (aqedan gamomdinare, eklesia) monografiaSi avtokefalurad aris miCneuli. avtori Tvlis, rom qarTlis taxtze vaxtangis asvlisas (V s-is 40-iani w.) saqarTvelos eklesia avtokefaluri iyo, Tumca imperiis eklesiasTan urTierToba hqonda. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, ar iziarebs qarTul istoriografiaSi arsebul mosazrebas avtkefaliis mopovebamde antioqiis sapatriarqosadmi qarTuli eklesiis morCilebis Sesaxeb. im xanad antioqiis sapatriarqo, radgan bizantiis eklesias warmoadgenda, qarTlSi ki irani batonobda, avtori Tvlis, rom iranis xelisufleba ar dauSvebda qarTuli eklesia ierarqiul damokidebulebaSi yofiliyo misi mowinaaRmdege imperiis eklesiisadmi. qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis sakiTxi am kuTxiT ar dasmula, amitom gamoTqmuli mosazreba sayuradReboa. rogorc mitropoliti anania miuTiTebs, marTalia, 381 wels meore msoflio saeklesio krebis Semdeg Zlierma eklesiebma daiwyes susti eklesiebis damorCileba (konstantinepolis eklesiam am dros gaauqma pontos da asiis avtokefaliebi) da antioqiis eklesiis mier qarTul eklesiaze pretenziis gancxadeba mas aRniSnuli movlenis gamoxatulebad miaCnia. magram antioqiis sapatriarqosadmi qarTuli eklesiis ierarqiuli damokidebulebis Sesaxeb, radgan Zveli qarTuli wyaroebic miuTiTeben, unda dasabuTdes qarTul wyaroTa cnobebis ararealuroba, an maTi ucxoenovani wyaroebidan warmomavloba. sainteresoa naSromis is nawili, romelSic micemulia iranis meSveobiT qarTul eklesiaze somxuri eklesiis zemdgomobis damyarebis cda. rogorc

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mitropoliti anania jafariZe

iTqva, qarTuli eklesia V s-Si ukve avtokefaluri iyo, magram VI s-dan iranis zewoliT Seiqmna qarTul-somxur eklesiaTa erToba. qalkedonituri mrwamsis qarTlis samefoSi monofizitoba momZlavrda. swored iranis Zalis saSualebiT somxeTis eklesiam SeZlo Zveli albaneTis eklesiis damorCileba da RvTismsaxurebis enad somxuris damkvidreba. somxurma eklesiam garkveul warmatebas saqarTveloSic miaRwia. magram mitropolit ananias mosazrebis Tanaxmad, VI s-is Sua xanebSi qarTlSi Semosulma sirielma mamebma garkveulwilad gaamyares qalkedonitebis poziciebi. qarTul istoriografiaSi dRemdea kamaTi, Tu ra rwmenisa unda yofiliyvnen sirieli mamebi. mitropolit ananias dasabuTebuli msjelobidan gamomdinare, isini marTlac SeiZleba, qalkedonitebi yofiliyvnen. avtori fiqrobs, rom VII s-dan qarTulma eklesiam sabolood gawyvita kavSiri somxur eklesiasTan da Tavisi aseTi statusi 681 wels I saeklesio krebis gadawyvetilebebiT dadasaturda. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa naSromis is nawili, romelic saqarTvelos samefos ganapira mxareebis _ hereTis, qvemo qarTlisa da tao-klarjeTis mosaxleobis religiur rwmenasa da maTi ,,gaqarTvelebis~ sakiTxs exeba. monografiaSi naCvenebia monofizituri somxeTis gavlenaSi moqceuli am mxareebis qalkedonitobaze moqceva - ,,gaqarTveleba~. Tumca, isini eTnikurad manamdec qarTvelebi iyvnen, somxuri ena am Zveli qarTuli teritoriebis mosaxleobisaTvis mSobliuri ki ara, saeklesio iyo. rogorc avtori miuTiTebs, swored aRniSnuliT iyo ganpirobebuli, rom qarTveli erovnebisadmi kuTvnilebis gamo, Cvens eklesiaSi erovnul-kulturuli eklesiis damkvidrebisaTvis mebrZol kirions monofizitebic edgnen mxarSi. Tavis droze n. maris mier gamoTqmuli antimecnieruli mosazreba, TiTqos VIII-IX saukuneebamde tao-klarjeTis mosaxleoba araqarTuli iyo da am mxareebis qarTuli kulturis Zeglebi somxuri Zeglebis nangrevebze aSenda, k. kekeliZem da i. abulaZem gaiziares. marTalia, n. maris Teoriis kritika jer kidev p. ingoroyvam mogvca, magram winamdebare naSromSi, radgan saqarTvelos ganapira mxareebis mosaxleobis mrwamszec aris saubari, mitropoliti anania am sakiTxsac Seexo. aCvena n. maris mosazrebis usafuZvloba, - ra mavne Sedegebi gamoiRo n. maris Teoriam, rogor gamoiyenes igi. n. tokarskim, a. iakobsonma, v. mixakovma da sxvebma tao-klarjeTis Zveli qarTuli arqiteqturis Zeglebis araqarTulad gamosacxadeblad. jer kidev naSromis dasawyisSi aris gamoTqmuli survili, aRdges qarTuli eklesiis Zveli saxelwodeba da mas ,,saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia~ ewodos. naSromis meore tomSi mosazrebis dasadastureblad didZali da saintereso masalaa motanili. naCvenebia, Tu ratomaa somxuri da albanuri eklesiebis msgavsad qarTuli eklesiac samociqulo, saqarTvelos eklesiis mamamTavrebi mociqulTa taxtze rom sxedan. aqve naCvenebia, rom ,,wmida kaTolike samociqulo eklesia sveticxoveli~, an mcxeTis samociqulo eklesia ewodeboda.

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

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vfiqrob, naSromSi sakmao damajereblobiTaa dasabuTebuli, rom mironi saqarTveloSi qalkedonis meoTxe saeklesio krebis (451 w.) dadgenilebis safuZvelze ikurTxeboda. berZnulenovani sabuTebi qarTuli realobis sawinaaRmdegod rom metyveleben, avtori amas samarTlianad xsnis ucxoelTa batonobisagan gaRaribebuli antioqiisa da konstantinepolis sapatriarqoebis finansuri mdgomareobis gauaresebiT. maT Zvel sabuTebSi Sesworebani SehqondaT, raTa sxva eklesiebi eiZulebinaT maTTvis Sesawiri miecaT. saintereso masalaa motanili mironis kurTxevis wesis Sesaxeb. naCvenebia, rom igi VI s-Si unda SeedginaT, xolo VI msoflio saeklesio krebas (681 w.) daedasturebina. uaryofilia b. lominaZis mosazreba, TiTqos mironis kurTxeva saqarTveloSi IX s-Si dawesda. misaRebi Cans, giorgi merCules Txzulebis teqstis im adgilis, romelSic saqarTveloSi mironis kurTxevis dawesebazea saubari, qaragma ,,a-s~ gaxsna afxazeTad (da ara aRmosavleTad, rogorc es dResaa miRebuli). qaragmis aseTi gaxsnis Semdeg naTeli xdeba afxazeTis eklesiaSi ratom daiwyes ierusalimidan motanili mironis magier mcxeTaSi nakurTxi mironis gamoyeneba. ierusalimidan mironis motana, rogorc monografiaSia aRniSnuli, im xanad marTlac konstantinepolSi mimdinare brZolebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. naSromSi sworadaa miTiTebuli, rom afxazeTis sakaTalikosos daarseba damoukidebeli afxazeTis samefos warmoqmnis Sedegi iyo. iqve saTanado masalis motaniT, naCvenebia afxazeTis sakaTalikoso, erTian qarTul eklesiaSi rom Sedioda. XI saukunis saqarTvelos istoriis gadmocemisas monografiaSi kargadaa naCvenebi bizantiasa da saqarTvelos Soris politikuri viTarebis garTuleba rogor moqmedebda am qveynebis saeklesio urTierTobaze. rogor da ra pirobebSi miiRo saqarTvelos eklesiis meTaurma kaTalikos-patriarqis wodeba. aqve sainteresodaa gaanalizebuli XI saukunis saqarTveloSi Seqmnili is viTareba, romelmac ganapiroba adre somxeTTan eklesiuri siaxlovis dros Seqmnili saeklesio literaturis xelaxali redaqtireba, amjerad ukve berZnulTan dasaaxloeblad. giorgi da eqvTime mTawmidelebis, efrem mcires roli am saqmeSi. rogorc mitropoliti anania miuTiTebs, dasaxelebulma moRvaweebma, rogorc zogi mkvlevari fiqrobs, xelaxla ki ar Targmnes sasuliero literatura berZnulidan, aramed ukve Targmnils udarebdnen berZnuls, raTa maTSi somxur eklesiasTan siaxlovis kvali aRmoefxvraT. amiT qarTvelma moRvaweebma berZnebs mouspes sababi saqarTvelos eklesia mwvaleblur eklesiad gamoecxadebinaT da udidesi roli Seasrules qarTuli eklesiis ZvelTaganve arsebuli avtokefaliisa da saqarTvelos sapatriarqos aRorZinebis saqmeSi. saqrTvelos sapatriarqos sazRvrebis ganxilvisas naCvenebia, rom CrdiloaRmosavleTiT qarTuli eklesiis sazRvari xersonisTan mdebare kafamde aRwevda. aqve miTiTebulia qarTuli eklesiis samxreTi da aRmosavleTi sazRvrebi. sainteresoa naSromis is nawili, romelic msoflio di ptixSi saqarTvelos eklesiis sakiTxs Seexeba. saTanado masalaa motanili imis saCvene-

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blad, rom saeklesio ganxeTqilebamde (1054 w.) saqarTvelos eklesias ierusalimis eklesiis Semdeg VI adgili eWira. avtori aqve asabuTebs, rom di ptixSi es adgili 1054 wlis wina droindeli sabuTebidan momdinare Cans. msoflio di ptixSi qarTul eklesias marTlac VI adgili rom ekava, naSromSi amis damadasturebel sabuTad motanilia 1438 wlis feraraflorenciis saeklesio krebaze saqarTvelos eklesiis warmomadgelis VI adgilze jdoma. am mxriv, motanili masala, vfiqrob, imdenad saintereso da damajerebelia, rom naSromis es nawili ucxo enaze unda gamoqveyndes. saTnado dokumenturi masalaa motanili qarTuli eklesiis Sinagani di ptixis _ episkoposTa sxdomis saCveneblad. naSromis bolos gaanalizebulia XVIII saukunis saqarTveloSi Seqmnili religiuri viTareba, roca araerTi qarTveli iZulebuli Seiqmna ,,somxur sarwmunoebaze~ (grigorianeloba) gadasuliyo. naCvenebia anton kaTalikosis didi roli qarTvelobis dacvisaTvis brZolaSi. uxvi masalaa motanili imis saCveneblad, rom grigorianobaze gadasuli qarTvelebi Tavis erovnebad qarTvelobas asaxelebdnen. sabolood unda davZino: mitropolit ananias naSromSi imdeni saintereso sakiTxia dasmuli da gaanalizebuli, rom yvela maTganis recenziaSi Sefaseba SeuZlebelia (ra Tqma unda, amas upirveles yovlisa naSromis didi moculoba da masSi wamoWrili sakiTxebis simravle arTulebs). Cvens winaSea metad saintereso, titanuri Sromis Sedegad Seqmnili ,,saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria~, romelSic qarTuli eklesiis Tvrametsaukunovani istoriis zogierTi sakiTxi SeiZleba sakamaTodac mogveCvenos, magram es romelime konkretuli sakiTxis Sesaxeb an qarTul istoriografiaSi arsebuli sxvadasxva SexedulebiT aris gamowveuli, an sakiTxis garSemo arsebuli saistorio wyaroTa simciriT. saerTod ganxiluli naSromis Sefasebisas mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT is garemoeba, rom mitropolit ananias wigniT qarTuli eklesiis monografiuli Seswavlis saqmeSi mxolod pirveli nabiji idgmeba. yovelive zemoT aRniSnulis gamo, umniSvnelo tiraJiT gamocemuli saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoriis (axalcixe, rabaTi, 1983-88 ww.) xelmeored gamoqveyneba sasurvel da gadaudebel saqmed mimaCnia, rac myar safuZvels Seuqmnis qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Semdgom kvlevas.

vaxtang

goilaZe 1996 weli

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria


mitropoliti anania jafariZe

13

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

arqimandrit ananias episkoposad kurTxeva uwmidesisa da unetaresis, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis ilia II-is mier, sveticxoveli, 15 marti, 1981 weli.

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patiosanno

da

didebulno

qarTvelno!

Cveni Zveli wmida mamebi ambobdnen _ `satrfialo sasmenelia pirvel winaparTa istoria~. `qarTlis cxovreba~ da `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~ qarTveli xalxis Tavgadasavals uZvelesi droidanve gadmogvcemen, maT cnobebs garkveulwilad eTanxmebian da avseben axali mecnieruli gamokvlevebi. Zvel matianeTa monacemebis urTierTSejerebiT gadavwyviteT gadmogveca qarTveli eris sarwmunoebrivi istoria sadideblad yovladwmida samebisa, erovnuli TviTSemecnebisa da cnobierebis gansamtkiceblad. SesaZloa, Temis uCveulobis da sxva mizezTa gamo gagvepara uzustobani, Secdoma-lafsusebi, magram imedi gvaqvs Tqveni gulmowyalebisa da viTxovT Sendobas. kurTxeva uflisa Tqvenzeda

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

15

Tavi I

qarTvelTa winaprebis bibliuri istoria adamidan iesomde

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qarTvelTa winaprebis bibliuri istoria adamidan iesomde

samyaros Seqmna
WeSmaritebisa da sicocxlis gzaze Tanaxmad `qarTlis cxovrebisa~, qarTvelTa pirvelwinaprebs win waruZRva sityva RmrTisa, TviT RmerTi macxovari Cveni ieso qriste: ori aTasi wlis win, amaRlebis Semdgom, yovladwmida RvTismSobels eCvena ufali da qarTveli eris momavali cxovrebis Sesaxeb amcno: `hoi dedao Cemo, ara ugulebel vyo eri igi sazepuro ufrois yovelTa naTesavTa, meoxebiTa SeniTa maTTvis~ (q.c. I, gv. 38), rac Tanamedrove qarTuliT ase gamoiTqmis _ `hoi, dedao Cemo, me ar ugulebelvyof xalxTa Soris didebul qarTvels ers, maTTvis Seni meoxebiT~. yovladwmida dedam mis wilxvedr saqarTveloSi, misi Zisa da Cveni macxovris ieso qristes davalebiT, gamoagzavna mociquli andria pirvelwodebuli, romelmac daafuZna saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia. da, ai, ori aTasi welia Cveni mama-papani erTgulad msaxureben RmerTs _ `romelman qmna cani gulisxmisyofiT, rameTu ukunisamdea wyaloba misi~ (fs. 135,5), `romelman qmna cani da qveyana, zRva da yoveli rai ars mas Sina~ (fs. 145,6), `romelman Seqmna samyaro ZaliTa mis mieriTa, zegardmo arsni suliTa yvna zeciT monaberiTa~ (rusTv.), `romelman gardasul TaobebSi neba uboZa yvela xalxs, evloT TavianTi gziT~ (saqme, 14,16). igi isaa, romelic ar ugulebelyofs mis gzaze myof Cvens ers, rameTu mis mier Seiqmna yoveli xalxi da eri _ `yovelive mis mier Seiqmna da Tvinier misa arca erTi ra iqmna, raodeni ra iqmna~ (ioan. 1.3). Cveni mamebis yovlad keTilma, yovlad wmida, yovlismcodne, yovlisSemZlebelma, saxierma, sulgrZelma da mravalmowyale RmerTma eqvs dReSi Seqmna xiluli qveyana uxilavis Semdgom `rameTu man Tqva da iqmnes, amcno da daebadnes~ (fs. 32,9). `Tavdapirvelad RmerTma Seqmna ca da miwa. miwa iyo usaxo da udaburi. bneli ido ufskrulze da suli RvTisa iZvroda wylebs zemoT. Tqva RmerTma: iyos naTeli! da iqmna naTeli (dab. 1. 1-3). meore dRes RmerTma Seqmna samyaro cisa, mesame dRes misi brZanebiT cisqveSeTSi erTgan Segrovda wyali, gamoCnda xmeleTi, aRmoacena miwam mcenareuli, meoTxe dRes _ man Seqmna mnaTobebi, mexuTe dRes _ wylis suldgmulebi, cis frinvelebi.

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

17

meeqvse dRes Tav Tavis gvarisda mixedviT cxovelTa Seqmnis Semdgom _ `Tqva RmerTma: gavaCinoT kaci Cvens xatad, Cvens msgavsebad. epatronos zRvaSi Tevzs, caSi frinvels, pirutyvs, mTels dedamiwas da yvela qvemZroms, rac ki dedamiwaze daxoxavs. Seqmna RmerTma kaci, Tavis xatad Seqmna igi, mamakacad da dedakacad Seqmna isini. akurTxa RmerTma isini da uTxra: inayofiereT da imravleT, aavseT dedamiwa, daeufleT mas, epatroneT zRvaSi Tevzs, caSi frinvels, yovel cxovels, rac ki dedamiwaze daxoxavs~ (dab. 1.26-28). meSvide dRes, samyaros Seqmnis Semdeg ganisvena man, romlis saqmeni `didad Svenier arian, da simarTle misi hgies ukuniTi ukunisamde~ (fs. 110, 3). Semoqmedma dasabamidan kacad da qalad Seqmna adamianebi (maTe, 19,4). `aiyvana adami ufalma RmerTma da daasaxla edemis baRSi mis dasamuSaveblad da dasacavad. gaafrTxila ufalma RmerTma adami da uTxra: yvela xis nayofi geWmeva am baRSi, mxolod keTilis da borotis Secnobis xis nayofi ar SeWamo, radgan, rogorc ki SeWam, mokvdebio~ (dab. 2, 15-17), magram gvelis mier Secdenilma evam akrZaluli nayofi Wama da qmarsac aWama. aexilaT Tvali orives (dab. 3,7). `Tqva ufalma RmerTma, aha, gaxda adami, rogorc erTi CvenTagani, Semcnobeli keTilisa da borotisa. ar gaiwodos axla xeli da ar mowyvitos sicocxlis xis nayofic, ar SeWamos da maradiulad ar icocxlos. gauSva igi ufalma RmerTma edemis baRidan, rom daemuSavebina miwa, saidanac iyo aRebuli. gandevna adami. edems ki aRmosavleTiT qerubimebi da cecxlovani, mbrunavi maxvili dauyena, raTa sicocxlis xesTan misasvleli daecvaT~ (dab. 3. 22-24). madlierebis nacvlad pirvelma adamianma ufali RmerTisagan micemuli pirveli mcneba daarRvia Tavisi urCobiT da pirveli codva Caidina. `erTi kacis urCobiT mravali gaxda codvili~ (rom. 5, 19). `erTis Secodebisagan yvela kacis Tavze moiwia sasjeli~ (rom. 5, 18). `erTis SecodebiT mravalni mokvdebian~ (5, 15). Taobidan Taobas gadaecema adamis codva da codvis gamo _ sikvdili (rom. 5, 12). ganidevna adami edemis baRidan, dawyevlili miwa unda daemuSavebina, romlisganac tanjviT miiRebda sazrdos. ZeZvsa da ekals aRmoucenebda miwa, pirofliani Wamda purs, sanam miwadve gadaiqceoda, saidanac iyo aRebuli, radgan mtveri iyo da mtvrad gadaiqceoda (dab. 3, 17-19). edemidan gandevnis Semdeg `Seicno adamma eva, Tavisi dedakaci, daorsulda eva da Sva kaeni da Tqva: kaci SemeZina uflisagan. mere Sva misi Zma abeli. abeli mecxvare iyo, kaeni miwis muSaki. gamoxda xani da miarTva kaenma ufals ZRveni _ miwis nayofi~ (dab. 4,1-3). abelmac Seswira ufals msxverpli _ gamoarCia Tavisi faris rCeuli pirutyvidan pirvelSobilni, misTvis yvelaze Zvirfasni. `mohxeda ufalma abels da mis ZRvens, xolo

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kaensa da mis ZRvens ar mohxeda~ (dab. 4. 4-5), rameTu `rwmeniT Seswira abelma RmerTs kaenisaze ukeTesi msxverpli, romliTac miiRo mowmoba, rom marTalia igi, rogorc RmerTma daamowma mis ZRvenTa Sesaxeb~ (ebr. 11,4). Zmis sikeTiT gamwarebulma kaenma Tavi CaRuna. codva gabatonda masze _ gaiyvana abeli velad da mokla. `uTxra RmerTma _ es ra Caidine? Seni Zmis sisxli miwidan SemomRaRadebs. daiwyevla kaeni, devnili da miusafari Seiqmna qveynad. amuSavebda miwas. uflis pirisagan gadaxvewili kaeni gamravlda da misgan boroti STamomavloba warmosdga _ daiviwyes Semoqmedi RmerTi da keTili saqmeni, ewodaT maT `kacTa Svilebi~. mwuxare adamsa da evas RmerTma momadla sxva naSieri nacvlad abelisa _ SeTi. `SeTsa SeeZina vaJi da uwoda saxelad enoSi, maSin daiwyo uflis saxelis xseneba~ (dab. 4.26). ewoda mis STamomavlebs `RvTis Svilebi~. maTgan warmosdga noe _ Svili lameqisa. iwyes gamravleba adamianebma dedamiwaze. Seerivnen `kacTa Svilebs~ `RvTis Svilebi~ da SeiZines maTgan yovelive ukeTuri Cveuleba. `dainaxa ufalma RmerTma, rom imata adamianTa ukeTurebam am qveynad, rom ukeTuri iyo mudamJams maTi yoveli gulisTqma. inana ufalma, rom Seqmna adamiani amqveynad da Sewuxda. Tqva ufalma _ miwis pirisagan aRvgvi adamians, romelic Sevqmeni, adamianidan dawyebuli pirutyvamde, qvewarmavlamde, cis frinvelamde, radgan vnanob, rom gavaCine. mxolod noes epova madli uflis TvalSi. es aris ambavi noesi: marTali, sruli kaci iyo noe Tavis TaobaSi, RmerTTan dadioda noe. Sva noem sami vaJi: semi, qami da iafeTi~ (dab. 6. 5-10). ufalma RmerTma ineba miwis pirisagan adamianisa da yoveli xorcielis aRgva wylis warRvniT. noes ki ubrZana kidobnis gakeTeba. aswavla misi momzadeba. Seiyvana noem kidobanSi yovelgvari cxoveli, yovelgvari xorcieli, rasac ki sicocxlis suli edga, yvela wyvil-wyvilad, wmida pirutyvisagan Svid-Svidi waiyvana, uwmindurisagan or-ori. Sevidnen kidobanSi noe da misi Svilebi, colebi, raTa ganridebodnen warRvnas, meSvide dRes movida warRvna qveynad (dab. 7. 7-10). as ormocdameaTe dRis bolos dadga wyali da Sewyda wvima. araratis mTebs miadga kidobani. TandaTan iklebda wyali da gamoCnda mTis mwvervalebi. jer kidev idga wyali miwis pirze da ver i poves brWyalis mosaWidi noes mier kidobnidan gaSvebulma frinvelebma. meSvide dRes xelaxla gauSva mtredi kidobnidan, `dabrunda mtredi saRamoJams da aha, zeTisxilis nedli rto eWira niskartiT. mixvda noe, rom damwdariyo wyali dedamiwaze~ (dab. 8. 11). gadmovida noe Tavisi col-SviliT da kidobans Sefarebuli yoveli arseba. augo noem samsxverplo ufals da miiyvana yovladdasawvel Sesawirad TiTo-TiTo yoveli wmida pirutyvidan da frinvelidan.

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iynosa ufalma keTilsurneleba da Tqva Tavis gulSi: aRar davwyveli miwas adamianis gamo, aRar gavanadgureb cocxal arsebas. `akurTxa RmerTma noe da misi Svilebi da uTxra: inayofiereT, imravleT da aavseT qveyana: (dab. 9, 1). Tqveni SiSi hqondes yovel suldgmuls, rac ki iZvris dedamiwaze, Tqvens xelT arian isini, saWmelad gaZlevT. mis sulTan _ mis sisxlTan erTad nu SeWamT, me ki Tqvens sisxls Tqveni sicocxlis wil movikiTxav. `vinc adamianis sisxls daRvris, adamianis mierve daiRvreba misi sisxli, radgan RvTis xatad Seiqmna adami, inayofiereT da imravleT, moefineT qveyanas da gamravldiT masze~ (dab. 9. 6-7).

babilonis godolis dacema, enaTa da tomTa warmoqmna


noes Svilebi gamravldnen, `maTgan mTeli dedamiwa iqna dasaxlebuli~, kacobrioba am droisaTvis erTiani iyo, erTi enis mqone, eTnikurad erTgvari. jer kidev ar iyvnen erebi _ `erTpiri iyo mTeli dedamiwa da erT enaze metyveli. roca daiZrnen aRmosavleTidan, hpoves veli Sinyaris qveyanaSi da iq damkvidrdnen. uTxres erTmaneTs: modi, movziloT Tixa da gamovwvaT, qvis magivrad aguri hqondaT, kiris magivrad fisi. Tqves: aba, avaSenoT qalaqi da godoli da cas mivuwvdinoT misi Txemi. aRvmarToT niSan-sveti, rom ar gavifantoT dedamiwis zurgze, Camovida ufali, rom enaxa qalaqi da godoli, romelsac adamianebi aSenebdnen, Tqva ufalma: aha, erTi xalxia es da erTi ena aqvs yvelas. raki es saqme wamouwyiaT, amieridan daubrkolebliv gaakeTeben yvelafers, rasac ki ganizraxaven. aba, Caval da enas avurev maT, rom veraferi gaagebinon erTmaneTs. gafanta isini ufalma iqidan mTels dedamiwis zurgze da maTac Sewyvites qalaqisa da godolis Seneba. amitomac ewoda saxelad babiloni, radgan swored aq aRria ufalma mTeli dedamiwis ena da aqedan gafanta isini ufalma dedamiwis zurgze~ (dab. 11. 1-9). noes Ze _ `qami iyo qanaanis mamamTavari~, _ weria dabadebaSi. semma _ ebraul da sxva semitur tomebs daudo safuZveli. iafetma ki _ evropasa da aziaSi gavrcelebul mraval xalxs. TviTon sityva `iafeti~ niSnavs `gavrcelebas~. sxvadasxva xalxis mamamTavarTa Soris bibliis Zveli, gansakuTrebiT ki qristiani komentatorebi qarTvelTa mamamTavarsac asaxeleben _ zogierTi cnobiT, is yofila iafetis Ze Tubali. saerTod iafetis STamomavlebi, noes dalocvis Sesabamisad, raodenobiTac da RirsebiTac upiratesni iyvnen sxva mamamTavarTa STamomavlebze. noem iafeti ase daloca _ ganufarTos RmerTma iafets, semis karvebSi daemkvidros, daemorCilos mas qanaani (dab. 9. 27).

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mitropoliti anania jafariZe

iafetis STamomavloba aseTia: _ `iafetis Zeni: gomeri, magogi, madai, iavani, Tubali, meSeqi da Tirasi. gomeris Zeni: aSqenazi, rifaTi da Togarma. iavanis Zeni: eliSa, TarSiSi, qiTimi da dodanimi. amaTgan ganifantnen zRvispira xalxebi Tav-Tavis qveynebSi, TiToeuli Tavisi enis mixedviT, Tavisi tomis mixedviT, Tav-Tavis xalxSi~ (dab. 10. 2-5). bibliis komentatori ase ganmartavs am saxelebs: `gomeri~ _ ...am xalxis saxels sxvaganac vxvdebiT bibliaSi _ winaswarmetyvel ezekielTan, romelic maT aRwers, rogorc mezobels Tubalisa da mosoxisa (38, 6) da sxva xalxebis rigSi, romelnic saxlobdnen Crdilo siriaSi da mcire aziaSi. `magogi~ ... ezekielTan es tomebi gamodian, rogorc gamocdili da daxelovnebuli moisarni (38, 16. 39, 3). isini cxovroben zemoT dasaxelebulebTan mezoblad, odnav maT CrdiloeTiT. zogierTni maTSi xedaven skviTebs, romelnic cxovroben azovis zRvis piras. magogSi aseve skviT-Turanelebs xedaven. skviTebis bediswera asrulda ezekielis winaswarmetyvelebis Tanaxmad, maTi ganadgurebis Sesaxeb samon-gogis dablobze, roca isini dabrundnen palestinaSi da daavaddnen, rogorc aRwers herodote (1, 105-106). `madai~... am saxeliT iwodebodnen arielebi, mcxovrebni dasavleT aziaSi _ midielebi. maTi didi nawili TandaTanobiT gadasaxlda aRmosavleTSi da miiRo indusebis saxeli. midielebis sparselebTan da, saerTod, arielebTan naTesaobis Taobaze werda winaswarmetyveli danieli (V, 28). `iavani~ _ miuTiTebs berZnebze, upirvelesad ionielebze. `Tubal mesexi~... _ rogorc dabadebaSi, aseve wmida werilis mraval adgilas es ori xalxi, rogorc wesi, erTiandebian da erTad gamoisaxebian magogis moxarkeebad (ezek. 38, 2. 39, 1). erTxel sxvaTaSoris iavanTan erTiandebian (e. 37, 13). da kidev or adgilas maTi sacxovrisi ganisazRvreba palestinis CrdiloeTiT. asirieli mefeebis analebSi arcTu iSviaTad moixsenieba Muski da Tabal, viTarca ori mezobeli xalxi, mcxovrebi kilikiaSi. xolo herodote ambobs tibarekebsa da iberianelTa (iberTa) da mosoxTa Sesaxeb, kolxidis mezoblad mcxovrebTa Sesaxeb. mecnierebi Tvlian, rom Tavdapirvelad orive xalxi cxovrobda tigrosisa da evfratis saTaveebSi, midiasa da skviTias Soris, e.i. kolxeTsa da iberiaSi (Tubal _ savaraudoa iberebi anu qarTvelebi). `gomeris Zeni~: aSqezani... `_ imaze dayrdnobiT, rom Tanamedrove ebraelebi germanias `askenazs~ uwodeben, iudevel ganmmartebelTa umravlesoba aq xedavs miTiTebas germanelebze... advilad SesaZlebelia aseve is, rom es erovneba Tavis Tavdapirvel sacxovrisad (igulisxmeba mcire azia) gasvlis Semdeg, droTa viTarebaSi damkvidrda dasavleT evropaSi da aq daudo safuZveli momavali germaniis cxovrebas. `Togarma~ ... es saxeli kidev orjer gvxvdeba ezekielTan, rogorc cxenebisa da virebis momwodebeli tireli vaWrebisaTvis (ezek. 27, 14. 38, 6).

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tradiciis Tanaxmad, romelic Semonaxulia mose xorenacisTan, somxeTis mcxovrebTa mamamTavrad iTvleboda Togarmas Svili~ (ix. ` ~, t. I, 1904. s. 70).

msoflio enaTa ojaxebi


ramdenad Seefardeba mecnierul Tvalsazriss bibliaSi gadmocemuli Txroba enaTa da xalxTa warmoqmnis Sesaxeb? amasTan dakavSirebiT komentatori wers, rom genealogiuri cxrilebi aRmosavleTis Zveli xalxebisaTvis warmoadgendnen yvelaze mniSvnelovan da farTod gavrcelebul movlenas, umTavres da TiTqmis erTaderT istorias warsulisas, is saimedod iyo daculi da Taobidan Taobas gadaecemoda. bibliis genealogiuri cxrilebi, ueWvelad uZvelesi, warsulis Zeglebia, wamosuli abramis epoqidan, Cans, TviT noes ojaxidan. axal aRmoCenaTa wyalobiT, Tanamedrove mecnierebi ufro da ufro rwmundebian xalxTa bibliuri cxrilebis sinamdvilesa da simarTleSi, magaliTad, mas `Zvel msoflioSi xalxTa gansaxlebis gansakuTrebiT Zveli, gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasi da sruli istoriis~ dokuments uwodebs cnobili frangi orientalisti lenormani da ambobs, rom `mis sinamdviles gasaocrad adasturebs SedarebiTi enaTmcodneoba da fiziologiuri gamokvleva sxvadasxva erisa~. cxrili amtkicebs kacobriobis erTa erTobis WeSmaritebas, uCvenebs, rom mTeli kacobrioba warmoiSva mxolod am sami (semi, qami, iafeti) Stosagan, romelnic Tavis mxriv gamovidnen erTi saerTo Ziridan (ix. `tolkovaia biblia~, peterburgi, 1904, gv. 68). dabadeba meaTe TavSi CamoTvlis semitur, qamitur da iafetur xalxebs, maT eTnarqebs da bolos ambobs: `es aris noes ZeTa STamomavloba TavTavisi modgmis mixedviT, Tav-Tavis xalxSi. maTgan ganStovdnen xalxebi qveyanaze warRvnis Semdeg~ (dab. 10, 32). Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebi semitur enaTa ojaxebs akuTvneben asurulbabilonurs, anu aqadurs, Zvel ebrauls (anu bibliis enas), finikurs, arameuls, siriuls, arabuls, eTiopurs. qamitur enaTa ojaxs akuTvneben berberulsa da kuSitur enebs, Zvel egvi pturs, kopturs (S. ZiZiguri, saenaTmecniero saubrebi, 1982, gv. 98). msoflios yvelaze farTod ganfenili enaTa ojaxia indoevropuli, rogorc nabrZanebia _ `ganufarTos RmerTma iafeTs~, masSi Sedis enaTa induri, iranuli, slavuri, baltikuri, germanuli, romanuli, kelturi, berZnuli Stoebi, calkeuli enebi. indoevropul enaTa ojaxSi Sedis 86-ze meti ena, ganfenilni atlantis okeanidan indoeTisa da wynar okeanemde. am ojaxis enaTa calkeul StoebSic aTeulobiT ena Sedis, magaliTad, romanul (italikur) StoSi Sedis 13

22

mitropoliti anania jafariZe

ena, germanuli Stos sxvadasxva jgufSi _ 11 ena, indur StoSi _ 12 ena, aseve iranulsa da sxva StoebSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom aRniSnuli enebi amJamad Zlier daSorebulni arian erTmaneTs, mecnierebi gamokvlevebis Sedegad mividnen daskvnamde, rom aRniSnuli enebi warmoSobilni arian erTi indoevropuli fuZe enis diferenciaciis, daSla-danawevrebis Sedegad. isini aRniSnul monaTesave enaTa SejerebiT da SedarebiT rwmundebian rom, miuxedavad droTa viTarebiT gamowveuli cvlilebisa, maT SeinarCunes saerTo struqturuli niSnebi. mecnierTa daskvniT, fuZe indoevropul enas Tavdapirvelad gamoeyvnen winareitalikebis, winarebaltielebis, winaregermanelebis, indoiranelebis, xeTebisa da sxvaTa enebi, romelnic Semdgom Tavis mxriv daiSalnen calkeul enebad. xalxTa uzarmazari indoevropuli jgufi Tavdapirvelad warmoadgenda mTlian, jer kidev dauSlel gaerTianebas, romelic saerTo enaze metyvelebda. saerTo fuZe indoevropuli ena mecnierTa TvalsazrisiT daunawevrebeli saxiT arsebobda `Cvens eramde IV aTaswleulSi~, unda aRiniSnos, rom zogierTi RvTismetyvelis Tanaxmad, msoflio warRvna moxda 3246 wels qristeSobamde, qronologia faqtobrivad Tanmxvedria. `msgavsadve yvela semitur enasa da yvela qamitur enas amJamad erTmaneTisagan daSorebulsa da gantotvils, warsulSi gaaCndaT saerTo fuZeena, romlisganac diferencirebis Sedegad warmodgnen isini~. aseTia azri lingvistebisa. amas mowmobs enaTa da xalxTa warmoSobis Sesaxeb wmida werilic. `dabadeba~ sxva Tavdapirvel xalxTa Soris qarTvelTa winaprebs _ Tobels, mosoqsa da aseve Torgams, _ pirvel rigSi CamoTvlis. Tobeli da mosoqi (mosoxi) iyvnen iafetis Zeni, xolo Torgami iafetis Zis Ze iyo. SemTxveviT ar uwodebda lenormani bibliis genealogiur sias msoflioSi xalxTa gansaxlebis srul istorias. arc isaa SemTxveviTi, rom kaenis _ pirveli adamianis Zis Zeebsac _ iabeli, iubeli, Tubal-kaeni ewodebodaT. yvela amaT qarTvelur tomTa winaprebad gulisxmobdnen gamoCenili istorikosebi. bibliis genealogiuri cxrilis safuZvelze mkvlevarebs ufleba eZlevaT ganacxadon, rom msoflios Tavdapirvel xalxTa Soris qarTvelTa winaprebs eWiraT mniSvnelovani raodenobrivi wili. Tavis mxriv, am mosazrebas ganamtkicebs lingvist mecnierTa Teoriebi, romlis Tanaxmadac, indoevropul fuZeenaze gavlena mouxdenia protoqarTvelur enas. marTlac, aTaswleulTa win, kacobriobis gariJraJze, jer kidev dauyofel protoindoevropul enaze gavlenas ver moaxdenda proqarTveluri, am enis matarebel eTnoss mniSvnelovani adgili rom ar sWeroda mesopotamiasa da mcire aziaSi _ kacobriobis Tavdapirvel samSobloSi. protoqarTvelur enas, rogorc aRiniSna, urTierToba hqonia protosemiturTanac, es kidev erTxel amtkicebs lenormanisa da sxva mecnierTa azrs bibliis genealogiuri cxrilis istoriulobis Sesaxeb, agreTve im azrsac, rom Tavdapirvel

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

23

protoqarTvelebs mniSvnelovani adgili eWiraT zemoaRniSnul regionSi. winareindoevropul, winaresemitur da winareqarTvelur enaTa sistemebis qronologiuri da arealuri urTierTdamokidebulebis Sesaxeb weren: `indoevropul winare enis arealuri kontaqtebi semitur da qarTvelur enebTan gamovlenili leqsikur nasesxobaTa masalebiT kargad jdebian semitur da qarTvelur winare enaTa sistemebis qronologiur da arealur ganawilebaTa CarCoebSi. saerTo semituri enis arseboba unda mivakuTvnoT periods ara ugvianes IV aTaswleulisa... rac qronologiurad emTxveva saerTo indoevropuli enis daTariRebas. winaresemituris areali unda yofiliyo axlo aRmosavleTis gansazRvruli olqi, sadac SeiZleboda hqonodaT kontaqtebi semitur enebs, rogorc indoevropul winare enaTa sistemebTan, aseve samxreT kavkasiur (qarTvelur) winare enis sistemasTan~ (T. gamyreliZe, v. ivanov. `indoevropeiskii iazik i indoevropeici~ t. II. 1984. s. 380).

protoqarTveluri enis matarebeli eTnosis gansaxleba


babilonis godolis dacemis Semdeg enaTa aRrevis Sedegad warmoqmnili Tavdapirveli xalxebi `gafanta ufalma RmerTma dedamiwis zurgze~. Tavdapirvel xalxTa Soris, rogorc iTqva, dabadeba asaxelebs qarTvelTa winaprebad miCneul Tobelsa da mosoxs. isini sxva xalxebTan erTad, cxadia, unda wasuliyvnen yvela xalxis saerTo samSoblodan _ mesopotamiidan _ qveynierebis sxvadasxva kideSi, gafantuliyvnen dedamiwaze. SeZles Tu ara protoqarTvelebma gafantvis Semdeg TavianTi eTnikuri saxis SenarCuneba, romel qveyanaSi Cans maTi kvali? es sakiTxi yovelTvis ainteresebdaT eklesiis mamebs, aseve istorikosebs, lingvistebs, bibliis komentatorebs. Zvel samyaroSi, jer kidev qristeSobamde, espanel da kavkasiel iberebs erTi warmoSobis xalxad Tvlidnen. Rirsi mama ioane mTawmideli espaneTs qarTvelebiT dasaxlebulad miiCnevda. XIII-XIV saukuneTa istorikoss nikifore qsantopuloss, romelsac aqvs 18 wignisagan Semdgari `saeklesio istoria~, miaCnda, rom saqarTvelos iberebi `ispaniis iberTagan arian gadmosaxlebulni~ (georgika, VII, 1966), kidev ufro adre qarTvelTa warmoSobis Sesaxeb werdnen eklesiis mamebi. iberTa, anu qarTvelTa sacxovrisis Sesaxeb mogviTxroben eklesiis istorikosebi evsevi kesarieli (260-340), sokrati sqolastikosi, gelasi kesarieli, rufinusi (IV-V ss.) da sxvebi. amJamad sabolood damtkicebulia, rom qarTvelebi wina aziis Zvel mkvidr mosaxleobas ekuTvnian, isini naTesaurad iyvnen dakavSirebulni msoflios uZveles kulturul mosaxleobasTan, ufro metic, `cnobil mecnierebs fr.

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homels, ed. maiers, ki perts, leman-haupts, lenormans, akad. n. mars, akad. turaevs da sxvebs araerTxel aRuniSnavT, rom qarTveli tomebi memkvidreni arian Sumerebis, xeTebis, mitanelebis, xaldebisa da sxva, romlebic wina aziis uZvelesi xalxebi iyvnen da romlebmac Seqmnes sakacobrio kulturis yvelaze adrindeli kerebi. amgvarive mosazreba ganaviTara da mravalmxrivi faqtiuri masalebis moSveliebiT kidev ufro daasabuTa Tavis SromebSi akad. iv. javaxiSvilma~ (S. mesxia, simon janaSia, 1950, gv. 39). rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, enaTmecnierebaSi arsebobs Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac, indoevropuli fuZe enis matarebeli eTnosi xmelTaSuazRvispireTsa da wina aziaSi Semovida romeliRac mxridan. manamde es mxareebi (e.i. wina aziis, pirineis, apeninis, balkaneTis naxevarkunZulebi) dasaxlebulni iyvnen araindoevropuli enis matarebeli tomebiT. akademikosma Tamaz gamyreliZem, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, wamoayena axali Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac indoevropelebi qristeSobamde IV aTaswleulSi wina aziaSi cxovrobdnen, warmoadgendnen jer kidev aradiferencirebul, mTlian gaerTianebas, romelic metyvelebda saerTo enaze. Semdgom maTgan warmosdgnen (dayofis Sedegad) winare italikebi, winare baltielebi, winare germanelebi, indoiranelebi, xeTebi, momavali slavebi da sxvebi. gansakuTrebiT isaa aRsaniSnavi, rom am winare indoevropul enas urTierToba hqonia winare qarTvelur da winare semitur enebTan, amitomac qarTveluri da semituri winare enebidan usesxebia bevri sityva. Tu am Teorias SevadarebT n. maris Teorias, davinaxavT garkveul msgavsebas. n. maris mixedviT, qarTvelur-kavkasiur-mediteranuli enebi warmoadgendnen im substrats, romelzedac aRmocendnen da gaiSalnen indoevropelebi _ `...indoevropelebi arsaidan ar mosulan, aramed isini... igive iafetelebi arian da indoevropuli enebi iafeturi enebis Semdgomi safexuri, maTi transformaciaa axal stadiaze~. Tamaz gamyreliZis Tanaxmadac, indoevropelebi `arsaidan ar mosulan~, maTi winare samSoblo wina aziaa, sadac maT urTierToba hqoniaT qarTvelurTan, anu n. maris mixedviT `iafeturTan~. indoevropul winareenas, Tanaxmad T. gamyreliZisa, urTierToba hqonia ara marto winareqarTvelurTan, aramed winaresemiturTanac. n. maris Tanaxmadac qarTvelurs urTierToba hqonia semiturTan. da radganac qarTvelurs, anu iafeturs mWidro kavSiri hqonda indoevropulTan, semiturTan misi dakavSirebiT gamomzeurda enaTa `msoflio kavSiris idea~. n. mari `...qarTuli da semituri enebis~ naTesaobas cxadyofs da amiT ki msoflio kavSiris ideas amzeurebs~ (d. karbelaSvili, n. maris saiubileo krebuli, 1934. gv. XVIII). n. mari ar gamoricxavda kavkasiis iafeturi enebis kavSirurTierTobas qamitur enebTanac, is ambobda _ `CvenTvis, romlebic iafeturi enaTmecnierebis Teoriis mTeli sistemis agebisas amovdivarT iafeturi enebis semitur-

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Tan naTesaobis faqtobrivi monacemebidan, gasagebia, gamoricxuli ar aris kavkasiis Zireuli enebis, e.i. kavkasiis iafeturi enebis, kavSirurTierToba qamitur enebTan...~. aqedan Cans, rom baskologiaSi adre gamoTqmuli hi poteza qamitur enebTan baskuris naTesaobisa n. marisaTvis misaRebia (gavixsenoT magaliTad, hugo Suxardtis debuleba: baskuri enaTesaveba erTsa da imave dros qarTvelur-kavkasiurs da qamituri modgmis enebs)... (S. ZiZiguri, baskurkavkasiuri problema, gv. 65). n. maris `msoflio kavSiris idea~ qarTulis meSveobiT albaT aseTi saxiT gamoisaxeba (ix. sqema):

sem

iafet

qam

semituri

a f

qamituri

qarTvelur-kavkasiur-mediteranistuli

pelasguri

etruskuli

baskuri

indoevropuli

iafetur enaTa ojaxi, n. maris Tanaxmad, moicavda dedamiwis vrcel regions, xmelTaSuazRvispireTs, kavkasias, pamirs, afrikas (d. karbelaSvili, dasax. naSr. gv. XXXVIII). marTlac, enaTmecnierebis mniSvnelovani nawili gamowvlilviTi gamokvlevebis Sedegad ar gamoricxavs qarTulis, anda fuZe qarTveluri enis kavSirs wina aziis uZveles xalxebTan, SumerebTan, protoxeTebTan, xuritebTan, aseve pelasgur-etruskul-iberiul enobriv samyarosTan. amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom babilonis godolis dacemis Semdgom protoqarTveluri enis

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matarebeli eTnosis erTi nawili darCa wina aziaSi, xolo sxvebi gaifantnen dedamiwis zurgze, kerZod, dasaxldnen kavkasiaSi, xmelTaSuazRvispireTis qveynebSi, balkaneTSi, apeninisa Tu pirineis naxevarkunZulze. maT, rogorc enaTmecnierTa monacemebidan Cans, SeunarCunebiaT TavianTi eTnikuri saxe da garkveul dromde enac. simon janaSiam pirvelqarTuli eTnosis Sesaxeb Camoayaliba Tavisi koncefcia _ `uZveles droSi, daaxloebiT eqvsi aTasi wlis winaT, wina aziis uzarmazar miwa-wyalze da samxreT evropaSic (balkaneTi, apeninisa da pirineis naxevarkunZulebi) erTi modgmis xalxebi cxovrobdnen. Semdeg am modgmis xalxTa adgilsamyofeli TandaTan izRudeboda. Zv.w.aR-is II aTaswleulis damdegisaTvis wina aziis mkvidri xalxebidan cnobili iyvnen xeTebi da subarebi. xeTi subarebi qarTvel tomTa winaprebi arian. xeTebi mcire aziaSi mosaxleobdnen, subarebs ki eWiraT teritoria CrdiloeT mesopotamiidan moyolebuli kavkasionamde. am xeTa-miTanis samefoebis xanaSi kavkasiis miwa-wyali xeTur-subaruli modgmis mosaxleobas ekava. ...xeTur-subaruli mosaxleoba mraval wvril samTavrod daiqsaqsa. xeTur-subaruli tomebidan ufro Zlierni yofilan muskebi, mermindeli mesxebi, IX saukuneSi ki yvelaze energiul brZolebs asurelebs Tubalebi umarTavdnen. Zv.w.aR-is IX-VII ss. xeTur-subarulma tomebma axali Zlieri saxelmwifo Seqmnes _ urartu. aqve, mezoblad arsebobda xeTur-subaruli samefo mana...~ s. janaSias koncefciam Zlieri gavlena iqonia... samecniero literaturaSi damkvidreba iwyo mis mier Semotanilma terminebma: `xeTur-iberiuli xalxebis jgufi~ (pireneis iberebi, etruskebi apeninis naxevarkunZulze) balkaneTis pelazgebi, Sumerebi, xeTebi da subarebi (xuritebi), urartu, muSqebi da Tabali, qarTvelebi da sxva kavkasieli xalxebi~ da a.S. (g. meliqiSvili, `qarTvelebi, maTi warmomavlobis sakiTxi~, saq. ist. narkv. I, gv. 327). simon janaSias Teoria CvenTvis imiTaa saintereso, rom erTmaneTis monaTesave `xeTur-iberiuli~ xalxebi wina aziidan, TavianT Tavdapirveli samSoblodan gavrcelebulan dasavleTisaken _ afrikis CrdiloeT sanapiroze da samxreT evropaSi _ `evropaSi am gvartomobis xalxebi win uswrebdnen Semdeg mosul indoevropelebs, romelTac damxvduri mosaxleobisa da misi kulturis Zlieri gavlena ganicades. ase iyo pirineis, anu iberiis naxevarkunZulze, sadac Zveli iberiuli mosaxleobis STamomavalni, baskebad wodebulni, dRemde arian SemorCenilni. aseve moxda apeninis naxevarkunZulze, sadac etruskebma Seqmnes italiis uZvelesi civilizacia, romelmac Semdgom mZlavri zemoqmedeba iqonia romis kulturaze. dasasrul, balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze gvian mosul indoevropel berZnebsac pelazgebis dawinaurebuli mosaxleoba daxvdaT. am xalxTa mier Seqmnil maRali kulturis keraTagan yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovnad winaaziuri kerebi unda CaiTvalos. wina aziaSi ...adre Caisaxa

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saxelmwifoebrioba. evfratisa da tigrosis auzTa qvemo nawilSi Sumerebma (Semeberebma) jer kidev Zv.w.aR-is IV aTaswleulSi ganaviTares saqalaqo cxovreba, safuZveli Cauyares saxelmwifos da gamoigones msoflioSi uZvelesi damwerloba _ jer ieroglifuri, xolo Semdgom lursmuli~ (s. janaSia, Sromebi, t. V, 1987, gv. 20). damoukideblad imisgan, namdvilad aqvs Tu ara qarTul enas genetikuri kavSiri wina aziis uZveles enebTan, mecnierTa mier dadasturebulia, rom xuritebis, xeTebisa da urartuelebis garkveuli nakadi Serwymia qarTvel ers _ `enobrivi monacemebi cxadyofs, rom qarTvel tomebSi unda gaTqvefiliyo da qarTveli xalxis SemadgenlobaSi unda Sesuliyo ZvelaRmosavluri civilizaciis Semqmneli, samxreTSi mcxovrebi xalxebis (xuritebis, xeTebis, urartulebis) garkveuli nakadi. amisi nakvalevi Tavs iCens qarTvelTa enaSi~ (g. meliqiSvili, dasax. naSromi, gv. 357). amdenad qarTvelebs ufleba aqvT TavianTi Tavi maT memkvidreebad miiCnion. qristeSobamde III aTaswleulSi saqarTveloSi arsebuli TrialeTis Sua brinjaos xanis kulturis Zlieri kavSiri Sumerul samyarosTan mkvlevarebs afiqrebinebs, rom winaaziuri warmoSobis zogierTma tomma saqarTveloSi SemoaRwia (iqve, gv. 353). `TrialeTis kulturas metad mkafio paralelebi moepoveba ara marto Crdilo-dasavleT iranis materialur kulturaSi, aramed xeTur samyaroSic~ (iqve, gv. 354). saerTod TrialeTis kulturis gamoCenas amierkavkasiaSi ukavSireben xuritebis tomis eqspansias (iqve, gv. 355). arqeologiac emxroba zemomotanil azrs. dadasturebuli faqtia qarTul-indoevropuli enobrivi siaxlove, Tumca ki qarTuli enaTa damoukidebel ojaxs ganekuTvneba, es imiTaa saintereso, rom wina aziis uZvelesi mosaxleoba indoevropelebi aRmoCndnen, qarTvelebs mWidro kontaqtebi hqoniaT maTTan, imdenad, rom uZveles qarTvelur enas Zlieri transformacia ganucdia indoevropuli substratis gavleniT. fiqroben, rom es garemoeba Sedegia im xangrZlivi da mWidro kontaqtebisa, romelTac adgili unda hqonoda uZveles xanebSi qarTvelur tomebsa da uZveles indoevropul dialeqtebze molaparake tomebs Soris (g. meliqiSvili, dasax. naSr. gv. 345). yuradRebas i pyrobs garkveuli msgavseba qarTvel da Zvel anatoliur indoevropul (xeTur, luviur, palaur) enebs Soris (ix. g. giorgaZe, indoevropul-qarTul (qarTvelur) enobrivi paralelebis xasiaTis Sesaxeb, saenaTmecniero krebuli 1979, gv. 62). saerTo anatoliuri indoevropuli fuZeenis daSlis procesi dawyebula gvarovnuli wyobis dros III aTaswleulSi qristeSobamde, anatoliaSive (iqve, gv. 67). nesitebi TandaTan gavrcelebulan centralur da aRmosavleT anatoliaSi, romelic manamde dasaxlebuli iyo xeTebis (protoxeTebis) tomebiT (zogierTi mecnieris azriT, swored protoxeTebs hqoniaT kavSiri

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qarTvelebTan). nesitur-xaturi urTierTobis dros, romelic gagrZelda aseulobiT wlobiT, protoxeTuri ena STanTqa nesiturma, romelmac Tavis mxriv ganicada garkveuli cvlileba (fonetikaSi, leqsikaSi, morfologiaSi). Serevis da Sejvarebis Sedegad indoevropelebisa da xeTebis tomebs Soris Camoyalibda xeTuri eTnosi. daaxloebiT XVII saukuneSi qristemde Seqmnilma xeTurma samefom mTlianad SeiTvisa protoxeTebis mdidari tradiciebi (iqve, gv. 67). Tavis mxriv, xeTur saxelmwifosTan urTierToba unda hqonoda pirvel qarTul saxelmwifoebs (politikur warmonaqmnebs) _ diauxis (daianis _ asiriuli wyaroebiT) da kulxas _ Woroxisa da dasavleT evfratis yarasus raionebSi, sadac ZvelTaganve cxovrobdnen qarTuli tomebi, isinive iyvnen samxreTuli periferiebi pirvelqarTuli saxelmwifoebisa. arsebobs safuZveli vifiqroT, rom am olqebSi, SeiZleba samxreTiT an samxreTdasavleTiT, ZvelTaganve imyofeboda ZiriTadi teritoria saerTo qarTveluri fuZeenis matarebeli tomisa, romlisgan TandaTan gamoiyvnen sxvadasxva dialeqturi erTeulebi (svanuri, megruli, Wanuri). ivaraudeba aseve urTierToba ara xeTebsa da qarTvel tomebs, aramed ufro adre saerTo anatoliur indoevropul enobriv erTeulsa da saerToqarTuls Soris. simon janaSia protoxeTebs, anu xatebs qarTvelTa uSualo winaprebad miiCnevda wina aziis sxva Zvel tomebTan erTad. is werda _ `mTeli wina aziis teritoria uZveles xanaSi dasaxlebulia iseTi xalxebiT, romelTac ara aqvT araviTari kavSiri arc indoevropelebTan, arac semitebTan, arc Turqul-monRolur tomebTan. yvelaze mniSvnelovanni wina aziis am uZveles xalxTagan arian sumerebi, xatebi anu xetebi, mitanelebi, urartus (vanis) qaldebi da sxvebi. swored am xalxebma Seqmnes kacobriobis uZvelesi kulturuli kera... Semdeg es xalxebi TiTqos qrebian, nuTu ukvalod? ra Tqma unda ara. sxva tomebis mowolis gamo isini icvlian teritorias da axal-axal kerebs qmnidnen. yvelaze samxreTiT mdebare raionebidan maT amoiwies mcire aziasa da mesopotamiaSi, aqedan Savi zRvis samxreT sanapiroebsa da vanis tbis raionSi, iqidan kidev Tanamedrove amierkavkasiaSi. satomo saxelebis istoria am mxriv did sayuradRebo masalas Seicavs~ (s. janaSia, t. III, 1959, gv. 194). rogorc vxedavT, s. janaSia amierkavkasiis mkvidr mosaxleobas (upirvelesad, cxadia, qarTvelebs) miiCnevs adgilmonacvlebuli Sumerebis, xatebis, mitanelebisa da urartuelebis STamomavlebad. es xalxebi, misi azriT, saerTo warmoSobisa SeiZleboda yofiliyvnen. safiqrebelia, rom kavSiri arsebobs xatebis, xaldebis, anu qaldebis, xalibebis saxelebs Soris. Zveli berZeni mwerlebi pirdapir amboben, rom xaldebi winaT xalibebad iwodebodneno. Semdeg sayuradReboa, rom xaldebi cxovrobdnen, rogorc Savi zRvis samxreT sanapiroze, ise vanis tbis garSemo. cxadia, es erTi xalxis ori Sto unda iyos.

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aseve sayuradReboa asurul warwerebSi moxsenebuli muskebisa da kaskebis saxelebi. muskebi arian mermindeli mosxebi an mesxebi. kaskebi kidev kolxebi, rogorc es aRniSnulia ukve prof. iv. javaxiSvilis mier. mesxebisa da kolxebis ambavi yvelasTvis cnobilia. friad sarwmunoa iberebis kavSiri tibarenebTan da tabal-TobalTan. aseve safiqrebelia, rom termini `qarTveli~ dakavSirebulia qald-Tan (iqve, gv. 195). arnold Ciqobavas daskvniT, rac ufro Sors vixedebiT qarTveluri da sxva iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis istoriul warsulSi, miT ufro xelSesaxebi xdeba am enaTa warmoSobiTi kavSiri wina aziisa da SuamdinareTis Zveli civilizaciis enebTan (urartulTan, huritulTan, xeTurTan, ulamurTan, SumerulTan). S. ZiZiguris azriT, `mecnierebaSi dgas sakiTxi winaelinuri (pelasgur-anatoliuri) kulturis Semqmnel xalxebTan iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis kavSiris Sesaxeb. jer kidev adre SeamCnies, rom berZnul enaSi gamoiyofa fena, romelic ar aixsneba indoevropuli enebis safuZvelze. maSasadame, es danaleqi unda ganekuTvnebodes xmelTaSua zRvis uZveles mkvidrTa samyaros... winaberZnuli egeosuri enebis amocnobis gzebi miimarTeba iberiul-kavkasiuri enebisaken, kerZod qarTveluri enebis samyarosaken~ (baskur-kavkasiuri problema, gv. 51). egeosuri mosaxleobis istoriis sakiTxebis mkvlevaris, r. gordezianis azriT, Sexvedrebi iberiul-kavkasiur da egeosur enebs Soris namdvilad mniSvnelovania, aseve egeosur-anatoliur geografiul saxelebs garegnulad TiTqmis zusti paralelebi aqvT kavkasiurTan, kerZod ki qarTul toponimikasTan (ix. r. gordeziani, `iliada~ da egeosuri mosaxleobis istoriisa da eTnogenezis sakiTxebi, 1970, gv. 299-301). CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxs _ uZvelesi qarTuli eTnosis migracias xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebSi exeba mecnieri sxva SromaSic _ etruskulis kavkasiurTan da baskurTan mimarTebisas igi varaudobs, rom Zv.w.aR-is III aTaswleulis miwurulSi kavkasiidan italiaSi saberZneTis gavliT gadasaxlebula kavkasiur tomTa erTi nawili, romelsac Seuqmnia e.w. kavkasiuri substrati Semdgom formirebuli etruskulisaTvis (r. gordeziani, etruskuli da qarTveluri, 1980, gv. 6). etruskul-qarTvelur mravalricxovan enobriv paralelebs r. gordeziani akavSirebs xalxTa migraciasTan, `gansakuTrebiT ki kavkasiur tomTa mZlavr gadasaxlebebTan egeidasa da dasavleT xmelTaSuazRvis auzSi adre brinjaos xanis dasawyisSi~ (iqve, gv. 6). misi azriT, e.w. kavkasiur-pelazguri Sre italiaSi qristeSobamde II aTaswleulSi dawyebul migracias unda Seetana, `isini dakavSirebulni unda yofiliyvnen e.w. apeninis kulturis damkvidrebasTan italiaSi... Tavis mxriv TviT Sua heladuri kulturis warmoqmna Cven migvaCnia egeidaSi kavkasiuri, upiratesad qarTveluri tomebis migraciis Sedegad Zv.w.aR-is II aTaswleulis damdegs. rogorc irkveva, maT egeosur samyaroSi Semoitanes

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aSkarad qarTveluri komponenti, rac winare berZnul enobriv samyaroSi aTobiT wminda qarTveluri struqturis sityvisa da terminis arsebobiT dasturdeba, rogorc Cans, es talRa Zv.w.aR-is II aTaswleulis ganmavlobaSi gavrcelda dasavleT xmelTaSua zRvis auzSi, risi Sedegic unda iyos aq Suaheladuri ti pis kulturebis aRmoceneba da pelazgur-kavkasiuri enobrivi elementebis gavrceleba. swored migraciaTa am talRam moumzada, Cvenis azriT, safuZveli Semdgom formirebul etruskul enas. rogorc Cveni gamokvlevebis Sedegebi gviCvenebs, pelazgur-qarTveluri elementebi albaT yvelaze ufro arsebiTia etruskulSi~ (r. gordeziani, etruskuli da qarTveluri, gv. 60). sabolood, albaT unda iTqvas, rom babilonis godolis daqcevis Semdgom warmoqmnil enaTa da xalxTa Soris arsebobda protoqarTveluri enac, es cnobilia bibliis uZvelesi komentatorebisTvisac, romelnic iafetis ZeTa Soris qarTvelTa winaprebsac asaxeleben. protoqarTveluri eTnosi, sakmaod mravalricxovani yofila, rac iqidan Cans, rom TviT warRvnamdec kaenis bolo STamomavalTa Soris lameqis Zeebs ewodaT iabeli (IV, 20), iubali da Tubal-kaeni. mecnierTa erTi nawili, saxelebidan gamomdinare (aq unda gavixsenoT, rom iafetis Ze Tubali _ qarTvelTa mamamTavrad iTvleboda) maT miiCnevdnen qarTuli tomebis mosaxeleebad. iabels _ karavSi mcxovrebTa da mejogeTa mamas, iubals _ meCangeTa da mestvireTa mamas, Tubal-kaens _ rvalisa da rkinis saWurvelTa mWedels, maTi azriT, saxelebi SerqmeviaT ZvelqarTul tomTa saqmianobasTan dakavSirebiT. warRvnas isini ver gadaurCnen, magram maTi saxelebisa da Tobelis saxelis msgavseba mecnierebs afiqrebinebT, rom protoqarTveluri eTnosi sakmaod mravalricxovani iyo uZveles epoqaSi. godolis daSlis Semdeg, qarTvelTa winaprebi, rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, gavrcelebulan qveynierebis sxvadasxva kideSi, SuamdinareTidan _ wina aziasa da kavkasiisaken, xmelTaSuazRvispira qveynebSi, Crdilo afrikaSi. maT yvelgan safuZveli daudviaT Sesabamisi kulturebisaTvis, romelnic Semdgom auTvisebiaT sxvebs.

aRTqma RmerTisa erTan


dedamiwis zurgze gafantvis Semdgom adamianebma TandaTan daiviwyes TavianTi winaprebisagan gagonili da naswavli gadmocemebi RmerTze, amas xels isic uwyobda, rom siSorisa Tu urTierTqiSpis gamo xalxebs Soris misvla-mosvla da kavSiri Semcirebuli, anda Sewyvetili iyo. WeSmariti RmerTis daviwyebis Semdgom gavrcelda crumorwmuneoba, zeciuri da qveyniuri qmnilebebis Tayvaniscema, amitomac erTi uxilavi RmerTis magier Tayvani sces mraval cru `RmerTs~, maT gamosaxulebebs _ kerpebs emsaxurebodnen da msxverpls swiravdnen maT.

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TandaTan kerpTayvanismcemlad iqca msoflios yvela xalxi, amitomac ufalma ineba dedamiwaze yofiliyo erTi xalxi mainc, romelSic daculi iqneboda WeSmariti sarwmunoeba, romelsac ecodineboda igi da Tayvans scemda mas da mxolod mas. ufalma ineba aseTi eri warmoeSva erTi kacis _ abramis STamomavlobisagan. abrami WeSmariti RmerTis madidebeli iyo, warmoSobiT Suamdinareli, misi mamis samSoblo qveyana iyo qaldea, qalaqi uri. am droisaTvis qaldea erqva qveyanas tigrossa da evfrats Soris TiTqmis sparseTis yuredan babilonamde. aq, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, cxovrobdnen sxvadasxva epoqaSi jer Sumerebi, Semdgom xuritebi da protoqarTvelebis monaTesaved miCneuli sxvadasxva tomebi semitebTan erTad. CvenTvis sainteresoa, rom qaldea ufro mogvianebiT ewodeboda dRevandeli saqarTvelos mezoblad mdebare qveynebsac _ urartudan pontos CaTvliT gadaSlil mxares. urartuelTa uzenaes RmerTs `xald~ _ qald ewodeboda da isini TavianT Tavs qaldevelebad miiCnevdnen. `safiqrebelia, rom termini `qarTveli~ dakavSirebulia qald-Tan da misi meSveobiT, sxva amave Ziris winaaziur uZveles saxelebTan~, _ werda s. janaSia (t. III, 1959, gv. 195). saxel qaldeas ivane javaxiSvilic akavSirebda qarTvelebTan. `dakvirvebam dagvarwmuna, rom qarTmegruli Stos tomebis sakuTar saxelebSi (qarTueli, karduxi) erTi da igive qveynis saxeli gvxvdeba. igi aris qarTu anu kardu. raki am qveynis saxeli orive Stos tomebis saxelwodebaSi moipoveba, ueWvelia igi qarTvelebis Tavdapirveli samSoblo unda yofiliyo. am samSoblos xsovna mesame Stos warmomadgenels, svanebsac aqvT SerCenili _ es karTu anu qarTu ganTqmuli qveyana qaldea aris~ (qarTveli eris istoria, I, 1951, gv. 403-404). ase rom, qaldea ara marto abraamis winaparTa samSobloa, is qarTvelTa pirvelsamSoblodac SeiZleba CaiTvalos. aseTi versiis arseboba unda miuTiTebdes, rom qaldevelTa qveyana semitebTan erTad albaT qarTvelTa monaTesave, anda protoqarTveluri tomiTac iyo dasaxlebuli. rogorc wina Tavidanac Canda, SuamdinareTSi qarTvelTa monaTesave tomebs qristeSobamde aTaseuli wlebiT adre daculi hqondaT mcire marcvali WeSmariti sarwmunoebisa. qaldevelTa urSi mcxovreb abrams ki hqonda Seuryeveli sarwmunoeba RmerTze. `mohkida xeli Teraxma Tavis Zes abrams, Tavis SviliSvil lots, haranis Zes, Tavis rZals sarais, Tavisi Zis abramis cols da gavidnen erTad qaldevelTa uridan qanaanis qveyanaSi wasasvlelad. miadgnen xarans da iq damkvidrnen~ (dab. 11, 31). qaldevelTa urs, sadac cxovrobda mama abramisa Tarra anu Teraxi, Cveulebriv aigiveben samxreT mesopotamiis qalaq urTan, saidanac is ojaxTan erTad gadasaxlebula qalaq xarranSi mesopotamiis Crdilo nawilSi. igi iqve gardaicvala. rogorc aRiniSna, mesopotamiaSi sazogadod saukuneTa

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manZilze sxvadasxva xalxebi cxovrobdnen. istorikosTa Tanaxmad, qristeSobamde IV-III aTaswleulSi aq mcxovrebma Sumerebma Seqmnes pirveli qalaqisaxelmwifoebi (eridu, uri, uruki, lagaSi, nipuri). Semdgom aq Semodian semituri tomebi, romlebmac aiTvises SumerTa kultura. qristemde III aTaswleulSi aq sargon mefem Seqmna erTiani semituri mesopotamiis momcveli saxelmwifo _ aqadi. amave III aTaswleulSi aq SeiWrnen kvlav semituri _ amorevelTa tomebi, maT mier Seqmnili saxelmwifos dedaqalaqi iyo babiloni. Zvelbabilonuri saxelmwifos Semqmneladaa miCneuli mefe xamurabi _ kanonmdebeli. xamurabianTa dinastia daamxes xeTurma tomebma 1530 wels qristeSobamde. II aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi mesopotamiaSi gamoCndnen xuritebi, saxelmwifo miTanis Semqmnelebi. xuritebi, istorikosTa erTi nawilis Tanaxmad, qarTvelTa winaprebadaa miCneuli, iseve rogorc zogierTi xeTuri tomi da gansakuTrebiT protoxeTebi. abraamis mamis _ Tarras _ qaldevelTa uridan gamosvlis droisaTvis qaldea, marTlac qarTvelTa winapari tomebiT yofila dasaxlebuli. msoflio warRvnis Semdeg ufalma RmerTma aRTqma dado, anu kavSiri Sekra mTel kacobriobasTan _ noes saSualebiT. Semdgom abraamis saSualebiT _ adamianTa TanamonaTesave jgufTan, xolo sinas mTaze ufali RmerTi daukavSirda mxolod da mxolod erT xalxs, iakobis STamomavlebs _ israelTa Svilebs. man misca maT kanoni, gadaaqcia is Tavis rCeul erad. xaranSi yofnisas, abraami (maSin jer kidev abrami erqva) iRebs RvTisagan brZanebas _ `uTxra ufalma abraams: wadi Seni qveynidan, Seni samSoblodan, mamaSenis saxlidan im qveyanaSi, romelsac me giCveneb. gaqcev did xalxad, gakurTxeb da ganvadideb Sens saxels da kurTxeuli iqnebi. vakurTxeb Sens makurTxebels da davwyevli Sens mawyevars. kurTxeuli iqneba SenSi miwierTa mTeli modgma~ (dab. 12.1-3). `uTxra ufalma abrams mas Semdeg, rac loti gaeyara: aaxile Tvali da gaixede am adgilidan, sadac Sen dgaxar, CrdiloeTisaken, samxreTisaken, aRmosavleTisaken da dasavleTisaken. mTeli es qveyana, rasac xedav, SenTvisa da Seni modgmisaTvis momicia samaradisod. qviSasaviT uricxvs gavxdi Sens STamomavlobas. Tu vinme SesZlebs qviSis daTvlas, Seni STamomavlobac daiTvleba~ (dab. 13. 14-16). Semdgomi sityva aRTqmisa azustebs wina aRTqmebis monacemebs: `am dRes daudo ufalma aRTqma abrams da uTxra: Seni STamomavlobisaTvis mimicia es qveyana egvi ptis mdinaridan did mdinaremde _ evfratis mdinaremde...~ (dab. 15. 18). Semdeg kidev ufro gamowvlilviTaa Camoyalibebuli _ `oTxmocdacxra wlis iyo abrami, rom gamoecxada ufali abrams da uTxra: me var RmerTi Zlieri. iare Cems winaSe da sruli iyavi. davdeb aRTqmas Cemsa da Sens Soris da didad, didad gagamravleb. pirqve daemxo abrami da ase elaparaka mas RmerTi: `es me var, da aha, Cemi aRTqmac: `uamrav xalxTa mama

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Seiqmnebi! aRar gerqvas ameridan saxelad abrami, aramed abraami iyos Seni saxeli, radganac uamrav xalxTa mamad gaqcev. didad, didad gagamravleb, xalxebad gaqcev da mefeni gamovlen Sengan. davdeb aRTqmas Cemsa da Sens Soris da Sens STamomavalTa Soris Taobidan Taobamde, samaradiso aRTqmas, rom Seni da Seni STamomavlobis RmerTi viqnebi. mogcem Sen da Sens STamomavlobas Seni mdgmurobis qveyanas, qanaanis mTels qveyanas, samaradiso sakuTrebad da Tqveni RmerTi viqnebi. uTxra RmerTma abraams: oRond daicaviT Cemi aRTqma Sen da Senma STamomavlobam Taobidan Taobamde~... (dab. 17. 1-9). aRTqmis piroba iyo winadacveTa abraamisa da misi STamomavlobisa. winadacveTiloba iyo niSani RvTis xalxis kuTvnilebisa. abraami 100 wlisa iyo, roca saram, RvTis dapirebis Tanaxmad, Sva Ze, romelsac uwodes isaaki. manamde abraams saras nebiT mxeval agarTan eyola ismaili _ ismaitelTa mamamTavari, aseve xeTTurasTan hyavda _ madiani, madianelTa mamamTavari. isaakma SeirTo rebeka, romelmac Sva tyupi vaJebi esavi _ edomelTa mamamTavari da iakobi _ israelianTa mamamTavari. marTalia, esavi pirmSo iyo, magram iakobma Tavisi moxerxebiT miiRo pirmSoeba da mamis kurTxevac. amis Semdeg gaeqca esavis risxvas. gaemarTa mesopotamiaSi, xaranis sanaxebSi, dedis naTesavebTan. gzaze dauRamda, daido lodi sasTumlad da dawva erT adgils _ `esizmra: miwaze kibe dgas da TaviT cas swvdeba, uflis angelozebi adi-Camodian kibeze. aha, ufali dgas kibeze da eubneba: me var ufali RmerTi abraamisa, mamaSenisa da RmerTi isakisa. es miwa, romelzedac wevxar, SenTvis da Seni STamomavlobisaTvis momicia. Seni STamomavloba qviSasaviT mravalricxovani iqneba da ganivrcobi dasavleTisaken, aRmosavleTisaken, CrdiloeTisaken da samxreTisaken, SeniTa da Seni STamomavlobiT ikurTxeba miwierTa mTeli modgma. aha, SenTana var da yvelgan dagifarav, sadac ki waxval, kvlav dagabruneb am miwaze. ar migatoveb, vidre ar agisruleb yvelafers rac giTxari~ (dab. 28, 12-15). xarranSi iakobs SerTes lia da raxili, maTTan da agreTve maT mxevlebTan iakobs eyola Tormeti vaJi da erTi qali, maTgan warmoiSva israelis Tormeti tomi. Tavisi ojaxiT ukan dabrunebisas iakobs `uTxra RmerTma: iakobia Seni saxeli, aRar gerqmeva amieridan saxelad iakobi, aramed israeli iqneba Seni saxeli. da uwoda saxelad israeli. uTxra RmerTma: me var RmerTi yovladZlieri, inayofiere da gamravldi. xalxi da xalxTa krebuli warmoiSoba Sengan da mefeni gamovlen Seni sazardulidan. qveyana, romelic miveci abraams da isaks, SenTvis momicia, Seni STamomavlobisaTvis momicia es qveyana~ (dab. 35, 10-12). iakobis Zem _ iosebma _ egvi pteSi gadidkacebis Semdgom qveynad Camovardnili SimSilobis gamo mamamisi ojaxiT miiwvia maRZar egvipteSi: `uTxra RmerTma israels Rameul xilvaSi: iakob, iakob! miugo: aqa var. uTxra: me var

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RmerTi, RmerTi mamaSenisa. nu geSinia egvipteSi Casvlis, radgan iq gaqcev did xalxad. me Cagyvebi egvi pteSi, meve amogiyvan iqidan da iosebi dagixuWavs Tvalebs sakuTari xeliT~ (dab. 46, 2-3). egvi pteSi Casvlis Semdgom iakobis ojaxi dasaxlda mdidar mxareSi, ramdenime aseuli wlis Semdgom is iqca did xalxad, magram droTa viTarebaSi egvi ptelTa monebi gaxdnen _ ``gamoxda mravali xani da mokvda egvi ptis mefe. akvnesdnen mZime Sromisagan israelianebi, gahkiodnen da miswvda maTi RaRadi RmerTs. moesma RmerTs maTi kvnesa da gaixsena RmerTma abraamTan, isakTan da iakobTan dadebuli aRTqma. moxeda RmerTma israelianebs da icno RmerTma isini~ (gam. 1. 23-25). gamoiyvana ufalma israelianebi egvi ptidan da miiyvana aRTqmul qveyanaSi. xalxis winamZRvroba ufalma daakisra winaswarmetyvelsa da rjulmdebels. mose Cvilobidanve izrdeboda sasaxleSi. is faraonis qaliSvilis mier iyo naSvilebi, magram mowifulobisas gamoamJRavna egvi ptelTa mier daCagruli Tavisi erisadmi siyvaruli da Tavdadeba. am dros mokla zedamxedveli egvi pteli da iZulebuli gaxda gaqceuliyo egvi ptidan. is gaemarTa sinas naxevarkunZulisaken, madiamelTa miwaze, iq SeirTo coli da mwyemsavda cxvrebs. erTxel cxvari waasxa udabnos iqiT da miadga RvTis mTas _ xorebs. `gamoecxada uflis angelozi cecxlis alad Suagul mayvlovanSi. xedavs, cecxli ukidia mayvlovans, magram ar iwvis mayvlis buCqi. Tqva mosem, mival da vnaxav am didebul sanaxavs ratom ar iwvis mayvlovani. dainaxa ufalma rom modis mose sanaxavad da dauZaxa Suagul mayvlovanidan: mose, mose! miugo _ aqa var. uTxra: axlos nu moxval! gaiZre fexsamosi, radgan es adgili, sadac Sen dgaxar wmida miwaa. uTxra: me var mamaSenis RmerTi. saxe daifara mosem, radgan RvTis xilvisa SeeSinda. da Tqva ufalma: vixile Cagvra Cemi erisa egvipteSi da momesma zedamxedvelebisagan gamwarebuli RaRadi. raki gavige misi gasaWiri. Camovedi, rom vixsna igi egvi ptelTagan da waviyvano mag qveynidan madliansa da vrcel qveyanaSi, sadac Rvarad moedineba Tafli da rZe, qanaanelTa, xeTelTa, amorevelTa, ferizevelTa, xivielTa da iebusevelTa qveyanaSi. `aha, moiwia Cemamde israelianTa RaRadma da vixile maTi Cagvra, rogor Cagraven maT egviptelebi. axla gagzavni faraonTan, rom gamoiyvano egviptidan Cemi eri, israelianebi~ (gam. 3. 2-10). kvlav uTxra ufalma moses israelianTa Sesaxeb _ `migiReT Cems erad da viqnebi Tqveni RmerTi. gecodinebaT, rom me var ufali, Tqveni RmerTi, egvi ptelTa kirTebisagan Tqveni gamomxsneli~ (gam. 6.7). amis Semdgom ufali RmerTi `Cems ers~, `Cems xalxs~ uwodebs israelianebs. mosem icoda, rom faraoni uars ityoda egvi ptidan aseulaTasobiT muSis, anu ebraelTa gaSvebaze. ufali ambobs _ `ar mogismenT faraoni. maSin xels movuWer egvi ptes da didi sasjelebis ZaliT gamoviyvan Cems krebuls, Cems ers, israelianebs egvi ptis qveynidan~ (gam. 7.4).

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yoveli wardgomis dros mose faraons eubneboda: `ambobs ufali, ebraelTa RmerTi: gauSvi Cemi xalxi, raTa memsaxuron~. faraoni ar uSvebda ebraelebs, risTvisac aTi saswaulebrivi sasjeliT daisaja egvi pte, romelTa drosac ebraelebi uvnebelni rCebodnen, Tanaxmad uflis sityvisa _ `gamovarCev Cem xalxs Seni xalxisagan...~ (gam. 8. 23). isjeboda faraoni, Tumca ufali agebinebda dasjis mizezs: `aqamde abuCad igdeb Cems ers da ar uSveb~ (gam. 9.17). ebraelTa gauSveblobisaTvis egvi ptelebi sastikad daisajnen. Tavzardacemulma faraonma gauSva uflis eri. eqvsasi aTasi kaci qalebisa da bavSvebis garda gaemarTa mewamuli zRvisaken. win miuZRodaT maT ufali, dRisiT Rrublis svetSi gzis saCveneblad, RamiT cecxlis svetSi gzis gasanaTeblad. gons mosvlis Semdgom egvi ptelebi ukan gaekidnen ebraelebs, mosem RvTis brZanebiT zRva kverTxiT orad gahyo, ebraelebi mSrali zRvis fskeris gavliT gavidnen meore napiras, faraoni ki Tavisi mxedrebiTa da etlebiT kvlav kverTxis dakvriT SeerTebulma zRvam daaxrCo. rogorc aRiniSna, aRTqma _ kavSiri _ ufal RmerTsa da mis ers Soris egvi ptidan gamosvlis Semdgom daido. egviptidan gamosvlis sami Tvis Semdgom mose Tavisi xalxiT miadga sinais mTas. `avida RmerTTan mose da mTidan CamosZaxa mas ufalma: ase uTxari iakobis saxls da amcne israelianebs: Tqven naxeT, ra davmarTe egvi ptes, rogor agitaceT arwivis frTebiT da CemTan migiyvaneT, amieridan Tu SeismenT Cems sityvas da daicavT Cems aRTqmas, Cems sakuTrebaT gamogarCevT yvela xalxisagan, radgan Cemia mTeli qveyana. mRvdelTa samefod da wmida erad meyolebiT. ai, sityvebi, rac unda uTxra israelianebs~ (gam. 19: 3-6). yvela xalxisagan gamorCeulobisa da uflis erad qcevisTvis israelianebs unda daecvaT aRTqma uflisa _ SeesminaT misi sityva. `mRvdelTa samefod da wmida erad~ gamorCevisaTvis israelianebma mzadyofna ganacxades _ `erTxmad miugo erma da uTxra: yvelafers SevasrulebT, rac brZana ufalma. wauRo mosem ufals xalxis naTqvami~ (gam. 19.8). ufalma ubrZana moses moemzadebina xalxi RvTis gamocxadebisaTvis. xalxi ori dRis manZilze iwmendda Tavs, Tavis tansacmels, mosem mTis garSemo xazi Semoavlo, rogorc ineba RmerTma, raTa mas aravin miaxloveboda sikvdilis SiSiT, rameTu am dros RmerTi mTaze iyo. mesame dRis diliT sinas mTa RrubliT daifara, daiwyo elva da quxili. `gamoiyvana banakidan xalxi mosem RvTis Sesaxvedrad da dadgnen mTis Ziras. bolavda mTeli sinais mTa, radgan ufali iyo masze Camosuli cecxlis alSi, rogorc quras, ise asdioda kvamli da Zlierad iryeoda mTa. TandaTan Zlierdeboda sayviris xma. laparakobda mose da exmianeboda RmerTi~ (gam. 19. 18-20).

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RmerTma warmosTqva xalxis gasagonad mcnebebi: 1. Tqva RmerTma yvela es sityva: 2. me var ufali, Tqveni RmerTi, romelmac gamogiyvaneT egvi ptelTa qveynidan, monobis saxlidan. 3. ar gaiCinoT Cems garda sxva RmerTebi. 4. ar gaikeTo kerpebi, arc rame xati imisa, rac aris maRla caSi, dabla miwaze da wyalSi, miwis qveS. 5. ar sce Tayvani maT, arc emsaxuro, radgan me var ufali Tqveni RmerTi, Surismgebeli RmerTi, romelic mamis codvas Svilebs movkiTxav, Cems moZuleebs, mesame da meoTxe TaobaSi. 6. aTaswlil sikeTis mzRveli Cems moyvarulTaTvis da Cemi mcnebebis dammarxvelTaTvis. 7. ar daifico fuWad uflis, Seni RvTis saxeli, radgan dausjeli ar gadaurCeba ufals misi saxelis fuWad maficari. 8. gaxsovdes SabaTi dRe, rom wmida hyo igi. 9. eqvs dRes imuSave da akeTe Seni saqmeebi. 10. meSvide dRe ki uflis, Seni RvTis SabaTia. ara saqme ar gaakeTo, arc Sen, arc Senma vaJma, arc asulma, arc Senma ymam, arc Senma mxevalma, arc Senma pirutyvma, arc Senma mdgmurebma, saxlSi rom gyavs. 11. radgan eqvs dReSi Seqmna ufalma ca da miwa, zRva da yvelaferi, rac masSia da meSvide dRes Seisvena, amitomac akurTxa ufalma SabaTi dRe da wmida hyo igi. 12. pativi eci mamas da dedas, raTa dRegrZeli iyo miwaze, romelic ufals, Sens RmerTs moucia SenTvis. 13. ara kla. 14. ar imruSo. 15. ar iqurdo. 16. ar gamoxvide cru mowmed Seni Tvistomis winaaRmdeg. 17. ar indomo Seni Tvistomis saxli; ar indomo Seni Tvistomis coli, arc misi yma, arc misi mxevali, arc misi xari, arc misi saxedari, arc araferi misi qonebidan (gam. 20. 1-17). rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, ufali RmerTis mier dedamiwaze mcxovreb mraval xalxTa Soris erTis gamorCeva gamoiwvia kerpTayvanismcemlobis gavrcelebam _ yvela xalxs daviwyebuli hyavda WeSmariti RmerTi. sarwmunoebis damcvelad ufalma israelianebi amoirCia. marTlac am erma saukuneTa manZilze SeZlo siwmindiT gadaeca sxvadasxva erebisa da kacobriobisaTvis (TviT am erSi ganxorcielebuli RvTis Zis _ ieso qristes mier) _ WeSmariti sarwmunoeba. saerTod eris _ erTi warmoSobisa Tu sxva mxriv gaerTianebuli xalxis amorCeviT ufalma RmerTma akurTxa kacobriobis xalxebad, erebad dayofa.

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ieso qristes Semdgom yoveli eri, matarebeli marTali sarwmunoebisa, RvTis xalxad iqca, maT Soris qarTveli eric. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, es momxdara suliwmidis mofenis Semdeg, roca deda RvTisas wilad xvda iverielTa moqceva. CvenebiT gamocxadebisas macxovari mas eubneba _ `hoi, dedao Cemo, me ar ugulebelvyof yvela xalxze ufro sazepuro qarTvel ers maTze Seni meoxebiT~ (q. c. I, gv. 37).

Tubali da mosoqi
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis wmida mamebi, ucxoel saeklesio moRvaweTa darad cnobiswadiliT eZiebdnen winaprebs RvTismSoblis wilxvedri erisas. dasturi amisa aris leonti mrovel episkoposis da arsen beris Sromebi qarTvelTa eTnogenezisis Sesaxeb. arsen berma icis, rom mkiTxvels ainteresebs, _ `Cven, qarTvelni romelTa naTesavTa Svilni varT~, igi pasuxobs _ `Cven qarTvelni Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT gamosulTani da enai maTi `vuwyiT~ (Zv. qarT. agiogr. lit. Zegl. 1971, III, gv. 46). `arian-qarTliT~ gamosuli xalxi qristeSobamde dasaxlebula dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi aleqsandre makedonelis mier, romelsac Cveni qveynis _ e.i. saqarTvelos _ Seneba dauwyia _ `iwyo Senebad qveyanasa Cvensa, xolo Tanahyva azove, Ze arian-qarTvelTa mefeTa da misca qveyana es Cveni sameufod da samkvidreblad da gauCina sazRvari hereTi da egriswyali, somxiTi da mTai crolisai da TviT wavida~ (iqve, gv. 47). am koncefciis Tanaxmad, mosaxleoba, rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTveloisa, STamomavalia `arian-qarTvelebisa~. isini azovem _ `arianqarTlis~ mefis Zem, saqarTveloSi Camoasaxla. magram vin iyvnen da sad cxovrobdnen `arian-qarTvelebi~, sad iyo `arian-qarTli~? arsebobs meore koncefciac, romelic miewereba leonti mrovel episkoposs. leontis Tanaxmad, qarTveli eri Camoyalibda saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze; qarTvel tomTa eTnarqebi iyvnen qarTlosi, egrosi, herosi da sxvebi. maTi winapari Targamosi ki samxreTis qveynidan Camosaxlda amierkavkasiaSi. saerTod Cveni eris, anda misi winapris samxreTidan Camosaxleobis Teoria bunebrivia, rameTu samSoblo kacobriobisa, Zveli xalxebisa da erebis mesopotamiaa, saidanac, bibliis Tanaxmad, isini gavrceldnen msoflioSi. yvela Zveli eri Tavis winapars mesopotamiasa da wina aziaSi eZebda, maT Soris qarTvelebic, miT umetes, rom wmida werilis Zveli komentatorebi qarTvelTa anu iberTa winaprebs asaxelebdnen noes uaxloes STamomavalTa Soris. `dabadebaSi~ noes Zis iafetis STamomavalTa Soris moxseniebuli Tubali da mosoxi _ qarTvelTa winaprebadaa miCneuli rogorc Zvel ise axal istorikosTa mier. ioseb flaviusi iafetis Svid ZeTagan oris _ Tubalisa da mosoxis Sesaxeb wers _ `daamkvidrebs ukue Tovilosca TovilTasa, romel aw ivi-

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rad iwodebian. xolo mesqinni, mesxois mier aRSenebulni kahpadukad iwodebian...~ (ioseb flaviusi, moTxrobani iudaebrivisa Zuelisityvaobisani, 1987, gv. 103). iverielTa winaprebad bibliis Tubali miiCneva. `qarTlis cxovreba~ ki, rogorc cnobilia, qarTvelTa winaprebad miiCnevs bibliur Targamoss. is ioseb flaviusis Tanaxmad, `RomaroAs~ Zea. misgan warmomavloba aseTia _ `TorRamis ukue _ TorRamelni, romelni Tnebisagan ellinTaisa frigvad iwodes~ (iqve, gv. 103). flaviusi Targamoss frigielTa winaprad miiCnevs, lursmul da ieroglifur teqstebze dayrdnobiT, `cnobilma germanelma mkvlevarma h. vinklerma mecnierulad daasabuTa ZvelberZnuli wyaroebis `frigiisa~ da sargon II-is (Zv. w. 722-705 ww.), droindeli asuruli teqstebis _ `muSqebis~ qveynis igiveoba (Zveli aRmosavleTis xalxTa istoria, 1988, gv. 252). maSasadame, `muSqebi~ _ qarTvelTa erTi didi tomi _ Targamoss daukavSirda [Targamos _ frigielni (flaviusiT) _ muSqebi (vinkleriT)]. asuruli teqstebis `tabal~ bibliur TubalTan (septanta, Qobel; zogjer _ Qober; vlugata _ Thubal) gaigivebulia e. dromes mier (ix. s. janaSia, t. III, 1959, gv. 70). maSasadame, bibliuri Tubali winaparia _ iberebisa anu qarTvelebisa, ioseb flaviusis am komentars eTanxmebian da avrcoben Cveni mecnierebi, rac Seexeba bibliur mosoq-mosoxs, isic qarTvelTa (mesxuri tomis) winaprad iyo miCneuli, amJamad ki Cven SegviZlia is davukavSiroT `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Targamoss (Targamos-frigielni-mesxni) im gziT, rogorc zemoT iyo gadmocemuli, Targamosi ki, rogorc cnobilia, aRniSnuli qarTuli wyaros Tanaxmad, ara marto qarTvelTa, aramed somexTa winapradac aris miCneuli (Targamos _ haos, qarTlos). aq ar SeiZleba ar mogvagondes herodotes cnoba _ `frigielebs, rogorc makedonielebi amboben, ewodebodaT brigebi mTeli im xnis ganmavlobaSi, sanam evropelebi iyvnen da makedonielebis mezoblad cxovrobdnen, xolo aziaSi rom gadavidnen, miwa-wyalTan erTad saxelic gamoicvales _ frigielebi dairqves. armenielebi, romlebic frigielebisagan momdinareoben...~ (herodote, istoria I, 1976, gv. 434). `iber~ _ `brig~ saxelebis dakavSireba msgavsi etimologiiT SesaZlebelia. frigielebs, rogorc aRiniSna, muSqebTan, xolo am ukanasknels mesxebTan aigiveben. aRsaniSnavia, rom mesxebs ZvelTaganve mTel qarTul mosaxleobasTan aigivebdnen, magaliTad, straboni dasavleT saqarTvelos TiTqmis centralur nawils _ mosxebis qveyanas uwodebs, xolo Crdilokavkasieli tomebi aRmosavleT qarTul tomebs _ mesxebs uwodeben. daRestnelebi `avarielebi _ fSav-xevsurebs `mosoxis (anu `mosoqis~) saxeliT icnoben (ix. h. uslar `avarskii iazik~ 1889, II, gv. 24, 26).

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rogorc iTqva, frigielebs (romlisaganac warmomdgaran mesxebi) aseve `brig-ebi erqvaT. am sityvis fuZe sagulisxmo igiveobas avlens Tubaliberis fuZesTan _ `Tbl~ _ `br~. fuZe _ `brg~ (brig.) da `br~ (ibr) uTuod msgavsni arian. s. janaSia bibliis Tubalebsa da mosoqebs erTi warmoSobis urTierTmezoblad mcxovreb xalxad miiCnevs. SemTxveviTi araa, rom Tubali da meSeqi bibliaSi TiTqmis mudam erTad moixseneba. es SeumCneveli ar darCeniaT bibliis komentatorebs. isini erTad moixsenebian iafetis ZeTa CamoTvlis dros (`iafetis Zeni: gomeri, magogi, madai, iavani, Tubali, meSeqi da Tirasi~ (dab. 10.2), aseve ezekielis mier (32:26; 38:2; 39:1), xSirad ezekieli CrdiloeTis xalxebs Soris agreTve ixseniebs `gomers Tavis urdoTi, Togarmas saxls...~ (38:6), asiriel mefeTa analebSi, rogorc aRiniSna, arc Tu iSviaTad ixsenieba Muski da Tabal, viTarca ori mezobeli erovneba, mcxovrebni kilikiaSi, xolo herodote ambobs, tibarekebs anu iberianelTa (iberielebi) da mosxebis, kolxeTis axlos mcxovrebTa Sesaxeb. mecnierebi Tvlian, rom Tavdapirvelad orive aRniSnuli erovneba cxovrobda tigrosisa da evfratis saTaveebSi, midiasa da skviTias Soris, e.i. kolxeTsa da iberiaSi (ix. `tolkovaia biblia~, peterburgi, 1904-1907 I, gv. 69. komentari). winaswarmetyveli ezekieli Tubalsa da muSeqs axsenebs sxva Crdiloel xalxebTan erTad, romelnic codvaTa gamo daisjebian; ezekielze adre israelis mezoblad mcxovreb did xalxTa dasjis Sesaxeb werda ieremia winaswarmetyveli. saqme is iyo, winaswarmetyvelebani uSualod Seexeboda israels, uflis ers, romelic eRirsa aRTqmul miwaze dasaxlebas, magram daarRvia aRTqma ufalTan sxvadasxva codvaTa gamravlebiT, ris gamoc unda dasjiliyo aRTqmuli miwidan gadasaxlebiTa da sxva eris monobaSi yofniT. kerZod, israelianebi qaldevelTa mefe nabuqodonosors unda gadaesaxlebina babilonSi. ris Semdegac qaldevelebica da sxva Crdiloeli xalxebic daisjebodnen uflis mier. ieremia qadagebda _ `amas ityvis ufali RmerTi: `aha, me movuwodeb da movavlen CrdiloeTis yovel ers da babilonis mefes nabuqodonosors, monasa Cemsa, da maT moviyvan am qveyanas da yovelTa garemos erTa zeda, davaqcev maT da Sevcvli udabnod saukunod, da iqmnebian es erni monebad babilonis mefisa 70 wel da mis Semdgom me davsji babilonis mefes da mis ers maTi usjuloebisaTvis da qaldevelT qveyanasac gadavaqcev udabnod~. marTlac, ebraelebi gadaasaxles babilonSi, sadac isini tyveebad iyvnen 70 wels, xolo qaldevelTa babilonis samefo Semdgom TandaTan udabnod iqca da daviwyebas mieca. winaswarmetyvelebis Sesabamisad daeca TiTqmis yvela imdroindeli tomebi da cnobili saxelmwifoebi (igulisxmeba ebraelTa babilonSi tyveobis xana), daeca da saxelovneba dakarga aTaswleulebis manZilze didebulma egvi ptem,

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rac iwinaswarmetyvela ezekielma _ `adamis Zev, mimarTe piri faraonisaken, egvi ptis mefisaken da uwinaswarmetyvele mas da mTel egvi ptes elaparake da uTxari, ase ambobs-Tqo ufali RmerTi, aha, Senze var faraono, egvi ptis mefev, dido gveleSapo, rom gawolilxar Sens mdinareebSi da ambob Cemia mdinare, CemTvis Sevqmenio. layuCebSi Canglebs gagiyri, ...mogisvri udabnoSi Seni mdinareebis TevzebTan erTad... mixvdeba egvi ptis yvela mcxovrebi, rom ufali var, radgan lerwmis sayrdeni iyavi israelis xalxisaTvis~ (ezek. 29. 2-4). anda: `adamis Zev, gamarTe godeba faraonze, egvi ptis mefeze da uTxari: Wabuk loms hgavdi xalxTa Soris da gveleSapiviT iyavi-Tqo zRvebSi! irqinebodi Sens mdinareebSi da fexebiT amRvrevdi wylebs, Telavdi-Tqo maT mdinareebSi. ase ambobs ufali RmerTi: movisvri Senze Cem saTxevels xalxTa simravleSi da amogaTreven Cemi badiT...~ (32. 1-3). marTlac, qristeSobamde mexuTe saukunidan, ebraelTa babilonis tyveobis Semdgom saxelovani egvi pte daeca da is umniSvnelo, sxvebze damokidebul qveynad iqca. msgavsadve asrulda ezekielis winaswarmetyvelebani sxva xalxebsa da saxelmwifo warmonaqmnebze. daecnen israelTa mtrebi _ yamonianebi (amonitebi) TandaTan daeca finikielTa cnobili tvirosi, rameTu winaswarmetyvelTa TqmiT, `vaglaxs ambobs ierusalimze, Seimusreba igi _ xalxebis karibWe... gaukacrieldeba~ (iez. 26:2). tvirosi cnobili qalaqi, saxelmwifos centri iyo, sadac xalxebTan erTad qarTvelTa winaprebic vaWrobdnen _ `iavani, Tubali da meSeqi iyvnen Seni gamsaReblebi, tyveebs da spilenZis WurWels gixdidnen saqonelSi, Togormas saxlidan cxenebs, sabrZolo raSebs da jorebs gigzavnidnen sanacvlod~ (iez. 27:13-14). aq qarTvelTa winapari tomebi _ Tubali, meSeqi da Togarma erTad ixseniebian, radganac isini mezoblebi da monaTesaveni iyvnen. saukunod daeca asureTi _ israelis mteri. `iq aris aSuri da mTeli misi krebuli, mis garSemo misi saflavebi yvelani gangmirulni arian, maxviliT dacemulni~ (32:22). daeca cnobili elami, edomi, daeca meSeqi da Tubali. maT winaswarmetyveli sxva dasjil xalxTa Soris asaxelebs _ `iq aris meSeqi da Tubali da mTeli misi simravle~ (32:26). isini isjebian maTi mezoblis israelis winaaRmdeg mtrobis gamo, isjeba TviT israelic, romelic Semdgom i povis Tavis TavSi Zalas, aRadgens siyvaruls ufalTan, daicavs aRTqmas da kvlav aRorZindeba, aseve aRorZindeba RvTis mcnebaTa damcveli yoveli dacemuli eri. marTlac, meSeqis da Tubalis Zveli didebisagan dacema da umniSvnelo tomad qceva SeumCneveli arc Semdegdroindel istorikosebs darCeniaT. pirvelqarTvelTa didebuleba, maTi saxelmwifoebi, qalaqebi, kulturis brwyinvaleba aCrdilad iqca. ivane javaxiSvili wers, rom qristeSobamde 3-4 saukuniT adre qarTvelTa dacemis Sesaxeb _ `Tumca asurul wyaroebSi Cveni eris maSindeli mdgomareoba dawvrilebiT ar aris aRwerili, magram

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IV saukunis qarTveli tomebis yofa-cxovrebas Tu imdroindel mdgomareobas SevadarebT, SeuZlebelia mainc ver SevamCnioT, rom CrdiloeTisaken waweul qarTvelebs cxadi daqveiTeba etyobaT. vazis movlas, Rvinis dayenebas, saqonlis moSenebas, madneulis damuSavebasa da iaraR-WurWlis gakeTebas, marTalia, winandeburad misdevdnen, magram sad iyo winandeli simdidre, sasaxleebi, auarebeli ganZi da qoneba, romlis xelSi Cagdebas Tavis droze asureTis batonebi kvexulobdnen xolme. winaT maT qalaqebi hqondaT, meoTxe saukuneSi ki salaparakodac ar Rirda, rac iyo isic cixeebs ufro miagavda, vidre qalaqs, winaT qarTvelebi Zlier da mdidar erad iTvlebodnen, aReb-micemobisaTvis Soreul qveynebSi midiodnen da yvelgan saxeli gavardnili hqondaT. IV saukuneSi ki isini patara-patara tomebad iyvnen danawilebulni, mamacobis pativi mezoblebSiRa hqondaT SerCenili, msoflioSi ki maTi saxeli aRar ismoda...~ (iv. javaxiSvili, t. I, gv. 70). diax, Cveni eri daeca, ezekielis winaswarmetyveleba Tubalsa, meSeqsa da Togormaze aRsrulda. ezekieli qristeSobamde VI saukuneSi cxovrobda. IV saukuneSi qarTvelTa winaprebis Zveli dideba mezoblebs Tu axsovdaT. Tumca, unda iTqvas, rom maTi saxsenebeli ufalma ar gaaqro, rameTu isini uflis ers laSqravdnen ara damoukideblad, aramed skviTebis iZulebiT, romelTac `gogs~ uwodebdnen. is mTavari iyo meSeqisa da Tubalisa, e.i. kavkasiis iqiT mcxovreb CrdiloeTis xalxebs auZulebia samxreTeli mezoblebi _ qarTvelTa winaprebi, elaSqraT `israelis mTebze~. ezekieli ambobs RvTis sityvas _ `adamianis Zev! iwinaswarmetyvele gogze da Tqvi, ase ambobs-Tqo ufali RmerTi, aha, Senze var roSis, meSeqis da Tubalis mTavaro, mogatrialeb, gamogaTrev da wagiyvan CrdiloeTis kideebidan da mogiyvan israelis mTebze gagagdebineb mSvilds marcxena xelidan da isrebs marjvena xelidan dagayrevineb. israelis mTebze daecemi mTeli Seni urdoianad da xalxTan erTad, Sen rom gaxlavs...~ (ezek. 39: 1-3). mravali xalxi daisaja, romelTac winaswarmetyvelis piriT amis mizezs amcnobs ufali _ `raki saukuno mtroba gqonda da maxvils miugde israelianebi maTi gasaWiris Jams, saboloo sasjelis Jams~ (ezek. 35: 5). qarTvelTa winaprebi dasjilan imis mier, visi xeliTac daisajnen israelianebi; mefe nabuqodonosoris mier datyvevebul da gadasaxlebul iqnen ucxo qveynebSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom nabuqodonosors, zogierTi Zveli istorikosis azriT, ara marto ebraelTa gadasaxleba miewereba, aramed qarTvelTa gadasaxlebac samxreTis qveynebidan ufro CrdiloeTiT. qristeSobamde IV-III saukunis berZeni mwerali, geografi da istorikosi nabuqodonosors axsenebs viTarca iberielTa Zveli saxelmwifos dampyrobels. `nabuqodonosorma, romelic herakleze ufro Zlieri iyo, mas Semdeg rac saomari jari Sekriba, miaRwia libielTa qveyanaSi da iberTa qveyanaSi,

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ajoba maT, gaacamtvera da daimorCila, erTi wili maTgani gadaadgila man pontos zRvis marjvena mxareze, iq daasaxla~ (georgika, 1961, gv. 30). evsevi kesarieli wers _ `agreTve megasTene ambobs Tavis `indoeTis~ meoTxe wignSi, romelSic mogviTxrobs amis win moxsenebuli babilonelTa mefis Sesaxeb, rom is simamaciT da sagmiro saqmeebiT herakles aRemateboda, imdenad aRemateboda, rom libiis da iberiis meti wili, ambobs igi, dai pyroo~ (iqve, gv. 30). am cnobiT nabuqodonosors daumorCilebia da daupyria mTeli iberiis saxelmwifo, romelic samxreTiT libiasTan mdebareobda, auyria qarTvelebi da gadmousaxlebia Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze, anu kolxeTsa da Semdgomdroindel lazikaSi. es momxdara qristeSobamde VI saukuneSi. megasTenis aRniSnul cnobas imeoreben Semdegi drois istorikosebi marabas-katina (I s.), mose xorenaci (V s.) da sxvebi. nabuqodonosors qaldeelTa mefec erqva. qveynis saxelwodebam `qaldeam~ aTaswleulTa manZilze adgili wainacvla samxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken, Sumerebidan _ qarTvelebamde. nabuqodonosori, qaldeuri babilonis yvelaze cnobili mefe asurelTagan axlad ganTavisuflebul samSoblos saTaveSi Caudga 604 wlisaTvis da 562 wlamde marTavda mas. nabuqodonosors hqonia RvTis siyvaruli (babilonSi 53 didi taZari da asobiT samlocvelo arsebobda). man xelaxla aaSena daqceuli babiloni, taZarTa da sataZro nagebobaTa aSeneba misi umTavresi sazrunavi iyo. maTken iyo mimarTuli saxelganTqmuli babilonis saprocesio gzebi, romlebsac mTel sigrZeze feradi (lurj-cisferi) Wiquri miyveboda, maTze gamoyvanili yviTelfafriani TeTri lomebiT, xarebiTa Tu gveleSapebiT. qaldeelTa mefe dauRalavi mSenebeli iyo. misi xeliT ineba ufalma ierusalimis dasja, sadac 597 wels gailaSqra, iudeis mefe ioakimi ojaxiTa da warCinebulebiT babilonSi gadaasaxla, ierusalimis umdidresi taZris ganZTan erTad. male, ezekielis winaswarmetyvelebis Sesabamisad, nabuqodonosorma kvlav aiRo ajanyebuli ierusalimi 587 wels, gaZarcva, dawva, aTasobiT iudeveli gadaasaxles babilonSi, risTvisac aTwleulTa Semdgom TviT babilonic daisaja. uflisagan gandgoma iyo mizezi ebraelTa datyvevebisa, rogorc ieremia winaswarmetyveli wers _ `iyo uflis sityva Cems momarT naTqvami: wadi da yurSi CasZaxe ierusalims: ase ambobs-Tqo ufali: me maxsovs Seni ymawviluri erTguleba da patarZluri siyvaruli, roca momyvebodi udabnoSi, uxnav-uTes miwaze. uflis siwmidea israeli, misi mosavlis naTavari. yoveli misi mWameli dadanaSauldeba, ubedureba daatydeba Tavs, ambobs ufali. ismine uflis sityva iakobis saxlo da israelis saxlis yovelo sagvareulov! ase ambobs ufali: ra naxa CemSi cudi Tqvenma mama-papam, rom ganmidga, amaoebas rom ahyva da Tavadac amaoebaSi Caeflao?.. ar uTqvams mRvdlebs, sad ariso ufali, rjulis kacebma ar micnes, mwyemsebi

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gamidgnen, winaswarmetyvelni baalis saxeliT giqadageben da usargeblo kerpebs akeTeben, amitomac kidev meqneba TqvenTan dava... kargad gamoikvlieT, naxeT, Tu sadme momxdara amgvari rame. Tu Seucvlia romelime xalxs Tavisi RmerTebi, Tumca ar yofilan isini RmerTebi. Cemma erma ki usargeblo kerpebze gadacvala Tavisi dideba~ (ier. 2, 1-11). israelma ori danaSauli Caidina, _ ambobs ufali ieremias azriT: miatoves RmerTi _ cocxali wyarosTvali da axali wylis Zebna daiwyes _ e.i. cru RmerTebis Zieba (ier. 2.13). israelma amiT miatova uflis saxlis Sviloba, ris gamoc iqca nadavlad mbrdRvinavi lomebisaTvis, romlebic udabnod uqceven qveyanas, gadawvaven da gaaukacrieleben mis qalaqebs (2,15). `radgan ase ambobs cabaoT ufali: gaCexeT xe da daaxvaveT ierusalimis irgvliv. unda daisajos es qalaqi! savsea ZaladobiT. rogorc WaSi grovdeba wyali, ase dagrovda masSi boroteba. Zaladoba da Zarcva ismis iq. sneuleba da Wrilobebia. Cems winaSe mudam frTxilad iyavi ierusalimo, ar migatovos Cemma sulma, ar gadagaqcioT udabnod, ukacriel qveynad... radgan pataridan didamde yvela momxveWelia, winaswarmetyvelidan mRvdelamde yvela yalbismqmneli. zereled mkurnaloben Cemi eris Wrilobebs. amboben mSvidobaao, mSvidoba! Tumca ar aris mSvidoba. gana ar rcxveniaT, sibilwes rom Cadian? ara! sulac ar rcxveniaT, amitomac daecemian dacemulTa Soris, waiforxileben, roca davsji maT, _ ambobs ufali~ (ier. 6.6-15). ieremias RvTis sityvis gancxadebisaTvis simarTliT Seuracxyofili brbo emuqreboda, cils swamebda da eswrafoda mis daRupvas. ukeTuri qceviT datanjuli winaswarmetyveli wyevlida Tavis dabadebis dRes, magram simarTlis Tqmas ganagrZobda. man pirdapir uTxra mis dilegSi Camgdeb erT mRvdels: `ase ambobs ufali: aha, SiSis zars dagcem Sen da Sens megobrebs. daecemian isini mtrebis maxvilisagan da Seni TvaliT ixilav amas. babilonelTa mefis xelSi Cavagdeb mTels iudas. gadaasaxlebs maT babilonSi da maxviliT amoswyvets~ (ier. 20,4). winaswarmetyvelis sityvisamebr babilonis mefe nabuqodonosori gars Semoadga ierusalims. ieremiam ganucxada iudeas mefes: `...ambobs ufali _ Cavagdeb cidkias, iudas mefes da mis morCilebs, xalxs da yvelas... nabuqodonosoris, babilonis mefis xelSi...~ (21.7). marTlac, aRsrulda winaswarmetyveleba. israelianebi babilonSi gadaasaxles, ieremia godebda: `rogor marto darCa qalaqi, odesRac xalxmravali, zis qvrivi qaliviT, xalxTa qalbatoni da mxareTa dedofali moxarke Seiqmna. tiris RamRamobiT, Rawvebze cremli sdis, aravin hyavs nugeSinismcemeli, yvelam uRalata, mtrad gadaekidnen megobrebi~ (godeba, I: 1-2). `aRasrula ufalma ganzraxuli, aaxdina Tavisi naTqvami, rac hqonda nabrZanebi ZvelTaganve, daaqcia da ar Seibrala. mteri gaaxara Senze, rqa aRumaRla Sens duSmanebs... yrian quCis mtverSi ymawvili da moxuci, Cemi qalwulebi

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da moymeebi maxviliT daecnen; daxoce Seni risxvis dRes, dakali, ar dainde~ (2.17,21). nabuqodonosorma daatyveva da gadaasaxla ebraeli xalxi, masve, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, Zvel istorikosTa cnobebiT, daulaSqravs qarTvelTa saxelmwifo, sadRac samxreTSi mdebare, dautyvevebia qarTveloba da gadausaxlebia CrdiloeTis qveyanaSi, Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze. israel dedaTa darad tirodnen albaT qarTveli dedebic, magram maTi godebis aRmweri aravin iyo, Cans, maT Soris ar hyavda ufals gamorCeuli erTguli. isini am droisaTvis kerpTmsaxurni iyvnen, WeSmariti RmerTi mxolod eqvsasi wlis Semdeg Seicnes andria mociqulis qadagebis meSveobiT. aq oriode sityviT unda iTqvas imis Sesaxebac, rom rCeul erTan, romelic aRTqmis darRvevisaTvis samarTlianad daisaja, ufalma kvlav ganaaxla Tavisi aRTqma. babilonis tyveoba dasrulda. ebraelebi aRTqmul miwaze dabrundnen. qarTvelebi ki, Tuki vendobiT Zvel istorikosTa cnobas maTi samxreTidan CrdiloeTSi gadasaxlebis Sesaxeb, dafuZdnen axal qveyanaSi, uwodes mas Tavisi saxeli saqarTvelo. Tumca, simon janaSias dakvirvebiT, kavkasia ZvelTaganve samSoblo iyo qarTvelebis, iseve rogorc wina aziis zogierTi regioni. am droisaTvis moxda ara qarTvelTa gadasaxleba, aramed samxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken gadainacvles maTma politikurma centrebma. ese igi, samxreTidan CrdiloeTiT gadasaxlda mxolod politikuri elita. yovel SemTxvevaSi Tubalisa da meSeqis Zveli dideba saukuno warsulad iqca. maTi adgili `iberma~ daiWira.

iberi
ezekielis piriT gamoTqmuli winaswarmetyvelebis kiTxvisas _ `uTxari, ase ambobs-Tqo ufali RmerTi: aha, Senze var gog, roSis, muSeqis da Tubalis mTavaro! gagabruneb da ybaSi Cangals amogdeb... Togormas saxls CrdiloeTs kideebidan mTeli Tavisi urdoTi, uricxvi xalxiTurT SenTan erTad~ _ gvaxsendeba s. janaSias sityvebi _ `ueWvelia, rom VI-I saukuneebSi Cvens welTaRricxvamde qarTvelobam didi zarali ganicada. am xanaSi Semcirda qarTveli tomebis mosaxleoba da masTan erTad am tomebma Tavisi msoflioistoriuli poziciebi dahkarges~ (s. janaSia, t. V, 1987, gv. 212). raRa darCa erT dros pirineidan pamiramde ganfenili (n. mari) qarTveluri eTnosidan? qristeSobamde ramdenime saukuniT adre qarTveluri warmoSobis xalxebi iqcnen mcire tomebad, daemxo maTi erT dros saxelovani saxelmwifoebi. TavianTi ubedurebisa da gaWirvebis dros ramdenime nakadad moaSures kavkasias, sadac egulebodaT saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianeba maTi monaTesave qarTuli tomebisa _ saxelganTqmuli kolxeTi. marTalia, kolxeTis Zlierebis

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xana (qristeSobamde IX-VIII ss.) am droisaTvis ganvlili iyo, magram is mainc fexze idga da bunebrivi sazRvrebisagan daculs Zlieri mtrebic naklebad hyavda. momavali saqarTvelosaken moiwevdnen tibaranebad qceuli Tubalebi, mesxebad qceuli muSqebi, axla mcire tomebad qceuli qaldevelebi anu xalibebi, karduxebi. herodotes Tanaxmad, wina aziaSi amierkavkasiisken cxovrobdnen Semdegi tomebi _ mosxebi, tibaranebi, makronebi, mosinikebi, kolxebi, alarodielebi, saspeirebi. is erT momentTan dakavSirebiT wers _ `mosxebs Tavze xis muzaradebi exuraT. patara farebi da Subebi hqondaT... laSqrobdnen tibaranebi, makronebi da mosinikebi, romlebic mosxebiviT iyvnen aRWurvilni... kolxebs Tavze xis muzaradebi hqondaT... alarodielebi da saspeirebi kolxebis msgavsad SeiaraRebulni laSqrobdnen~ (herodote, istoria, II, 434). rogorc Cans, qarTuli tomebi im droisaTvis kidev ufro mravalricxovani iyo. `vrcel miwa-wyalze mcire aziasa, samxreT evropasa da CrdiloeT afrikis sanapiroze mcxovrebi qarTuli gvartomobis xalxebi~ (s. janaSia) aRniSnuli droisaTvis kavkasiaSi SeyuJul tomebad iyvnen qceulni, magram ufal RmerTs isini ar dauviwyebia. misca Zala, raTa CamoeyalibebinaT erTiani `qarTlis samefod~ cnobili saxelmwifo. Sehkra isini erTian erad da imis Semdeg, rac dedamiwaze mosuli Ze RvTisa, WeSmariti RmerTi amaRlda, eCvena deda RvTisas da uTxra qarTveli eris Sesaxeb: _ `hoi, dedao Cemo, ara ugulebel vyo eri igi sazepuro ufros yovelTa naTesavTa, meoxebiTa SeniTa maTTvis (`qarTlis cxovreba~, t. I, gv. 38) uflis rCeul erad iqca, yvela qristemoyvare eris msgavsad. am siyvarulis niSnad pirvel saukuneSive Cvenma erma miiRo zeciT qsovili kvarTi uflisa, erTiani, mTliani da daunawevrebeli, niSnad imisa rom `sazepuro eri~ mis wiaRSi Senaxul kvarTis msgavsad samaradJamod, mis meored mosvlamde, erTiani, mTliani da daunawevrebeli unda darCeniliyo, Tuki qristianobas daicavda. ufalma aTeul tomebad qceuli qarTuli eTnosi qristeSobamde 3-4 saukuniT adre erTian erad aqcia erovnuli saxelmwifos daarsebiT. erTian qarTul saxelmwifos `qarTlis samefos~, xolo ucxoelebi iberias uwodebdnen, `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad, misi dasavleTi sazRvari egriswyalze gadioda, ase rom, is moicavda aRmosavleT, samxreT da dasavleT saqarTvelos. am saxelmwifos xalxi erTian erad SekavSirda da mas `qarTvelni~ ewodebodaT. aqve isic unda iTqvas, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos sazRvrebs gareT, samxreTSi aRmoCndnen mravalricxovani qarTuli tomebi. qarTuli tomebi agreTve cxovrobdnen egriswyalTan gamavali sazRvris gadaRmac da aseve aRmosavleTiT _ albaneTis mimarTulebiT. rogorc iTqva, gansakuTrebiT mravali qarTuli tomi aRmoCnda qarTuli saxelmwifos gareT _ Savi zRvis sanapiro mxareSi, romelsac qaldeas, anda WaneTs uwodebdnen.

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aRsaniSnavia, rom erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos daarsebam mefe farnavazis epoqaSi, faqtobrivad gamoiwvia qarTuli eTnosis orad gayofa, kerZod, erTi nawili aRmoCnda Tavis erovnul saxelmwifoSi, xolo meore nawili samxreT-dasavleTiT aRmoCnda sxva saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi. am mdgomareobam xeli Seuwyo saerTo qarTuli enis diferenciacia-danawevrebis gaRrmavebas. amis mizezi iyo is, rom jer kidev farnavazis saxelmwifos Seqmnamde saukuneebiT adre kolxuri kultura moicavda ara marto dasavleT saqarTvelos, aramed aRmosavleTis umetes nawils. kolxuri kulturis arealze ki, rogorc miiCneva, gavrcelebuli iyo fuZe qarTuli enis diferenciaciis Sedegad miRebuli, jer kidev gauyofeli e.w. zan-qarTuli ena. Zveli kolxeTi mxolod dasavleT saqarTvelos ar moicavda, masSi aRmosavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos didi nawili Sedioda. kolxeTi kavkasiaSi qarTuli tomebis gamarTianebeli iyo. herodotes aRweridanac Cans, rom samxreT kavkasiur samyaroSi or qarTul toms aqvs hegemonoba Tavis Tavze aRebuli, kolxebsa da mosxebs. kerZod, laSqrobisas (anu politikuri moRvaweobisas) mosxebTan erTad molaSqre tibaranebi, makronebi da mosinikebi mosxebiviT arian aRWurvilni, xolo kolxebTan erTad myofi alarodielebi da saspeirebi kolxebiviT SeiaraRebulni. mosxebi da kolxebi ki warmmarTvelebad Canan. magram mosxebs qristeSobamde VI saukuneSi mcxovrebi berZeni avtori hekatos mileteli `kolxur tomad~ miiCnevs, anu mesxebi da kolxebi erTi xalxia, zogadi saxelia kolxi, maSasadame, kolxeTi, kolxuri kultura da yovelive, rac Zvel kolxeTTanaa dakavSirebuli, aris ara dasavleT saqarTvelos lokaluri kultura, aramed zogad-qarTuli eTnosisa, yvela qarTveluri tomisa, es Seexeba enasac. Zvel-kolxuri ena unda iyos im droisaTvis sustad diferencirebuli fuZe qarTulidan gamoyofili, e.w. zan-qarTuli (jer kidev dauSleli) ena. g. meliqiSvili wers _ `mosxebs Zv.w.aR-is VI s-is berZeni avtori hekatos mileteli `kolxur toms~ eZaxis. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom mesxuri elementi mudam qarTebis elements emTxveva, `kolxurs~ aq dasavlurqarTulis mniSvnelobas ver mivaniWebT, radgan, rogorc iTqva, Zveli legendaruli kolxeTis arsebobis xanaSi (Zv.w.aR-is I aTaswleulis pirveli saukuneebi) kolxeTi jer kidev sustad diferencirebul qarTvelur eTnikur jgufs moicavda. am dros megrel-Wanebsa da qarTebs Soris enobrivi gansxvaveba, yovel SemTxvevaSi jer ar unda yofiliyo. amitomac `kolxi~ saxeli am uZveles xanaSi saerTo qarTveluri, Tu qarTi-zanuri (megrul-Wanuri) elementis aRmniSvneli unda yofiliyo. ionieli berZnebi qarTvel tomebs jer kidev qarTul-zanuri erTobis arsebobis `kolxur~ xanaSi gaecnen da `kolxi~ saxelsac, unda vifiqroT, am erTobis aRsaniSnavad xmarobdnen. amitomac mosxebis `kolxur tomad~ moxsenieba hekatos miletelTan, saerTod, maT qarTvelobaze miuTiTebs da megrul-Wanur warmomavlobaze arafers laparakobs~ (saq. ist. narkv, I, gv. 395).

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erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos formirebis epoqa, romelic, cxadia, ramdenadme win uswrebda farnavazis xanas (IV-III ss. qristeSobamde) xasiaTdeboda didi cvlilelebebiT... kerZod, am dros VIII-VI saukuneebSi kolxuri kulturis arealSi samxreTidan Semovidnen sxvadasxva qarTveluri tomebi, rac gamoiwvevda Zvrebs, mniSvnelovan gadanacvlebebs. rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, am drois qarTveluri jgufis ZiriTadi kultura swored `kolxuri kultura~ unda yofiliyo (ix. iqve, gv. 431). `akad. b. kuftinis azriT, `kolxuri kulturis~ gavrcelebis sazRvari Tavdapirvelad mcxeTamde aRwevda. dRevandeli samxreT oseTis mosaxleobac gviani brinjaos xanaSi mWidrod ukavSirdeboda `kolxuri kulturis~ zonis mosaxleobas... akad. s. janaSia xazs usvamda im garemoebas, rom qarTli, kerZod, istoriuli Sida qarTli, is teritoria unda iyos, sadac gvian brinjaos xanaSi xdeboda aRmosavlur da dasavlur kulturaTa gavrcelebis sazRvrebis urTierTkveTa~ (iqve, gv. 432). kolxuri kulturis areali vrceldeboda araTu Tanamedrove saqarTvelos umetes nawilze, aramed Crdilo kavkasiaSic da vrclad samxreTis mimarTulebiTac _ `aseTia, magaliTad, upirveles yovlisa Crdilo oseTi da yabardo-balyareTi mTavari qedis miRma, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos vrceli zoli mdinare mtkvris CrdiloeTiT, mesxeTidan vidre aragvis xeobamde. istoriuli samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelo Woroxis auzi da ufro dasavleTiT Savi zRvis sanapiro, yovel SemTxvevaSi qalaq ordumde mainc. aRarafers vambobT CvenTvis saintereso ti pis calkeul nivTebze, romlebic aRmoCenilia somxeTis teritoriaze (axtala-lalvaris midamoebi, golovino, parkari, leninakani) da urmiis tbis raionSi~ (iqve, gv. 255). Tanamedrove CrdiloeT somxeTi, yovel SemTxvevaSi bambakis mTis CrdiloeTiT mtkvris auzSi moqceuli teritoria, istoriulad, aTaswleulTa manZilze saqarTveloSi Semaval miwa-wylad, samxreT-aRmosavleT mxared miiCneoda, amitomac aq kolxuri kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTebis aRmoCena unda CavTvaloT mtkvris samxreTiT kolxuri kulturis gavlenis gavrcelebad. rogorc Cans, kolxuri kultura vrceldeboda Woroxisa da saqarTvelos teritoriaze gamaval mtkvris auzebSi, aseve dasavleT saqarTveloSi. sad mdebareobda centri, bude kolxuri kulturisa? _ miCneulia, rom is mdebareobda dasavleT saqarTveloSi. `rogorc araerT mkvlevars aRuniSnavs, TviT dasavleT saqarTvelo am kulturis ZiriTadi bude unda iyos~ (iqve, gv. 256), magram ratom ar SeiZleba es bude aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi yofiliyo, vTqvaT mtkvris xeobaSi (istoriul diaoxTan, Semdegdroindel taosTan, klarjeTTan), anda Woroxis xeobaSi, sadac zogierTi mkvlevari metalurgiis centrebis arsebobas varaudobs? safiqrelia, rom bude kolxuri kulturisa mdebareobda rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, is erTiani kulturaa da ara lokaluri romelime

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kuTxisa. marTalia, jerjerobiT ucnobia, vrceldeboda Tu ara kolxuri kultura mcxeTis aRmosavleTiT, magram, ZvelqarTul wyaroTa Tanaxmad, aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT teritoriebi dasaxlebuli iyo qarTuli tomebiT (qarTlis cxovrebaSi asaxulia, rom aq saxlobdnen qarTlosis uSualo STamomavalni). kolxuri kulturis am arealSi gauvrceleblobis Sesaxeb ki unda gavimeoroT g. meliqiSvilis naTqvami: `ra Tqma unda, savaldebulo ar aris, rom materialuri kulturis esa Tu is are zustad emTxveodes ama Tu im eTnikuri jgufis gavrcelebis sazRvrebs~, (iqve, gv. 432). yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sruliad unda daveTanxmoT g. meliqiSvils _ qristeSobamde pirveli aTaswleulis pirvel naxevarSi saxeli `kolxi~ saerTo qarTveluri, anu zan-qarTuli (qarT-zanuri) elementis aRmniSvneli unda yofiliyo. saxeli `kolxi~ sustad diferencirebul qarTul eTnikur erTobas moicavda (amitomac uwodebdnen `mosxebs~ _ kolxebs). rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, qristeSobamde VIII saukunis Semdgom kolxuri kulturis arealSi didi cvlilebebi moxda, CrdiloeTidan SemoiWrnen kimerielebi, maT daarbies kolxeTi, xolo samxreTidan TandaTan Semosula sxvadasxva qarTuli tomebi. es qarTuli tomebi erT dros warmoadgendnen cnobil xalxebs TavianTi saxelmwifoebiT, maT gaaCndaT didi politikuri kultura, amitomac Semosvlis Semdgom sakmaod male moaxdines damxvedri tomebis konsolidacia da Camoayalibes `qarTlis samefo~ _ axali qarTuli saxelmwifo. s. janaSias Tanaxmad, samxreTiT mdebare qarTuli saxelmwifoebis gaqrobis Semdeg politikurma centrebma CrdiloeTiT, dRevandeli saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze gadmoinacvla. amas, rogorc aRiniSna, xeli Seuwyo Zveli kolxuri samefos ganadgurebam kimerielTa mier. am Semosevis Semdgom, rogorc fiqroben, kolxeTis (am SemTxvevaSi dasavleT saqarTvelos) mosaxleobis nawili momxdurebTan brZolaSi gamwydara, gadarCenilebs mezobel kuTxeebSi SeufarebiaT Tavi. samxreTidan CrdiloeTiT qarTuli tomebis Semosvlas, anu politikuri centrebis gadmonacvlebas garkveulad gamoucocxlebia Zveli kolxeTi. samefoc Camoyalibda, saqme is iyo, rom kolxebi da Semosuli tomebi, rogorc aRiniSna, erTi eTnosi, erTi warmoSobis xalxi iyo. ase, magaliTad, s. janaSia fiqrobda, rom kolxuri brinjaos kultura SeiZleboda Tubalebis (Tobelis) kultura yofiliyo. s. janaSia bibliaSi naxseneb iafetis Ze Tubals da kaenis STamomavlebs _ Tubal-kaens, iabels, iubals ase akavSirebda kolxebTan (da iberebTan): `CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxis Sesaxeb bibliis ori sxvadasxvagvari cnobis SeTanxmeba Zneli ar unda iyos. is garemoeba, rom erT SemTxvevaSi Tubali martoa dasaxelebuli, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi mas Zmebic hyavs _ Aabali da Aubali, Cveni azriT im garemoebas mowmobs, rom pirvelad xalxi mTliani saxiTaa warmodgenili, meored ki _ Tavisi mTavari tomebis saxiT. advilad

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aixsneba Tubalis ori saxelic _ Tubal-kaeni da Tobeli: `kain~ `keni~ aq epiTetia, romelic, saTanado semituri Ziris saSualebiT `mWedels~ aRniSnavs, Tubali xom upiratesad mWedeli da metalurgia, SesaZlebelia isic (n. mari, iv. javaxiSvili), rom aq gvqondes saTanado satomo saxelis gaazrebac (`kaenebs~, rogorc vnaxeT, ixseniebs pliniusi da SemdegSi cnobilni arian Wanni _ okaenitebic). dabadebis meoTxe Tavis cnobaSi sayuradReboa fuZis axali formebi, romlebic Cven winaT ar Segvxvedria _ Tavkiduri T//t-s nacvlad _ A. es, ueWvelia, axali safexuria am saxelis ganviTarebaSi. am cnobiT mocemuli Sesatyvisobani: T//t _ h//A-0 safuZvels aZleven iv. javaxiSvilis da i. yifSiZes Tubal-Tabali da iberi, Sualedi rgolebiT, erTmaneTs daukavSiron. prof. iv. javaxiSvili amasTanave gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom tabal _ qarTebis gamoTqmaa, tubal _ tobal _ megrul-Wanuri, xolo tibar svanur gamoTqmas uaxlovdebao. sakmarisia movigonoT asuruli cnoba tabalebis 24 samefos arsebobis Sesaxeb, rom paraleluri formebis aseTi simdidre savsebiT bunebrivad miviCnioT da sxva dakarguli formebic vivaraudoT. dasasrul, movigonoT, rogor axasiaTebs am qarTvelur moZme tomebs `SesaqmeTa wignis~ avtori. Tobelis, anu Tubal-kaenis Sesaxeb aq naTqvamia: `ese iyo kveriT xuroA, mWedeli rvalisa da rkinisa~ (IV, 22). Tu amas davukavSirebT Tanamedrove arqeologis mier dadgenil faqts, rom brinjaos SesaniSnavi kultura, romelsac winaT yobanis kulturas eZaxdnen, namdvilad kolxeTis kulturaa, rom am kulturis ayvavebis xana swored Tabal-Tubalis epoqaze modis, rom kolxuri brinjaos kultura, uaxlesi aRmoCenebiT vrceldeba Sors samxreTiT mcire aziisaken (vgulisxmobT arTvinisa da ordus ganZebs), maSin bunebrivad SeiZleba davsvaT sakiTxi: xom ar aris kolxuri brinjaos kultura namdvilad Tubalebis, anu Tubalkainebis kultura?~ (s. janaSia, III, 1959, gv. 71-73). ase akavSirebda s. janaSia Tubals kolxTan da iberTan, xolo mesxebs kolxebTan qristeSobamdec akavSirebdnen. anTropologiurad aRniSnul xanaSi mTeli kavkasiis mosaxleoba erTgvarovani yofila. m. abduSeliSvili wers _ `amrigad, mTeli kavkasiis brinjaos xanis mosaxleoba ekuTvnoda erT anTropologiur ti ps, romelic zogad rasobriv sistematikaSi samxreT-evropeiduli rasis xmelTaSuazRvispiruli ti pis saxeliT aris cnobili. saqarTvelos gvian brinjaos da Semdgom rkinis farTo aTvisebis periodis mosaxleoba anTropologiuri TvalsazrisiT ti pobrivad ar gansxvavdeboda erTmaneTisagan. rac gamoricxavs raime axali, adgilobrivisagan gansxvavebuli elementebis Semosvlas sakvlev teritoriaze drois aRniSnul monakveTSi~ (`qarTveli xalxis anTropologiuri istoria~). anTropologiuri, kulturuli, enobrivi da sxva msgavsi erToba unda yofiliyo mizezi imisa, rom qristeSobamde VI saukuneSi aRorZinebul kolx-

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eTis samefoSi, romelic amjerad mxolod dasavleT saqarTvelos moicavda, ganfenili iyo samxreTidan Semosulad miCneuli e.w. mesxuri tomebi. dasavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleTi provinciebi da aseve rionis samxreTiTac moqceuli miwa-wyali, ZvelTaganve msgavsi elementebiT Cans dasaxlebuli. `samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze SemoRweuli mcireazieli muSqebi (mesxebi), Cans, aqtiur rols asrulebdnen am mxaris politikur cxovrebaSi... SemdegSi aqedan kidev ufro CrdiloeTiT gavrceldnen. mesxuri samosaxloni unda gaCeniliyo rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi... damaxasiaTebelia, rom mcireaziuli warmoSobis saxelwodebebi umkvidrdeba ara marto Sida qarTlis miwa-wyalze aRmocenebul cixe-qalaqebs, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleT raionebSi warmoSobil zog amgvar centrsac... mcireaziuli elementis politikuri hegemonoba vrceldeba mesxeTs, Sida qarTlsa da sxvaTa Soris, agreTve dasavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleT nawilzec. es is teritoriebia, sadac mimdinareobda adgilobrivi qarTis da mcire aziidan SemoRweuli mesxuri elementis wiaRSi aRmosavlur qarTuli (qarTlis, iberiis) saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba~ (saq. ist. narkv, I, gv. 397). unda vifiqroT, rom kolxeTis samefos (VI-IV ss.) wiaRSive safuZveli eyreboda axal erTian qarTlis saxelmwifos, farnavazis mier daarsebuls. amas unda miuTiTebdes, wyaroTa Cveneba imis Sesaxeb, rom farnavazis winamorbedi (samefo taxtze) azoni ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelosac marTavda. qristeSobamde VI saukuneSi samxreTaRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi (istoriuli kolxeTis samxreT raionebSi) mcxovrebi mosaxleoba sparselebma daimorCiles. am adgilebSi 401 wels gaiara qsenofontem. misi aRweriT, adgilobrivi tomebi ukve ganviTarebulni iyvnen. karduxebi, xalibebi, xaldebi, makronebi, kolxebi, mosinikebi, koitebi da tibarenebi ar emorCilebodnen sparseTs. aRsaniSnavia, rom is `kolxebs~ uwodebs ara rionis xeobaSi mcxovreb mosaxleobas, aramed trapezuntis midamoebSi mcxovrebT. daaxloebiT am dros (ramdenadme gviandel periods) exeba qarTuli wyaro `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~, romlis Tanaxmadac, samxreTSi _ wina aziaSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebis elita `arian-qarTlis~ mefe azovem gadmoasaxla da ganasaxla sruliad saqarTveloSi, maT Soris rionisa da enguris xeobebSic, vidre egris wylamde. Tu es wyaro sworia, maSin rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTvelos yovel kuTxeSi aqamde kolxuri kulturis arealSi mcxovreb qarTvelobas Serevia samxreTidan gadmosaxlebuli qarTveloba da Semdegdroindeli qarTuli tomebi Tanabari xarisxiT maTi memkvidreni arian. Tumca, rogorc aRniSnuli wyarodan Cans, unda vivaraudoT, rom `arian-qarTlis~ mefem sruliad saqarTveloSi ganasaxla ara raime mniSvnelovani raodenobiT mosaxleoba, am sityvis sruli gagebiT, aramed mxolod mmarTveli zeda fena, aznaur-

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Tavisufali mcirericxovani mmarTveli zeda fena. pavle ingoroyvas mier aRdgenili Txzulebis teqstSi ikiTxeba qarTvelTa gadmosaxlebis Sesaxeb _ `xolo ese azoA warvida `arian-qarTlad~ mamisa Tvisisa da warmoiyvana aTasi saxli mdabioA uflisaA da aTni saxli mamamZuZeTani~ (p. ingoroyva, t. 4, gv. 515, 1978 w.). aq `mamamZuZe niSnavs mTavars, aseve unda vifiqroT, rom `mdabioA uflisaA~ ufalTan, anu mefesTan daaxloebul pirebs ewodebaT, arseni beri Sesabamis teqstSi gadmoscems, rom azom arian qarTlidan moiyvana aTasi saxli `mdabioA uflisaA~ da aTi saxli `mTavarTagan~. sul moyvanilia aTas aTi saxli. `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ miaCnia, rom aRniSnuli mosaxleobis STamomavalni arian qarTvelebi, rom maT maleve Seqmnes saxelmwifo, magram SeuZlebelia aTas aT ojaxs Seeqmna uzarmazari, zRvidan albaneTamde gadaWimuli saxelmwifo, cxadia, aTas aTi saxli warmoadgenda zeda fenas, anu saxelmwifos dvritas, mmarTvel aparats, wyobilebis xerxemals. es aris swored is, razedac miuTiTebda simon janaSia. misi Teoriis Tanaxmad, moxda ara mosaxleobis masiuri gadasaxleba, aramed qarTuli politikuri centrebis gadanacvleba samxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken. anu iqamde kolxuri kulturis arealSi mcxovrebi qarTveloba aaxlebs Tavis saxelmwifoebriv wyobilebas. ufro maRali saxelmwifoebrivi organizaciisa da kulturis mqone samxreTuli qarTuli zedafenis meoxebiT maT Camoayalibes `qarTlis samefo~ (anu iberiisa), aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos gamaerTianebeli saxelmwifo. swored zeda fena rom movida, amis anarekli Cans `qarTlis cxovrebaSic~. am Txzulebis mixedviT azo _ dampyrobelia, makedoneli, romelsac hyavs `asi aTasi romaeli~, romlis ZaliTac xelisufleba aqvs damyarebuli qarTvelobaze. `moqcevaAs~ mixedviT, rogorc viciT, azos Tan mohyva `aTasi saxli mdabio~, _ `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT ki `asi aTasi~ romaeli. unda vigulisxmoT, rom Tavis mxriv `saxlic~ Tavis qveS gulisxmobs SeiaraRebuli mebrZolebis (anu brZolisunariani mamakacebis) _ aramcire raodenobas. Tu gvian saukuneebSic ki `komlSi~ 20-mde mamakacs gulisxmobdnen, qristeSobamde, roca ojaxebi gauyofelni iyvnen, `saxlSi~ uTuod didi raodenobis mamakacebi unda igulisxmebodes. Tu mocemul ricxvebs `asi aTasi~ da `aTas saxls~ erTmaneTs SevadarebT, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom erT `saxls~ asamde SeiaraRebuli mamakacis gamoyvana SeeZlo. sad daasaxla azom Semoyvanili mosaxleoba, anu romel qveyanas Cauyara man safuZveli `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT _ `igi imorCilebs qarTlTan erTad hereTs da, amrigad, avrcelebs Tavis xelisuflebas mdinare berdujidan (dRevandeli debeda) vidre `speris zRvamde (e.i. Sav zRvamde), i pyrobs agreTve dasavleT saqarTvelos (egriss), xarks adebs osebs, lekebs da xazarebs~ (narkv. gv. 438). `moqcevaAs~ mixedviT, azo Semoiyvana aleqsandre makedonelma. ai, rogor sazRvrebSi moaqcia misi

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qveyana _ `da Tana hyvanda aleqsandres mefesa azo, ZeA arian qarTlisa mefisa da mas miuboZa mcxeTaA sajdomad da sazRvari daudva mas hereTi da egris wyali da somxiTi da mTa crolisa da warvida~ (Zv. qarT. ag. lit. Zegl. t. I, 1964, gv. 81). am wyaros Tanaxmadac, azo _ dasavleT saqarTvelos sruli mpyrobelia, vidre egriswylamde, maSasadame, mas Tavisi `aTasi saxli~ mdabioni, xolo, Cveni azriT, Tavisi sayrdeni xelisufalni, unda gaenawilebina mTel samarTav teritoriaze, rogorc dasavleT, aseve aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. cxadia, moxdeboda damxvdurebisa da momsvlelebis Serwyma, amitomac Semdgomi drois mematianeni TavianT Tavs (e.i.qarTvelobas) Tvlidnen _ `arian qarTlidan~ mosuli qarTvelobis memkvidreebad. swrafad urTierTSerwymas xeli albaT imanac Seuwyo, rom momsvlelnic da damxvdurnic erTi eTnosisani, erTi warmoSobisani iyvnen. `wmida ninos cxovrebis~ zemoxsenebul arsen beriseul variantSi naTqvamia, rom Cven, qarTvelebi am arian-qarTlidan gadmosaxlebulTa STamomavlebi varTo. igivea naTqvami `moqcevaAs~ ufro Zvel, Satberdiseul xelnawerSi. armazis mTaze mdgomi gacisa da gas kerpebis aRwerisas nino ambobs, rom isini iyvnen Tqveni (qarTvelTa) `arian-qarTleli~ mamebis (e.i. winaprebis) RmerTebi. mefe miriani, mimarTavs ra ninos, amave gacisa da gas eZaxis `Cveni mamebis (winaprebis) Zvel RmerTebs~ (narkv. gv. 438). yovelive zemoaRniSnuliT Cven imis Tqma gvsurs, rom farnavazis mier Seqmnili saxelmwifos mdgradoba gamowveuli iyo mosaxleobis erTgvarovnebiT, Tumca ki, erTi SexedviT, saxelmwifos sazRvrebs SigniT egriswylidan da Savi zRvidan somxeT-albaneTamde arsebobda tomTa siWrele, magram saxelmwifom es tomebi Sekra, erad aqcia, amitomac, Cveni matianeebi aTaswleulTa manZilze yovelgvari yoymanis gareSe Cveni saxelmwifos rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT nawilSi mcxovreb mosaxleobas qarTvelebs uwodebdnen, ucxoelebi ki iberebs. sxvadasxva qarTuli tomebis erTian xalxad gadaqcevas xeli uTuod imanac Seuwyo, rom saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis dros qarTuli fuZe-enis daSlis xarisxi didi ar iyo. tomebis enebi axlos iyvnen erTmaneTTan, e.w. qarTebisa, zanebisa da svanebis enebi, cxadia, am oriaTas xuTasi wlis win erTmaneTis mimarT dialeqtebs warmoadgendnen. isini damoukidebel enebad Camoyalibdnen Semdgom, safiqrebelia mas Semdeg, rac farnavazis mier Seqmnili saxelmwifo daiSala (igulisxmeba vaxtang gorgaslis SvilTa dros). qristeSobamde IV saukuneSi, jer kidev farnavazis saxelmwifos warmoSobamde, pirvelad iqna moxsenebuli iberTa saxeli ucxour mwerlobaSi. rogorc Cans, qarTvelebi iberTa saxelwodebiT pirvelad moixsenies platonma da aristotelem. s.janaSia wers _ `platoni Tavis `kanonebSi~, ixseniebs `iberebs~ im `meomar xalxTa~ Soris, romelnic svamen uwylo Rvinos. aristotele ki ambobs _ `iberebis~ meomari xalxi

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saflavis garSemo imden sars arWoben xolme, ramdeni mteric mokluli hyavs micvalebulso~. safiqrebelia, rom aq qarTvelebi igulisxmebian, magram gadaWriT amis TqmisaTvis damatebiTi masalaa saWiro~ (s.janaSia, t. III, gv. 48). oriode saukuniT adre herodotesTvis ucnobi iyo es sityva _ iberi, rogorc Cans, is sxvagvarad gamoiTqmoda im dros, _ sasperebad. herodote erTi modgmis sasperebsa da kolxebs ixseniebs aseve erTi modgmis sparselebsa da midielebTan erTad. es ukanasknelnic Semdgom erT xalxad iqcnen. swored aRniSnuli ori modgmis xalxi _ sparsuli (sparsel-midielni) da qarTuli (kolx-sasperebi) cxovrobdnen uzarmazar teritoriaze _ sparseTis yuresa (wiTeli zRva) da Sav zRvas Soris. _ `sparsebi cxovroben samxreTis zRvamde, romelic `wiTlad~ iwodeboda. maT zemoT CrdiloeTisaken cxovroben midielebi, midielebis zemoT _ sasperebi, sasperebis zemoT _ kolxebi, CrdiloeTis zRvamde, romelsac erTvis mdinare fazisi. es oTxi xalxi cxovrobs zRvidan zRvamde~. sasperebs, rogorc Cans, faqtobrivad eWiraT adgili urartuelebisa, romelTa politikuri centrebi VI saukunisaTvis ukve ganadgurebuli iyo midielTa da skviTTa mier, Tumca, rogorc Cans, sasperebi CrdiloeTis (momavali aRmosavleT iberiis) teritoriasac moicavdnen. CrdiloeTis aRniSnuli teritoriebi, Tavis droze nawilobriv kolxuri kulturis arealSi Sediodnen. aq unda gavixsenoT isic, rom Semdgomi drois avtorTa Tanaxmad, iberielebi mdinare araqsamde cxovrobdnen. sasperebis Seviwroeba armenielTa tomebis Semosvlam gamoiwvia yofili urartus teritoriaze. s. janaSias saxeli `iberi~ gamohyavda terminebidan _ subar-sasperi-sper. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom mas ukavSirebda bibliis Tubalsa da Tobels. `CvenTvis saintereso satomo saxelis fuZis, zemoT, dokumenturad, damowmebuli Tu kanonzomierad aRdgenili variantebi _ tibar, taber, tabar, tiber, hiber, iber da am saxelwodebaTa matarebeli tomebis gavrcelebis are, gansakuTrebiT mcire aziis Sinagani olqebi, aucileblobiT da savsebiT damarwmuneblad ukavSirdeba, erTi mxriT, `dabadebis~ Tubalsa da Tobels, meore mxriv, asuruli warwerebis tabals (rogorc Cveulebriv sweren) anu Tabals. `dabadebis~ faqtebi, ukve didi xania, rac specialur ganmartebis sagnad iqca. jer kidev cnobili swavluli ebraeli ioseb flabiosi (I s., ax.w.aR-iT) amtkicebda, rom iafetis Svilis Tubal-Tobelis STamomavalni mis dros iberebad iwodebodnen... SemdgomSi flabioss xSirad imeorebdnen Zveli mwerlebi, gansakuTrebiT, bibliur genealogiaTa ganmmartebelni, magram axalma mecnierebamac es debuleba TiTqmis uyoymanod miiRo~ (s.janaSia, III, gv. 63). davamatebT, rom `Tubals~ da misgan nawarmoeb `tibarenis~ ukavSireben kolxebsac da lazebsac. amiT kidev erTxel xazi esmeba kolxebisa da

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iberebis erT eTnikur mTlianobas _ `straboniT, jer kidev pirvel saukuneSi mTeli mxare kolxeTis dasavleTiT md. Ralisis SesarTavamde iwodeboda tibaraniad da dasaxlebuli iyo tibaranuli tomebiT. bizantiuri, ZvelqarTuli da Zvelsomxuri cnobebiT ki viciT, rom am miwa-wyals Sua saukuneebis mTel manZilze ewodeboda kolxida, lazika (lazeTi), xaldia da (dasavleT ganapiras) Waniki...~ (s. janaSia, t. V, gv. 49). bibliuri Tubalis STamomavalni arian iberebi, rogorc aRmosavleT ise dasavleT saqarTveloSi. iberebi ewodaT dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobasac _ kolxebsac, erTiani saxelmwifos Seqmnis Semdgom. am saxelmwifos mTeli mosaxleobis saxelis tibaran TobelebTan dakavSireba swored amis Sesaxeb metyvelebs. qarTvelni, anu iberni iafetis Zis STamomavalni arian, wilxvedri yovladwmida RvTismSoblisa, nakurTxni uflis mier.

alali da arami (urartu da armenia)


arsebobda Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac, saberZneTSi, italiasa da xmelTaSuazRvispireTis zogi sxva regionis uZvelesi mcxovrebni pelasgebi, etruskebi, iberebi da sxvebi kavkasielebTan, SumerebTan, elamelebTan, xeTebTan, urartuelebTan erTad ganekuTvnebodnen `xalxTa alarodiul ojaxs~. maT akuTvnebdnen qarTvelebsac. faqtobrivad, aRniSnuli Teoriis gaRrmavebas warmoadgens amJamad miRebuli Tvalsazrisi iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxis SesaZlo naTesaobis Sesaxeb xuritulTan (aqedan urartulTan), protoxeTurTan, elamurTan. es enebi Turme avlenen zogierT saerTo niSans gramatikul wyobaSi. s. janaSia urartuelebs, romelTac xaldebs (TavianT saxels) uwodebda _ qarTvelTa uSualo winaprebad miiCnevda. `xaldebis eTnikuri vinaoba sruliad ueWvelia, isini qarTveli xalxis erT nawils Seadgendnen~, _ werda is (s. janaSia, t. V, 1987, gv. 35). s.janaSia faqtobrivad aviTarebs Cveni eklesiis wmindanis ilia marTlis (WavWavaZis) Tvalsazriss urartuelTa Sesaxeb. `diax, batonebo, urartelni qarTvelTa winaparni yofilan, qarTvelTa sisxl-xorci eri yofila... Cven usabuTod ar vambobT urartelebis qarTvelobas~ (i. WavWavaZe, Txz., t. V, 1987, gv. 84). urartuelebs IX-VI saukuneebSi samxreT amierkavkasiasa da mis momijnave teritoriebze gaaCndaT TavianTi damwerloba, religia, TavisTavadi kultura, xelovneba, uZlieresi saxelmwifo, romelic qristeSobamde VII-VI saukuneebSi dasustda da sabolood daeca midielTa xeliT. urartueli xalxi usaxelmwifod darCa, uZlieresi mtrebi swored eTnikur urartuelebs devnidnen. yvela gadamTieli batonad iqca maT qveyanaSi. `urartus samefos dacemis Semdeg mis dasavleT periferiaze gaaqtiurdnen somexi tomebi. maT TandaTanobiT iwyes aRmosavleTiT winsvla da Zveli

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urartus mTel rig raions daeuflnen. Zv.w.aR-is VI saukunis bolos sparsul warwerebSi Zveli urartu ukve `arminad~ iwodeba, xolo es saxeli TandaTan ucxoelTa wreSi swored somxebs ukavSirdeba. amaSi gamoxatuleba hpova urartus ZiriTad raionebSi somxebis hegemonobis damyarebis faqtma. urartus mosaxleobis erTi nawili amasobaSi somexTa wreSi gaiTqvifa... ra Tqma unda, yvelaferi es nel-nela xdeboda, xangrZlivi, mravalsaukunovani procesi iyo. urartuelT ucbad ar daukargavT Tavisi sakuTari tomobrioba, Tavisi ena, kultura, eTnikuri individualoba. sainteresoa, rom swored Zveli urartus teritoria igulisxmeba sparseTis XVIII satrapiaSi (olqSi), romelSic, Zv.w.aR-is V s-is berZeni avtoris herodotes cnobiT, Sediodnen alarodiebi, matienebi da sasperebi. amaTgan alarodi, ueWvelia, Zvel urartelebs gulisxmobs _ saxeli `alarodi~ (ararodi) odnav saxecvlili igive `urartua~. es saxeli SemorCa dRes araratis mTas, romelsac adgilobrivi somxuri mosaxleoba `masiss~ uwodebs (Zv. aRm. xalxTa istoria, gv. 359). urartuelTa saxeli qarTvelTa mexsierebas `alalis~ saxiT unda Semoenaxa. amis safuZveli iqneboda isic, rom berZnebic urartuelebs _ alarodebs, alalodebs uwodebdnen. _ movses xorenaci, mama somxuri istoriografiisa, arams somxur tomebs uwodebs, is wers _ `rogorc yvelasaTvis cnobilia, garSemo mobinadre xalxebi Cvens qveyanas dRemde aramis saxelis mixedviT eZaxian~ (`somxeTis istoria~, 1984 w., gv. 77). `arami~ _ somexTa ramdenime eTnarqis saxelia xorenacis mixedviT. somexTa mamamTavrebis genealogia aseTia _ `iafetma Sva gameri, gamerma Sva Tirasi, Tirasma Sva Torgomi, Torgomma Sva amasia, amasiam Sva gelami, gelamma Sva harma, harmam Sva arami, aramma Sva ara mSvenieri~ (iqve, gv. 62). rogorc vxedavT, maT Soris `arami~ ramdenimes hqvia, mxolod sxvadasxva variaciebiT. amitomac SeiZleba Zvel cnobierebaSi somxeTis saxeli _ arams daukavSirda. alali da arami xalxebi Cveni mezoblebi iyvnen, maT erTmaneTTan araviTari naTesauri kavSiri ar hqonia ilia WavWavaZisa da sxva mecnierTa mosazrebiT. lenormanio, wers ilia, urartuelebs qarTvelebad da qarTvelTa monaTesaveebad miiCnevs da ara somxebis `romelTanac urartuelebs araviTari naTesaoba ara aqvT~ (i. WavWavaZe, Txz., t. V, gv. 88). yovelive zemomoyvanili sainteresoa Cveni eklesiis ierarqisa da mematianis, leonti mroveli episkoposis qarTvel eTnarqTa genealogiis ganxilvisaTvis. `qarTlis cxovreba~, SeiZleba iTqvas, somexTa xsenebiT iwyeba, `pirvelad vaxsenoT ese, rameTu somexTa da qarTvelTa, ranTa da movaknelTa, herTa da lekTa, megrelTa da kavkasianelTa _ amaT TvisTa erTi iyo mama, saxeliT Targamos. ese Targamos iyo Ze TarSisi, Ziswuli iafeTisi, Zisa noesi~ (qarTlis cxovreba, t. I, gv. 3).

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mrovelis mier gadmocemuli genealogiiT, Targamosis STamomavloba aseTia: `pirvelsa erqva haos, meoresa qarTlos, mesamesa bardos, meoTxesa movakan, mexuTesa lek, meeqvsesa heros, meSvidesa kavkas, mervesa egros~ (iqve, gv. 4). Tu erTmaneTs SevadarebT xorenacisa da mrovelis mier gadmocemul genealogiur siebs, aseT suraTs miviRebT: xorenaciT: mroveliT: iafeti _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ iafeti gameri _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ iafetis Ze Tarasi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ TarSi Torgomi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Targamos haiki _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ haos, qarTlos da a.S. xorenacis Torgomi, rogorc mrovelis Targamosi, iafetis STamomavalia, mrovels (iseve, rogorc xorenacis) Targamosis Zed miaCnia haos anu haiki. gansxvaveba isaa, rom qarTveli episkoposis azriT, Targamoss rva Ze hyavda, xolo somexi qeTxudis (rjulis maswavleblis) azriT, _ erTi Ze. xorenaciT mroveliT Torgomi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Targamosi haiki haos, qarTlos, bardos, movakan, lek, heros, kavkas, egros sruliad aSkaraa _ leonti mroveli an xorenacis genealogiiT sargeblobs da umatebs mas saxelebs qarTveli eTnarqebisas, anda xorenaci iyenebs romeliRac Zvel genealogias, sadac Targamosi kavkasielebis mamamTavradaa gamoyvanili, magram ar asaxelebs Targamosis sxva Zeebs, garda haosisa. amgvari qmedebebis mizezs TviTonve asaxelebs, oRond `saRvTo rjulis~ magaliTis moSveliebiT _ `saqme isaa, rom saRvTo werili gamohyofs Tavisianebs, Tavis sakuTar ers. xolo sxvebs, viTraca uRirsT da SeuracxT, ugulebelyofs, maTi STamomavlobis Sesaxeb arafers ambobs~ (movses xorenaci `somxeTis istoria~, gv. 63). Tu saRmrTo werilic ki ar asaxelebda eTnarqebs, aramed mxolod `Tavisianebs~, Tavis sakuTari eris eTnarqebs gamohyofda da sxvebs ugulebelhyofda, e.i. ar asaxelebda, srulebiT araa gasakviri, rom xorenacs ar daesaxelebina Targamosis sxva STamomavlebi, garda haosisa _ somexTa eTnarqisa, miT umetes rom mas kavkasiis sxva erebi SedarebiT umniSvnelo erebad miaCnda. ufro savaraudoa, rom xorenacma daasaxela Targamosis erTi Ze _ haosi, xolo mrovelma Targamosis Zeebis ricxvi gazarda. leonti mroveli imeorebs xorenacis genealogias, oRond avsebs mas sakuTari eris eTnarqebis

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saxelebiT. ismis kiTxva _ leonti mrovelma ratom miiCnia qarTvelTa eTnarqebi da somexTa eTnarqi erTi mamis Svilebad, hqonda Tu ara mas amisTvis raime safuZveli? unda vifiqroT, rom amis safuZveli iyo qarTvel xalxSi daculi Zveli gadmocema (anda cnoba) imis Sesaxeb, rom uZveles dros saqarTvelos samxreTiT, romelsac Semdgom somxeTi ewoda, erT dros cxovrobda qarTvelTa monaTesave didi eri. alali xalxis xsovna mrovelis dros, aTeulobiT saukunis win, uTuod metad iyo SemorCenili Zvel saqarTveloSi, vidre Semdgom. vin icis, iqneb haosSi Cveni Zveli mematianeni Zvel urartuelebs gulisxmobdnen, romelTa Sesaxebac ilias Zveli Tavaduri sisxli aTqmevinebda _ `diax, batonebo, urartelni qarTvelTa winaparni yofilan~. marTalia, urartus qarTvelTa monaTesave Zveli tomebi maT qveyanaSi Semosul armenielebSi asimilirdnen, magram SeuZlebelia qarTul azrovnebaSi ar darCeniliyo mogoneba an gadmocema maT Sesaxeb. albaT, mogvianebiT leonti mrovelis an misi wyaros epoqaSi qarTulma azrovnebam Zveli urartus qarTvelebi da somxebi gauTanabra erTmaneTs da mematianem miiCnia, rom swored somxebi iyvnen `Tvisni~ qarTvelebisa. ufro metic, Targamosis ZeTa Soris udidesnica da upiratesnic _ `xolo haos umetes gmiri iyo yovelTasa, rameTu egeviTari araodes yofil iyo arca wylis-rRunis winaT da arca Semdgomad taniTa, ZaliTa, simxniTa~ (q. c. I, gv. 4). somexTa winapris aseTi qeba, adamis STamomavalTa Soris yvelaze ukeTesad miCneva, TviT somex mematianeebsac ara aqvT gamoTqmuli, miT umetes, rom armenielebi arc ki moixseniebodnen urartus saxelmwifos daqcevamde (qristeSobamde VI saukuneSi), msgavsi qeba ki namdvilad SeSvenoda alarodielT, urartus brwyinvale saxelmwifos mqone ers, romlis dideba, Zliereba da xelovneba Zvel samyaroSi erT-erTi uSesaniSnavesi iyo. albaT amitomac miCneul iqna alalTa adgilas mcxovrebi armenielebis warsuli ase saxelovnad. leonti mroveli qarTvelTa da kavkasielTa eTnarqebs erTmaneTis `Tvisebs~ uwodebda da Zmebad miiCnevda, anu kavkasiel xalxebs erTi eTnikuri warmoSobis mqone monaTesave erebad Tvlida. iberiul-kavkasiurma mecnierebam, romelic meoce saukuneSi Seiqmna, xangrZlivi ZiebiT daasabuTa kavkasiis mkvidr erTa monaTesaveoba. amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom leonti mrovels, anu misi epoqis mecnierebas gaaCnda raRac sabuTi anda gadmocema kavkasielTa monaTesaveobis Sesaxeb. xolo Tuki mis mier naxseneb `haosis~ qveS vigulisxmebT urartuelebs, maSin Cvens Tvalwin gacocxldeba Teoria e.w. alarodiel xalxTa ojaxis (e.i. Zvel urartuelTa da sxvaTa) monaTesaveobis Sesaxeb. armenieli xalxi, rogorc aRiniSna, qristeSobamde VI saukuneSi Camoyalibda, xolo leonti mroveli qristeSobamde aTaswleulebis win debs Targa-

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mosisa da misi Zeebis kavkasiaSi Semosvlis TariRs. niko mari miiCnevda, rom am epoqisaTvis (aTaswleulebis win) iafeturi (qarTveluri) enebi moicavda msoflios vrcel regions. am droisaTvis, misi azriT, qarTveluri enebi gavlenas axdendnen fuZe indoevropulze, urTierToba hqondaT semiturTan, somxur enas ki niko mari miiCnevda `narevi ti pis~ enad, `n. mari intensiurad muSaobda somxur filologiaSic. mas, rogorc qarTulis karg mcodnes, uTuod unda SeeniSna, rom somxur enaSi bevri ram, rac indoevropul enebTan SedarebiT ver aixsneba, SeiZleba aixsnas qarTulTan SedarebiT~ (i. SilakaZe, Zveli somxuri enis gramatika~, 1975 w., gv. 27). `n. maris mixedviT, rogorc cnobilia, am minarevma somxuri ena aqcia raRac saSualod kavkasiursa (Semdeg iafetursa) da indoevropul (Semdeg promeTeidul) enebs Soris mdgom enad~ (iqve, gv. 30). i. SilakaZe wers _ `somxeTis teritoriaze indo-evropuli modgmis xalxs mermindel mosulebad vivaraudebT Tu adgilobriv mkvidrad (rogorc zogierTi fiqrobs), erTi cxadia: am teritoriaze winaT arsebobda saxelmwifoebi da cxovrobdnen xalxebi (Tu tomebi), romelTac qarTvel xalxTan (da saerTod kavkasiel xalxebTan) garkveuli kavSiri hqondaT, Tu asea, cxadia, somexi xalxi, rogorc eTnikuri erTeuli, uTuod Seicavs am xalxebis da tomebis minarevs. am minarevs ki Tavisi wvlili unda Seetana axal ojaxSi. es eWvs gareSea. maSasadame, somxurSi indoevropul enebTan SedarebiT auxsnelTagan bevri ram SeiZleba aixsnas qarTvelursa da kavkasiur enobriv samyarosTan SedarebiT (am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa saSualo da axali somxuri enebi dialeqtiTurT, romelTac ramdenadac ufro Rrmad vswavlobT, imdenad metad vrwmundebiT, rom somxur enas bevri iseTi Tviseba SeuZenia, rac qarTul-qarTveluri enebis Tvisebas gvagonebs da rasac Zvel somxurSi adgili ar hqonda. aman aTqmevina i. karstes _ somxuri enis dialeqtebi indo-evropuli warmoSobisa ar ariano~ (iqve, gv. 29). xorenaci mudam laparakobs somexTa gadmosaxleobis dros samxreT kavkasiaSi mcxovrebi arasomxuri tomebis Sesaxeb, romlebic aTqvefilan Semosul mosaxleobaSi. xorenacis `istoriis~ qarTulad mTargmneli a. abdalaZe wers: `xorenacis am da msgavs cnobebSi asaxulia istoriuli sinamdvile imis Sesaxeb, rom e.w. `didi somxeTis~ miwa-wyalze somexTa mosvlamde mkvidrobdnen sxva xalxebi, maT Soris qarTuli modgmis tomebic~ (`istoria~ gv. 249). xorenaci aRwers urartus qveyanaSi somexTa winapari tomebis gadasaxlebis suraTs, is wers, rom haiki `...babilonSi vaJis arameneakis SeZenis Semdeg gaeSura CrdiloeTis mxareebSi mdebare araradis qveynisaken Tavisi vaJebiTa da qaliSvilebiT... igi mivida da damkvidrda erTi mTis Ziras, vakeze, sadac ukve dasaxlebuliyo mcireodeni xalxi adrindeli gafantvis dros. haikma daimorCila isini da aago iq samemkvidreo saxli. amas Zveli zepirgadmocemebic adastureben~ (m. xorenaci, istoria, gv. 70).

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harqis zeganze, sadac `Torgomis saxlis mamani~ damkvidrebulan, xorenacis cnobiT, `adridanve cxovrobdnen mcireodeni kacni, romlebic nebiT daemorCilnen gmirs, zepiri gadmocemebi amasac adastureben~ (iqve, gv. 70). xorenaci kvlav wers _ `sakvirvelia mematianes naTqvami, rom Cvens qveyanaSi mraval adgilas gafantulad mkvidrobda mcireodeni xalxi, Cveni Zireuli winapris haikis mosvlamde~ (iqve, gv. 73). mosulma armenielebma damxvedri tomebi STanTqes, moaxdines maTi asimilacia, es pirdapir Cans xorenacidan. magaliTad _ `amasTanave (aramma) ubrZana iqaur mkvidrT, SeeTvisebinaT somxuri ena da laparaki~ (iqve, gv. 77). isic unda iTqvas, rom urartus miwa-wyalze Sesvlis Semdgom moxda Camoyalibeba somexi xalxisa, rogorc es aRiniSneba somex istorikosTa mier. am dros Cans, somxur enaze gavlena iqonia, damxvdur, mkvidr xalxTa enam. S. ZiZiguri wers _ `niko maris koncefciiT, qarTul enobriv samyaros didi gavlena mouxdenia somxur enaze winaistoriul xanaSi, uZveles periodSi, rodesac xdeboda somxuri eTnosis formireba, Sesabamisad _ somxuri enis Camoyalibeba. niko maris udidesi wvlili armenologiaSi, swored es aris. koncefciis sqema aseTia: somxuri narevi enaa, orbunebovania, erTi fena, Senarevi da Sezrdili sxva fenasTan, qarTul-kavkasiur samyarosTan siaxloviT aris aRbeWdili~ (S. ZiZiguri, `niko mari qarTuli kulturis mkvlevari~, (1985, gv. 104). yovelive zemoaRniSnuli uflebas iZleva gamoiTqvas mosazreba, rom Zvel saqarTveloSi arsebobda mogoneba saqarTvelos samxreTiT mcxovrebi Zlieri, qarTvelTa monaTesave xalxis Sesaxeb, da vinaidan saqarTvelos samxreTiT im droisTvis somxebi cxovrobdnen, qarTvelTa genealogiis Semdgenelma mematianem sxva qarTvelur monaTesave tomebis eTnarqTa Soris haosic CarTo, viTarca pirovnuli gamoxatuleba xsenebuli mogonebisa. Cans, mrovelis haosi _ urartus Zlierebis anareklia. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi verc erTi Tavisufali eri aitanda Tavis erovnul matianeSi mtkicebas imisas, rom maTi mezobeli eris winapari TavianT winaparze upiratesi da uZlieresi iyo. swored qarTvel xalxSi darCenil mogonebas samxreTeli monaTesave mezoblis Sesaxeb unda gaexada asatani mrovelis genealogiis erovnul matianeSi CarTva. rogorc aRiniSna, mroveli Tavisi genealogiis Sedgenis dros iyenebda xorenacis genealogias. maSasadame, es genealogia V saukuneze adre ver Sedgeboda. Zneli safiqrebelia, VIII-XI saukuneebSi qarTvelebisa da somxebisaTvis ewodebinaT Zmebi da `Tvisni~, qarTul-somxuri eklesiebis daSorebisas atexili ideologiuri brZolis gamo. manaskertis 726 wlis krebis Semdgom qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebi (da Sesabamisad ideologiac) srulebiT gansxvavebuli gzebiT ganviTardnen, srulebiT gancalkevdnen,

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ufro metic, saqarTveloSi somxeTTan da somxur eklesiasTan kulturuli an raime erTobis damadasturebeli yovelgvari Txzuleba ispoboda anda redaqtirdeboda. sul sxva viTareba iyo VI-VII saukuneebSi. am dros qarTveli da somexi erebi, eklesiebi gansakuTrebiT dakavSirebulni iyvnen erTmaneTTan. yovel SemTxvevaSi, qarTuli mxare iZulebuli iyo qarTuli eklesia somxuri eklesiis mokavSired waredgina sparsi xelisuflebisaTvis. saqarTvelos dapyrobis Semdgom sparseTi gansakuTrebiT uWerda mxars somxur eklesias, aZlierebda mas da amasTan erTad aiZulebda mis imperiaSi mcxovreb qristianebs mieRoT qristianuli sarwmunoebis is orientacia, romelsac adga somxuri eklesia (e.i. antibizantiuri). am dros xdeboda qarTuli wmida wignebis redaqtireba da `gamarTva~ somxuris mixedviT (amis Sesaxeb ix. qvemoT). unda vifiqroT, rom mematianem qarTvel eTnarqTa genealogia Seadgina somxur-qarTuli eklesiebis `erTobis~ dros VI-VII saukuneebSi. jer kidev m. TarxniSvilma gamoTqva azri, rom leonti mrovelis literaturuli saqmianoba VI-VII saukuneebs ganekuTvneba. `m. TarxniSvilis azriT, leonti mrovelis literaturuli saqmianoba merve saukunis meore naxevars ver gadascildeba _ ufro zustad is unda daidos VI-VII sauk. somex-qarTvelTa saeklesio ganxeTqilebamde~ (k. kekeliZe, lit. ist. gv. 238).

farnavazi
saqarTvelos pirveli erTiani saxelmwifos damaarseblis, anbanis gamavrceleblis, qarTuli mwignobrobis fuZemdeblis, mefe farnavazis cxovreba aRwerilia qarTvelTa umTavres saistorio, erovnuli siwmindis xarisxamde amaRlebul wignSi, romelsac `qarTlis cxovreba~ ewodeba. miCneulia, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali, TargamosianTa genealogia, TviT redaqtors Seudgenia (kerZod, mas Tavisi drois moTxovnilebis Sesabamisad dauweria Zvel wyaroTa gamoyenebiT `ambavi rvaTa ZmaTa~, `gamosvla xazarTa~, `Semosvla aleqsandresi~), xolo `cxovreba farnavazisi~ _ ukve arsebuli Zveli qarTuli saistorio moTxroba, Tavisi gemovnebiT gaumarTavs da CaurTavs wignSi. qveynis gamaerTianebeli pirveli mefis mamis saxeli mematianisaTvis ucnobia, samagierod misTvis cnobilia saxeli mamis Zmisa. amasTan dakavSirebiT pavle ingoroyva wers _ `leonti mroveli aq, Cans, imeorebs romeliRac Zveli saistorio wyaros cnobas~ (t. IV, gv. 523).

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mematiane farnavazis ambis gadmocemisas wers, rom farnavazi `iyo mamulad qarTleli, naTesavi uflosi, mcxeTosis Zisa~ (qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 20). misi genealogia, cxadia, wyvetilebiT, aseTia:

qarTlos

mcxeTos

gardabos

kaxos

kuxos

gaCios

uflos oZrxos javaxos farnavaz


farnavazamde didi xniT adre, qarTvelTa erT mTavar winaparTagani _ qarTlosi, dasaxlebula mtkvrisa da aragvis SesarTavTan mdebare armazis mTaze. aq auSenebia simagreebi (SemdgomSi aq armazis kerpi aRmarTes, iqamde ki am mTis saxeli `qarTli~ yofila). qarTloss auSenebia orbis (Semdgom samSvilded wodebuli) da xunanis (anu mtueris) cixeebi. ucocxlia didxans. qarTlosisa da Targamosis STamomavalT erTmaneTSi siyvaruliT ucxovriaT, Semdgom ki aSlilan da dakninebulan. am mizeziT maT Soris aRaravin yofila uwarCinebulesi da usaxelovanesi. adgil-adgil Tavadebi (gamoCenili meTaurebi) Cndebodnen, magram mcxeTis Tavadi yvelaze warCinebulad iTvleboda sxvebTan SedarebiT. mas mefis, an erisTavis saxeli ar ewodeboda, aramed mamasaxlisi. is gamzavebeli da mosamarTle iyo qarTlosianTa Soris. swored am droisaTvis dauviwyniaT WeSmariti RmerTi, romelic qarTvelTa winaprebs swamdaT, dauwyiaT msaxureba mzisa, mTvarisa da xuTi varskvlavisa, `mtkice da ufrosi saficari maTi iyo saflavi qarTlosisa~. didi xnis Semdgom gamoCenila aleqsandre makedoneli. igi sxva qveyanaTa dapyrobis Semdgom Semosula qarTlSi, sadac mas uxilavs mkvidrni qveynisa; unda iTqvas, rom aq mematianes mier gadmocemuli ambavi aSkarad areulia, Cans ara marto sxvadasxva wyaros, aramed sxvadasxva koncefciis gavlenac. magaliTad, rogorc viciT, sxva wyaros, `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ _ koncefciis Tanaxmad, qarTvelebi samxreTis `arian-qarTlis~ qveynidan gadmosaxlebulan makedonelis dros. maT am qveyanaSi daxvedriaT ucxo eri, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ koncefciiT ki qarTveloba xalxad yalibdeba saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze, e.i. ar gadmosaxlebula. zemoaRniSnuli ambis gadmocemis

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dros, rogorc aRiniSna, es ori koncefcia erTmaneTSia areuli. magaliTad, makedonels qarTlSi xvdeba qarTveloba da... ucxo eri _ bunTurqebi da yivCaRebi. aq, cxadia, aRebulia `moqcevaAs~ ambavi, romelic saTanadod araa Sejerebuli `qarTlis cxovrebis~ koncefciasTan. qarTlSi Semosvlis Semdgom aleqsandre makedoneli SeebrZola da daamarcxa zogierT kuTxeSi mcxovrebi araqarTuli tomebi _ `mosrna yovelni igi naTesavni aRreulni qarTls myofni da ucxoni igi naTesavni mosrna da daatyvevna da dedani da yrmani ucebni, TxuTmetisa wlisa umcrosni~ (q. c. I, gv. 18). araqarTvelTa mospobis Semdeg darCenil qarTvel mosaxleobas (qarTlosianebs) patrikad dautova makedoneli azoni, iaredosis Ze. mas emorCileboda 100000 romaeli qveiTi. maTi sarwmunoeba, mematianes gadmocemiT, aseTi iyo: ebrZana azons aleqsandres mier qarTvelTa qveyanaSi danergiliyo Tayvaniscema mzisa, mTvarisa, xuTi varskvlavisa, msaxureba uxilavi RmerTisa, yovlis dambadeblisa. aleqsandres wasvlis Semdgom azonma miatova es sarwmunoeba _ `iwyo kerpTmsaxurebad da Seqmnna orni kerpni vercxlisani: `gaci da gaim~. azoni sastiki da sisxliani kaci yofila, mas qarTvelTaTvis iaraRis tarebis nebac ki ar daurTavs _ gaucia brZaneba: `yovelman qarTvelTaganman, romelman povos saWurveli, mokaliT igi~. _ `da iyo Wiri didi naTesavsa zeda qarTvelTasa~. swored aseT dros gamoCenila farnavazi _ qarTvelTa ganmaTavisuflebeli. siyrmidanve kavkasiis mTebSi ltolvili farnavazi saxelovan vaJkacad aRzrdila. is `iyo kaci gonieri, mxedari SemmarTebeli da monadire xelovani~. mcxeTaSi dabrunebis Semdgom is gaucniaT azonisaTvis, rogorc saxelganTqmuli monadire. `Seiyvara igi azonman monadireobisaTvis~. azonTan daaxloebas didad SeuSinebia deda farnavazisi, evedreboda Svils daetovebina mcxeTa, qarTli da wasuliyvnen, raTa azonis xels dasxltomodnen. marTlac ojaxma gadawyvita sxvagan, farnavazis dedis qveyanaSi gadasaxleba. mematiane ganagrZobs: maSin ixila farnavazma sizmari, TiTqosda igi iyo erT ukacur saxlSi, undoda gasvla da ver gadioda. maSin sarkmlidan Semovida mzis sxivi Semoertya welze, gaizida da gaiyvana sarkmelidan. da rodesac velze gavida mze, farnavazma is ixila dadablebuli, xeliT Seexo mzis pirs, moxoca cvari da icxo Tavis pirze. gaiRviZa farnavazma, gaukvirda da Tqva _ es sizmari albaT dedaCemis samSobloSi Casvlis Semdeg amixdeba, iq sikeTeSi viqnebio. im dReebSi farnavazi sanadirod gaemarTa da diRmis velze irmebs gaekida. irmebi Tbilisis xriokebisaken gaiqcnen. misdevda farnavazi, styorcna isari, hkra irems, man cota gaiara da daeca kldis ZirSi. amasobaSi daRamda, CamoqveiTda farnavazi da iremTan gadawyvita Ramis gaTeneba. am dros gawvimda Zlier. kldis ZirSi farnavazma gamoqvabuli SeamCnia, amoqo-

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lili. amoiRo Cuglugi da gamoarRvia kari, raTa simSraleSi Sesuliyo. Sevida SigniT da ixila ganZi miuwvdomeli, oqro da vercxli, uTvalavi WurWeli oqrovercxlisa. Zlier gaukvirda, aRivso sixaruliT da gaaxsenda sizmari. isev amoqola gamoqvabulis kari. uTxra es ambavi dedasa da or das. gamoitanes es ganZi malviT. amis Semdgom azonis qmedeba miuTiTebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra Zlieri iyo im uZveles drosve, qristeSobamde aswleulebiT adre, qarTvelTa Soris erovnuli erTianobis grZnoba da qarTvel tomebs rogor hqondaT SenarCunebuli eTnikuri erTianobis simZafre. ganZis povniT uceb gamdidrebulma farnavazma, upirveles yovlisa, gagzavna Tavisi warmomadgeneli egrisis dasavlur qarTuli saerisTaos meTaurTan _ qujisTan da Seatyobina mas momxdari ambavi. farnavazma SeuTvala survili, Tavisi ganZiT misuliyo qujisTan da erTiani ZaliT SebrZolebodnen azons _ qarTvelTa qveynis dampyrobels. mematiane wers, rom am ambis mosmeniT `ganixara qujim sixaruliTa didiTa da hrqua: `aRsdeg da moved Cem Tana, nu Surob xvastagsa Sensa, da xvastagiTa SeniTa, gangimravlne spani Senni, vidre gamovCndeT mtrad azonisa, maSin ganixaron yovelTa qarTvelTa awyvedilTa misgan da miwyvedulTa~ (q.c. gv. 22). pasuxis miRebis Semdeg farnavazi dediTa da debiT sixaruliT wavida qujisTan. quji aseTi sityvebiT Seegeba mas: `Sen xar Svili TavTa maT qarTlisaTa da Sen gmarTebs ufloba Cemi... Sen xar ufali Cveni da me var mona Seni~ (gv. 22). farnavazi am droisaTvis, rogorc viciT, ubralo, yovelgvari pativisa da Tanamdebobis uqonel pirs warmoadgenda, xolo quji egrisis vrceli qveynis mflobeli iyo, amitomac misgan Tavisi Tavis `monad~, xolo farnavazis `uflad~ gamocxadeba aixsneba genealogiuri ufros-umcrosobiTi urTierTdamokidebulebiT, rac Zveli droisaTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli da savaldebulod Sesasrulebeli. farnavazi `qarTlis TavTa Svilia~, amitomaco, ambobs `egrisis TavTa Svili~, _ me Sen unda dagemorCilo, Sen `Cveni ufali xaro~. aseTi urTierToba gvafiqrebinebs, rom Tavdapirvel genealogiur variantSi, romelsac Semdgom asaxva ver upovnia `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~, genealogiuri Sto, Cans aseTi saxiT iyo gadmocemuli:

qarTlos

mcxeTos egros gardabos kaxos kuxos gaCios farnavaz quji

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qujica da farnavazic erTi winapris STamomavalni arian, magram farnavazi pirmSoebiTi uflebis ZaliT ojaxSi, gvarSi, ufrosad iTvleba, is `ufalia~, misi yvela naTesavi mas unda daemorCilos. aseTia im Jamis kanoni. farnavazma da qujim moilaparakes osebTan da lekebTan, isini sixaruliT daTanxmdnen azonis winaaRmdeg ajanyebas, radganac ar surdaT misTvis xarkis micema. maTgan miiRes damxmare samxedro Zala, egrisSi Seikriba uTvalavi spa. Seuties azons. azoni damarcxda da Tavi Seafara klarjeTs. farnavazi Sevida mcxeTaSi, imave wels daimorCila `yoveli qarTli~, klarjeTis garda _ ase wers mematiane, _ `dai pyra yoveli qarTli Tvinier klarjeTisa~, aq uTuod `yoveli qarTlis~ qveS igulisxmeba rogorc aRmosavleTi, aseve dasavleTi saqarTvelo _ swored dasavleT saqarTvelo warmoadgenda farnavazis sayrden baziss azonis winaaRmdeg ajanyebisas. azons farnavazis winaaRmdeg omSi daexmara `saberZneTi~ _ misgan miiRo didZali damxmare Zala, samagierod farnavazs _ `asuristanis mefe antioqozi~. kidev erTxel SeebrZolnen erTmaneTs azonisa da farnavazis jarebi _ artaanis naqalaqevSi, romelsac huri anu `qajTa qalaqi~ erqva. berZenTa jarebi daamarcxes qarTvelebma, mokles azoni, SeiWra farnavazi saberZneTis sazRvrebSi _ Sevida anZioZorSi da ukan dabrunda ekelecis gziT. klarjeTi SeuerTa Tavis samefos da dabrunda mcxeTaSi. qarTlis samefos sazRvari Crdilo-dasavleTiT daido mdinare egriswyalze. am mdinaris marjvena sanapiroc (iseve rogorc marcxena) warmoadgenda egrosis wils, e.i. warmoadgenda egrosis STamomavalTa sacxovriss (vidre xazareTis mdinaremde `saca warswudebis wueri kavkasisa~), magram egriswyalsa da xazareTis mdinares (e.i. md. egriswyalsa da md. yubans) Soris mcxovrebma egriselebma ar inebes gandgoma `berZenTa~ saxelmwifosagan da Sesvla farnavazis samefoSi. sazRvari `yoveli qarTlisa~ am mimarTulebiT daido mdinare egriswyalze. mematiane wers _ `xolo egriswyals qvemoT darCa berZenTa, rameTu mkvidrTa mis adgilisaTa ara inebes gandgoma berZenTa~, xolo egrisis meore nawili Sevida qarTlis samefoSi, Tavisi saxelmwifo farnavazma dayo saerisTavoebad. pirvelTa Soris mematiane asaxelebs egriss da mis erisTavs qujis. is gaxda siZe farnavazisa da miiRo saerisTavod yoveli qarTlis qveyana egriswyalsa da rions Sua. man aaSena cixe-goji. margveTis saerisTavoSi Sedioda miwebi mdinare rionsa da lixis mTas Soris. Semdegi saerisTavoebi iyvnen kaxeTSi, xunanSi, samSvildeSi, wundaSi, oZrxeSi, klarjeTSi. erTi erisTavi daadgina _ spaspetad, mas Sida qarTlic mieca sagamgeod, is warmoadgenda mefis Semdeg pirvel Tanamdebobis pirs, yvela erisTvis ganmgebels. Tavis mxriv erisTavebs emorCilebodnen spasalarebi da aTasisTavebi, maTgan Semodioda saerisTavo da samefo xarki.

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farnavazma aaSena aleqsandre makedonelis mier saqarTveloSi dangreuli qalaqebi da cixeebi, dedaqalaq mcxeTas ki Semoavlo galavani. farnavazs Seuqmnia Tavis saxelze _ kerpi armazi, rameTu farnavazs sparsulad armazi erqva. es armazis kerpi aRmarTa qarTlis mTis Tavze. didi dResaswauli gadaixada kerpis aRmarTvisas. gamefebisas 27 wlis iyo. 65 weli nebierad imefa. `aRaSena da ganavso qarTli~. farnavazma qarTuli ena saxelmwifo enad gamoacxada, ris gamoc qarTulis garda sxva ena saqarTveloSi ar ixmareboda. manve Seqmna qarTuli mwignobroba. sikvdilis Semdeg armazis kerpis win daasaflaves. ase gadmogvcems farnavazis cxovrebas Cveni matiane. qarTlis, anu iberiis erTiani didi saxelmwifos warmoqmnas mecnierebi qristeSobamde IV-III saukuneebiT aTariReben. farnavazisa da misi memkvidre mefeebis anu farnavazianebis dros mcxeTaSi _ samefos dedaqalaqSi, Sendeboda cixesimagreebi, sxvadasxva nagebobani, kidev sxva kerpebic aRumarTavT. farnavazis mier armazis aRmarTvis Semdgom mefe saurmagma aRmarTa kerpi ainina, iwyo armazis cixe-qalaqis Seneba. mefe mirvanma daninas kerpi aRmarTa, daasrula armazis mSenebloba. mefe farnajomma kerpi zaden mTaze aRmarTa, cixec auSena. arsok mefem _ qalaqs sxva zRude Semoavlo. mefe artags ki armazSi Sida cixe (akropolisi) auSenebia. maTi Semdgomi mefeebi ukve sakuTriv mcxeTas aSenebdnen, anu mtkvris marcxena sanapiroze mdebare qalaqs. dedaqalaqs icavdnen rTuli TavdacviTi sistemis meSveobiT. armaz-cixe somxeTidan, albaneTidan da dasavleT saqarTvelodan momavali gzebis TavSeyris adgilas idga, zadencixe ki CrdiloeTis momTabareTa qveynebidan momaval gzas akontrolebda. qveyanaSi Sedioda didi saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis savaWro gza, rogorc amas gvacnobs straboni. saerTod iberia savaWro gzebiT yofila daserili. strabonis cnobiT, iberia kargad yofila dasaxlebuli, qalaqebi da dabebi mravalricxovani iyo. saxlebi da nagebobebi kargad nagebi, xuroTmoZRvruli xelovnebiT, hqondaT kramitis saxuravebi. iberiaSi mdebareobda qalaqebi _ ufliscixe, wunda, oZrxe, cixegoji (am qveynis dasavleTi sazRvari, rogorc aRiniSna, mdinare egriswyalze ido). uTuod yovel saerisTavos gaaCnda Tavisi centri. CrdiloeTis mimarTulebiT iberiis sazRvars, Cans, kavkasionis wyalmyofi qedi warmoadgenda, romlis iqiTac mcxovreb tomebzec vrceldeboda samefos gavlena. samxreTis mimarTulebiT iberia vrclad iyo gadaWimuli. armeniasa da iberias, qristeSobamde II saukunis avtoris _ apolodoris cnobiT, erT-

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maneTisgan hyofda mdinare araqsi. araqsi yofila gamyofi iberielebisa da armenielebisa. samxreT-dasavleTiT iberiis sazRvari gadioda piriadris mTis kalTebze, mas ekuTvnoda xorzene da gogarene, rogorc berZnebi uwodebdnen samxreT saqarTvelos kuTxeebs. Semdeg, strabonis cnobiT, armenias iberiisaTvis waurTmevia aRniSnuli kuTxeebi, daaxloebiT 190 wels qristeSobamde (ix. saq. ist. narkv., t. I, gv. 456). farnavazis rezidencias da samefo qalaqs warmoadgenda armazi. misi saxeli mraval ucxour Tanadroul wyaroSic aris asaxuli, rogorc Cans, is cnobili da saxelovani qalaqi iyo. am qalaqis sidiade daadastura arqeologiurma gaTxrebma, qarTvel erismTavarTa da warCinebulTa brwyinvale fufuneba da didebuleba naTlad gamoaCina arqeologiurma Zeglebma. armazidan samefo rezidencia gadatanil iqna sakuTriv mcxeTaSi, es momxdara pirveli saukunis meore naxevarSi. p. ingoroyvas Tanaxmad, mefe farnavazi mefobda qristeSobamde 284-219 wlebSi. 284 welsve damyarebula qarTuli welTaRricxva. `ZvelqarTuli kalendris Seswavlidan irkveva, rom qarTuli nacionaluri welTaRricxva iwyeba swored im droidan, rodesac, leonti mrovelis cnobiT, aleqsandre makedonelis imperiis dayofis Sedegad moxda axali iberiis saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba, farnavazianTa dinastiiT xelisuflebis saTaveSi. saxeldobr, dasawyisi qarTuli nacionaluri welTaRricxvisa aris 284 weli Cvens eramde. es weli aris gamosavali TariRi, romelic Semdeg safuZvlad daedo qarTuli qoronikonis sistemas, ...es TariRi, 284 weli, romelidanac iwyeba qarTuli nacionaluri era, aris TariRi iberiis saxelmwifo damoukideblobis gamocxadebisa da farnavazianTa dinastiis damkvidrebisa iberiis saxelmwifos xelisuflebis saTaveSi (p. ingoroyva, t. IV, 1978, gv. 558). pavle ingoroyvam saTanado kvlevis Sedegad daaskvna, rom qarTul matianeTa antikuri xanis iberiis mefeTa sia (`mefeni qarTls Sina warmarTni~) _ warmoadgens istoriuli sinamdvilis Semcvel dokuments, romelic momdinareobs winaqristianuli epoqis ZvelqarTuli saistorio wyaroebidan (iqve, gv. 559). farnavazma erT saxelmwifoSi gaaerTiana qarTuli tomebi, Sehkra isini erT xalxad, man SesZlo aseve am saxelmwifos gavlenis sferoSi moeqcia iberiul-kavkasiurad wodebuli, qarTvelTa monaTesave sxvadasxva tomebi. kerZod, rogorc iTqva, iberielTa da armenielTa Soris sazRvari erT dros mdinare araqsze gadioda. CrdiloeTis mimarTulebiT qarTvelTa gavlenis sferoSi, mematianes Tanaxmad, Sediodnen osTa, durZukTa da lekTa tomebi. durZukebi da lekebi _ qarTvelTa monaTesaveebad uZveles drosve miiCneoda. osTa Sesaxeb unda iTqvas, rom rogorc wyaro miuTiTebs, osebi im

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droisaTvis ar miiCneodnen iranulenovan tomebad, aramed iTvlebodnen qarTvelTa monaTesave kavkasiur (adgilobriv) tomad. Cveni matianes Tanaxmad, osebi yofilan STamomavalni xazarTa mefis Zisa uobosisa _ `mrovelis warmodgeniT, uobos xazarTa mefisSvili yofila, xolo osebi TiTqos am uobosis, e.i. xazarTa da qarTvelTa da somexTa tyveebis `naTesavebi~, anu STamomavalni yofilan. e.i. narevi erovneba yofila~ (iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoriis Sesavali, t. I, 1950 w. gv. 277). aqedan Cans, rom farnavazis epoqaSi osebi marTalia narev, magram mainc qarTvelTa monaTesave tomad miiCneoda. osebi _ romelTac Semdgom alanebi ewodaT _ ucxoelTa mier iberielebad miiCneodnen _ `XI saukunis bizantieli mwerali ioane cece amtkicebs: iberebi, abazgebi da alanebi erT xalxs Seadgendneno, xolo XV saukunis somexi mematiane Toma mewofeli ganumartavs mkiTxvelebs, rom qarTvelTa saxlSi, e.i. qarTul erovnulkulturul gaerTianebaSi Sedis rva tomi _ qarTebi (`vracebi~), imerlebi, megrelebi, svanebi, afxazebi, mesxebi, dvalebi da osebi~ (s. janaSia, t. V, gv. 12). Semdgomi saukunis evropeli avtoric aseve miiCnevs _ `Striteri Tavisi Sromis nawilSi, sadac laparakia zemo iberiis mezoblad binadar alanebze, kategoriuli da sruli eWvmiutanlobis kiloTi acxadebs, rom esenic iberielebi ariano~ (S. ZiZiguri, saenaTmecniero saubrebi, gv. 174). dvalebs, marTalia, ratomRac durZukTa toms aTvlidnen bolo dromde, magram sinamdvileSi qarTvelebi iyvnen. Semdgom moxda dvalTa tomis iranizacia, gaoseba. SesaZlebelia, Tavdapirvelad osebad saxeldebuli tomic ar iyo iranulenovani da Semdgom, Sua saukuneebis manZilze, Crdilo kavkasiaSi moxda osebis gairanulenovneba. sayovelTaodaa aRiarebuli, rom alanebi iranulenovani tomi iyo, magram arc is unda darCes uyuradRebod, rom sakmaod didi nawili Zveli istorikosebisa alanebs, qarTvel istorikosTa msgavsad, xazarul (e.i. Turqul) kavkasiur warmomavlobis tomad miiCnevda. magaliTad, XIV saukunis arabi geografi alanebs Turqulenovan xalxad Tvlida, is erT alanur qalaqze werda _ `is dasaxlebulia alani xalxiT, da isini Turqebi arian _ romelnic gaqristiandnen~. XV saukuneSi i. Siltbergeri iyo asebTan (osebTan) da alanebTan. isini Turme maSin RmerTs TaTrul enaze adidebdnen (ix. f. burn, `puteSestvie ivana Siltbergera...~, wigni `zapiriski imperatorskogo novorosiiskogo universiteta~. t. I, vi p. 1 da 2. odessa 1867, gv. 31-33). prof. n. baskakovis Tanaxmad, Cinur wyaroebSi moxsenebuli tomi iaoSe (iasebi, osebi) Turquli warmoSobisa yofila. aseve aRsaniSnavia, rom yaraCaevel da balyarel istorikosebs TavianTi tomebi alanuri warmoSobisad, alanebi ki Turqul-xazarul warmoSobisad miaCniaT. am mxriv, Cans aris raRac saerTo Zvel qarTul da ucxour wyaroTa Soris. farnavazis droisaTvis sruliad SesaZlebelia, osebi iseve yofiliyo iberiul-kavkasiuri warmomavlobis tomi, rogorc sxva mezobeli tomebi.

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farnavazis saxelmwifo faqtobrivad mTel kavkasias aerTianebda Tavis gavlenis sferoSi, magram yvelaze arsebiTi isaa, rom qarTvel tomTa gamaerTianebeli saxelmwifos Seqmnam saxelmwifosave meSveobiT SesaZlebeli gaxada qarTvelTa erovnebis formireba, erTiani xalxis, eris Camoyalibeba. sazogadod cnobilia, rom saxelmwifos aqvs Tviseba erTian xalxad Camoayalibos saxelmwifoSi mcxovrebi mosaxleoba, aseTive Tvisebebis iyo, cxadia, qarTuli erTiani saxelmwifoc. miT umetes, rom qarTul wyaroTa Tanaxmad, farnavazis mier Camoyalibebulma saxelmwifom iarseba TiTqmis aTasi weli. kerZod, es saxelmwifo daSlila vaxtang gorgasalis Svilebis Semdgom VI saukuneSi _ ase gadmogvcems `qarTlis cxovrebac~ da `moqcevaA qarTlisaAc~. qarTveli eris Camoyalibebis dros Sesaxeb laparakia qvemoT, xolo aq unda iTqvas, rom farnavazis epoqaSi qarTvelTa erTianobas miuTiTebs ZvelqarTuli gvarebis formaTa erTianoba uZveles saqarTveloSi. gamokvlevebiT dadgenilia, rom uZvelesi gvaris aRmniSvneli sufiqsi egrisSi, anu samegreloSi iyo `iani~ (misgan iqna Semdgom miRebuli daboloeba `ia~, `va~ da sxva). uZvelesi sagvarovano sufiqsi svaneTSi iyo da aris `iani~. uZvelesi sagvarovano sufiqsi sruliad saqarTvelos mTianeTSi _ fSav-xevsureTidan svaneTamde iyo `iani~ (saojaxod, saSinaod amJamadac `ian~ formebi ixmareba). uZvelesi sagvarovano sufiqsi saqarTvelos barSic iyo _ `iani~. ganvixiloT ramdenime magaliTi: Zvel wyaroebSi erTaderTi damaboloebeli sufiqsi _ `iani~-a _ gvarebSi _ `farnavaziani~, `xosroiani~, `arSakuniani~, `baqariani~, `reviani~ (q. c. gv. 138). `maruSiani~, `bagratoniani~ (q. c. gv. 251). `ariSiani~ (q. c. gv. 328). `barabiani~ (q. c. 116). `bivritiani~ (erisTavi oZrxisa) q. c. 185). `goderZiani~ (es gvaria, rac iqedan Cans, rom mravlobiTis formiTaa wyaroSi mocemuli _ `goderZianni tbelni~), (q. c. gv. 248). iqvea `mameanni~, `mame-i-ani. `Targamosianni~ _ eTnarqebi. Savliani (ivane _ afxazeTis mefe. 258). `kavkasianni~ _ sadaurobis aRsaniSnavad (130). `nebroTianni~, `nersiani~ (nerse _ qarTlis erisTavi, 241), `qarTlosianni~ (qarTlosis STamomavalni, 27), juanSeriani (juanSeri-istorikosi, gv. 248) da sxva uamravi. marTalia, zogierT SemTxvevaSi CamonaTvali jer kidev ar aris namdvili gvar-saxelebi da aRniSnuli forma pirTa STamomavlobas miuTiTebs, magram isini sagvareulo saxelebad iqcnen ZiriTadad. `ian~ sufiqsiT, rogorc aRiniSna, mTel saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi arsebobda gvarebi (gvar-saxelebi). amis dasturia megrul-svanuri da mTiuluri uZvelesi formebi. s. janaSia wers _ `gabatonebuli unda yofiliyo gvar-saxelebis es forma samegreloSic... megruli `ia~ _ `ianis~ naSTia. es cxadi xdeba, kerZod, cnobil gvar-saxelTa istoriul da cocxal formaTa SedarebiT, amrigad, istoriulsa da literaturul (dadians, lipartians, ratians, bedians megrul cocxal metyvelebaSi udris: dadia, li partia, ratia, bedia... bolokidur _ n-s dakargva niSandoblivia megrulisaTvis (s. janaSia, t. III, 1959, gv. 40-41).

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iqve s. janaSias ganxiluli aqvs `ian~ formis gamoyeneba gvar-saxelebisavis aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi (mTiuleTi, raWa, leCxumi, svaneTi). _ `gvar-saxelebis es daboloeba Tavdapirvelad gavrcelebuli iyo, Cans, yvela qarTul tomSi, da qarTvelurs patronomistikul morfologiaSi igi erTi yvelaze adrindeli movlenaTagania. droTa viTarebaSi es forma zogs qarTvel tomSi dasustda, zogan TiTqmis mTlad daikarga~ (iqve, gv. 35). Cven vfiqrobT, rom eTnikuri erTianoba qarTveli tomebisa farnavazianTa saxelmwifoSi (qristeSobamde III saukunidan VI-mde) gacilebiT ufro Rrma iyo, vidre am saxelmwifos daSlis Semdeg (VI s.). rogorc cnobilia, pirveli erTiani saxelmwifos daSlidan mxolod oriode saukunis Semdeg, VIIIIX saukuneebSi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi Camoyalibda erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebi, ramac, cxadia, qarTuli tomebi erTmaneTs ufro daaSora (zemoT aRniSnuli erTiani niSnebis `dasusteba~ da `dakargva~ amis Sedegi unda iyos), marTalia, Semdeg arsebobda erTiani saxelmwifo (XI-XV ss), ramac xeli Seuwyo konsolidacias, magram Semdgomma kvlav daSlam gaaRrmava svanur, megrul, gurul, imerul, qarTlur, kaxur da sxva eTnografiul jgufSi individualuri Tvisebebi. farnavazis saxelmwifos dros ki erTiani erovnuli niSnebi Rrma iyo.

qarTuli saRvTismsaxuro anbanis fuZisdeba


saukuneTa da aTaswleulTa manZilzec, qarTveli xalxi sargeblobs erovnuli anbaniT. arsebobs misi ori saxeoba _ xucuri da mxedruli. TviT sityva `xucuri~ miuTiTebs, rom is RvTis sadideblad eklesiaSi, samRvdeloebis (xucebis) mier ixmareboda. xucuri anbaniTaa dawerili Cveni uflisa da macxovris ieso qristes pirveli qarTuli saxarebani, Zveli da axali aRTqmis wignebi. xucuri _ srulyofili anbania imiT, rom mas aqvs e.w. mTavruli da nusxuri asoebi, rogorc sxva evropul anbanebs, maSin roca mxedruls _ mTavruli asoebi ar gaaCnia. miRebulia, rom mTavruli pirvelsafuZvelia misgan ganviTarebuli nusxuri da mxedruli asoebisa, isini qarTuli Sriftis saxeobebia. mxedruli SemoRebulia XI saukunis Semdeg, manamde VIII-IX saukuneebSi gamoiyeneboda nusxa-xucuri, V-VII saukuneebSi asomTavrulxucuri. aseTi periodizacia pirobiTia. rogorc aRiniSna, miRebulia, rom asomTavrulis ganviTarebis Sedegadaa miRebuli _ nusxa-xucuri, am ukanasknelisagan ki mxedruli, Tumca ZvelTaganve paralelurad ixmareboda samive, gansakuTrebiT ki wina ori. saeklesio da saRvTismsaxuro saWiroebisaTvis saqarTveloSi yovelTvis xucuri anbani gamoiyeneboda.

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ivane javaxiSvili uZveles, V saukunisad miCneul, qarTul warweraze dakvirvebiT werda: `jer xanad cnobili qarTuli damwerlobis Zeglebi iseTi maRalxarisxovani kaligrafiuli ganviTarebis safexurs warmoadgenen, rom qarTuli anbanis dasawyisi xana sul cota 7-8 saukunis uwinares aris sagulisxmebeli~. mecnierebaSi miRebuli iyo azri, rom Cvenamde moRweuli qarTuli alfabeti qristeSobamde VII-VI saukuneebSi unda warmoSobiliyo finikur-semituri saanbano sistemidan. saerTod cnobilia, rom anbani pirvelad finikielebma Camoayalibes, masSi yoveli aso gamoxatavda erT romelime bgeras da yoveli bgera gadmocemuli iyo erTi romelime asoTi. am anbanma udidesi gavrceleba hpova msoflioSi, pirvel rigSi finikur-semituri anbani TviT semituri modgmis erTa Soris gavrcelda, misgan mravali axali damwerloba gaCnda. dasavleTis mimarTulebiT yvelaze adre finikiuri anbani berZnebma SeiTvises, misganac mravali axali anbani warmoiqmna. berZnuli anbanis Tavdapirveli saxeoba zusti asli yofila finikiuri anbanisa. finikiur anbans gavrceleba dauwyia qristeSobamde IX saukunidan (S. ZiZiguri, saenaTmecniero saubrebi, gv. 124-125). pavle ingoroyvas azriT, qarTuli anbani finikiurisagan miRebuli arameulis erTi ganStoeba yofila. sxva TvalsazrisiT, is berZnulis mixedviT SemuSavebula. ufro ki, rogorc aRiniSna, aRiarebulia Teoria, romlis mixedviTac, qarTuli uSualod finikiuri anbanisagan aris gadmoRebuli, iseve rogorc berZnuli anbani. sxvagan pavle ingoroyva wers: `qarTuli anbani ekuTvnis arqauli periodis mcire aziis alfabetebis jgufs. qarTuli anbani araa Seqmnili Tanamedrove saqarTvelos teritoriaze, aramed igi Camoyalibebulia jer kidev im xanaSi, rodesac xeTas qarTveli xalxis erTi nawili _ hiberebi (Tobelebi) da mesxebi mcire aziis teritoriaze mkvidrobdnen, hiberebs (Tobelebs) da mesxebs, rogorc irkveva, Tavdapirvelad ieroglifuri damwerloba hqondaT~ (p. ingoroyva, t. IV. gv. 247). mecnieris azriT, xeTas qarTvelebi qristeSobamde VIII-VII saukuneebSi gadasulan alfabetur damwerlobaze, risi damsaxurebac miaweres mesxTa, anu frigielTa saxelganTqmul mefes miTas _ `miTa mesxs~. p. ingoroyvas Tanaxmad, finikiuri alfabetis qarTul da berZnul enebTan morgebisaTvis Seqmnila sagangebo komisia, romelsac es sakiTxi gadauWria. kerZod, delfosis samisnoSi aRniSnul komisias mouxdenia finikiuri uxmovnebo anbanis vokalizacia _ SemouRia xmovani asoebi, daumatebia Tanxmovani bgerebi qarTulisaTvis, romelnic finikiurs aklda (iqve, gv. 249). qarTuli anbanis warmoSobis Sesaxeb sul sxva azrisaa T. gamyreliZe: qarTuli anbani qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg saeklesio-samwignobro saWiroebisaTvis Seqmnilao (gulisxmobs V saukunis Semdgom periods), ma-

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gram TviT qarTuli eklesiis ierarqia, qristiani samRvdeloeba TiTqmis aTasi wlis winac ki qarTuli anbanis Seqmnas ar akavSirebda qristianobis gavrcelebasTan, piriqiT, ZvelqarTuli Rrmad morwmune sazogadoeba darwmunebiT amtkicebda, rom qarTuli alfabeti (qarTuli mwignobroba) warmarTi mefis, qristeSobamde aswleulobiT adre mcxovrebi farnavazis mier iyo SemoRebuli. cxadia, qarTuli anbani qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg rom warmoSobiliyo, xsovna am yovladmniSvnelovani ambisa uTuod Semoinaxeboda qarTul eklesiaSi, saeklesio mwerlobaSi. bunebrivia ismeba kiTxva, Tuki anbani SemoRebul iqna V saukunis Semdeg da ukavSirdeba qristianuli sarwmunoebis gavrcelebas, TviTon qristianulma eklesiam (kerZod, eklesiis ierarqma episkoposma leonti mrovelma) is ratom daukavSira warmarTul xanas, warmarT mefes, miT umetes rom warmarTuli xanis qarTveloba qristianuli xanis samRvdeloebis mier sakmaod velurad miiCneoda, rogorc es Zveli wyaroebidan Cans? rogorc aRiniSna, didi ivane javaxiSvili Rrma kvlevis Sedegad mivida daskvnamde, rom qarTuli anbani warmarTuli, qristianobamdeli xanis produqtia. leonti mroveli episkoposi ki mefe farnavazis damsaxurebaTa CamoTvlis dros wers _ `amanve Seqmna mwignobroba qarTuli~. mefe farnavazs miiCneven anbanis ara Semqmnelad, aramed manamde arsebulis gamavrceleblad, e.i. farnavazamde anbans ramdenime saukunis istoria hqonia. s. janaSia wers _ `qarTuli anbanis mecnierulma Seswavlam gamoarkvia, rom igi SeTvisebuli unda iyos mcire aziaSi ara ugvianes meSvide saukunisa qristes win (ix. prof. iv. javaxiSvili, qarT. paleografia). msgavsi alfabeturi damwerloba SeiZleboda mxolod ganviTarebis garkveul safexurze gaCeniliyo. manamde mcire aziaSi mcxovreb qarTvel tomebsac xatovani da lursmuli damwerloba unda exmaraT. am mxriT uaRresad sayuradReboa qarTuli termini `wera~, igi Tavdapirvelad `Wras~, `kveTas~ niSnavda, aqedanaa `weraqvi~, e.i. qvis saWreli, sakveTi; xvnis mniSvnelobisaa mTaSi `wera~ da aqedan _ `wereuli~ _ `yanis nakrefi, Sekonvili~, `sawereli~, e.i. mWameli, mWreli... werasTan dakavSirebuli meore mniSvnelovani terminis warmoSobas gvixsnis `wertili~ (`werta~ zmnisagan nawarmoebi). `wertac~ xom Cxvletas, amokveTas, CaWras niSnavs. maSasadame, orive termini im xanisaa, roca wera realurad iyo raime magar masalaze (qvaze, Tixis dafaze, liTonze) amoWris, amokveTis procesi. Cven gvgonia, rom qarTvelma tomebma Tavisi uZvelesi samSoblodan amierkavkasiaSi moitanes ara marto es terminebi, aramed TviT saTanado damwerlobanic...~ (s. janaSia, t. III, gv. 192). s. janaSiamde msgavsi Tvalsazrisi qarTuli damwerlobis siZvelis Sesaxeb gamoTqmuli hqonda Teimuraz batoniSvils, Cans is eyrdnoboda sazogadoebaSi dacul Zvel gadmocemas, an romelime werilobiT wyaros: _ `ara

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uwignoni iyvnen qarTvelni uwinaresTa JamTaca Sina. vidre farnavazamde swerdnen igini uxucesTa weriliTa. ese igi, qurumTa maT, romelTac uxucesTa da xevisberTa uxmoben. igini iyvnen kerpTa mRvdelni da memsxverpleni erisni `RmerTTa~ mimarT da werili maTi ars werili ese xucuri Cveni. werilni xucesni pirvelsa Jamsa qmnil ars werilisagan ebraulisa da qaldeurisa da msgavsica arian asoTa maTTa Cveni xucurni~ (T. bagrationi, cxovreba, 1972, gv. 126). Zvel saqarTveloSi xucur anbans akavSirebdnen ara berZnul, aramed semitur alfabetTan. Teimuraz bagrations mohyavs aseve Zveli gadmocema, romlis mixedviTac, maStocis mier somxuri anbanis Seqmnamde somxebi ukve arsebuli qarTuli mwignobrobiT sargeblobdnen, xolo maStocs somxuri anbanis zogierTi aso qarTulis mimsgavsebiT Seuqmnia. rac Seexeba mwignobrobaso, _ wers Teimuraz bagrationi, `ara iyo maT (somexTa) Soris ZvelTa Sina saukuneTa... igini (somxebi) sargeblobdes pirvel berZnuliTa wigniTa da qarTuliTa, qristes mosvliTgan mravalTa welTa ganvles, merme qmnes somexTa werili Tvisi, romelsac ityvian igini moZRvrisa maTisa mesrofisaTvis, viTarmed man ganawesa da qmna asoni maTni, msgavsni qarTulis xucuris werilisa. werils qarTulsa somxuri romelnime asoni hgvanan da ara yovelni. somexni vieTnime ityvian, rom somxuri wignis asoebi da qarTulis wignis asoebi xucurio mesrofma gaakeTao. magram qarTuli xucuri asoebi mesrofs ar gaukTebia, didi tyuili aris~ (iqve, gv. 126). es bolo winadadeba Tavisi gamokvlevebiT daadastura iv. javaxiSvilma. Teimurazi ganagrZobs: `sanam mesrof daibadeboda da am sofelSi Semovidoda, agreTve qarTuli xucuri wigni iyo da mesrofze uwin, saRmrTos werilis mTargmnelni CvenTa wmidaTa mamaTagani mravalni iyvnes, romelnic ebraulisagan da berZnulisa da asurulisagan qarTulad sTargmnidnen, da odes srulebiT ara aqvndaT jer somexTa werilni TvisTa zeda enaTa sargeblobdes da xmarobdes igi qarTuliTa wigniTa da weriliTa~ (iqve). mecnierTa erTi nawilis TvalsazrisiT, mefe farnavazma anbani ki ar Seqmna, aramed man ukve arsebuli, mosaxleobis mxolod erTi nawilisaTvis cnobili damwerloba, sruliad saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi gaavrcela. ramaz patariZis TvalsazrisiT, romelic eyrdnoba qarTuli asomTavruli aso-niSnebis grafikul analizs, qarTuli damwerloba Seqmnilia finikiuri damwerlobis safuZvelze qristeSobamde mexuTe saukunis dasasruls (ix. r. patariZe, qarTuli asomTavruli, 1980, gv. 268). anbani qarTvel qurumTa wiaRSi Seqmnila. r. patariZem Tavisi kvlevis Sedegad daadastura sxva mecnierTa mier gamoTqmuli mosazrebani, rom qristeSobamde 284 weli aris sruliad qarTuli saxelmwifo damwerlobis oficialurad SemoRebis TariRi da agreTve qarTuli

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erovnuli welTaRricxvis dasabami. qristeSobamde 284 wels gasula farnavaz mefis gamefebidan 19 weli. is vaxuStis Tanaxmad, gamefebula 303 wels. 284 welTan dakavSirebiT vaxuSti wers: `am farnavazis mefobis iT (19) wels qarTuli xuTiaTasiani qoronikoni i-jer (10-jer) mobrunebuli ganvida da meTerTmete iwyebis~ (iqve, gv. 305). aq igulisxmeba 532-wliani didi indiqtioni, romlis safuZvels mzis 28-wliani da mTvaris 19-wliani ciklebi warmoadgens, is nikeis I msoflio saeklesio krebam daakanona. ase rom, vaxuStis mier naxsenebi `qarTuli qoronikoni~ farnavazTan dakavSirebiT anaqronizmia, romlis Sesaxebac r. patariZe wers _ `iqneb saxelovani mecnieri aq zogadad qarTuli welTaRricxvis dasabams gulisxmobdes, romelic gvian qarTuli qoronikonuli welTaRricxvis dasabamic gaxda~ (iqve, gv. 306). mecnieris daskvniT, 284 weli aris ara marto qarTuli damwerlobis SemoRebis TariRi, aramed qarTuli warmarTuli welTaRricxvis dasabamic. rogorc aRiniSna, 284 wels qristeSobamde 10X532 weli gasula, anu 5332 weli dasabamidan. dasabamidan, anu qveynis gaCenidan qristeSobamde qarTuli angariSiT sul gasula 284+(10X532)=5604 weli. saerTod qristianul qveynebSi miRebuli iyo welTaRricxvis sami sistema: `qristesiT~, `dasabamidan~ da `qoronikoniT~. `qristesiT~ welTaRricxva _ amJamad gamoiyeneba msoflios yvela qveyanaSi. welTaRricxva qoronikoniT, rogorc aRiniSna, 532-wliani cikliT xdeboda. saerTod, qarTuli qoronikonis dasawyisis TariRad miCneuli iyo 780 weli. 781 weli aris pirveli weli qarTuli qoronikonis me-13 moqcevisa, xolo qristeSobamde 284 weli _ me-10 moqcevisa. am wlidan 2-jer 532 wlis gavlis, anu ori moqcevis Semdeg dadga 780 weli. xolo dasabami am moqcevebisa qarTuli welTaRricxviT (aTvlis wertili) aris 5604 weli qristemde, anu `dabadebidan~ _ qveynis gaCenidan qristemde qarTuli welTaRricxva iTvlis aRniSnul (5604) wels. adamidan qristes Sobamde, anu `dasabamiTganis~ saxeliT cnobili welTaRricxva sxvadasxva saxis iyo ZvelTaganve. ZiriTadad cnobilia `dasabamiTganis~ Semdegi variaciebi: 1. 5198 weli _ evsevi kesarielisa, 2. 5492 weli _ pandore aleqsandrielisa, 3. 5500 weli _ aniane aleqsandrielisa, 4. 5508 weli _ bizantielebisa anu bizantiuri era, 5. qarTuli era _ 5604 weli _ qarTuli `dasabamiTgani~ (ix. iqve, gv. 75). `unda davaskvnaT: qarTuli dasabamiTganis gamosavali TariRi yofila Zv.w.aR-is 284 weli. 5604-wlian qristianul qarTul dasabamiTgans safuZvlad dasdebia damwerlobis SemoRebis qarTuli warmarTuli TariRi _ 284 weli Zveli welTaRricxvisa~ (iqve, gv. 75). qarTul anbanSi iyo 37 aso-niSani. Zvelad ricxvis aRsaniSnavad anbanis asoebi ixmareboda.

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aso-niSnebis ricxviTi mniSvneloba da anbanuri saTvalavi aseTia: 1. a_1 2. b_2 3. g_3 4. d_4 5. e_5 6. v_6 7. z_7 8. H_8 9. T_9 10. i_10 11. k_20 12. l_30 13. m_40 14. n_50 15. A_60 16. o_70 17. p_80 18. J_90 19. r_100 20. s_200 21. t_300 22. u_400 23. f_500 24. q_600 25. R_700 26. y_800 27. S_900 28. C_1000 29. c_2000 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. Z_3000 w_4000 W_5000 x_6000 K_7000 j_8000 h_9000 N_10000

xucuri anbanis moxazuloba da saxelebi aseTia (pirvelad naCvenebia asomTavruli aso-niSani, mis gverdiT nusxuri da misi saxeli): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. a b g d e v z T i k l m n o p J _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a b g d e v z C T i k l m n o p J _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ an ban gan don en vin zen he Tan in kan las man nar Ae on par Jan 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. r s t f q R y S C c Z w W x j h H _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r s t Y f q R y S C c Z w W x K j h _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ rae san tar Yie far qan Ran yar Sin Cin can Zil wil War xan xar jan hae hoi

u-aso-niSani SemoRebul iqna gvian ori asos kombinaciiT _ uy da mieniWa ricxviTi mniSvneloba 400, man Y-s adgili daiWira. asomTavruli monumenturi (kapitaluri) damwerlobaa berZnul-laTinuris msgavsad. monumentur-

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oba gulisxmobs asoebis geometriuli sworxazovneba-simetriulobas. yvela aso-niSani Tanabari simaRlisaa da or paralelur xazs Soris Tavsdeba. nusxuri damwerloba ki oTxxazovan badezea damyarebuli, misi asoebi grZeli, mokle da tolmetia, rac adamians Zalian uadvilebs kiTxvas. mxedruli damwerlobac, nusxuris msgavsad, oTxxazovani sistemis damwerlobaa. Tavdapirveli anbani mTavrdeboda `jan~ asoTi (T. gamyreliZe, weris anbanuri sistema da Zveli qarTuli damwerloba, 1988, gv. 186.), xolo h-hae fonema Cndeba SedarebiT mogvianebiT, VII saukunidan moyolebuli (iqve, gv. 128). maSasadame, Tavdapirvel anbanSi ara 37, aramed 35 aso-niSani iyo da is mTavrdeboda janiT. r. patariZis azriT, H-s eWira anbanSi merve adgili, sadac Semdeg gaCnda e.w. e-merve. ramaz patariZem, romelic qarTuli damwerlobis yvelaze nayofieri mkvlevaria CvenSi, didi ivane javaxiSvilis Semdeg, aRmoaCina, rom Cveni anbani amave dros asrulebda kalendris movaleobasac. ZvelTaganve, Zveli civilizaciis qveynebSi drois kalendaruli aRricxva problemas warmoadgenda. `mizezi amisa iyo is, rom dRe-Rame da weliwadi drois sxvadasxva astronomiuli sidideebia. dRe-RameTa mTeli ricxviT weliwadis gamoxatva SeuZlebelia, e.i. dRe-Rame da weliwadi ara jeradi, aramed uTanazomo sidideebia. swored aRniSnuli uTanazomobis rogorme daZleva, misi SeZlebisamebr zustad asaxvis saSualebiT, warmoadgenda nebismieri kalendaruli sistemis mizans. am mxriv, qarTuli anbaniT ganxorcielebuli kalendari bednieri gamonaklisia. qarTuli kalendari eyrdnoba anbanSi aso-niSnebis anbanuri da rigiTi saTvalavis unikalur wesrigianobas, aseve aso-niSnebis mizandasaxul saxeldebasa da sxva. r. patariZis gamokvleviT, qarTuli warmarTuli kalendaris martivi sqema aseTi saxiT gadmoicema: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a b g d e v z 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ m n A o p J r s t u f q 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ R y S C c Z w w W x K j

8. _ H 9. _ T 10. _ i 11. _ k 12. _ l

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am sqemiT: anbanis 7 aso-niSani Svideuli dRe-Rame anu erTi msgefsia, anbanis 12 aso-niSani weliwadis 12 Tvea. anbanis 19 aso-niSani mzisa da mTvaris 19-wliani ciklia. anbanis 24 aso-niSani dRe-Ramis 24 saaTia. anbanis 31 aso-niSani nakiani weliwadis oTxwliani da 128-wliani ciklebia. anbanis 5 ukanaskneli aso-niSani (wil-jan) weliwadis 5 epagomeni dRe-Ramea (r. patariZe, qarTuli asomTavruli, 1980, gv. 526). Cvens eklesiaSi amJamadac gamoyenebulia romauli, iuliusis uZravi weliwadis kalendari, romliTac weliwadis xangrZlivoba 365,25 dRe-Ramea, sam weliwads weliwadis xangrZlivoba 365 dRe-Ramea, xolo meoTxe weliwads _ 366 dRe-Rame, e.i. meoTxe weliwadi nakiania. iuliusis kalendariT, wlis bolos epagomenebis 5 da 6 dRis darTva moSlilia. manamde gamoyenebul uZveles kalendarul sistemebSi weliwadis xangrZlivobas 360 dReRamiT gansazRvravdnen (egvi ptesa da sxvagan). weliwadSi egvi ptelebi 12 Tves angariSobdnen, yovel TveSi 30 dRes, wlis bolos zeimobdnen 5 sadResaswaulo dRes (5 epagomens), amitomac egvi pturi mzis weliwadis xangrZlivoba 365 dRe-Rames Seadgenda, maSin, roca realuri, anu tropikuli weliwadis xangrZlivoba 365, 2422 dRe-Ramea, e.i. egvi pturi kalendari arazusti iyo. qristeSobamde 46 wels romSi iulius keisris mier ganxorcielebuli kalendari ufro zusti iyo, romliTac weliwadis xangrZlivoba 365,25 dRe-Ramea, isic arazustia, radganac tropikul weliwads aRemateba wuTebiTa da wamebiT, rac 128 weliwadSi iZleva 1 dRe-Ramis sxvaobas. es Seusabamoba gaaswora grigorianulma kalendarma 1582 wels. qarTul warmarTul kalendars saukuneebiT adre SedarebiT sworad gamouxatavs tropikuli weliwadis xangrZlivoba. es r. patariZis dakvirvebiT ase ganxorcielebula: qarTuli kalendriT TveSi aris 30 dRe-Rame, weliwadSi _ 12 aseTi Tve, xolo wlis bolos emateba 5 kalendaruli dRe-Rame, nakian wels ki _ 6 da aseve 0,25 dRe-Rame. kerZod, es ase xdeba: qarTuli anbanis 30 aso-niSani (maTi saxeldebis princi pis safuZvelze dayrdnobiT) _ gamoxatavs 30 kalendarul dRe-Rames, qarTuli anbanis ukanaskneli 5 aso-niSani wlis bolos dasarTveli kalendaruli dRe-Ramea. anbaniT gamoxatulia mzis weliwadis formulac. kerZod, anbanis meTormete asoTi (`lasi~), romlis ricxviTi mniSvneloba aris 30. am formulis ZiriTadi elementia: 12l30. `asomTavruli `lasi~ qarTuli asomTavruli anbanis 30 kalendarul asoniSans _ 30 kalendarul dRe-Rames 12-jer angariSobs. amitomac, qarTuli asomTavruli anbanis 5 darCenili aso-niSani is 5 kalendaruli dRe-Ramea, romelic wlis bolos, axali wlis dadgomamde 360 dRe-Rames emateba epagomenebis saxiT, raTa weliwadis xangrZlivobis mzis Zvel-egvi pturi kalendaruli sistema ganxorcieldes~ (iqve, gv. 412). `lasis~ formuliT, weliwadSi 365 dRea. 12l30=12X30=360 da 5 epagomeni, sul 365 dRe-Rame. yoveli sami wlis Semdeg ki weliwadis xangrZlivoba qarTuli warmarTuli kalendriT 366 dRe-RamiT ganisazRvreboda. es xorcieldeboda

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anbanis aso-niSan `wilis~ formuliT. misi anbanuri da rigiTi saTvalavi, aseTia: 31 wili 4000=31w4000 anu 3+1w4000. `rogorc `wili~ cxadyofs, erTxel yovel oTx weliwadSi, e.i. nakian weliwads 365 dRe-Rames erTi _ 31-e dRe-Rame emateba, amis gamo, yovel oTx weliwadSi erTxel weliwadis xangrZlivoba 365+1=366 dRe-Ramea. amgvarad aso-niSani `wili~ yovel oTx weliwadSi erTxel 30 dRe-Ramis nacvlad 31 dRe-Rames angariSobs, xolo es saidumlo `wili~-s rigiTi saTvalaviT aris gancxadebuli~ (iqve, gv. 422). amas Turme miuTiTebs aRniSnuli asos rigiTi saTvalavi _ 31 (es aris 3+1 e.i. 3 sruli, 1 nakiani), ricxviTi mniSvneloba _ 4000 (`aTasi weli viTarca erTi dRe~ _ 4000=4-s, e.i. oTx weliwadSi erTxel damateba). misi anbanuri saTvalavia, (romlis mixedviTac ricxvi 31 iwereba) _ `la~, rac udris 30+1-s, anu 30-dRian Tveebs erTiT meti Tve emateba saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, (formulis Sesabamisad), amasve Turme miuTiTebs am aso-niSanis saxeli _ sityva `wili~, rac nawils, wilads aRniSnavs. mas anbanSi dafaruli mniSvnelobac hqonia, rogorc amis Sesaxeb wers `qebaA da didebaA qarTulisa enisaA~, romelSic aseve aRniSnulia: `wili~ asoA ars da ityvis yovlad oTx aTassa da ese ars oTxi `rameTu aTasi viTarca erTi~, e.i. w=4, rac `dafarulad unda acxadebdes, rom 4 wili erTi dRe-Ramea, amitom `wili~ aso-niSani kalendarulad weliwadSi dRe-Ramis naoTxalia, dReRamis meoTxedia, oTx weliwadSi ki erTi kalendaruli dRe-Ramea~ (iqve, gv. 422). sabolood qarTuli kalendriT weliwadis xangrZlivoba Seadgens 365,25 dRe-Rames (3X365 da 1X366), magram Turme tropikul weliwads anbanSi ganxorcielebuli qarTuli kalendari kidev sxva sistemebiT uaxlovdeba, rac gadmocemuli aqvs Tavis wignSi r. patariZes. qarTuli anbanis saSualebiT gadmocemuli yofila aseve mTvaris kalendaric. qarTuli anbaniT mTvaris kalendari Semdegi sistemiTaa gadmocemuli: anbanis aso-niSanTa saxelwodebani, maTi rigiTi da anbanuri saTvalavi kalendris gasaRebs warmoadgens. qarTuli anbanis kalendaruli monacemebi gamowvlilviT aqvs mimoxiluli Tavis wignSi r. patariZes. masve sruliad ueWvelad aqvs dasabuTebuli qarTuli anbanis grafikuli moxazulobis finikiuridan warmomavloba. patariZis azriT, qarTuli anbani SeumuSavebiaT qurumebs qristeSobamde 412 wels, rac imavdroulad kalendris SemoRebasac niSnavda. 128 wlis Semdeg qristeSobamde 284 wels dawyebula qarTuli saxelmwifo erovnuli welTaRricxva. qarTuli anban-kalendris Semoqmed qurumebs babilonel, qaldevel da berZen maTematikosTa miRwevebze daufuZnebiaT TavianTi Sroma. iv. javaxiSvilis, s. janaSias da sxva mecnierTa Sromebze dayrdnobiT, erTi mxriv, Cven Tu vaRiarebT, rom qristeSobamde VII-V saukuneebSi saqarTvelos moaSures Zveli damsxvreuli civilizaciis namsxvrevma tomebma, STamomavlebma xu-

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ritebisa, qaldevelebisa, Tobalebisa Tu muSqebisa, unda vaRiaroT isic, rom, maTma inteleqtualurma nawilma Tan moitana Zveli aRmosavleTis astronomiuli, maTematikuri codna, sarwmunoeba da kultura. Zveli qaldevelebis kulturas udidesi gavlena mouxdenia sxva qveynebis kulturaze. maTgan gavrcelebula ricxviTi mistika, maTematikuri codna, romelic ganuyofeli nawili yofila qaldeuri mecnierebisa da kulturisa. ricxviTi mistikis akvnad da aseve sxva saidumlo mecnierebis kerad ZvelTaganve iTvleboda qaldea. saberZneTSi qaldeuri swavleba piTagores ganuviTarebia (ix. iqve. i. Cistiakovis da sxvaTa Sromebze miTiTeba gv. 487). r. patariZis azriT, swored qarTuli piTagorelebis mier unda Seqmniliyo qarTuli anbani, romelSic dasturdeba codna, rogorc aRmosavluri, ise dasavluri civilizaciisa. saqarTveloSi Semosul odesRac didi civilizaciis memkvidre qarTul tomebs unda SemoetanaT egvi pturi mzisa da babilonuri mTvaris kalendrebi, romelnic Semdgom qarTul anban-kalendarSi SenivTda. qarTuli anban-kalendari, msgavsad piTagoruli moZRvrebisa _ saidumlo yofila. is mxolod qurumTa viwro wreSi yofila cnobili, farnavazis dros mas ramdenadme gavrceleba miuRia sruliad saqarTvelos qurumTa Soris. qristeSobis Semdeg, qristian qarTvelobas swored es ukve arsebuli anbani gamouyenebia saeklesio saWiroebisaTvis. ufro metic, qarTuli anbani nawilobriv, r. patariZis gamokvlevis Tanaxmad, safuZvlad dasdebia somxuri anbanis Seqmnis princi ps (ix. iqve, gv. 528-596), rasac ufro adrec miuTiTebdnen qarTveli istorikosebi. Cven vfiqrobT, rom anbani, romliTac daiwera qarTul enaze axali aRTqma, bibliis wignebi, locvebi, qadagebani, romelsac efuZneboda aTaswleulTa manZilze naweriT gadmocemuli saRmrTo didebismetyveleba, SeuZlebelia Seqmniliyo suliwmindis monawileobis gareSe. uTuod qarTuli xucuri anbani suliwmindis Cagonebis Sedegia. dideba mas!

axali aRTqma uflisa


israilis didma winaswarmetyvelebma gamoacxades, rom arsi WeSmariti religiisa _ RmerTisa da kacis kavSirSia, swored am kavSirs anu erTobas ewodeboda aRTqma. aRTqma wmida werilSi gamoiTqmoda sityviT `berit~, rac niSnavs pirobas, kanons, dadgenilebas, romelzec Tanxmdeba ori SemTanxmebeli mxare. wmida wignebi, romlebSic aRwerilia kavSiri RmerTisa kacTan, warmoadgendnen erT-erT saSualebas aRTqmis damowmebisas, amitomac maTac `aRTqmas~ uwodebdnen. is arsebobda ukve moses epoqaSi. Zvel aRTqmas ganekuTvneba pirveli winaswarmetyveluri miTiTeba `axali aRTqmisa~. kerZod, ieremias cnobil winaswarmetyvelebaSi _ `ai, dadgeba dReebi, ambobs ufali, roca me davdeb israelisa da iudas saxlTan axal aRTqmas~ (ier; 31.30).

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Semdgom termini `axali aRTqma~ mravalgzis ixmares TviT ieso qristem da misma wmida mociqulebma (maTe 26.28, mark. 14.24; luka 22.20; 1 kor. 11.25; 2 kor. 3.6 da sxva). rogorc aTi mcneba, anu kanoni iwodeboda `aRTqmad~, zustad aseve, gamoTqma `axali aRTqma~ qristianuli eklesiis mier mieniWa wmida wignebs, romlebSic gadmocemulia qristesa da mociqulebis swavleba (ix. tolkovaia biblia, III, peterb. 1911-1913, gv. 2). jer kidev ieremias piriT brZanebs ufali `axali aRTqmis~ pirvelad xsenebisas (qristeSobamde 600 wliT adre) kacobriobis codvaTa daxsnis Sesaxeb _ `...me maT vapatieb ukanonobas da ar gavixseneb maT codvebs. ase ambobs ufali, romelmac mogvca mze dRis sinaTled da mTvare da varskvlavebi Ramis sinaTled, romelic aRelvebs zRvas, ise, rom xmauroben misi talRebi, iaRve sabaoTia _ misi saxeli~ (31.33-34). RvTismetyvelTa Tanaxmad, Zveli aRTqma warmoadgenda momzadebasa da winaswarmetyvelebas qristeze. nawinaswarmetyvelebi iyo zusti dro da adgili mesiis Sobisa, mogvTa Tayvaniscema, yrmaTa gawyveta, egvi pteSi gaqceva, winamorbed-winaswarmetyvelis gamoCena, iudevel mwignobarTa da xelisufalTa mtroba, macxovaris saswaulebi, mesiis uaryofa iudeveli xalxis mier, tanjva, sikvdili, jojoxeTSi Casvla, aRdgoma, amaRleba da a.S. (p. svetlov, xristianskoe verouCenie, kiev, 1912, t. I, gv. 125). `sarwmunoebis simbolo~, romelsac `mrwamssac~ uwodeben, ase gadmoscems qristes gankacebas _ `romeli CvenTvis kacTaTvis da Cvenisa cxovrebisaTvis gardmoxda zeciT da xorcni Seisxna sulisagan wmidisa da mariamisagan qalwulisa gankacna, da jvars ecva CvenTvis pontoelisa pilates ze da ivno da daefla. da aRsdga mesamesa dResa msgavsad werilisa~. cxadia, `werilSi~ igulisxmeba Zveli aRTqmis wmida wignebi, kerZod ki winaswarmetyvelTa wignebi. jer kidev abraamis Sesaxeb iyo nabrZanebi (dabadeba, 12), rom mis mier warmoSobili xalxis mier `ikurTxeba yvela tomebi da xalxebi dedamiwisa~. swored am erSi ganxorcielebuli macxovris mier moxda gamosyidva kacobriobisa. sinais aRTqmaSi safuZveli Caeyara xalxs, romelic unda qceuliyo `wmida xalxad da mRvdelTa samefod~ (gamosvl. 19). am xalxidan qristianobis macocxlebeli sarwmunoeba miiRes msoflios sxva xalxebma. esaiac yvela xalxTa mxsnelad warmoadgens mesias _ `...yoveli eri misken daiwyebs denas. daiZvreba uTvalavi xalxi da ityvis: modi, avideT uflis mTaze iakobis saxlSi. gvaswavlos Tavisi gzebi da misi bilikebiT viaroT, radgan rjuli sionidan gamova da uflis sityva _ ierusalimidan. samarTals ganikiTxavs igi erebs Soris da amxilebs uTvalav xalxs. maxvilebisgan saxnisebs gamoWedaven da Subebisagan _ namglebs, eri erze aRar aRmarTavs maxvils da aRaravin iswavlis oms~ (esaia, 2). winaswarmetyveli xedavs momaval cxebuls, romelic moitans mSvidobasa da Tavisuflebas. misi mefoba Secvlis yovel arsebas _ `xalxma, bnelSi

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moarulma, ixila naTeli didi, wyvdiadis qveyanaSi mcxovreblebs naTeli gamoubrwyinda. Sen gaamravle xalxi, gauzarde mas sixaruli... radgan Sen dalewe misi kirTebis uReli... radgan SegveZina Svili, mogveca Ze... ewoda saxelad sakvirveli mrCeveli, RmerTi Zlieri, maradisobis mama, mSvidobis mTavari, xelmwifebis gansadideblad da uboloo mSvidobisaTvis daviTis taxtze da mis samefoSi...~ (esaia, 9). winaswarmetyveli ganagrZobs mesiis Sesaxeb _ `amova ylorti ieses Rerodan da misi fesvebis amonayari gaixarebs. daivanebs masze uflis suli, suli sibrZnisa da gonierebisa, suli rCevisa da simxnevisa, suli Segnebisa da uflis SiSisa... simarTliT gansjis Rarib-RatakT, sisworiT ganikiTxavs qveynis bedSavT... simarTle iqneba sartyelad mis welze... dadgeba mgeli cxvarTan erTad da vefxvi dabinavdeba cikanTan erTad, xbo, lomi da nasuqali pirutyvi erTad iqnebian da Cvili bavSvi waruZRveba maT... im dRes xalxTa droSad dadgeba ieses fesvi da misken daiwyeben denas tomebi, dideba iqneba misi saSvebeli~ (esaia, 11). esaias darad miqa winaswarmetyvelic mesiis eras ukavSirebs yvela xalxebis moqcevasa da gadarCenas _ `ukanasknel dReebSi iqneba, rom mTebis TavSi damyardeba uflis saxlis mTa, gorakebze maRla aRimarTeba da misken daiwyebs denas xalxebi. movlen uamravi xalxebi da ityvian: wamo, avideT uflis mTaze da iakobis RvTis taZarSi, rom gvaswavlos Tavisi gzebi da viaroT misi bilikebiT, radgan sionidan gamodis rjuli da ierusalimidan _ uflis sityva~ (miqa, 4:1-2). uflis mosvlis Semdgom damyarebul dausrulebel samefos ieremia `axal aRTqmas~, xolo ezekieli `saukuno aRTqmas~ uwodebs _ winaswarmetyvelis piri RaRadebs _ `davudeb maT mSvidobis aRTqmas da saukuno aRTqma iqneba maTTvis. davamkvidreb maT da gavamravleb, maT Soris davdgam Cems sawmindars saukunod. iqneba maTze Cemi movaneba, veyolebi maT RmerTad, isini ki Cemi eri iqnebian. maSin mixvdebian xalxebi, rom ufali var, israelis ganwmendeli, da Cemi sawmidaris saukuno myofobiT maT Soris~ (ezek. 37:26-27). Zveli aRTqmis gamocxadebis mwvervalia esaias winaswarmetyveleba, romelmac iwinaswarmetyvela ara marto Cveni mxsnelis _ qristes _ daviTis sagvareulodan warmoSoba, qalwulis mier misi mucladReba, Soba da emanuelad saxeldeba (esaia 7:14), aramed Cveni codvebis daxsnisaTvis misi vnebaca da sikvdili _ `namdvilad ki, man ikisra Cveni snebebi da itvirTa Cveni satanjveli, Cven ki gvegona, RvTisagan iyo nacem-nagvemi da damcirebuli. magram is Cveni codvebisaTvis iyo daWrili, Cveni ukeTurobebisaTvis dalewili. masze iyo sasjeli Cveni simrTelisaTvis da misi wylulebiT Cven ganvikurneT... evno da ewama, magram ar dauZravs bage, kraviviT dasaklavad miiyvanes da rogorc cxvari dums mparsvelTa winaSe, masac ar dauZravs bage~ (esaia, 53:4-5, 7-8).

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man iwinaswarmetyvela, rom macxovris uwinares mova winamorbedi da moamzadebs xalxs mis misaRebad, ityvis rom is iqneba qriste, ese igi cxebuli RvTisa, rom is iqneba RmerTi da kaci, rom is moaxdens saswaulebs; misi sityviT, koWlebi ivlian, brmebi aRixilaven, mkvdrebi aRdgebian, rom is ewvaleba, mokvdeba da amiT gamoixsnis yvela mis morwmunes, is aRsdgeba da daafuZnebs simarTlis da mSvidobis sasufevels da mis sufevas ar eqneba dasasruli, rameTu misi samefo, axali ierusalimi, iqneba WeSmariti samefo RvTisa gardamosuli qveynad. winaswarmetyvelebani aRsrulda, magram ise, rom is, visac elodnen, movida wynarad da SeumCnevlad (emanuil svetlov, vestniki carstva boJia, 1972, gv. 488-492), raTa axali aRTqma daedo rCeul erTan, rogorc ambobda ieremias piriT ufali _ `es aris is aRTqma, romelic unda davudo israelis saxls im drois Semdeg, ambobs ufali. wiaRSi Cavudeb maT Cems rjuls da gulze davawer. maTi RmerTi viqnebi me da isini Cemi eri iqnebian~ (ier. 31:32). movida is, romelic ixila danielma CvenebiT _ `Cems Ramis xilvaSi vnaxe: aha, cis Rrublebze modioda kacis Zis msgavsi, igi Zvel dReTagan movida da wardgenil iqna mis winaSe. mieca mas xelmwifoba, dideba da mefoba, raTa yvela xalxi, tomni da enani mas emsaxuron. misi xelisufleba saukuno xelmwifebaa, bolo ar eqneba mas da misi samefo ar daiqceva~ (dan. 7:13-14). yvela xalxi, tomi da ena iqca ieso qristes Tayvanismcemlad, rCeuli eri israilisa, amis Semdgom, swored maT, mis morwmune qristianebs ewodaT, swored maT miecaT axali aRTqma. yvela qristianma erma Tavisi sasuliero mwerloba `saRmrTo werilis~, anu bibliis TargmniT daiwyo. axali aRTqmis berZnulidan Targmna meore saukunidanve dauwyiaT. maT Soris pirveli siriuli Targmanebi yofila. siriuli ena axlos yofila arameul dialeqtTan, romelzec laparakobdnen qriste da mociqulebi. qarTulad saxareba mexuTe saukuneSi ukve Targmnili iyo. iakob xucesi, romelmac `wameba wmidisa SuSanikisi dedoflisa~ 476-483 wlebSi dawera, sxva wignTa Soris moixseniebs saxarebasac _ `evangelies~ saxeliT. iakob xucesi wers: rodesac curtavSi SuSanik dedofali ganudga gamazdeanebul qmars _ varsqen pitiaxSs da kvlav taZrad mivida, man `Tana waritanna evangelie Tvisi da wmidani igi wignni mowameTani~, sapyrobileSi ki `...didiTa gulis-modginebiTa xelTa aRixvna daviTni da mciredTa dReTa Semdgomad asergasisni igi fsalmunni daiswavlna~. maSasadame, V saukuneSi ukve arsebula qarTulad `saxareba~, wmida mowameTa cxovrebis aRwera da daviTni (iv. lolaSvili, wignisa da mwerlobis sawyisebTan, 1978, gv. 8). sityva `evangelie~ klasikur berZnulSi aRniSnavs keTili ambis cnobas _ xarebas. axal aRTqmaSi aRniSnavs xarebas imisas, rom qristem Seariga adamianebi RmerTTagan da Cven mogvitana sasufevlis sikeTe, amitomac ewoda qarTulad evangeles _ saxareba.

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Cveni mematianes Tanaxmad, vaxtang mefis dedisaTvis saxareba gaucvniaT V saukunis Sua wlebSi, xolo VI saukunis 30-ian wlebSi saqarTvelos farglebs gareT arsebuli saba ganwmendilis monastris damaarseblis, wmida sabas `anderZi~ gvauwyebs, rom iberielebs `neba eZlevaT warTqvan Jamni da samxrisaA, warikiTxon samociqulo da saxareba TavianT dedaenaze~. maSasadame, sabawmindel qarTvel berebs V saukunis meore naxevarSi xelT hqoniaT qarTuli `samociqulo~ da qarTulive `saxareba~ (iqve, gv. 9). saxarebis uZveles qarTul Targmanebs `pirveliTgans~ uwodebdnen, giorgi mTawmideli am Targmanebs `wmidad Targmnilebs~ uwodebda da did mniSvnelobas aniWebda: `Cvenni yovelni saxarebani pirveliTgan wmidad Targmnilni arian da keTilad _ xanmetnica da sabawmindurnica~. i. lolaSvilis azriT, `pirveliTganSi~ igulisxmeba IV saukuneSive, CvenSi qristianobis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad gamocxadebisas Targmnili saxarebani (iqve, gv. 9). saRmrTo werili yvelaze adre Targmnila qarTulad. am TargmanebiT dawyebula qarTuli saeklesio mwerloba. efrem mcires sityviT, qarTvelebs maSin dauwyiaT saRmrTo werilis Targmna, roca msoflio eklesias jer kidev `araraA aqunda sxvaA sagalobelad saeklesioA, Tvinier fsalmunTa wignisa~. e.i. maSin, roca RvTismsaxurebaSi himnografiuli elementi jer ganviTarebuli ar iyo da araviTari wesis Sesruleba ar SeiZleboda `saRmrTo werilis~ (bibliis) wignebis gareSe (k. kekeliZe, qarT. lit. istoria I, gv. 441). marTlac, petre iberis cxovrebis Tanaxmad, petres jer kidev saqarTveloSi, konstantinepols gamgzavrebamde (424 wlamde) Seuswavlia wmida werili, xolo, matianes cnobiT, vaxtang gorgasals mdidrulad Seumkia saxareba (iqve, gv. 412). Tu verwmunebiT cnobas andria pirvelwodebulisa da sxva mociqulebis saqarTveloSi qadagebis Sesaxeb, mesukavel mowameTa (I-II ss) cxovrebis cnobebsa da agreTve ioane sabanisZis VIII saukuneSi naTqvams, rom mesame saukunidan saqarTvelos mosaxleoba ukve gaqristianebulia, maSin unda vifiqroT, rom wmida werils zepirad Targmna _ qadagebis gziT qarTvelebi meoTxe saukunemde unda gacnobodnen, xolo IV-V saukuneebSi CvenSi ukve rom arsebobda `pirveliTgani~ Targmanebi, sandod unda miviCnioT. miT umetes, rom moRweulia mravali xelnaweri, mecnierTa mier V-VI saukuneebiT daTariRebuli. gansakuTrebiT ki palimfsestebi. arsebobs Zveli Targmanebis (pirveliTganis) ramdenime redaqcia. esenia xanmeti (aso x-aniT meti) da haemeti. Semdgomia e.w. `sabawminduri~. romelic, k. kekeliZis Tanaxmad, xanmetisagan fonetikurad gansxvavdeboda, imiT, rom xan-ebi ukve aRar ixmareboda, Tumca SesaZleblad miiCneva sabawmindur redaqciaSi x-anis magier h-aes xmareba. es redaqciebi IV-IX saukuneebSi Tavsdeba. axali redaqcia wmida werilisa, kerZod ki saxarebisa ekuTvnis eqvTime aTonels

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(mestiis saxareba 1033 w. da metexis saxareba 1049 w.) _ mas teqsti Seujerebia axal, imJamindel berZnul redaqciasTan. es Sroma gaugrZelebia giorgi mTawmindels, mas saxarebis teqsti samjer Seumowmebia berZnul teqstTan da moucia axali, damoukidebeli redaqcia, romelmac saqarTveloSi moipova kanonikuri Rirseba da mniSvneloba qarTuli vulgatisa (iqve, gv. 414). saeklesio saWiroebisaTvis, cxadia, Zveladve `pirveliTgan~ iTargmneboda samociquloc. SuSanikis martvilobidan Cans, rom pavles epistoleni V saukuneSi arsebobda, Tumca samociqulos Zveli nusxebi (XI s-mde arsebulni) naklebad Semonaxula CvenSi. eqvTime aTonels, samociqulos zogierTi teqstis redaqtirebac unda ekuTvnodes, kerZod ki apokalifsisa, anu gamocxadebisa. mas k. kekeliZe miiCnevs pirvel Targmanad, magram SeuZlebelia is manamdec ar hqonodaT qarTvelebs, masve uTargmnia pavles zogierTi epistole, ganmartebebTan erTad. samociqulo ufro srulad uTargmnia (e.i. moucia axali redaqcia axali aRTqmis am nawilisa) giorgi mTawmindels. mas uTargmnia `pavle sruli da saqme mociqulTa da kaTolikeni mociqulTani~. is yofila Zveli qarTuli teqstis redaqtireba da ara axali Targmani berZnulidan. redaqtireba rom yofila, amas amowmebs efrem mcirec _ kerZod, aRniSnavs, rom giorgim mTlianad ver gawyvita kavSiri Zvel qarTul teqstTano (iqve, gv. 416). es redaqciac samociqulosi kanonikuri gamxdara. Zveli aRTqmis wignebi qarTvelebs, rogorc Cans, septantadan uTargmniaT (cnobilia, rom Zveli aRTqmis ebrauli dedani qristeSobamde mesame saukuneSi aleqsandriaSi berZnul enaze gadauTargmnia 70 mTargmnels _ mas uwodes septanta (`septuaginta~), Tumca, zogierTi qarTuli Targmani Sedarebulia II saukuneSi ebraulidan berZnul enaze Sesrulebul TargmanebTanac (cnobilia II saukunis sami Targmani: akvilasi, svimaxosisa da Teodotianesi). dReisaTvis gadarCenilia Zveli aRTqmis zogierTi wignis xelnawerebis nawilebi, zogierTi wigni ki mTlianad. bibliis sruli qarTuli nusxa, romelic Cvenamdea moRweuli, 978 welsaa gadawerili mesxeTSi, `lavrasa Sina didsa uSks~ (oSks) da daculia aTonze, iverTa monasterSi. arsebobs mosazreba, rom eqvTime da giorgi mTawmindelebs uTargmniaT mTeli biblia, k. kekeliZe am azrs ar eTanxmeba. bibliis meore redaqcia aris 1743 wlisa, esaa moskovSi baqar batoniSvilis mier dabeWdili teqsti. mesame redaqcia meTvramete saukunisaa, mas mcxeTuri biblia ewodeba. is uZvelesi xelnaweridan gadauweriaT, romelSiac bibliis teqsti dayofili ar yofila Tavebad da muxlebad. gansakuTrebul, anu m. janaSviliseuls uwodebs k. kekeliZe XV-XVI saukuneebis xelnawerebs (iqve, gv. 418-419); 1884 wels TbilisSi meored daibeWda moskovis gamocema. 1989 wels TbilisSi gamoica bibliis axali Targmani, manamde ki axali aRTqmis teqsti ramdenjerme daibeWda.

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Cven mama-papaTa rjuli, sarwmunoeba, ukve ori aTasi welia qristianobaa, yovladwmida samebis Tayvaniscema. iqamde ki, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, `sjuli mamaTa CvenTa~ iyo Tayvaniscema kerpTa da mnaTobTa. mamaTa rjuli Zvel qarTvelobas mtkiced epyra, iqamde, rom TviT mefesac ki, qveynis TviTmpyrobels qveynidan aZevebdnen, Tuki is gabedavda da winaparTa sarwmunoebisadmi orgulobas gamoamJRavnebda. farnavazis SvilTaSvili, meoTxe mefe iberiisa, anu qarTlis samefosi _ farnajomi _ mazdeanobisa da cecxlTayvanismcemlobisaken midrekila da kerpmsaxureba uaruyvia, amis gamo qarTlis erisTavebma ganacxades: _ `mefe Cveni gardaxda sjulsa mamaTa CvenTasa, arRara msaxurebs RmerTTa mpyrobelTa qarTlisaTa, aw arRara Rirs ars igi mefed Cvenda~ (qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 29). marTlac, mefes SeebrZolnen, mokles da mis nacvlad taxtze sul sxva, axali dinastiis fuZemdebeli mefe aiyvanes. axalgazrdobisas (da gamefebis Semdeg) farnajomi qarTuli rjulis moyvare da misi morwmune yofila, aRumarTavs zadenis kerpi zaden cixesTan, rac im droisaTvis taZris movaleobas asrulebda. `amis Semdgomad Seiyvara sjuli sparsTa, cecxlis msaxureba, moiyvana sparseTiT cecxlismsaxurni da mogvni da dasxna igini mcxeTas, adgilsa mas, romelsa ese hqvian mogvTa da iwyo cxadad gmobad kerpTa, amisTvis moiZules igi mkvidrTa qarTlisaTa, rameTu didi sasoeba aqundaT kerpTa mimarT~ (iqve, 29). qarTvel `mamaTa rjulis~ gmoba Zvirad daujda qarTvelTa mefes. qarTvelTa warmarTuli sarwmunoebis amsaxveli pirvelwyaroebi kerpebis Sesaxeb naklebad laparakoben _ qarTvelni Tayvans scemdneno mzes, mTvaresa da xuT varskvlavs, Tumca ki ufro adre _ warmarTobamde, qarTvelebi WeSmariti RmerTis mcnobni da misi morwmuneni iyvneno. WeSmariti RmerTi qarTvelebs dauviwyebiaT erTiani, protoqarTveluri eTnosis daSlis Semdeg an ufro mogvianebiT: `STavarda Suri Soris SvilTa qarTlosisaTa: iwyes brZolad da xdomad urTierTas... da ganagrZeles maT Soris brZola, romel Jamsame aRdgian amaTganni orni naTesavni erTsa zeda da sxvani Seeweodian... da romelnimme kvalad sxvani aRsdges erTmaneTsa zeda da sxvani Seeweodian~ (qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 10). am droisaTvis, rogorc aRiniSna, maTSi moSlila WeSmariti sarwmunoebis codna _ `da mas Jamsa daiviwyes RmerTi, dambadebeli maTi da iqmnes msaxur mzisa da mTvarisa da varskvlavTa xuTTa da mtkice da ufrosi saficari maTi iyo saflavi qarTlosisa~ (iqve, gv. 11). rogorc vxedavT, am epoqaSi qarTvelebs xeliT qmnili kerpebi, raime qandakebani, `TavianTi Tavis msgavsi kerpi~ ar SeuqmniaT da arc Tayvans scemdnen maT, Tumca ki dambadebelis, qveynis Semoqmedis nacvlad Tayvani sces mis qmnilebebs _ zeciur sx-

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eulebs. mzis, mTvarisa da xuTi varskvlavis Tayvaniscemis mogoneba bolo dromde SemorCenila qarTvelTa Soris. XX saukunis dasawyisSi, ambobs ivane javaxiSvili, samegreloSi deda akvnis Cvils xelSi ayvanils mnaTobTa saxelebs agonebdao: _ `TuTa, Taxa, juma, ca, vobi, sabateni, bJa~, TuTa _ mTvarea, Taxa _ Tarxoni anu marsia (iv. javaxiSvili, I, 1979, gv. 176), juma _ hermesi _ merkuria (`jimaRi~), ca _ ciskris varskvlavi anu afroditea (iqve, gv. 178), vebi _ elva-quxilis, xeTur-xaldeuris monaTesave RvTaeba, sabateni _ nasesxebi sityva `SabaTia~, amiT aRiniSneboda mnaTobi kronosi, romelsac qarTulad `morige~ hqvia da meSvide caze myofad miiCneoda. xazgasmiTaa aRsaniSnavi: qarTuli warmarToba imdenad srulyofilad damuSavebuli da daxvewili iyo, rom `aramcTu sazogado qarTuli, yvela qarTul tomTaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvisac, saerTo warmarToba arsebobda, aramed am warmarTobas saerTo terminologiac, saerTo enac qarTuli hqonia~ (iqve, gv. 156). saqarTveloSi sarwmunoebis ena qarTuli iyo, es wesi mtkiced damkvidrebula uZveles dros yvela qarTul tomSi. es miT ufro dasafasebelia, rom sarwmunoebis ena TviT gvian saukuneebSic ki, xSirad ara mSobliuri ena iyo zogierT xalxSi. qarTuli warmarToba qarTvelebisaTvis gamSobliurebul-gaerovnebuli yofila, amitomac mas mtkice winaaRmdegoba gauwevia TviT iranuli religiisaTvis, romelsac asaxva upovia `sparselTa wminda wignSi~ _ avestaSi (zoroastrizmi). `qarTul warmarTobas Tavisi mtkiced Camoyalibebuli panTeonic hqonia, am panTeonSi zogi mTavar RvTaebad iTvleboda, zogi da umetesoba umcros RvTaebaTa jgufs ekuTvnoda~ (iqve, gv. 156). ivane javaxiSvilis azriT, warmarTobisdroindeli qarTvelebis mTavar `RvTaebad~ mTvare iTvleboda. yvelgan, sadac ki qarTvelebs ucxovriaT, mTvaris Tayvaniscemis kvali SerCenilia. ara marto saqarTveloSi, pontosa da frigiaSi, `sadac erT dros qarTveli tomebi binadrobdnen strabonis sityviT, mTvaris Tayvaniscema gavrcelebuli yofila~ (iqve, gv. 99). mTvaris, viTar mTavar meufis da RvTaebis Tayvaniscema, yvela qarTveli tomis rwmenad unda CaiTvaloso, _ werda is (iqve, gv. 99). panTeonSi umaRles RvTaebebad miiCneoda aseve `RmerTi Semoqmedi~ da `ca _ RrubelTa batoni~ (iqve, gv. 101). uzenaes RvTaebas `morigesac~ uwodebdnen. is kronosi unda yofiliyo. qarTuli 7-dRiani msgefsis yoveli dRe mnaTobTadmi iyo miZRvnili da maT sadideblad iyo saxeldebuli. kvira mzis dRe iyo, orSabaTi _ mTvarisa, samSabaTi _ ariasi, oTxSabaTi _ ermisa, xuTSabaTi _ afroditisa, paraskevi _ diosisa, SabaTi _ kronosisa. mTvare marTlac gansakuTrebiT pativdebuli yofila. TviT Cems siymawvileSic ki zogi moxuci orSabaTs

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uqmobda (orSabaTi ki mTvarisadmi, uzenaesisadmi yofila miZRvnili), xolo zogan Cvil bavSvs mTvares daanaxebdnen da pirjvars asaxvinebdnen. am dros eubnebodnen _ `ai, fufala~ da gulisxmobdnen ufals (warmarTuli Cvevebis aRorZineba eklesiis dacemam gamoiwvia XX s-Si). r. patariZem ZvelqarTuli anban-kalendris kvlevisas faqtobrivad daadastura ivane javaxiSvilis sityvebi: `exla roca gamoirkva, Tu ra didi mniSvneloba hqonda Zveli qarTvelebis sarwmunoebaSi mTvares da mis mdgomareobas, mcxralisa, gavsebulisa, da mTvaris aRvsebis gamocnobas, cxadia, rom xatis msaxurebs kargad unda scodnodaT mTvaris angariSi, swored ase iyo kidec, fSavsa da xevsureTs, xevisbersa da dekanozs rom hkiTxoT, _ ambobda am 55 wlis winaT r.erisTavi, mTvare ramdeni dRisaa, erT wamsve miiRebT swor pasuxso. vin ar icis, rom saqarTveloSi am oci wlis winaT yvelam Cinebulad icoda, zogma exlac icis mTvaris raodenobis gaangariSeba~ (iqve, gv. 98). qarTul warmarTobasac Tavisi istoria hqonia, droTa ganmavlobaSi ganviTarebula, SeuZenia axal-axali elementebi, mnaTobTa Tayvaniscemis gverdiT kerpTa Tayvaniscemac SemouRia qarTvelobas. saistorio wyaroebis mixedviT qarTul warmarTul panTeonSi pirveloba hqonia armazs. safiqrebelia, kerpTa Tayvaniscema axladSeqmnili erTiani warmarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis ganmtkicebis saWiroebisTvis SemouRiaT qveynis mmarTvelebs, magaliTad, dasavleT-aRmosavleT-samxreT saqarTvelos gaerTianebisa da damoukidebeli samefos sazRvarTa ganmtkicebis Semdgom `farnavaz Seqmna kerpi didi saxelsa zeda Tvissa; es ars armazi, rameTu farnavazs sparsulad armaz erqva, amarTa kerpi igi Tavsa zeda qarTlisasa da amieriTgan ewoda armazi kerpisa misTvis da qmna satfureba didi kerpisa misTvis aRmarTebulisa~ (`qarTlis cxovreba~, I, gv. 25) armazi _ gaerTianebuli da gaTavisuflebuli pirveli erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos mfarvel `RvTaebad~ unda yofiliyo warmodgenili. wyaros Tanaxmad, farnavazamdec azonis qveynis sazRvrebic faqtobrivad sruliad saqarTvelos moicavda, azons, Cans, Tavisi saxelmwifos ganmtkicebis mizniT, pirvelad SemouRia kerpTayvaniscema. `qarTlis cxovreba~ wers _ `aman azon dauteva sjuli aleqsandres mocemuli, iwyo kerpTmsaxurebad da Seqmnna orni kerpni vercxlisani: `gaci da gaim~. aleqsandre makedonelis mier qarTvelTaTvis datovebuli sjuli ki yofila mnaTobTa da uxilavi RmerTis Tayvaniscema _ `ubrZana aleqsandre azons, raTa pativs scemdes mzesa da mTvares da varskvlavTa xuTTa da hmsaxurebdnen RmerTsa uxilavsa, dambadebelsa yovlisasa, rameTu mas Jamsa ara iyo winaswarmetyveli da moZRvari sjulisa WeSmaritisa, romelmanca aswava da amxila aramed TviT moigona sjuli ese aleqsandre, mefobasa Sina yovelsa qveyanasa sjuli ese daudva da wavida aleqsandre~ (iqve, gv. 19).

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cnobilia, rom aleqsandre makedoneli Tayvans scemda `RmerTTa~ berZnul panTeons, mnaTobTa da uxilavi RmerTis Tayvaniscema iyo ara aleqsandres rjuli, aramed qarTvelTa pirvelwinaprebisa, rogorc amas iqve, ramdenime Tavis win wers qarTveli mematiane. unda vifiqroT, rom aleqsandrem an misma romelime satrapma, Tuki isini saqarTveloSi iyvnen, saWirod CaTvales qarTvelTa erovnuli sarwmunoebisaTvis pativi miegoT da daekanonebinaT. saxels armazisas mematiane sparsulTan akavSirebs, `farnavazs sparsulad armaz erqva~-o, mecnierTa erTi nawili mas ahuramazdasTan _ sparsul uzenaes RvTaebasTan akavSirebs, sxvebi ki xeTur mTvaris RvTaebis saxel `armas~Tan. armazis saxels ahuramazdasTan akavSirebda ivane javaxiSvili da werda: `armazis Sesaxeb cnobebs rom sparsul ahuramazdasTan saxelis meti saerTo araferi aqvs, es ucilobelia~ (iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSr. gv. 145). armazis Tayvaniscemasa da mazdeanobas Soris saerTo niSnebs ver xedaven, magram, miuxedavad amisa, cecxlTayvanismcemlobas saqarTveloSic SemouRwevia da nawilobriv gavrcelebula kidec. `mazdeanoba rom erT xans saqarTveloSic gavrcelebuli iyo da maSasadame, ahuramazda-armazis Tayvaniscemac unda yofiliyo Cvens qveyanaSi _ es cxadia~, _ wers iv. javaxiSvili. `...wmida nino maSindel qarTvelebs ase axasiaTebs: `vxedevdiT, cecxlis msaxursa mas ersa da mogvebsa da cTomasa maTsa zeda vtirodio~. zoroastrizmi _ iranidan gavrcelda sxva qveynebSi, isic `uxilav RmerTsa~, da ciur sxeulebs Tayvanscemda da amitomac, albaT qarTvelTa sarwmunoebasTan msgavsebis gamo, saqarTveloSic hpova gavrceleba. Tumca ki, qarTul erovnul sarwmunoebas misTvis medgari winaaRmdegoba gauwevia. zoroastri, anu zaraTuStra winaswarmetyvelad miiCneva. am religiis wmida kanonia _ avesta, xolo uzenaesi RvTaeba _ ahuramazda, romlis saxelis mixedviTac zoroastrizms mazdeanobac hqvia. is saqarTveloSi qristianobamde imdenad gavrcelebula, rom misi mZlavri gavlenis kvali dRemde SemorCa qarTul enas (taZari, kerpi, zvaraki, eSma, jojoxeTi, marTali, warmarTi, bagini, droSa, anderZi, dasturi da sxva). Cans gansakuTrebiTac moukidnia fexi qarTlis samefos mmarTvel zedafenaSi, amis maCvenebelia maT Soris gavrcelebuli iranul-zoroastruli Teoforuli saxelebi _ farnavazi, farnajomi, artavazi, arSaki, bagrati, bakuri, bartomi, mirdati, adarnase, azorki da sxva (m. andronikaSvili, narkvevebi iranul-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan 1. 1966). `parsebis wminda wigni _ avesta, romelsac zogjer `iranul bibliasac~ ki uwodebdnen _ zoroastrizmis sulieri codnis Semcvelia. Cans, swored mas uwodebdnen qarTvelebi `nebroTis wigns~, romelic ZvelqarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, winaqristianul epoqaSi qarTvelTaTvis cnobili yofila, pavle ingoroyva miiCnevs, rom is qarTul enazec iyo Targmnili da mefeTa saxlebSi inaxeboda.

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mazdeanoba popularuli gaxda qristianobamdel msoflioSi, mas gavlenac ki mouxdenia gviandel iudaizmze, SeWrila romaul religiaSi, suli Cauberia gnosticizmisa da maniqevelobisaTvis (e. svetlovi, vestnik carstva boJia, V, briuseli, 1972 gv. 363). unda iTqvas, rom msoflioSi erTaderTi religia, romelic icnobda mesianizms (igulisxmeba bibliuri samyaros gareT) esaa mesianizmi zaraStutrasi (iqve, gv. 493), sxvaTa Soris, es Cans qarTuli wyaroebidanac, romelsac qveviT ganvixilavT. israelis winaswarmetyvelTa garda mxolod mazdeanobas swamda momavali sufeva uflisa, mxolod is moeloda msoflios mxsnelis mosvlas amqveynad, swored zaratuStras qurumebi _ mogvebi _ mividnen pirvelni Cveni macxovris iesos Sobisas mis Tayvanissacemlad, swored isini elodnen mis mosvlas am qveynad da pirvelebma Seityves es. Tanaxmad maTe maxareblisa _ `xolo roca iudeis beTlemSi daibada ieso qriste, herodes mefobis Jams, aha, aRmosavleTiT movidnen mogvni ierusalims da Tqves: sad aris iudevelTa axalSobili mefe? vinaidan vixileT misi varskvlavi aRmosavleTSi da movediT, raTa Tayvani vceT mas. es rom gaigo, SeZrwunda mefe herode da mTeli ierusalimi masTan erTad. da Sekriba yvela mRvdelmTavari da eris mwignobarni da gamoikiTxa maTgan, sad unda Sobiliyo ieso qriste. xolo maT uTxres mas: iudeis beTlemSi, vinaidan ase daiwera winaswarmetyvelis mier... maSin herodem farulad mouwoda mogvebs da gamoikiTxa maTgan varskvlavis gamoCenis Jami da wargzavna isini beTlems... xolo maT usmines mefes da wavidnen da aha varskvlavi, romelic ixiles aRmosavleTiT, win miuZRvoda maT, sanam ar mivida da Tavs ar daadga im adgils, sadac yrma iyo... da rodesac Sevidnen saxlSi, ixiles yrma mariamTan, Tavis dedasTan erTad, da daemxnen da Tayvani sces mas da gaxsnes TavianTi saunje da miarTves mas ZRveni: oqro, gundruki da muri~ (maTe, 2:1-11). es moTxroba, e.svetlovis azriT, gviCvenebs, rom axali aRTqma raRacnairad dakavSirebulia bibliisgare religiur samyarosTan, rom israelis sazRvrebs gareTac adamianebi elodnen mxsnelis mosvlas. saxarebis dedanSi sityva `mogvi~ JRers rogorc `magi~ (Magoi), rac saerTod ewodeba jadoqrobaSi daxelovnebul adamianebs; Zvelad ki antikur dros sityva `mags~ iranuli religiis qurumebs uwodebdnen, rogorc es aRniSnuli iyo, da swored maT sces pirvelebma Tayvani warmarTTagan RmerTkacs bagaSive. es SemTxveviT ar yofila: e. svetlovis azriT, niSandoblivia, rom Zveli aRTqma, medgrad mebrZoli egvi ptis, babilonis, finikiis, saberZneTis `RmerTebis~ winaaRmdeg, arsad pirdapir ar gamodis iranis religiis winaaRmdeg (iqve, gv. 362). mazda ahura (ahuramazda) niSnavda yovlismpyrobel da yovladbrZen ufals. isaa `Semoqmedi~ samyaroisa da simarTlisa. samyaro RmTaebrivi Semoqmedis mieraa Seqmnili, ahuramazdas gverdiT dgas eqvsi

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zeciuri suli (esenia) _ `keTili fiqri~ (azri), `simarTle~, `siwminde~, `sikeTis samefo~, `janmrTeloba~, `ukvdaveba~ _ yvelani eseni suliwmindis mier arian Seqmnilni, ras niSnavs es? _ erTian RmerTs Tu qristes warmarT winamorbeds iranis miwaze? arsebiTad es sruliad dasaSvebia, visa aqvs ufleba SezRudos suli wmidis moqmedeba erTi adgiliT? maxareblis sityvebiT, gana is ar sunTqavs, iq, sadac nebavs? Tu eklesiis mamebi antikur azrovnebaSi xedavdnen axali aRTqmis preludias, ra uSlis xels igive iTqvas zarastutras swavlebaze? TviT biblia ar gamoricxavs imis SesaZleblobas, rom RmerTi ixsneba `warmarTTaTvis~ (iqve, gv. 368). mazdeanobas swamda, rom sikeTis RmerTi sabolood gaimarjvebda da didebiT moevlineboda dedamiwas, boroteba ki damarcxdeboda, xolo is adamianebi, romlebic mazdas emsaxurebodnen azriT, sityviT da saqmiT, dajildovdebodnen RvTis am sasufevelSi (iqve, gv. 375). RmerTis sasufeveli (kxSatra) warmoadgenda jamsa da gvirgvins msoflio yofisas, zarastutras sikvdilis Semdeg warmoiSva rwmena imisa, rom mazda adamianebs gamougzavnida axal mxsnels, es rwmena sabolood iudaur mesianizms daemsgavsa. magebi aswavlidnen, rom garkveuli drois Semdeg mxsneli dedamiwaze movidoda, raTa boroteba daemarcxebina (iqve, gv. 377). am rwmeniT xom ar gahyvnen iraneli mogvebi beTlemisaken varskvlavs? yovelive zemomoyvanili CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa `qarTlis cxovrebis~ erTi adgilis amoxsnisaTvis, romelic dakavSirebulia mociqulTa swor mefe mirianTan. mematiane mogviTxrobs, rom warmarTobis xanis qarTvelma mefe mirianma wmida ninos qadagebis mosmenis Semdeg `iwyo gamoZieba sjulisa~ da gadaikiTxa warmarTuli `nebroTis wigni~ (mazdeanuri rjulisa), garda amisa aman gamowvlilviT gamoikiTxa moxuc ebraelTagan sjulis sakiTxebi, is dainteresda swored `mxsneliT~. wmida ninos, aseve moxuc ebraelTa da `nebroTis wignis~ miTiTebani mxsnelsa da mesiaze erTmaneTs emsgavsebodnen _ `maSin mirian mefe gankvirda da iwyo gamoZiebad sjulisa qristessa da mravalgzis hkiTxaven huria-yofilsa mas abiaTars ZvelTa da axalTa wignTasa da igi auwyebda yovelsa. da wignica romeli hqonda mirian mefesa nebroTisi da masca wignsa Sina pova werili esreTi: ...~me var miqael, romeli dadginebul var RmerTisa mier mTavrobasa zeda aRmosavlisasa... xolo ukanasknelTa JamTa movides meufe igi cisa... man gixilos Wirsa Sina da gixsen Sen~. maSin gulisxma yo mefeman mirian rameTu Zvelni wignni da axalni ewamebodes da nebroTis wignica daamtkicebda da Seeqmna survili qristes sjulisa~ (qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 105). aSkaraa, rom qarTul wyaroSi dadasturebulia zemomoyvanili azri, rom bibliur wignebSi gadmocemuli mesianizmis idea zoroastrizmSic arsebobda. swored aman SesZra mefe miriani da ukve movlinebul mxsnelad aRiara Cveni macxovari. aq sainteresoa isic, rom `nebroTis wigni~, rogorc Cans,

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namdvilad arsebobda Zvel saqarTveloSi, radganac misi citata damowmebuli mematianis mier, swored zoroastrizmis umTavresi ideis Semcvelia, masSi naTqvamia `cis meufis mosvlisa~ da `xsnis~ Sesaxeb. mefe miriani, romelic iqamde cecxlTayvanismcemeli yofila, emsgavseba mogvebs, romelnic uflis akvanTan mividnen da Tayvani sces mas TavianTi sarwmunoebrivi codnis wyalobiT, magram amiT maT Soris msgavseba mTavrdeba, mefe miriani ufro amaRlda imiT, rom man ara marto Tayvani sca mxsnels, aramed gaxda misi upirvelesi moqadage da misi rwmenis gamavrcelebeli saqarTveloSi, amitomac is mociqulTa sworad iwoda. isic unda iTqvas, rom mefe miriani warmarTobis dros, sxva qarTvelTa darad, `qarTvel mamaTa rjulis~ mimdevaric iyo da Tayvans scemda winaparTa `RmerTebs~, misi azriT, isini arian `RmerTni didni, soflis mpyrobelni, mzisa momfenelni, wvimis momcemelni da qveynis naSobTa gamomzrdelni RmerTni qarTlisani armaz da zaden, yovlisa dafarulisa gamomZiebelni, Zvelni RmerTni mamaTa CvenTani gaci da gaim~ (iqve, gv. 106). aqve uTuod unda iTqvas, rom msgavseba Zveli aRTqmis mxsnel RmerTsa da cecxlTayvanismcemelTa mazdas Soris mxolod calmxrivia. mazdeanizmi dualisturi religiaa, mazdas miekuTvneba yovelgvari sikeTe, is Semoqmedia yovelive mSvenierisa samyaroSi, xolo yovelive bnelisa da borotisa ki `aiaSma~, sicruea. am borot suls angra-maniu (ahrimani berZnulad) _ `mowinaaRmdege suli~ hqvia. is mudmivi mowinaaRmdegea RmerTisa, masTan mebrZolia, meore `boroti Semoqmedia~. mis Seqmnilad iTvleboda _ jadoqrebi, mebrZoli tomebi, devebi da sxva. gansakuTrebiTi gansxvaveba isaa, rom zarastutra araTu ibrZoda maT winaaRmdeg, vinc ar iziarebda mazdeanur sarwmunoebas, aramed avaldebulebda mis yvela morwmunes, iaraRiT xelSi, ukompromisod moespo yvela religiuri mowinaaRmdge, religiuri omi wminda omad miaCnda. yvela sarwmunoebriv mowinaaRmdeges ahrimanis, anu boroti sulis mier Seqmnilad miiCnevda, religiur sakiTxebs cecxlTayvanismcemlebi iseve Wridnen, rogorc Semdgom muhamedi. amiT sparseTi rogorc mazdeanuri ise mahmadianuri, qarTvelTaTvis agresiuli iyo, misi sarwmunoebrivi politika ar Secvlila. xolo iranelebTan qarTvelebis zneobriv-moraluri damokidebulebis Sesaxeb unda iTqvas, rom antikur epoqaSi, qarTul wyaroTa Tanaxmad, qarTvelebs sparselebTan urTierToba, maTTan naTesaoba da sulieri kavSiri saTakilod ar miaCndaT (sul sxva suraTia qarTul-sparsuli urTierTobisas Sua saukuneebSi). mizezi amisa iyo is, rom cecxlTayvanismcemlobis dros TavianTi sarwmunoebrivi moTxovnilebebis gamo iranelebs sicrue, boroti, arazneobrivi saqmis Cadena ejavrebodaT. `sicrues isini samarcxvino naklad Tvliano~, _ wers herodote, Semdgom, mongolebis dros, Cveni mematianes sityviT, mongolebi sparselebs yvela xalxTa Soris yvelaze matyuarad da crud miiCnevdnen (albaT, am epoqaSi

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qarTvelTa Soris maT zneobasac saxeli gautyda). mazdeanobisas ki maT evalebodaT Sesruleba valdebulebisa _ `keTili azri, keTili sityva, keTili saqme~. evalebodaT amoerCiaT keTilsa da borots Soris erTi _ keTili. rjulis pirveli maswavleblis gardacvalebis Semdgom mazdeanobaSi SeiWra mravalRmerTianoba. ahuramazda ukve aRar iyo erTaderTi RmerTi. ahuramazdas avestaSi ewodeba `simarTlis dambadebeli~, romelmac gakvala gza mzisa da varskvlavebisaken; mas adareben mTvares, romelic ivseba da ileva. amitomac SesaZlebelia armazs _ ahuramazdas qarTul saxes _ mTvaris RmerTis funqciac miewereboda. Tu armazs mTvaris RmerTis funqcia eniWeboda, maSin is misaRebi iqneboda warmarTul saqarTveloSi arsebuli ori sarwmunoebrivi mxarisaTvis. erTni iyvnen saxelmwifo religiis _ `mamaTa rjulis~, anu qarTuli erovnuli panTeonis Tayvanismcemlebi (xalxis farTo masebi da erisTavebi), meoreni ki zoroastrizmis mimdevrebi _ am ukanasknelTa ricxvs, Cans dafarulad TanaugrZnobda samefo ojaxic (`qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, farnavazis Semdgomi qarTuli samefo dinastiebi _ nebroTianebi da arSakunianebi enaTesavebodnen aRmosavlur iranul dinastiebs). maT esaWiroebodaT mazdeanobis dafarva, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, rogorc Tavidan iyo aRniSnuli, taxtidan Camoagdebdnen. Tavisi wminda saxiT mazdeanoba kerpTayvanismcemlobas uaryofda, magram Semdeg misi Tavdapirveli `siwminde~ SeimRvra. qristianobis gamarjvebis Semdeg samefo ojaxSi darCenila naSTi mazdeanizmisa, is kvlav dafaruli iyo, amas miuTiTebs vaxtang gorgaslis mematianis sityvebi, romelic `nebroTis wignis~ Sesaxeb gvamcnobs `mamaTa CvenTa farulad epyraT wigni ese~. armazi _ warmarTobis dros, xalxis TvalsazrisiT, cecxlTayvanismcemlobis mowinaaRmdege `RmerTs~ warmoadgenda. saqarTveloSi qristianoba ukve pirveli saukunidanve TandaTan vrceldeboda, amave dros CvenSi cxovrobdnen iudaisturi religiis mimdevrebi da mzis (cecxlis) Tayvanismcemlebi. qarTveli warmarTebi cdilobdnen `mamaTa RmerTis~ _ armazis _ risxva ar gamoewviaT qristianobis, iudaizmis anda cecxlTayvanismcemlobis miRebiT. isini eTayvanebodnen armazs da ambobdnen _ `vai Tu da-sada-vaklo rai didebasa didisa RmrTisa armazissa da Se-rasme-vcde sityvasa ebraelTa Tana, gina mogvTa smenasa daxvdomil viyo mzis msaxurTa da romelime ityvian ucebni didsa visme RmerTsa caTasa~ (qarT. agiogr. lit. Zegl. I, gv. 119). armazi _ mamaTa RmerTi _ gansxvavdeba ebraelTa, mazdeanTa da qristianTa RmerTisagan. ufro metic, _ is mteria `atroSanisa~ anu `iTrujanisa~ _ cecxlis RvTaebisa. `qaldevelTa RmerTi iTrujan da Cveni ese RmerTi armaz yovladve mter arian. aman rame mas zeda zRva moaqcia...~ k. kekeliZis

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kvlevis Tanaxmad, iTrujani atroSania, xolo qaldevelebs im droisaTvis sparselebs uwodebdnen. armazi wyliT aqrobs cecxlis sagznebels (iseve, rogorc Semdgom Cveni wmida mamebi _ cecxlTayvanismcemlobis winaaRmdeg mebrZolni). sabolood ZvelqarTuli sarwmunoebis Sesaxeb gavimeoroT sidonias sityva: `egreT iyo cxovrebaA Cveni qarTvelno, rameTu viqceodiT naTelsa da mkvidr viyveniT bnelsa, vixarebdiT SvebiTa da viunjebdiT glovasa, romlisa nugeSinismcemeli ara iyo. vhmsaxurebdiT same dabadebulTa da ara dambadebelsa, qerobinTa etlTa zeda mjdomarisa wil mTaTa maRalTa Tavyuanis-scemdes mamani Cvenni, gebalsa da garizinsa da mas zeda ara iyo arca RmerTi, arca mose, arca niSi maTi, aramed kerpni qvisani usuloni. xolo amas qveyanasa qarTlisasa iyvnes orni mTani da maT zeda orni kerpni, armaz da zaden, romelni iynosdes sulmyralobiT aTassa sulsa yrmisa pirmSoisasa armaz da zaden da Sesawiravad uCndes mSobelTa maTTa msxverplad, viTarmca ukunisamde ara iyos sikvdili. da ese iyo moaqamde, xolo iyvnes kerpni sxvanica samefoni: gaci da ga. da Seiwirvoda maTa erTi sefewuli cecxliTa dawvad da mtveri gardabnevad Tavsa kerpisasa~ (`moqcevai qarTlisai~, iqve, gv. 125, var. a). yrmaTa kerpTadmi Sewirva, Tu marTla arsebobda aseTi wesi, matianis Tanaxmad, qristianobis gavleniT aRukveTia mefe rev marTals III saukunis dasawyisSi. strabonis Tanaxmad, mTvares albaneTSi marTlac swiravdnen adamians msxverplad. isic unda iTqvas, rom ivane javaxiSvils eeWveboda CvenSi kerpTayvanismcemlobis arseboba, misi kvlevis Tanaxmad, warmarTobis xanaSi qarTvelebi Tayvans scemdnen `Semoqmed RmerTs~, mnaTobebs, sxva qmnilebebs da swored es miiCneoda `mamaTa rjulad~.

pompeusis laSqroba israelsa da iberiaSi


qristeSobamde 65 wlis gazafxulze romaelTa laSqari saqarTvelos samxreT sazRvars moadga. mxedarTmTavarma, romaeli xalxis usazRvro siyvaruliT mosilma pompeusma, roca albaneTTan omisas Seityo iberTa mefe artagis saomrad mzadebis Sesaxeb, daswreba amjobina da swrafi marSiT gaiara manZili iberiis dedaqalaqamde. armazis kedlebTan momdgari romaeli legionebisa da polkebis niSnebis moulodnelma aelvarebam daabnia qarTvelTa mefe. Tu ara xerxianoba romaelTa saxelovani sardlisa, mas didi usiamovneba da SeiZleba marcxic ki eloda iberTa mxridan, miT umetes, rom sul

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ramdenime dRis win pompeuss albanelTa 40-aTasiani laSqari daesxa Tavs. miTridates, pontos mefes, romaelTa winaaRmdeg mebrZols, iberTa didi imedi hqonda. plutarqe, Zveli berZnuli mwerlobis saukeTeso warmomadgeneli, Tavis `paralelur biografiebSi~ werda: `iberni ricxviT albanelebs ar Camouvardebodnen. guladobiTac sxvebze ufro mamacni iyvnen da Zalian undodaT miTridatesTvis eamebinaT da pompeusi ukueqciaT: iberni arc midielebis morCilebaSi yofilan, arc sparsebs eqvemdebarebodnen da Tavis droze makedonelTa mbrZaneblobac aicdines Tavidan imis wyalobiT, rom aleqsandre friad swrafad gabrunda hirikaniidan, magram pompeusma iberebic daamarcxa did brZolaSi ise, rom cxra aTasi kaci mokles, xolo aTi aTasze meti romaelebs CauvardaT tyved~ (plutarqe, rCeuli biografiebi, 1975, gv. 330). plutarqes mier naxsenebi iberebTan gamarTuli `didi brZola~, namdvilad didi unda yofiliyo, radganac mxedarmTavar pompeusisaTvis, romelmac manamde ori triumfi moawyo romSi afrikisa da evropis dalaSqvrisaTvis, Cveulebrivi omis `did brZolad~ saxeldeba didebis momtani ar iqneboda. iberebis damarcxeba sasaxelo iyo pompeusisaTvis, romaelTa mier `didad~ saxeldebulisaTvis, radganac, rogorc plutarqe ambobs, manamde iberebis damorCileba verc midielebma da verc sparselebma SeZles da aleqsandre makedonelic hirkaniidan ukan gabrunebula. Tu ras niSavda midielTa, sparselTa da makedonelTa saxelmwifoTa morCilebisagan Tavis arideba, kargad Cans danielis winaswarmetyvelebidan. babilonSi ebraelTa tyveobis dros mefe nabuqodonosoris sizmris axsnisas danielma Tqva, rom mraval xalxze gabatonebuli babilonis samefos Semdeg msoflioSi warmoiSoboda sami udidesi imperia: sparsTa `mere gamefdes, romeli euflos yovelsa qveyanasa (mefoba makedonelTa, berZenTa), mefoba meoTxe (romaelTa) iyos Zlieri rogorc rkina~. damarcxeba iberielebisa, romlebmac Tavidan aiciles midiel-sparselTa da berZenTa xelqveS yofna, sasaxelo iyo romaelTa sardlisaTvis. romaelTa somxeTSi gamarjvebis Semdeg iberiis mefes eWvi gasCenia, vaiTu pompeusi saqarTvelosac moadges da dai pyroso, da TviTonac saswrafo saomar mzadebas Sesdgomia, pompeusisTvis ki despanebi gaugzavnia _ megobrobis dasamyareblad. pompeusi ar Semcdara da, rogorc iTqva, saswrafod iberiaSi SeWrila. iberebs verc sazRvarTan dadgoma mouswriaT da verc Casafreba, omis samzadisSi myofi mefe armazSi imyofeboda. saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis saxeli berZen-romaeli mwerlebisaTvis I saukunidanve cnobilia, mas `armaz cixesac~ uwodebdnen, mcxeTis Sida cixeakropolisis sasaxleSi Seutyvia artags, rom pompeuss misi samyofelidan mxolod kedlebiRa hyofda. mefem, romelsac ucxoelebi artoks uwodebdnen, ver moaxerxa cixis dacva da saCqarod miatova igi. armazSi panika

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Seqmnila, garnizoni dabneula, brZolaSi damarcxebula da danebebia pompeuss, mdinaris meore mxares gadasul mefes ki romaelTa laSqari dadevnebia. mterma moaswro mtkvris mTeli marjvena sanapiros dapyroba. miuxedavad imisa, rom romaelebi mtkvris meore napirzec gadavidnen da qarTuli laSqaric ramdenime SebrZolebis Semdeg ZiriTadad daamarcxes, mefis Sepyroba ver moaxerxes. qarTlis mefesa da pompeuss Soris molaparakeba gamarTula, mSvidobis sanacvlod pompeusi mefes mZevlebs sTxovda _ sefewulebs. mefe yoymanobda, amasobaSi zafxulmac moatana da mdinare pelori dapataravda, amiT isargebla pompeusma da erT adgilas, sadac foni iyo, gaRma gadavida. maSin ki artag mefem ikadra da Tavisi Svilebi mZevlebad gamoimeta. amis Semdeg iberiis mefem da romaelebis sardalma xelSekruleba dadves~. pompeusma samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi _ kolxeTSic ilaSqra, Semdeg kvlav ajanyebul albanelebs Seutia da TiTqmis miadga kaspiis zRvas. pompeuss iberiisa da albaneTis dalaSqvris Semdeg gadauwyvetia samyaros mopirdapire mxarec daelaSqra. amis Semdeg is samyaros oTxive kuTxis mpyrobelad CaiTvleboda, iqamde mis mier dalaSqruli iyo evropa da afrika. `pompeuss metad mgznebare wadili da miswrafeba hqonda siria aeRo da arabeTze gavliT mewamul zRvamde misuliyo, raTa gamarjvebuls mieRwia okeanemde, samyaros rom yovelmxriv gars evleba. marTlac, igi gamarjvebuli pirveli gavida libiaSi gare zRvis napirebamde, mere espaneTSi atlantis okeaneTi SemosazRvra romaelTa sabrZanebeli da mesamejer sul axlaxan, albanelebis devnis dros, cota daaklda, Torem hirkaniis zRvasac miadgeboda, amgvarad pompeusma gadawyvita laSqrobaTa wre mewamuli zRviT Seekra da mxedroba aqeTken daZra~ (plutarqe, iqve, gv. 333). swored siriaSi omis dros pompeusTan mivida iudevelTa deputacia da mefobis maZiebeli Zmebis saxeliT iTxova davis gadaWraSi daxmareba. aleqsandre makedonelis Semdeg, rac imperia oTxad gaiyves misma mxedarTmTavrebma, iudea xelT igdo ptolemeelTa dinastiis damaarsebelma, egvi ptis mefe ptoleme lagem (Zv.w.aR-is 320-283), igive soterma. amis Semdeg 120 wlis manZilze iudea ptolemeTa dinastiis xelqveS iyo. egvi pturi xelisufleba iudeaSi selevkidTa siriulma dinastiam Secvala. mefe antioqe III lmobierad epyroboda ebraelebs, xolo misi taxtis memkvidre selevk IV filipatori (qristeSobamde 187-175) piriqiT, man ebraelTa taZrebis gaZarcva moiwadina, antioqe IV-m (175-163 wlebi) ki ebraelebs sinagogaSi siaruli, locva aukrZala. moiTxova Tayvani ecaT zevsisaTvis da mxolod berZnuli eniT elaparakaT. daiwyo represiebi, misi brZanebiT dawves wmida wignebi, daangries taZrebi, urCebi sikvdiliT dasajes, sastikad awamebdnen da CvilebTan erTad klavdnen ebrael morwmune dedebsac ki. am dros ebraelebs moevlinaT saxalxo gmiri oTxmoci wlis maTa-

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Tia (xasmonelTa STamomavali) Tavisi xuTi vaJiT. xalxi sayovelTaod ajanyda da gahyva maTaTias (Zv.w.aR-is 167). misi gardacvalebis Semdeg ajanyebas saTaveSi Caudga iuda, romelsac makabi (uro) Searqves. man marTlac gaaTavisufla Tavisi qveyana, aRadgina taZari. misi sikvdilis Semdeg saxelmwifos meTaurobda ionaTan makabeli, Semdeg ki misi umcrosi Zma simoni (Zv.w.aR-is 143-135). mis dros iudea damoukidebel saxelmwifod aRiares da simons uwodes nasi _ Tavadi. dadginda qveyanaSi umaRlesi sasuliero wodeba mRvdelmTavrisa (qurumis) memkvidreobiT gadasuliyo makabelTa gvarSi. romma cno iudeis damoukidebloba da masTan megobruli urTierTobac daamyara. simonis vaJis ioan hirkanis dros iudeam didebisa da Zlierebis umaRles dones miaRwia. daimorCila samarielebi, gaanadgura maTi mTavari taZari gerizimis mTaze, daimorCila idumelebi, miaRebina maT iudevelTa sarwmunoeba. misi sikvdilis Semdeg daeca Zliereba iudevelTa saxelmwifosi, aristobulis uzneo qmedebebma saTave daudo sisxlian omebs taxtisaTvis. misi sikvdilis Semdeg saxelmwifos saTaveSi Caudga meore vaJi aleqsandre ianai (Zv.w.aR-is 103-76) _ ufro uzneo mmarTveli. taxtisTvis ZmaTa Soris oms ormocdaaTi aTasi iudeveli Seewira. qmris sikvdilis Semdeg dedofalma salomem erT vaJs _ hirkan II-s uzenaesi qurums xarisxi mianiWa, xolo meore vaJi aristobul II CamoaSora saxelmwifos saqmeebs. dedis sikvdilis Semdeg ZmaTa Soris omi daiwyo. orives surda taxtis daWera. aristobulma Tavi mefed gamoacxada. ZmaTa Soris omi wlebis manZilze grZeldeboda. bolos, qristeSobamde 63 wels, Zmebma daxmarebisaTvis pompeuss mimarTes, romelic, rogorc iTqva, iberiaSi gamarjvebis Semdeg samxreTisken gaemgzavra. pompeusi imJamad sirias ebrZoda. romaeli mxedarTmTavari Zmebs dahpirda, rom siriaSi gamarjvebis Semdeg iudeasac ewveoda da maT saqmeebs gaarCevda. ori aTasi welia, axali da Zveli aRTqmis istorikosebi siamovnebiT uTmoben adgils TavianT SromebSi pompeusis laSqrobas iudeaSi, magram isic unda iTqvas, rom berZen-romaeli istorikosebisaTvis es TiTqmis SeumCneveli iyo. plutarqe, romelic aRwers iberiaSi pompeusis laSqrobas, iudeaSi mxedarmTavris Sesvlas gakvriT ixseniebs. es uTuod imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom iberia im droisaTvis Zveladve arsebul saxelmwifos warmoadgenda, xolo iudeis saxelmwifoebrioba romaelTa mier sul ramdenime wlis win iyo aRiarebuli. egvi ptelTa da sirielTa, anu ptolemeTa da selevkidTa saxelmwifoebis uRelqveS moqceulma iudeam romaelTa Tvalwin aRidgina saxelmwifoebrioba, romelic romaelTa mierve iqna saukunod dasamarebuli. ratom miiwvies taxtisaTvis moqiSpe ebraelebma pompeusi TavianTi saqmis gadasaWrelad? TiTqos am kiTxvas pasuxobs plutarqe _ `pompeusis Zlierebis

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xma sakmaod Soris iyo gavardnili, magram amaze nakleb rodi quxda xma mis samarTlianobaze da keTilmowyalebaze~ (iqve, gv. 334). samarTlianma da keTilmowyale pompeusma daudo safuZveli Zlivs aRorZinebul iudevelTa saxelmwifos ngrevas. samTviani Zneli alyis Semdeg gaWirvebiT Sevida romaeli mxedarTmTavari ierusalimSi gabzaruli kedlidan. omi gagrZelda taZris SemogarenSi. brZolebisas mRvdlebi uwyvetliv agrZelebdnen RvTismsaxurebas sakurTxevlis win, iqamde, sanam ukanaskneli maTgani maxviliT gangmiruli ar daeca. aseTi mZime brZolebis miuxedavad, plutarqe mxolod oriode sityviT gadmogvcems pompeusis iudeaSi Sesvlas, siriis romis provinciad gamocxadebis Semdego, _ wers is _ mxedarTmTavarma `iudea dai pyro da mefe aristobule daatyveva~ (plutarqe, rCeuli biografiebi, 1975, gv. 334). Tuki ierusalimis kedlebTan xangrZlivi omi plutarqes aRweris Rirsad ar CauTvlia, unda vifiqroT, rom iberiaSi pompeusis laSqroba ufro mniSvnelovnad da sasaxelod miaCnda. pompeuss ierusalimis aRebis Semdeg gadauwyvetia msoflioSi saxelganTqmuli taZris daTvaliereba da wmidaTa wmidaSi Sesvlac ki, sadac mxolod mRvdelmTavars SeeZlo Sesvla, isic weliwadSi erTxel, romaelebi iq cnobismoyvareobam Seiyvana. mTel qveyanaze sxvadasxva xmebi dadioda wmidaTa wmidas Sesaxeb. warmarTebis erTi nawilis mtkicebiT, iq sasikvdilod ganwiruli kaci hyavdaT gamomwyvdeuli, sxvebi amtkicebdnen, rom iq Tavis gamosaxuleba inaxeboda. magram ra inaxeboda iq sinamdvileSi? romaelebi raRac arabunebrivs elodnen, magram rogori iyo maTi gaoceba, roca bisonis mZime fardis gadawevis Semdeg iq sicariele ixiles. wmidaTa wmidaSi araferi ar iyo, maT sakurTxevlis win mxolod Svidtota Sandali ixiles, anTebuli sanTlebiT. gaoceblebma SiSiT datoves taZari, `magram romaelebi kidev ufro gaocdebodnen, Tu gaigebdnen, rom isini pirispir Sexvdnen religias, akvans axali sarwmunoebisa, romelic male dai pyrobda aRmosavleTsac, dasavleTsac, TeTrmarmarovan eladasa da maT mSobliur romsac~ (ix. a. bogoliubov, sin CeloveCeski, gv. 12-16). miTridate pontoelis damarcxebisa da sikvdilis Semdeg gamarjvebuli pompeusi romisken gaemgzavra. mas brwyinvale Sexvedra mouwyes da yovelmxriv aleqsandre makedonels amsgavsebdnen. `zeimis dros win mohqondaT dafebi im qveynebisa da xalxebis saxelTa aRniSvniT, romelnic pompeusma daamarcxa da romlebzedac gamarjvebis triumfs ixdida. es iyo: ponto, somxeTi, kapadokia, paflagonia, midia, kolxeTi, iberia, albaneTi, siria, kilikia, mesopotamia, finikiisa da palestinis tomebi, iudea, arabeTi...~ (plutarqe, gv. 340). triumfSi midiodnen sxvaTa gverdiT iudevelTa mefe aristobule da iberieli sefewulebi. plutarqes cnobiT, pompeuss iberTa mefisagan miRebuli hqonda oqros sawoli, taxti da magida, safiqrebelia, rom am nivTebma triumfs brwyinvaleba SesZines.

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Cveni epoqis arqeologebma, romlebmac mcxeTis midamoebSi samefo saxlisaTvis saWiro mravali zRapruli sidiadis nivTi aRmoaCines, aRtaceba ver dafares sawolis naSTis aRmoCenisas _ `yvelaze did STabeWdilebas tovebso, _ wers istorikosi _ sareclis CuqurTmovan fexTa vercxlis oTxi erTnairi garesakravi _ kaklis xisgan gamoTlili mrgvali qandakeba erTmaneTze gadabmuli arwiv-spilos stilizebuli gamosaxulebebiT, arwivis Tavis qandakebebiT vercxlis sqeli firfitebiT garSemoWedili~ (saq. ist. narkv. I, gv. 704). plutarqes cnobiT, rogorc aRiniSna, pompeusisTvis mirTmeuli sawoli, magida da taxti vercxlis ki ara, oqrosi yofila. iberia pompeusis epoqaSi oqromravali, elinuri gemovnebiT ayvavebuli qveyana iyo, rogorc amas arqeologia adasturebs. triumfis dros forumze pompeuss miTridate pontoelis damarcxebisadmi miZRvnili sityva warmouTqvams. swored miTridates dasamarcxeblad moawyo man aziaSi didi laSqroba. pontos samefos romi TiTqmis naxevari saukunis manZilze ebrZoda. ponto ZvelTaganve qarTveli tomebis sacxovrisi yofila da iq samefo Seqmnila `_qarTveli (megrul-Wanuri) da misi monaTesave tomebis miwa-wyalze~ (saqarTvelos istoria, I, 1958, gv. 58). ara Tu ponto, misi samxreTiT momijnave kapadokiac qarTveli tomebiT yofila dasaxlebuli. ponto da kapadokia politikurad zogjer erTmaneTs faravda. ZvelqarTuli tomi tabalebi (Tubalebi) _ swored Semdegdroindel kabadokiaSi saxlobdnen (iv.javax. qarT. eris ist. I, gv. 404). ioseb flaviosi, rogorc iTqva, tabalebs _ iberTa winaprebad, xolo mesxebs kabadokielebad miiCnevda. IV saukuneSic kabadokia mesxebis sacxovrisi yofila, arqiepiskoposi evstate (+360) _ qarTvelTa winaprebis Sesaxeb wers: `obelma _ Tobelebi, axlandeli iberebi; osoxma _ mesxebi, axlandeli kabadokielebi~ warmoSveso (ix. g. gozaliSvili, miTridate pontoeli, gv. 161). gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa CvenTvis winaswarmetyvel isaias ganmarteba IV saukunis kvirieli episkoposisa Teodotes mier, is ambobs, rom isaia `...mosoxebSi _ kabadokielebs, TobelebSi ki _ iberielebs gulisxmobdao~ (iqve, gv. 162). pontos qarTvelTa sacxovrisad asaxelebda V saukuneSic rufinusi. IV saukunis eklesiis sami didi mama _ grigol nazianzeli, basili didi da grigol noseli, Cveulebriv cnobilni arian sami didi kabadokielis saxeliT. Cveni istoriuli matiane, rogorc es vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebidan Cans, grigol nazianzels miiCnevda saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos daarsebis sulier meTaurad. swored mis saflavze misul vaxtang mefes eCvena suli grigolisa da misi saflavis eklesiis mRvdeli pirveli qarTveli kaTalikosi gaxda. kabadokielni iyvnen CvenTvis erovnul wmindanebad qceulni _ wmida giorgi, qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli wmida nino, Cvens eklesiaSi istoriulad didad miRebuli basili didi episkoposi, misi Zma _ episkopo-

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si grigol noseli, misi debi _ wmindanebi: emilia, makrina da Teozevia. 1877 wels daibeWda d. CubinaSvilis naSromi miZRvnili kabadokiis mosaxleobisa da qarTveli xalxis naTesaobis Sesaxeb. mkiTxvelisaTvis es mtkiceba gasagebi iyo, radganac istoriulad kabadokieli moRvaweni mSobliurad iyvnen miCneulni qarTvelTaTvis. e.xinTibiZem, Tavisi kvlevis Sedegad daaskvna, rom `basili kesarieli erovnebiT iyo qarTveli, mcire aziis teritoriaze mcxovrebi qarTveluri tomebis erT-erTi StoTaganis warmomadgeneli, romlebmac adre iwames qristianuli aRmsarebloba, dauaxlovdnen mcire aziis kulturul centrebs da eziarnen berZnul kulturasa da ganaTlebas~ (g. gozaliSvili, ori etiudi, 1965, gv. 105). kirion episkoposi werda _ `kapadokielebs, didi Rvawli miuZRviT qristianobis gavrcelebis saqmeSi. ostguTebSi qristianoba danerges, rogorc amas basili amtkicebs, kapadokielma tyveebma, vestguTebSi (IV s.) gaavrcela da ganamtkica qristianoba episkoposma ulfilam, tyve kapadokielTa STamomavalma. sugdelebis ganmanaTlebeli... kapadokielia~ (episkoposi kirioni, kulturuli roli iveriisa ruseTis istoriaSi, 1900, gv. 9), kapadokieli iyo wmida nino. pontos samyarodan iyo miTridate, mis vaJsac qarTuli saxeli _ `maxare~ erqva, misi samefos dedaqalaqi, romelsac Semdgom kesaria daerqva _ pompeusis iniciativiT xelaxla gaSenda, miTridates omebis Semdeg es qalaqi qristianobis udides kerad iqca.

dasruleba gmirulisa da dawyeba sulieri epoqisa


gaqristianebis Semdgom, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, Seicvala da Seivso zneoba yoveli qarTvelisa. axalma erovnulma sarwmunoebam gardaqmna erovnuli TvalTaxedva, Seicvala warmodgenebi, wes-Cveulebani da midrekilebani. miT ufro, rom qarTveloba qristes erTguli iyo ara asi da orasi wlis, aramed ori aTasi wlis manZilze da aseTad rCeba amJamadac. warmarTobis dros qarTvelTa xasiaTi, qcevebi da Cveulebani sxvagvari yofila, ufro heroikuli da gmiruli _ am sityvebis swored imdroindeli, Zveleburi gagebiT. `gmirebs~ qarTvelTa winaprebi TavianT mama-papebs da maT mSoblebs uwodebdnen, romelTac warmoSobiT noes Zes iafets ukavSirebdnen, iafetis Zmiswuli TarSi mama yofila Targamosisa. qarTvelTa winaprebi Targamosis STamomavlebi iyvnen, swored Targamoss uwodebdnen `gmirs~. is babilonis godolis daqcevis Semdeg wamosula SuamdinareTidan da damkvidrebula kaspiisa da Savi zRvis Sua, araratisa da kavkasiis mTebs Soris. mas rva

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Svili hyolia _ `gmirni Zlierni da saxelovanni~. es ambavi momxdara qristeSobamde ramdenime aTasi wliT adre. Targamosis ZeTagan pirveli, Tanaxmad matianisa, `umetes gmiri iyo yovelTasa, rameTu egeviTari arasodes yofiliyo arca wylis-rRvnis winaT da arca Semdgomad taniTa, ZaliTa simxniTa~ (q.c. I, gv. 4). masSi unda igulisxmebodes Zveli urartuelni _ xuritebi, romelTa qveyanasac `xurlas udnes~ uwodebdnen, xolo Targamosis sxva Zeebis saxelebSi JRers qarTvelTa da kavkasiel tomTa saxelebi (zogi maTgani mTavrdeba berZnuli bolosarTiT _ `os~, romelic, Cans, Semdeg daurTes). esenia: `qarTlos, bardos, movakan, lek, heros, kavkas, egros~. rva gmiri, ganudga cnobil, saxelovan, dedamiwaze pirvel gmirs _ nebroTs, romlis Sesaxebac dabadebaSi naTqvamia _ `quSma Sva nebroTi, aman daiwyo Zalis gamoCena qveyanaze. Zlieri monadire iyo igi uflis winaSe, amitomac Tqmula, nebroTiviT bumberazi ariso uflis winaSe, misi samefos rCeuli qalaqebi iyo babiloni, ereqi, aqadi, da qalne, Sinayaris qveyanaSi. am qveynidan gamovida aSuri da aaSena nineve, rexoboT-qalaqi, qalaxi~ (dab. 10. 8-11). TargamosianTa gandgomis gagebisTanave nebroTi Tavis ZalebiT gaemarTa kavkasiisaken. aq nebroTs `Wurvils rkiniTa da rvaliTa terfidan vidre Txemamde~ ver uSvela javSanma, Semogebebuli rva gmirTagan uZlieresma `styorcna isari da hkra mkerdsa nebroTisasa, ficarsa zeda rvalisas. da ganvlo zurgiT~ (q.c. I, gv. 7). mamaTa gmirul sulsa da sagmiro saqmeebs kargad aRwers `qarTlis cxovreba~. aseve aRweren Cveni mematianeebi gmirTa STamomaval qarTvel mefeTa garegnobasa da xasiaTs: _ `taniTa sruli, Svenieri, Zlieri, mxne da qveli~. ai, rogor ebrZvis ucxo SemoWril toms mefe mirvani _ `waruZRva wina qveiTTa, zurgiT Semoadginna mxedarni da movida karTa maT Sina, viTarca jiqi sificxiTa, viTarca vefxi simxniTa, viTarca lomi zaxiliTa. iqmna maT Soris brZola Zlieri, xolo mirvans ver hkveTda maxvili durZukTa, viTarca kldesa sipsa da dga uZravad, viTarca koSki mtkice da gagrZelda maT Soris brZola da moswyda orgniTve uricxvi, xolo iZlivnes durZukni da ivltodes. miudges ukan qarTvelni, mosres da tyve qmnes da Sevida mirvan durZukeTs... da Seabna karni qviTkiriTa da uwoda saxelad darubal da dajda mirvan mcxeTasa mefobda nebierad da uSiSad. iyo kaci mimniWebeli keTilisa uxvad da Seiyvares igi yovelTa mkvidrTa qarTlisaTa~ (q.c. gv. 28). aderki, romlis saqarTveloSi mefobis drosac beTlems uriastanisasa iSva Cveni macxovari ieso qriste, ase ebrZoda metoqes taxtisaTvis _ `aRizaxnes orTave xmiTa sastikiTa da mietevnes urTierTas da iwyes orTave gvemad orolisa da vera hkveTes saWurvelsa erTmaneTisasa da brZolisa sigrZesa Sina ganutyda orolebi. aRmoiRes Cuglugebi da iwyes brZolad CuglugebiTa odes uxeTqian Cuglugi igi saWurvelsa zeda maTsa, hgvandis

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xma igi xmasa mas uros mWedlisasa, romeli ecemis grdemlsa da xma zaxilisa maTisa msgavs iyo quxilisa. maSin ver sZles urTierTas, daSvres da ukuagdes imier da amier. SeRamda dRe igi da ganisvenes orTave da dileul kvalad gamovides aiRes mSvildebi da iwyes rbevad da svrad erTmaneTisa, hkra aderki mkerdsa arSakisasa da veRara ufara simagreman saWurvelisaman. ganvarda zurgiT da Camovarda arSak cxenisgan~ (q.c. I, gv. 34). ase xedavdnen sagmiro saqmeebs qristianobamdeli qarTvelebi. qristianobis miRebis Semdeg ki maTi Sexeduleba Seicvala. sulieri gamarjveba da ara xorcieli, ai, ra miiCneva axla gmirobad. warmarTi gmiri amirani iqamde uZleveli da daumarcxebeli, xalxuri TqmulebiT, marcxdeba qristes mier. gmiria amiranis mama. dedac warmarTul RvTaebad iTvleba. Zmobilebi badri da usupi _ Zlieri gmirebi, zeSTabunebrivi Tvisebebis mqoneni arian. `usups beWeb-Sua mzis msgavsi niSani aqvs da badrs mTvaris msgavsi~. amiranic `RvTaebrivi~ TvisebebiTaa dajildoebuli; oqros kbili da sacrisodena Tvalebi aqvs. xasiaTiT ki `Savsa Rrubelsa saavdrod gamzadebulsa~ hgavs. ukvdavi arsebaa _ sikvdili kidec rom indomos, ar SeuZlia. amirans Ronec gmiruli aqvs. siCqare gaqanebuli xisa aqvs, simarde zvavisa, Rone Tormet uRela xar-kameCisa, miwas umZims misi tareba, devebs advilad xocavs, mzis mylapvel da cecxlis mfrqvevel gveleSaps amarcxebs. ZaRlic araCveulebrivi hyavs _ orbis lekvi, frTosani, `mas beWebze orbis frTebi aqvs~ amirani itacebs qals yamars. ivane javaxiSvilis mier elamitur `RvTaeba~ lagamarad anu afroditad miCneuls (qarT. eris ist. I, gv. 194, 1979), am qals ded-mama caSi hyoloda. mama amindis Semcvleli da wvimis momyvania, roca amirani Seeba, mis muzarads cecxlis naperwklebi scvioda. misi sulis SeberviT ki amirani `Coqze daeca~. mamis jaris adgilidan daZvrisas _ ca moiRrubla, wamowinwkla, Semdeg ki kokispiruli wvima wamovida. Rrubeli jaris Crdilia. amiranis masTan brZola mogvagonebs Targamosianebisa da nebroTianebis SebrZolebas _ _ `iqmna maT Soris brZola sastiki _ romeli emsgavsa sastikebasa haerisasa, rameTu mtveri ferxisa maTisa _ viTarca Rrubeli sqeli, xma pirisa maTisa _ viTarca xma quxilisa simZlavre isrisa maTisa _ viTarca texa mexisa tyorcna qvisa maTisa _ viTarca setyva xSiri da daTxeva sisxlisa maTisa viTarca wvimisa Rvari~

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amirani araCveulebrivi gmiria Zvel qarTvelTa warmodgeniT. imdenad araCveulebrivi, rom gabeda da TviT RmerTs SeebrZola. xalxuri fantaziiT da sarwmunoebriv-simboluri ganxatebiT, amirani Tavis naTlias _ ieso qristes gaukadnierda da RmerTi `saWidaod~ gamoiwvia, rom gamoecada, vin ufro Ronieri iyo~ (am saxiT warmarTuli qarTuli Teologia ejibreba axals, qristianuls). avsulebTan da devebTan uZleveli, TavisTavad keTilSobili da kacTmoyvare gmiri, RvTis mimarT gaamayebuli, daisaja. xalxuri TqmulebiT, ieso qristem is miajaWva kavkasionis mwvervalze. unda CavTvaloT, rom RmerTTan mebrZoli amiranis damarcxeba aris simboluri saxe gmirul-warmarTuli epoqis dasrulebisa da dawyeba axali sulieri epoqisa, qristianobisa, anu sulis zeimisa xorcze. daTrgunva xorcis da ayvaveba sulis _ ai, ra moeTxoveba axali sarwmunoebis mimdevrebs. qristes mier amiranis mijaWva simboluri saxea aseve imisa, rom erovnuli TvalTaxedva Seicvala, axla warsuli sxvagvarad analizdeba, momavali sxvagvarad ganiWvriteba. gmiroba axla sulierebaa, sulieri epoqis erTerTi mTavari sakiTxia rkveva imisa, Tu ra aris sicocxle, cxovreba, ra aris sikvdili, SeiZleba Tu ara sikvdilis damarcxeba, sicocxlis gamaradiuleba. samagaliToa erTi ambavi: warmarT ufliswuls _ iodasafs _ umalaven, rom arsebobs avadmyofoba, sibere, sikvdili, magram is axerxebs gamovides mis irgvliv xelovnurad Seqmnil iluziur samyoflidan da pirispir Sexvdes cxovrebas. Tavis sicocxleSi pirvelad naxavs avadmyofs, mixrwnil moxucs. ikiTxavs mis Sesaxeb ra moelis am kacso?~ _ upasuxes _ sikvdilio. `da rai ars sikvdili~? kiTxulobs gaocebiT. `ganqardebis saxsenebeli amisi qveyniT~. iodasafi roca Seityobs, rom igive sikvdili elis yovel adamians da TviT masac, SeZrwundeba, auduRdeba guli. urva-tiriliT kiTxulobs, aris Tu ara sadme qveyana, sadac adamianebi ar kvdebian. ufliswulis usasoobiT Sewuxebuli aRmzrdelebi tiriliTve pasuxoben _ `ar aris casa qveSe egeviTari qveyana, hoi Zeo mefisao, romelTa Sina ganeren kacni salmobaTagan da sikvdilisagan~ (Zveli qarT. literaturis qrestomaTia, t. I, 1946, gv. 280). yovel adamians, mdidars Tu Raribs, gmirs Tu jabans, erTnairi bolo aqvs _ sikvdili, gaqroba. amis gagebiT SeZrwunebul da damwuxrebul ufliswuls avtori adarebs Tvalauxelel brmas, yrus, utyvs, uZlursa da naklulevans. Tumca ki, garegnulad brwyinvales, xorcielad mSveniers, axalgazrdasa da jansaRs. mis `gankurnebas~ inebebs udabnodan mosuli qristiani, garegnulad Raribi, Rataki da xorcielad uZluri. misi Semxedvare ufliswuli cdilobs udabnoSi mcxovrebi qristiani moRvaweebis daxmarebas. Txovs waiRos `safase~ _ fuli, raTa is Seewios Tavis udabnoel Zmebs. meudabnoe miugebs _ `viTar miscem safasesa moyvasTa CemTa, rameTu ukanaskneli maTi umdidres ars Sensa?~

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_ da rogor aris Sens ZmaTagan uglaxakesi Cemze mdidari, maSin, roca TviTonve ambob, rom arafris mqoneni xarT? _ imas mogaxsenebT, rom TqvenSi mdidari kidev zrunavs Tavis qonebis gazrdisaTvis, amis gamo mudam SfoTavs, xan iqiT ecema, xan aqeT, raTa kidev ufro meti Sekribos, xolo Cemi Zmebi arafrisaTvis ar zrunaven _ arc saWmlisaTvis, arc SesamoselisaTvis, radgan mdelos balaxisagan zomierad ikvebebian da mis gamo adideben RmerTs. maT datovebuli aqvT qveyniuri simdidre da soflis amaoebani, ixareben da iSveben suliT, rameTu moelian caTa sasufevels. iodasafi Seityobs, rom arsebobs suli da arsebobs ukvdaveba sulisa. mas aexileba Tvali, dainaxavs, Tu sad da rogor eZebos ukvdaveba da moi povos igi. amis Semdeg eubneba Tavis mamas mefes _ `dainaxe umjobesi da Seitye, rom mokvdavi xar da Sens yovel amqveyniur didebas sxvas dautoveb, radganac yvela kvdeba da maTi sacxovrebeli, monagebi sxvebisa xdeba, `xolo Semdgomad JamTa aRdgomad varT da miegebis kacad-kacadsa saqmeTa maTTaebr~ (iqve, gv. 296). erTxel ixilavs CvenebiT samoTxis didebulebasa da simSvenieres, angelozebi mis Sesaxeb auwyeben `es aris wmidaTa gansasvenebeli~. ixilavs aseve jojoxeTis saSinelebas da satanjvels da mis Sesaxeb Seityobs, rom is aris `misagebeli codvilTa~. swored jojoxeTis saSinelebiT SeZrwunebuli iTmens da mis sacduneblad miyvanili qalis siyvaruls ar pasuxobs, ufro meti, anTebs sanTels, cecxlis als uSvers TiTs, xorci ewvis, is ki ambobs _ `Tu am mcire cecxls ver gavuZleb, jojoxeTis saukunovan dauSretel cecxls rogorRa gavuZleb, Tu am qalTan codvas ar gaveridebi?~. daTrgunva xorcisa, galaReba sulisa _ saukuno sicocxlis misaRebad _ ai, axali sarwmunoebrivi ideali. swored esaa axla gmiroba. aRniSnul Temas exmaureba `moTxroba abekuraisi~, romlis gmiri (ukve ara Zveli, aramed axali mniSvnelobiT) aris `yviTel piriTa, mZafriTa marxviTa, SromiTa da mRviZarebiTa~, romelic dedoflis xorciel siyvaruls uaryofs, da nacvlad miiRebs satanjvels, is ambobs: _ `gvemaA Cemi _ gansvenebaa sulisa CemisaA, satanjveli Cemi _ saSvebeli sulisa CemisaA~ (p. ingoroyva, dasax. naS. gv. 281). is iTmens Tavisi sulis ukvdavebisaTvis, sulis gadarCenisaTvis. esaa axali gmiroba. qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis, romelsac qristianobis miRebamde aseuli wlebis manZilze gmirobis sxvagvari ideali hqonda, misi tradiciebiTa da memkvidreobiT, ar unda yofiliyo advili axlis miReba da gaTaviseba. xdeboda maTi urTierTSerwyma. Zvelgmirul heroikulisa da axali sulieris Serwymis kargi magaliTia wmida mefe vaxtangis cxovrebis momentebi. is amarcxebs bumberaz goliaT bayaTars, romlis mSvildis sigrZe Tormeti mtkavelia, isari ki eqvsi mt-

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kaveli. misi mokvlis Semdeg is ambobs _ `ara ZaliTa CemiTa vZlie, aramed dambadeblisa CemisaTa, rameTu Zali qristesi _ CemTana da jvari misi patiosani saWurvel Cemda~. msgavsi suliskveTeba _ mxneoba RvTis SewevniT _ saukuneTa manZilze gasdevda qarTvelobas, grigol bakurianis Ze werda: `qarTvelni varT naTesaviT mxneni da mxedrobiT aRzrdilni~ _ da amave dros _ misive sityviT _ `umankoni da gul-martivni~ (petriwonis qarTuli monastris ti pikoni, a. SaniZe, t. IX, gv. 103). imdenad, rom `Cveni naTesavis umankoebisa da gulmartivobis~ gamo TviT deda RvTismSobeli eSveleba qarTvelebs Sesaferis momentSi. magaliTad, qarTvelebs garekvas upirebdnen _ saberZneTis erTi monastridan, amis gamo deda RvTisa brZanebs, vinc qarTuli eniT metyvel adamianebs ar Seiwynarebs _ Cemi mtrebi ariano: `anu ara uwyia, viTarmed mravalni damkuidrebad arian mTasa amas maTisa enis metyvelni da cxovnebad arian da romelni maT ara Seiwynareben, mter Cemda arian~ (cxovreba ilarion qarTvelisa, qrestomaTia, 1946, gv. 172). erTi saukunis Semdeg, kvlav deda RvTisa gamoecxada ucxoeTSi mcxovreb momakvdav patara eqvTime mTawmindels, moxeda mis sneulebas da uTxra _ `aRsdeg, nu geSinin da qarTulad xsnilad ubnobdi!~ (iqve, gv. 183). da amis Semdeg qarTuli sityva, misgan viTarc wyarod amodioda `uwmindes yovelTa qarTvelTasa~, gaamdidra wignTagan didad naklovani qarTlis qveyana sulieri saunjiT. asureli mamebi, grigol xanZTeli, ilarion qarTveli, ioane, eqvTime da giorgi mTawmidelebi da mravali sxva sulieri moRvaweni iqcnen qarTvelTa zneobriobis maswavleblebad, maT daiWires is adgili, romelic adre qarTvelTa cnobierebaSi `gmirebs~ eWiraT.

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Tavi II

qarTuli eklesia I-III saukuneSi

`u e W v e l i a , r o m C v e n s x a l x s o r i a T a s i we l iwa d i u c x o v r i a T a v i s i s c x o v r e b i T a d a T v i T m o q m e d e b i T a~
ilia marTali

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saxelwodeba da mimarTuleba qarTuli eklesiisa


qarTul eklesias amJamad uwodeben ,,saqarTvelos marTlmadidebel eklesias~, magram amasTanave uZvelesi droidan XVIII saukunis CaTvliT mas ,,saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia~ ewodeboda. amis damamtkicebeli magaliTebis moyvanamde unda iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia Tavisi arsebobis pirveli dRidan marTlmadidebelia da marTlmadideblobisaTvis medgari mebrZoli. wmida mefis daviT aRmaSeneblis dros mowveulma ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebam, romelmac erTgvarad Seajama Cveni eklesiis cxovreba, aRniSna: `amisTvis Semokrba krebaA ... garna ara Tu ubiwoebasa qarTvelTa sarwmunoebisasa biwi raAme Sehxeboda, nu iyofin ese! ara gecruvneT Sen, siwmidiT mSobelo Cueno kaTolike eklesiao, arca gangceT Sen, siqadulo Cueno marlTmadideblobao, romlisa arca ganmcemel qmnil varT...~1 bizantiis imperators surda Seetyo giorgi mTawmindelisgan, msoflios romeli eklesia iyo WeSmaritad marTlmadidebluri: `aw vinaATgan kuerTxi mefobisa me mi pyries, mnebavs, raATa yovelsa mecnier viyo berZenTa da hromTasa, rameTu pirvel yovlisa marTlmadideblobaO iZiebis mefeTagan, mauwye, viTar ars ese...~2 msoflio eklesiis mnaTobma giorgi mTawmindelma erTmaneTs Seudara qarTuli, berZnuli, romisa da somxuri eklesiebi. Tumca berZnuli eklesia giorgi mTawmindels imJamad marTlmadideblobis burjad miaCnda, magram mefes ar daumala simarTle da ganucxada: `hoA, mefeo, ... berZenTa Soris wvalebaO Semovida pirvel da mravalgzis midrkes...!~3 wmida giorgi mTawmindelma imperators romis eklesiis naklovanebis Sesaxeb ganucxada: romis eklesiaSi `xmeadiTa da urwyoATa~ swiraven, xolo berZnebma da qarTvelebma daaweses, `raATa moviRebdeT comsa saxed KorcTa qristesTa, xolo puris comsa saxed sulisa gonierisa, da marilsa saxed gonebisa winaaRdgomad wvalebasa uSjuloAsa apolinarisasa... xolo RYnosa Tana wyalsa urTavT saxed sisxlisa da wylisa, romeli gardamoKda guerdsa mKsnelisasa, viTarca ityYs. iovane oqropiri~. ese igi, berZnuli eklesia axla marTlmadidebluria, magram winaT masSi mravali mwvalebloba arsebobda, romis eklesiaSi ki winaT mwvalebloba ar yofila, magram amJamad nakli aqvso _ usjulo apolinaris wvaleba.

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imperatori giorgi mTawmidels SeekiTxa somxuri sarwmunoebis Sesaxebac, razedac Rirsma mamam upasuxa: `borotsa sarwmunoebasa saxelca nu edebin~.4 giorgi mTawmidelma imperators upasuxa, rom msoflios eklesiaTa Soris qarTuli eklesia yvelaze marTlmadidebluria, radganac man ubiwod daicva mociqulTa swavla, rac arasodes SeubRalavs winaT da icavs amJamadaco: `xolo netarman man esreT maRlad da RmrTivbrwyinvaled warmoTqua sarwmunoebaA marTali Cuen qarTvelTa naTesavisaO... da hrqua mefesa: ese ars sarwmunoebaA marTali naTesavisa CuenisaA, da raJams erTgzis gYcnobies, arRara midrekil varT marcxl, gina marjul da arca mivdrkebiT, Tu RmerTsa undeso~.5 giorgi mTawmidels, romelic kargad icnobda msoflio qristianobis yvela mimarTulebas, qarTuli eklesia miaCnda WeSmaritad marTlmadideblur eklesiad, romelmac ubiwod da Seucvlelad daicva mociqulTa swavla. amas, saukuneTa manZilze, xSirad miuTiTebdnen Cveni eklesiis wminda mamebi. bizantiis imperiis dacemam berZnuli eklesia daasusta. miuxedavad amisa, am eklesiam Tavisi sarwmunoebrivi upiratesoba `romis kaTolike~ eklesiis winaSe imiT gamoxata, rom XI s-is Semdeg oficialurad Tavis Tavs `orTodoqsuli~ anu swori, marTlmadidebluri eklesia uwoda. amis Semdeg berZnuli orientaciis yvela axladdaarsebuli adgilobrivi avtokefaluri eklesia Tavis Tavs orTodoqsuls, anu `marTlmadideblurs~ uwodebda. XX saukuneSi qarTul eklesias `saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesia~ ewoda, magram qarTuli eklesia aris ara axali eklesia, daarsebuli XI saukunis Semdeg, aramed uZvelesi, mociqulTa mier daarsebuli eklesia da mas ZvelTaganve `samociqulo eklesia~ ewodeboda, Tumca Tavisi SinaarsiT yovelTvis marTlmadidebluri iyo XI saukunemdec da Semdegac. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTSi, romelSic VII saukuneSi mowveul msoflio saeklesio krebazea saubari, naTqvamia: `amis krebisa mier brZanes esreT wmidisa eklesiisa saqarTvelosaTYs, romel ars wmida mcxeTa, raTa iyos swor pativiTa viTarca wmidani samociqulo kaTolike eklesiani, sapatriaqoni...~6 saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesias mcxeTis sapatriarqo eklesiac ewodeboda, iseve rogorc amJamad dedaqalaqis mixedviT ewodebaT sxva eklesiebs (aleqsandriis, antioqiis, konstantinepolis, sofiis da sxv.). Cvenamde moRweuli sabuTebis Tanaxmad, qarTul eklesias `saqarTvelos kaTolike samociqulo eklesia~, `mcxeTis kaTolike samociqulo eklesia~, anda simartivisTvis zogjer `sveticxovlis kaTolike samociqulo eklesia~ ewodeboda. sityva, romelic gvxvdeba am saxelwodebaSi _ `kaTolike~, berZnulia da qarTulad niSnavs sayovelTaos. qristianuli RvTismetyvelebis Tanaxmad, eklesia mTel dedamiwaze aris sayovelTao, erTiani anu `kaTolike~. asevea mocemuli mrwamsSic. qarTvelebs Targmnis gareSe miuRiaT es sityva da amitomac misi qarTuli Sesatyvisi amJamadac ar ixmareba.

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XI saukunemde msoflio qristianobis or banakad `romis kaTolikebad~ da `berZen marTlmadideblebad~ gayofamde erTian msoflio eklesias, rogorc wesi, `kaTolike~ ewodeboda. qarTuli eklesia, rogorc uZvelesi, mociqulTa moZRvrebis erTguli eklesia, Tavis Tavs yovelTvis erTian msoflio, `sayovelTao~ anu `kaTolike~ eklesiis nawilad miiCnevda. 1346-1360 wlebis erT sabuTSi qarTul eklesias ase mimarTaven _ `ese dawerili movaKsene wmidasa didebulsa kaTolike samociqulo eklesiasa~.7 XVI saukunis sabuTSi Cveni eklesia asea saxeldebuli _ `q. wmidisa da caTa mobaZavisa kaTolike samociqulosa sapatriaqosa eklesiisa ZveliTganve saqonebelni da samwysoni~...8 aq CamoTvlilia qarTuli samociqulo eklesiis qoneba. 1532 wlis Sewirulebis sabuTSi naTqvamia: `ese dawerili movaKsene... udidebulessa wmidasa kaTolike samociqulosa saydarsa~...9 1556 wlis sabuTSia _ `ese ukunisamdis gasaTavebeli wigni mogaKsene me, mtbevarma saba, Tquen wmidasa kaTolike samociqulosa saydarsa~.10 XVI saukunis kaxT episkoposebis erTgulebis wignSi nikoloz kaTalikosisadmi naTqvamia _ `gkadreT da mogaxseneT Tquen, kaTolike samociqulosa eklesias suetisacxovelsa...~11 nikoloz alaverdelis erTgulebis wignSi naTqvamia _ `fici mogarTviT Cven, Tqvenda kurTxevad mosrulman amba alaverdelman ColoyaSvilman Tqven, kaTolike samociqulo saydarsa da svetsa cxovelsa da kvarTsa sauflosa da mis saWeTmpyrobels kaTalikoz diasamiZes ioanes~.12 ese igi, qarTuli eklesiis meTauri zis samociqulo saydarze sveticxovelSi. 1702 wlis saeklesio krebis ganCinebaSi naTqvamia: `Cven, meufebisa mier samociqulosa kaTolike eklesiasa zedan dadginebulman patronman mTavarefiskoposman qristefore, kaTalikozman evdemoz, amba alaverdelman, patronman nikoloz ninowmidelman ioseb, sula qarTvelTa da kaxT efiskopozTa... fici davdeviT...~.13 aqedan Cans, rom saqarTvelos kaTalikosi dadgenili iyo saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis meTaurad da swored es aris saxelwodeba qarTuli eklesiisa. ZvelTaganve qarTuli eklesia marTlmadidebluri mimarTulebisa iyo, da mas `saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia~ ewodeboda. sasurvelia, aRdges qarTuli eklesiis Zveli saxelwodeba da mas oficialurad ewodos `saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia~, miT umetes, rom sagangebo aRniSvnis gareSec cnobilia Cveni eklesiis marTlmadidebluri mimarTuleba. oficialur sabuTebSi, saenciklopedio cnobarebsa Tu presaSi, qarTuli eklesia Tavisi uZvelesi saxeliT unda ixseniebodes.

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saqarTvelo mociqulTa dros

Zvel saqarTveloSi ueWvel WeSmaritebad iyo aRiarebuli wmida andriasa da sxva mociqulebis CvenSi moRvaweoba da qadageba. axal droSi, gansakuTrebiT XX s-is dasawyisSi, wmida andrias saqarTveloSi qadageba legendad gamocxadda. uarmyofelebs erT Tavis argumentad isic miaCndaT, rom iberia umniSvnelo qveyana iyo, romelsac ar SeeZlo mociqulTa yuradRebis mipyrobao. sinamdvileSi, mociqulTa moRvaweobis epoqaSi, I s-is 30-iani wlebidan II s-is 60-iani wlebis CaTvliT, iberia iyo Zlieri saxelmwifo. amitomac romaeli istorikosebi tacitusi, dion kasiusi da sxvebi xalisiT uTmobdnen TavianT TxzulebebSi adgils misi sisxlsavse cxovrebis aRweras. Sua saukuneTa evropelebi antikuri drois iberias ukeT icnobdnen, vidre TavianTi drois saqarTvelos. I-II saukuneebSi sami saxelmwifo _ romi, iberia da parTia erTmaneTs ecilebodnen vrcel miwebs amierkavkasiis samxreTiT. iberia imdenad iyo gaZlierebuli, rom mas SeeZlo romaelTa daxmarebis gareSe daemarcxebina parTiis saxelmwifo. iberiam ramdenjerme daamarcxa kidec parTiis jari. amis gamo, roms eSinoda iberiis metismeti gaZlierebisa. imperatorma avgustusma, romlis drosac, wmida saxarebis Tanaxmad, daibada Cveni ufali da macxovari ieso qriste (luka, 2, 1), safuZveli daudo megobrul urTierTobas romis imperiasa da iberiis saxelmwifos Soris. am TvalsazrisiT ,,sayuradReboa romis imperatoris avgustusis cnoba, rodesac igi Tavisi mmarTvelobis bolos, ajamebs ra Tavis moRvaweobas, maT Soris, vinc mis megobrobas eZiebda, asaxelebs, sxvaTa Soris, albanelebis, iberielebis da midielebis mefeebsac.~14 megobrobam romsa da iberias Soris, romelic grZeldeboda I-II saukuneTa manZilze, gaaZliera da ganadida iberia. Zvel istorikosTa cnobebs iberiis Sesaxeb adastureben arqeologebic. maT mier mopovebuli masalis mixedviT Cans, rom `importuli saqoneli vrceldeba ara marto iberiis did saqalaqo da administraciul centrebSi (mcxeTa, ufliscixe, urbnisi, zRuderi, gori, kldeeTi), aramed daba-soflebSic (niCbisi, zemo xandaki, ateni da sxva). daba-soflebSi mravlad aris napovni am drois monetebic~,15 rac qveynis ekonomiuri aRmavlobis utyuari sabuTia. mcxeTaSi (armazSi) napovni arqeologiuri ganZis simdidrem ivane javaxiSvils aTqmevina, rom xelaxla iyo dasaweri saqarTvelos istoriis es monakveTi. I-II saukuneebSi iberiaSi simdidris dagrovebis erT-erTi wyaro iyo warmatebuli sagareo omebi, saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi Cabma da megobruli urTierToba romis imperiasTan. imperatorebi iberiis mefeebs ugzavnidnen uxv saCuqrebs, razedac imdroindeli istorikosebi werdnen. `qarTlis Cabmas saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi miuTiTebs I-III saukuneTa qarT-

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lis arqeologiur masalaSi importuli saqonlis siuxve. mis udides nawils Seadgens fufunebis sagnebi (vercxlisa da minis WurWeli, samkaulebi da sxv.), ... qarTlTan savaWro urTierToba uCanT egvi ptis saxelosno centrebs... aRmosavleTis qveynebidan (Sua azia, indoeTi, arabeTi) importirebulia Zvirfasi qvebi (lali, Zowi, firuzi da sxv.), romelsac farTod iyenebdnen adgilobrivi oqromWedlebi, mravladaa importirebuli romauli gli ptikuri Zeglebi, siriuli minis WurWeli. aRmoCenilia italiuri brinjaos WurWeli, italiuri vercxlis Tasebi _ fialebi, romlebic armazisxevis samarovanzea aRmoCenili da SesaniSnav mxatvrul nakeTobebs warmoadgenen da SeiZleba di plomatiuri gziT, ZRvenis saxiT iyos Semosuli~.16 I-II saukuneebSi iberiis sazRvrebi icvleboda, magram ZiriTadad am dros misi sazRvari dasavleTiT Sav zRvamde aRwevda, aRmosavleTiT misi gavlenis sferoSi Sedioda albaneTi, samxreTiT _ somxeTi. CrdiloeTiT alanebsa da sarmatebzec aRwevda misi gavlena. pliniusi (23-79 ww.) aRwers Woroxis SesarTavTan mdebare q. afsars (dRevandeli gonio) da dasZens, rom `am adgilebSi, `mTebs iqiT~ aris iberia, xolo sanapiroze saxloben henioxebi, amprevetebi, lazebi~.17 cxadia, q. afsari da misi mimdebare sanapiro ar SeiZleboda iberiis mefis Zalauflebis qveS yofiliyo, radganac es qalaqi romaelebs eWiraT da iq romauli garnizoni idga, magram gonios zRvispira viwro zolis uSualod momijnave mTebs iqiT ukve iberiis saxelmwifo iyo. arianes, romelmac imperator adrianes (131-137 ww.) dros imogzaura Savi zRvispireTSi, am sanapiros erT-erT ubanze dasaxelebuli hyavs Zidritebi, romlebic iberiis mefe farsmans emorCilebian... amrigad, Zidritebs da maSasadame, iberias, eWira Savi zRvis piras ramdenime aTeuli kilometri sigrZis monakveTi dRevandeli Woroxis SesarTavis samxreTiT.18 `qarTuli tradicia samcxesa da aWaras qarTlis samefos erT-erT saerisTavod Tvlis. farsman II-is dros igi iseve, rogorc mezobeli klarjeTi, mtkiced Sedioda qarTlis samefoSi; masSi Sedioda aseve argveTi, sadac amave tradiciis mixedviT, qarTlis calke administraciuli erTeuli _ saerisTavo unda yofiliyo.19 es ukanaskneli garemoeba, sxvaTa Soris, dasturdeba arqeologiuri monacemebiTac.20 sof. borSi (Sorapnis samxreTaRmosavleTiT 7-8 km-ze) mdidrul samarxSi aRmoCnda vercxlis Tasi, e. w. armazuli damwerlobiT amokveTili warweriT, romelic ixseniebs `buzmihrs, keTil pitiaxSs~. fiqroben, rom aRniSnuli buzmihri iberiis mefis moxele unda yofiliyo lixsiqiTa mxareSi (`pitiaxSi~ `mefis nacvali~). zestafonidan 7 km-is manZilze sof. kldeeTSi gamovlinda mdidari samarxebi, romlebic inventariT axlo dgas armazisxevis samarxebis inventarTan..21 maSasadame, mociqulTa epoqaSi iberiis samefos mtkiced aqvs fexi mokidebuli dasavleT saqarTveloSi. lazikis garda dasavleT saqarTvelos yve-

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la kuTxe iberiaSi Sedis. lazeTi, Cans, romma Camoacila iberias, magram aq romaelTa xelisufleba Zlieri ar yofila, amitomac romauli diplomatia Tavisi devizis `gaTiSe da ibatones~ Tanaxmad lazebs uniSnavs mefes, riTac xelovnurad cdilobs iberia _ lazikis gayofas. sinamdvileSi ki, lazebis es `mefeebi~ iberiis mefis erisTavebi unda yofiliyvnen. bunebrivi ar iqneboda, Tu vifiqrebdiT, rom iberia, romelsac mociqulTa dros Zala Seswevda romaelTa daxmarebis gareSe parTia daemarcxebina, Tavis Zalauflebas ver ganaxorcielebda lazebsa da dasavleT saqarTveloze mTlianad. Cans, romaelTa gulis mogebis mizniT iberiam scno lazikis samefo, magram, faqtobrivad, es `mefeebi~ iberiis mefis erisTavebi iyvnen, yovel SemTxvevaSi asea `qarTlis cxovrebasa~ da sxva wyaroebSi dacul cnobebSi. dasavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebis arqeologiuri Seswavla dabejiTebiT adasturebs Zvel qarTul tradicias imis Sesaxeb, rom aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mociqulTa epoqaSi saerTo, erTiani kultura hqonda da kulturuli mTlianoba mTel dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, egrisis CaTvliT, ueWvelia. `mkvlevarTa yuradReba miiqcia iman, rom iberiis dedaqalaq mcxeTaSi napovn ax.w.aR-is pirveli saukuneebis materialuri kulturis, kerZod, saiuveliro xelovnebis SesaniSnav Zeglebs paraleli moepoveba ara marto borisa da kldeeTis, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos araerT sxva punqtSi aRmoCenil masalaSic (sargveSSi, kldeeTis maxloblad, ureki-zRvis sanapiroze, md. sufsis SesarTavis axlos da sxv.). am safuZvelze zogierTi mkvlevari laparakobs ax.w.aR-is pirvel saukuneebSi saqarTvelos teritoriaze erTiani adgilobrivi kulturis batonobis gavrcelebaze... gansakuTrebiT Zlieri unda yofiliyo aRmosavlur-qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gavlena dasavleT saqarTveloSi lazTa samefos Camoyalibebisa da ganviTarebis procesze~.22 mociqulTa epoqaSi iberia aqtiur sagareo politikas eweoda samxreTis mimarTulebiT. `iberiis mefeebi, ueWvelia, cdilobdnen maqsimalurad gamoeyenebinaT xelsayreli sagareo politikuri situacia Tavisi samefos sazRvrebis gasafarToeblad. am mxriv, isini iseT warmatebas aRweven, rom I s-is 30ian wlebSi ibrZvian ara marto somxeTis sasargeblod adre dakarguli calkeuli samxreTis olqebis, aramed saerTod mTeli somxeTis SemosaerTeblad~.23 iberia mTeli I-II saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi ganagrZobda brZolas somxeTis SemosaerTeblad da zogjer ierTebda kidec. aRmosavleTiT iberia miiswrafoda albaneTze batonobisken da aRwevda kidec amas. albaneTsa da iberias am dros, TiTqmis mudam erTi sagareopolitikuri orientacia hqondaT. `aqamde mas mudam iberiasTan erTad erT banakSi vxedavT... etyoba, albaneTi Tu misdami politikur damokidebulebaSi ara, iberiis politikuri gavlenis qveS mainc imyofeboda. magram farsmanis iberia, romelic somxeTis dauflebasac ki cdilobda, bunebrivia, miiswrafoda sruli batonobisaken agreTve albaneTze~.24

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straboni (64 w. qristemde 18 w. qristes Semdeg) werda. `xolo albanTa da iberTa tomebs, romelTac ukaviaT upiratesad moxsenebuli yeli, da romelsac kavkasiuri ewodebaT, aqvT mdidari qveyana da gansakuTrebiT vargisi kargad dasasaxleblad. marTlac, iberia kargad aris dasaxlebuli qalaqebiTac da soflebiTac~.25 iberiis sazogadoeba, strabonis Tanaxmad, dayofilia 4 socialur jgufad, romelTac is `genoss~ uwodebs, xolo qarTulad gvarad Targmnian. straboni imas ki ar werda, rom iberiaSi oTxi xalxi cxovrobso, aramed oTxi socialuri jgufiao. aseve strabonis mier aRwerili mTis iberebi da baris iberebi erTi xalxia, magram cxovrebis sxvadasxva wesebi aqvT geografiuli garemos, saqmianobis da mezoblad mcxovrebi xalxebis urTierTgavleniTac. Tanaxmad wmida saxarebisa, ieso qristem Tavis mowafeebs misca miTiTeba wasuliyvnen msoflios sxvadasxva xalxebSi da gaevrcelebinaT qristianoba `warvediT da moimowafeniT yovelni warmarTni da naTel-scemdiT saxeliTa mamisaATa da ZisaATa da sulisa wmidisaATa~ (maTe, 28, 19), anu axali qarTuliT `wadiT da aswavleT yvela xalxs...~ daaxloebiT 33 wels moiqca pavle mociquli da qadagebda damaskoSi, 44-45 wlebSi is siriasa da kilikiaSi moRvaweobda, 45 wels barnabasTan erTad mogzaurobs, rogorc misioneri. 49 wlis gazafxulze Sedga ierusalimis kreba. amave wels petre da pavle antioqiaSi imyofebian. amis Semdeg, SemodgomiT, mociquli pavle meore samisionero mogzaurobaSi gaemgzavra, iyo korinToSi. 53 wels mesame samisionero mogzaurobaSia. 54 wlis SemodgomiT, efesoSia 57 wlis gazafxulamde. 58 wels ierusalimSia, sadac daiWires. 60 wlis Semodgomaze gemiT gaemgzavra italiaSi. 64-65 wlebSi iyo pirveli didi devna qristianebisa, 67 wels awames wm. petre da pavle. 66-67 ww. qristianebi gandevnes ierusalimidan. daiwyo iudeis ajanyeba (iudeis omi). 69 wels titem alya Semoartya ierusalims da dawva taZari. mociquli ioane gadasaxlda efesoSi. man daaxl. 99-100 ww. Seadgina saxareba, xolo 95 wels _ gamocxadeba (42-45 ww. maTem Seadgina saxareba, 61-63 ww. _ lukam, 62-63 ww. _ markozma). RvTismetyvelebi weren, rom 12 mociqulTagan petre romamde qadagebda iudeasa da antioqiaSi. igi jvars acves romSi Tavqve dakidebiT. andria, gadmocemis Tanaxmad, qadagebda skviTeTSi, saberZneTsa da mcire aziaSi, jvars acves X-is formis jvarze; mociquli iakobi qadagebda ierusalimsa da iudeaSi, mas ierusalimSi 44 wels Tavi mohkveTa herodem. mociquli ioane qadagebda mcire aziasa da efesoSi, gadaasaxles kunZul patmosze 95 w., gardaicvala bunebrivi sikvdiliT. mociquli iakobi qadagebda palestinasa da egvi pteSi, 63 wels gadmoagdes ierusalimis taZris saxuravidan. iuda _ lebeosi (Tadeozi, alfesi), gadmocemis Tanaxmad, qadagebda asureTsa da sparseTSi. sparseTSi awames. mociquli fili pe frigiaSi qadagebda, gardaicvala iqve. mociqul barTlomes qadagebis adgili ucnobia, gadmocemiT,

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tyavi gaaZvres. mociquli maTe mezvere qadagebda iudevelTa Soris da afrikaSi, awames eTiopiaSi. mociquli Toma qadagebda siriaSi, sparseTsa da indoeTSi, locvisas isriT gangmires. svimon kananelis qadagebis adgili ucnobia, gadmocemis Tanaxmad, jvars acves. iuda iskariotelis nacvlad arCeuli mataTa mociqulis qadagebis adgili ucnobia.26 rogorc aRniSnulidan Cans, mociqulebi imdroindeli msoflios im qveynebSi qadagebdnen, romelnic ierusalimis garSemo iyvnen, kerZod, romis imperiaSi, skviTeTSi, egvi ptesa da eTiopiaSi, sparseTsa da asureTSi, frigiaSi, afrikaSi, indoeTSi. mociqulTa umetesoba qadagebda mcire aziaSi, romelic ZiriTadad imperiaSi Sedioda. kerZod, mociqulebi petre, andria, ioane mcire aziaSi qadagebdnen. zemoT moyvanilidan ise Cans, TiTqosda mociqulebs kavkasiaSi ar uqadagiaT, xolo garSemo yvela qveyanaSi skviTeTSi, mcire aziasa da sparseTSi iqadages. Zveli istorikosebi, romlebic aRwerdnen mociqulTa qadagebas, xom ar miiCnevdnen amierkavkasias skviTeTis, mcire aziis, anda sparseTis nawilad? marTlac, somexi samRvdeloeba da somexi mecnierebi somxur eklesias samociqulos uwodeben, somxuri eklesia daufuZnebia iq moqadage mociqul Tadeozs, romelmac RvTismetyvelTa zemoT moyvanili siis Tanaxmad iqadaga asureTsa da sparseTSi. amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom an somxeTs miiCnevdnen sparseTis nawilad, anda sparseTisaken mimaval gzaze man somxeTze gaiara da daafuZna somxuri eklesia. aseve savsebiT SesaZlebelia somxeTi mieCniaT mcire aziis nawilad, sadac bevri mociquli qadagebda. Zveli istorikosebi skviTeTs uwodebdnen vrcel geografiul areals, romelic zogjer moicavda amierkavkasiasac, ris Sesaxebac qvemoT vwerT. amitomac, roca weren, rom andriam skviTeTSi iqadagao, SesaZlebelia, gulisxmoben amierkavkasias, kerZod, saqarTvelos. aRsaniSnavia, rom gzebi sparseTisa da indoeTisken, aseve skviTeTisken gadioda amierkavkasiaze. gza mcire aziidan da antioqiidan, saidanac mociqulebi saerTod miemgzavrebodnen aRmosavleTSi samisionerod, somxeTze gadioda. `somxeTze gadioda umTavresi savaWro-satranzito gzebi, romlebic erTmaneTs ukavSirebda aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs~.27 dasavleTidan sparseTisa da indoeTisken mimaval mociqulebs somxeTze unda gaevloT. I-II saukuneebSi saqarTvelos mezobeli somxeTis odesRac Zlieri saxelmwifo dasustebuli iyo. amiT isargebla iberiam da Seudga sazRvrebis gafarToebas samxreTis mimarTulebiT, risTvisac alanebTan megobruli urTierTobiTac sargeblobda. I s-is 30-iani wlebidan iberia mTeli somxeTis SemosaerTeblad ibrZvis. 35 wels iberebi mefis Zis, fars-

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manis, meTaurobiT SeiWrnen somxeTSi da daikaves misi dedaqalaqi artaSati. qarTvelTa mizans Seadgenda somxeTidan parTiis jaris gandevna. `iberebma, tacitusis cnobiT, albanelebi da sarmatebi moixmes~.28 qarTvelebi, cxenosani jaris garda, Zlier qveiT jarsac flobdnen. tacitusis cnobiT, parTelTa laSqari iberTa jarma daamarcxa, `somxeTSi gamefda iberTa mefis miTridates Ze da misi momdevno mefis farsmanis Zma miTridate~.29 Semdgom parTelTa mefem kvlav Semoutia qarTvelebs, magram damarcxda. `amrigad, somxeTSi mefoba iberiel ufliswuls miTridates darCa~. `romaelebi kargad xedavdnen iberiis mmarTvelTa swrafvas daemorCilebinaT mTlianad somxeTi. somxeTisaTvis brZola axla, faqtobrivad, sam saxelmwifos _ roms, parTiasa da iberias Soris mimdinareobda. iberias, rogorc 35 wlis ambebiT SeiZleba vimsjeloT, romis daxmarebis gareSec unari Seswevda gaemarjva parTiaze~.29 `romSi, ueWvelia, SiSobdnen iberiis metismet gaZlierebas...~30 imperatorma klavdiusma (41-54) miTridate kvlav somxeTis taxtis dasakaveblad gamogzavna 47 wels. `sul ramodenime wlis Semdeg, 51 wels, iberiis mefe farsmani gadavida aSkara brZolaze Tavisi Zmis, somxeTis mefis miTridates winaaRmdeg. saqme exeboda farsmanis cdas, daufleboda somxeTis samefos... farsmanis iberia, romelic somxeTis dauflebasac ki cdilobda, bunebrivia, miiswrafoda sruli batonobisken, agreTve albaneTze~.31 qarTvelTa mefe farsmanma gadawyvita somxeTSi gaemefebina Tavisi vaJi radamisti, xolo Tavisi Zma miTridate somxeTis taxtidan Camoegdo. amiT farsmani somxeTs uSualod uerTebda Tavis samefos. marTlac, qarTvelma ufliswulma radamistma didZali laSqriT SeZlo somxeTis samefos SemoerTeba. somxeTi, faqtobrivad, iberiasTan aRmoCnda SeerTebuli. `mezobel qveynebSi (siriaSi, kapadokiaSi) mdgomi romauli laSqris sardlebi Seecadnen daebrunebinaT romisaTvis somxeTi...~32 male farsmanma moakvlevina radamisti, romelic SeiZleba mamisTvis samefos warTmevas lamobda. tacitusi wers, rom `radamisti iyo SesaniSnavi fizikuri aRnagobisa da Zalis axalgazrda, romelsac didi saxeli hqonda gavardnili rogorc Tavis xalxSi, ise mezoblebSi~.33 Tu iberieli ufliswuli mezoblebSi ase saxelganTqmuli iyo, cxadia, iberiaSi mimdinare ambebi mTel romis imperiaSic cxovel interess aRZravda. `58 wels, rodesac romSi mmarTvelad ukve neroni (54-66) ijda, aRmosavleTSi saomari moqmedebis xelmZRvanelad gaigzavna gneius domicius korbuloni. iberebi am dros romaelTa mokavSireebs Soris iyvnen... mokavSireebma miiRes `somxeTis maT samflobeloebTan mosazRvre nawilebi~. maSasadame,34 58 wels iberias SeuerTda somxeTis is nawilebi, romlebic mas esazRvrebodnen. 63 wels romsa da parTias Soris daido xelSekruleba somxeTTan dakavSirebiT. `SesaZlebelia, romsa da parTias Soris somxeTis gamo SeTanxmebis

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erT-erT mizezs warmoadgenda safrTxe, romelic gamouCnda somxeTs iberiisa da maTi mokavSire alanebis mxriv~.35 am xelSekrulebam gaamwvava iberiasa da somxeTs Soris brZola. 70-ian wlebSi iberebi da maTi mokavSireebi Sevidnen somxeTSi da gaimarjves. am dros mefobda farsman I-is Ze miTridate. 1940 wels armazisxevSi aRmoCnda arameuli warwera. am warweraSi laparakia iberTa mier mopovebuli gamarjvebis Sesaxeb da amasTan dakavSirebiT armenia ixsenieba. `am laSqrobebma, romlebic uciloblad, miuxedavad mose xorenelTan daculi xalxuri tradiciisa, iberTa gamarjvebiT damTavrda, ueWvelia, didad ganamtkica iberiis samefos da misi mmarTvelis miTridates avtoriteti~.36 75 wlisaTvis romaelebi armazis cixis galavans umagreben TavianT megobar qarTvelTa mefes. `amas mowmobs mcxeTaSi napovni 75 wliT daTariRebuli berZnuli warwera, Sedgenili vespasianes, tacitusisa da domicianes saxeliT, sadac laparakia armazis cixis galavnis gamagrebaze, romaelTa mier iberTa mefe miTridatesaTvis _ `keisrisa da romaelTa megobrisaTvis~.37 rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, somxeTi, romelzedac gadioda aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis damakavSirebeli gzebi, I saukuneSi, politikurad, iberiis nawiladac ki SeiZleboda miCneuli yofiliyo. sparseTsa da indoeTSi mimavali mociqulebi am gzas gverds ver auvlidnen. aseve skviTeTSi mimavali andria mociquli gzas ver auqcevda iberias, radganac iberia gadioda ara marto Sav zRvaze, aramed `kaspiis bWec~ mas eWira. amas mowmobs romSi napovni qarTvelTa mefis miTridate III-is Zmis amazaspis saflavis qvis epitafia, sadac naTqvamia: `mefis saxelovani Ze amazaspi, miTridate mefis Zma, romlis mSobliuri miwac aris kaspiis bWesTan, iberi iberis Ze, aq marxia wminda qalaqTan...~38 II saukunis dasawyisSi qarTvelTa samefos sazRvrebi Savi zRvispiras rom gadioda, mowmobs ariane, romelic 131 wels mogzaurobda Savi zRvis piras. misi cnobiT, am sanapiros erT-erT ubanze saxlobdnen Zidritebi. isini qarTvelTa mefe farsmans emorCilebian. II s-is 30-ian 50-ian wlebSi qarTlSi mefobda farsman meore, romelsac farsman qveli ewoda. `II s-is pirvel naxevarSi qarTli, rogorc Cans, kidev ufro Zlierdeba. Tu misi sagareo-politikuri warmatebebis mixedviT vimsjelebT, swored es unda yofiliyo antikuri xanis qarTlis samefos yvelaze ufro didi Zlierebis xana~.39 `farsman II-is dros qarTli, Cans, ukve yovelgvari SeniRbvis gareSe ebrZvis roms da cdilobs mis gandevnas kolxeTidan da sxva mezobeli adgilebidan. amasTanave, igi am saqmeSi rodi eZiebs parTiis mxardaWeras. qarTlis mmarTvelebi, etyoba, Tamamad upirispirdebian romsa da parTias erTdroulad. 134 wels farsman II-s, rogorc dion kasiusi gvatyobinebs, mouwyvia alanTa didi Seseva romisa da parTiis samflobeloebze. alanebi Tavs daesxnen albaneTsa da midias, agreTve, armeniasa da kapadokias~.40

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farsmani ise gaZlierda, rom `Tavi damoukideblad eWira~. imperatori adriane yovelmxriv cdilobda gaeumjobesebina urTierToba qarTvelTa mefesTan, magram farsmani ar midioda daTmobaze. farsmanma qedmaRlurad uari Tqva imperatoris miwvevaze da romSi ar Cavida. Tumca, sazogadod iberia da romis saxelmwifoebi am dros megobar qveynebad iTvlebodnen. imperatoris biografi elius spartiane wers, rom adrianem qarTvelTa mefes yvelaze meti, uricxvi Zvirfasi saCuqari gaugzavna. `Tu gaviTvaliswinebT iberiasa da roms Soris am dros arsebul daZabul urTierTobas, unda vifiqroT, rom ariane iberiaSi SeiZleboda moxvedriliyo mxolod di plomatiuri misiiT, e.i. rogorc imperatoris elCi. egebis is saCuqrebi, romelzedac laparakobs elius spartiane, farsmans swored arianem Caabara~.41 momdevno imperatoris, antonius piusis (133-161) dros farsman II saqarTvelodan meuRliTa da didi amaliT gaemgzavra romSi, sadac mas sazeimo Sexvedra mouwyves. dion kasiusis Tanaxmad, imperators `gaufarToebia misi samflobelo~. Cans, ara marto scno iberiis ukve arsebuli sazRvrebi, aramed daumata kidec sxva miwebi SavzRvispireTsa da somxeTSi. sapatio qarTvel stumars neba darTes msxverpli Seewira kapitoliumSi. imperatori daswrebia farsmanis, misi Zisa da sxva qarTveli didebulebis samxedro varjiSs. romSi daidga farsmanis cxenosani qandakeba. farsmanis Casvla romSi miRebul iqna rogorc imperatorisadmi pativiscema, Tanaxmad antonius piusis biografis _ iulius kapitolinisa. farsmanis vizits iseTi didi STabeWdileba mouxdenia romSi, rom igi saqalaqo qronikas pirvel adgilze aRubeWdavs, rasac mowmobs warwera marmarilos firfitaze, romelic romis Zvel navsadgurSi aRmoCnda~.42 rogorc zemomoyvanilidan Cans, saqarTvelo mociqulTa epoqaSi I-II saukuneebSi, mtkice da Zlieri qveyana iyo, gafarToebuli sazRvrebiT, simdidriT saxelganTqmuli, ekonomiuri cxovrebiT dawinaurebuli, maRalganviTarebuli sazogadoebrivi urTierTobiT. mociqulTa epoqaSi saerTaSoriso savaWro gzebi saqarTveloze gadioda. `axali welTaRricxvis pirveli saukuneebi saerTod saerTaSoriso savaWro urTierTobaTa gansakuTrebuli aRmavlobis xanaa, iberiac, ra Tqma unda, CaTreuli iyo am saerTaSoriso vaWrobis oromtrialSi. qarTlis dedaqalaqi mcxeTa ara marto didi strategiuli gzebis, aramed, sxvadasxva mxridan savaWro gzebis gadakveTaze mdebareobda. aq iyrida Tavs somxeTidan, albaneTidan, kolxeTidan da `CrdiloeTis momTabareTagan~ momdinare gzebi. cnobili romauli ruka qarTlis samefos teritoriaze uCvenebs araerT gzas, romlebic ueWvelia, amave dros savaWro magistralebs warmoadgenda. erTi aseTi gza somxeTis dedaqalaq artaSatidan sebastopolisSi (soxumi) midioda. gadadioda igi javaxeTsa da samcxeze, qarTlis uZvelesi centre-

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bis, wundasa da oZrxes maxloblad (sadac, matianeTa Tanaxmad, gaiara mociqulma andria pirvelwodebulma, mociqulebma mataTiam da simon kananelma _ ep. a.j.). wundaSi am gzis erTi toti qarTlis Sida raionebisken uxvevda. meore mxriv, dasavleT saqarTveloSi mimavali gza rodopolisidan (vardcixe) uxvevda rogorc dasavleTiT (rionis gayolebiT fazisisken), aseve aRmosavleTiT (iseve rionis da Semdgom yviriliT sviris, Sorapnis gavliT aRm. saqarTveloSi). meore gza artaSatidan qarTlSi modioda... ra Tqma unda, saerTo vaWrobis ferxulSi qarTli Cabmuli iyo ara marto am gzebiT. samcxesa da javaxeTze gadioda agreTve samxreT-dasavleTiT _ taosa da klarjeTs da kidev ufro samxreTiT, mcire aziisken mimavali gzebi (riTac, rogorc `qarTlis cxovrebidan~ Cans, isargebla andria mociqulma _ ep. a.j.). II s-is avtori iberiis samosaxloTa Soris asaxelebs artanisas _ gviandel artanujs~...43 romauli sagzao ruka _ `tabula peutingeriana~, romelzedac aRniSnuli gzebia datanili, IV saukuneSia Sedgenili, `magram mniSvnelovanwilad ufro Zvel, I-II ss. masalas emyareba~.44 andria pirvelwodebuli saqarTveloSi Semosula, rogorc am rukisa da `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobebis SedarebiT Cans, im gziT, romelic oZrxedan gadadioda dasavleT saqarTveloSi da mTavrdeboda sebastopolisSi (soxumSi). oZrxedan es gza, Cans, midioda ara marto klarjeTsa da taoSi, aramed uerTdeboda trapezuntsac, saidanac pirveli mogzaurobis dros Semovida mociquli andria, xolo sxva mogzaurobis dros mas taos gziTac usargeblia. es mxareebi, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelo Sorapnamde uSualod iberiis mefis xelqveiTi qveynebi iyo. mcxeTaSi Sedioda gza, romelic gamodioda somxeTis qalaq artaSatidan. xolo mcire aziidan saqarTveloSi Semomavali gzebi tao-klarjeTisa da oZrxis gavliT dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadadioda sebastopolisamde. cnobilia, rom andria mociquli moRvaweobda mcire aziaSi, saidanac savaWro gziT Semovida kidec saqarTveloSi oZrxesa da sebastopolisSi. andria mociquls somxeTSi rom emoRvawna, mas savaWro gza mcxeTaSi miiyvanda. aRsaniSnavia, rom I-III saukuneTa saqarTvelos sidiade da brwyinvaleba (rasac yovelwliurad adasturebs axal-axali arqeologiuri aRmoCena mcxeTis midamoebSi da sxvagan), naklebad iyo cnobili CvenSi. am mdgomareobas uTuod iman Seuwyo xeli, rom `qarTlis cxovreba~ ar asaxavs amas, piriqiT, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, imdroindeli qarTli somxeTis zegavlenis qveS imyofeboda. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ analizi uflebas iZleva iTqvas, rom misi `mefeTa ambavis~ erTi nawili dawerilia, xolo didi nawili redaqtirebulia VI-VII saukuneebSi. am dros (VI s.) saqarTvelo ar iyo Tavisufali qveyana, gauqmebuli iyo qarTuli saxelmwifo da CvenSi sparseTi batonobda. sparseTi ki monofizitebs uWerda mxars da amitom somxur

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eklesias abatonebda amierkavkasiis (da maT Soris saqarTvelos) qristianebze, rac somxuri orientaciis wreebs saSualebas miscemda esworebinaT ara marto qarTuli wmida werili somxuri redaqciebis mixedviT, razedac migviTiTebs giorgi mcire Tavis `giorgi mTawmidelis cxovrebaSi~, aramed qarTuli istoriuli qronikebi da matianeebic. giorgi mcire wers _ `egreTve daRacaTu pirveliTganve guqondes werilnica da sarwmunoebaO WeSmariti da marTali, garna... Soris Cuensa daTesul iyvnes borotni igi Teslni somexTani, gularZnilni da manqanani, da amis mier friad guevneboda, rameTu naTesavi Cueni wrfel iyo da umanko, xolo igini reca mizeziTa wesierebisaATa, reca cTunebad guazmnobdes da romelnime wignnica guaqundes maTgan Targmnilni~.45 Targmnil an redaqtirebul `romelnime wignnSi~, Cans, qarTuli matianeebic Sedioda. Tanamedrove gamoCenili istorikosi g. meliqiSvili amCnevs `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ mociqulTa epoqis Sesabamisi ambebis aRwerisas armenofilur gavlenas, kerZod, wers. `aSkaraa, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ monaTxrobs am laSqrobis Sesaxeb somxuri tradicia udevs safuZvlad. amaze miuTiTebs aSkara armenofiluri tendencia, romelic monaTxrobs wiTel zolad gasdevs~.46 `qarTlis cxovrebac~ I s. 70-80-iani wlebis ambebis gadmocemisas, rogorc vTqviT, agreTve somxur tradicias eyrdnoba~.47 `qarTamis mefobis aRwerisas qarTuli wyaroebi kvlav Zveli somxuri tradiciidan amodian...~.48 `yovel SemTxvevaSi aSkaraa, rom qarTuli wyaros moTxroba damokidebulia somxur tradiciaze, romelic yovelmxriv arbilebs somexTa mier gancdil marcxs iberiis mefe qarTamTan brZolaSi~.49 VI-VII saukuneebSi, roca xdeboda qarTuli wignebis armenofiluri redaqtireba, Cveni qveynis mpyrobeli xosro I anuSirvani (551-579 ww.) mfarvelobda somxur eklesias da aZlierebda mas. xosro II farvizic (591-628 ww.) aZlierebda somxur eklesias. cnobilia, rom bizantiis imperator herakle keisris iranSi laSqrobis dros `didebulebis nawilma, romelic ukmayofilo iyo monofizitebTan Sahis daaxloebiT, xosro II taxtidan Camoagdo da mokla~.50 sruliad marTalni Canan giorgi mcire da sxva Zveli qarTveli moRvaweebi, roca weren qarTuli wignebis armenofiluri redaqtirebis Sesaxeb. amiT aris gamowveuli is, rom mociqulTa epoqis saqarTvelos brwyinvaleba da sidiade ar asaxa `qarTlis cxovrebam~ da ucnobi darCa Semdegi TaobebisaTvis. ase rom, mociqulTa epoqaSi, I-II saukuneebSi saqarTvelo iyo maSindel msoflioSi saxelganTqmuli, Zlieri saxelmwifo, romelzedac gadioda gzebi romis imperiidan aRmosavleTisa da CrdiloeTis qveynebisken. aseT qveyanas mociqulebi gverds ver auvlidnen TavianTi moRvaweobis dros.

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wmida andriasa da sxva mociqulebis qadageba saqarTveloSi

`pirvelwodebuli andria, ZmaA Tavisa mociqulTaAsa petresi, vidre Cvendamdeca moiwia da qadaga sacxorebeli qadagebaA saxarebisA yovelsa queyanasa saqarTveloAsasa~,51 _ werda daviT aRmaSeneblis dros mowveuli ruis-urbnisis saeklesio kreba, yvelaze avtoritetuli kreba qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi. am krebis Tanaxmad, samwyso wmida andria mociqulisa iyo ara romelime kuTxe, aramed mTliani saqarTvelo _ `yoveli queyana saqarTveloAsa~. giorgi mTawmidelic im Tvalsazrisisa iyo, rom saqarTvelos patriarqi ganagebda andria mociqulis mier daarsebul eklesias da amitomac ijda samociqulo taxtze. man antioqiis patriarqs ganucxada: `wmidao meufeo, Sen ityY, viTarmed Tavisa mis mociqulTaAsa petres saydarsa vzio, xolo Cuen pirvelwodebulisa da Zmisa TYsisa mwodebelisa nawilni varT da samwysoni da mis mier moqceulni da ganaTlebulni. da erTi wmidaTa aTormetTa mociqulTagani _ simons vityY kananelsa _ queyanasa Cuensa damarxul ars, afxazeTs, romelsa nikofsi ewodebis. amaT wmidaTa mociqulTa ganaTlebulni varT~.52 andria mociquli macxovris upirvelesi mowafe iyo. ieso qristem pirvelad mas mouwoda, Semdeg andriam Tavisi Zma petre daumowafa moZRvars. antioqiis eklesia wmida petres mier iyo daarsebuli da amitomac miiCneoda, rom antioqiis patriarqi ijda petres saydarze. antioqiis patriarqi fiqrobda, rom es maRali taxti mas uflebas aZlevda ganecxadebina pretenzia qarTuli eklesiis damorCilebaze. wmida giorgi mTawmidelma mas upasuxa _ `wmidao meufeo, Suenis esreT, rATa wodebuli igi mwodebelsa mas daemorCilos, rameTu petresi jer ars, raATa daemorCilos mwodebelsa TYssa da Zmasa andreas, da rATa Tquen Cuen daguemorCilneT!~53 giorgi mTawmidelis msjeloba savsebiT logikuria. Tuki damorCilebazea laparaki, maSin ufro samarTliani iqneba, Tu umcrosi Zma ufross, wodebuli mwodebels daemorCileba, radganac wmida andriam mouwoda Tavis Zmas petres da petre daemorCila mas, amitomac wmida petres eklesia, antioqiis sapatriarqo, unda daemorCilos wmida andrias eklesias _ saqarTvelos sapatriarqoso. giorgi mcire saqarTvelos uwodebs andria mociqulisa da simon kananelis samwysos. `esreT yoveli aRmosavli gananaTla da nawili igi andrea mociqulisaO da simon kananelisaO kualad ganmtkica, rameTu andrea mociqulman movlo qveyanaO Cueni, xolo simon kananelman sruliad daimkYdra, rameTu nikofss arian nawilni misni wmidani~.54

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cnobili moRvawe efrem mcire berZnul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT werda, rom qristes saxareba saqarTveloSi iqadaga ara marto andriam, aramed mociqulma barTlomemac _ `iTqumis CuenTYsca mimovslasa Sina wmida mociqulTasa _ andria pirvelwodebulisa mier qadageba Soris avazgiasa, romel ars afxazeTi, da mier warvsla oseTad, da kualad barTlomes mier mimovla CrdiloeTisa, romel ars qarTli~.55 Cans, qarTul eklesiaSi damkvidrebuli Sexeduleba ramdenadme gansxvavdeboda efrem mciris berZnuli wyaroebis Tvalsazrisisagan. am Tvalsazrisis Tanaxmad, andria mociqulma iqadaga mTlian saqarTveloSi, xolo berZnuli wyaroebi, romliTac sargeblobda efrem mcire, miuTiTebdnen, rom andriam iqadaga dasavleT saqarTveloSi anu `afxazeTSi~. saqarTveloSi aderkis mefobis pirvelsave wels iSva ufali Cveni ieso qriste. uflis jvarcmas ierusalimSi saqarTvelodan eswrebodnen elioz mcxeTeli da longinoz karsneli. `aman aderki dai pyra yoveli queyana qarTli da egrisi... xolo pirvelsave welsa mefobisa misisasa iSva ufali Cueni ieso qriste, beTlems uriastanisasa~. _ `da warvides aqaT elioz mcxeTeli da longinoz karsneli. da mun daxudes juarcmasa uflisasa da maT moiRes muniT kuarTi uflisa, viTarca weril ars ese gancxadebulad moqcevasa qarTlisasa~.56 Cans, maT kvarTi Seisyides romaeli jariskacebisagan, romelTac jvarcmuli iesos tansacmeli gainawiles. dekanozi m. kelenjeriZe wers: `qristes sjulis pirvel mqadageblebad saqarTveloSi qristes mociqulebi iTvlebian: andria, svimon kananeli, mataTe da kapadokiaSic petre... istorikosebi or banakad iyofian im sakiTxis Sesaxeb, iyvnen Tu ara mociqulebi saqarTveloSi: zogni uaryofen am faqts, sxvebi ara... uarismyofelni imiT asabuTeben TavianT azrs, rom pavle mociqulis meti arc erTi mociquli ar yofila saqadageblad warmarTTa Soris da verc iqnebodnen, radgan maT marto `winadacveTilTa~ Soris (e.i. ebraelTa) hqondaT neba qadagebisao. am azris miReba SeuZlebelia Semdegi sabuTebis ZaliT: 1. iseTi avtoritetebi Zveli qristianobis istoriaSi, rogorebic arian prof. v. bolotovi da arqiep. sergi, agreTve lei pcigis prof. voogi da natalisi, uars ar hyofen mociqulebis warmarTTa Soris qadagebas. 2. meore saukunis iseTi msxvili mecnieri, rogoric iyo origeni, ambobs, andria skviTebSi iyoo, mas emxrobian prokofi da evsevic. ukanasknels Tavis istoriaSi (IV s.) mohyavs origenis sityvebi: `Tomam parTia miiRo, andriam skviTia, ioanem asia da petrem ponto, galatia, biTinia da kapadukiao~. 3. wyaroebSi mataTe mociqulze weria, eTiopiaSi qadagebdao. saukeTeso mecnierni am eTiopias aRiarebdnen axal, Sina eTiopiad, saxeldobr, kolxidad, samegrelod da skviTebis qveynad, rac sazRvravda samegrelo-afxazeTs. gadaWriT asaxeleben kidev pontod, saca mdinare fazisi

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(rioni) zRvas erTviso. 4. qriste marto ebraelTaTvis ar mosula da arc mociqulebisaTvis ubrZanebia ebraelebze izruneT mxolodo: piriqiT, aseTi mcneba daudva maT: `warvediT da moimowafeniT yovelni ernio~... 5. Tuki mociqulebs marto ebraelTa Soris qadageba evalebodaT. ratom gadmovida mociqulebze suliwmida da riRasTvis aswavla ucxo enebi? TviTon mociqulebi ebraelebi iyvnen da ebraelTa Soris ucxo enebi rad dasWirdebodaT? 6. filipe diakonma eTiopieli saWurisi monaTla da petrem romis asisTavi korniliosi _ warmarTi mTeli ojaxiT da amas rogor gabedavdnen, Tu marTla akrZaluli hqondaT warmarTTa Soris qadageba?..~57 gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa mociqulTa TiTqmis Tanamedrove, II saukunis mecnieris, origenis azri, rom andria pirvelwodebulma iqadaga skviTeTSi. saqme is aris, rom Zveli avtorebi `skviTeTs~ vrcel qveyanas uwodebdnen, romelSic zogjer iberiasa da kolxeTsac aTavsebdnen, ris Sesaxebac ufro dawvrilebiT vwerT Semdgom TavSi. origenis azri andrias skviTeTSi qadagebis Sesaxeb SeiZleba ise gavigoT, rom andriam saqarTvelosa da mis mimdebare qveynebSi iqadaga. maSin origenisa da Cveni matianeebis gadmocemani erTmaneTs Tanxvdebian. origenis garda mociqul andrias qadagebas saqarTvelosa da mosazRvre qveynebSi ixseniebdnen i polite da doroTe tYreli episkoposi, sofroni~.58 aderkis mefobis wlebis Sesaxeb gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebi gamoTqves s. kakabaZem, s. gorgaZem, p. ingoroyvam da sxvebma. `rogorc viciT, 67 wels ajanyebuli iudeis winaaRmdeg gagzavnil iqna vespasiane flaviosi, 68 wels, neronis sikvdilis Semdeg vespasianes imperatorad gamocxadebis Sedegad, romaelTa jars saTaveSi tite flaviosi Caudga da 70 wels ierusalimi daangria. Tu aderki marTla 57 wels gardaicvala, maSin araviTar qronologiur Seusabamobas ar unda warmoadgendes 70 wlis maxlobel xanaSi mis memkvidreTa mefoba. magram am SemTxvevaSi naratiul wyaros Cvenebas win udgas iseTi epigrafiuli Zegli, rogoricaa mcxeTis cnobili berZnuli warwera... romelsac Cveulebriv aTariReben 75 wliT. igi gvamcnobs, rom samive flaviosma keisarma (vespasianem, titem da domicianem), `... iberTa mefes miTridates, mefe farsmanisa da iamasaspois Zes, keisris megobarsa da romaelTa moyvaruls da xalxs es kedlebi ganumtkiceso~... g. meliqiSvilis mixedviT, dion kasiosis miTridates mama igive aderkia, romelsac `qarTlis cxovreba~ meaTe mefed asaxelebs. g. meliqiSvilis mier aRdgenili antikuri xanis iberiis mefeTa qronologiur nusxaSi meaTe mefe ki ase gamoiyureba: `10. miTridate (`aderok, aderni) _ Cveni eris I saukunis dasawyisi, 30-iani wlebis Suamde~.59 macxovari Cveni ieso qriste, RvTismetyvelTa Tanaxmad, amaRlda 30 wlis 18 maiss, xuTSabaTs. amaRlebis win man akurTxa mociqulebi, raTa maT mTel msoflioSi eqadagnaT.60 meaTe dRes, suliwmidis mofenis Semdeg, mociqulebma iwyes gamgzavreba mTel msoflioSi. andria ki gamoemarTa saqarTveloSi,

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sadac am dros mefobda aderki (g. meliqiSvilis Tanaxmad, daaxloebiT 35 wlis CaTvliT). maSasadame, andria mociquli saqarTveloSi mosula 30-35 wlebSi, amave dros mas mouqcevia samxreT da dasavleT saqarTvelos mcxovrebni _ megrelebi da klarjni, riTac mefe aderkis mrisxaneba gamouwvevia. andria mociquli am pirveli mogzaurobis garda sxva drosac Camosula saqarTveloSi, axla ukve sxva mociqulebTan erTad. am dros mefe aderki cocxali aRar yofila. maSasadame, andria mociqulis saqarTveloSi pirveli mogzauroba SeiZleba 30-35 wlebiT daTariRdes. rogorc `qarTlis cxovrebis~ teqstidan Cans, safiqrebelia, rom pirveli mogzaurobis dros andriam mxolod samxreTi saqarTvelo moiara, romlis mcxovreblebsac mematiane TiTqosda `megrelebs~ uwodebs, xolo maT erisTavs _ klarjeTis erisTavs. aseTi ram ucnaurad ar mogveCveneba, Tu gavixsenebT, rom tao-klarjeTs I saukunisTvis n. mari `megrul-lazuri tomebiT~ dasaxlebul qveynad miiCnevda. Tu es asea, maSin wmida andrias saqarTveloSi mimosvlis teqsti Zvelad dawerili aRmoCndeba. saqarTveloSi mesame mogzaurobis dros andria mociquls Tan Camouyvania sxva mociqulebi _ simon kananeli da mociquli mataTia. amis Sesaxeb wers epifane konstantinopoleli (VIII s.), romelic iyenebda Zvel wyaroebs. epifane konstantinopolelis Tanaxmad, mociquli simon kananeli dakrZalulia nikofsiaSi, rac eTanxmeba `qarTlis cxovrebasa~ da Zvel qarTul tradicias. epifane kvi prelis (IV s.) Tanaxmad ki, saqarTveloSi meore mociqulicaa dakrZaluli _ mociquli mataTa anu mataTia, romelic mociqulad arCeul iqna nacvlad gamcemel iuda iskariotelisa. `mataTiam... iqadaga saxareba meore eTiopiaSi (kolxeTSi), sadac aris afsaris cixe-simagre da hvisis navsadguri. ... iqve gardaicvala da damarxulia dRemde~.61 maSasadame, mociquli mataTia dakrZalulia cixe-simagre afsarSi. sad mdebareobda da ras warmoadgenda afsari mociqulTa dros?^ `afsarSi, rogorc Cans, romaelTa yvelaze didi garnizoni idga, xuTi kohorta. romaelTa samxedro Zalis aseTi koncentracia aq, SeiZleba, gamowveuli iyo iberiasTan daWimuli urTierTobiT. iberias am dros ekava afsaris samxreTiT mdebare sanapiro. saerTod, afsari romaul xanaSi didi centri iyo. VI s-is avtoris, prokofi bizantielis cnobiT, mis dros igi nangrevebad iyo qceuli. magram adre es iyo xalxmravali qalaqi, didi galavniT Semovlebuli, iyo aq Teatri, hipodromi da mravali sxva ram. arianem aq jamagiri dauriga mebrZolebs, daaTvaliera TavdacviTi nagebobebi _ galavani, Txrili, gasinja iaraRi, moinaxula avadmyofebi da Seamowma sursaTis (puris) momaragebis mdgomareoba. gonioSi axlac miwis zemoT Cans antikuri xanis simagris naSTebi. amas winaT aq Catarda mcire masStabis arqeologiuri gaTxrebic, romelmac antikuri xanis didebul nagebobaTa naSTebi da didZali antikuri keramika gamoavlina~.62

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vin cxovrobda afsarSi (gonioSi), sadac qadagebda mociquli mataTia da sadac daikrZala is? afsaris mimdebare zRvis sanapiro dasaxlebuli yofila qarTvelebiT, kerZod, Zidritebis tomiT. `sanapiroze cxovrobdnen (iberiis mefis) farsman II-is qveSevrdomni Zidritebi. anonimis mixedviT, maT ekavaT teritoria md. arxabes (araxve-su) da afsaris (Woroxis) SesarTavebs Soris~.63 I saukunis dasawyisSi pliniusi `...axsenebs ra cixe afsars, igi dasZens, rom am adgilebSi `mTebs iqiT~ aris iberia...~64 dRevandel saqarTveloSi dakrZaluli ori mociqulidan simon kananelis saflavi amJamadac axal aTonSia, xolo mociquli mataTia dakrZalulia gonios cixe-simagreSi, baTumTan axlos. am mociqulebis saqarTveloSi dakrZalvis Sesaxeb (nikofsiasa da afsarSi) werdnen IV-VIII saukuneTa istorikosebi, romlebic kidev ufro Zvel wyaroebs iyenebdnen. Zveli istorikosebi zRvis sanapiroze asaxeleben punqtebs, sadac uqadagniaT mociqulebs _ kerZod, faziss, sebastopoliss da afsars. am qalaqebSi Semdgom romauli garnizonebi Camdgaran _ `romaul cixe-simagred gadaiqca agreTve qalaqi fazisi, flavius arianes 131 wlis sainspeqcio mogzaurobis dros romauli garnizonebi idgnen dioskuriaSi, fazissa da afsarSi, romelic md. Woroxis SesarTavTan, dRevandel gonios adgilze imyofeboda.65 `kvi preli episkoposis epifanes sityviT, man icoda gadmocemidan, rom netarma mociqulma andriam iqadaga did sebastopolisSi, sadac aris afsaris cixe-simagre da hvisis navsadguri da mdinare fasisi, sadac mosaxleobdnen iberielni, susanelni, fustelni da alanni~.66 maSasadame, IV saukunis avtori epifane kvi preli wers, rom didi sebastopolisi, mdinare fazisis xeoba da afsaris teritoria dasaxlebulia iberebiT, anu qarTvelebiT. epifanes cnobiT, andria mociquli pirveli mogzaurobis dros `mivida trapezuntSi, lazikis qalaqSi (efTvime mTawmidelis qarTuli versiiT: `miiwia... qalaqad trapezuntad, romeli igi Sen ars sofelsa megrelTasa~), aqedan is wavida iberiaSi. mas Semdeg, rac man zRvispiris mcxovrebni mravalni gananaTlna, is Cavida ierusalimSi~. meore mogzaurobis dros, hagiografis cnobiT, andria isev `moiwia qalaqsa trapezunts~. mesame mogzaurobis dros _ gadmogvcems hagiografi, _ andria da misni TanamoRvaweni mataTa da simon kananeli mowafeebiTurT `Cavidnen iberiaSi da fasisSi~.67 mociqulebis mimosvlasTan dakavSirebiT xSirad gvxvdeba sami punqti _ trapezunti, afsari da nafsaAs navsadguri. p. ingoroyva wers: `dasaxelebuli sami punqti dasavleT saqarTvelosi, _ trapezunti _ samxreT mxaridan, afsari _ Sua mxaridan da nafsaAs navTsadguri (nikofsia) CrdiloeTi mxaridan _ niSandobliv amorCeuli aqvs ioane sabanis Zes, kerZod, imis gamo, rom swored am punqtebTan iyo dakavSirebuli gadmocemebi qristianobis gavrcelebis Sesaxeb dasavleT saqarTveloSi TviT

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mociqulTa mier. samxreTiT mdebare trapezunti aris is punqti, sadac gadmocemiT, iqadaga andria mociqulma da saidanac igi Semovida saqarTveloSi, Sua mxareSi mdebare afsari aris is punqti, sadac gadmocemiT, dasaflavebuli iyo andrias TanamoRvawe mociquli mataTa, CrdiloeT mxareSi mdebare nafsaAs navsadguri (nikofsia) aris punqti, sadac gadmocemiT dasaflavebuli iyo andrias meore TanamoRvawe, mociquli simon kananeli~.68 garda andria mociqulisa, simon kananelisa da mataTia mociqulisa, saqarTveloSi sxva mociqulebsac umoRvawiaT. kerZod, efrem mcire, romelmac sagangebod daCxrika mis dros arsebuli yvela berZnuli wyaro qarTuli eklesiis istoriasTan dakavSirebiT, am wyaroebze dayrdnobiT werda, rom saqarTveloSi saxareba iqadaga mociqulma barTlomem. cnobebi mociqul barTlomes saqarTveloSi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb, Cans, laTinur wyaroebSic yofila mocemuli, radganac amis Sesaxeb arqanjelo lambertic werda. `arqanjelo lamberti im azrs icavs, rom kolxeTsa da iberiaSi qristianoba wm. andriam da wm. barTlomem gaavrceles. `darwmunebuli unda viyoT, _ wers arqanjelo lamberti _ rom ori mociqulis qadagebiT dainerga sarwmunoeba am qveyanaSi (e.i. saqarTveloSi), magram SemdgomSi mRvdlebis uyoliobis Tu sxva mizezis gamo am mxareebs didi xnis ganmavlobaSi moakldaT sarwmunoeba~.69 a. lamberti werda: `qarTlSi, samcxis provinciaSi aris erTi eklesia, romelic miZRvnilia wm. barTlomesadmi. am ukanasknelma, xalxuri gadmocemis Tanaxmad, Tavisi qadagebiT am mxareSi qristianoba gaavrcela, am saepiskoposo eklesiis episkoposs iSxnels uwodebdnen~.70 barTlomes garda saqarTveloSi Toma mociqulsac umoRvawnia, rusul wyaroSi daculi cnobis Tanaxmad. es ar mogveCveneba gasakvirad, Tu gavixsenebT, rom mociqulma Tomam iqadaga siriaSi, sparseTsa da indoeTSi. mociqulTa epoqaSi iberia iyo sparseTis (parTiis) uSualo mosazRvre qveyana, romelic ebrZoda parTias da zogjer amarcxebda kidec. mociqulTa dros, 30-ian wlebSi, parTiis mefe taxtze iberielTa jarma dasva: `35 wels parTiaSi mefis winaaRmdeg ajanyeba moxda. ajanyebul parTel didebulTa TxovniT tiberiusma parTiaSi gasamefeblad gagzavna parTiis samefo sagvareulos wevri tiridati. misi gamefeba unda momxdariyo iberTa meoxebiT~.71 XVI saukunis slavuri wyaro qarTul eklesias miiCnevs Toma mociqulis mier daarsebulad. aq CamoTvlilia samociqulo saydrebi, kerZod, `adgili wmida mociqul Tomasi aris iveriis saydari~.72 `mociqul petres ki kapadokiaSi, qarTvelTa Soris umoRvawnia~.73 marTlac, arsebobs azri, romlis Tanaxmadac mcire azia saerTod da gansakuTrebiT ki kapadokia qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. maT mociqulTa epoqaSi jer kidev SenarCunebuli hqondaT vinaoba da qarTuli ena. mcire aziaSi mravali

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mociquli qadagebda, maT Soris petre, pavle, ioane. cxadia, isini berZnebTan erTad qarTvelebsac moaqcevdnen da monaTlavdnen, radganac swored qarTvelebi da qarTveluri tomebi iyo maT dros mcire aziis ZiriTadi mosaxleoba. unda davaskvnaT, rom qarTvelTa Soris qristianoba mociqulebma gaavrceles. rogorc ukve iTqva, saqarTveloSi ramdenime mociqulma iqadaga. ori mociquli saqarTveloSive ganisvenebs, kerZod, simon kananeli da mataTa. qarTuli eklesia daamyara wm. mociqulma andriam, radganac man xeli daasxa saqarTvelos pirvel episkoposs awyurSi da dauarsa mas saepiskoposo kaTedra,74romelSic mRvdlebi da diakvnebi hyavda. mociqul andrias mier daarsebuli qarTuli qristianuli mrevli, romelsac Tavisi eklesia (saepiskoposo) hqonda, ucxoeTis romeli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda? mociqulebis mier daarsebuli yvela eklesia, sadac ar unda yofiliyo is, avtokefaluri iyo. qarTuli eklesiac I saukuneSi, saerTo wesis Tanaxmad, avtokefaluri iqneboda. marTlac, vis unda damorCileboda es eklesia? ierusalimi, saidanac qarTul matianeTa Tanaxmad, mociquli andria movida, 70 wlisaTvis ukve dangreuli iyo da iq qristianuli Temic ki aRar arsebobda. qristianobis centrebSic (romsa da antioqiaSi) qristianoba idevneboda. Tumca, aseT Ziebas azri ara aqvs, radganac yvela eklesia, yvela qristianuli Temi im epoqaSi erTmaneTis mimarT damoukidebeli, avtokefaluri iyo da isini mxolod mociqulebis avtoritets aRiarebdnen. amitomac, qarTuli eklesia daarsebis droisTvis avtokefaluri iyo.

wmida andrias mimosvla saqarTveloSi


`qarTlis cxovreba~75 gadmogvcems andria mociqulis Sesaxeb: `amaRlebis Semdgom mociqulebma wili igdes, Tu vis romel qveyanaSi unda eqadagna, maSin wmida RvTismSobels wilad xvda saqarTvelos moqceva, mas eCvena Ze misi, ufali Cveni ieso qriste da uTxra: `hoi, dedao, Cemo, me ar ugulebelvyof yvela xalxze ufro sazepuro qarTvel ers Seni meoxebiT, xolo Sen Sens xvedrebul saqarTveloSi waravline andria pirvelwodebuli, Tan waratane Seni xati, romelic Sens pirze dadebiT gamoisaxeba. Sens wilad is xati mkvidrobdes iq, maT mcvelad ukunisamde.~ maSin yovladwmida RvTismSobelma uTxra andria mociquls: `Svilo andria, didad uCans Cems suls, rom Cems wil qveyanaSi _ saqarTveloSi aravis uqadagnia Cemi Zis saxeli. roca me saqadageblad gavemarTe Cems wilxvedr qveyanaSi, maSin gamomecxada saxieri Ze Cemi da RmerTi da mibrZana, rom Sen waxvide da Tan warasveno saxe Cemi da Cemi Zisa, raTa me viyo qarTvelTa cxovrebis ganmgebeli, xeli aRvupyra da Sevewio maT, da aravin mterTagan mZle eqmnas maT~.

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yovladwmidam moiTxova ficari, daido saxeze da gamoisaxa xati RvTismSoblisa, romlis wiaRSic gamoxatuli iyo ganxorcielebuli Cvili yrma ieso sityva RvTisa. es xati amJamadac awyuris taZarSia. misca is mociqul andrias da uTxra `madli da Sewevna Cemgan Sobilisa uflisa TanaSemwe geyavn Sen, sadaca xYdode, da meca TanaSemwe var qadagebasa magas, da didad Sevewio `Cemda xuedrebuls~. andria mociquli pirvelad qalaq trapizonSi movida, romelic megrelTa qveyanaSia, aq mcire Jami dahyo, aqedan Sevida qarTlis qveyanaSi, romelsac didaWara ewodeba. daiwyo saxarebis qadageba. mravali Wiri da gansacdeli moiTmina urwmunoebisgan. RvTisa da wmida xatis SewevniT yovelive madlobiT moiTmina, sanam yvela ar moaqcia da morwmuned gaxada. im adgilas, sadac yovladwmidas xati daasvena, gamoCqefa friad didma da mSvenierma wyarom, romelic dResac Seuwyvetlad amodis. Semoikribnen mis garSemo im qveynis mkvidrni da naTeli sca yvelas saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa. daudgina iqaur qarTvelebs mRvdlebi da diakvnebi. daudo wesi da sazRvari sarwmunoebisa. maT aaSenes RvTismSoblis saxelze eklesia. am eklesiaSi mociqulma daasvena RvTismSoblis xatis piri, romelic dRemde iqvea. wamovida andria mociquli, gadmovlo mTa, romelsac rkinis jvari ewodeba. Tqmulia, rom is jvari TviT netar andrias mier aris aRmarTuli. mociqulma Caiara oZraxis xevi, mivida samcxis sazRvarTan da daivana sofel zaden-goraSi. aq kerpTayvanismcemlebi cxovrobdnen. iloca xatis mimarT da kerpebi daemxnen. wmida mociquli gaemarTa da mivida sofel awyverSi, romelsac pirvelad sosangeTi ewodeboda, xolo mis pirdapir mdebare adgils saqrisi. maSin mTavari iyo erTi qvrivi dedakaci samZivari, romelsac erTaderTi vaJi, misi imedi, imJamad mokvdomoda. idga tirili, vaeba da glova. im Rames cixidan ixiles didi naTeli RvTismSoblis xatisa. gamTeniis

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Jams andrias miugzavnes kaci vinaobis gasagebad. misi pasuxi auwyes mTavars qvriv dedakacs: `arian ucxo kacebi, qadageben CvenTvis ucnob RmerTs qveynis Semoqmedad, dambadeblad, adamianTaTvis sicocxlis mimniWeblad da mkvdarTa aRmdgenelad. hyavT maT mSvenieri xati, romelsac pativs scemen~. roca qvrivs moesma sityva mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb, gaukvirda da mcired nugeSi mieca. mouxmo mociquls da gamohkiTxa. miugo wmida mociqulma `movedi wmida qalaq ierusalimidan, sadac ufals fexi daudgams golgoTasa da caTa msgavs beTlemidan, var mociquli uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi, romelic wamisyofiT aRadgens mkvdrebs. mas vqadageb RmerTad, uflad da yoveli dabadebulis mpyrobelad, vinc irwmunebs mas da naTels iRebs saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa, yovelive, rasac iTxovs sarwmunoebiT, miecema mas da yoveli senisgan ganikurneba~. es rom moesma dedakacs, davarda miwaze da cremliT uTxra mociquls. `Seiwyale Cemi siqvrive da ubedureba, radganac emsaxurebi mkvdrebis aRmadgenels, iloce Seni RmerTis mimarT da mianiWe Cems Svils sicocxle. yovelives, rasac mibrZaneb, Segismen da urCobas ar gagiwev, Tu Cems vaJs cocxals vixilav, rameTu mxolod es myavs da sxva ara~. wmida mociqulma miugo: `Tu irwmuneb ieso qristes, Zes RmrTisas, WeSmarit RmerTs, romelic Cvens mier iqadageba, rac ar unda iTxovo sarwmunoebiT, yovelive mogecema mis mier~. dedakaci amis mosmenam sixaruliT aRavso da cremliT uTxra mociquls: `hoi, WeSmarito RvTismsaxuro, WeSmaritad mwams da vaRiareb ieso qristes, romelsac Sen qadageb, Seewie urwmunoebasa Cemsa~. mociqulma iqidan gaayvanina xalxi da mgosnebi da aravin datova qvrivisa da Tavisi kacebis garda, aiRo yovladwmida RvTismSoblis xati, daasvena sawolze, sadac yrma ido. daiwyo locva da vedreba RvTis mimarT xelapyrobiT. locvis Semdeg mokida xeli yrmas, rogorc Zilisgan, ise wamoayena da misca dedamiss. roca sxvebma naxes es saswauli, Zalian gaukvirdaT. roca dedakacma ixila Tavisi gacocxlebuli vaJi, sixaruliT wamodga, davarda mociqulis fexebTan, cremliT Tayvani sca da madli Seswira. iwama ufali ieso qriste, moinaTla es dedakaci Tavis vaJTan da Tavis saxleulTan erTad. saswrafod miswera samcxis mTavrebs: `me, qvrivi, gaxarebT Tqven did sixaruls mTeli xalxisa: movida CvenTan erTi kaci ucxo qveynidan, romelic ucxo RmerTs qadagebs, da hyavs mas xati zecisa, romelmac Cemi mkvdari vaJi gaacocxla. swrafad modiT, raTa wesi da rjuli avirCioT da vcnoT, Tu romelia umjobesi~. roca mesxebma es sakvirveli ambavi ismines, swrafad Seikribnen yoveli kuTxidan da Seiqmna friad didi simravle xalxisa ise, rom aivso saqrisis veli, gaukvirda yvelas, roca ixiles qvrivis mkvdreTiT aRdgomili Ze.

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qalaqSi iyo sakerpo bomoni, romelSic emsaxurebodnen bilw kerpebs, artemidasa da apolons. am saqmis mnaxveli sicruis mRvdlebi (qurumebi kerpebisa) aRivsnen SuriT da winaaRmdegoba gauwies mociquls. RvTismSoblis xatis saswauliT, RvTis nebiT, dailewa kerpebi. kerpTa mRvdlebi sircxviliT aRivsnen da Sendoba iTxoves mociqulisgan. mTelma xalxma madlobis xma aRmouteva da Tqves. `didia qristianTa RmerTi, romelsac mociquli andria qadagebs~. da yvelam irwmuna Cveni ufali ieso qriste da sixaruliT moinaTlnen yvelani saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da wmidisa sulisaTa. mociqulma aswavla maT yoveli wesi rjulisa da sarwmunoebisa. daudgina episkoposi, mRvdlebi da diakvnebi. didi Txovnis Semdeg dautova mesxebs yovladwmida RvTismSoblis xati, romelic daasvenes awyveris mcire ekvderSi, romelsac axla Zveli eklesia ewodeba. mociquli andria gaemarTa saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi saqadageblad. aderki mefem roca gaigo megrelebisgan rjulis datoveba, gauwyra maT, gagzavna iq Tavisi erisTavebi da iZulebiT kvlav warmarTobas daubruna megrelebi. damales xatebi da jvrebi. Serisxa aderki mefem klarjeTis erisTavi andria mociqulis mSvidobiT gantevebisaTvis. andria mociqulma moiara saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxe, qadagebiT Cavida taoSi, mdinare Woroxamde, movlo am mxaris yoveli kuTxe. aqedan isini gaemgzavrnen Sida saqarTveloSi da miaRwies svaneTs. svaneTSi mTavrad ijda dedakaci, romelmac irwmuna mociqulTa qadageba. mociquli mataTa sxva mowafeebTan erTad darCa am mxareSi. xolo andria mociquli simon kananelTan erTad gaemgzavra oseTSi, mividnen qalaq fostaforSi, sadac saswauli hqmnes da mravali moaqcies da gananaTles. aqedan isini Sevidnen afxazeTSi da sebastopolSi mividnen, romelsac cxumi ewodeba. iqadages RvTis sityva da mravali moaqcies. aq netarma andriam datova simon kananeli sxva mowafeebTan erTad da Tavad jiqeTSi mivida, aq misi ar Seismines, datova es mxare da wavida. xolo simon kananelis saflavi aris nikofs qalaqSi, romelic aris afxazeTsa da jiqeTs Soris, radganac iq aResrula simon kananeli~.76

iberiasa da kavkasias skviTeTis nawiladac miiCnevdnen


sayovelTaod miRebulia gadmocema wmida andria mociqulis skviTeTSi qadagebis Sesaxeb. axali aRTqmis yvela mniSvnelovani gadmocemis sqolioebSi naCvenebia, rom wmida andriam iqadaga mcire aziaSi, saberZneTsa da skviTeTSi. eWvmiutaneli faqtia, rom swored iberiasa da mis momijnave qveynebs uwodebdnen xSirad skviTeTs pirveli aTaswleulis naxevarSi. `skviTebi ewodebodaT pontospireTis tomebsac (romlebSic Sedian: biZere-

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bi, beqirebi, makronebi, filirebi, mosinikebi, tibarenebi, xalibebi, paflatonebi, mariandinebi, biTvinebi). amis mixedviT iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom `skviTebi~ krebiTi mcnebaa da ara konkretuli tomis an tomebis saxeli~.,77 amis Sesaxeb weren Zveli avtorebi, magaliTad, plutarqosi:78 `fasisi skviTeTis mdinarea, igi qalaqs (e.i. q. fasiss) Camoudis~ (`fasisi~ dasavleT saqarTvelos mdinare rionia, qalaq foTTan gamdinare). dionisos periegeti: `skviTiis rCeuli tomebia: biZerebi, makronebi, mosinikebi, tibarenebi, xalibebi~ (es is qarTuli tomebia, romelTa qveynebSic, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, moRvaweobda wmida andria mociquli). stefane bizantieli: `skviTuri tomebi arian afsilebi, sanigebi, lazebi~ (es is qarTuli tomebia, romlebTanac andria mociquli, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, misula mesxeTSi qadagebis Semdeg dasavleT saqarTveloSi, afxazeTsa da svaneTSi). cece: `kolxebs, romelTac lazebs eZaxian... azieli skviTebica da levkosirebic hqviaT, isini cxovroben aziis im nawilSi, romelic mdinare fasisTanaa... iosipios ebraeli ambobs, rom alanebic skviTuri tomiao~ (`qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, andria mociquli dasavleT saqarTvelodan gadavida oseTSi, anu alanTa qveyanaSi). mecnierebi askvnian: `skviTia~ sqoliastebisaTvis did teritorias moicavda Savi da kaspiis zRvebis midamoebSi~.79 kavkasionis mTebsac skviTeTis mTebs uwodebdnen. magaliTad, berZeni poetis Teokrites (300-260) erT nawarmoebSi naxseneb kavkasiis mTebs sqoliasti ganmartavs rogorc `skviTiis mTebs~.80 aseve wers fsevdoplutarqosi (II s.) `fazisi skviTiis mdinarea~.81 libaniosi (314-393) Tavis `progimnasmataSi~ kolxTa qveyanas uwodebs `skviTTa qveyanas~, aiets `skviTTa mefes~, xolo medeas `skviTTa mefis asuls~.82 `am droisaTvis Savi da kaspiis zRvis midamoebis mcxovrebi tomebi (skviTuri da araskviTuri) zogadad skviTurad cxaddeba xolme~.83 ase rom, vrceli teritoria kavkasiis mTianeTisa, kaspiisa da Sav zRvas Soris moqceuli saqarTvelo anu iberia, mezobel xalxebTan erTad, skviTeTad da skviTebad arian wodebulni, ara marto mociqulTa moRvaweobis epoqaSi, aramed mociqulTa Sesaxeb gadmocemebis Caweris drosac, III-IV saukuneebSi. roca Zveli istorikosebi weren andria mociqulis mier skviTeTSi qadagebis Sesaxeb, aq pirvel rigSi igulisxmeba iberia da misi uSualo mezobeli tomebi, xolo Semdeg SeiZleba igulisxmebodes alanebi da mis CrdiloeTiT mcxovrebi sarmatebi. amitomac, roca evsebi kesarieli (260-340) wers, wmida andrias skviTeTi xvda wilado, is gulisxmobs iberia-kavkasiasa da mis xalxebs: `...Tomas, rogorc gadmocema gviambobs, parTia xvda wilad, andrias skviTia, ioanes asia, xolo petre, rogorc Cans, uqadagebda pontoSi...~84

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`qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ daculi cnobebi iberiaSi wmida andrias moRvaweobis Sesaxeb zustad emTxveva Zvel istorikosTa cnobebs skviTuri tomebis Sesaxeb, amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobebi raRac uZveles wyaros eyrdnoba. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, wmida andria pirvelad movida iberiis sazRvarTan qalaq trapizonSi (pontos diocezi). trapizonis mimdebare qveyana dasaxlebuli yofila qarTveli tomiT, `megrelebiT~, romelsac berZeni istorikosebi `makronebs~ uwodebdnen da skviTebad miiCnevdnen. aqedan wmida andria Sevida iberiaSi. `queyanasa qarTlisasa, romelsac didi aWara ewodebis~. berZen da laTin istorikosTa Tanaxmad, es qveyana I saukuneSi farsman mefis dros iberiis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda da iberTa erT-erTi tomiT ZidritebiT iyo dasaxlebuli (amaTac skviTebs uwodebdnen). aq eklesiuri qristianuli Temi dauarsebia wmida andrias: `daadginna mRvdelni da diakonni~. amis Semdeg andria mociquli gadadis iberiis sxva kuTxeSi _ mesxeTSi, romelic kolxeTTan axlos aris da somxeTs esazRvreba. aq wmida andriam moaqcia am mxaris mmarTveli qali, romelsac gaucocxla mkvdari Svili. mTavarma qalma da misma xalxma aRiara qristianoba. es cnoba yovelmxriv eTanxmeba VIII saukunis avtoris epifane konstantinopolelis cnobas, romelic, Tavis mxriv, iyenebda epifane kvi prels (IV s.). epifane konstantinopoleli wers: mociqulebi `Cavidnen iberiaSi, xolo ramdenime dRis Semdeg sosaniaSi (`qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, `sosanigeTSi~), am tomis mamakacebs mbrZaneblobdnen qalebi. advilad damyolia qalis buneba, da isinic male damorCildnen~.85 aq igulisxmeba am kuTxis mTavari qalisa da misi qveynis gaqristianeba, rasac `qarTlis cxovreba~ ufro dalagebiT mogviTxrobs. am ori wyaros monacemebi erTmaneTs emTxveva. qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalias uSualod exeba cnoba, daculi `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~: andria mociqulma sosanigeTSi anu `susaniaSi~, dRevandel awyurSi, daaarsa pirveli saepiskoposo iberiis samefoisa da daadgina sosanigeTis (awyuris) pirveli episkoposi _ `daudgina episkoposi, mRvdelni da diakonni...~86 amis Semdeg mociquli gadadis dasavleT saqarTveloSi, Sedis afxazeTsa da oseTSi (alaniaSi). yvela am qveyanas `skviTeTs~ uwodebdnen zogadad. epifane konstantinopoleli, romelic iyenebda Zvel wyaroebs (klimenti romaelis, epifane kvi prelis da evagre sicilielis teqstebs), Tavis `andria mociqulis cxovrebaSi~ wers: `xolo epifane kvi preli ambobs _ gadmocemis mixedviT _ rom netarma mociqulma andriam damoZRvra skviTebi, sogdianebi da morsinebi did sebastopolisSi, sadac aris afsarosis banaki da navsadguri isosi da mdinare fasisi. iq cxovroben iberebi da susebi da fustebi da alanebi~; `xolo andria wamovida asiisagan da movida trapezuntSi, lazikis qalaqSi... iqidan wamovida da SeCerda iberiaSi, mas Semdeg, rac man zRvis piras mcxovrebni mravalni gananaTlna, is Cavida ierusalim-

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Si~; xolo danarCenma mociqulebma moiares qalaqebi, iqadages da saswaulebi moaxdines da Cavidnen iberiaSi da fasisSi...~87 mesame mogzaurobis dros, gadmogvcems istorikosi, andria da misi TanamoRvaweni _ mataTia da simon kananeli mowafeebiTurT Cavidnen iberiaSi da fasisSi: `ars jiqeTs nikofsiaSi saflavi, romelsac aqvs warwera simon kananelisa~.88 xolo IV saukunis istorikosi epifane kvi preli werda _ `mataTiam... iqadaga saxareba meore eTiopiaSi (kolxeTSi), sadac aris afsaris cixe _ da hYsis navsadguri... iqve gardaicvala da damarxulia dRemde~.89 ase rom, rogorc zemoTac iTqva, IV-VIII saukuneTa istorikosebis Tanaxmad, mociqulebma araTu iqadages saqarTveloSi, aramed ori mociquli _ simon kananeli da mataTia mociquli iberiaSi, saqarTveloSive ganisveneben. amaT garda, saqarTveloSi uqadagniaT mociqulebs barTlomes, Tomasa da Tadeozs. amis Sesaxeb arsebobs sxvadasxva drois istorikosTa cnobebi.

mociqulTa mier daarsebuli pirveli avtokefaluri eklesiebi


wina TavSi aRniSnuli gvqonda, rom saqarTveloSi uqadagniaT mociqulebs andrias, svimon kananels, mataTias, Tomas, barTlomesa da Tadeozs. qarTuli evlesiis mRvdelmTavrebi didi Camolocvis, puris kurTxevisa an sxva locvis dros valdebulni iyvnen da arian moixsenion andria pirvelwodebuli, svimon kananeli, barTlome da Tadeozi. teqstis nawili aseTi saxisaa: `...wmidaTa didebulTa da yovladqebulTa mociqulTa andria pirvelwodebulisa da svimon kananelisaTa, Tadeozisa da barTlomesiTa~... es imas niSnavs, rom saukuneTa manZilze qarTuli oficialuri eklesia aRiarebda, rom saqarTvelos ganmanaTleblebi arian locvis dros moxseniebuli es mociqulebi. saqarTvelo II-III saukuneebSic samisionero asparezi yofila (laTin istorikosTa cnobebiT) da msoflio qristianuli centrebi yuradRebas ar aklebdnen mas. erTi cnoba aseTia: `iberiis im nawilma, romelic pontos zRvasTan mdebareobs da kolxidad iwodeba, saxareba jer kidev imperator traianes dros mqadagebeli papis wmida klimentis SemweobiT miiRo. wmida klimenti im mxareSi iyo gadasaxlebuli~.90 irineosi ki Tvlida, rom qarTvelebma (iberebma), romlebic iwodebian kolxebad (geografiuli adgilis mixedviT), qristianoba jer kidev romis imperator traianemde (98-117) miiRes. imave cnobiT, im qarTvelebma, romlebic kaspiis zRvisaken kavkasiis mTebTan cxovroben (igulisxmeba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba), qristianuli sarwmunoeba ufro gvian miiRes. es cnoba savsebiT eTanxmeba `qarTlis cxovrebas~, romlis monace-

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mebiTac qarTvelTagan qristianoba pirvelebma miiRes megrelebma (kolxebma) da klarjebma (samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba). wmida iustine 150 wlis maxloblad amtkicebda, rom ar arsebobs dedamiwaze iseTi kuTxe, TviT barbaros xalxTa Sorisac ki, sadac xalxi jvarcmuli iesos saxels ar loculobdeso. aseTive azrs gamoTqvams irineosic.91 `jer kidev III saukuneSi qristianobis aRiarebis Sesaxeb gankarguleba gamosca imperatorma galienma 261 wels. msgavsadve moiqca galienamde TiTqmis naxevari saukuniT adre iberiis mefe rev marTali (gard. 213 wels). am mefes hqonia qristes siyvaruli da mosmenili hqonia saxareba. amitomac is yofila mowyale da Semwe yovelTa, Tumca warmarTadve darCenila. romSi warmarTuli RvTaebisaTvis sisxliani msxverplis Sewirva mxolod mesame saukunis imperatorebma akrZales. saqarTveloSi... SesaZlebeli gaxda misi oficialurad akrZalva saxelmwifos masStabebiT. Zveli saistorio wyaro am keTilSobilur saqciels rev marTals miawers~.92 iv. javaxiSvilis daskvniT, `qristianobis istoria aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi III saukunis damdegidan, an arada, Sua wlebidan mainc iwyeba~.93 VIII saukunis wyaro _ `abo Tbilelis wameba~ _ wers, rom qarTvelebi qristianebi yofilan II-III saukuneebidan da maSasadame, VIII saukunis saqarTveloSi qristianobas ukve 500 wlis istoria hqonia. zemoT moyvanilidan Cven unda davaskvnaT, rom pirveli qarTuli eklesia daaarses TviT mociqulebma da amis Semdeg is uwyvetad arsebobda. qristianoba I-II saukuneebSi ar iqca iberiis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad, iseve rogorc romis imperiaSi, radganac warmarTuli sarwmunoeba kvlav Zlieri iyo. qarTuli eklesia samociquloa, mociqulTa mier daarsebuli, magram es ar aZlevs mas, rogorc sxva samociqulo eklesiebs, raime upiratesobas sxva adgilobriv eklesiebTan SedarebiT, radganac yvela arsebuli avtokefaluri eklesia, Tu ar warmoadgens pirdapir gagrZelebas im eklesiebisa, romlebic mociqulebma daaarses, warmoadgens mociqulTa mier daarsebuli eklesiebis totebs da yvelam Tavisi ufleba memkvidreobiT miiRo mociqulebisgan. amitomac yvela avtokefaluri eklesia Tanasworuflebiania erTmaneTis mimarT imis miuxedavad, maT TavianTi avtokefalia mociqulebisgan miiRes uSualod, Tu maT mier daarsebuli eklesiebis meSveobiT. mociqulebi ar yofdnen dedamiwas avtokefaluri eklesiebis mixedviT. avtokefaluri eklesiebi warmoiSvnen mociqulTa Semdegac. meore mxriv, mociqulTa mier daarsebuli eklesiebi kargavdnen avtokefalias an droebiT (magaliTad, ierusalimis, aTenis), an samudamod. 18 eklesiidan, romelnic CamoTvlilni arian, rogorc avtokefaluri eklesiebi mociqulTa dadgenilebebSi, mxolod 6-ma SeinarCuna TavisTavadoba, _ wers profesori troicki. marTlmadidebeli eklesia, miuxedavad imisa, rom is dayofilia ramdenime TavisTavad anu avtokefalur eklesiad, Seadgens erT wmida kaTolike da samociqulo eklesias. erTiani eklesiis mowyobis aseTi saxe tradiciulia.

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I-II saukuneebSi mociqulTa mier daarsebuli eklesiebi ar eqvemdebarebodnen miwier saerTo centrs da yovel eklesias Tavisi saepiskoposo mmarTveloba hqonda. mTel dedamiwaze gabneulma mociqulebma erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad (magram mociqulTa erTobis saxeliT) daaarses eklesiebi. maTi mmarTveloba gadasces episkoposebs, romlebic iseve damoukideblad moqmedebdnen erTiani sayovelTao (krebiT, yovlismomcveli) eklesiis SigniT, rogorc mociqulebi. mociqulebs ekuTvnodaT miwieri eklesiis mTeli Zalaufleba da amitomac maT daaarses pirveli avtokefaluri eklesiebi,94 romlebic eTnikurteritoriuli princi piT yofilan mowyobilni, rasac mociqulTa 34-e kanoni mowmobs. am kanonSi erovnul TavisTavad eklesiebze da `TiToeuli naTesavis~ episkoposebzea saubari. 34-e kanoni am episkoposis Tanatomelebs avaldebulebs `Tavad Seracxon episkoposi TYsi~ da misi nebarTvis gareSe araferi gaakeTon. Tavis mxriv, episkoposic valdebulia araferi moimoqmedos maTTan (Tavis Tanatomel morwmuneebTan) SeTanxmebis gareSe, `rameTu esreT erTneboba aResrulos da ididos RmerTi uflisa mier suliTa wmidiTa~. arsebobs am kanonis komentari, romlis mixedviTac aq saubaria ara erovnul-nacionalur eklesiebze, aramed im eTnikur olqebze, romlebadac iyo dayofili romis saxelmwifo diokletianes mier am saxelmwifos provinciebad dayofamde. marTalia, qristes eklesiaSi ar aris arc elini, arc iudeveli, arc barbarosi, arc skviTi, magram udidesi mniSvnelobis faqtia is, rom mociqulebma eklesiis damaarseblis, ufal ieso qristes nebiT Seiswavles swored sxvadasxva nacionalobaTa maT Soris skviTTa da barbarosTa enebi da daaarses maTi pirveli eklesiebi. am pirvel eklesiebs Seexeba mociqulTa 34-e kanoni. mociqulTa 34-e kanonidan Cans, rom: 1. sanam mTeli eklesia mociqulTa swavlebis erTguli rCeboda, saerTo miwieri centri, romelsac daeqvemdebarebodnen adgilobrivi eklesiebi, ar arsebobda da arc SeiZleboda arsebuliyo. arc axal aRTqmaSi da arc mociqulTa kanonebSi ar arsebobs mcireodeni miniSnebac ki amis Sesaxeb. 34-e kanoni ambobs, rom adgilobrivi eklesiis yoveli saqme sabolood wydeba mis episkoposTa mier, maTi pirveli episkoposis meTaurobiT; 2. mociqulebma ara marto daaarses avtokefaluri eklesiebi, aramed maTi avtokefaliis dacvazec izrunes. miTiTebuli kanonidan Cans, rom yovelgvari saqme adgilobrivi eklesiisa wydeba sxva eklesiis mxridan Carevis gareSe, TviT adgilobrivi eklesiis mier pirveli episkoposis meTaurobiT. amitomac III msoflio krebam daicva patara adgilobrivi kvi prosis eklesiis avtokefalia, roca antioqiis did eklesias surda misi daqvemdebareba. am krebam me-8 kanonSi es mcdeloba daaxasiaTa rogorc mociqulTa kanonebis sawinaaRmdego, Tavisuflebis Semlaxveli qmedeba, rogorc sa-

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zogado vneba, romelsac mkurnaloba esaWiroeba, raTa sxva vnebis mizezad ar gadaiqces. krebam gansazRvra, rom kvi prosis eklesias Zvel CveulebaTa mixedviT TviTve daedgina Tavisi episkoposi. am msoflio krebis me-8 kanoni exeboda ara marto kvi prosis eklesias, aramed saerTod yvela adgilobriv eklesias. am kanonis dacva yvelgan saWiro iyo. `igive iyos daculi sxva olqebSi (ZvelqarTulad `samTavroebSi~) da yvela eparqiaSi (e. i. mitropoliebSi), rom aravin RvTismoSiS episkoposTagan ar gaavrcelos Tavisi xelisufleba sxva eparqiaze, romelic manamde ar iyo mis xelqveiT, xolo vinc ZaladobiT sxva eparqia daiqvemdebaros, gaaTavisuflos~. arsebobda azri, rom avtokefaliis ufleba aqvT mxolod im eklesiebs, romelnic mociqulebma daaarses, xolo zogierTi eklesiis avtokefalias eWvis qveS ayenebdnen im mosazrebiT, rom isini ar iyvnen mociqulTa mier daarsebulni. magaliTad, s. troicki wers, rom papebi leon didi da nikoloz I eWvis qveS ayenebdnen konstantinopolis eklesiis avtokefalias mtkicebiT, rom is ar iyo mociqulebis mier daarsebuli, zustad iseve, antioqiis eklesia amtkicebda, rom qarTuli eklesia ar SeiZleba iyos avtokefaluri, radganac `aravin mociqulTagan ar iyo saqarTveloSi~. papi grigori didi amtkicebda, rom msoflio unda daiyos mociqul petres mier daarsebul sam eklesias Soris _ romis, aleqsandriis da antioqiisa, amitomac zogierTi eklesia cdilobda daekavSirebina Tavisi warmoSoba erT romelime mociqulTan. qmnida legendebs: magaliTad, konstantinopolis... ruseTisa da saqarTvelos eklesiebi TavianT warmoSobas akavSireben andria mociqulis saxelTan.95 Cven kvlav gavimeorebT wina TavSi aRniSnuls: SeuZlebelia, rom mociqulebs TavianTi moRvaweobisa da mTel msoflioSi qadagebis dros gverdi aevloT im drois iseTi Zlieri saxelmwifosaTvis, rogoric iyo iberia. amitom unda davaskvnaT, rom qarTuli eklesia daarsebulia TviT mociqulTa mier da qarTuli qristianuli Temebi saqarTveloSi sakmao gavleniTac sargeblobdnen, rogorc amas mefe rev marTalis reforma uCvenebs. CvenSi qristianuli eklesia da mrevli (qristianuli Temebi) uwyvetad arsebobda I saukunidan IV saukunemde. amas arqeologiuri masalac amtkicebs. magaliTad, arqeologebis mier mikvleulia CvenSi jer kidev wmida ninomde qristianuli mosaxleobis arsebobis damadasturebeli kvali, qristianuli samarxni (mcxeTis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi) da II-III saukuneTa qristianuli eklesia (nastakisSi). II-III saukuneTa qristianuli eklesiis da agreTve imdroindeli qristianuli dakrZalvis wesis arseboba adasturebs im azrs, rom saqarTveloSi qristianuli saeklesio organizacia uwyvetad arsebobda I-II saukuneebidan (mociqulTa droidan) wmida ninos qadagebamde (IV saukunemde). a. boxoCaZe nastakisis velze qristianuli eklesiis arsebobis Sesaxeb wers: `nastakisis velze ufro Zlieri dasaxlebac yofila adreul Sua

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saukuneebSi, rasac naqalaqaris teritoriaze gaTxril nagebobaTa naSTebi mowmobs. sacxovrebeli nagebobani mravali oTaxisa da erTi didi darbazisgan Sedgeboda. amgvar nagebobebSi erTi oTaxi mcire eklesias warmoadgenda mkveTrad gamoyvanili absidiTa da narTeqsiT. am periodSi qristianoba jer kidev ar aris gamocxadebuli oficialur saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad, aralegalur mdgomareobaSia da TavSefarebuli Cans sacxovrebel nagebobebSi. am faqts ki didi mniSvneloba aqvs qarTlis samefoSi qristianuli religiis istoriis Sesaswavlad~.96

qarTuli eklesiis samwyso


qarTuli eklesia msoflio sayovelTao eklesiis erT-erTi adgilobrivi eklesiaa, amasTanave is erovnuli eklesiac aris, rac ganpirobebulia imiT, rom istoriulad Tavis uflebamosilebas qarTvel qristianebze axorcielebs. qarTuli eklesiis istoriis kvlevisaTvis aucilebelia ganisazRvros misi samwysos raoba. saeklesio istoriografiisaTvis cnobilia, rom CvenSi qristianoba gaavrceles anu qarTuli erovnuli eklesia daafuZnes TviT mociqulebma andria pirvelwodebulma, svimon kananelma, barTlomem, mataTiam. qristianobis dafuZnebis Jams, anu TiTqmis 20 saukunis win rogori saxisa iyo qarTul eklesiis samwyso, is erTmaneTisgan sruliad daSorebul sxvadasxvaenovani kavkasiuri tomebisgan Sedgeboda, Tu erTian xalxs warmoadgenda, romelsac hqonda erTobis raime niSanTviseba. `qarTlis cxovreba~ da sxva istoriuli qronikebi amtkiceben, rom qarTuli eklesiis samwyso I-II saukuneebSi iyo erTiani xalxi qarTveli eri. am saukuneebamde ramdenime aswleuliT adre ukve dawyebuli iyo diferenciacia erTiani, anu winare qarTuli enisa, magram qristianobis miRebisas erTiani winare qarTuli enis daSlis xarisxi didi ar iyo. marTalia, arsebobda fuZe qarTuli enis daSlis Sedegad miRebuli tomobrivi enebi dialeqtebi e.w. qarTebisa da megrelebisa, magram es dialeqtebi axlos idgnen erTmaneTTan, imdenad axlos, rom SeiZleboda erTian enaze laparaki. xalxis aseTi mdgomareoba ar aris umagaliTo. amis magaliTad SeiZleba slavebi moviyvanoT. winare slavuri ena arsebobda VI-VII saukuneebamde.97 maleve slavebSi gavrcelda qristianoba, amitomac slavur enaze amis Semdeg dawerili wmida wignebi gasagebi iyo TiTqmis yvela kuTxis slavebisaTvis. kievis ruseTs SeeZlo kirilesa da meTodes mier bulgarelTaTvis IX saukuneSi Seqmnili Zvelslavuri anbanis gamoyeneba, xolo bulgaruli wignebi formalurad `ucxoenobrivad~ miCneulni, sinamdvileSi ar moiTxovda gadaTargmnas.98 bulgaruli anu Zveli slavuri ena savsebiT gasagebi iyo kievis ruseTisaTvis. aRmosavleTis slavebSi `XIV saukuneSi Camoyalibda 3 didi eTn. jgufi: rusebi, ukrainelebi da mogvianebiT belorusebi~.99 qris-

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tianobis miRebis dros slavebs hqondaT enobrivi erToba an ufro sworad, enobrivi erTobis dayofa dialeqtebad da enebad sul ramdenime aseuli wlis win iyo dawyebuli. Semdgom, mogvianebiT, Sua saukuneebSi Zveli slavebi erovnul jgufebad daiSala. aseTsave viTarebaSi iyvnen qarTvelebi qristianobis miRebis dros I-IV saukuneebSi. am dros fuZe qarTuli enis daSla ramdenime saukunis winaT iyo dawyebuli. anu, jer kidev arsebobda qarTuli enobrivi erToba, romelic moicavda aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos. am erTian qarTul enaze iTargmna wmida werili. qristianobis mociqulTa mier gavrcelebis epoqaSi qarTuli eklesiis samoqmedo asparezi samwyso jer kidev TiTqmis enobrivad dauSleli iyo. meore magaliTad SeiZleba gamodges romanulenovani qveynebi. qristianobis miRebis dros espanelebis, frangebis, italielebis da sxva xalxebis winaprebis saeklesio enad miRebuli iqna laTinuri ena radganac, maTi gaqristianebis epoqaSi is iyo saerTo saxalxo ena. Semdgom saukuneebSi laTinurenovani xalxebi sxvadasxva erebad Camoyalibdnen, romelTac mxolod saeklesio enobrivi erToba hqondaT, qarTuli eklesiis samwyso qristianobis pirvel saukuneebSi erTiani iyo rogorc enobrivad, ise eTnikurad, istoriiT da teritoriiT. aseTia tradiciuli Tvalsazrisi gamoxatuli `qarTlis cxovrebasa~, `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~, agreTve sxva istoriul-saeklesio qronikebSi, romlebSic moyvanilia cnobebi qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb. didi ilias gansazRvriT, eri aris krebuli istoriiT SeduRebul erTsul da erTxorc mkvidrTa.100 `erTsul da erTxorc mkvidrTa-Si~, cxadia, ilia gulisxmobda erTi eTnikuri warmoSobisa (erTxorc) da erTi sulieri kulturis (erTsul) mkvidr mosaxleobas. e.i. eri aris erTi eTnikuri warmoSobis materialuri da sulieri kavSiris mqone mkvidri mosaxleoba, romlis wevrebic, garda xorciel-sulieri erTobisa, agreTve erTmaneTTan SeduRebul-SekavSirebulni arian istoriiT (igulisxmeba antikuri da feodaluri epoqebi). arnold Ciqobava wers: `eris raobas roca gansazRvraven, enis erTobaze miuTiTeben. eris raobis es niSani yvelaze Zvelia (teritoriis erToba, ekonomika, fsiqikuri wyoba am mxriv enas ver Seedrebian)~.101 Cveni mizania, ganvsazRvroT, arsebobda Tu ara qarTveli xalxi, qarTuli eklesiis momavali samwyso, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos qarTlis samefos Seqmnis epoqaSi (qristemde IV-III saukuneebSi). amisaTvis ganvsazRvravT, hqondaT Tu ara imdroindel qarTul tomebs erisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ZiriTadi elementebi: saerTo ena, saerTo teritoria, saerTo kulti erTmorwmuneoba, rac fsiqikuri wyobis erTobasa da sulieri kulturis erTianobaSi Sedis, saerTo kultura, saerTo eTnikuri warmoSoba, ganuwyveteli istoriuli kavSiri da saerTo ekonomiuri kavSiri.

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saerTo ena

iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebisTvis cnobilia, rom uZveles dros arsebobda qarTvel tomTaSorisi saerTo ena fuZe ena. qarTebs, megrelWanebs da svanebs erT dros hqoniaT saerTo fuZe ena, romelic SemdegSi daiyo. enobrivi erTobis daSlis dasawyisad miRebulia sxvadasxva TariRebi. yovel SemTxvevaSi, es enobrivi erToba daSlila ara sxvagan, aramed kavkasiaSi. saerTo enobrivi erTobis mqone~ qarTveluri jgufis adgilsamyofeli am droisaTvis mainc Tamamad SeiZleba kavkasiis miwa-wyalze vivaraudoT~.102 `mkvlevarTa azriT, II aTaswleulis dasawyisisaTvis, unda dawyebuliyo saerTo-qarTveluri fuZe enidan svanuris gamocalkevebis procesi, xolo qarTul-zanuri enobrivi erTobis daSlis dasawyisi Zv.w.aR-is VIII saukuniT unda daTariRdes...~103 `adreantikur xanaSive (Zv.w. VI-IVss.) unda Camoyalibebuliyo gansxvaveba (eniT da sxv.) megrul-Wanur (zanur) da qarTis tomebs Soris~.104 mecnierTa azriT, qristemde VIII saukuneSi qarTebsa da megrel-Wanebs hqoniaT saerTo ena, xolo VI-IV saukuneebSi ukve arsebula gansxvaveba. rogori saxis iyo es gansxvaveba? `ra Tqma unda, enobrivi da sxva saxis gansxvaveba am dros bevrad naklebi unda yofiliyo, vidre SemdegSi~.105 enobrivi gansxvaveba VI-IV saukuneebSi qristemde qarTebis enasa da megrul-Wanebis enas Soris `bevrad naklebi~, anu didi ar yofila. amis mizezi is iqneboda, rom enobrivi erTobis daSlis procesi axali dawyebuli yofila. dawyebula VIII saukuneSi (qristemde) da maleve, daaxloebiT IV-III saukuneebSi (qristemde) yalibdeba erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo. `qarTlis (iberiis) erTiani didi samefos warmoqmna dedaqalaqiT mcxeTaSi, rogorc Cans, marTebuli iqneba, rom Zv.w.aR-is IV-III ss. davukavSiroT~.106 cnobilia, rom erTiani saerTo qarTuli saxelmwifo `qarTlis samefos~ saxelwodebiT Seiqmna egriselTa uSualo da aqtiuri monawileobiT, kerZod, farnavazi ver Seqmnida `qarTlis samefos~, mas rom ar mieRo egrisis mmarTvelis, qujis daxmareba. `farnavazi... ukavSirdeba egrisis mmarTvel qujis~.107 saerTo qarTuli samefos Seqmnis Semdeg am samefoSi Sevida mTliani egrisi, is `qarTlis samefos~ mkvidri nawili gaxda. `SemodgomiT farnavazi mcxeTaSi cxovrobda, zamTarSi _ gaCianSi, xolo zafxuls wundaSi atarebda. zogjer moinaxulebda klarjeTs da egriss~.108 farnavazamde azoc hereT-egris-qarTlis mmarTveli _ `qarTlis mefe~ yofila: `qarTlis cxovrebis mixedviT azo... imorCilebs qarTlTan erTad hereTs... das. saqarTvelos (egriss)~.109

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cnobilia (`qarTlis cxovreba~ da Semdegdroindeli istorikosebi amas xazgasmiT aRniSnaven), rom qarTuli ena farnavaz mefem gamoacxada saxelmwifo enad. mas es RonisZieba cxovrebaSi mkacrad gautarebia _ qarTlis samefoSi sxva ena qarTuli enis garda oficialurad ar ixmareboda. am dros sxvaoba qarTebisa da egriselebis metyvelebaSi TiTqmis ar arsebobda an dialeqtur doneze iyo. ase rom, qarTuli ena egriselebisaTvis mSobliuri ena iyo. qarTuli ena iyo kultis msaxurebis, qveynis kulturuli fenebis, aristokratiis, saxelmwifo moxeleebis, zedafenis ena, e.i. saliteraturo ena. marTlac, mecnierTa azriT, `warsulSi iberiul-kavkasiur enebs meti siaxlove axasiaTebdaT, vidre axla vxedavT. zedapirze sxvaoba Cans, siRrmiseul fenaSi sxvaoba mcirdeba, saerTo matulobs. saerTo Zvelia, gansxvaveba _ axali~.110 mecnierebis mier garkveulia, rom qristianobamde qarTvelebis yvela toms hqonia saerTo rwmena, arsebula saerTo qarTuli warmarToba. ivane javaxiSvilma gaarkvia, rom svaneTSi warmarTuli sawesCveulebo kulti qarTul enaze sruldeboda da ara svanur enaze. `ferxulis sityvebs meferxule svanebi qarTulad warmosTqvamdnen.~111 Semdegma kvlevam aCvena, rom `am wesebis ZvelqarTul saxelebTan erTad ferxulis qarTulad warmoTqmis Cveuleba, ueWvelia, Tavdapirveli saerTo qarTuli wesis naSTi unda iyos~.112 warmarTul wesebs, svaneTSi SemorCenils, hqonia qarTuli terminologia, xolo TviT es wesebi qarTul enaze sruldeboda. aseve yofila samegreloSic. `iv. javaxiSvils saTanadod damtkicebuli aqvs, rom axalwlis dResaswaulis Cveulebebis Tanaxmad, megreli mekvlec Tavis warmosaTqmel sityvebs megrulad ki ara, swored qarTulad ambobs xolme~.113 moyvanili faqtebi kidev erTxel amtkicebs im azrs, rom arsebobda saerTo qarTuli ena kultis msaxurebisa da sxvaTa Sesruleba xdeboda am yvelasaTvis gasageb enaze, xolo SemdegSi (IV-III) es ena iqca saxelmwifo enad. ivane javaxiSvili sruliad samarTlianad daaskvnida miTiTebuli da sxva monacemebis safuZvelze `cxadi gaxdeba, rom aramcTu sazogado qarTuli, yvela tomTaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvisac saerTo warmarToba arsebobda, aramed rom warmarTobis saerTo terminologiac, saerTo enac qarTuli hqonda~.114 ase rom, erTiani saxelmwifos `qarTlis samefos~ warmoqmnamde (qristemde IV-III saukuneebSi) da, cxadia, mis Semdegac, yvela qarTul toms qarTebs megrelebsa da svanebs hqoniaT saerTo mSobliuri qarTuli ena, e.w. saliteraturo ena. enaTmecnierebi gamowvlilviTi analizis safuZvelze midian daskvnamde, rom qarTuli saliteraturo enis formireba dawyebula ara V saukuneSi, aramed bevrad ufro adre, SesaZloa, mexuTe saukuneSi qristeSobamde.

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enaTmecnieri l. leJava wers `... sarwmunod SeiZleba miviCnioT. rom Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo enis formireba dawyebulia V s-ze gacilebiT ufro (SesaZlebelia, aTi saukuniT) adre~.115 cnobili mecnieri iv. gigineiSvili werda: `axali saliteraturo enis sabolood Camoyalibebas Svidasze meti weli dasWirda, misi Camoyalibeba mxolod me-19 saukuneSi gaxda SesaZlebeli da es enac ki ar iyo iseTi srulyofili normebis mqone literaturuli ena, rogoric Zveli qarTuli iyo, miuxedavad imisa, rom am enis normalizaciisa da srulyofisaTvis me-19 saukunis meore naxevridan mokidebuli gacilebiT metad xelsayreli garemoeba da pirobebi arsebobda, vidre Zvel saqarTveloSi. Tu axali saliteraturo enis sabolood Camoyalibebas amdeni dro dasWirda, cxadia, advili warmosadgenia, Tu ramdeni saukune dasWirdeboda Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo enis Camoyalibebasa da srulqmnas, vidre is im doneze avidoda, rogorc saliteraturo ena, ra donezec dgas `SuSanikis wamebis~, an oTxTavisa da bibliis qarTuli Targmanebis ena~.116 V saukunemde qarTul saliteraturo enas ganviTarebis grZeli gza unda gaevlo. `ase ganviTarebuli da unificirebuli saliteraturo ena mxolod saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi SeiZleboda Seqmniliyo.117 mecnieris SexedulebiT, mexuTe saukunemde bevrad ufro adre, jer kidev mwerlobis warmoSobamde arsebobda saerTo-saxalxo ena. cxadia, es saerTo saxalxo ena iyo saerTo qarTuli fuZe ena, romelic farnavaz mefem saxelmwifo enad gamoacxada. enobrivi erTobis dros es saerTo-saxalxo ena gamoiyeneboda yvela qarTuli tomis mier kultis msaxurebisa da sxva miznebisTvis. saerTo-saxalxo ena, romelic batonobda dialeqtebze da imorCilebda maT, mwerlobis warmoSobamdec unda yofiliyo. samwerlo enis arseboba ki damwerlobis warmoSobidan iwyeba, e.i. V s-ze gacilebiT ufro adre, qristianobamdel epoqaSi~.118 davaskvniT, rom jer kidev IV-III saukuneebSi qarTlis samefoSi, anu aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi mcxovreb xalxs ukve hqonia eris raobis ganmsazRvreli erT-erTi mTavari elementi kultmsaxurebis saerTo qarTuli ena, romelsac hqonda dialeqtebi, rogorc yvela cocxal enas. b)

saerTo teritoria da saerTo saxelmwifo

sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos (`qarTlis samefos~) Seqmnamde qarTuli tomebi cxovrobdnen kavkasiaSi. isini cxovrobdnen mWidrod erTmaneTis gverdiT, erTmaneTis mezoblad. `qarTebis~, `svanebis~, da `megrel-lazebis~ garda amierkavkasiis centralur da dasavleT teritoriebze arc erTi sxva araqarTuli tomi ar cxovrobda. qarTve-

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li tomebi teritoriulad gayofilni, erTmaneTisgan daSorebul-dacilebulni ar yofilan, arc geografiuli dabrkolebiT da arc ucxo araqarTuli tomebiT. maT saerTo warmoSobisa da sisxlismieri naTesaobis garda aerTianebdaT saerTo qarTuli ena, saerTo sarwmunoeba. kavkasiaSive da ara sxvagan momxdara maTi saerTo fuZe enis daSla, romelic mimdinareobda TandaTanobiT mravali saukunis manZilze. saerTo fuZe enis daSlamde Seqmnila erTiani saxelmwifo `qarTlis samefo~. am saxelmwifoSi Sediodnen rogorc qarTebi, aseve megrel-lazebi da svanebi. Tumca, am dros es tomebi axlad iwyebdnen erTmaneTisgan gaTiSvas. adre maT aerTianebdaT saerTo fuZe ena, saerTo warmoSoba, xolo saxelmwifos warmoqmnis Semdeg maT, saerTo teritoriaze mosaxle am tomebs, aerTianebdaT saerTo saxelmwifo. cnobilia, rom qarTlis anu iberiis samefo sakmaod mdgradi politikuri erTeuli iyo da is aerTianebda aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos rogorc qristes Sobamde, aseve mis Semdegac. amis Sesaxeb daJinebiT migviTiTebs rogorc `qarTlis cxovreba~ da Zveli qarTuli wyaroebi, aseve ucxouri wyaroebi da arqeologiuri masalac. ra Tqma unda, arsebobda gamonaklisi zogierT saukunesa Tu aTwleulSi, magram yovelTvis iberiis samefo kvlav ierTebda dakargul nawilebs. arsebiTi da niSneuli iyo is, rom iberia TiTqmis yovel saukuneSi, qristeSobamde III saukunidan, vidre qristes Semdeg VIII saukunemde axerxebda rogorc dasavleTis, aseve aRmosavleTis gaerTianebas. amitomac, dasavleT saqarTvelo, iseve rogorc aRmosavleTi, politikurad ganixileboda rogorc iberia. ucxoeli istorikosebi dasavleT saqarTvelos (iseve, rogorc aRmosavleTs) uwyvetad VI-VIII saukuneebamde uwodebdnen iberias. ucxour wyaroTa Cvenebis Tanaxmad, dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas iberebs uwodebdnen. es gamowveuli iqneboda imiT, rom es tomebi politikurad iberebi iyvnen, eTnikuradac iberebisagan (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobisgan) ar gansxvavdebodnen: saerTo hqondaT ena, kultura, sarwmunoeba, saerTo warmoSoba sisxliT naTesaoba. amitomac dasavleTi saqarTveloc iberiaa, xolo mcxovrebni iberebi. dasamtkiceblad SeiZleba moviyvanoT Zveli cnobebi: evsevi kesarieli wers `megasTene (III sauk. Zv. w.) ambobs, rom nabuqodonosorma... miaRwia... iberTa qveyanaSi, ajoba maT... erTi nawili maTgani gadaaadgila man pontos zRvis marjvena mxareze, iq daasaxla~.119 berZnebi antikur periodSi Savi zRvis sanapiroebis aqtiur kolonizacias eweodnen, amitomac Zvelma samyarom Zalze kargad icoda, Tu ras ewodeboda SavizRvispireTi, kavkasiis siRrme, somxeTis CrdiloeTi da kaspiis zRva, saerTod, amierkavkasiis geografia. evsevi kesarielis cnobiT, antikur samyaroSi gavrcelebuli yofila Tvalsazrisi, rom Savi zRvis marjvena mxare, e. i. kolxeTi qristemde III saukuneSi dasaxlebulia iberebiT. `qarTlis cxovrebiTac~ am dros dasavleT saqarTvelo qarTlis samefoSi Sedis. vanis

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arqeologiuri gaTxrebis xelmZRvaneli wers: `Zv.w.aR-is IV-III saukuneebi iyo swored aRmosavluri qarTuli tomebis da pirvel rigSi mesxTa farTod gansaxlebisa da politikuri aqtivobis xana. amrigad, mesxuri, e.i. qarTis enovani (da dRevandeli imerlebisa da gurulebis) winapari tomebis damkvidreba dRevandel dasavleT saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze Zv.w.aR-is III-II saukuneebidan maincaa savaraudebeli. ... yovelive zemoTqmulis Semdeg TiTqos saeWvo aRar unda iyos strabonis mier rionis dablobis garkveuli nawilis `mosxTa qveyanad gamocxadeba...~120 `Zv.w.aR-is II saukunidan, rodesac qarTlis samefom samxreTiT bevri olqi dakarga, dasavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleT raionebSi, rogorc Cans, misi Zalaufleba kvlav ZalaSia~.121 Tuki qristemde II saukuneSi Zlier dasustebul iberias dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani nawili ar daukargavs, cxadia, wina saukuneebSi misi siZlieris dros mTel dasavleT saqarTveloze eqneboda Zalaufleba. `mar-abas-katina (I sauk. qristemde)... gadmogvcems abidenis sityvebs: nabuqodonosori... Seesia iberebs... da maTi nawili daasaxla pontos zRvis marjvena napirebze~.122 e.i. I saukuneSi qristemde, iseve rogorc adre, antikur samyaroSi kvlav gavrcelebulia azri, rom iberebi SavizRvispireTSi, e.i. kolxeTSi cxovroben. `ax.w.aR-is I-II saukuneebSi qarTli gadaiqca Zlier saxelmwifod, romelic amierkavkasiasa da mezobel mxareebSi politikur hegemonobas lamobda~.123 ,,II s. aq ... Savi zRvis sanapiroze iberias hqonda fexi mokidebuli~.124 moyvanili amonawerebidan Cans, rom qristemde IV saukuneSi Seqmnil qarTvelTa samefoSi Sedioda dasavleTi saqarTvelo. qristemde III saukuneSi es samefo kidev ufro Zlierdeba, da masSi, bunebrivia, Sedioda dasavleTi saqarTvelo. II saukuneSi qristemde es samefo sustdeba da kargavs Tavis samxreT provinciebs. miuxedavad amisa, am samefoSi kvlav Sedioda dasavleTi saqarTvelo. I-II saukuneebSi qristes Semdeg qarTvelTa samefo ise Zlierdeba, rom hegemonobas cdilobs mTel amierkavkasiaSi. am drosac, bunebrivia, mis SemadgenlobaSi darCa dasavleTi saqarTvelo. III-IV saukunis avtori evsevi kesarieli (260-340 ww.) iberTa sacxovriss Savi zRvispireTSi gansazRvravs. sokrate sqolastikosi (IV-Vs.) wers: `...iberebi cxovroben evqsinis pontosTan~.125 gelasi kesarieli (IV sauk.) ... mogviTxrobs: `imave xanebSi RmrTis mcneba miiRes pontos gaswvriv miwa-wyalze mcxovrebma iberebma da lazebma...~126 rufinusis (gard. 410 w.) TxzulebaSi naTqvamia: `amave xanebSi iberTa tommac, romelic cxovrobs pontos mxareSi, miiRo RvTis mcnebis kanonebi da tyve qali...~127 `samive avtoris mixedviT, iberebi Savi zRvis sanapiro arealSi arian moqceulni~.128

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profesori robert blaixStaineri wers: `dasavleT saqarTvelos romaul xanaSi ewodeba iberia~.129 am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa cnoba evagre pontoelis Sesaxeb. `IV saukunis cnobili moazrovnisa da mwerlis evagri pontoelis biografiaSi aRniSnulia, rom evagri warmoSobiT pontoelia iberTa qalaqis mcxovrebi, paladis Semdgom V saukunis istorikosebi aRniSnaven, rom evagri tomiT iberia~.130 im dros pontoSi cxovrobdnen megrul-lazuri tomebi. swored am lazmegrelebis zogadi saxelia iberebi (qarTebTan erTad). qarTebi da megrelebi iseT gasaocar igiveobas, erTgvarovnebas, erovnul erTobas amJRavnebdnen im dros, rom Tanamedrove istorikosebi vardebian gamouval, uxerxul mdgomareobaSi da varaudoben: `... egrebi Tavdapirvelad SeiZleba dasavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleT raionebSi, argveTsa da mimdgom mxareebSi damkvidrebul qarT-mesxuri tomebi iyvnen~. `... `egrisi~ da `megreli~ (`margali~) saxelebi... aramegrul nawils unda rqmeoda~.131 sinamdvileSi egriselebi da megrelebi, cxadia, Tavidanve megrelebs erqva, magram isini eTnikurad ise axlos iyvnen qarTebTan, rom eTnikurad erT mTlians warmoadgendnen erT erovnebas qmnidnen. daskvna: yvela qarTul toms qarTvel xalxs aqvs saerTo teritoria da saxelmwifos Seqmnis Semdeg maT am saerTo samSoblos ewoda qarTli iberia. qarTli erqva qveynis rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT nawils. iberebi arian am qveynis mcxovrebni, rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT saqarTveloSi. iberebi ki qarTvelebi arian. g)

fsiqiuri wyobis erToba

I. saerTo kulti erTmorwmuneoba


mecnierebis mier garkveulia, rom uZveles dros qristianobis miRebamde didi xniT adre qarTvelebs (qarTebs, megrelebsa da svanebs) hqoniaT saerTo sarwmunoeba arsebula saerTo warmarToba erTi sarwmunoeba. amasTanave maTi sarwmunoeba yofila Zalze daxvewili da damuSavebuli. SemuSavebuli yofila saerTo sakulto terminologia. kultmsaxurebisTvis arsebobda saerTo ena. kultmsaxureba erT enaze sruldeboda qarTvelTa qveynis sxvadasxva kuTxeebsa da TemebSi. qarTuli miTologia damuSavebuli da daxvewili yofila. amis Sesaxeb wers S. nucubiZe _ wylis `RmerTi~ igrisi `Tavdapirvelad mxolod adgilobrivi kolxideli RmerTi iyo da mxolod Semdeg, qarTuli miTologiis mTliani damuSavebis Sedegad, saerTo-qarTul panTeonSi Sevida~.132

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`qarTveli tomebis uZveles rwmenaTa mimoxilvisas gairkva, rom ... qarTvelebSiac sxvadasxva tomTaTvis damaxasiaTebel suraTs vxvdebiT. rogorc irkveva, `Tavisi wili RmerTebi~ hyavdaT calke Temebsa da sagvareuloebs... amasTanave, xalxuri gadmocemebi da mdidari eTnografiuli masalebi gviCveneben, rom qarTvelebs hyavdaT saerTo, didi (ufrosi) RmerTebica da satomo an satomTaSorisi RvTaebebic... axla, SeiZleba iTqvas, kargad aris gamorkveuli, rom im dros qarTul astralur panTeons sameuli meTaurobda pirveli maTgani ufrosad miCneuli uzenaesi RmerTi iyo. meore _ qalRmerTi mze an mzeqali, xolo mesame _ kviria~...133 garkveulia ara marto saerTo warmarTuli panTeonis `RmerTebi~ ierarqiis maRal safexurze, aramed momdevno safexurze mdgomi `RmerTebi~. ,,ukve am droisaTvis qarTvelTa yvela RvTaeba anTropomorful arsebad aris warmodgenili, amasTanave, irkveva, rom uzenaesi RmerTi _ mTvare RmerTia, e.i. mama RmerTia. kargad aris gamorkveuli, rom odesRac qarTul tomebs saTaviso saTemo RvTaebis garda yvelasaTvis saerTo rwmena hqoniaT da saerTo qarTuli warmarTobac yofila. ... kvirias TayvaniscemasTan dakavSirebul svanur wesebs wminda qarTuli warmarTuli rwmenis anarekli aqvT daculi da TviT saTanado ferxulis sityvebs meferxule svanebi qarTulad warmoTqvamdnen am wesebis ZvelqarTul saxelebTan erTad, ferxulis qarTulad warmoTqmis Cveuleba, ueWvelia, Tavdapirveli, saerTo qarTuli wesis naSTi unda iyos ... megreli mekvlec Tavis warmosaTqmel sityvebs megrulad ki ara, swored qarTulad ambobs xolme~. miTiTebuli da kidev bevri sxva monacemi safuZvels aZlevda avtors daeskvna Semdegi: `cxadi xdeba, rom aramc Tu sazogado qarTuli, yvela qarTvel tomTaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvisac saerTo warmarToba arsebobda, aramed, rom warmarTobas saerTo terminologiac, saerTo enac qarTuli hqonda~.134 antikuri xanisTvis qarTveluri tomebi ki ar daSorebulan erTmaneTisgan, piriqiT, qarTvelTa konsolidacia gaZlierebula. amis mizezi sxvebTan erTad, iqneboda saerTo qarTuli saxelmwifos arseboba, saerTo sarwmunoebisa da agreTve saerTo saxelmwifo da kultmsaxurebis enis arseboba. `antikuri xanisaTvis, rodesac qarTvelTa konsolidaciis Semdgomi gaZliereba SeiniSneboda, ar arsebobs safuZveli raime mniSvnelovani cvlileba vigulisxmoT qarTul warmarTul panTeonSi~.135 cxadi xdeba, qarTvelebis mier qristianobis miRebamde qarTvelebs hqoniaT saerTo _ yvela qarTul tomTaTvis erTi da igive sarwmunoeba _ saerTo warmarToba. qristianobac erTdroulad miiRes, rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT saqarTveloSi. andria pirvelwodebulma iqadaga rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT saqarTveloSi.

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wmida ninosac mouqcevia rogorc aRmosavleTi, aseve dasavleTi saqarTvelo, amis Sesaxeb dabejiTebiT miuTiTeben berZen-romaeli istorikosebi. gelasi kesarieli wers _ `imave xanebSi RmrTis mcneba miiRes iberebma da lazebma... am udidesi sikeTis mizezi gaxda erTi dedakaci, romelic maTTan iyo tyved~.136 rufinusis mixedviT, dasavleT saqarTvelos gamaqristianebeli wmida ninoa. is wers: `amave xanebSi iberTa tommac, romelic cxovrobs pontos mxareSi, miiRo RvTis mcnebis kanonebi da tyve qali~.137 `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviTac asevea _ mirian mefe qristianobas saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad acxadebs mTel iberiaSi anu rogorc dasavleT, aseve aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi: `gardaicvala mirian mefe... romelman naTelsca yovelTa iverielTa~.138 marTalia, dasavleT saqarTveloSi qristianoba ise sayovelTao ar gamxdara, rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTvelos barSi, magram maleve rogorc dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aseve aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSic qristianoba sayovelTao sarwmunoebad gadaiqca. mTeli qarTveli xalxi qristiani iyo. daskvna: qristemde, IV-III saukuneebamde, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Seqmnamde ukve arsebula yvela qarTuli tomisTvis saerTo sarwmunoeba _ saerTo qarTuli warmarToba (sxvaTa Soris, Cans, aman asaxva hpova `moqcevaA qarTlisaASi~, romelSic aRwerilia, rom qarTvelTa Zveli samSoblodan `arian-qarTlidan~ axal samSobloSi gadmosaxlebulma qarTvelebma da qarTvelTa mefem Tan wamoiyvanes TavianTi `RmerTebi~).

II. qarTuli tomebis saerTo kultura


qarTvel tomTa saerTo kulturis arseboba yovelTvis ueWveli iyo. es iyo erTiani eTnosis, erTi xalxis kultura. jer kidev saerTo qarTuli saxelmwifos _ iberiis, anu qarTlis samefos warmoSobamde didi xniT adre arsebuli cnobili kolxuri kulturac ki saerTo qarTuli kultura iyo: `kolxuri kultura `warmoadgenda jer kidev sustad diferencirebuli qarTveli tomebis kulturas~.139 saerTo-qarTuli (kolxuri) kulturis memkvidre iyo antikuri xanis kultura. amave dros Camoyalibda erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo. antikur xanaSi ara Tu Sesustda qarTuli eTnosis erTianoba, piriqiT `antikuri xanisaTvis... qarTvelTa konsolidaciis Semdgomi gaZliereba SeiniSneba~.140 marTlac, `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da sxva ZvelqarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT, am dros, antikurobis periodSive saqarTvelos mosaxleobas ewodeba `naTesaviT qarTveli~. e.i. eriT, gvar-tomobiT qarTveli. `qarTlis samefos~

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yvela mkvidri, adgilobrivi mcxovrebi, im dros `qarTvelad~ iTvleboda, miuxedavad imisa, qveynis aRmosavleT Tu dasavleT nawilSi cxovrobda is. daskvna: antikur xanaSi `qarTvelTa konsolidaciis~ dros, cxadia, kulturac saerToa, amasve uCvenebs dasavleT saqarTvelos arqeologiuri Seswavla.

ekonomikuri kavSiri dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Soris


d) antikur epoqaSi, roca erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo Camoyalibda, berZnebi Savi zRvis sanapiroebis aqtiur kolonizacias eweodnen. maT mravali savaWro qalaqi polisebi hqondaT. saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTis antikuri qalaqebi ZiriTadad adgilobrivi mosaxleobis qalaqebia. vanis da arqeopolisis gaTxrebi miuTiTebs, Tu rogor Zlier ganviTarebuli savaWro qalaqebi iyvnen dasavleT saqarTvelos qalaqebi. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos arqeologiuri Seswavla uCvenebs, rom ara marto mcxeTa, aramed sxva ZvelqarTuli qalaqebic mZlavrad ganviTarebuli antikuri qalaqebi iyo. amis Sesaxeb strabonic miuTiTebda. mcxeTa saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis mqone savaWro gzajvaredinze mdebareobda. saerTaSoriso savaWro gza mcxeTasa da mtkvris xeobas ukavSirebda rionsa da Sav zRvas. Tu ra didi mniSvnelobisa iyo dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi saqarTvelos damakavSirebeli saerTaSoriso savaWro-ekonomikuri gza, iqidanac Cans, rom im dros mdinare fazisze strabonis Tanaxmad, 120 xidi yofila gadebuli. xidebis aseTi kolosaluri raodenoba miuTiTebs gzebis simravleze, e. i. vaWrobisa da ekonomikis ganviTarebaze. mtkvarsa da rionze gamavali saerTaSoriso gza ekonomiurad akavSirebda saqarTvelos kuTxeebs erTmaneTTan. dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mWidro ekonomikuri urTierTkavSiri hqonda (im drois Sesabamisad). e)

qarTvelebis saerTo warmoSoba, sisxliT naTesaoba

dabadebaSi moxseniebulia qarTvelTa saerTo winapari _ `ese Sobani ZeTa noesni: sem, qam da iafeT. da iyvnes maTda Zeni Semdgomad wyliT rRvnisa. Zeni iafeTisni... Tobal da mosoq (dabadeba 10, 1-2). I saukunis ganTqmuli istorikosi ioseb flabiosi, evstaTe antioqieli (IV s.), Teodore kvireli episkoposi (IV s.), leon gramatikosi (XI s.) weren, rom Tubal-Tobelebs maT dros iberebi ewodebodaT. flabiosi meSex-mosoxs kapadokielTa winaprad miiCnevda. Zveli qristiani avtorebi xSirad asaxeleben iberTa winaprebs, xolo egriselTa winapars ar asaxeleben. es ar aris SemTxveviTi, saqme is aris, rom am qristian avtorTa dabejiTebuli

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145

mtkicebiT, Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze cxovroben iberebi, dasavleT saqarTvelos romaul xanaSi iberia ewodeba, magram Cven viciT, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo _ egrisia, xolo mosaxleoba megrelebi. swored maT, megrelebs uwodeben Zveli avtorebi iberebs, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobasTan erTad da swored amitom ar asaxeleben egriselTa winapars. miaCniaT, rom dasavleT-aRmosavleT saqarTvelos xalxs ewodebaT iberebi da am erT xalxs erTi winapari hyavs _ bibliaSi moxsenebuli Tobali. `iberiis~ xalxi erTi xalxi iyo da iberebad iwodeboda _ amitomac mas hyavda saerTo winapari _ Tobeli. Tobelisagan warmoiSvnen iberebi _ `qarTebi~, `egriselebi~ da `svanebi~ anu qarTvelebi. im drois egriselebi iseve iberebi arian, rogorc `qarTebi~. lingvistebis azriTac, `iber~ fuZidanaa nawarmoebi `egr~ fuZe, aqedan `egrisi~. `iber fuZis Zveli saxeoba unda yofiliyo hber (Seadare, romaeli mwerlebis TxzulebaSi dadasturebuli hiber)... hber fuZis dublikatebia hver, hmer (iber-iver-imer), amaTgan _ hver _ nairsaxeobam erT-erT dialeqtikur regionSi sxva fonetikuri ganviTareba ganicada _ h gadavida g-Si (moxda e.w. aweva) da miviReT gver... ger... gur... erTi mxriv, prefiqsis darTviT gamomuSavda eger/egr-is-i, m-egr-eli (meore mxriv _ guria)~.141 XVIII saukunis bolos, 1790 wels, saqarTvelos gansakuTrebuli daSlilobis dros Sedga dokumenti `iverielTa erTobis traqtati~, romelSic, kerZod, naTqvamia: _ `vinaidgan yovelTave iverielTa msaxlobelTa samefosa Sina qarTlisa, kaxeTisa, imerTa, odiSisa da guriisaTa aqvsT erTmorwmuneoba, arian Svilni erTisa kaTolike eklesiisagan Sobilni da erTisa enisa mqonebelni, aqvsT gavasxelobiTica siyvaruli viTarca sisxliT naTesavTa da moyvrobiT SekrulTa urTierTTa Soris. amisaTvis Cven aRvsTqvamT mtkicesa amas erTobasa...~.142 aq sainteresoa, rom qarTuli saukunovani tradiciuli koncefciiT, romelmac asaxva hpova am dokumentSi _ iveria ewodeba ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, aramed, dasavleT saqarTvelosac. erTian saqarTvelos _ yoveli iveria ewodeba, mosaxleobas _ yovelni iverielni, sxvadasxva provinciebs _ iveriis qveynebi. gansakuTrebiT xazgasasmelia, rom ZvelqarTuli TvalsazrisiT, iverielebi anu samegrelos, guriis, imereTis, kaxeTisa da qarTlis mosaxleoba (msaxlobelni) arian sisxliT naTesavni, e.i. genetikurad erTiani, erTi eTnikuri warmoSobis eri. sisxliT naTesaobis gamo iverielebi anu megrelebi, gurulebi, imerlebi, kaxelebi da qarTlelebi `urTierTTan SekrulSekavSirebulni arian moyvrobiT~, anu `naTesauri~, erovnuli erToba aqvT. garda amisa, iverielebs erTmaneTTan am dokumentis xelismomwerTa TvalsazrisiT, aerTianebT saerTo ena _ iverielebi arian `erTisa enisa mqonebelni~ _ igulisxmeba qarTuli ena. iverielebs aqvT saerTo teritoria _ `yoveli iveria~, iverielebs dokumentis mixedviT, aqvT fsiqikuri wyobis erToba _ erTmorwmuneoba, erTi eklesia.

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vinaidan am dokumentis erT-erTi xelismomweri iyo saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi anton I, unda vigulisxmoT, rom eklesiaSi miRebuli TvalsazrisiT, eri ewodeboda (Tanamedrove sityvebiT rom vTqvaT) erTi eTnikuri kavSiris mqone, anu sisxliT monaTesave mosaxleobas, romelsac hqonda agreTve saerTo ena _ enobrivi erToba, saerTo teritoria, fsiqikuri wyobis erToba _ saerTo sarwmunoeba. qarTuli eklesiis da saero xelisuflebis TvalsazrisiT, iverielebs anu qarTvelebs hqondaT CamoTvlili niSan-Tvisebebi, anu qmnidnen erovnul erTobas. amitomac maT unda hqonodaT saxelmwifoebrivi erTobac. megrelebi, gurulebi, imerlebi, kaxelebi da qarTlelebi sisxliT naTesavebad miiCneodnen da miiCnevian. qarTebs, zanebsa da svanebs qarTuli eklesiis Camoyalibebis dros (I-IV saukuneebSi) ufro meti erovnuli erToba hqondaT, vidre gvian Sua saukuneebSi. amitomac Tavidanve qarTuli eklesiis samwysos warmoadgenda erTiani qarTveli xalxi, romlis eTnikuri gansaxlebis sazRvrebi moqceuli iyo Savi zRvidan da mdinare egriswylidan (klisuridan) vidre somxeTalbaneTamde (merve saukunemde, xolo Semdeg es sazRvrebi kidev ufro gavrcelda). ismis meore sakiTxi _ ramdenad SesaZlebelia qarTveli xalxi Camoyalibebuli yofiliyo I-IV saukuneebSi wmida andriasa da wmida ninos qadagebebis dros. qarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, qarTveli xalxi ukve Camoyalibebuli iyo pirveli qarTuli saxelmwifos daarsebis dros, qristeSobamde IV-III saukuneebSi. am Tvalsazriss eTanxmeba isic, rom swored am periodisaTvis somexi xalxi ukve Camoyalibebuli yofila. s. eremianis Tanaxmad, somexi xalxis Camoyalibeba damTavrda Zv.w.aR-is IV s-is damlevs.143 ,,somexi xalxis Camoyalibebis bolo etapi Tanxvdeba Zv.w.aR-is VI s-Si somxeTis saxelmwifos Seqmnas. man urartus saxelmwifos adgili daikava.~144 cnobilia, rom Cveni Zveli istorikosebi haossa da qarTloss Zmebad miiCnevdnen, amitomac isini qarTveli da somexi xalxebis Camoyalibebis xanas erT epoqaSi aTavsebdnen.

qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi


adgilobrivi eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebis gansazRvra Zneli ar aris. IV msoflio krebam daakanona: saeklesio sazRvrebi unda damTxveoda saxelmwifos sazRvrebs (ix. amonaweri uwmidesi sinodis saJurnalo gansazRvrebidan. ruseTis sapatriarqo, 1943 w. 19 noemberi, #12). cnobilia, rom msoflio saeklesio krebebi iRebdnen da afuZnebdnen ara axal wesebs, aramed amtkicebdnen im kanonebs, romelnic ukve arsebobdnen saeklesio praqtikaSi da wina drois mamaTa mier iyvnen dakanonebulni.

saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria

147

b. lominaZe wers: `aRmosavleTis eklesia gansakuTrebulad savaldebulod xdida samoqalaqo-saero dayofis gadaRebas saeklesioSi, ase rom yovel cvlilebas saeroSi Sesabamisi cvlilebebi unda mohyoloda saeklesioSi (qalkedonis IV, 13, 17 da sxv.)~.145 mamaTa kanonebis Tanaxmad, qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvari emTxveva saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sazRvars. qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvris dadgenisTvis Cven unda ganvsazRvroT qarTuli saxelmwifos sazRvrebi, romelTac gasdevda eklesiis sazRvari.

`qarTlis~ sazRvrebi da qarTvelTa vinaoba leonti mrovelis mixedviT


leonti mrovelis mixedviT, qarTlis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda rogorc aRmosavleTi, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelo. qarTlis cxovrebis mixedviT, `daipyra aleqsandre yoveli qarTli ... dauteva qarTls erisTavad azon~,146 `azon... daipyra qarTlsa zeda egrisica~.147 ganZis povniT daimedebulma farnavazma, egrisis mTavars qujis miswera `viyvneT Cven Zma da vixmaroT Cven xuastagi igi orTave. gamovuCndeT Cuen mtrad azon erisTavs~. azons dapyrobili hqonda rogorc aRmosavleTi, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelo. amitomac, gaxarebulma qujim miswera farnavazs `xuastagiTa SeniTa gangimravle spani Senni, vidre gamovCndeT mtrad azonisa, maSin ganixaron yovelTa qarTvelTa...~ azon iyo `kaci Zneli da mesisxle~. is dapyrobil samegreloSic `mowyvedda~ adgilobriv mosaxleobas, amitomac azonis damarcxebiT megrelebic gaixarebdnen. am mizezis gamo, qujis farnavazisTvis TiTqosda is ki ar unda miewera, rom `gamovCndeT mtrad azonisa da ganixaron yovelTa qarTvelTao~, aramed unda miewera: gamovCndeT mtrad azonisa, maSin ganixaron yovelTa qarTvelTa da megrelTao, magram quji megrelebs ar axsenebs, Tumca, megrelebi dapyrobili hyavda azons. ratom? cxadia, quji megrelebs ar axsenebs imitom, rom maT gulisxmobs `yovelTa qarTvelTaSi~. Cans, farnavazis dros `yovelTa qarTvelTaSi~ igulisxmeboda ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobac. amis Semdeg farnavazi gadadis dasavleT saqarTveloSi, qujisTan. qujim mas uTxra: `Sen xar Svili TavTa maT qarTlisaTa da Sen gmarTebs ufloba Cemi~. `Sen xar ufali Cveni da me var mona Seni~.148 ratom marTebs `qarTlis TavTa~ Svils samegrelos meTaurze ufrosoba? ratom aris samegrelos meTauri mona qarTlis meTaurisa? es imas niSnavs,

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rom qarTlis Tavi, anu qarTlis meTauri istoriulad ganixileboda ara marto aRmosavleT, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos meTauradac. aqedan Cans, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo politikurad qarTlia, Tumca mas egrisi hqvia. farnavazma `...dai pyra yoveli qarTli TYnier klarjeTisa~ `Semdgom movida klarjeTs da dai pyra klarjeTi da warmovida mcxeTad~...149 farnavazis mier dapyrobil `yovel qarTlSi~ Sedis dasavleT saqarTvelo, mdinare egriswylamde, radganac am mdinaremde dasavleT saqarTvelos mTliani teritoria farnavazs dapyrobili hqonia, xolo egriswyals iqiTa qveyana qarTlSi, anu farnavazis saxelmwifoSi ar Sesula: `xolo egriswyals qvemoT darCa berZenTa, rameTu mkYdrTa mis adgilisaTa ara inebes gandgoma berZenTa~.150 e.i. egriswyals `zemoTa~ qveyana, anu egriswylis marcxena sanapirosTan mimdebare qveyana aris qarTli. sad aris mdinare egriswyali? unda vifiqroT, rom is miedineboda egrosis mier aSenebul qalaq egrisTan axlos. `xolo aman egros aRaSena qalaqi da uwoda saxeli TYsi egrisi. aw mas adgilsa hqYan bedia~.151 e.i. farnavazis saxelmwifoSi Sedis egrisi _ samegrelo da mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelo, garda egriswyals iqiT mdebare qveynisa. farnavazma `dai pyra yoveli qarTli~ _ egrisi Sedis `yovel qarTlSi~. politikurad farnavazis mier Seqmnil saxelmwifos ewodeboda `qarTli~ anu `yoveli qarTli~, Tumca, am qarTlSi Sedis `sxvadasxva qveynebi~, maT Soris `egris-eguri~ da klarjeTi, magram erTian saxelmwifos qarTlis samefo ewodeba. farnavazma `yoveli qarTlis~ samefos mxedrebad anu jariskacebad ucxoelebi aRar miiRo, aramed `qarTlosianni~ _ `ganamravla yovelni mxedarni qarTlosianni~. farnavazis cxovrebis avtori imitom aqcevs gansakuTrebul yuradRebas am ambavs, rom farnavazis wina xelisuflebas ZiriTad samxedro Zalad mowveuli hyavda ucxoelebi _ araqarTvelebi. azonma amcno spaTa misTa, viTarmed: `yovelman qarTvelTaganman, romelman povos saWurveli, mokalT igi~, da hyofdes hromni igi esreT qarTvelTa zeda~.152 e.i. azonis spa romaelTagan, ,,hromTagan~ yofila Sedgenili, SemdegSi `aTasi mKedari rCeuli hromTa amaTgani... ganudges azons.~153 aseve azons ganudgnen qarTvelnic, gamodis, rom azonis spaSi _ jarSi, yofilan ucxoelnic da qarTvelnic, magram ZiriTadi Zala ucxoelTa iyo. farnavazis `yoveli qarTlis~ samefos SeqmnaSi monawileoba miiRes rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobam. farnavazi Tavisi ganZiT gadadis dasavleT saqarTveloSi da iq qujis SemweobiT daiqiravebs jariskacebs, cxadia, adgilobriv mcxovreblebs. quji eubneba egrisSi Casul farnavazs _ `nu Surob xuastagsa Sensa, raTa ganvam-

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ravlneT spani~,154 e.i. Seni ganZiT jari daviqiraoTo. marTlac, egrisSive `ganimravlnes spani. egrisiT Sekrbes uricxuni spani~.155 farnavazis pirveli jari swored dasavleT saqarTveloSi, egrisSi Sekrebili mxedrebisagan Sedgeboda da cxadia, qarTlis samefos Seqmnis Semdegac samefos spaSi didi iqneboda egrisel mxedarTa raodenoba. miuxedavad amisa, farnavazis cxovrebis avtori wers, rom farnavazma `ganamravlna yovelni mxedarni qarTlosianni~. aqedan cxadia, `qarTlosian~ mxedrebSi ZiriTadad igulisxmeba egriseli mxedrebi, e.i. egriselic qarTlosianad miiCneva. farnavaz `mefe iqmna yovlisa qarTlisa da egurisa~.156 `yoveli qarTlis~ samefos SeqmnaSi Tanabrad miiRos monawileoba rogorc dasavleTma, aseve aRmosavleTma saqarTvelom. qarTlis samefos Seqmna daiwyo dasavleT saqarTveloSi _ egrisSi. azonisgan rogorc aRmosavleTis, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelos ganTavisuflebis Semdeg iqmneba erTiani aRmosavlur-dasavluri qarTuli samefo yovelgvari Sinagani winaaRmdegobis gareSe, piriqiT, Sinagani mondomebiT. quji kvlav rCeba Tavisi qveynis, egrisis meTaurad, magram misi mefe ukve aris farnavazi _ mefem `misca qujis queyana egriswyalsa da rions Sua... egrisi da svaneTi da daamtkica igi erisTavad mun~.157 farnavazma dasavleT saqarTveloSi egrisis erisTavis garda dasva margveTis erisTavi. mas dasavleT saqarTveloSi sul ori erisTavi hyavda (am erisTavebis garda erisTavebi iyvnen: kaxeTisa, xunanisa, samSvildisa, wundisa, oZrxisa da klarjeTisa. yvela am erisTavs hyavda zedamxedveli erisTavi anu Sida qarTlis spaspeti, romelsac emorCilebodnen). `farnavazma aRaSena da ganavso qarTli~. cxadia, qarTlSi igulisxmeba dasavleT saqarTvelos saerisTavoebic _ egrisisa da margveTisa. farnavazi drodadro gadadioda dasavleT saqarTveloSi, `JamiTi Jamad mivides egriss~, `moikiTxis megrelni da klarjni, ganagis yoveli saqme daSlili~.158 farnavazi megrelTa da klarjTa mefea. `iyo gansueneba da sixaruli yovelsa qarTlsa zeda, mefobisaTYs farnavazissa da ityodes amas yovelni. `vhmadlobT suesa Cuensa, rameTu mogueca Cuen mefe naTesavTagan mamaTa CuenTa da aRgYKada xarki da Wiri ucxoTa naTesavTagan~.159 roca avtori wers, rom iyo sixaruli yovelsa qarTlsa zeda, igulisxmeba mTeli saqarTvelo, dasavleTica da aRmosavleTic. mTeli samefos mosaxleoba ambobs: `moguca Cuen mefe naTesavTagan mamaTa CuenTa~. avtoris azriT, megrelTa, iseve rogorc samefos sxva kuTxeTa mcxovrebTa TvalsazrisiT, mefe maTi erovnebisa aris, maTi mamaTa Svilia, maTi naTesavia, anu maTi erovnebisaa. `aRgYKada xarki da Wiri ucxoTa naTesavTagan~ _ ucxo naTesavi niSnavs ucxo ers, e.i. qarTlis mosaxleoba erTi erisaa, erTi naTesavia, erTi mamaTa Svilebia, xolo sxvaa ucxo naTesavi, ucxo eri. erovnuli identoba gacnobierebulia.

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farnavazi qarTlosis naTesavia, xolo `yoveli qarTlis~ mosaxleoba _ qarTlosiania, naTesaviT qarTvelia _ qarTlosis naTesavia. `farnavaz iyo pirveli mefe qarTlsa Sina qarTlosisa naTesavTagani~.160 `ganavrco ena qarTuli da arRara izraxeboda sxua ena qarTlsa Sina TYnier qarTulisa~.161 `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT, aleqsandre makedonelma `dai pyra yoveli qarTli da mosrna yovelni igi naTesavni aRreulni qarTls myofni da ucxoni igi naTesavni mosrna... da dautevna naTesavni qarTlosianni~.162 farnavazis mier erovnuli saxelmwifos Seqmnis dros ucxoelebi aRar cxovrobdnen qarTlSi. isini aleqsandres gauJletia. amis gamo farnavazs gauadvildeboda erTiani saxelmwifo enis SemoReba, magram rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, farnavazis saxelmwifos SeqmnaSi Tanabrad monawileobda rogorc aRmosavleTi, ise dasavleT saqarTvelo. saxelmwifoSi erTiani saxelmwifo qarTuli enis SemoRebas egrisSi ukmayofileba ar gamouwvevia. mematiane aRniSnavs, rom egriselebi iseve, rogorc sxva kuTxis mcxovrebni, kmayofilni da bednierni iyvnen farnavazis mefobiT. amitom unda vifiqroT, rom megruli ena im dros jer kidev ar iyo gamoyofili qarTuli enisgan, an masTan Zlier axlos idga. marTlac, im eqvs enaTa Soris, romlebic TiTqosda farnavazis reformamde mis samefoSi ixmareboda, megruli ena dasaxelebuli ar aris. farnavazis Semdgomi mefis, saurmagis, samefoSi Sedis dasavleTi saqarTvelo. is saqarTvelos mTianeTSi, asaxlebs Crdilo kavkasiidan gadmoyvanil mosaxleobas. `dasxna mTiuleTs didoeTidan, vidre egrisamde, romel ars svaneTi~.163 VII mefe qarTlisa bartomi uSviloa, is iSvilebs qarTams, egrisis erisTavis, qujis Zmiswuls. egriseli qarTami _ farnavaziania. swored am mizezis gamo iSvila is bartomma. `ese qarTvelTa saTnoebisaTvis eqmna bartoms, rameTu qarTvelTa didi saTnoeba aqunda farnavazianTa mimarT~.164 TviTon bartomi iyo arSakuniani, iSvila qarTam farnavaziani (dedis mxridan), romelic iyo egriseli _ megreli. X mefe aderki. `aman aderki dai pyra yoveli qveyana qarTli da egrisi~.165 mTlian samefos ewodeba `yoveli qveyana~. Sedgeba qarTlisa da egrisisgan. erTian samefos ki qarTlis samefo ewodeba. mis mefes `qarTlis mefe~. andria pirvelwodebulma iqadaga zemo qarTlsa da egrisSi. `xolo viTarca esma mefesa aderkis megrelTagan sjulisa dateveba, ganuwyra da waravlina erisTavni misni da iZulebiT kualadve moaqcivna megrelni~...166 aderkis ekuTvnis dasavleT saqarTvelo. man Tavisi samefo orad gauyo Tavis Svilebs. erT Svils _ bartoms ergo egrisi da mtkvris CrdiloeTi qarTli. qarTlis samefos sazRvrebi mtkiced iyo dadgenili da gansazRvruli. qarTvel mefeTa mTavar movaleobas warmoadgenda qarTlis sazRvrebis

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mtkiced dacva, xolo sazRvris darRvevis SemTxvevaSi _ `sazRvris Ziebis~ aucilebloba. magaliTad, XII mefeni farsman da kaos. maT dros somxeTis mefem `mouRo sazRvari qarTlisasa qalaqi wunda~. `ver iZebnes mefeTa qarTlisaTa sazRvari da mokudes mwuxarebasa Sina didsa~.167 mefeebis mier TavianTi samefos `sazRvris Zieba~ aucilebelia. aseve iqceodnen XIII mefeni azork da armazel. amaT `ganizraxes Zieba sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa~.168 aseve qarTvelTa da osTa laSqarma daamarcxa somexTa laSqari da tyved Sei pyres somexTa mefis Ze. osebs surdaT tyve mefiswulis mokvla, xolo `qarTvelTa daicves cocxlebiT ZiebisaTvis sazRvarTa maTTasa~. am dros qarTvelTa mudmivi brZola somxebis winaaRmdeg gamowveuli iyo somexTagan mitacebuli `sazRvris ZiebiT~. marTlac, sazavo molaparakebis dros somxebs gadasces datyvevebuli somexi ufliswuli, xolo samagierod, `amisaTYs somexTa ukmosces sazRvari qarTlisa qalaqi wunda da cixe demoTisa, javaxeTi da artaani~.169 `da aResrulnes arzok da armazeli nugeSiniscemulni didad, rameTu simKniTa maTiTa ukumoixunes sazRvarni qarTlisani~.170 radganac qarTlis samefos saxelmwifos sazRvrebi mtkiced iyo gansazRvruli da dadgenili, amitomac sazRvrebis SigniT moqceul egrisze qarTlis statusis ganxorcielebas didi mniSvneloba miecemoda. XV mefe farsman qvelis samefoSic Sedis egrisi. farsman qvelis mokvlis Semdeg misi samefo mirdatma dai pyro. `dai pyres qarTli mirdat da erisTavman sparsTaman, xolo megrelni dadges erTgulebasa farsmanis Zisasa~. e.i. dasavleT saqarTvelo farsmanis Zes emxroba. dasavleT saqarTvelos daxmarebiT man aRadgina mefoba qarTlSi. misi Svili ukve mefea `yoveli qarTlis~ _ `mefobda ese farsman yovelsa qarTlsa zeda~.171 XVIII mefis amazaspis dros CrdiloeTidan gadmovidnen osebi qveynis dasapyrobad. `maSin amazasp mouwoda yovelTa erisTavTa qarTlisaTa. da movides erisTavni aRmosavalisani: erisTavi kaxeTisa, erisTavi xunanisa, erisTavi samSYldisa da Semokrbes mxedarni spaspetisani da vidre moslvadmde dasavleTisa erisTavisa, movides ovsni~...172 qarTlis samefoSi Sedis `dasavleTis saerisTavoebi~. mematianis mixedviT, `dasavleTis saerisTavoebSi~ Sedis dasavleT saqarTvelosa da klarjeTis saerisTavoebi. mefe amazaspi Tavisi mesisxleobisaTvis `moiZules... erman qarTlisaman~. amis gamo gandges erisTavni dasavleTisani xuTni: orni erisTavni egrisisani, erTi oZrxisa, erTi klarjeTisa da erTi wundisa~. marTlac, pirvelma mefem farsmanma dasavleT saqarTveloSi, anu egrisSi dasva ori erisTavi erTi sakuTriv egrisisa da meore margveTisa. anu dasavleT saqarTvelo or saerisTavod iyo gayofili. am saerisTavoebis meTaurebisa da agreTve wundis, oZrxisa da klarjeTis erisTavebisaTvis

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SemdgomSi daurqmeviaT `erisTavni dasavleTisani~. cxadia, mefe amazaspis samefoSi Sedis egrisi. mefe amazaspis winaaRmdeg Sekruli koaliciis jarebi swored dasavleT saqarTvelodan gadmovidnen Sida qarTlSi. `gardamovles gza Takuerisa da movides erisTavTa Tana egrisaTa~.173 XXIV mefe miriani. `mefobda esreT mirian mcxeTiT gaRmarT qarTls, somxiTs, rans, hereTs, movakans da egrs~.174 `da mefobda mirian mun qarTls, rans, hereTs da movakans da aqunda egrisica vidre egriswylamde~.175 XXVII mefe varaz-baqari. `daipyres berZenTa Tuxarisi da yoveli klarjeTi zRviTgan arsianamde da darCa varaz-baqars qarTli TYnier klarjeTisa da hereTi da egrisi~. `qveyana maTi sazRvari qarTlisa mosca varaz-baqarsave.~176

juanSeris Tanaxmad egrisi `qarTlSi~ Semavali qveyanaa


juanSeri qarTlis mefe mirdats uwodebs qarTvelTa mefes. am XXXII mefis devizia: `mtkiced da Seuryevelad vi pyrneT sazRvarni qarTlisani~.177 is aris mama vaxtang gorgaslisa. mirdatis samefoSi Sedis dasavleT saqarTveloc _ egrisi. es iqidan Cans, rom roca daoblebuli misi Zis, 10 wlis vaxtangis samefoSi SemoiWrnen Crdilo kavkasiidan gadmosuli dampyroblebi, maT daarbies centraluri qarTli, xolo ganapira provinciebi ar daurbeviaT. `viTar iqmna vaxtang wlisa aTisa, gardamovides ovsni spani uricxuni da motyuenes qarTli... daurCes warutyuenvelad Kevni qarTlisani: kaxeTi, klarjeTi da egrisi...~178 egrisi Sedis vaxtangis samefoSi _ `masve Jamsa gamovides berZenni afxazeTiT, rameTu berZenTa hqonda egriswyals qvemoTi kerZi yoveli da daipyres egriswyliTgan vidre cixe-gojadmde. maSin iqmna glova da wuxili yovelTa qarTvelTa da ityodes. `...RmerTman... migucna Cuen wartyuenvad ucxoTa naTesavTa da migYRo Cuen sazRvari berZenTagan, viTarca miuRo varaz-baqars mefesa klarjeTi... viZioT... Cuen Suri pirvel ovsTa zeda da Semdgoadmca vZebneT sazRvari qarTlisa berZenTagan~. amas ityodes yovelni qarTvelni da iyvnes mwuxarebasa Sina didsa~. `vaxtang... mwuxare iyo... sazRvarTa mixumisagan~.179 oseTSi gamarjvebis Semdeg vaxtangi CrdiloeTis gziT Cadis afxazeTSi. im dros afxazeTi, vidre mdinare egriswylamde, Sedioda berZnebis saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi, xolo vaxtangis pataraobis dros berZnebs qarTlis samefos teritoriac hqondaT dapyrobili md. egriswylidan cixe-gojamde. ase rom, berZnebs am teritoriaze (afxazeTSi da dapyrobil egrisSi) TavianTi cixeebi hqondaT. oseTSi gamarjvebulma vaxtangma `sam wel wartyuenna

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yoveli cixeni afxazeTisani, vidre cixe-gojamde.~180 Cans, vaxtangs ara Tu qarTlis saxelmwifo sazRvari aRudgenia, aramed kidec Setevaze gadasula da berZnebis miwebi daulaSqravs sakuTriv afxazeTSi. sakuTriv saberZneTSi (pontoSi) laSqrobisas vaxtang mefes sizmarSi pirdebian, rom berZenTa keisarma `yoveli sazRvari qarTlisa misgan ukmoRebuli mogces~,181 marTlac, male qarTlis momavali kaTalikosi petre moelaparaka keisars, romelmac `yoveli, romeli exilva Cuenebasa Sina, misca mas zeda neba vaxtangs~,182 e.i. keisarma vaxtangs daubruna qarTlis samxreTiT dapyrobili teritoriebi, `misca sazRvari qarTlisa~ _ klarjeTi. sparselebTan omis win keisari eubneba vaxtangs: `...migce cixe Tuxarisi da sazRvarni qarTlisani~.183 omis Semdeg vaxtang mefes `ukumosca keisarman sazRvari qarTlisa, cixe Tuxarisi da klarjeTi yoveli~.184 am dros vaxtangs afxazeTSi berZnebis kuTvnili teritoria egriswylidan CrdiloeTiT dapyrobili aqvs, amitomac keisari urigdeba vaxtangs. `egriswyliTgan vidre mdinaredmde mcirisa xazareTisa _ ese sazRvari ars saberZneTisa aleqsandrobiTgan, romeli aw Sen migiRia mklaviTa Cuengan. aw igi ukumoguec da odes wariyvanebde colsa Sensa, asulsa Cemsa, maSin mogce misgan queyana da dauwera egriswyalsa da klisurasa Sua queyana ziTvad, da sxva afxazeTi ukusca vaxtang berZenTa~.185 e.i. qarTlisa da saberZneTis sazRvari aleqsandre makedonelidan da farnavazidan moyolebuli gadioda mdinare egriswyalze. mefe vaxtang gorgaslis cols mziTevSi ergo afxazeTis teritoria mdinare egriswylidan vidre mdinare klisuramde (e.i. axlandel mdinare RaliZga-egriswylidan md. kelasuramde). amis Semdeg saukuneTa manZilze sazRvari qarTlis samefosa da bizantiis imperias Soris gadioda md. klisuraze, xolo klisuras zeviT (misi marjvena sanapiro kavkasiis mTebamde) afxazeTi Sedioda saberZneTis saxelmwifoSi. aqedan Cans, rom egrisi Sedioda qarTlSi, rom egrisi iyo qarTlis anu iberiis erT-erTi provincia, rom iberia moicavda rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelos. mag: mefeebis mirisa da arCilis dros saberZneTis imperatori swers Tavis erisTavs afxazeTSi: `yovladve sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa Cuengan qmnil ars vneba... aramed keTilad pativscemdi mefeTa da erTa magaT qarTlisaTa, da amieriTgan nuRara Kel-gewifebis vnebad maTda da sazRvarTa maTTa egrisaTa~.186 e.i. keisari swers Tavis erisTavs afxazeTSi, rom Cven xSirad varRvevT qarTlis sazRvrebs egrisSi, e.i. gadavdivarT mdinareebze klisurasa da egriswyalze da vi pyrobT qarTlis samefos kuTvnil teritorias. amJamad ki qarTlis samefos dasustebisa da mahmadianTa gaZlierebis gamo umjobe-

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sia da gibrZaneb, pativi sce qarTlis mefeebsa da ers, maT ar miayeno vneba. aseve nu daarRvev qarTlis samefos sazRvrebs egrisSi. qarTlis saxelmwifos sazRvrebi xSirad ixseneba vaxtangis cxovrebis aRweraSi. mag., vaxtang mefem `...mosrna da ganasxna yovelni cecxlismsaxurni sazRvarTagan qarTlisaTa~.187 istorikosebis gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces im faqts, rom vaxtang mefis mematiane egriss `qarTlis dasavleTs~ uwodebs: vaxtangma `rqua Zesa TYssa daCis: `...Senda mimicemia gYrgYni mefobisa Cemisa... sazRvari afxazeTisa, romeli mocemul ars egriswyalsa da klisuras Sua. igi TYT ZmaTa SenTa dedisa ars, igi aqundes maT da iyvnen Senda erisTavad...~188 e.i. pirveli ,,sparsi~ colisgan darCenil Svils misca mefoba, xolo berZenisgan darCenilebs _ leonsa da mirdats misca erisTavoba teritoriisa, romelic mziTvad ergo maT dedas berZenTa keisrisgan _ miwa-wyali klisurasa da egriswyals Soris. es teritoria geografiulad Sedioda afxazeTSi, xolo politikurad Sevida qarTlis samefoSi vaxtangis mefobisas. vaxtangis gardacvalebis Semdeg `dajda saydarsa missa Ze misi daCi, xolo coli da orni Zeni vaxtangisni wariyvannes samTa maT erisTavTa da daipyres dasavleTi qarTlisa, romeli misca vaxtang~.189 aqedan aSkarad Cans, rom `dasavleTi qarTlisas~ mematiane uwodebs egriswyalsa da klisuras Soris moqceul teritorias. mematianis azriT, egrisi, iseve rogorc kaxeTi da klarjeTi, qarTlis erT-erTi xevia, anu erT-erTi provinciaa. `xolo aman daCi mefeman iwyo Senebad qarTlisa, rameTu mooKrebul iyvnes yovelni Kevni qarTlisani, TYnier kaxeTisa da klarjeTisa da egrisisa~.190 istorikosi gulisxmobs, rom qarTlSi Sedis kaxeTi, klarjeTi da egrisi. vaxtangis Svilis, leonis gardacvalebis Semdeg klisurasa da egriswyals Soris moqceuli teritoriis erisTavad darCa mirdati. `amas mirdats daevaWra Zma misi daCi: mefeman gaucvala queyana da aRiRo mirdatisagan egriswyalsa da klisurasa Sua, mirdatis deduli, sazRvari saberZneTisa, da misca nacvlad javaxeTi~.191 herakle bizantiis imperatoris dros VII s-is dasawyisSi kualad wariRes berZenTa sazRvari qarTlisa: speri da bolo klarjeTisa, zRYspiri~.192 zRvis piri ewodeboda SavizRvispireTs saerTod _ speridan afxazeTamde, berZnebs miutacniaT mTeli SavizRvispireTi, speri, klarjeTis bolo da kolxeTis zRvis piri, e.i. egrisis dasavleTi nawili speridan afxazeTamde. mematiane egrisis am dapyrobil teritorias qarTlis nawilad miiCnevs. ivane javaxiSvili wers: `simarTles uaxlovdeba... juanSeris... qarTlis sazRvrebis aRweriloba.~193 Tedo Jordanias azriT, juanSeri `Tanamedrove unda iyos da TviTmxilveli moTxrobilisa~.

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vaxuStis mixedviT, qarTlis saxelmwifo moicavda rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTvelos ara marto vaxtangis dros, aramed wina saukuneebSic. vaxuSti, iseve rogorc vaxtang gorgaslis sxva istorikosebi, wers: vaxtangis mcirewlovanebis dros mezobelma saxelmwifoebma da tomebma Tavdasxmebi daiwyes. bizantiamac miitaca saqarTvelos teritoria. `...mogzavna berZenTa mefeman markiani spani da miixuna egrisisa cixegojamde zRYs kideni. maSin iyo urva didi iveriasa Sina, vinaATgan mistacnes sazRvarni maTni da ara hyvaT winamZRuari~...194 e.i. egrisi ganixileboda rogorc qarTlSi Semavali teritoria, ise rogorc juanSerTan da leonti mrovelTan. vaxuStis mixedviT, samegrelo saqarTveloSi Sedioda ukve farnavaz mefis droidanve. farnavazma `...qujis misca queyana rionis dasavleTi zRuamde da egrisis wylamde suaneTiT... meore erisTavi dasua margueTisa Sorapans da misca mcire lixidam vidre zRuamde Rados mTisa da rions SuaTi...~195 `yovel saqarTveloSi~ mematiane gulisxmobs, rogorc dasavleT, aseve aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, wmida ninom `...naTelsca yovelTa iverielTa.~196 e.i. wmida ninos mier qristianoba miuRia rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas. ocdameeqvse mefis mirdatis dros `...ganefina yovelsa saqarTvelosa Sina nawili suetisa mis cxovelisa kurnebad maTda~.197 ase rom, moulodneli ar aris qarTvelebis wuxili iveriis zRvispira teritoriebis bizantielTa mier aneqsiis gamo vaxtang gorgaslis dros, radganac dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispira teritoriebi uZveles droidanve Sedioda qarTlis saxelmwifoSi. `saqarTvelos erTiani monarqiis periodSi (vidre XV saukunemde) quTaisis `vakis~ erTi nawili, vaxuStis cnobiT, `qarTlis mTavarepiskoposs~ ekuTvnoda... rogorc Cans, amaze adre, saqarTvelos erTianobis xanaSi vaxtang gorgaslis dros `vake, margueTi da Takueri~ mcxeTis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda, jer mTavarepiskoposis, Semdeg kaTalikosisa. momdevno xanaSi mTavarepiskoposs mxolod `vake~ SerCa vidre XVI saukunemde.~198 dasavleT saqarTvelos `margueTisa da Takueris~, `egrisisa da suanTa~ saerisTavoebSi, qristianuli mrevlis simciris gamo, mrevli eqvemdebareboda mcxeTisa da niqozis episkoposebs, `vake~ teritoriis mosaxleoba qarTlis mTavarepiskoposs mcxeTaSi, xolo mTiani teritoriis mosaxleoba niqozis episkoposs. vaxtang gorgaslis epoqaSi qarTlis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqcia vrceldeboda mTel qarTlis samefoze, politikur qarTlze, e.i. rogorc dasavleT, aseve aRmosavleT saqarTveloze.

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VI saukunis dasawyisSi sparseTma da bizantiam (romma) saqarTvelo erTmaneTs Soris gaiyves 532 wels dadebuli saukuno zaviT. or dampyrobels Soris saqarTvelosTvis (dasavleT saqarTvelosTvis) daiwyo xangrZlivi omebi. am dros qarTuli eklesiis mdgomareoba Zalze mZime iyo. politikuri qarTli ukve aRar arsebobda, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo gauqmebuli iyo. amitomac, qarTuli eklesia Tavis iurisdiqcias ukve veRar ganaxorcielebda qarTlze, rogorc damoukidebel suverenul administraciul erTeulze. ukve yvelaferi damokidebuli iqneboda sparseTsa da bizantiaze. VII saukunis damdegs saqarTveloSi herakle keisris laSqrobam saqarTvelos eklesia daaknina. herakle keisarma saqarTvelos CamoarTva Savi zRvispira teritoriebi da ganaxorciela iq Tavisi aneqsia, Semdeg maleve arabebis Semosevam saerTod daasusta qristianoba. am mizezebma, upirveles yovlisa, qarTlis, rogorc erTiani saxelmwifos gauqmebam, gamoiwvia lazikis qristianebis nawilis gadasvla berZnul saepiskoposoebSi. qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenisTanave (dasavleT saqarTveloSi) qarTulenovani eklesia, afxazeTis sakaTalikoso daarsda.

zogierTi berZeni da romaeli istorikosis Tanaxmad, kolxeTi iberiaSi Semavali qveyanaa


qsenofonti wers: `aqedan isini mividnen... mdinare fasisTan... amis Semdeg Cavidnen dablobSi, sadac maT winaaRmdeg darazmuliyvnen xalibebi, taoxebi da fasianebi~. `...fasianebisa da hesperitebis satrapi iyo tiribaZe~. `radgan Cven gvaqvs xomaldebi, amitomac umjobesia gavcuroT fasisisaken da davi pyroT fasianTa qveyana. iq maSin aietis Camomavali mefobda~.199 qsenofontma dabejiTebiT icis, rom fasisis xeobaSi cxovroben fasianebi, xalibebi da taoxebi. xalibebi da taoxebi `iberTa~ tomebi arian. miCneulia, rom mdinare fasisi, sadac qsenofonts Sexvdnen taoxebi da xalibebi, aris mdinare araqsi. marTalia, taoxebi da xalibebi mdinare araqszedac cxovrobdnen, magram, Cans, isini qsenofonts mdinare WoroxTan mcxovrebni uxilavs. amis Sesaxeb dabejiTebiT migviTiTebs ariane. ariane, iseve rogorc qsenofonti, TviTve iyo namyofi kolxeTSi. garda amisa, ariane miiCnevda qsenofonts did avtoritetad. amitomac kargad icnobda qsenofontis istorias. ariane wers amazoni tomebis Sesaxeb `qsenofonti maT ar axsenebs, xolo fasianebs, kolxebs da sxvebs is axsenebs, im barbaros tomebs, romelTac Sexvdnen elinebi an maSin, rodesac trapezuntidan gamovidnen, an vidre trapezuntSi Sevidodnen~.200

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e.i. arianes mixedviT, fasianebs, taoxebs da xalibebs, anu barbaros tomebs, qsenofonti Sexvda sadRac trapizonis midamoebSi, rogorc Cans, trapizonis CrdiloeTiT, kerZod, mdinare fazissa, rionsa da trapizons Soris. yovel SemTxvevaSi, es moxda trapizonis raionSi. mdinare araqsi sruliad daSorebulia trapizonidan, araqss trapizonamde aSorebs didi mdinaris xeoba _ Woroxisa. ariane darwmunebulia, rom qsenofonts swored kolxeTSi mobinadre barbarosi tomebi Sexvdnen. is pirdapir wers _ `fasianebi da kolxebi da sxva barbarosebi~, xolo qsenofonti am kolxebs uwodebs kerZo saxels _ `fasianebi, taoxebi da xalibebi~. aqedan unda davaskvnaT, rom kolxeTSi qsenofontis dros cxovrobdnen iberTa tomebi _ taoxebi da xalibebi. Cans, kolxebi eTnikurad igive iyo, rac qarTebi, ufro sworad, eTnikurad kolxebi da qarTebi erTi xalxi iyo, erTgvarovani eTnikuri Semadgenlobisa. maT Soris ar iyo didi diferenciacia, Tumca, Sedgebodnen aTeulobiT sxvadasxva tomisagan, zogadad ki erTi xalxi iyo _ qarTveli xalxi. qsenofontis jariskacebis mizania, Cavidnen kolxeTSi, gascuron TavianTi xomaldebiT fasisisaken da daipyron fasianTa qveyana, sadac aietis Camomavali mefobs. cxadia, mxedvelobaSia ara araqsi, aramed Woroxi an rioni da amitomac SeiZleba Woroxis an rionis xeobaSic cxovrobdnen xalibebi da taoxebi. `fasianebisa da hesperitebis satrapi iyo tiribaZe~, _ wers istorikosi. vin arian hesperitebi? es sityva hgavs herodotes saspeirebs. herodote wers _ `sparselebi cxovroben aziaSi samxreTis zRvamde, romelsac ewodeba mewamuli, maT CrdiloeTiT cxovroben midielebi, midielTa zemoT _ saspeirebi, saspeirebs zemoT _ kolxebi, romlebic esazRvrebian CrdiloeTis zRvas, rasac erTvis mdinare fazisi, es oTxi xalxi cxovrobs teritoriaze, romelic gadaWimulia zRvidan zRvamde~.201 midielebi da sparselebi antikur epoqaSive erT xalxad iqcnen, radganac erTi eTnikuri Semadgenlobisa iyvnen. qsenofontis hesperitebisa da herodotes saspeirebis fuZe aris speri. miCneulia, rom saspeirebi arian Semdegdroindeli iberebi. hesperitebi igive saspeirebi an saspeirebis erT-erTi tomia, romelic kolxeTSi fasianTa tomTan erTad cxovrobs. fas (fs) Ziri qarTul metyvelebaSi gamoiyeneboda mdinaris aRsaniSnavad _ fasisi, fSa, fse da a.S. ariane wers, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriis erTi nawili uSualod Sedioda iberiis samefoSi. qsenofontis dros jer kidev ar arsebobda iberiis saxelmwifo, magram Cans, qarTebis tomebi dasavleT saqarTveloSic cxovroben, xolo arianes dros ukve arsebobs qarTlis samefo, romlis saxelmwifo sazRvrebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi Sav zRvamde aRwevs. `Semdegi tomebi gaviareT: trapezuntelebis mosazRvreni, rogorc qsenofontic ambobs, arian kolxebi da toms, romelic uguladesia da trapezun-

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telebis mosisxle mteri, qsenofonti drilebs uwodebs, me ki vfiqrob, rom isini sanebi arian. eseni metad kargi meomrebi arian... amaT gverdiT arian makronebi da henioxebi, maTi mefe anqialea. makronebis da henioxebis mezoblebi Zidritebi arian, eseni farsmanis qveSevrdomebi arian. Zidritebis gverdiT lazebi arian. lazebis mefe malasaa, romelsac taxti Sengana aqvs miRebuli. lazebis mezoblebi afsilebi arian, maTma mefem iulianem mefoba Seni mamisagan miiRo. afsilebis mezoblebi abaskebi arian. abaskTa mefe resmagaa, amasac taxti Sengana aqvs miRebuli. abaskTa mezoblebi sanigebi arian, maT miwaze imyofeba sebastopolisi...~202 arianes monaTxrobidan aSkaraa, rom qarTlis samefos sazRvrebi Sav zRvamde vrceldeba. garda amisa, aucileblad sagulisxmoa, rom romis imperia sisxlxorceulad dainteresebuli iyo xelT egdo Savi zRvis sanapiroebi. is ipyrobda SavizRvispira qveynebs da imorCilebda tomebs. romis aseTi siZlieris drosac ki romis mier dasavleT saqarTveloSi dapyrobil teritoriaSi iberiis saxelmwifo soliviT aris SeWrili. garda amisa, roms ar emorCileba drilebis, anu sanebis Zlieri tomi, romelic ganuwyvetliv Tavs esxmis romis teritorias trapezuntSi. ariane imperators pirdeba, rom an daimorCilebs am toms, anda gaaZevebs Tavisi qveynidan. Tu es tomi ar emorCileba roms, unda vifiqroT, rom is kargad aris ganwyobili iberiis samefos mimarT, romlisganac, albaT, Zlierdeba kidec. sanebis anu drilebis mezoblebi arian makronebi da henioxebi. ariane ar wers, amaTi mefe emorCileba Tu ara roms, unda vifiqroT, rom ar emorCileba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, ariane aucileblad asiamovnebda Tavis imperators da miswerda, rom maTma mefeebma mefoba Tqvengan an Tqveni mamisgan miiReso. unda vifiqroT, rom makronebisa da henioxebis mefeebs kavSiri aqvT farsmanis iberiis saxelmwifosTan. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT, qarTlis samefos sazRvari dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadioda mdinare egriswyalze. am mdinaremde teritoriebi qarTlis samefos ekuTvnoda. egriswyalszemoTa qveynebi, romelTac Semdgom ewoda sakuTriv afxazeTi, ar Sedioda qarTlis samefoSi. romis imperias mouxerxebia qarTlis samefosTvis mxolod erTi tomis _ lazebis qveynis CamoSoreba _ lazTa mefes, malasas, arianes mixedviT, samefo taxti miuRia romis imperatorisgan. romis imperias qarTlis samefosgan miutacnia mxolod es teritoria. aqedanac Cans, Tu ra mtkice da Zlieri politikuri erTeuli yofila qarTlis samefo, romelic Seqmnila farnavazis mier. TviT romis imperiis drosac ki, es samefo axerxebda Sav zRvaze gasvlas. cxadia, romis imperiis mier kavkasiaSi agresiis dawyebamde qarTlis samefo SeZlebda dasavleT saqarTvelos mTeli teritoriis daWeras. aqedanac Cans `qarTlis cxovrebis~ simarTle. Tu egriswylis aRmosavleTiT mcxovrebi tomebi afsilebi, abaskebi, sanigebi ar Sediodnen Zveli qarTlis samefoSi, maSin arianes gancxadeba, rom am tomTa mefeebi romisgan

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iReben taxts, gasakviri ar aris. T. yauxCiSvili iberiis saxelmwifos siZlieris Sesaxeb wers (sxva momentTan dakavSirebiT): ...`ioseb flaviusis es cnoba mniSvnelovania qarTveli mefis ganwyobilebisa da rolis gasarkvevad saerTaSoriso situaciaSi: romis imperatori qrTamebiT ibirebs, ver ubrZanebs iberTa mefes parTeli mefis winaaRmdeg moqmedebas, iberTa mefes SeuZlia ar daeTanxmos romael imperators...~203 iberiis samefoSi Semavali ZidritTa tomi, arianes mixedviT, I saukuneSi cxovrobs Savi zRvis sanapiroze, teritoriaze, romelic moqceulia trapezuntis, rizesa da mdinare rions Soris, anu iq, sadac amJamad cxovroben aWarlebi da gurulebi _ qarTebis tomebi. qarTebis SavizRvispireTSi cxovrebas hqonda didi xnis istoria, Cans, aqve uxilavs qsenofonts xalibebi da taoxebi. SesaZlebelia, erTiani qarTveli xalxis diferenciaciis dros SavizRvispireTSi mcxovrebi is tomebi, romlebic Sediodnen uSualod qarTlis mefis qveSevrdomobis qveS _ Camoyalibdnen qarTebad, manamde ki rogorc qarTebi, aseve kolxebi (igulisxmeba zanebi) erTian eTnikur jgufs _ erT xalxs warmoadgendnen. rogorc aRniSnuli gvqonda, amaze migviTiTebs is, rom Tumca egriselebi (igulisxmeba zanebi) saxelganTqmuli da cnobili xalxi iyo, maT bibliis Tavdapirvelma qristianma komentatorebma sakuTari eTnarqi ar gamouZebnes, anu uZvelesi qristiani istorikosebi rogorc iberebs, aseve egriselebs miiCnevdnen erTi eTnarqis STamomavlad. ufro sworad, egriselebi erTiani iberi xalxis erT-erT tomad miaCndaT. ioseb flaviusi wers: `noes Svilebs eyolaT vaJebi, romelTa pativiscemiT [xalxma] saxelebi daarqva tomebs, romelTa miwac amaT daiWires. iafTas, noes Svils hyavda Svidi vaJi... iafTas Svilebi iyvnen iavanesi da madesi. madesisagan warmoiSva madeebis tomi, romelic elinTagan medebad iwodebian, xolo iavanesisgan _ ionia da yvela elinebi warmosdgebian. Teobelosma daasaxla Teobelebi, romelTac amJamad iberebi hqviaT. mesxosma daafuZna mesxenebi, romelTac axla kapadokielebi ewodebaT... Teiresma Teirebi daarqva xalxs, romelsac marTavda, xolo elinebma maT Trakielebi gadaarqves~.204 berZnul-romauli samyaro, rogorc mravaljer aRiniSna, dasavleT saqarTvelos, iseve rogorc aRmosavleTs, iberias uwodebda. ioseb flaviusic albaT iseve, rogorc sxvebi, kolxeTs anu dasavleT saqarTvelos iberiis nawilad miiCnevda. is wers: `iavanesisagan _ ionia da yvela elinebi warmosdgebian~. qveyana ionia erTia, magram dasaxlebulia berZeni xalxis sxvadasxva tomebiT, Tumca, berZeni anu elini xalxi erTiani eria. aseve iberiac erTi qveyanaa, romelic erTi xalxis sxvadasxva tomiTaa dasaxlebuli. ioseb flaviusi berZeni xalxis sxvadasxva tomebs ar uZebnis sxvadasxva eTnarqebs, aramed wers, rom ioniasa da yvela elin toms erTi eTnarqi hyavT. unda vifiqroT, miaCndaT, rom iberiasa da misi xalxis yvela toms, maT Soris zanebs erTi eTnarqi hyavT _ Teobelosi.

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rogorc aRiniSna, gelasi kesarieli Savi zRvis piras mcxovrebad aRwers iberielebs: `pontos gaswvriv myof qveyanaSi mcxovrebni iberni da lazni~; rufinusi wers: `iberTa naTesavi, romelic pontos areSi binadrobs~; aseve sokrate wers: `es iberni pontos zRvasTan binadroben~, gelasi kvizikeli wers: `pontos gaswvriv mdebare qveynis mcxovrebma iberebma da lazebma~...205 iberieli xalxis tomebi erTad cxovroben dasavleT saqarTveloSi. maT zogjer moixsenieben pirovnuli satomo saxeliT, xSirad ki maT iberebs uwodeben (ara mxolod lazebs, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispira mosaxleobas). aRsaniSnavia, rom ucxoelebi dasavleT saqarTvelosa da SavizRvispireTSi mcxovreb iberebs uwodeben `qvemo iberebs~, raTa isini ganasxvaon `zemo iberebisagan~, romelnic aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, anu rogorc isini uwodeben, `kaspiis zRvisken~ cxovrobdnen, aRsaniSnavia, rom zogjer piriqiTac uwodebdnen _ `qvemo iberebs~ _ aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas, `zemo iberebs~ _ dasavleTisas. me-4 saukunis dasawyisSi wmida ninos qristianoba gauvrcelebia mTel qarTvel erSi, rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTveloSi, asea ara marto `qarTlis cxovrebis~, aramed berZen da romael istorikosTa mixedviTac. am istorikosTa monacemebi dabejiTebiT uwodeben wmida ninos lazTa da iberTa gamaqristianebels. niko mari wmida ninos pirdapir uwodebs megrelTa gamaqristianebels. wmida nino mTeli qarTveli eris gamaqristianebelia. `wmida ninos rCeviT, elCoba gaugzavniaT imperator konstantinesTan da saqarTveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebisa da ganmtkicebisaTvis mRvdlebis gamogzavna uTxoviaT. amas aRniSnaven TavianT SromebSi sxvadasxva avtorebi, maT Soris: Teodorite, sokrate, sozomeni, rufinusi. `saeklesio analebSi~ moTxrobilia adrindel periodSi saqarTveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebis istoria: `zemoT ukve iTqva imis Sesaxeb, rom iberiis im nawilma, romelic pontos zRvasTan mdebareobs da kolxeTad iwodeba, saxareba jer kidev imperator traianes dros mqadagebeli papi wm. klementis SemweobiT miiRo. es ukanaskneli im mxareSi gadasaxlebaSi iyo, xolo ireneos mixedviT cxadi xdeba, rom iberebma didi xniT adre miiRes qristianuli sarwmunoeba, rac Seexeba qvemo iberielebs, im iberielebs, romlebic kavkasiis mTebSi, kaspiis zRvis axlo cxovroben, Tvlian, rom maT qristianoba imperator konstantines dros miiRes~.206 kolxeTi _ iberiaSi Semavali qveyanaa. istorikosi wers: _ `...iberiis im nawilma, romelic pontos zRvasTan mdebareobs da kolxeTad iwodeba...~ kolxeTis zogadi saxeli iberiaa, xolo kerZoobiTi _ kolxeTi. kolxeTis mcxovrebT iberielni ewodebaT. roca i. tabaRua wers: `cxadi xdeba, rom iberebma didi xniT adre miiRes qristianuli sarwmunoeba, rac Seexeba qvemo iberebs...~, `iberebSi~ gulisxmobs kolxeTis mosaxleobas, xolo aRmosavleT

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saqarTvelos mosaxleobas is uwodebs `qvemo iberebs~. qvemo iberebi kaspiis zRvisken cxovroben, kavkasiis mTebSi, xolo iberebi (e.i. zemo iberebi) Sav zRvasTan cxovroben _ kolxeTSi. orive iberiis (kolxeTisa da kaspiis iberiis) mcxovrebT ewodebaT iberielebi. kolxebi iberieli xalxis nawilia. evropeli istorikosebi ara marto I-IV saukuneebSi yofdnen iberias or nawilad _ kolxeTad da kerZo iberiad _ aramed saSualo saukuneebSic _ `mTels iberiaSi ori patriarqia, romlebsac kaTalikosebs uwodeben. erTi maTgani qarTlis provinciaSia, xolo meore kolxeTSi, igive samegreloSi~.207 dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas rom iberielebs uwodebdnen, kargad Cans evagre pontoelis _ iberielis (345-399) magaliTzec, `daibada dasavleT saqarTvelos erT-erT qalaqSi~. miuxedavad amisa, mas iberiels uwodeben. ucxoeli avtorebi lazebs miiCneven iberieli xalxis erT-erT tomad. `...kaspiis karebTan sakmaod mWidrod dasaxlebul iberielTaganma lazTa tomma qristianuli sarwmunoeba miiRo,~208 _ lazebi iberieli xalxis erTerTi tomia, ufro sworad, lazebi iberielTaganni, iberebi arian. avtori lazebs uwodebs ara kaspiis karebTan dasaxlebul toms, aramed sazogadod iber xalxs. avtorma icis, rom iberi xalxis ZiriTadi masa, umetesi ricxobrivi nawili aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi cxovrobs (e.i. kaspiis karebTan axlos), xolo lazTa tomi am iberielebis erTi tomia. Sua saukuneTa istorikosebic, roca arCeven Zveli drois istorikosTa Txzulebebs, weren, rom kolxebi iberieli xalxis erTi nawilia: `aseve baroniusic fiqrobs, rom evqsinis pontosTan ufro axlo mcxovrebi iberebi anu kolxebi saxarebis SuqiT traianes dros ganaTldnen~.209 dasavleT saqarTveloSi _ samegreloSi (anu iberiis zRvispira mxareSi) swored wmida ninom rom gaavrcela qristianoba, adasturebs es amonaweric: `amas adasturebs romauli martirologiis Semdegi sityvebi: `pontos evqsinis gaRma mcxovreb iberebs aqvT xsenebis dRe wm. qristiani mona qalisa, romelmac saswaulTa ZaliT konstantines dros es tomi qristes sarwmunoebaze moaqcia~.210 arqanjelo lamberti, romelic cxovrobda dasavleT saqarTveloSi da kargad icnobda Zvel saqarTvelosa da agreTve berZen romael istorikosTa cnobebs iberiis Sesaxeb, iberiaSi Semaval kuTxeebad miiCnevs imereTs. kolxeTs, gurias _ mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos, ara marto SuasaukuneebSi, aramed wmida ninos dros _ IV saukuneSi. misi es codna efuZneba berZenromael istorikosTa Sesabamisi monacemebis analizs: `vrceldeboda ra ganuxrelad RvTis WeSmariti kulti iberiaSi, man yvela mxareSi SeaRwia, romelic saqarTvelos mefis gavlenis qveS iyo. saxeldobr, qarTlSi, kaxeTSi, imereTSi, kolxeTSi, guriaSi, samcxeSi, afxazeTSi...~211 ivane javaxiSvilis TvalsazrisiT, sruliad saqarTvelos erTsa da imave dros miuRia qristianoba IV s-Si. is wers: `...qarTulma saistorio mwerlo-

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bam da saeklesio wreebma wmida ninos da andria mociqulis Sesaxeb cnobebi, rogorc davrwmundiT, mTeli, sruliad saqarTvelos gaqristianebis ambad miiCnies~. mecnieri eTanxmeba am qronologias: `qronologiuradac qristianobis gavrcelebis dasawyisi aRmosavleTsa da dasavleT saqarTveloSi, rogorc etyoba, erTsa da imave xans unda vigulisxmoT, am mxriv gansakuTrebiT yuradRebis Rirsia gelasi kvizikelis moTxroba, mas iberTa moqcevis ambavSi naTqvami aqvs: `amave dros pontos gaswvriv mdebare qveynis mcxovrebma iberebma da lazebma RmrTis sityva, romelic manamde maT ar swamdaT, Seiwynares~-o. gamodis, rom aRmosavleTsa da dasavleT saqarTvelos qristianoba erTsa da imave dros miuRia... `magram am mosazrebas TiTqos ewinaaRmdegeba is, rom sxva cnobili istorikosebi TavianT TxzulebebSi iZlevian iberTa gaqristianebis cnobebs, magram lazTa amave dros gaqristianebis Sesaxeb cnobebs ar gvawvdian. `...magram an. glass gamorkveuli aqvs, rom lazTa amave dros moqcevis Sesaxeb cnoba ar moepoveba arc sokrates, arc sozomens, arc Teodorite kYrels, arc nikifore kallistoss...~212 es avtorebi lazebs ar moixsenieben maTi pirovnuli satomo saxeliT, radganac lazebi imave iberielebad miaCniaT, maTi TvalsazrisiT, lazebi iberieli xalxis erT-erTi tomia, amitomac roca weren _ pontos sanapiroze mcxovrebma iberebma qristianoba miiReso, es niSnavs, rom mTelma iberebma lazebis CaTvliT miiRes qristianoba. ase magaliTad, sokrate wers _ `es iberni pontos zRvasTan binadroben...~ pontos zRvasTan ki swored lazebi binadrobdnen, amitom es istorikosi swored lazebs uwodebs iberebs. rufinusi wers _ `iberTa naTesavi, romelic pontos areSi binadrobs~. es istorikosic lazebs iberieli xalxis erT-erT tomad miiCnevs. amitomac maT ar axsenebs satomo saxeliT da gulisxmobs iberielebSi. 420 wels istorikos paladi helenopolels, romelic mowafe iyo evagre pontoelisa, mis Sesaxeb dauweria: `is iyo pontoeli, iberTa qalaqidan~. mowafem, cxadia, kargad icoda Tavisi maswavleblis sadauroba. evagres Tanamedrove istorikosi sozomenec aseve wers mis Sesaxeb: `igi warmoSobiT iyo iberTa qalaqidan, romelic mdebareobs egreT wodebuli evqsinis pontos sanapiroze~. mexuTe saukunis istorikosi sokratec aseve wers: `evagre, mRvdlis Svili, warmoSobili iberTa qalaqidan, romelic evqsinis pontosTan mdebareobs~.213 mexuTe saukunis istorikosebi dabejiTebiT darwmunebulni arian, rom iberia ewodeba qveyanas, romelic SavizRvispireTSi mdebareobs, Zveli qarTveli istorikosebis msgavsad, romelnic SavizRvispireTs `qarTlSi~ Semaval qveynad miiCnevdnen. mxolod XVI saukunis Semdgom istorikosebs SeeparaT eWvi evagre pontoelis Sesaxeb sabuTis sisworeSi, radganac Sua saukuneebis Semdgom `qarTli~ (anu iberia) ukve aRar ewodeboda erTian saqarTvelos, aramed mxolod mis aRmosavleT nawils.

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mkvlevarTa aseTi daskvnebi msgavsia mose xorenelis cnobisa, rom qarTveli xalxis Tavdapirveli samSoblo aris dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTi, saidanac maT gamravlebis gziT miaRwies somxeTisa da albaneTis sazRvrebamde. iv. javaxiSvili wers: `amgvarad, dakvirvebam dagvarwmuna, rom qarT-megruli Stos tomebis sakuTar saxelebSi (qarTueli, karduxi) erTi da imave qveynis saxeli gvxvdeba. igi aris qarTu anu kardu. raki am qveynis saxeli orive Stos tomebis saxelwodebaSi moi poveba, ueWvelia, igi qarTvelebis Tavdapirveli samSoblo unda yofiliyo. am samSoblos xsovna mesame Stos warmomadgenels svanebsac aqvT SerCenili~. `karduxi, rogorc viciT, erT-erTi megrul-Wanuri Stois saxelia... es karTu anu qarTu ganTqmuli qveyana qaldea ars...~214 Tuki karduxi, romlisganac warmodga sityva `qarTveli~, megrul-Wanuri Stos saxelia, maSin qarTveli xalxis mosaxleoba dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi saeWvo ar unda iyos. didi ilia WavWavaZe werda: `istoriul WeSmaritebad cnobilia, rom egvi ptelTa `muSeni~, dabadebis `mosoxni~ anu `mosxni~, exlandelni `mesxni~, herodotes `tibarenni~, strabonis `tiberni~ da `kolxni~ Seadgenen qarTvel naTesaobis ersa. radganac isic WeSmaritad cnobilia, rom ZvelisZvelad am qarTvel naTesaobas sWeria mTeli sivrce Ralisis mdinariTgan mcire aziaSi Savi zRvis piramde da mTeli aRmosavleTi mxare am zRvisa da agreTve igi adgilebi, romelnic mtkvarsa da araqss Sua mdebareoben. aSkaraa, rom visac am adgilebSi daCemeba ram unda an qarTvelis kuTvnilebis gauqmeba moundeba, daamtkicos, rom zemo dasaxelebulni erni qarTvelTa naTesaobisa arc iyvnen da arc arian. swored ase moiqca Cveni guladi profesori da gveficeba, rom `mosxebi da kolxebi~ qarTvelis naTesaobisani ar ariano da araviTars sabuTs amisas ar iZleva ki es saocari moficari`... `me patkanovis Segirdi varo, iZaxis TavmowonebiT b-ni mari... b-ni mari, Tumca patkanovisamebr oinebSi jer Tavi ar uCenia... sxvafriv ki imis gzaze damdgara~.215 ilias mrisxaneba gamoiwvia iman, rom zogierTma mecnierma usabuTod ganacxada: dasavleT saqarTvelosa da mesxeTis mosaxleoba TiTqosda VIIIX saukuneebamde ar Sedioda erTian qarTvel erSi, aramed TiTqosda VIII-X saukuneebSi qarTuli eklesiis aqtiurobis wyalobiT dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli ena gavrcelebula, xolo mesxeTSi TiTqosda qalkedonituri somxuri mosaxleoba gaqarTvelebula. ilia wers: `yvelgan cnobilia, rom Woroxis xeoba Zvelad-Zvelidamve Seadgens nawils zemoqarTlisas... emini, xudabaSovi, ericovi swored am adgilebs gvecilebian da amtkiceben, rom mtkvris saTavis adgilebi, mTeli Woroxis xeoba did somxeTs ekuTvnodneno~.216 evropeli mecnieri sen-marteni amtkicebs, rom... `igi seri mTebisa, romelic Woroxisa, mtkvrisa, efratisa da araqsis

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wyalgamyrelia, mudam sazRvari iyo qarTvelTa da somexTa Soris~.217 `gana aSkara ar aris, rom am cuRlutur mecnierebiT swadianT qveyana daajeron, viTomc istoriuli ufleba miuZRviT am adgilebSi binis dadebisa~.218 profesori patkanovi, niko maris maswavlebeli, `amgvaradve xels iwvdis taoskarze, exlandel Woroxis xeobaze, imisda miuxedavad, rom ucxo eris mematianeni, magaliTebr, konstantine porfirogeni (911-959 ww.) imowmeba, rom meaTe saukuneze winaT qarTvelT bagratidTa eWiraT Woroxis xeoba da aqedan dai pyres TviT arzrumi da sxva nawilebi somxeTisao~.219

qarTli da qarTveli eri somexi istorikosebis mixedviT


somxuri istoriografia msoflio mniSvnelobisaa. somxebi uSualod emezoblebodnen saqarTvelos, amitomac kargad icodnen, Tu vis ewodeboda qarTvelebi da sad cxovrobdnen isini. zogierTma somex istorikosTagan icoda qarTuli ena da uSualod icnobda saqarTvelos, amitomac maT azrs qarTvelebis, anu `vracebis~ sacxovrisis Sesaxeb didi mniSvneloba unda mieces. somxur istoriografiaSi miRebulia, rom mose xoreneli V saukunis istorikosia. rogorc `fiqroben, movses xorenaci dabadebuli unda iyos daaxloebiT 410 wels~.220 mas 482 wlamde unda daewera `somxeTis istoria~. `amJamad somxur istoriografiaSi uyoymanodaa miRebuli `somxeTis istoriis~ V saukuniT daTariReba~.221 mkvlevaris daskvna aseTia ... xorenaci sakmaod kargad icnobda mezobel saqarTvelos...~222 icnobda qarTul warmarTul panTeons. p. ingoroyvas azrs, rom `...mose xoreneli axlo icnobda qarTul msoflios, man icoda qarTuli ena...~, nawilobriv eTanxmeba a. abdalaZe. is wers: `xorenacim qarTuli samyaros Sesaxeb bevri ram icoda, es Cveni azriTac, sadao ar unda iyos~.223 mose xorenelma, romelmac bevri ram icoda qarTuli samyaros Sesaxeb, romelic kargad icnobda mezobel saqarTvelos, cxadia, isic kargad icoda, Tu sad saxloben qarTvelebi, Tu saidan sadamdea gadaWimuli maTi eTnikuri gansaxlebis sazRvrebi. mose xoreneli wers, rom qarTveli xalxis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisi kavkasiaSi iyo dasavleTi saqarTvelo, xolo Semdgom qarTvelebis sacxovrisi iyo da mis dros aris rogorc dasavleTi, aseve aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo. mose xorenelis Txzulebidan kargad Cans misi avtoris Tvalsazrisi, rom qarTvelebi cxovroben ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed Savi zRvispireTia (dasavleTi saqarTvelo) maTi erovnuli gansaxlebis ZiriTadi teritoria. qarTvelebi, misi gansazRvriT, cxovroben CrdiloeTis mTebisa da pontos (Savi) zRvis midamoebSi. CrdiloeTis mTebi da pontos zRva qarTvelTa naTesavs uWiravs. mose xoreneli CrdiloeTis

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mTebs uwodebs kavkasiis mTebs. mose xorenelis mixedviT, somxeTis CrdiloeTiT mdebare teritoriebi kavkasiis SavizRvispireTidan, vidre gugarqis CaTvliT, qarTvelebiTaa dasaxlebuli da qarTvelebs ekuTvnis. faqtobrivad, es aris is teritoria, romelsac Zveli qarTveli istorikosebis gansazRvriT, moicavs qarTlis saxelmwifo SavizRvispireTidan somxeT-albaneTamde. SavizRvispireTSi da aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi qarTvelebis saxlobas mose xoreneli Semdegi mizeziT gansazRvravs: babilonis mefem nabuqodonosorma dasavleTiT mdebare iverielTa qveynidan iverielebis nawili gadmoasaxla da pontos zRvis marjvena mxares daasaxla kavkasiaSi. SemdgomSi aleqsandre makedonelma darios III-is erTerTi naxarari mihrdat I am iverielebs mTavrad dausva. qristemde daaxloebiT II saukuneSi parTiis mefe arSakma Tavisi Zma valarSaki somxeTSi gaamefa. mas sabrZaneblad garda somxeTisa, CrdiloeTiTa da dasavleTiT mdebare qveynebi (mxareebi) gadasca. CrdiloeTis mxareebis gamgeblad valarSakma daadgina qarTvelebis mTavar mihrdat I-is erT-erTi STamomavali. CrdiloeTis mxareebis gamgeblebs gugarelTa pitiaxSebi daerqvaT. samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom somex mematianeebs, maT Soris mose xorenelsac, gugarqi, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas somxeTis samefos sapitiaxSod miiCneven, qarTul qveynebad esaxebad, xolo gugarelebi _ qarTvelebad.224 mirdatianebi, anu mihrdat I-is STamomavlebi, mTavroben rogorc SavizRvispireTis, ise aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTvelebs. gugarelTa da CrdiloeTis mTebis pitiaxS mihrdat II-is garda mose xoreneli axsenebs mihrdat III-sac. is pontos zRvis ganmgebelia. qristemde 189-160 wlebSi artaSes I-ma mihrdat III-s, qarTvelTa did pitiaxSs miando CrdiloeTis mTebisa da pontos zRvis gamgebloba. qarTvelTa did pitiaxSs mihrdat III-s, romelic CrdiloeTis mTebisa da pontos zRvis ganmgebeli iyo, somexTa da parTelTa mefe artaSes I-ma miaTxova Tavisi asuli, xolo Semdgomma mefem artaSes I-is Zem tigranma berZnebTan omis dros miando mniSvnelovani cixe-qalaqis maJaqis ganmgebloba, misi gansakuTrebuli strategiuli mniSvnelobis gamo, da jarebis mxedarTmTavroba. romaelTa mxedarTmTavarma pompeusma daamarcxa mihrdat III da tyved Sei pyro misi Ze mihrdat IV. mihrdat III gaiqca pontos mTebSi. is pompeusma moawamvlina pontoeli pilates mamas. qalaqi maJaqi pompeusma aiRo. romSi pompeusis dabrunebis Semdeg, misma nacvalma tigrans gaugzavna Tavisi diswuli mihrdat IV. tigrani daeWvda, rom is ar iyo misi diswuli, amitom ar misca arc kuTvnili qarTvelTa qveyana da arc Tavisi samflobelo _ pontos mxareSi da qalaqi maJaqi. `... aRar misca mas arc Tavisi samflobelos nawili da arc kuTvnili qarTvelTa qveyana~.

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mose xorenelis mixedviT, ase damTavrda mihrdatianebis mTavroba qarTvelebze da qarTvelTa qveyanaze, samagierod, mihrdat IV-s romma daumtkica pontos mxareni da qalaqi maJaqi. aq sainteresoa is, Tu romeli qveyana miaCnia mose xorenels .qarTvelTa qveynad da romeli qveyana miaCnia somxeTSi Semavalad. mose xoreneli raRac saerTos xedavs qarTvelTa qveyanasa da ponto-kesaria-kabadokias Soris, TiTqosda ponto-kesariasac qarTvelTa qveynad miiCnevs, magram is mkacrad sazRvravs da wers, rom qarTveli mTavrebis kuTvnili qveyana aris ara pontos mxareni da ponto-kesaria, aramed teritoria, romelic iwyeba pontos zRvidan kavkasiis, anu CrdiloeTis mTebis CaTvliT gugarqTan erTad. somxeTis CrdiloeTiT moTavsebuli es teritoria kavkasiis SavizRvispireTidan vidre gugarqis CaTvliT mihrdatianebis `kuTvnili~ teritoriaa _ radganac es qarTvelTa qveyanaa, xolo sakuTriv pontos mxareni da kesaria mose xorenels miaCnia somexTa mefis samflobelos nawilad, am mefis `Tavis samflobelod~, sadac mniSvnelovani cixe-qalaqi maJaqi droebiT omianobis gamo saganmgeblod gadasca somxeTis mxedarTmTavars, qarTvelTa mTavars mirdat III-s, xolo mirdat IV-s ukve aRar gadasca. Cans, mose xorenelma icis, rom pontos mxareebi, kesaria-kabadokia qarTvelebiTaa dasaxlebuli, magram mainc es mxare qarTvelTa mefis `sakuTar~ qveynad ar miaCnia, aramed somxebis teritoriad, xolo qarTvelebis mkvidr sacxovrisad miaCnia somxeTis CrdiloeTiT mdebare teritoria pontos zRvidan, anu kavkasiis SavizRvispireTidan albaneT-somxeTamde. mose xorenelis mihrdat III-is da miTridate pontos mefis cxovreba marTlac hgavs erTmaneTs. oriveni tigranis mokavSireni arian, oriveni pontos floben, sicocxles mowamvliT asruleben, amitomac SeiZleba miTridates legenda mose xorenelma qarTvelTa mTavarze gaavrcela, miT umetes, rom rogorc ponto-kapadokia, ise somxeTis CrdiloeTiT mdebare qarTli _ qarTvelebis qveynebi iyo. magram miuxedavad amisa, rogorc aRvniSneT, mose xorenelma dabejiTebiT icis, rom qarTvelebis `sakuTari~ sacxovrisi qveyana aris ara pontos mxareebi, e.i. somxeTis dasavleTiT mdebare qveyana, aramed somxeTis CrdiloeTiT mdebare qveyana pontos zRvidan gugarqis CaTvliT. am istorikosis mixedviT, swored aq, pontos zRvispirze, kavkasiaSi daasaxla nabuqodonosorma datyvevebuli qarTveli-iverielebi, pontos zRvis aRmosavleTiT (e.i. istoriul kolxeTSi) da ara pontos mxareebSi (e.i. ponto-kesaria-kapadokiaSi). mose xoreneli pontos zRvis aRmosavleTiT, CrdiloeTis mTebTan mimdebare qveyanas (kolxeTs) qarTvelTa Tavdapirvel sacxovriss uwodebs da ganasxvavebs pontos mxareebisgan. mose xoreneli wers: `...xolo kavkasiis mTis mopirdapire mxares, CrdiloeTis ganmgeblad daadgina didi da Zlevamosili gvari, romlis ufalT gugarelTa pitiaxSebi daerqvaT. isini iyvnen STamomavalni darehis naxararis mihrdatisa, romel-

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ic wamoiyvana aleqsandrem da mTavrad dausva nabuqodonosoris mier tyved moyvanil iverielTa modgmas, amis Sesaxeb abidenosi ambobs: `Zlevamosilma nabuqodonosorma, romelic herakleze ufro Ronieri iyo, Sehyara jari da miaRwia libielTa, agreTve iverielTa qveynebs, Semusra da daimorCila isini. maTi erTi nawili wamoasxa iqidan da pontos zRvis marjvena mxares daasaxla. iveria qveynierebis dasavleT sazRvarze mdebareobs~.225 aqedan Cans, rom mose xorenels iverielTa sacxovrisad miaCnia qveyana kavkasiis mTis wina mxares, pontos zRvidan gugarqis CaTvliT, CrdiloeTis teritoriebi, es aris istoriuli iberia-qarTli SavizRvispireTidan albaneT-somxeTamde. pontos zRvis aRmosavleTi, kavkasiis SavizRvispireTi qarTvelTa qveynad rom miaCnia mose xorenels, es misi istoriis sxva qveTavidanac Cans: _ `artaSesma Tavisi asuli artaSama miaTxova vinme mihrdats, qarTvelTa did pitiaxSs, romelic rogorc zemoT iTqva, aleqsandrem iverielTa qveynidan moyvanil tyveebis xelisuflad daadgina. somexTa mefem mihrdats miando CrdiloeTis mTebisa da pontos zRvis ganmgebloba~.226 `CrdiloeTis mTebi da pontos zRva~ _ es aris teritoria kavkasiis SavizRvispireTidan _ kolxeTidan _ vidre gugarqis CaTvliT _ istoriuli iberia-qarTli. sul sxvaa `pontos mxareebi~, sadac gaiqca damarcxebuli mirdat III. es aris kesaria-kabadokia. pontos mxareebis meTvalyureoba cixe-qalaq maJaqTan erTad CrdiloeTis mTebisa da pontos zRvis gamgebel mirdat III-s miando misma colisZmam, somxeTis mefe tigranma, droebiT, omianobis gamo. cnoba kavkasiis Savi zRvis piras iberebis dasaxlebis Sesaxeb mose xorenels auRia antikuri avtorebisgan _ `movsess es cnoba amouRia evsevi kesarielis `qronikis~ Zveli somxuri Targmanidan, evsevi kesariels, Tavis mxriv, Semounaxavs megasTenes cnoba. antikur samyaroSi farTod yofila gavrcelebuli azri imis Sesaxeb, rom aRmosavleTis (kavkasiis) iberebi dasavleTis iberiidan (espaneTidan) gadmosaxldnen~.227 am SeniSvnidanac Cans, rom pontos zRvis piras mcxovrebi iberebi cxovroben kavkasiaSi _ kolxeTSi, anu kavkasiis SavizRvispireTSi da ara pontos mxareebSi, anu somxeTis dasavleTiT. qarTvelebis sacxovrisis sakiTxSi mose xorenels eTanxmeba meore somexi istorikosi _ uxtanesi. isic Savi zRvis piras mcxovreb xalxs qarTvelebs (vracebs) uwodebs, xolo TviT qveyanas _ afxazeTs. rogorc vTqviT, mose xoreneli qarTvelebis Tavdapirvel samSoblod asaxelebs kolxeTs. da qarTvelebis sacxovriss gansazRvravs kavkasiis SavizRvispireTidan gugarqis CaTvliT. ismis kiTxva, ratom gansazRvra man dasavleT saqarTvelo vracebis sacxovrisad, iq xom ara vracebi, aramed megrelebi saxloben (Cveni Tanamedrove istorikosebis gansazRvriT)? am

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kiTxvas amJamindeli istorikosebi upasuxeben, rom mose xorenelma aseTi cnoba (dasavleT saqarTveloSi, zRvis piras qarTvelebis cxovrebis Sesaxeb) aiRo sxva berZen-romaeli avtorebisgan, magram mose xoreneli kargad icnobda qarTul samyaros, icnobda saqarTvelos, icoda misi miTologia da religia, da nuTu saqarTvelos aseTma mcodne kacma ar icoda qarTvelebis samSoblos sazRvrebi? anda momTxovni da kritikulad moazrovne sxva somexi istorikosebi misi droisa da Semdgomi Taobisa, romelnic aseve kargad icnobdnen saqarTvelos, qarTvel xalxs, apatiebdnen xorenels aseT ucodinarobas? mose xoreneli qarTvelebad miiCnevs rogorc megrelebs, aseve gugarqis mosaxleobas _ gugarelebs, rogorc dasavleT saqarTvelos, aseve aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ukiduresi aRmosavleTi nawilis mosaxleobas. unda davaskvnaT, rom mose xoreneli, Zveli qarTveli da antikuri epoqis berZen-romaeli istorikosebis msgavsad, qarTvelTa sacxovriss gansazRvravs istoriul qarTlSi _ iberiaSi, romlis politikuri sazRvrebi gadioda Sav zRvasa da hereTze. is kolxebs, megrelebs erovnebiT qarTvelebad miiCnevs, msgavsad uxtanesisa. uxtanesi pontos, anu SavizRvispira qveyanas afxazeTs uwodebs, xolo afxazeTis mcxovrebT _ qarTvelebs. uxtanesis mixedviT, vracebi anu qarTvelebi Tavdapirvelad dausaxlebiaT Savi zRvis sanapiroze, Semdgom qarTveli xalxi gamravlebula mTels SavizRvispireTSi, modebia mTel im mxares, aRorZinebula, gavrcelebula da dasaxlebula aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, kerZod, somexTa da albanTa sazRvramde. is wers: `xolo pontos napirze rom dabanakda, is tomi aRorZinda, gamravlda zRvis piras aqeT-iqiT, moedo im mxares da gavrcelda somexTa da albanTa sazRvramde. Seiqmna friad mravali xalxi da im qveyanas afxazeTi ewodeba...~228 sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom afxazeTi upirveles yovlisa dasavleT saqarTvelos ewodeba, e.i. uxtanesi qarTvelebs dasavleT saqarTveloSi mcxovrebadac miiCnevs, magram istorikosi ..afxazeTs~ uwodebs ara mxolod dasavleT saqarTvelos, aramed mTlian saqarTvelos, istoriul `qarTls~, iberias _ pontos zRvidan vidre albaneT-somxeTamde. Tbilissac afxazeTis qalaqad miiCnevs da CamoTvlis kidec Tbilisis garSemo mdebare provinciebs _ `wanareTi, javaxeTi, TrialeTi~. es provinciebic `afxazeTSi~ Sedian. afxazeTis mosaxleobas ki uxtanesi uwodebs ara `afxazebs~ anda `megrelebs~, aramed vracebs _ qarTvelebs _ `iTesles da gamravldnen da gaxda tomi, romelsac Tavis pirvel qveyanaSi iverias uwodebdnen, aq ki qarTvelni ewodebaT~. uxtanesis mixedviT, mTliani saqarTvelos mosaxleobas Savi zRvidan vidre albaneT-somxeTamde Seadgenen qarTvelebi. igi megrelebsac qarTvelebad miiCnevs. erovnulad megrelebi qarTvelebi arian, Tumca, SeiZleba maT satomo saxelic hqondeT. uxtanesi wers, rom ara marto mis dros cxovrobs

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qarTveli xalxi SavizRvispireTidan somxeT-albaneTis sazRvramde, aramed Zvel drosac, jer kidev qristemde, aseve yofila. vracebi qristemde VI saukuneSi dausaxlebiaT SavizRvispireTSi, Semdeg gamravlebulan da somxeT-albaneTamde miuRweviaT. qarTvelebis qveyanas Savi zRvidan albaneTamde afxazeTi hqvia. mose xoreneli, rogorc aRniSnuli gvqonda, aseve miiCnevs: `kavkasiis mTis win mdebare CrdiloeTis mxareTmpyrobelad awesebs didsa da Zlier toms...~ mose xoreneli gulisxmobs qarTvel xalxs, romelTa mTavars aqvs wodeba `gugarelTa pitiaxSisa~, xolo es qarTvelebi anu iverielebi kavkasiis mTis win CrdiloeTSi gaCenilan imis gamo, rom jer SavizRvispireTSi dasaxlebulan, xolo Semdgom gamravlebulan `pontos zRvis marjvena napiridan~ aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT albaneTis sazRvramde. uxtanesis TvalsazrisiT, dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas ara marto mis epoqaSi, e.i. X saukuneSi, ewodeboda qarTvelebi, aramed kirionis drosac, e.i. VI saukunis bolosa da VII-is dasawyisSi. is wers, rom `maTi qveyana gayofili iyo sparselTa da berZenTa mxared~229 da amis gamo maTi saeklesio politika sparsulic iyo da imavdroulad berZnulico. marTlac, kirionis epoqaSi dasavleT saqarTvelo berZnebis, xolo aRmosavleTi sparselebis gavlenis sferoebs warmoadgendnen. miuxedavad amisa, am politikurad gayofil mxareebSi erTi eri, erTi xalxi cxovrobs, romelsac erTi eklesia aqvs da saeklesio da erovnuli politikac Sesabamisi aqvso. qarTvelTa qveyana erTia, romelic or mxared iyo gayofili dampyrobelTa mier. unda davaskvnaT, rom Zveli somexi istorikosebi, ise rogorc berZen-romaeli da qarTveli istorikosebi qarTvelebs anu iberebs uwodebdnen rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas X-XI saukuneebze bevrad ufro adre.

`qarTlis cxovrebis~ simarTle


`qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tvalsazriss, rom erTiani qarTveli xalxi (`qarTvelni~, `naTesaviT qarTvelni~) arsebobda qristemde III saukuneSi, iberiis saxelmwifos Seqmnis dros, arapirdapir, magram mainc amtkiceben XIX-XX saukunis istorikosTa gamokvlevebi. mkvlevarTa mtkicebiT, qarTvelni anu iberni ewodeboda ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos centraluri nawilis mosaxleobas, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ukiduresi aRmosavleTis mosaxleobasac, magaliTad, cnobili mecnieri ioseb yifSiZe iveriul enas megrul enas, xolo megrelebs iverielebs uwodebs. aseTive dasaTaureba aqvs mis wignsac `gramatika megruli (iveriuli) enisa~. niko marsac miaCnda, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi iberielni cxovrobdnen da swored megrelebs ewodebodaT iberni. `...n.

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mari amtkicebda, rom iberiad unda aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo ki ar vigulisxmoT, rogorc Cveulebriv miRebuli iyo, aramed dasavleTi saqarTvelo, saxeldobr, samegrelo da megrelebi...~230 mas miaCnda, rom `am megrelTa tomis saxeli berZnebma aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTvelebsac uwodes~.231 sxva azri aqvs gamoTqmuli s. kakabaZes. misi azriT, `is tomi, romelsac berZnebi da romaelebi uwodebdnen iberielebs, qarTuli gamoTqmiT iwodeba herebad~.232 `zemoTmoyvanili amonawerebidan irkveva, rom Tu prof. n. marma iberni `megrelebad~... aqcia, s. kakabaZem igive iberni `herebad~... gaxada~.233 k. kekeliZe, Cans, aerTianebs am or Tvalsazriss iberiis sazRvrebis Sesaxeb. strabonis cnobis moyvanis Semdgom, k. kekeliZe s. kakabaZis azrs imeorebs, rom SesaZlebelia iberebis aRmosavleTSi gadmonacvleba II s-is gasuls momxdariyo~, `SeuqmniaT sakmaod Zlieri samefo, romelsac klasikuri mwerlebi iberias uwodebdnen, somxebi ki virqs, rac igive iberiaa~, `qarTveluri saxeli am samefoisa unda iyos hereTi~.234 Cans, k. kekeliZe eTanxmeba berZenromael istorikosTa cnobebs, rom iberebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi mosaxleoben, magram miaCnia, rom dasavleT saqarTvelodan es iberebi aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi gadmosaxlebulan II saukunis Semdeg. iv. javaxiSvili ar amtkicebs, rom II saukunemde dasavleT saqarTvelos iberia ar ewodeboda, magram miaCnia, rom strabonis Semdgom iberia aRmosavleT saqarTvelos saxelia _ `strabonis droidan moyolebuli mainc yvela berZeni da romaeli mwerlebis cnobebis wyalobiT sruli ueWvelobiT irkveva, rom iberia aRmosavleT saqarTvelos saxeli iyo...~235 oTx gamoCenil mecniers iberiisa da qarTvelTa Sesaxeb erTmaneTisagan mkveTrad gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisi aqvT. n. mari Tvlida, rom iberia _ samegreloa, kakabaZis mixedviT, iberia _ hereTia, iv. javaxiSvilis mixedviT, iberia _ aRmosavleTi saqarTveloa, k. kekeliZis mixedviT ki, iberia aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Crdilo nawilia _ hereTTan erTad, xolo `qarTli~ ki Tbilisis samxreTiT mdebare nawils ewodeboda. am oTxi mecnieris Tvalsazriss aerTianebs `qarTlis cxovreba~, romlis mixedviTac, iberia anu qarTli ewodeboda rogorc dasavleT saqarTvelos, ise aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, xolo `qarTvelni~ ewodebaT rogorc megrelebs, aseve qarTebs. qarTveli eri erTiania, qarTvelTa samSoblos qarTli anu iberia hqvia, romelzedac Tavis iurisdiqcias axorcielebs qarTuli eklesia warmoqmnis droidan. qarTlis samefos saxelmwifo sazRvari dasavleTSi gadis mdinare egriswyalze da Sav zRvaze, xolo aRmosavleTSi albaneTTan. Tanamedrove mecnierTa gamokvlevebma Tumca arapirdapir, magram mainc daadastures `qarTlis cxovrebis~ uZvelesi cnoba, rom qarTli VIII saukunemdec ewodeboda saqarTvelos daaxloebiT dRevandel sazRvrebSi, xolo qarTvelni erTian qarTvel ers, ueWvelad megrelebis CaTvliT.

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amas adasturebs berZen-romael-somex istorikosTa monacemebi, ris mixedviTac iberia dasavleT saqarTvelos ewodeboda. magram Cven viciT, rom iberia ewodeba aRmosavleT saqarTvelosac. rCeba erTi daskvna _ iberia ewodeba ara marto aRmosavleT, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelosac, iberielni cxovroben ara marto dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed aRmosavleT saqarTveloSic, radganac qarTveli (iberi) eri eTnikurad erTiania. qarTveli eri qristianobamde kulturuladac rom erTiani yofila, es gamorkveuli aqvs ivane javaxiSvils. is qristianobamdel megrelebs, svanebs, Wanebs, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobasTan erTad qarTvelebs uwodebda. ivane javaxiSvili darwmunebuli iyo, rom jer kidev qristianobamde qarTveli eri rogorc eTnikurad, aseve kulturulad erTiani eri iyo. is werda: `akad. n. mari misayvedurebs, rom megrelebs, svanebs da afxazebs me qarTvelebs vuwodeb da pontosa da frigiis erebi TiTqos qarTvelebadac ki miqcevia. afxazebs me qarTvelTa monaTesaved vTvli, magram qarTvelebs ar vuwodeb. rac Seexeba megrelebsa da svanebs da davumateb Wanebsac, maT marTlac qarTvel tomebad vTvli da vuwodeb...~236 `qarTvel ers Tavisi mravalsaukunovani saxelmwifoebrivi da samwerlo enac hqonda da abadia exlac, romelic, rogorc es TviT akad. n. marsac kargad moexseneba da TviTonac ara erTxel daudasturebia, megrelebisa da svanebisaTvisac erTaderTi samwerlobo da kulturis ena iyo da aris exlac, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSic megrelebsa da svanebsac TavianTi wvlili aqvT Setanili~.237 `qarTuli ena qarTlel-kaxel-imerel-gurulebisa da megrel-svanebisTvis saerTo enaa, magram igi, rogorc winaT egonaT, TiTqos qristianobis xanisa da garkveuli saxelmwifoebriobis Semoqmedebis nayofia. arsebobda ki, .qristianobis winaT aseTi saerTo niadagi qarTveli eris saerTo warmarTuli sarwmunoebrivi SemoqmedebisaTvis, iyo Tu ara aseTi saerTo Semoqmedeba, erTi sityviT, arsebobda Tu ara yvela qarTvel tomTaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvisac saerTo qarTuli warmarToba?~238 iv. javaxiSvilma gamoikvlia, rom jer kidev qristianobamde erTian qarTvel ers, megrel-svanebis CaTvliT, hqonia ara marto eTnikuri erToba, aramed hqonia saerTo qarTuli warmarTuli sarwmunoeba da, rac mTavaria, saerTo saxelmwifo ena da kultmsaxurebis enac saerTo yofila qarTuli ena. jer kidev qristianobamde qarTveli eri kulturul sarwmunoebrivadac erTiani yofila. es daskvnac savsebiT eTanxmeba `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesabamis monacemebs da adasturebs `qarTlis cxovrebis~ simarTles. iv. javaxiSvili wers `aramc Tu sazogado qarTuli, yvela qarTvel tomTaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvisac, saerTo warmarToba arsebobda, aramed rom am warmarTobas saerTo terminologiac, saerTo enac qarTuli hqonia~.239

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cxadia, Tuki warmarTobis dros megrelebisa da svanebis kultmsaxurebis ena qarTuli iyo, qristianobis miRebis Semdegac qarTuli iqneboda wirvalocvis ena. iv. javaxiSvils gamorkveuli aqvs, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo IV saukuneSi gaqristianebula aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTan erTad. aqedan Cans, rom ukve IV saukunedan qristianuli wirva-locvis ena samegrelosa da svaneTSi aris qarTuli ena (qristianuli mrevlisaTvis). `gelasi kYzikelis danarTi cnoba, rom iberebma da lazebma erTsa da imave dros miiRes qristianoba, arsebiTad swori gamodis im mxriv, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSic IV saukunis damdegidan qristianobas gza gakvleuli unda hqonoda~,240 iv. javaxiSvilis gamokvlevas, rom dasavleT saqarTvelom IV saukuneSi miiRo qristianoba, amtkicebs arqeologiuri kvleva-Zieba, kerZod, cixe-gojis gaTxrebi, sadac aRmoCenil iqna IV saukunis saeklesio nagebobani, ramac saSualeba misca mkvlevarebs gaekeTebinaT daskvna, rom dasavleTi saqarTvelo gaqristianda ara VI saukuneSi, aramed bevrad ufro adre.241 iv. javaxiSvilis Tvalsazrisi dasavleT saqarTvelos gaqristianebis Sesaxeb eTanxmeba `qarTlis cxovrebis~ monacemebs, rom wmida ninos dros mirian mefem qristianoba saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad gamoacxada mTel qarTlSi da ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. qarTli am dros iwyeboda mdinare egriswylidan da Savi zRvidan da vrceldeboda albaneTamde. amitomac eklesia wmida ninos miiCnevs ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ganmanaTleblad, aramed mTeli qarTveli eris, e. i. megrelebisa da svanebis ganmanaTlebladac. rogorc andria pirvelwodebuli ara marto megrelebisa da mesxebis ganmanaTlebelia, romelTa Sorisac is moRvaweobda, aramed mTeli qarTveli erisa, radganac rogorc andria mociqulis, aseve wmida ninos dros erTiani qarTveli eri ukve Camoyalibebuli iyo, hqonda erTiani saxelmwifo da kultmsaxurebis ena. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ simarTles, rom wmida nino mTeli qarTveli eris ganmanaTlebelia, dabejiTebiT adasturebs berZen-romael istorikosTa mtkicebani, rom wmida nino ganmanaTlebelia pirvel yovlisa dasavleT saqarTvelosi da mTeli iberiisa, romlis nawilic iyo dasavleT saqarTvelo. es istorikosebi TiTqmis Tanamedroveni iyvnen wmida ninosi, misgan 50-100 wliT daSorebulni, romelTac wmida ninosa da iberiis Sesaxeb sando wyaroebi hqondaT. berZnul-laTinur `iberias~ Zvel qarTul istoriul geografiaSi farnvazidan VIII saukunis Sua wlebamde Seesabameboda termini `qarTli~ da is aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erTobliobas aRniSnavda. amitomac `qarTlis cxovreba~ Tu `qarTlis moqceva~ gamoxatavda ara sakuTriv qarTlis mdgomareobas, aramed erTiani saqarTvelosas, maT Soris egrisisac.

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amJamad miRebulia Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac ar arsebobda saerTo ena, romelzedac laparakobdnen aRmosavleT saqarTvelosa da dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTvelebi. `...Zvel saqarTveloSi, Tu aviRebT qveyanas mTlianad, ver Seiqmna verc koine da verc lingva franka erTic da meorec qarTlSi arsebobda. dasavlur qarTulma tomebma Zveli qarTuli samwerlobo eniT sargebloba ganviTarebuli Suasaukuneebidan daiwyes~.242 iv. javaxiSvili sruliad gansxvavebuli azrisaa amis Sesaxeb. misi azriT, rogorc qarTebi, aseve megrelebi da svanebi jer kidev qristianobis damkvidrebamde sakulto wesebsa da Cveulebebs aRasrulebdnen saerTo enaze da es iyo qarTuli ena. is werda: `cxadi gaxdeba, rom aramcTu sazogado qarTuli, yvela qarTvel tomTaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvisac saerTo warmarToba arsebobda, aramed rom am warmarTobas saerTo terminologiac, saerTo enac qarTuli hqonia~. aqedan Cans, rom Tu yvela qarTvel toms rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTveloSi saerTo ena hqonda, es ena koine ena iyo. SeuZlebelia dasavlur qarTvel tomebs ar scodnodaT qarTuli ena, im mizezis gamo, rom rogorc axali arqeologiuri Zieba adasturebs, dasavleT saqarTvelos didi nawili uZveles dros swored qarTulenovani tomebiT yofila dasaxlebuli. o. lorTqifaniZe wers: `amrigad, mesxuri, e.i. qarTis enovani (da dRevandeli imerlebisa da gurulebis) winapari tomebis damkvidreba dRevandel dasavleT saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze Zv.w.aR-is III-II saukuneebidan maincaa savaraudebeli~.243 rogorc mravalgzis aRiniSna, straboni dasavleT saqarTvelos ukidures, TiTqmis zRvispira mxares rionis dablobis nawils `mosxTa .qveyanas~ uwodebs. Zveli istorikosebi lazebs (megrelebs) iberebs uwodebdnen. sokrate wers: `iberni pontos zRvasTan binadroben~, rufinusi wers: `iberTa naTesavi, romelic pontos areSi binadrobs~, evagre pontoeli, Tumca, dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispira qalaqSi daibada, mas mainc iberiels uwodeben. zRvispireTSi mcxovreb egrisis mosaxleobas (megrelebs) uwodebdnen iberebs, cxadia, aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mcxovreb iberebTan erTad. mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas iberebs uwodebdnen, Tumca maT satomo saxelebic _ `lazebi~ an `svanebi~ hqondaT. strabonma icis, rom `svanebi~ aris kerZo satomo saxeli. zogadad svanebi iberebi arian, straboni svanebis Sesaxeb wers: `zogierTebi maT iberebs uwodeben~.244 mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas, maT Soris lazebsa da svanebsac, iberebs anu qarTvelebs uwodebdnen jer kidev CvenSi qristianobis damkvidrebamde. bunebrivia, am erTian xalxs _ iberielebs _ saerTo enac hqondaT, risi niSnebi aRmoaCina kidec ivane javaxiSvilma.

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`qarTlis cxovreba~, `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~, yvela ZvelqarTuli qronika Tu sabuTi dabejiTebiT miuTiTebs, rom vrcel teritorias SavizRvispireTis mdinare egriswylidan vidre albaneTis sazRvramde ewodeboda qarTli anu iberia, xolo mis mosaxleobas ganurCevlad tomobrivi kuTvnilebisa, kaxeli iqneboda is Tu klarji, megreli Tu svani, ewodeboda qarTveli, rom qarTuli ena am qveyanaSi erTaderT saerTo-koine enad daakanona mefe farnavaz I-ma. SemorCenilia xalxuri gadmocemebic ki saerTo qarTuli koine enis arsebobis Sesaxeb. ai, kerZod, ra weria amis Sesaxeb wignSi `osmaleTis yof. saqarTvelos da qarTvel mahmadianTa nawili lazistani~. liganis murRulis xeobaSi da sxvaganac, qarTvel mahmadianTa Soris lazebze daSTenilia bevrnairi gardamocemani... naambobia TviT lazel moxucebul xojiebisagan 1895 wels... lazebi, Wanebi da megrelebi erTni vyofilvarT... samiv am saxelwodebis xalxis ena yofila erTi _ lazuri, anu megruli, romeli enac maSin gavrcelebuli iyo mTel Savi zRvis napirebzed. es ena lazebs garda Turme qarTvelebsac kargad esmodaT. yoveli lazi Tavisuflad elaparakeboda imerels, qarTvels da sxvebsac, radganac amaTac esmodaT Turme maSin Cveni ena, amisTvis Zveli kacebi ityodnen Semdegs. `...lazuri ena qarTvelebsac kargad esmodaT. lazebmac icodnen qarTuli da ZvelaT Turme am oriv xalxSi TiTqmis yvela sityvebi erTnairad ixmareboda, imitom esmodaT yvelaferi erTmaneTis...~245 `ZvelaT yvelam icoda zepir, rom lazi, Wani, megreli da qarTveli erTi Zmebi arian, erTi dedmamisSvilni da erTi enis xalxio. dRes ase aRar gaxlavT~.246 `aris aseTi istoriuli gadmocemac: lazel-Wanel-megrelebi scxovrobdnen Savi zRvis napiras mdebare qalaqebSi da soflebSi. JamTa viTarebis wyalobiT lazeb-Waneb-megrelebs daaviwydaT qarTuli enis xmareba da igini gadasxvaferdnen qarTulis enisagan~.247 ras miuTiTebs asi wlis win Cawerili Tqmulebebi, Tu ara imas, rom xalxis xsovnaSi darCenila mogoneba Zvel dros arsebuli koine enis Sesaxeb. Zalze sayuradRebo aRsaniSnavi faqtia is, rom Tanamedrove mecnieruli kvleva-Zieba amzeurebs saerToqarTuli koine enis arsebobis damadasturebel axal masalebs. am mxriv sainteresoa mkvlevar z. Tandilavas aRmoCenebi lazur teqstebze muSaobisas. jer kidev ivane javaxiSvili werda, rom arsebobda saerTo qarTuli warmarTuli sarwmunoeba, romlis kultmsaxureba aResruleboda saerTo qarTul enaze, amJamad ki aRmoCnda, rom kultmsaxurebisaTvis saerTo teqstis poeturi sazomi iyo cxramarcvlianoba. es metruli sistema saerTo iyo rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTvelosaTvis. daviT gogoWuri wers: `...gaanalizebuli masalebis mixedviT dgindeba, rom mTiblurebSi... SeniSnuli cxramarcvlianoba... uZvelesi qarTuli miTologiuri teqstebis sazomia da rogorc metruli sistema

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mTel warmarTul-sakulto Janrebs moicavs... xelTa gvaqvs qristianobamdeli qarTuli leqsis uZvelesi sazomi, romelic moicavs mTel sasuliero, warmarTul-ritualur teqstebs, sayuradReboa, rom am bolo xans Cvengan damoukideblad egeve sazomi lazur saritualo teqstebSic daadgina mkvlevarma z. Tandilavam~.248 axladaRmoCenili masalebi mkvlevarebs saSualebas aZlevs ilaparakon `saerTo koine enis~ Sesaxeb. xalxuri poeziis kvlevisas aRmoCnda, rom es poezia efuZneba ara dialeqtebs, rogorc aqamde iyo aRiarebuli, aramed saerTo qarTul koine enaze aris Seqmnili. amis Sesaxeb mkvlevari avTandil arabuli wers: `saqme is aris, rom xalxur poeziaSi dialeqtebis sxvaoba mkveTrad aris nivelirebuli, xalxuri leqsebis enobrivi safuZveli dialeqti ar aris ...xalxuri poezia ueWveli sabuTia imisa, rom istoriulad Camoyalibebula saerTo xalxuri poeturi ena, romelic, marTalia, detalebs adgilobrivi kuTxuri metyvelebidan Tamamad iRebs, roca amis aucileblobaa, magram poeturi saTqmelis mTlian arqiteqturas xsenebuli saerTo koine-eniT qmnis~.249 xalxur poezias CvenTvis Semounaxavs saerTo qarTuli koine enis arsebobis damadasturebeli niSnebi. am mxriv, saerTo qarTuli koine enis arsebobis mtkicebis uflebas gvaZlevs megruli saweso simRera `mze Sinao~. ivane javaxiSvili brZanebda, rom Zvelad samegreloSi axalwlis Sexvedris saweso rituali aResruleboda qarTul enaze, `mzeSinaos~ saweso simRera samegreloSi aResruleboda ara megrul, aramed qarTul enaze. es simRera samegreloSi Sesulia ara aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan, aramed mas megrul musikalur folklorSive moeZebneba ganviTarebuli variantebi, amitomac es uZvelesi megruli simRera, ufro zustad `saerTo-koine~, saerTo qarTuli, warmarTobisdroindeli simReraa. `mze Sinaos~ megruli musikaluri varianti mniSvnelovania im mxriv, rom igi saerTod dRemde cnobili `mze Sinaos~ musikaluri teqstebis yvelaze uZvelesi nimuSia. rac, Tavis mxriv, megrul musikalur folklorSi am simReris xnierebaze miuTiTebs. megruli `mze Sinao~ qarTuli xalxuri simRerebis intonaciur-harmoniuli ganviTarebis erT-erTi uZvelesi safexuris amsaxvelia~.250 rogorc aRvniSneT, megruli `mze Sinao~ qarTul enaze sruldeba. simReris Camweri wers _ `megruli `mze Sinao~ qarTul enaze sruldeba: `mze Sinao, mze Sinao, mze Sin Semodio~. misi varianti, romelic samegreloSi CavwereT, Semdegia, `mze Sina da mze Sinao, mzev Sin Semodio, mzevSi mama Sin ar iyo, mzev Sin Semodio, sanadirod wasula da irems mosWris Tavsao~. megrul enaze `mze Sinaos~ teqsts dResdReobiT ver mivakvlieT. mTxrobelTa miTiTebiT, `mze Sinao~ samegreloSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan aris gavrcelebuli~.251 es rom ase ar aris da `mze Sinao~ samegreloSi aRmosav-

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leT saqarTvelodan ar aris gavrcelebuli, imave mTxroblebis aRniSvnidanac Cans: `am simReras ukanasknel xans asrulebdnen religiur dResaswaulebSi ferxulis saxiT~. es ki mkvlevars afiqrebinebs, rom `mze Sina da mze gareTas~ sagalobeli, romelic mzis kults ukavSirdeba, Tavdapirvelad axaldabadebulis mimarT wriuli ferxulis saxiT sruldeboda~.252 Tuki es simRera mzis kultisadmi, anu warmarTuli, qristianobamdeli RvTaebisadmia miZRvnili, rogorRa SeuZlia Tanamedrove mTxrobels gansazRvros, qristianobamde es simRera samegreloSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan Sevida, Tu adgilobrivi, saerTo qarTuli simRera iyo? amitomac mTxrobelis azrs, rom es simRera samegreloSi garedan aris Sesuli, yuradReba ar unda mieqces, miT umetes, rom megruli `mzeSinao~ safuZvlad dasdebia sxva kuTxeTa amave simRerebs. mkvlevari wers: `megruli `mze Sinaos~ musikaluri teqsti Zalze axlos dgas gurul `mze Sina da mze garesTan~.253 es ukanaskneli megrulis ganviTarebuli variantia. es simRera warmarTobis dros samegreloSi qarTul enaze aResruleboda. ivane javaxiSvilis daskvniT, warmarTobis dros samegrelosa da svaneTSi kultmsaxureba da saweso ritualebi saerTo qarTul enaze aResruleboda. qarTuli saerTo koine enis arsebobis faqti dRemde Semounaxavs xalxur poeziasa da uZveles simRerebs.

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Tavi III qarTuli eklesia IV saukuneSi

` a m C v e n s , R v T i s m S o b l i s wi l a d x d o m i l s qveyanas RvTismSoblisave locviT da k u r T x e v i T m o e v l i n a z e ga r d m o S T a go n e b u l i wm i d a q a lwu l i ... m o gv e v l i n a wm i d a n i n o , gv a m c n o d a gv a swa v a q r i s t e s r j u l i ... qarTvelma am rjuls, am axals aRTqmas S e u e r T a Z v e l i s a ga n y o v e l i v e i s , r a c k i r a m Z v i r f a s i a a d a m i a n i s a T v i s ... S e u e r T a m a m u l i d a e r o v n e b a . e s s a m i e r T m a n e T i s R i r s i s a ga n i i s e C a iw n e n , i s e C a i q s o v n e n e r T m a n e TS i , r o m r j u l i s d a c v a s a q a r T v e l o s m iwa -wy l i s d a c v a d ga r d i q m n a~.
ilia marTali

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saqarTvelo IV saukuneSi
saqarTvelo I-II saukuneebSi, rogorc cnobilia, Zlieri saxelmwifo iyo, romelic amierkavkasiasa da mezobel mxareebSi politikur hegemonobas lamobda. qveynis gareT omebSi gamarjvebebma SesaZlebeli gaxada simdidris dagroveba. saqarTvelo ekonomiurad mowinave qveyana gaxda, xelosnobam, vaWrobam da saqalaqo cxovrebam maRal dones miaRwia. III saukuneSi saqarTvelos garemocva mniSvnelovnad Seicvala. umTavresi iyo parTiis susti samefos nangrevebze sasanidebis Zlieri saxelmwifos warmoqmna. aqamde Cveni qveynis mezobeli parTia SedarebiT sust, faqtobrivad, naxevraddamoukidebeli saxelmwifoebis gaerTianebas warmoadgenda. aq, 224-226 wlebSi, didi cvlilebebi moxda. `Zveli arSakidebis dinastia daemxo da misi adgili axalma, sasanidebis sparsulma sagvareulom daiWira. sasanidebma aRadgines Zveli sparsuli sarwmunoeba, mazdeanoba da yovelnairad cdilobdnen am sarwmunoebis gavrcelebas~.1 `...moxda iranul enebze molaparake xalxebisa da tomebis konsolidacia. didad gaizarda iranis samxedro Zliereba. amis Sedegad ZalTa Tanafardoba maxlobel aRmosavleTSi arsebiTad Seicvala. sasaniduri irani Setevaze gadavida Tavisi ZvelisZveli mtris, romis winaaRmdeg da did warmatebebsac miaRwia. pirvelive sasanidma, ardaSirma (224-241) midiis, sakastanisa da xorasnis Semdeg atropatena dai pyro da somxeTs Seutia, xelT igdo mesopotamia da alya Semoartya nizibins. kidev ufro didi warmatebebi moipoves iranelebma Sabur I-is (241-272) dros. 260 wels maT daatyveves imperatori publius licinius valeriane. iranelebma aiRes da aaoxres imperiis aRmosavleTis umdidresi provinciebi da qalaqebi _ antioqia, tarsi, kesaria~.2 Sabur I-is warweridan Cans, rom misi Tanamedrove qarTvelTa mefe amazaspi sparsul orientacias daadga. iransa da iberias Soris arsebul megobrul urTierTobaze unda miuTiTebdes mcxeTaSi napovni vercxlis Tasis warwera. `mosazreba amazaspis iranuli orientaciis Sesaxeb Zveli qarTuli wyaroebiTac dasturdeba. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT amazaspma `Seiyuarna sparsni~.3 Tavisi mefobis dasasruls, amave wyaros mixedviT, amazaspi qarTvelTa da maT dasaxmareblad moxmobil sparselTa laSqriT ebrZvis berZnebs (e. i. romaelT) ... momxdar brZolaSi `sparselebi da qarTvelebi~ damarcxdnen da TviT amazaspic daiRupa~.4

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marTlac, iranelTa Seteva romaelebma SeaCeres 80-ian wlebSi da imperatorma karma (282-283) dalaSqra irani. 283 wels iransa da roms Soris daido sazavo xelSekruleba, romlis Tanaxmad sparseTma dakarga somxeTis didi nawili. 287 wels romaelma imperatorma diokletianem somxeTis taxtze aiyvana Trdati (287-330). adre iranelebma moakvlevines Trdatis mama xosrovi da Trdati romSi iyo ltolvili. `296 wels Sahi nersehi SeiWra romis samflobeloebSi, maT Soris somxeTSic. Tavdapirvelad iranelebma mniSvnelovan gamarjvebas miaRwies keisar galerius maqsimianeze. am ukanasknelis dasaxmareblad mesopotamiaSi imperatori dioklitiane mivida: TviT galeriusi 25 000-iani jariT somxeTSi Sevida da sastikad daamarcxa iranelebi. daWrili nersehi gaWirvebiT gadarCa tyveobas~.5 298 wels daido nizibinis 40-wliani zavi. nizibinSi (mesopotamia) dadebuli sazavo xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelo Sevida romis gavlenis sferoSi, romis proteqtoratis qveS, aseve somxeTic. sparseTma 40 wlis vadiT scno romis upiratesoba saqarTvelosa da somxeTze, marTlac, 338 wlamde romsa da irans Soris zavi ar darRveula. 298-338 wlebSi zavis dros, roca saqarTvelo romis gavlenis sferoSi iyo, CvenSi qristianoba saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad gamocxadda. qarTveli eris cxovrebaSi yvelaze mniSvnelovani movlena _ qristianobis miReba, uTuod zavis dros 298-338 ww-Si moxda, radganac 338 w-s Sahma Sabur II-m kvlav Seutia roms, kerZod, daiwyo saomari moqmedeba romaelTa winaaRmdeg jer SuamdinareTSi, Semdeg ki somxeTSi.6 `mas Semdeg, rac romis xelisufleba qristianobis devnidan mis mfarvelobaze gadavida, misma metoqe iranma mkveTrad Secvala qristianebisadmi damokidebuleba, mfarvelobis nacvlad man sastiki devna-Seviwroeba daiwyo~.7 iqamde ki, rodesac romis imperiaSi qristianoba sastikad idevneboda, romis metoqe irani, romelic Tavisi saxelmwifoebrivi interesebidan gamomdinareobda, mfarvelobas uwevda mas. romSi qristianoba saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad gamocxadda 313-326 wlebSi. 326 wlamde irani qristianebs ase Tu ise mfarvelobda, amis Semdeg ki man qristianobis sastiki devna daiwyo, amitomac 338 wlis Semdeg qarTvelTa mefes gauWirdeboda qristianobis aRiareba sparselTa SiSiT. aqedan gamomdinare, im dros, roca sparseTi qristianobas mfarvelobda da iberia iranis gavlenis sferoSi Sedioda (280 wlamde), gacilebiT ufro advili iyo iberias mieRo qristianoba, vidre 338 wlis Semdeg (marTlac, diubua de monpere qarTlis moqcevis TariRad miiCnevs 276 wels).8 298 wlis zavis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos mefes samefo regaliebi romaelebisgan unda mieRo, magram am droisTvis romaelebs Zveleburi siZliere aRar gaaCndaT. amitom nizibinis SeTanxmeba mxolod imas gulisxmobda, rom qarTli Zveleburad `kavSirSi~ imyofeboda romTan.

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saerTod, III saukuneSi saqarTvelo ZiriTadad damoukidebel da Zlier saxelmwifos warmoadgenda. `III saukuneSic, kerZod, amazaspis dros, qarTli faqtobrivad damoukidebel da Zlier saxelmwifos warmoadgenda. mogoneba amazaspze, rogorc Zlier mmarTvelze, mkafiod Semoinaxa qarTulma saistorio tradiciam. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ daculia gadmocema amazaspze, rogorc farsman qvelis msgavs goliaTze~.9 338 wels, rodesac nizibinis zavis vada jer ar iyo bolomde gasuli, iranma Seutia roms. daiwyo omi, romelic 25 wels gagrZelda xanmokle SesvenebebiT. `ramdenad Seexo igi qarTls, an ra monawileoba miiRo masSi qarTlma, ar viciT. safiqrebelia, rom qarTli romaelTa mxareze iyo, Tumca, misi aqtiuri monawileoba brZolaSi ara Cans~.10 IV saukunis berZeni istorikosi amiane marceline wers, rom imis Semdeg, rac 360 wels iranelebma warmatebebs miaRwies, romaelebis mier `tigrs gadaRmel mefeebTan da satrapebTan uxvi saCuqrebiTurT elCebi iqnen gagzavnilni, raTa yvelasaTvis moewodebinaT da CaegonebinaT, CvenTvis TanaegrZnoT da arafer motyuebas anda Ralats cdiliyvnen. magram yvelaze ufro metad moqrTamul iqnen arSaki da meribani, armeniisa da iberiis mefeebi, brwyinvaled Semkuli samosiT da mravalnairi saCuqrebiT, radgan, Tu maSindel saeWvo viTarebaSi sparselebs miudgebodnen, avnebdnen romis saqmeebs~.11 marcelines am sityvebidan Cans, rom qarTli ganagrZobda romaelTa mokavSired yofnas. amiane marcelines `meribani~ qarTvelTa mefe miriani unda iyos. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobis Tanaxmad, miriani gardacvlila qristianobis miRebidan ocdamexuTe wels, e.i. is SeiZleba cocxali yofiliyo IV s-is 60-ian wlebSic. 363 wels romsa da irans Soris daido 30-wliani zavi. somxeTi irans gadaeca. pirobis Tanaxmad, romi ar unda Careuliyo somxeTis saqmeebSi da daxmareba ar unda gaewia misTvis. romma piroba Seasrula da ar daexmara somxeTs, rodesac momdevno 364 wels iranelTa laSqari somxeTSi SeiWra. iranis pirispir martodmarto darCenili somxeTis mefe arSak II metismetad mZime mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda. aseT dros saqarTvelo Tavis Tanamorwmune somxeTs yovelmxriv mieSvela, jer qarTvelebis daxmarebiT arSaki ganerida misTvis Zalze araxelsayrel situacias da Tavi saqarTvelos Seafara, xolo Semdeg mose xorenelis sityviT, `arSaki dabrunda qarTlis jariT~.12 Cans, ganawyenebuli imiT, rom qarTvelebma gabedes somxeTis daxmareba TviT 363 wlis zavis Semdegac ki, irani Semoesia saqarTvelos. `368 wels sparseTis mefe Saburi Semoesia qarTls, qarTlis mefe saurmagi, romelsac romaelebis mxare eWira, gandevna da qarTlis mefed saurmagis naTesavi, varazbakuri dasva. bolos da bolos saurmagi da varazbakuri

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SeTanxmdnen da qarTli gaiyves: mtkvris marcxniv mdebare nawilSi saurmagi mefobda, mtkvris marjvniv mdebare nawilSi varazbakuri~.13 sparselebis SemoWra qarTlSi roms Seuracxyofad miuRia, amiane marcelines sityviT. iberiaSi sparsTa SemoWris pasuxad romaelebi Caerivnen amierkavkasiis saqmeebSi. imperatorma valentma somxeTSi gaamefa arSakis Svili papi, romelsac jari miaSvela. 369 wels papi somxeTSi gamefda. pasuxad iranelebma dalaSqres somxeTi. imperatorma jari miaSvela saqarTvelodan gandevnil saurmags, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, amis Semdeg iberia orad gaiyo. 371 wels sparselebi somxeTSi SeiWrnen, magram somxebma, romaelebTan erTad isini daamarcxes. srulebiT icvleba saqarTvelosa da saerTod amierkavkasiis politikuri viTareba 377 wlis Semdeg. romma datova amierkavkasia, romelsac irani daepatrona. `377 wels valentma iranTan omisTvis mzadeba daiwyo, magram am dros evropidan movida ambavi vestguTebis ajanyebis Sesaxeb da imperatori iZulebuli gaxda gaeyvana jari somxeTidan. safiqrebelia, rom romaelebi datovebdnen qarTlsac. eWvi araa, Saburi Seecdeboda gamoeyenebina aseTi xelsayreli viTareba, raTa qvemo qarTlidan ganedevna romaelTagan dayenebuli saurmagi. araerTxel gamoTqmula azri, TiTqos qarTlis gayofa or samefod karga xans gagrZelebula, TviT V saukunis 40-ian wlebamdisac ki. magram, rogorc irkveva, es azri swori ar unda iyos. iranelebma, Cans, qarTlis erTianoba ukve IV saukunis 70-iani wlebis bolos aRadgines~.14 saqarTvelos imdroindeli mefe varaz-baqari (asfaguri) qristianobis moZule yofila. iranis ZlierebiT SeSinebulma varaz-baqarma winaaRmdegoba ver gauwia iranis erisTavs, romelic `mefeTa ambavis~ Tanaxmad, Sahma gamogzavna `qarTvelTa zeda xarkis dadebad~. qarTli iranis moxarke gaxda IV saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasasruls. `ramdenadac dResdReobiT cnobilia, es unda yofiliyo qarTlis pirveli daxarkva~. `amrigad, IV s-is 70-ian wlebSi iranelebma qarTlis samefo mTlianad daimorCiles. Tavdapirvelad qarTlSi mosula iraneli sardali, romelsac `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ matiane pitiaxSs, xolo `mefeTa ambavi~ erisTavs uwodebs. xarksac, etyoba, is krefda. SemdgomSi, iranelebs, rogorc Cans, es funqcia adgilobrivi mmarTvelobisaTvis daukisrebiaT, Tavisi mudmivi moxele qarTlSi iranelebs ara hyoliaT. mxolod gansakuTrebuli saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi agzavnidnen isini mxaris gamgebels marzpans (aseTi iyo, magaliTad, V s-is 30-ian wlebSi somexi didebuli vasak siuni)~.15 `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, varaz-baqaris dros saqarTvelos iranma Camoacila rani da movakani, xolo romis imperiaSi (`saberZneTSi~) Sesula klarjeTi. saqarTveloSi darCenila qarTli, hereTi da egrisi. irans varaz-baqarma `misca rani da movakvani da ganukueTa xarki, xolo erisTavman sparsTaman mosca cixe tfilisisa da warvida. da mieriTgan

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iqmnes somexni da qarTvelni sparsTa moxarkeni. da amisa Semdgomad gandges klarjni varaz-baqarisagan da mierTnes berZenTa da dai pyres berZenTa Tuxarisi da yoveli klarjeTi zRYTgan arsianTamde~.16 sparseTis erisTavis Semosvlis dros mefe varaz-baqars kaxeTSi Seufarebia Tavi da SeSinebuls ubrZanebia yvelasTvis daefaraT TavianTi qristianoba `ubrZana yovelTa, raTa damalnen juarni~.17 sparseTisTvis saqarTveloSi sruliad mouTmeneli iqneboda qarTuli eklesiis kavSiri berZnul eklesiasTan, romelsac safuZveli daedo wmida ninos dros. amiT unda iyos gamowveuli is, rom swored am periodSi qarTuli eklesiis meTaurad iniSneba iob somexi, nerse kaTalikosis yofili diakoni. saqme isaa, rom am momentamde aTiode wliT adre somxurma eklesiam gawyvita ierarqiuli gavSiri berZnul eklesiasTan. berZnul eklesiasTan somxurma eklesiam kavSiri gawyvita mefe papis dros, sparseTis nebiT. amiT somxuri eklesia misaRebi gaxda sparseTisaTvis. Tu rogori mouTmenlobiT devnida berZnul eklesias da berZnulenovan qristianobas sparseTi IV s-is 80-90-ian wlebSi, amis Sesaxeb wers mose xoreneli. saqarTveloSi gabatonebis Semdeg, Cans, iranma qarTul eklesiaSi devna dauwyo berZnul qristianobas da proberZnul orientacias. 1972 wlis `saqarTvelos eklesiis kalendris~ qarTuli eklesiis mamamTavarTa siis Tanaxmad, iob, nerse kaTalikosis yofili diakoni, mamaTmTavrobda 375-390 wlebSi. am dros qarTulenovani wirva-locva unda damkvidrebuliyo berZnulis nacvlad, romelsac (berZnulenovan RvTismsaxurebas) devnida sparseTi. `varaz-bakuris Semdeg V saukunis 80-90-ian wlebSi qarTlis samefo taxtze ijda bakuri, romelic petre iberis asurul cxovrebaSi moxseniebulia, rogorc petres papa dedis mxridan. bakuris dros grZeldeboda iranelTa batonoba~.18 387 wels sazavo molaparakebis Tanaxmad, somxeTi iranma da romma gaiyves. bizantias (roms) ergo somxeTis mcire nawili, oTxi mexuTedi somxeTisa irans ergo. iranma mtkiced da didi xniT moikida fexi somxeTSi. saqarTvelos daubrunda Tavisi samxreTi miwebi, kerZod, e.w. didi nawili gugarqis sapitiaxSosi, romelic mierTebuli hqonda somxeTs. `am dros daiSala somxeTis erT-erTi udidesi olqi, gugarqis sapitiaxSo. misi CrdiloeTi raionebi qarTlSi Sevida, samxreTis sami raioni ki _ taSiri, kangarqi da aSoci, somxeTis SemadgenlobaSi darCa. ramdenime saukunis Semdeg isinic SeuerTdnen qarTls. gugarqis sapitiaxSo is gogarenea, romelic Zveli berZnuli cnobebis Tanaxmad (straboni), somxeTma CamoaWra qarTls Zv.w.aR-is II saukuneSi~.19 `gugarqi jer kidev Zv.w.aR-is II s-Si waarTves somxebma iberias (straboni). somxeTis samefoSi igi calke erTeulad, sapitiaxSod Camoyalibda. amas, Cans, xels uwyobda isic, rom igi eTnikurad gansxvavdeboda. gugarqs hqonda midrekileba, isev iberias dahbruneboda. ase moxda kidevac~.20

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erovnuli Semadgenlobis mxriv gugareTi, anu qvemo qarTli, yovelTvis ZiriTadad qarTuli iyo. somxeTis SemadgenlobaSi yofnis dros misi eTnikuri saxe arsebiTad ar Secvlila da kvlav qarTuli darCa. amas, Cans, xeli iman Seuwyo, rom gugarqi somxeTSi calke politikur erTeulad arsebobda saukuneTa manZilze da is erT feodalur erTeuls warmoadgenda. somexi mwerlebi saukuneTa manZilze yovelTvis aRniSnavdnen gugarqis qarTulobas. magaliTad, `gugarqi moxseniebulia VII s-is anonimur somxur geografiaSi. iq naTqvamia: gugarqi mdebareobs utis dasavleTiT da Sedgeba cxra gavarisagan, romelic uWiravT qarTvelebs: Zorofori, wobofori, kolbifori, taSiri, TrialeTi, kangarqi, artahani, javaxqi, klarjqi...~21 VII s-is somxur geografiaSi gugarqis mosaxleobis `qarTvelebad dasaxeleba, uflebas iZleva iTqvas, rom arasworia Teoria, romlis mixedviTac TiTqosda VII s-Si gugarqSi qarTulenovani wirva-locvis danergviT kirion kaTalikosma safuZveli daudo gugarqis somxuri mosaxleobis `gaqarTvelebas~. cxadia, qarTvelebs `gaqarTveleba~ ar esaWiroebodaT. sinamdvileSi gugarqSi sruliad sawinaaRmdego procesebi mimdinareobda, kerZod, gugarqis adgilobrivi mosaxleobis armenizacia somxur politikur-kulturulsarwmunoebriv arealSi moxvedris Sedegad, ris SeCerebac scada kirion kaTalikosma erovnuli wirva-locvis danergviT gugarqis eklesiebSi. ar unda iyos swori Tvalsazrisi, romlis Tanaxmadac, gugarqi qristemde meore saukunis Semdeg pirvelad mxolod IV s-Si daubrunda saqarTvelos. uTuod I-II saukuneebSi saqarTvelos Zlierebis dros gugarqi qarTlSi Sedioda, qarTls ekuTvnoda. mirian mefis drosac is Cveni matianis Tanaxmadac qarTlSia. rogorc vTqviT, 387 wels iranma da bizantiam somxeTi gainawila. somxeTis dasavleT nawilSi, romelic bizantias ergo, mefoba gauqmda 391 wels, xolo iranis kuTvnil aRmosavleT somxeTSi 428 w. `...am faqts somexi xalxis dayofa ar mohyolia, radgan am droisaTvis somexi xalxi didi xnis Camoyalibebuli iyo~.22,23,24. aseve, msgavsadve iyo qarTveli eric aRniSnul epoqaSi.

gza qristianobisa I saukunidan wmida ninomde


qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli aris Rirsi deda nino, romelmac qristianul sarwmunoebaze moaqcia mTeli eri. mis drosve, qarTuli saxelmwifos mzrunvelobiT da SemweobiT Seiqmna erTiani qarTuli eklesia. SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva, Tu qarTveli xalxi moaqcies da gaaqristianes TviT wmida mociqulebma, raRa saWiro iyo wmida ninos qadageba? am kiTxvaze pasuxi, Cans, ZvelTaganve arsebobda, ramac asaxva hpova ruis-urbnisis krebis ZeglisweraSi, sadac, kerZod, naTqvamia: `pirvelwodebuli andria, ZmaA Tavisa mociqulTaAsa petresi, vidre Cuendamdeca moiwia da qadaga sacxovrebeli qadage-

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baA saxarebisaA yovelsa queyanasa saqarTveloAsasa da uricxuni simravleni erTani ganaSorna sacTurisagan mrCobl eSmakeulebisa da erTisa RmrTisa da qristes misisa TanaarsiT maTiT suliTurT rwmunebiT TayuaniscemaA aswava, daRaTu umravlesman erman qarTlisaman simravlesa Sina Jamisasa daiviwya qadagebaA igi mociqulisaA da sacTurisave mimarT kerpTaAsa miaqcia. amaTisa qadagebisa nayofad aRmoecennes yovliT kerZo yovlisa sofliasaAT simravleni Ruawlisa damdebelisa qristes sikudilisa mimsgavsebulTa mowameTani, vinaATgan samasni mciredTa sxuaTa Tana vidre mefed qadagebadmde didisa kostantinessa Soris gardaKdes weliwadni, romeliigi pirvelad qristiane iqmna mefeTa Soris. da TYT mociqul da qadag sacxorebelisa qadagebisa da naTelsa Tavisuflebisasa mimfenel qristeaneTa RmrTiv Suenieris moqalaqeobisa. amisTave ukue JamTa srulad momxedna Cuenca, aRmosavalman maRliT da dedakacisa visme mier tyueqmnilisa...~25 rogorc amonaweridan Cans, wminda ninos mier mTeli saqarTvelosa da misi mefis gaqristianeba Zalze mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli romis imperiaSi qristianobis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad gamocxadebasTan. marTaliao, weren qarTveli mamebi, CvenSi qristianoba iqadages mociqulebma da xalxis uricxvi simravle gaaqristianes, magram drom da pirobebma xalxi kvlav kerpTayvanismcemlobas daubruna, xolo darCenil qristianebs Soris gamoCndebodnen xolme mowameni, romlebsac iseTive tanjviT klavdnen rogorc qristes, xolo imis Semdeg, rac romis imperatori konstantine gaxda mefeTa Soris pirveli qristiani mqadagebeli da mociqulTa swori, Cvenc mogvxeda RmerTma da gamoagzavna tyve qali ninoo. aRsaniSnavia, rom es wyaro ar uaryofs wmida ninomde qarTvel qristianTa arsebobas. rogorc aRvniSneT, maT Soris gamorCeulebs qristes mimsgavsebuli sikvdiliT hklavdnen, isini mowameni iyvneno. efrem mciris Tanaxmadac, ara marto saqarTveloSi, aramed TviT saberZneTSi (imperiaSi) mociqulTa qadagebis Semdeg kvlav kerpTayvanismcemloba aRorZinebula, magram cxadia, es imas ar niSnavs, rom imperiaSi qristianuli Temebi da saepiskoposoebi ar arsebobda. efremi wers: `iTqumis CuenTYsca, mimoslvasa Sina wmidaTa mociqulTasa, andria pirvelwodebulisa mier qadagebaO... garna amaT wmidaTa samociquloni moZRvrebisa TeslTa aneulni mravalJam dai pyrna RuarZlman mekerpeTaman. ara xolo Cuen Soris, aramed TYT maT berZenTaca Soris vidre JamTadmde meored pavled zeciT wodebulisa didisa kostantinesTa amis keTiladmsaxurisa mefisa JamTa RmerTman, romelman didTa da mravalTeslTa tomTaTYs izruna, arca Cuen mcireni dagYtevna uRuawad~...26 zemoT moyvanilis Tanaxmad, rogorc CvenSi, ise romis imperiaSi, qristianoba TviT mociqulebma iqadages. magram `meore pavles~ imperator konstantines dromde xalxis didi nawili kerpTayvanismcemlobisaken iyo

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moqceuli, am dros ki RmerTma izruna `mravalTeslTa tomTaTvis~, maT Soris qarTvelebisaTvisac. mociqulTa sworad `berZnebs~ gamouCina konstantine, xolo qarTvelebs wmida nino. aseTia ZvelqarTuli koncefcia, romelic wyaroebiT dasturdeba. romis imperiasa da saqarTveloSi mociqulTa Semdeg qristianoba ara marto arsebobda, aramed did gavlenas axdenda sazogadoebaze. III saukunis dasawyisSi qarTvelTa mefe rev marTali qristes saxarebas icnobda da misi mcnebebis Sesabamisad moqmedebda kidec. `rogorc cnobilia, Tavdapirvelad qristianoba vrceldeboda sazogadoebis dabal fenebSi~,27 rev mefemde qarTvelTa dabal fenebSi qristianobas fexi mokidebuli unda hqonoda. `amasTan mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT isic, rom Tumca qristianoba saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad qarTlSi IV s-is 30-ian wlebSi gamocxadda, ueWvelia, igi aq bevrad ufro adridan vrceldeboda. safiqrebelia, rom qristianuli Temebi qarTlSi arsebobdnen ukve mesame saukunidan. aseTi Temebi, cxadia, jer qalaqebSi Cndebodnen, gansakuTrebiT did savaWro gzebze mdebare qalaqebSi da pirvel rigSi TviT qarTlis dedaqalaq mcxeTaSi~.28 zemoT moyvanili kargad xsnis, Tu ratom ganxorcielda da ratom miiRo xalxma mefe revis reforma, romelic qristes saxarebas efuZneboda, (Cvili bavSvebis Sewirvis akrZalva). qristianobas xalxi ukve Semzadebuli hyolia am reformisaTvis. SeiZleba xalxi monaTluli ar iyo, magram saxarebas maT zneobasa da moralze gavlena hqonia. oficialur sarwmunoebad aRiarebamde romis imperiaSic ukve didi mniSvneloba mieca qristianobas. jer kidev III saukuneSi qristianobis aRiarebis Sesaxeb gankarguleba gamosca galienma, xolo Cveni mefe rev marTali (gard. 243 w.) TiTqmis naxevari saukuniT adre msgavsadve moiqca. mas smenili hqonda saxareba, amitomac is iyo `mowyale da nugeSinismcemeli WirveulTa~,29 e.i. aRasrulebda qristes mcnebebs. `qarTuli istoriuli tradicia qarTlSi pirveli qristianuli Temebis Casaxvas gulisxmobs axali welTaRricxvis pirvelive saukuneebidan da ukavSirebs mcxeTasa da mis midamoebSi mcxovreb ebraelebs. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ daculi cnobebis Tanaxmad, mcxeTeli ebraelebis erTi nawili qristianebad Canan. ukve ax.w.aR-is pirvelsave saukuneSi (`da warvida elioz mcxeTeli da longinoz karsneli da muniT daxudes juarcmasa uflisa~; `...xolo kuarTi igi uflisa wiliT xuda mcxeTelTa~)30 `rogorc qarTuli wyaroebi, iseve sxva xalxTa nawarmoebni gvawvdian cnobebs im pirTa Sesaxeb, romlebmac andria mociqulis Semdeg iqadages qarTvelTa Soris qristianuli sarwmunoeba. qarTvel wmidanTa cxovrebaSi, romelic gamocemuli aqvs

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mixeil sabinins `saqarTvelos samoTxeSi~, moxseniebulia vinme, saxelad xriso. man miiRo qristianoba mociqulTagan da Tavis mxriv moaqcia da monaTla albaniaSi 19 kaci, romlebic albaniis mefis datianosis brZanebiT qristes moZRvrebis miRebis gamo cecxlSi dawves pirveli saukunis damlevs.31 `amas garda, romaelebis mwerali baroniusi ambobs, rom qristianoba saqarTveloSi iqadaga romis episkoposma klimentim, romelic romis imperatorma traianem (98-117) gadaasaxla yirimSi. ...mouRwevia Cvenamdis cnobas, rom II saukuneSi saqarTveloSi cxovrobda mwvalebeli markioni~.32 `sainteresoa, rom VIII saukunis cnobili qarTveli moRvawe iovane sabanis Ze TxzulebaSi _ `wameba haboAsi, romeli iwama qarTls Sina, qalaqsa tfiliss~ _ wers, rom qarTvelebi `xuTasis wlisa JamTa da uwinarHsRa Sjuldebul yofil arian wmidiTa madliTa naTlisRebisaATa~.33 amrigad, ioane sabanis Ze, akad. iv. javaxiSvilis SefasebiT, `Tavisi drois misabaZi, samagaliTo istorikosi~, qarTlSi mesame da uwinares saukuneebSi xedavs qristianuli religiis fesvebs. `... Cven gvaqvs safuZveli, vifiqroT, rom qristianobis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad qcevamdis saqarTveloSic unda arsebuliyo (ra Tqma unda, upiratesad qalaqebSi, mag. mcxeTaSi) adgilobrivi wvrili qristianuli Temuri erTobani, daaxloebiT iseTive xasiaTis mqoneni, rogoric hqondaT maT romis imperiis sxva provinciebSi~.34 `qristianTa `Canasaxovani~ komunebi pirvelsave saukuneSi gvaqvs mcxeTas sagulisxmebeli, Tundac `uflis kvarTis~, eliozisa da sidonias cnobili gadmocemis mixedviT, sveticxovlis istorias rom edeba safuZvlad~.35 imave azrs adgas p. ingoroyva. `qristianoba, _ wers igi, _ saqarTveloSi vrceldeba Cveni welTaRricxvis pirveli saukuneebidanve, ra droidanac qristianoba moefina saqarTvelos mezobel axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebs da romis imperiis provinciebs. saistorio wyaroebis CvenebiT irkveva, rom qristianoba farTo gavrcelebiT sargeblobda saqarTveloSi ukve me-3 saukuneSi~.36 bunebrivia, daismis kiTxva: ramdenad eTanxmeba werilobiTi wyaroebis monacemebs samarxeuli Zeglebi? anu cnobilia, Tu ara didi mcxeTis ax.w.aR-is I-II ss. samarovnebze samarxebi micvalebulTa gapatiosneba-dakrZalvis qristianuli wesiT? 1978 wels mcxeTaSi, miwis samuSaoebis dros, dazianda gvianantikuri xanis kulturuli fenebi, romelic Seiswavla mcxeTis mudmivmoqmedma arqeologiurma eqspediciam (xelmZ. akad. a. afaqiZe). arqeologiuri gaTxrisas sxva ZeglebTan erTad aRmoCnda ori Tixis filasamarxi, msgavsi am ti pis ukve cnobili samarxi nagebobebisa. erT-erT maTganSi (#17) dakrZaluli iyo deda-Svili. orive micvalebuli dausvenebiaT gulaRma, gaSotili, TaviT dasavleTisaken (e.i. qristianuli wesiT, ep. a. j.). samarxSi aRmoCnda erTaderTi saneke beWedi zrdasruli micvalebulisa. dakrZalulTa poza, damxroba, nivTieri masalis simcire, saneke beWedi, sardionis beWdis Tvali

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intalio, romelzedac amokveTilia erT mxares mimarTuli ori Tevzisa da Ruzis gamosaxuleba, migvaniSnebs, rom samarxi qristianTaTvis gaumarTavT. Ruzisa da Tevzis gamosaxuleba xSiria xelovnebis, pirvel rigSi ki, winaqristianuli xanis gliptikis Zeglebze. `swored warmarTuli xelovnebis es siuJetebi gamoiyena qristianulma religiam Tavisi arsebobis sawyis xanaSi da sxva niSnebTan erTad aqcia igi adreuli qristianobis simboloebad. axlad Casaxuli religia amiTac cdilobda Tavi daeRwia warmarTTa mxriv qristianebis devnisagan. qristianuli religiis Casaxva-ganviTarebis epoqaSi, rodesac qristianobas mravlad hyavs rogorc aqtiuri momxreni, ise mowinaaRmdegeni da igi iqceva imdroindeli sazogadoebis sagangebo yuradRebis sagnad, bunebrivia, vifiqroT, rom aq ganxiluli siuJeti adrindeli qristianobis simbolos warmoadgenda da ara mxolod samkaulis Cveulebriv saxesxvaobas~.37 qristianuli samkvdro wesis zemoT CamoTvlili niSnebi, naxsenebi filasamarxis garda, met-naklebad SeiniSneba didi mcxeTis samarovnebze mikvleulSeswavlil sxva sakrZalavebSic. kerZod, qristianuli samkvdro wesebis metnaklebi dacviT gaupatiosnebiaT micvalebulebi samTavros samarovanze 19381940 da 1976-1983 ww-Si gaTxrili samarxebis erT nawilze,38 mcxeTa-qalaqSi, sveticxovlis midamoebSi Seswavlili samarxebis erT jgufSi da sxva.39 yvela es sakrZalavi zogadad ax.w.aR-is II-III, ufro metad ki, III saukunes ganekuTvneba. amrigad, arqeologiuri da werilobiTi wyaroebis monacemebis SejerebiT irkveva, rom istoriuli didi mcxeTis moqalaqeTa garkveuli nawili qristianul religias eziara mis (qristianobis) oficialur aRiarebamde 100150 wliT adre.40 Zalze mniSvnelovania, rom arqeologiuri monacemebi adastureben qarTul da ucxour wyaroTa Cvenebebs, rom mociqulTa saqarTveloSi qadagebas unayofod ar Cauvlia, Tavisi Sedegi gamouRia da qveyanaSi qristianuli Temebi Seqmnila. ucxouri wyaroebi miuTiTeben, rom qristianobas saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi avrceleben II-III saukuneebSi, arqeologiuri monacemebiT ki saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi mcxeTac qristianul orbitaSia moqceuli. cxadia, qristianebs, romlebic II-III saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi cxovrobdnen, esaWiroebodaT samRvdeloeba, monaTvla da ziareba samRvdeloebis gareSe ar SeiZleboda. rogorc zemoT aRniSnuli iyo, II-III saukuneebis sveticxovlis, samTavrosa da sxva samarovnebSi qristianebi daukrZalavT, maT Soris bavSvebic. cxadia, yvela isini monaTlulni iyvnen, amitomac, ueWvelia, II-III saukuneebSi CvenSi samRvdeloeba da qristianuli mrevli arsebobda. es ki imas niSnavs, rom II-III saukuneebSi CvenSi eklesia arsebobda. sainteresoa, rogori principiT iyo mowyobili es eklesia (qristianuli Temebi)? pirvel

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rigSi unda aRiniSnos, rom sxvadasxva qalaqsa Tu qalaqebis ubnebSi arsebuli qristianuli Temebi ar iyvnen erTmaneTze daqvemdebarebuli. erTiani mTeli qveynis momcveli qristianuli eklesia erTiani centriT da erTiani mmarTvelobiT ar arsebobda, Tumca, radganac iyo samRvdeloeba, episkoposebic iarsebebdnen. `qarTlis cxovreba~ kidevac wers, rom TviT andria mociqulma awyuris qristianul mrevls Tavisi episkoposi gauCinao.41 cxadia, qristianoba da misi samRvdeloeba devnili iyo. is farulad arsebobda, amitomac Zalze susti iyo. aRsaniSnavia, rom mociqulTa epoqaSi da mis Semdgomac mRvdelmoqmedebas episkoposic asrulebda da mRvdels episkoposs uwodebdnen. qarTuli saxelmwifos mier qristianobis oficialurad aRiarebamde CvenSi rom arsebobdnen saepiskoposoebi, isic miuTiTebs, rom biWvinTaSi qristianul Tems hyavda episkoposi da Tanac Zalian gavleniani da saxelganTqmuli. I msoflio saeklesio krebaze 325 wels monawileobda biWvinTis episkoposi stratofile. 325 wlamde, cxadia, es saepiskoposo iarsebebda da didi avtoritetic eqneboda maSindel msoflio qristianobaSi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mis episkoposs ar miiwvevdnen nikeis msoflio krebaze, sadac Zalze avtoritetuli mniSvnelobisa da wonis mRvdelmTavrebi iyvnen miwveulebi. agaTangelozis cnobis Tanaxmad, episkoposebi adreve iyvnen ara marto dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed aRmosavleT saqarTveloSic. agaTangelozis cnobiT, nikeis krebis win sruliad iberiis mitropolits ibr-z-xua rqmevia, dasavleT saqarTvelos episkoposs sofroniusi, xolo samxreT saqarTvelos (basianis) episkoposs evlaTiusi. aRsaniSnavia, rom mociqulTa mier daarsebuli eklesiebi (qristianuli Temebi, saepiskoposoebi) I-II saukuneebSi erTmaneTisgan damoukidebeli iyo da maT erTiani administraciuli centri ar gaaCndaT. aseve iyo saqarTveloSic wmida ninos Semosvlamde. saqarTveloSi arsebuli qristianuli Temebi, saepiskoposoebi (biWvinTa da sxva), albaT, erTmaneTisgan damoukidebelni iyvnen. qristianTa devnis saukuneebSi (I-III ss) qristianobis simtkicis erTerTi mizezi is iyo, rom mas ar gaaCnda administraciuli centri. arsebobda asobiT da aTasobiT eklesia da qristianuli Temi (igulisxmeba romis imperia), damoukidebelni erTmaneTis mimarT, msgavsad ebrauli Temebisa. es asaxulia mociqulTa 34-e kanonSi, romlis mixedviTac yovel Tems, yovel ers Tavisi episkoposi unda hyavdes. yoveli Temis (eris, naTesavis) episkoposi am Temis wevrTaTvis aRiarebulia pirvel kacad da meTaurad, misi ganzraxvis gareSe araferi `nametnavis~ gakeTebis neba ara aqvT, magram Tavis mxriv episkoposic valdebulia imoqmedos `yovelTa ganzraxviT~, raTa `esreT erTnebobaO aResrulos da ididos RmerTi...~42 `mociqulTa 34-e kanoni, roca naTesavze, erze laparakobs, mxedvelobaSi iRebs ara erovnebebs, aramed eTnikur olqebs, romlebadac iyo dayofili

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romis saxelmwifo, mis dayofamde diokletianes mier provinciebad~.43 albaT, imperiis msgavsad iyo mowyobili qristianuli mrevli saqarTveloSi. swored qristianuli Temebis arsebobam da siZlierem miiyvana imperatori konstantine gadawyvetilebamde, rom saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad eRiarebina qristianuli sarwmunoeba. `imperator konstantines sarwmunoebrivi politika, kerZod, misi qristianobisadmi damokidebuleba moulodneli da gansakuTrebuli ram ar yofila. qristianobam 312 wlamde grZeli gza ganvlo, ramac igi milanis ediqtamde miiyvana. qristianobam moipova oficialuri arsebobis ufleba, romelsac Seupovari xangrZlivi brZoliT miaRwia. es brZola gamovlinda romis xelisufalTa qristianobisadmi damokidebulebis istoriaSi, romelic gvamcnobs, rom marcxsa da devnilobasTan erTad, qristianoba drodadro did warmatebas aRwevda... am mxriv sainteresoa romis imperatorTa, gansakuTrebiT ki galienis politika. am ukanasknelis mier 260 wels qristianobis Sesaxeb gamocemuli gankarguleba 312 wlis milanis ediqtis Soreuli winaparia... uSualo winamorbedad ki galeriusis 311 wlis ediqti unda CaiTvalos, romelzec konstantinec awers xels~.44 saqarTveloSi IV saukuneSi qristianobis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad gamocxadeba yofila ara moulodneli, Semotanili, anda Tavsmoxveuli aqti, aramed efuZneboda qristianobis adgilobriv saukunovan tradicias. `SeuZlebelia laparaki ama Tu im qveyanaSi qristianobis ubralod SemoRebaze. gansakuTrebiT usafuZvloa azri romelime saxelmwifoSi qristianobis Setanasa da mis iq gabatonebaze. qristianobis gavrceleba mxolod misi propagandis, qadagebis Sedegi ar SeiZleba iyos, rasakvirvelia, propagandis, qadagebis rolis uaryofa ar SeiZleba... qristianobis qadageba romis imperiaSi saukuneebis manZilze warmoebda~.45 zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, rom wmida nino ver SeZlebda mTeli qarTveli xalxis gaqristianebas, saqarTveloSi wminda mociqulebsa da sxva mqadageblebs qarTveli xalxi Semzadebuli rom ar hyoloda qristianobis sajaro aRiarebisaTvis. am Tvalsazrisma asaxva hpova kidec wmida ninos cxovrebaSi, sadac ufali ucxadebs wmida ninos, rom saqarTveloSi `samkali friad ars, xolo muSaki mcire~. es imas niSnavs, rom saqarTveloSi mociqulTa mier daTesil saxarebis marcvals saukuneTa manZilze xalxi Seumzadebia saerTo saxalxo monaTvlisaTvis. `qarTlis samefoSi qristianobis gavrceleba, arsebuli masalebis (rogoricaa arqeologiuri, aseve naratiuli da epigrafikuli) mixedviT, gvesaxeba Semdegnairad: ax.w.aR-is pirvel saukuneebSi, SesaZloa, II saukunis dasawyisSi, qarTlis msxvil savaWro ekonomiur centrSi, upirveles yovlisa ki mcxeTaSi, Cndebian pirveli qristianebi, romlebic farulad iwyeben axali religiis qadagebas iberiis samefoSi. axla Znelia dadgena imisa, Tu vin

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iyvnen es pirveli misionerebi, specialurad movlenili Tu SemTxveviTi pirni, an iqneb sulac, garkveul nawils qristes sjulis mqadageblebisa warmoadgendnen adgilobrivni, romlebic qristianobas eziarnen palestinaSi, iudeaSi an romis imperiis sxva provinciaSi, sadac swored am droisaTvis isaxeba, yalibdeba, ebrZvis erTmaneTs da warmarTul religiebs aTobiT qristianuli mimdinareoba. SesaZloa, qristianuli ideebis erT-erT pirvel gamavrceleblebad gvevlineba iberTa is laSqari, romelic qarTlis mefis miTridate III (g. meliqiSvilis mixedviT) Zmis, amazaspis, meTaurobiT miemarTeba romaelTa dasaxmareblad parTelTa winaaRmdeg brZolaSi... dRes Cvens xelT arsebuli monacemebiT qristianuli religia CvenSi Semovida swored rogorc dabali fenebis religia, sazogadoebis farTo fenebis religia... gavixsenoT cnobili faqti wmida ninos mcxeTaSi mosvlisa da mis mier qadagebis dawyebisa. misioneri qali Tavdapirvelad uars ambobs samefo karTan raime kontaqtze da iwyebs moRvaweobas swored mosaxleobis farTo fenebSi. swored aqedan gamodian isini, vinc `...mis Tana qadagebdes...~, eseni arian `...Svidni dedani naTesavni uriaTani, asuli abiaTarisa da eqvsni sxvani da samoTxisa mcvelni igi dedani da colqmarni, abiaTar mRvdeli, axali pavle. vfiqrob, msgavsi suraTi unda yofiliyo wmida ninos mcxeTas mosvlis wina xanaSic~.46 romel wels Semovida wmida nino saqarTveloSi da gaqristianda mTeli qarTveli xalxi? es yovelTvis saintereso sakiTxi Zalze damajereblad gaarkvia istorikosma vaxtang goilaZem. v. goilaZis Tanaxmad, wmida nino saqarTveloSi Semovida 303 wels. 317-318 wels qarTlis samefo karma saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad aRiara qristianoba, xolo 324-326 wels xalxi masiurad moinaTla. v. goilaZe wers: `upirveles yovlisa, unda aRvniSno: cnobidan aSkarad Cans, rom nino da misi Tanamgzavrebi saberZneTidan TavianTi nebiT ki ar wamovidnen, gamoiqcnen, somxeTSi mosuli ninos Tanamgzavrebi Trdatma sikvdiliT dasaja. rac Seexeba ltolvilTa wamosvlis drod miTiTebuli merve wlis realobas, amis Taobaze imperiaSi arsebuli politikuri viTareba unda gaviTvaliswinoT. 305 wlis 1-el maiss, diokletianes gadadgomis Semdeg, imperiis aRmosavleT nawils galeriusi (gard. 311 w. maisSi) ganagebda. swored man 311 wlis 30 aprils nikomidiaSi gamocemuli ediqtiT qristianTa devna Sewyvita da maTi uflebebi aRadgina. galeriusis Semdeg imperiis aRmosavleT nawils maqsimian daza da liciniusi ganagebdnen. 313 wlis ivnisSi siriisa da egvi ptis gamgeblis dazas damarcxebis Semdeg liciniusi imperiis aRmosavleT nawilis erTpirovnuli gamgebeli gaxda da am wels qristianTa Semwynareblobis ediqti gamosca, magram misi politika qristianTa mimarT Tanmimdevruli ar iyo.

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konstantine didis gamgeblobaSi mxolod 324 wlis 18 seqtembers, liciniusis saboloo damarcxebis Semdeg, gadavida romis imperiis aRmosavleT nawili. ase rom, 324 wlis 18 seqtembramde konstantine aRmosavleTis saqmeebSi ver Caereoda. saeWvodaa miCneuli maqscensiusze gamarjvebis Semdeg konstantinesa da liciniusis mier 313 wels milanSi gamocemuli ediqti qristianebis uflebrivad warmarTebTan gaTanabrebis Sesaxeb. konstantinem mxolod 324 wels, liciniusze gamarjvebis Semdeg, gamosca ori ediqti. erTi qristianebis uflebebis aRdgenas Seexeboda, meoriT ki warmarTebs uflebaTa dacvas pirdeboda. araa swori ltolvilTa wamosvlis TariRad miTiTebuli merve 326 welic, am wels imperiaSi iseTi araferi momxdara, imperiis teritoriidan qristianebi masiurad rom gamoqceuliyvnen. piriqiT, Zveli saeklesio istorikosis zosimes cnobiT, konstantine mxolod 326 wlidan dadga sabolood qristianTa mxareze. meorec, am droisaTvis somxeTSi qristianoba ukve saxelmwifo religiad iyo aRiarebuli da 326 wels aq mosul ltolvilebs qristiani mefe sikvdiliT ar dasjida. aSkaraa, imperiidan ltolviTa wamosvlis drod `cxovrebaSi~ miTiTebuli 326 weli arasworia Tu `ninos cxovrebis~ teqstSi araferia naTqvami, imperiidan romeli imperatoris dros wamovidnen ltolvilebi, `rifsimianTa wamebaSi~ maTi gamoqceva uSualod diokletianes saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli. amrigad, imperiidan qristianTa ltolvis mizezad 303 wels diokletianes mier dawyebuli qristianTa devna unda iqnas miCneuli, ris safuZvelzec ninos mcxeTaSi (aseve somexi ltolvilebis vaRarSapatSi) mosvla 303 wliT unda daTariRdes~.47 Semdeg v. goilaZe ganagrZobs: `cxovrebis~ variantSi arsebuli cnobiT, mcxeTaSi mosuli nino `sam wel ilocvida farulad~. 303-306 wlebSi misioneruli moRvaweoba ninos marTlac gauZneldeboda, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom qristianTa devna imperiaSi diokletianes gadadgomamde (305 w. 1-li maisi) mZvinvarebda da igi garkveulwilad qarTlSic hpovebda asaxvas. 306 wlidan misioneruli moRvaweobisaTvis ninos meti Tavisufleba miecemoda... Zveli qarTuli wyaroebis erToblivi miTiTeba ninos mcxeTaSi mosvlidan 14-15 wlis Semdeg gardacvalebis Sesaxeb, Cemi varaudiT, ninos mcxeTaSi Semosvlidan qarTlis moqcevamde gasuli drois monakveTs unda aRniSnavdes ... ueWvelia, rogorc somxuri 15, ise qarTuli wyaroebis 14-15 weli drois im monakveTze migviTiTebs, romelic gavida ninos qarTlSi Semosvlidan _ mis mier qarTlis moqcevamde ... radganac nino qarTlSi 303 wels Semovida, qarTlis samefo karis mier (aseve somxeTis) qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad aRiareba 318 wliT unda daTariRdes. qarTlisa da somxeTis samefo karma da xalxma 318 wels ki aRiara axali rwmena, magram, rogorc k. kekeliZe wers, `erTi saqmea moqceva, gaqris-

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tianeba xalxisa ... sxva saqmea monaTvla ukve moqceuli xalxisa, ritualis Sesruleba~. aseTi aqtisaTvis mxolod 324 wels, konstantines mier gamocemuli ediqtis Semdeg Seiqmna xelsayreli pirobebi. nikeis msoflio saeklesio krebis wina 324 wlis bolo Tveebi yvelaze xelsayreli dro iyo somxeTisa da qarTlis eklesiaTa meTaurebis oficialuri kurTxevisaTvis. Teofane JamTaaRmwereli qarTlisa da somxeTis moqcevis Sesaxeb 324 wels momxdar ambebTan erTad mogviTxrobs... amrigad, qarTlisa (aseve egrisis) da somxeTis moqceva 318 wliT unda daTariRdes. aseT daTariRebas mxars uWers mose xorenelis TxzulebaSi, rogorc Cans, `ninos cxovrebidan~ da agaTangelozis `somexTa moqcevidan~ momdinare tradicia, romlis Tanaxmadac, miriani da Trdati daaxloebiT erTad gaqristiandnen. somxuri wyaros am cnobas jer kidev XIX saukuneSi miaqcia yuradReba iv. gvaramaZem da man qarTlis moqceva 317 wliT daaTariRa~.48 Zalze mniSvnelovania, rom vaxuSti bagrationi, saqarTvelos istoriis udidesi mkvlevari, qarTlis moqcevas aTariRebda 317 wliT. d. baqraZe, iv. gvaramaZe iziarebdnen vaxuStiseul wels da qarTlis moqcevas msgavsadve aTariRebdnen. `qarTlis moqcevis TariRad aseve 318 weli miaCnda p. ioselians, m. sabinins da r. camcievs. qarTlis moqcevis vaxuStiseuli 317 weli gaiziares d. baqraZem da iv. gvaramaZem~.49 qarTuli eklesiis meTauris episkopos ioanes xeldasxmis wlad v. goilaZes miaCnia 324 weli. is fiqrobs, rom qarTuli eklesia aris ara antioqiuri warmoSobisa, aramed kapadokiuri (pontos diocezi). is wers: `aRniSnulTan erTad a. harnaki mcire aziis mTel mosaxleobas IV saukunisaTvis TiTqmis mTlianad qristianad miiCnevs, misi mtkicebiT, mcire aziaSi adreve daiwyo mosaxleobis eTnikur Sedgenilobaze Seqmnili eklesiebis Camoyalibeba. im erovnul eklesiaTa Soris, romlebmac antioqiis meurveobas daaRwies Tavi da sakuTari samisionero moRvaweoba gaaCaRes, igi kapadokiis eklesiasac asaxelebs. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT Zvel avtorTa mtkicebas kapadokiis mosaxleobis qarTveluri warmomavlobis Sesaxeb, maSin `cxovrebaSi~ ninos kapadokielad dasaxeleba met safuZvels gvaZlevs, ninos (aseve sxva ltolvilebis) wamosvla kapadokiidan vivaraudoT ...~agaTangelozis Tanaxmad, somexTa ganmanaTlebeli grigoli kapadokiaSi `izrdeboda wesiTa qristianesaATa~, iq eziara qristes mcnebas da iqve, kapadokiis kesariis episkoposis leontis mier iqna xeldasxmuli somexTa episkoposad ...p.gidulianovi leontis episkoposobas 315/316-325 wlebiT gansazRvravs (326-341 ww. kesariis episkoposad geronti Cans). ase rom, rogorc somexi xalxisa da samefo ojaxis moqcevisas (318 w.), ise somexTa pirveli episkoposis grigolis xeldasxmisas (324w.) kesariis saepiskoposo kaTedraze leonti imyofeboda. kesariidan somxeTSi momaval grigolis leontis davalebiT kapadokiis qalaq sebastiidan Tan gamoyva episkoposi petre da sebastiidan

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wamoyvanil RvTismsaxurTa meSveobiT moaxdina somxuri eklesiis organizacia. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT kapadokiis mosaxleobis qarTvelur warmomavlobas da im garemoebasac, rom kapadokiis kesariis eklesiis iseTi saWeTmpyrobeli, rogoric basili didi kesarielia (gard. 379 w.), qarTveli iyo (e. xinTibiZe, g. gozaliSvili da sxv.), maSin unda vivaraudoT, rom am saepiskoposo kaTedras adgilobrivi, qarTuli warmoSobis sasuliero pirebi ganagebdnen da episkoposi leontic, romlis mier iqna xeldasxmuli somexTa ganmanaTlebeli grigoli, qarTveli unda yofiliyo. grigol ganmanaTleblis kesariaSi xeldasxmis Semdeg Zvel somex istorikosTa miTiTebiT, somxuri eklesia kapadokiis eklesiaze damokidebuli Seiqna. somxeTis eklesiis istoriis avtoris a. aninskis SeniSvniT, kesariaSi xeldasxmis Semdeg grigoli somxeTis eklesiis organizaciis dros kesariis deda eklesiis miTiTebiT xelmZRvanelobda. bunebrivia, amitom moZRvreba da yvela saeklesio wesi somxeTSi gadmoRebul iqna iseTive saxiT, rogorc kapadokiis kesariaSi iyo, e.i. arianuli. nikeis krebaze leonti gadayenebul iqna. axla rac Seexeba qarTlis pirveli episkoposis _ ioanes xeldasxmas, iseve, rogorc somxeTisa da egrisis, qarTlis mosaxleobis moqcevis saqmeSic kapadokielma misionerma Seasrula mTavari roli, magram, rogorc Cans, kapadokiis eklesia yovelTvis ver axerxebda antioqiis Zlieri eklesiisaTvis angariSi ar gaewia da Tavisi misionerebis mier moqceuli qveynis meTauri TviTonve ekurTxebina... qarTlis eklesiis meTauris xeldasxma 324 (ukidures SemTxvevaSi 325 wlis ivlisamde) wels rom unda momxdariyo, amis damadastureblad zemomotanili masalis garda mimaCnia `ninos cxovrebaSi~ arsebuli is cnoba, romlis Tanaxmadac, ninos RmerTis aRiarebis Semdeg mirianma eklesiis mSenebloba daiwyo da mxolod mSeneblobis damTavrebis Semdeg SeuTvala konstantines `sruliad mowyveda sparsTa da mtkiced miReba siyvarulisa maTisa~, ris pasuxadac konstantinem `warmogzavna mRdeli WeSmariti iovane episkoposad, mis Tana mRdelni orni da diakonni samni~.50 rogorc `mirianis cxovrebaSia~ naTqvami, am dros mirians konstantinem imperiaSi mZevlad myofi Zec ki daubruna (sxvaTa Soris, Zveli qarTuli wyaros am cnobas mxars uWers V saukunis bizantieli istorikosis sozomenes miTiTeba, qarTlis moqcevis Semdeg bizantiasa da qarTls Soris `samxedro kavSiris dadebisa da megobrobis damyarebis~ Sesaxeb). wigni II, 7~.51 v. goilaZis msjeloba Zalze damajerebelia, amitomac unda aRdges vaxuSti bagrationis mier gamorkveuli TariRi _ qarTlis moqceva 317-318 wliT unda daTariRdes, xolo qarTuli eklesiis organizacia da xalxis monaTvla 324-326 wlebiT. erTiani qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi misi organizaciisa da Camoyalibebis dros IV saukuneSi uTuod moicavda klarjeTs, hereTs, da, safiqrebelia, gugarqsac. klarjeTs rom moicavda

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qarTuli eklesia, es mose xorenelis Txzulebidanac Cans, romlis mixedviTac wmida ninom iqadaga klarjeTidan vidre masquTebamde. masquTebis qveyana iyo kaspiis zRvis pirze da qarTlsa da masquTebs Soris hereTi mdebareobda. mose xorenelis azriT, wmida ninos masquTebamde, e.i. hereTSic uqadagnia. xolo gugarqs rom moicavda qarTuli eklesia, iqidan Cans, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, mefe miriansa da somxeTis mefe Trdats Soris daido sazRvari, romelic gadioda mtkvrisa da araqsis wyalmyof qedze. mdinareTa xeobani, romlebic mtkvars uerTdebodnen, qarTvelebis samefoSi Sedioda. cnobilia, rom gugarqze gamavali yvela mdinare mtkvars uerTdeba, amitomac qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi mirianis dros gugarqic Sedioda. m. CxartiSvili wers: `agaTangelozis mixedviT, grigolma iqadaga klarjeTamde teritoriaze, xolo nunes (wminda ninos), xorenelis mixedviT, Tavisi moRvaweoba swored klarjebiT dauwyia. agaTangelozis miTiTebiT, grigols umoRvawia mTel masquTeTSi (`masquTTa sazRvrebis bolomde~), xolo xoreneliT, nunes masquTebamde uqadagia mxolod (`masquTTa sazRvrebamde~). agaTangelozis miTiTebiT, grigolis moRvaweoba alanTa da kaspTa samyofelSi ar gavrcelebula, mas alanTa karebamde da kaspTa sazRvrebamde teritoriebi daumoZRvravs (`alanTa karamde, kaspTa sazRvrebamde~), xolo nunes, xoreneliT, klarjeTidan masquTebamde areali mouqcevia alanTa da kaspTa karis damatebiT (`alanTa da kaspTa kariT~) ...Tu davukvirdebiT grigolis marSruts, davinaxavT, rom igi qmnis garkveul mruds, romelic warmoadgens qarTuli teritoriebis sasazRvro konturs. agaTangelozis cnobis mixedviT, grigols gverdi auvlia zustad qarTuli miwebisaTvis, amitom xorenelma, romelmac romeliRac wyarodan icoda, rom qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli nune iyo, CaTvala, rom grigolis samisionero gzis amgvari gansazRvriT, agaTangelozi miuTiTebda _ qarTuli miwebi moaqcia nunem~.52 rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, somxuri wyaroebisaTvis cnobili yofila, rom wmida ninos qadagebis Semdeg qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sevida qarTlis is teritoriebic, romlebsac klarjeTi da hereTi ewodeboda. amitom qarTul eklesiaSi samxreT-dasavleTis mxares Sedioda klarjeTi, aRmosavleTiT hereTi, xolo samxreTis sazRvris Sesaxeb gvaqvs miTiTeba `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~. cnobilia, rom iberia da somxeTi romis imperiis gavlenis sferoebSi Sediodnen imperator konstantines dros, rasac aRiarebs `qarTlis cxovreba~, romlis Tanaxmadac, romis am imperators ganuwesebia sazRvari qarTlis samefosa da somxeTs Soris: `ganuCina sazRvari mirians da Trdats esreT: romelTa queyanaTa mdinareni dian samxreTiT da mierTvian rahxsa, ese queyanani Trdatis kerZad dayarna, da romlisa queyanisa mdinareni CrdiloT dian da mierTvian mtkuarsa, ese mirianis kerZad dayarna~.53

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Sedioda Tu ara egrisi qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi mefe mirianis dros? ZvelqarTuli tradiciiT (rogorc werilobiTi, ise zepiri), egrisis ganmanaTlebeli iyo wmida nino da egrisi qarTul eklesiaSi daarsebisTanave Sedioda. magaliTad, wmida ninos TiTqmis Tanamedrove epoqaSi moRvawe berZen-laTini istorikosebi, romlebic qarTlis moqcevidan 50-100 wlis Semdeg werdnen TavianT Sromebs, yovelTvis aRniSnavdnen, rom qarTvelebi, romlebmac miiRes qristianoba, cxovrobdnen pontos, anu Savi zRvis pirze (sadac mdebareobda istoriuli egrisi). am avtorebs dabejiTebuli mtkicebani miuTiTebs imas, rom egrisic im dros gaqristianda, roca gaqristianda aRmosavleT saqarTvelo. es avtorebi egriselebs iseve miiCnevdnen iberebad (qarTvelebad), rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTvelebs. cnobili evagre pontoeli iberi iyo, warmoSobiT SavizRvispireTidan-egrisidan. egrisi rom mirian mefis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda, amis Sesaxeb weria `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ `da mefobda mirian mun qarTls, rans, hereTs da movakans, da aqunda egrisica vidre egriswylamde~.54 TviT gvian saukuneebSic ki, roca egrisi da lazeTi ukve aRar Sediodnen qarTlis samefoSi, mainc ukiduresi samxreTis TurqeTis sazRvrebSi moqceuli ofis samitropolito eklesiis Sesaxeb arsebobda gadmocema, rom es eklesia wmida ninos mier iyo agebuli, xolo mTeli laziis samitropolito `qarTul miwebze~ mdebareobda.55 `...1958 w. gamocemuli saqarTvelos istoriis pirvel tomSi naTqvamia, rom egrisisaTvis qristianobas saxelmwifo mniSvneloba mieca 523 wels. es TariRi rom mcdaria da qristianoba dasavleT saqarTveloSi gacilebiT adrea miRebuli, amas sxva monacemebTan erTad adreuli eklesiebis arsebobac adasturebs. am bolo dros ki miRebulia azri, rom egrisis samefoSi qristianobis gavrceleba IV saukuneSi ukve faqts warmoadgens~.56 `rogorc irkveva, aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTveloSi, maSindel iberiasa da egrisSi, qristianoba erTsa da imave dros, IV saukuneSi miuRiaT, igi saxelmwifo religia gamxdara~.57 mecnierulma kvleva-Ziebam cxadi gaxada, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi (egrisSi) qristianoba IV saukuneSi iseve aRiarebul sarwmunoebad iqca, rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, anu mTel saqarTveloSi erTdroulad, wmida ninos epoqaSi, qristianobas saxelmwifo mniSvneloba mieca. amasve adastureben qarTuli wyaroebi. egrisi mefe mirianis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda da cxadia iq, iseve rogorc sxva kuTxeebSi, wmida ninos RvawliT qristianoba gavrcelda. qarTuli eklesia daarsebisTanave moicavda rogorc saqarTvelos Sida mxareebs, agreTve egriss, klarjeTs, gugarqs da hereTs. marTalia, gugarqi xelidan xelSi gadadioda da mkvidrad daukavSirda deda-samSoblos IV saukunis 70-iani wlebidan, magram mirian mefis drosac, Cans, is qarTlSi Sedioda.

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saeklesio enis Sesaxeb unda iTqvas, rom saqarTveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebamde warmarTuli kultmsaxureba aResruleboda qarTul enaze. rogorc ivane javaxiSvilma gaarkvia, warmarTuli kultmsaxureba ara marto Sida saqarTveloSi aResruleboda qarTul enaze, aramed TviT svaneTsa da samegreloSic ki. mTel saqarTveloSi, romelic mefe mirianis dros iwyeboda mdinare egriswyalTan da gadaSlili iyo masquTebis (kaspiis piras) qveynamde, warmarTuli RvTismsaxureba qarTulenovani iyo. xolo warmarTuli panTeoni Zalze damuSavebuli da daxvewili yofila. es garemoeba uTuod qristianul kultmsaxurebazec imoqmedebda. Tu qarTveli warmarTebi TavianT `RmerTs~ adidebdnen qarTul enaze, qristiani mRvdelmsaxurebic, qristianobis gavrcelebis mizniT, Seecdebodnen qarTvelebisaTvis qarTul enazeve miewodebinaT saxareba, aseve elocaT xalxisaTvis gasageb enaze. miuxedavad amisa, Tavdapirvelad SesaZloa, CvenSi RvTismsaxureba aResruleboda ara qarTul, aramed berZnul enaze, ris Sesaxebac Tavis `qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi~ azri hqonia gamoTqmuli mixeil TamaraSvils. e. nikolaZe wers. `saqarTvelos eklesiis pirveli samRvdeloeba energiulad Seudga qristianobis gavrcelebas da ganmtkicebas qarTvelTa Soris. pirveli episkoposi, romelsac saistorio wyaroni asaxeleben ioaned, amravlebda samRvdelo pirebs da warmarTebis sakerpoebze eklesiebs aSenebda. ioanem saqarTvelos eklesiaSi RvTismsaxurebis Sesasruleblad Semoitana berZnuli ena, romelic Semdeg gandevnil iqna da mis magier daiwyes qarTuli enis xmareba~.58 ueWvelia, radganac qristianobas qarTvelTa Soris fexi mokidebuli hqonda ukve I saukunidanve da I saukunidan TiTqmis 300 wlis ganmavlobaSi, is, ase Tu ise, CvenSi arsebobda, uTuod rogorc locvebi, ise saxarebisa da sxva wmida wignebis nawyvetebi zepiri Targmnisas mainc qarTul enaze IV saukunisaTvis ukve gadmoRebuli unda yofiliyo. amitom SeiZleba kultmsaxureba or enaze _ berZnulad da qarTulad aResruleboda CvenSi. xolo imis Semdeg, rac 380-ian wlebSi qarTli dai pyro sparseTma, CvenSi iseve, rogorc mTel sparseTis imperiaSi berZnuli saeklesio ena aikrZaleboda. mose xoreneli wers, rom am dros sparselebi wvavdnen berZnul enaze daweril yovelgvar saeklesio wigns, berZnul enaze laparakic ki aikrZala. uTuod aseT dros sparselebi qarTlSi berZnul enas akrZalavdnen da wirva-locvis enad aq mxolod qarTuli darCeboda, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu berZnulis nacvlad sparselebma romelime sxva ena ar danerges saeklesio msaxurebaSi. cnobilia, rom IV saukunis bolos, roca jer kidev ar iyo Seqmnili somxuri anbani, somxeTSi akrZaluli berZnulenovani wirva-locvis nacvlad, sparseTma aiZula somexi samRvdeloeba mieRoT siriuli wignebi (wirva-locva) an SeeqmnaT erovnuli. politikuri TvalsazrisiT qristianobaSi ori mimarTuleba arsebobda _ berZnuli qristianoba da siro-sparsuli qristianoba. pirveli gavrcelebuli iyo romis imperiaSi da misi gavlenis areebSi, xolo meore sparseTis

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imperiaSi. IV saukuneSi `...sakuTriv iranSic sakmaod bevri qristiani iyo~.59 siro-sparsuli eklesia metoqeobas uwevda berZnuls. sparseTis saxelmwifo mxars uWerda Tavis qristianul eklesias. amitomac IV saukunis 80ian wlebSi sparseTis saxelmwifo yovelmxriv Seecdeboda qarTuli eklesia Camoecilebina berZnuli saeklesio sferosgan da Seeyvana siro-sparsul saeklesio sferoSi. yovel SemTxvevaSi, ase moiqca 380-iani wlebidan somxuri eklesiis mimarT. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT arsebul politikur viTarebas, aseve qarTuli wyaroebis Cvenebas, rom qarTul eklesiaSi arsebuli sarwmunoebis mdgomareoba berZnebis mier dawunebuli yofila V saukunis Sua wlebSi _ `ver moawies saqme egre jerisaebr sjulisao~,60 rom mirian mefidan vaxtang gorgaslamde 157 wlis manZilze mxolod61 8 WeSmariti (e. i. berZnuli orientaciis) episkoposi yofila, `xolo sxuani SemSlelni wesisani~, unda vifiqroT, rom somxuri eklesiis msgavsad, qarTuli eklesiac sparseTma gamoiyvana berZnul-romaul saeklesio sferodan da Seiyvana siro-sparsul saklesio sferoSi.

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pirvelad vaxsenoT cxovreba wmidisa da netarisa dedisa Cvenisa da yoveli qarTlis ganmanaTleblisa nino mociqulisa, romelic TviT manve netarma mogviTxro aRsrulebis Jams da aRwera morwmune dedofalma salome ujarmelma, mirian mefis Zis colma, asulma Trdat somexTa mefisa. wmida giorgi kapadokielis qristesTvis wamebis Jams, kapadukiaSi mcxovrebi didebuli kaci zabiloni wavida qalaq romSi imperatoris karze samsaxurisaTvis. am dros branjni ebrZodnen romaelebs. zabilons, romelic romaelTa laSqarSi iyo, misca RmerTma uZleveli Zali. gaaqcia branjni da Sei pyro maTi mefe mTavrebTan erTad. imperatorma gadawyvita maTi daxocva. maSin branjTa daiwyes tirili da Seevedrnen zabilons: `jer mogveci Seni rjuli, Tqveni RmerTis taZarSi Segviyvane da mere mogvkal, rameTu Sen Segvipyar da Senve dagvexmare am saqmeSi~. zabilonma es saswrafod auwya imperators da patriarqs. isini monaTles zabilonis xelTa qveS, Seiyvanes RvTis taZarSi, aziares wmida saidumlos _ qristes sisxlsa da xorcs. diliT adgnen branjni, Caicves samkvdro samoseli, gavidnen kacTa sasaklaoze, loculobdnen da madlobdnen RmerTs naTlisRebisaTvis: `Cven si-

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kvdilSic ukvdavebi varT, rameTu RmerTma am didebis Rirsni gagvxada~. amis Semyure zabiloni mwared atirda, rameTu rogorc cxvrebma, Tavi Tvisi warsakveTad moudriknes. Sevida zabiloni imperatorTan da gamoiTxova samkvdrod Sekazmulni. keisarma uTxra: `momiZRvnia SenTvis da rac ginda, is uyavi~. zabilonma branji tyveebi gaaTavisufla. isini evedrebodnen, raTa wahyoloda maT qveyanaSi da gaeqristianebina mTeli maTi eri. ismina da iTxova patriarqisgan mRvdelni, nebarTva miiRo mefisgan da gahyva. branjTa aTi saerisTavo sixaruliT Seegeba Tavis mefes didi da Rrma mdinaris piras. gahyo mefem xalxi da daayena mdinaris orive napirze. ganibanes wyalSi, amovidnen erT adgilas da zabilonis xelqveS moinaTlnen. aziara isini qristes saidumlos, dautova mRvdeli da ganuwesa qristianobis yoveli wesi. amis Semdeg, gamoemSvidoba da didi simdidriT dabrunda romSi. aq ganizraxa da Tqva: `sjobs, wavide ierusalims da movaxmaro es simdidre RvTis adgils~. Cavida ierusalimSi da gauyo Tavisi monagebi glaxakebs. am dros iq patriarqi iyo iobenali. bavSvobaSive daoblebuli da-Zma iobenali da sosana warmoSobiT zabilonis mxrisani iyvnen. niaforma sara beTlemelma, romelsac emsaxureboda sosana, uTxra patriarqs: `es zabiloni aris mama da ganmanaTlebeli branjTa, RvTismoSiSi da brZeni kacia. mieci Seni da sosana colad~. patriarqi daTanxmda da misca sosana colad zabilons. wavida zabiloni Tavis samSoblo kapadokiaSi. wminda nino, qarTlis moZRvari, maTgan iSva. is iyo dediserTa, sxva Svili mis mSoblebs ar hyavdaT. roca nino Tormeti wlisa gaxda, misma mSoblebma gayides yovelive, rac ebadaT, wavidnen ierusalims da gauyves glaxakebs. ierusalimSi zabilonma miiRo kurTxeva patriarqisagan da ganSorda Tavis cols. cremliT gamoeTxova Tavis asuls, ninos da uTxra: `Sen, Cemo erTaderTo Svilo, gtoveb oblad Cemgan da migandob zecaTa mamas, rameTu is aris obolTa mama, yovelTa mzrdeli da qvrivTa ganmkiTxveli. nu geSinia, Svilo Cemo, Seiyvare qriste mariam magdalinelis msgavsad da lazares debiviT. Tu Senc maTsaviT Seiyvareb, aseve mogcems yovelives, rasac iTxov misgan~. es rom Tqva, saukuno amboris-yofiT eambora da wavida iordanes iqiT meudabnoe kacebTan. xolo deda wmidisa ninosi patriarqis nebiT dadga glaxaki da uZluri qalebis msaxurad. wmida nino dvinel somex niaforTan msaxurobda ori weli da gamohkiTxavda xolme qristes jvarcmas, daflvasa da aRdgomas, rameTu misebr rjulis mcodne ierusalimSi aravin iyo, icoda Zveli da axali aRTqma zedmiwevniT. auwya da uTxra: `vxedav, Svilo Cemo, Sens Zalas, viTarca Zu lomisa,

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msgavsi xar dedali orbisa, romelic haerSi mamalze ufro maRla adis da mis TvalSi mTeli xmeleTi Cans mcire margalitis TvaliviT, saWmels ixilavs, dauSvebs frTebs da mieteveba mas. aseve iyos Seni cxovreba suliwmidis winamZRvrobiT. mogiTxrob yovelives: mokvdavma adamianebma ixiles warmarTebis mosarjuleblad mosuli ukvdavi RmerTi, romelsac undoda qveynis xsna: keTils uyofda ebraelebs, mkvdrebs aRadgenda, brmebs Tvals uxelda, sneulebs kurnavda. SeSurdaT misi da SeiTqvnen, dagzavnes macneni mTel qveyanaze yoveli mxridan ebraelebis mosawvevad da auwyes maT: `aha, sacaa warvwymdebiT, modiT, SemokrbiT yovelni~. maSin movidnen yvela mxridan uricxvi adamianebi, moses rjulis swavlulni, win rom aRudgnen suliwmidas, jvars acves qriste da mis samoselze wili iyares. samoseli CrdiloeTis qveynidan mosul moqalaqeebs SexvdaT. dafles ebraelebma qriste da dabeWdes misi saflavi, magram is aRdga, rogorc adreve Tqva. tiloni saflavSi ipoves. diliT pontoeli pilates colma aiRo es tiloni, saswrafod wavida pontoSi da qristes morwmune gaxda. qristes sudari ki ver ipoves, magram Tqves, petrem ineba misi aReba da masve hqondeso. jvari ki aqvea damarxuli, ierusalimSi, magram misi adgili aravin icis. RmerTi inebebs da isic gamoCndeba~. roca sara niaforisgan es moismina wmida ninom, madloba Seswira RmerTs da kvlav hkiTxa: `sad aris CrdiloeTis qveyana, saidanac mosul ebraelebs wilad xvdaT da waiRes samoseli uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi?~ miugo da uTxra sara niaforma, rom aRmosavleTSi aris qalaqi mcxeTa, qveyana qarTlisa, somxeTTan, mTieli warmarTebisa. im dReebSi wmida aRdgomis Tayvanissacemad efesodan movida erTi dedakaci. hkiTxa mas sara niaforma: `elene dedofali kvlav cdomilebasa da bnelSi imyofeba?~. xolo man upasuxa. `me var maTi mxevali, mcodne yoveli maTi ganzraxvisa, cxadisa da dafarulisa, da vici, rom aqvs mas didi wadili qristes rjulisa da naTlisRebisTvis~. es roca moismina, wmida ninom uTxra niafors: `warmgzavne elene dedofalTan da iqneb miveaxlo mas sasaubrod qristes Sesaxeb~. niaforma ninos wadili auwya patriarqs. patriarqma, wmida ninos dedis Zmam, mouxmo Tavis diswuls, daayena is sakurTxevlis aRsavlis karTan, daado xelebi mxrebze da SesTxova RmerTs: `ufalo RmerTo saukuneTao, xelTa SenTa Sevvedreb Cems obol disSvils, warvavlen Sens saqadageblad, raTa axaros maT Seni aRdgoma. iqmen, qriste RmerTo, amis Tanamgzavri da moZRvari~. gaemgzavrnen wmida nino da efeseli qali qalaq romSi. iq naxes mefeebis naTesavi erTi dedofali, saxelad rifsime da misi dedamZuZu gaiane, qalwulTa monasterSi. elodnen da surdaT ierusalimSi naTlisReba qristes aRsarebisaTvis.

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wmida nino rifsimesTan gadavida sacxovreblad. im weliwadsve moinaTlnen rifsime, gaiane da maTi saxleuli ormocdaaTi suli, umravlesma maTTagan wmida ninos xelqveS miiRo naTlisReba da wavidnen TavianT monasterSi. maTTan iyo wmida nino ori weli. im dReebSi keisarma TavisTvis lamazi sacolis mosaZebnad gagzavna mZebnelni. maT qalwulTa monasterSi ixiles rifsime. gamohkiTxes gvarovneba, radganac aravin iyo saxiT misi msgavsi. daxates ficarze da gaugzavnes. moewona keisars, aRivso sixaruliT da brZana qorwili. waravlina mociqulebi mTels Tavis sabrZanebelSi, raTa yvelani ZRveniTa da didi sixaruliT Sekrebiliyvnen samefo qorwilSi. roca netarma rifsimem, gaianem da sxva wmida da yovladqebulma qalebma ixiles maTze moweuli gansacdeli, gaixsenes ubiwoebis aRsareba da qebis Rirsi martoobiT cxovreba, iwyes tirili, evedrebodnen RmerTs mowyalebas da erTobiT, urTierTganzraxviT, farulad datoves qveyana, ormocdacametma sulma. mividnen ltolvilebi somxeTis areebSi, dvinSi, somex mefeTa sayofelSi. iq Sevidnen maranSi, romelic aSenebuli iyo Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT. Tavs irCendnen xelsaqmiT. xolo keisari aRivso mwuxarebiT, yvelgan gagzavna kacebi maT mosaZebnad. keisris mociqulebi Trdat somexTa mefesTanac mividnen, miarTves mas keisris wigni, romelSic ewera: `TviTmpyrobeli keisari siyvaruliT mogikiTxav Cems Zmasa da Tanamosaydre Trdats. gauwyeb, rom mravali vneba gvaqvs qristianTagan, sruliad Seuracxyofilia Cveni samefo ufleba maTi krebulis mier da dawunebulia Cveni xelmwifeba maTgan, rameTu isini vinme jvarcmul mkvdars emsaxurebian da Zels Tayvanscemen, kacTa Zvlebs pativscemen, TavianTi sikvdili uflis didebad miaCniaT. ar eSiniaT uriebis, uriebs ki jvarcmulis eSiniaT. mefeebs agineben, RmerTebs Seuracxyofen, mzis, mTvarisa da varskvlavebis naTlis Zala arafrad miaCniaT, aramed Seqmnilad ityvian im jvarcmulis mier da ise moaqcies qveyana, rom colebi qmrebs da qmrebi colebs Sordebian. Tumca mravali satanjveliT amovwyvite, magram ufro gamravldnen. SemTxveva mqonda menaxa maTTagan erTi axalgazrda qali da ganvizraxe misi colad moyvana, xolo mas mefis guli sasurvelad ki ar miaCnda, aramed saZaglad. arawmidad Semracxes, farulad gaiqcnen da Seni qveynis sazRvrebSi Semovidnen. icode, Zmao Cemo, gamoiZie isini, roca ipovni, mohkal, xolo maTgan Secdenil pirmSvenier rifsimes roca ipovni, warmoavline. Tu Sen inebeb, SenTvis igule, rameTu aravinaa misi msgavsi saberZneTSi. icocxle RmerTebis msaxurebiT~. roca Trdatma es brZaneba waikiTxa keisrisa, mswrafl iwyo maTi Zebna da ipova isini sawnaxlis saxlSi. rifsimes xilvisas gulisTqmiT aRivso da didi sixaruliT gaixara da ganizraxa misi colad moyvana, rac ar isurva rifsimem. maSin awama is da dedamZuZe gaiane da sxva mravalni maTgan, zogierTebi daimalnen da iltvodnen.

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maSin wmida nino daimala vardis ekalTa Soris, romelic jer ar hyvaoda im dros, roca aRmovidnen sulni wmidaTa mowameTani. ixila wmida ninom wmida stefanes msgavsi diakoni, naTlis olariT Camomavali, xelSi eWira sasakmevle, romelsac asdioda surnelebis kvamli, cis damfarveli. masTan iyo simravle zecis erisa da maT SeuerTdnen wmida mowameTa sulebi. roca es ixila wminda ninom, SehRaRada ase: `ufalo, ufalo, rad damiteveb me aspitTa da iqedneTa Soris~, maSin xma moesma zevidan, romelic ityoda: `aseve wagiyvanen, roca eg ekali, romelic Sens garSemo aris, surnelovan vardis furclad iqceva, adeq da CrdiloeTisken wadi, sadac samkali friad aris da muSaki ki ar aris~. da wavida iqidan wmida nino da mivida orbanTaSi, somxeTis sazRvarze, iq daizamTra mravali gasaWiriT, da meoTxe Tves, romelic aris ivnisi, wavida da moiwia javaxeTis mTebTan, sadac Sexvda gamdinare did tbas, romelsac hqvia faravna, xolo roca iqiT gaixeda da ixila CrdiloeTis mTebi, zafxulis am dReebSi savseni TovliT da sastiki haeriT, SeZrwunda wmida nino da Tqva: `ufalo, ufalo, miiRe suli Cemi Cemgan~. dahyo iq ori dRe da iTxova sakvebi meTevzeTagan, am tbis mebadurTagan. mwyemsebic iq iyvnen da Ramis samwysoSi cecxli enToT. SesTxovdnen TavianT RmerTebs armazs da zadens, aRuTqvamdnen maT Sesawirs, `odes mivideT mSvidobiTo~. wmida ninom mcired icoda somxuri ena, rameTu niaforisgan iswavla. mwyemsTa Soris somxurad molaparake ipova da hkiTxa: `romeli soflidan xarT?~ man miugo da uTxra: `daba elarbinidan da safurclidan da qinZarelni, rabatelni didisa qalaqisa mcxeTisa, sadac RmerTni RmerToben da mefeni mefoben~. da hkiTxa, Tu `saiT aris mcxeTa?~ xolo mwyemsma ase auwya, mdinare, romelic am tbidan gaedineba, mcxeTaSi mivao. daido wmida ninom lodi sasTumlad, dawva da daiZina am tbis gardasadinelSi. ZilSi CvenebiT movida erTi kaci, zomieri simaRlisa da naxevarTmosani. man misca wmida ninos beWdiT daluquli wigni da uTxra: `miarTvi es mcxeTaSi warmarTTa mefes~. xolo wmida ninom daiwyo tirili da vedreba. `ufalo, dedakaci var, ucxo da umecari da arc vici maTi ena, rogor mivide ucxo qveyanaSi, ucxo erSi?~ maSin kacma gauxsna wigni da misca wasakiTxad, dawerili iyo laTinurad da beWedi iyo ieso qristesi. am wignSi ewera 10 sityva: 1. sadac iqadageba es saxareba, iq iTqmeba am dedakacis Sesaxeb; 2. arc mamaka-

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ceba aris da arc dedakaceba, aramed Tqven yovelni erTi xarT~ 3. wadiT da moimowafeniT yovelni warmarTni da naTelscemdiT maT saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da wmidisa sulisaTa; 4. naTeli gamobrwyinda warmarTebze didebad erisa Senisa israelisa; 5. sadac sasufevlis es saxareba iqadageba, munca iTqmodes yovelsa sofelsa; 6. vinc Tqven mogismenT da SegiwynarebT, me Semiwynarebs da vinc me Semiwynarebs, Cems momavlinebels Seiwynarebs, 7. friad uyvarda mariami ufals, rameTu maradis ismenda mis WeSmarit sityvas; 8. nu geSiniaT maTi, romelnic Tqvens xorcs moklaven, maT sulis mokvla ar SeuZliaT; 9. uTxra mariam magdalinels iesom. `wadi, dedakaco, da axare daTa da ZmaTa CemTa~; 10. qadagebdeT saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa; roca es sityvebi waikiTxa wmida ninom, iwyo vedreba RvTis mimarT da gulisxma-hyo, rom zecidan iyo es Cveneba, Tvalni miapyro zecas da meore dRisTvis iTxova Sewevna. amis Semdeg gahyva tbis mdinares da iwyo misi dineba dasavleTis mxares. Seudga ficxel, Znel gzas, mravali Wiri naxa, mxecebis SiSi, sanam ar miaRwia adgils, sadac wyalma aRmosavleTiT iwyo dineba. amis Semdeg daiwyo misi lxena, rameTu ipova iq mogzauri, romelTanac erTad miaRwia qarTlis sanaxebs, qalaqs, romelsac urbnisi ewodeba, sadac ixila ucxo xalxi, RmerTTa msaxuri. cecxls, qvebs, xeebs RmerTad Tayvanscemdnen, risTvisac suli daumwuxrda, Sevida ebraelebis baginSi ebrauli enisaTvis, dahyo iq erTi Tve da qveyanas ecnoboda. erT dRes daiZra didZali xalxi, am qalaqidan warmavalni did samefo qalaqSi, mcxeTaSi, savaWrod da RmerT armazisTvis zvarakis Sesawirad. wahyva wmida nino maT. roca qalaqSi mividnen, dadgnen mogvTa xidTan. cecxlismsaxur am eris Secdomis xilvisas stiroda wmida nino maT warwymedasa da Tavis ucxoobas. meore dRes gaisma sayvirT xma, gamovida uricxvi xalxi viTarca yvavilni velisani da xmauri ismoda saSineli. mefe jer kidev ar iyo gamosuli. roca movida dro, daiwes sirbili da imaleboda yoveli kaci, SiSisgan safarvelSi Serbodnen da aha, myisve gamovida nana dedofali da nel-nela mosdevda eri. Seamkes yoveli quCa sxvadasxvaferi samosliT. iwyo mTelma erma mefis qeba. maSin gamovida mefe sazareli da TvalSeudgami xilviT, wmida ninom hkiTxa erT ebrael qals: `ra aris es?~ man upasuxa: `RmerTi RmerTTa armazi uxmobs, romlis gareSec sxva kerpebi ararani arian~. myisve wavida wmida nino armazis saxilvelad da `aRivsnen mTebi droSebiT da xalxiT, viTarca velni yvaviliTa~. xolo wmida ninom Seaswro armazis cixeSi da dadga kerpis maxloblad, zRudis napralTan. xedavda miuwvdomel da eniT uTqmel sakvirvelebas, Tu rogor eSinodaT mefes, mTavrebs da mTel ers maT winaSe aRmarTuli

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kerpebisa. ixila wmida ninom, rom idga erTi spilenZis kaci, tans oqros jaWvi emosa, Tavze oqros Cafxuti exura, samxreebic oqrosive hqonda da moWedili iyo Zvirfasi TvlebiT. xelT xmali epyra viTarca elva da iqnevda. Tu vinme Seexeboda, sasikvdilod gaiwireboda. ambobdnen: `vaime, ar davaklo dideba am did RmerTs armazs, an ar Sevcde ebraelebisa da mogvebis mosmeniT, romelnic ityvian raRac ucxo RmerTis Sesaxeb, ar mi povos raime biwi armazma da ar mces Tavisi maxvili, romlisac yvelas eSinia~. da SiSiT Tayvaniscemdnen mas. da aseve iyo mis marjvniv oqros kerpi, saxeli misi gaci da mas marcxniv edga vercxlis kerpi, saxeli misi gaim, romelnic RmerTebad miaCnda qarTlis ers. maSin tiroda da oxravda netari nino RvTis mimarT am CrdiloeTis qveynis SecdomisaTvis, rom naTeli maTTvis dafaruli iyo da bneli uflobda maT. mefeni da mTavarni cocxlad STaenTqa jojoxeTs, daetovebinaT dambadebeli, qvasa da xes, spilenZsa da gamoWedil rvals RmerTad Tayvans cemdnen. aRixilna zecad da Tqva: `ufalo erTi wmida samebisagani kacad iqmen da acxovne yoveli sofeli, nu ugulebelyof amaT, rameTu kaci-adamiani Seni xati aris, moxede wyalobiT am ers, Serisxe soflis mpyrobeli, bneleTis mTavari uCino sulebi. miCvene me, ufalo RmerTo mamisa da dedisa Cemisao, mxevalsa Sensa, raTa ixilon yovelTa kideTa qveynisaTa macxovareba Seni, raTa CrdiloeTi samxreTTan erTad ixarebdes da yovelma enam (yvela erma) mxolod Sen gces Tayvani Seni Zis ieso qristes mier, romelsac Svenis madloba da didebismetyveleba~. rogorc ki daasrula es locva wmida ninom, Tvalis erT wamisyofaSi amovarda dasavleTis qari, gaisma sazareli quxilis xma, gamoCnda swrafi Rrublebi saSineli niSniT, moitana dasavleTis niavma myrali da Zlier cudi, mware suni. es rom ixila eris simravlem, iltvoda yoveli kaci da qali qalaqisa da soflebisaken, miecaT dro, rom yovel kacs Seeswro Tavis sayofelSi da swrafad moiwia es risxvis Rrubeli, mwared sastiki da mxolod kerpebis sayofel adgilze moiRo litris63 toli setyva. daamsxvria es kerpebi da Semusra, daarRvia zRudeni sastikma qarma da kldeTa napralebSi Caamxo, xolo wmida nino darCa mSvidobiT im adgilas, sadac pirvelad iyo Sesuli. meore dRes gamovida mirian mefe da yoveli eri. eZebdnen maT RmerTebs da ver ipovnes, ris gamoc SeeSindaT da SeZrwundnen, iglovdnen da ambobdnen: `qaldevelTa RmerTi iTrujan da Cveni RmerTi armazi mtrebi arian, aman erTxel masze zRva miaqcia da axla man Suri iZia, mis mier moxda es~. xolo sxvebi ambobdnen: `romeli RmerTis ZaliTac Trdat mefe gareul Rorad iqca da imave RmerTis ZaliT kvlav kacadve iqmna, im RmerTma

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moaxdina es. rameTu sxva RmerTi uZluria aseTis qmnad~. amas ambobdnen imitom, rom Trdat mefis Rorad da mere kacad gadaqcevis Semdeg, qristes qeba-dideba qarTlSi aRar iTqmoda farulad, rameTu RvTis madlma aRmosavleTSi mofena daiwyo. risxvis dRes, sastiki qaris dacxromis Semdeg, gamovida wmida nino kldis napralidan, ipova bivrilis Tvali, aiRo da wavida kldis qimisaken, sadac idga Zveli cixe. iq idga akakis xe mSvenieri, maRali da rtomravali, sadac iyo bartam mefis sagrili da gansasvenebeli. mivida am xis Ziras, gaakeTa qristes jvris niSani da eqvs dRes aq iloca. madlobda RmerTs da evedreboda, raTa moexeda wyalobiT Secdomili erisTvis, exsna eSmakisagan. iyo meeqvse dRe im Tvisa, roca emanuilma Taboris mTaze mamis xati uCvena mociqulebis da winaswarmetyvelebis meTaurebs. maSin movida erTi sefeqali, saxelad SroSana da ixila is xis qveS, gaukvirda, moiyvana berZnulad metyveli qali, hkiTxa misi gza, xolo wminda ninom auwya da uTxra yoveli gza da saqme Tavisi, garda dedis Zmebisa, rameTu tyved gaacno Tavi. maSin Seewyala SroSanas ucxoebisTvis, aevso cremliT Tvalni da daaZala samefo saxlSi wahyoloda, xolo wminda ninom ar ineba wasvla masTan da wavida SroSana. amis Semdeg mesame dRes Camovida mtkvarze da gaemarTa mefis baRSi, sadac amJamad aris sveti igi RvTiT aRmarTuli da sakaTalikoso eklesia. roca mivida baRis karTan, ixila mcire saxli baRis mcvelia. Sevida wmida nino. ijda iq dedakaci, saxelad anastos. roca dedakacma ixila nino adga, moexvia da Seitkbo, rogorc nacnobma, dabana xelebi, scxo zeTi, miarTva puri da Rvino. dahyo masTan wmida ninom cxra Tve. anastos da misi qmari uSviloebi iyvnen da wuxdnen uSvilobisaTvis. wmida ninos eCvena: movida kaci naTlisferi da Tqva: Sedi am baRSi, xeze aSvebuli vazia _ babilo, naZvTa qveS. aiRe miwa am adgilidan, SeaWame magaT da eyolebaT Svili~. hyo ase wmida ninom da uTxra: `dausabamo RvTis Zis, qristes ZaliT, romelic Tanamosaydre aris mamisa da sulisa wmidisa da romelic Seni xsnisaTvis gankacda, jvars ecva, daefla, aRdga mesame dRes, amaRlda zecad, dajda mamis gverdiT, kvlav mova didebiT gansasjelad cocxlebisa da mkvdrebisa, man mogces Sen gulisxmis-yofa~. da auwya yoveli gza WeSmariti. maSin col-qmarma aRiara qriste da daemowafnen farulad. wmida ninom qalaqis zRudis gareT ipovna mayvlis buCqi, sadac axla aris zemo eklesiis sakurTxeveli, saepiskoposo. da is Seqmna Tavis sayoflad. Seqmna nasxlevisagan jvari da aRmarTa am buCqis qveS. marad loculobda dRe da Rame daucxromlad. da emsaxureboda es col-qmari. ukvirdaT misi Rvawli, locva da mRviZareba.

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da mravalgzis midiodnen uriaTa ubanSi ebrauli enisa da uflis kvarTis gamoZiebisaTvis, romlis Sesaxebac ierusalimSi moismina niaforisgan, rom `kvarTi uflisa mcxeTel ebraelebs wauRiaTo~. amisaTvis gamoeZiebda uriebTan, rom gaego raime kvarTis Sesaxeb. da ipova erTi ebraeli mRvdeli, saxeliT abiaTari da uqadaga mas da mis asuls sidonias Cveni uflis ieso qristes saxareba. irwmunes da daemowafnen isini da sxva eqvsi ebraeli qali. da naTlisRebis gareSe aiRes wmida ninos swavlis uReli. rameTu ara ipoveboda mRvdeli, romelic naTelsscemda da farulad iyvnen misi mowafeni. kurnavda da qristes ZaliT sakvirvelebebs hyofda: mravali ganrRveuli gankurna. ase imyofeboda qalaq mcxeTaSi sam wels. am dros SeiWrnen mirian mefe da misi Zmiswuli, sparsTa mefe, saberZneTSi, xolo konstantine berZenTa mefem qristes ZaliT da jvris winamZRvrobiT gandevna es mefeebi da maTi mravali molaSqre mosra.

Tqmuli abiaTar mRvdelisa, romelic daemowafa wmidasa da netar ninos


`me, abiaTar mRvdeli, wilisyriT vmRvdelobdi im weliwads, roca wmida da netari nino movida mcxeTaSi. maSin momivida werili antioqiidan, ebraeli mRvdlebisgan, romelSic ewera: `samad gahyo RmerTma israelis samefo. Cveni winaswarmetyvelebi dacxrnen, aRsrulda yovelive da ganvibnieniT yvela qveyanaSi. romaelebma daipyres Cveni qveyana. vtirodiT erTurTs, rameTu ganvarisxeT Semoqmedi RmerTi. axla ki ganixile moses wigni da is sityva, romelic dagviwera Cven: `romeli ityYs queyanasa zeda RmrTad Tavsa TYssa, Zelsa damoekiden~. an rom avcdenodiT ieso nazarevelis sikvdils! rameTu vxedavT, roca Cveni winapari mamebi Sescodebdnen xolme RmerTs da daiviwyebdnen mas, maSin tyveobasa da gansacdelSi xvdebodnen, xolo roca moiqceodnen da SesTxovdnen, maSin srulad ganSordebodnen Wirs. es Svidgzis viciT werilidan. xolo axla, radganac Cvenma mamebma xeli Seaxes im mwiri dedakacis Zes da mokles is, aiRo RmerTma xeli wyalobisa Cvengan da gahyo Cveni samefo, gangvaSora mis wminda taZars da ugulebelyo Cveni eri sruliad, da imis Semdeg gavida 300 weli da metic, aRar Seismina Cveni vedreba da unda vifiqroT, rom zeciT iyo is kaci~. amis Semdeg viwye gamokiTxva ninosgan qristes Sesaxeb, Tu vin iyo is da ra mizeziT iqmna Ze RvTisa kacad. maSin aRaRo piri wmida ninom, rogorc aRmomdinare wyarom da iwyo sityva saukuniTgan. Cvens wignebs zepir aRmoityoda, gonebadakarguls gonier-gvyofda, ZmaTa CvenTa Segvabralebda da rjulis cvalebas dagvajerebda, sanam ar virwmune misi sityva. ieso qristeZe RvTisa, misi vneba da aRdgoma. misi saSineli meored mosvla da warmarT-

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Ta molodini. me da Cemi Svili misi gansawmedelis sapkureblis miRebis Rirsi SeviqmeniT, im wylis embazisa, romelsac natrobda daviT da ver eRirsa. da mesma me axlisa rjulisa, sagaloblisa, romelsac natrobda daviT. Rirs viqmeniT RvTis Zis-qristes sisxlisa da xorcis ziarebisa, tkbil ars gemos-xilva qveynis codvaTaTvis Sewiruli kravisa. da ase inebe, ufalo, gansvla Cemi xorcidan. da kvlav mravali saswauli ixila Cemma Tvalebma wmida ninos mier aRsrulebuli Cvens dReebSi.

Tqmuli misive, abiaTar mRvdelisa, kvarTisaTvis uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi


`me, abiaTar mRvdeli, mogiTxrobT im ambavs, romelic meuwya da Cemi yuriT movismine mamisa da dedisagan da wignidanac vici, rameTu maTac mSoblebisa da papebisagan moTxrobiT da smeniT icodnen, rom roca herode mefobda ierusalims, maSin gvesma. `ierusalimi sparselebma daipyreso~, ris gamoc iqmna glova da wuxili qarTveli ebraelebisa, mcxeTis mkvidrTa, bodeli mRvdlebisa, kodiswyaroeli mwignobrebisa, sobis kananelTa TargmanTa eseni yvelani moemzadnen saltolvelad, xolo ramdenime dRis Semdeg movida xma nugeSiscemisa, rom `sparselebi dasapyrobad ki ar movidnen ierusalimSi, aramed iaraRis nacvlad mohqondaT samefo oqro, muri avadmyofobis mswrafl mkurnali, da gundruki saamo surnelebisa. da eZebdnen vinme axalSobil yrmas, daviTis Zes. i poves erTi, mwiri dedakacisagan Sobili udrood da uadgilo adgilas. da eseni am yrmis TayvaniscemisTvis movidnen da mas Seswires ZRveni igi~. es rom gaiges, iqmna didi sixaruli yovelTa zeda huriaTa qarTvelTa. amis Semdeg, roca gavida 30 weli, maSin mowera ana mRvdelma ierusalimidan Cvens mamaTamamas _ eliozs, rom is, romlisTvisac sparsTa mefeebi ZRveniT movidnen, gaizarda, ukve asakSia da Tavis Tavs uwodebs RvTis Zes. modiT yvelani mis sikvdilze, raTa aResrulos moses mcneba~. da wavida aqedan elioz mRvdeli, Cemi mamaTa mama, moxucebuli kaci da hyavda mas deda elia mRvdlis tomisgan da erTi da. evedreboda eliozs dedamisi ase: `wadi, Svilo, mefis mowodebiT da rjulis wesis Tanaxmad, xolo rasac isini ganizraxaven, nu SeuerTdebi cnobierad, rameTu igi aris sityva winaswarmetyvelTa da igavi brZenTa~. wavidnen elioz mcxeTeli da longinoz karsneli da iq daeswrnen uflis jvarcmas. xolo roca damsWvales ufali da kveriT dahkres samsWvals, aq eliozis dedas moesma, ikivla da Tqva. `mSvidobiT, mefobao huriaTao, rameTu mohkaliT Tqveni macxovari da iqmeniT Semoqmedis mkvleli. vai, Cems Tavs, amaze win rad ar movkvdi, rom Cems yurebs ar moesminaT~. da ase Seisvena (gardaicvala).

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xolo uflis kvarTi wilad xvdaT mcxeTelebs. wamoiRo eliozma da moitana mcxeTas. da moegeba misi dai cremliani. moexvia yelze Tavis Zmas, gamoarTva iesos samoseli, miikra mkerdze da suli ganuteva am sami tkiviliT. qristes sikvdilisaTvis, dedisa da ZmisTvis, romelic eziara uflis sisxls. maSin am sakvirvelebam didad SeaSfoTa mcxeTa, gaukvirda TviT did aderki mefes, xalxis simravlesa da mTavrebs. moewona aderki mefes es samoseli, magram sakvirvelebisgan zardacemuli da SeSinebuli iyo. ar ineba gamoReba mkvdris xelidan, romelsac magrad da surviliT Caekra samoseli. eliozma damarxa Tavisi da, mas xelT hqonda samoseli uflisa. es adgili sad aris, ufalma icis. mravali wlis Semdeg aderki mefis Zmiswulma armazaelma moiZia es samoseli ebraelebTan da ver ipova, rameTu auwyes yoveli, rac iyo. aravin icis, sad aris es adgili, ician mxolod, rom aris libanidan Camotanili da mcxeTas darguli da gazrdili naZvis maxloblad~. mravalgzis brZana dedaman Cvenma wmida ninom, rom mogveZia es samoseli, magram masac uTxres: `es is adgilia, sadac kacTa ena ar dadumdeba RvTis sagaloblad~. da esec meuwya mamaCemisgan, rom aris sxvac: saRmrTo ZaliT Semosili ormagi xaleni eliasi am qalaqSi~. eliozis saxli iyo qalaqis dasavleTiT, mogvTa xids iqiT. im dReebSi mravalgzis ixila Cveneba wmida ninom, TiTqosda modiodnen cis frinvelebi Savi ferisani, Sevidodnen mdinareSi, ganibandnen, ganspetakdebodnen da aRvidodnen baRSi, maRlari vazis (babilo) yurZens SeWamdnen, yvavilebs moZovdnen da ase surviliT wmida ninosTan mividodnen, TiTqosda misi iyo is baRi, Semoudgebodnen mSvenieri JiviliT garSemo. es uTxra wmida ninom Tavis mowafe sidonias, abiaTaris asuls, xolo sidoniam uTxra wmida ninos: `ucxov da tyveTa mxsnelo tyveo, ici, rom Sens mier movida es axali dro, Sens mier ismis is Zveli ambavi, mamaTa CvenTa naqmari: sisxlis daTxeva im zeciuri kacisa, rac safuZvlad daedo ebraelebis sircxvils, mTel qveyanaze kidiTkidemde ganbneva, maTi mefobis dacema, wmida taZris warTmeva, ucxo eris mowodeba maTi didebis maTTvis misacemad~. ierusalim,

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ierusalim, ierusalim, rogor gagiSlia frTebi da Semoikreb Seni frTebis qveS ciskiduris yvela ers. aha, aqac mosula es dedakaci, romelic Secvlis am qveynis yovel wess~. da uTxra wmida ninos _ `es Seni Cveneba is aris, rom es adgili Sens mier iqceva samoTxed~. saberZneTidan mefe konstantines mier damarcxebuli mirian mefis mosvlamde wmida ninom gancxadebulad daiwyo qristes rjulis qadageba, gamoaCina vazis nasxlevis jvari da miT iqmoda did sakvirvelebas: wamlis gareSe ganrRveuli gankurna jvris SexebiT. masTan erTad qadagebdnen misi mowafeebi, romlebic Tavdapirvelad farulad daemowafnen Svidi ebraeli qali: sidonia, abiaTaris asuli da sxva eqvsi, baRis mcveli col-qmari da abiaTar mRvdeli _ axali pavle, romelic uSiSrad da daucxromlad qadagebda qristes rjuls. is didi mcodne iyo Zveli rjulisa. axali rjuli iswavla wmida ninosgan da ninoze ufro metad uxsnida yovel kacs WeSmarit rjuls. maSin aRiZrnen ebraelebi da surdaT qviT CaeqolaT abiaTari, xolo man, mefem, miavlina msaxuri da gadaarCina abiaTari sikvdils, rameTu mirian mefes hqonda survili qristes rjulisa. mas esmoda qristes rjulis saswauli saberZneTsa da somxeTSi da ar abrkolebda wmida ninos da misi mowafeebis qadagebas. magram ebrZoda eSmaki, uCino mteri, da ar aRiarebda qristes aRmsareblobas, xolo nana dedofali ufro gulficxeli iyo da Seuracxyofda maT qadagebas. wmida nino loculobda daucxromlad Tavis sayudelSi, mayvlis qveS. gaocebulni iyvnen misi locviTa da mRviZarebiT. eucxoebodaT es saqme. daiwyes misi gamokiTxva, is auwyebda Zvel da axal wignebs, ganabrZnobda ugunurebs da ugulisxmoebs da maT gulSi nergavda qristes siyvaruls. da ase iyo sam wels, gancxadebulad qadagebda qristes da mravali daimowafa. maSin iyo erTi ymawvili, mZimed sneuli. mimohqonda igi dedamiss kardakar, raTa epovna vinme mcodne kurnebisa. magram ver ipova mkurnali da uTxres: aRaraferi eSveleba mag ymas. es qali iyo warmarTi da gulficxi. sZagda qristianuli sjuli, uSlida sxvebsac wmida ninosTan misvlas, magram roca sasowarkveTilebas mieca sxva mkurnalTagan, mivida wmida ninosTan, davarda mis winaSe da evedreboda yrmis gankurnebas. maSin uTxra wmida ninom: `kurnebas, romelic adamianisgan aris, me ar vyof, xolo RmerTma Cemma _ qristem gankurnos es yrma, romelic yvelasgan ganwirulia~. kilikze loculobda xolme wmida nino, masze daadebina yrma da daiwyo RmerTis mimarT vedreba. maSinve ganikurna is yrma, gamojanmrTelebuli misca dedamiss. xolo yrmis dedam aRiara qriste da Tqva: `ar aris sxva RmerTi, garda qristesi, romelsac qadagebs nino~, da daemowafa wmida ninos, Seudga mis kvals da adidebda RmerTs. nana dedofalic Zlier dasneulda. veravin gankurna igi, Tumca, yvela xelovanma mkurnalma scada Tavisi wamlebi. uRononi da sasowarkveTilni

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iyvnen. auwyes dedofals, rom `romaeli tyve dedakacis locviT, romelsac nino hqvia, mravalni sneulni ganikurnen~. maSin ubrZana Tavis msaxurebs, raTa moeyvanaT nino. mividnen dedoflis msaxurebi da i poves nino mayvlis buCqis qveS, meeqvse Jams64 loculobda. uTxres dedoflis brZaneba, xolo wmida ninom uTxra: `ara maqvs brZaneba (neba), rom mivide iq, sadac Cveni Sveba ar aris, TviTon dedofali movides Cems sayofelSi da WeSmaritad ganikurneba qristes ZaliT~. msaxurebma uTxres wmida ninos naTqvami dedofals. maSin dedofalma brZana: `SemimzadeT sawoli da mimiyvaneT masTan~. sawoliT waiyvanes msaxurebma, misma Zem revim da eris simravlem. roca mividnen wmida ninos samyofelTan, dades dedofali sagebel kilikze. daiwyo wmida ninom locva da vedreba RvTis mimarT. moiRo jvari, romelic hqonda, Seaxo Tavze, fexebsa da mxrebze jvrissaxed da maSinve ganikurna da adga gamojanmrTelebuli, irwmuna qriste da Tqva: `ar aris sxva RmerTi, qristes garda, romelsac qadagebs es tyve dedakaci~. da im droidan gaixada is megobrad da Tavis Sinaurad. marad hkiTxavda da gamowvlilviT gamoeZiebda qristes rjuls. aswavlidnen wmida nino, abiaTari _ axali pavle da misi asuli sidonia. morwmune gaxda dedofali da cno WeSmariti RmerTi. gamohkiTxa mefem dedofals, Tu rogor ganikurna meyseulad. mouTxro dedofalma, rac iqmna masze, Tu rogor ganikurna wamlis gareSe locviT da jvrisSexebiT. am saswaulis mxilveli eris simravle amowmebda dedoflis sityvebs. maSin gankvirda mirian mefe, daiwyo gamoZieba qristes rjulisa, mravalgzis hkiTxa uriayofil abiaTar mRvdels Zveli da axali rjuli. nebroTis wignSic, romelic hqonda mirian mefes, ipova erTi adgili: godolis aSenebis dros zecidan gaisma xma nebroTis mimarT: `me var miqael, RmerTis mier dadgenili aRmosavleTis mTavrad. gadi mag qalaqidan, rameTu RmerTi faravs mag qalaqs. ukanasknel Jams mova meufe cisa, romlis xilvac Sen gnebavs. misi SiSi ganaqarvebs amqveyniur sitkbos. mefeni mefobas datoveben da siglaxakes dauwyeben Zebnas. is gixilavs WirSi da gixsnis Sen~. maSin gulisxma-yo mirianma, rom Zveli da axali wignebi emowmebodnen da nebroTis wignic amtkicebda. da mas gauCnda survili qristes rjulisa, magram ebrZoda uCino mteri da abrkolebda qristes aRiarebisgan, gulSi imeds itovebda kerpebisas da cecxlisas. mudam evedreboda dedofali qristes aRsarebisaTvis. dedoflis moqcevis Semdeg mefe ori weli orgulobda. am dros wmida nino ers aswavlida daucxromlad, magram aravis eubneboda: `vin var da saidan movedi~, aramed tyves uwodebda Tavis Tavs. amis Semdeg sparseli mTavari mogvi saxelad xuara, dasneulda da sikvdilis pirs iyo. is iyo mirian mefis naTesavi. Seevedrnen wmida ninos nana dedofali da mefe. mefe mis saqmes cota eWviT uyurebda, amitomac uTxra wmida ninos: `romeli ZaliT mkurnalob Sen? an armazis asuli xar, an zadenis

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Svili. ucxoeTidan moxvedi, amaT Seevedre da mogces wyaloba, moganiWes kurnebis Zala, raTa gearseba ucxo qveyanaSi. didebul arian ukunisamde. xolo Sen iyavi CvenTan, rogorc Cveni Svili, am qalaqSi pativcemuli. magram nu iqadageb romaelTa Secdomil rjuls da nurc ityvi, rameTu es didi da soflis mpyrobeli RmerTebi, mzis momfeneli, wvimis momcemeli da yoveli sulieri arsebis gamomzrdeli qarTlis RmerTebi armazi da zadeni, yovelive dafarulis gamomeZiebelni, Cveni mamebis Zveli RmerTebi gaci da gaim isini unda swamdeT adamianebs. Tu gankurnav am mTavars gagamdidreb da mcxeTis mkvidr-moqalaqeobas mogcem, dagayeneb armazis msaxurad. marTalia, maSin haeriTa da setyviT Seimusrnen, magram is adgili uZlevelia. es qarTvelTa armazi da qaldevelTa RmerTi iTrujan maradi mtrebi arian. aman masze zRva miaqcia da man ki aseTi urva moawia, rogoradac aris qveynis mpyrobelTa Cveuleba, da SenTvis sakmarisi iyos es brZaneba~. miugo netarma ninom: `qristes saxeliT da misi dedis vedrebiT moavlinos Senze RmerTma cisa da qveynis Semoqmedma, yoveli dabadebulis dambadebelma, Tavisi mravalmowyalebisgan madlis erTi naperwkali, raTa icno da gulisxmahyo cis simaRle da mzis naTeli, zRvis siRrme da qveynis sivrce. icode, mefev, vin mosavs cas RrubliT da quxs haerSi, iZvris qveyana misi simZafriT. aris mexTa texa da mis kvalze cecxli aRegzneba misi guliswyromiT. icode, rom RmerTi aris caSi. Tavad is uxilavia yovelive dabadebulisgan, garda misi Zisa, romelic misgan gamovida da qveynad movida rogorc kaci, romelmac aRasrula yovelive, risTvisac iyo mosuli da aRvida zecaSi mamasTan da ixila dausabamo, romelic maRlaa da mdabalTa xedavs. male mogxedavs RmerTi, rameTu aris am qalaqSi erTi saswauli: samoseli RmerTis Zisa da Tqves, elias xalenic aq ariso da mravali saswaulia, romelsac RmerTi gamoaCens. axla ki me Sens mTavars ganvkurnav qriste RmerTis ZaliT da misi vnebis jvriT, rogorc dedofali ganvkurne senisgan~. da mihgvares mas is mTavari, movida dedofalic baRSi naZvis qveS, daayena aRmosavleTiT, aawevina xelebi da aTqmevina samgzis: `ganveSorebi Sengan, eSmako, da Sevudgebi qristesa RmerTis Zesa~. tiroda nino da SesTxovda RmerTs, Sewevnoda am kacs. mowafeebi masTan iyvnen iq erTi dRe da ori Rame. da swrafad gavida misgan suli boroti da daemowafnen ninos TavianTi saxliT da eriT da adidebdnen RmerTs.

Tqmuli sidonia dedakacisa, romelmac ixila da aRwera...


erT zafxulis dRes, 20 ivliss, SabaTs, gavida mefe muxranisaken sanadirod. am dros uCino mterma eSmakma, gulSi Caugdo kerpebisa da cecxlis siyvaruli. gaixsena msaxureba kerpebisa da isurva maxviliT amowyveta yvela

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qristianisa. uTxra mefem Tavis oTx Tanamzraxvels: `Rirsni varT, rom Cvenma RmerTma boroti gviyos, radganac aRar vemsaxurebiT mas da mivuSviT Tavis nebaze grZneuli qristiani mqadageblebi TavianTi rjulis saqadageblad Cvens qveyanaSi. isini grZneulebiT akeTeben sakvirvelebas. axla aseTia Cemi ganzraxva, borotad gavwyvitoT yvela Tayvanismcemeli jvarcmulisa, da umetesad vemsaxuroT qarTlis mpyrobel RmerTebs, vamxiloT dedofali nana, Cemi coli. movananiebinoT da davatovebinoT jvarcmulis rjuli. Tu ar damemorCileba, daviviwyeb mis siyvaruls da sxvebTan erTad wavrwymidav masac~. daeTanxmnen misi Tanamzraxvelebi, radganac maTac am saqmis Sesruleba mxurvaled undodaT, adreve surdaT, magram ver acxadebdnen. xolo mefem movlo sanaxebi muxranisa, avida TxoTis maRal mTaze, raTa moexila kaspi da ufliscixe. ganvida mTis Txemze. Sua samxrobisas dabnelda mze mTaze da iqmna rogorc Rame, bneli, ukuni. dai pyro sibnelem areni da adgilni. ganSordnen erTmaneTs Wirisa da urvis gamo. darCa mefe marto, iareboda mTaTa da maRranTa SeSinebuli da SeZrwunebuli. dadga erT adgilas, gadaewura imedi Tavis sicocxlisa da roca movida cnobaze, ganizraxa gulSi: `aha, SevTxove Cems RmerTebs da ver vpove lxineba. axla juarcmuls, romelsac qadagebs wmida nino da kurnavs misiT, ar SeuZlia Cemi xsna am Wirisagan? rameTu cocxlad var jojoxeTSi da ar vici mTeli qveyana daiqca, Tu mxolod CemTvis iqmna es. axla Tu marto CemTvis aris es Wiri, ninos RmerTo, ganminaTle es bneli da miCvene Cemi samyofeli da vaRiareb Sens saxels, aRvmarTav jvris Zels da Tayvans vcem mas. avaSeneb CemTvis salocvel saxls da viqnebi morCili ninosi romaelTa rjulze~. yovelive es rom warmoTqva, ganaTda da gamobrwyinda mze. CamoqveiTda cxenidan mefe, dadga imave adgilas, gani pyrna xelni aRmosavleTiT da Tqva: `Sen xar RmerTi yovelTa zeda RmerTTa da ufali yovelTa zeda ufalTa, RmerTi, romelsac nino ityvis. saqebelia Seni saxeli yoveli dabadebulisgan cis qveS da qveyanaze, rameTu Sen mixseni Wirisgan da ganminaTle bneli. aha, vcnob. rameTu ginda Cemi xsna, lxena da SenTan miaxleba. kurTxeulo ufalo, am adgilas aRvmarTav Zelis jvars, romliTac idideba Seni saxeli da moixsenieba es saswaulebrivi saqme ukunisamde~. daiswavla es adgili da wamovida. ixiles naTeli da SeuerTda gabneuli xalxi. mefe ki RaRadebda. `mieciT ninos RmerTs dideba, rameTu is aris saukuniTgan RmerTi da mxolod mas Svenis dideba ukunisamde~. nana dedofali da yoveli eri gavida mefis misagebeblad, rameTu esmaT pirvelad daRupva, xolo Semdeg mSvidobiT mosvla, miegebnen qinZarasa da RarTaSi. xolo netari nino loculobda mwuxrs mayvlovanSi misi Cveulebisamebr. Cven masTan viyaviT ormocdaaTi suli. roca movida mefe, iZvroda qalaqi da maRali xmiT RaRadebda mefe: `sad aris is ucxo dedakaci, romelic aris dedaCemi da misi RmerTi Cemi mxsnelia~. da roca uTxres:

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`aq, mayvlovanSia da loculobs~, mivida TviT mefe da mTeli laSqari, Camoxda mefe cxenidan da uTxra ninos: `axla Rirsi var Seni RmerTis da Cemi mxsnelis saxelis aRiarebisa~. wmida ninom aswavla, aRmosavleTiT eca Tayvani da eRiarebina qriste Ze RvTisa. maSin grgvinavda da tiroda yoveli kaci, roca xedavdnen mefesa da dedofals cremlovanT. meore dRes mirian mefem waravlina mociquli saberZneTSi konstantine berZenTa mefis winaSe. masve gaatana ninos wigni elene dedofalTan. da auwyes yovelive saswauli mirianisa qristesmieri, romelic mcxeTaSi moxda da iTxoves saswrafod mRvdelni naTlisRebisTvis. xolo wmida nino da misi mowafeebi uqadagebdnen ers dRe da Rame daucxromlad da uCvenebdnen WeSmarit gzas.

Tqmuli misive eklesiis aRSenebisaTvis


roca mefe da mTeli eri qristianobas daewafa mRvdlebis mosvlamde, uTxra mefem wmida ninos: `msurs saswrafod avaSeno RvTis saxli, sad avaSeno?~ uTxra wmida ninom: `sadac mefeTa goneba mtkicea~. uTxra mas mefem: `miyvars me Seni mayvlovani, iq mnebavs Cemi gonebiT, magram ase ar vyof da ar moveridebi samefo baRs, am naZvTa simaRles, am babilos nayofierebasa da yvavilTa surnelebas, rameTu Cveneba, romelic ixile Sen, SavfrTiani frinvelebis ganbana wyliT, brwyinvaled ganspetakeba da dasxdoma maTi am baRis xeebze, maTi tkbilxmovaneba, WeSmaritad, es xorcieli warmavali baRi Segvecvleba saukuno samoTxed. aq aRvaSenoT RvTis saxli, Cven salocvelad, saberZneTidan mRvdlebis mosvlamdeo~. saswrafod moiRo Zali. aswavlida xuroebs, mohkveTes is naZvi da am naZvisgan Seamzada eklesiis Svidi sveti. ZelebiT aaSenes kedeli da aRmarTes eqvsi sveti TavianT adgilebze, xolo udidesi svetis aRmarTva. romelic sakvirveli iyo saxilvelad da gamzadebuli iyo Sua eklesiis Sesadgmelad, ver SeZles. auwyes mefes, rom adgilidanac ver daZres es sveti. maSin movida mefe eris simravliT, moitanes mravalRone manqanebi. simarjviTa da xalxis simravlis ZaliT Seecadnen aRmarTvas da ver SeZles. gakvirvebuli iyo mefe da xalxi da ambobdnen: `ra aris es?~ roca mosaRamovda: wavida mefe Tavis saxlSi, friad Sewuxebuli, xolo wmida nino da Tormeti misi mowafe qali dadgnen svetTan. xolo sanatreli igi godebda am svetze da adenda Tavis cremls. SuaRamisas gadmoiqca orive mTa armazi da zadeni, TiTqos CamoirRvnen da daayenes orive wyali: da mtkvarma gadmoxeTqa da mihqonda qalaqi. gaisma sazareli tyebisa da godebis xma. da agreTve aragvi gardamoxda cixeze da Seiqmna sazareli grgvinva. SeeSindaT qalebs da iltvodnen. xolo wmida nino RaRadebda: `nu geSiniaT, dano Cemno, mTani aqve arian, wyalni aqve dian, da xalxs, yvelas sZinavs. xolo es TiTqosda mTebi rom

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daiZrnen, marTali Cvenebaa, rameTu urwmunoebis mTani dairRvnen qarTlSi, xolo wyali rom dadga, kerpebisadmi Sewiruli yrmebis sisxli Sewyda. xolo tyebis xma eSmakTa simravle aris, rameTu igloven Tavsa Tvissa, romelnic am adgilebidan gaiqcnen ZaliTa maRlisa da qristes jvariT. iloceT RvTis mimarT~. da maSinve dacxra is xma da iyo arara. da dadga wmida nino, gani pyro xelni da daiwyo locva RmrTis mimarT da ambobda: `raTa ar dabrkoldes es saqme, romlisTvisac warmarTulia mefe~. da kvlav, mamlis yivilamde qalaqis samive kars dasca zari Zlierma laSqarma. dalewes karni da aRivso qalaqi sparsTa laSqriT, da gaisma xma SiSismomgvreli, yivili da kvla, da aRivso yoveli adgili sisxliT da movida simravle maxviliT da SeZaxilebiT. SiSisgan xorci dadneboda da ganilia suli maTi. tirodnen TavianT naTesavebs. ismoda Zlieri xma: `mefe sparsTa, mefeT-mefe xuaran-xuara brZanebs: yoveli ebraeli ganarineT pirisagan maxvilisa~. es rom momesma, SevorguldiT me da aTnive CemTan myofni, da moaxloebulni iyvnen maxvilosanni Cvens garemos, scemdnen da klavdnen. da gaisma Zlieri xma _ `mirian mefe mokleso~. gaixeda mxne moRvawem da Tqva: `es, romelic yivis, vici, axla didad gaWirvebulia da vmadlob RmerTs, rom es niSani aris maTi warwymedisa, qarTlisa cxovrebisa da am adgilis didebisa~, da gvanugeSebda, rogorc xelovani moZRvari, WeSmariti moZRvari da mociquli qristesi. miubrunda am momaval xalxs da uTxra: `sad arian mefeni sparsTani xuara da xuaran-xuara? sabastaniT guSin gamoxvediT, viTom male moxvediT da didi laSqari xarT, Zlierad daleweT es qalaqi da maxvili daeciT. qarsa da niavs gahyeviT bneliT CrdiloeTisken, mTaTa da kedarTa. aha, movida, romlisganac Tqven iltviT~. da ganZra xeli jvrissaxed da meyseulad uCino iqmna yoveli da dadumda garemo. qalebi Sehnatrodnen mas da adidebdnen RmerTs. ciskrisJams mierula yvela qals, xolo me, sidonia, mRviZare viyav. is idga xelganpyrobiT da aha, netars, zed moadga erTi Wabuki sruliad naTliT Semkobili, Seblardnili cecxlis zewriT da Tqva raRac sami sityva. xolo is daeca miwaze. Wabukma xeli mohkida svets, aRmarTa da waiRo maRla. me gakvirvebuli miveaxle mas da vuTxari: `dedofalo, ra aris es?~ xolo man mi pasuxa: `moidrike Tavi qveynad~ da tirili daiwyo. mcire xnis Semdeg adga da amayena, ganvSordiT am adgils. da qalebmac ixiles es sveti, cecxlis saxiT Camodioda. miuaxlovda Tavis xarisxs monakveTi naZvis Zirs. riJraJisas adga mefe, urvisgan Sewuxebuli. gaxeda baRs da dawyebul eklesias. ixila naTeli, rogorc elva aRweuli caSi misi baRidan. sirbiliT da mkvircxlad modioda misi saxlis simravle da qalaqis xalxi masTan erTad. maT sakvirveleba ixiles naTeliT gabrwyinvebuli sveti

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Camodioda Tavis adgilze TiTqosda zecidan. da dadga Tavis xarisxze da daemyara mas kacTagan xelis Seuxeblad. netari iyo is Jami, rameTu am dros SiSiTa da sixaruliT aRivso qalaqi mcxeTa. dioda cremlTa mdinareni mefeTa, mTavarTa da mTeli erisa. sulTqmiT adidebdnen RmerTs da natrobdnen netar ninos, da im dRes didi saswaulebi xdeboda. pirvelad movida erTi ebraeli, Sobidan brma, mieaxla svets, aexila maSinve Tvalebi. adidebda RmerTs. meored yrma sefewuli moiyvanes, amazaspani, rva wlisa. sawoliT moitana dedamisma. sarwmunoebiT dado sawoli naTlis svetis win. evedreboda ninos: `moxede, dedofalo, sikvdils miaxloebul am Cems Zes, rameTu vici, RmerTi RmerTTa is aris, romelsac Sen emsaxurebi da Cven gviqadageb~. maSin wmida ninom Seaxo xelis svets, daado yrmas da Tqva: `gwamdes ieso qriste, Ze RmrTisa, yvela kacis sicocxlisaTvis am qveynad xorcielad mosuli, ganikurne amieridan da adidebde mas, visma Zalamac gangkurna~. da uceb aRdga yrma, rogorc utkivneli. daeca SiSi mefesa da xalxs. sneulebi modiodnen da ganikurnebodnen, sanam mefem ar Seqmna saburveli Zelisa svetis garSemo da dafara xedvisgan. aseve exeboda xalxi mis sarTuls da ikurneboda. swrafad daiwyo mefem da ganasrula eklesia baRSi. roca mirian mefis mociqulebma miaRwies berZenTa mefis konstantines winaSe, mouTxres yovelive rac iqmna. maSin aRivso sixaruliT mefe da dedamisi elene dedofali: pirvelad imisTvis, rameTu madli RvTisa moefineboda yvela adgils da maT xelqveS naTels-iRebda yoveli qarTli. xolo Semdgom uxarodaT, rameTu darwmundnen, rom mirian mefe srulebiT CamoSorda sparselebs da mtkiced miiRo maTi siyvaruli. adidebdnen da hmadlobdnen RmerTs. gamogzavnes mRvdeli WeSmariti iovane episkoposad da masTan ori mRvdeli da sami diakoni. miswera mirians konstantine mefem wigni locvisa da kurTxevisa, RmerTis madlobisa. gamogzavnes jvari da macxovris xati da masTan didi simdidre. xolo elene dedofalma mowera wigni qebisa da nugeSiniscemisa. movidnen iovane episkoposi, masTan erTad mRvdlebi, diakvnebi da mociqulebi mcxeTaSi. aRivsnen sixaruliT mefe, dedofali da mTeli maTi xalxi, rameTu survili hqonda yvelas naTlisRebisa. maSin swrafad gaugzavna mefe mirianma brZaneba yvela erisTavs, spasalarebs da yovel samefo pirs mis winaSe misasvlelad. swrafadve movidnen yvelani qalaqSi. maSin naTeliRo mefem wmida ninos xelqveS, Semdeg dedofalma, maTma Svilebma mRvdlebisa da diakvnebis xelqveS. Semdeg akurTxes mdinare mtkvari. episkoposma Seamzada erTi adgili, mogvTa xidTan, mogvTa karis siaxloves, sadac iyo elioz mRvdlis saxli, iq naTels-cemda TiToeul warCinebuls, da ewoda am adgils mTavarTa sanaTlo. xolo mis qvemoT mdinarisve piras organ, ori mRvdeli da diakvnebi naTelscemdnen xalxs. awydeboda xalxi erTmaneTs da evedrebodnen mRvdlebs, raTa pirvelad is moenaTla. ase eswrafoda naTlisRebas yvela.

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aseTi saxiT naTel-iRo mTelma xalxma da qarTlis simravlem. ar moinaTlnen mxolod kavkasieli mTiulebi da arc movidnen am naTlis mofenaze, aramed darCnen sibneleSi ramdenime xans. da mcxeTeli ebraelebic ar moinaTlnen, barnabianebi (barnabas saxli) moinaTlnen da WeSmarit qristianebad iqcnen. amisTvis mefis winaSe didni gaxdnen, uboZa maT daba, romelsac hqvia cixedidi. aseve ar moinaTla ferozi, siZe mirian mefisa, romelsac hqonda mirian mefisgan micemuli rani bardavamde. arc misma erma miiRo naTeli, aramed mxolod xorcielad emsaxurebodnen mefes. maSin gagzavna mirian mefem episkoposi iovane da masTan erTad erTi warCinebuli konstantine mefesTan da iTxova nawili Zelisa cxovrebisa, romelic imJamad aRmoeCina RvTismoyvare elene dedofals. iTxova mravali mRvdeli, raTa mievlinebina yovel qalaqsa da adgilze da moenaTlaT xalxi, rom monaTluliyo qarTlis yoveli suli. aseve iTxova qviTxuroni eklesiebis aSenebisTvis. roca mividnen konstantine mefis winaSe, sixaruliT uboZa nawili Zelisa cxovrebisa da is ficari, romelzedac iyo damsWvaluli uflis fexebi, agreTve samsWvalni xelebisa. warmogzavna mRvdelni da xuroni friad mravalni, rameTu konstantine mefem misi mefobisas aaSena wmida eklesiebi. misca ganZi episkopos iovanes da ubrZana: `sadac saWirod miiCnev qarTlSi, iq aRaSene eklesiebi Cems saxelze da es simdidre daamkvidre qarTlis qalaqebSi~. da wamovida episkoposi da masTan erTad mirianis mociquli, mividnen im adgilas, romelsac hqvia eruSeTi. datova iq xuroebi eklesiis asaSeneblad, datova ganZi, uflis samsWvalni da wamovida. da agreTve wundaSi datova xuroebi da ganZi, eklesiis dawyebisas wamovida, movida manglisSi, aqac daiwyo eklesiis Seneba da datova uflis ficari. maSin Sewuxda imisTvis mirian mefe, rom pirvelad samefo qalaqSi ar movidnen, aramed sxva qalaqebsa da adgilebSi daiwyes eklesiis Seneba da datoves nawilebi. mivida wmida nino mefesTan da uTxra: `nu swuxar, mefeo, rameTu ase sjobia, sadac mividnen, daTeses RvTis saxeli. aris am qalaqSi samoseli uflisa~. maSin moiyvana mefem abiaTar mRvdeli da masTan erTad mravali ebraeli da gamoikiTxa maTgan uflis kvarTisaTvis, xolo maT mouTxres yovelive, romelic zemoT weria. maSin aRapyro xeli mirian mefem da Tqva: `kurTxeul xar, Sen ufalo, ieso qriste, Zeo RvTisa cxovelisao, rameTu Tavidanve gindoda Cveni xsna eSmakisagan da misi bneli adgilisagan, amisTvis Seni wminda samoseli warmoec wminda qalaq ierusalimidan, Seni RvTaebis armcodne ebraelebisgan da mogvec Cven, ucxo ers~. mefe da mTeli qalaqi ganmtkicdeboda qristianobaSi. daiwyes xuroebma zRudis gareT eklesiis Seneba, wminda ninos sayofel mayvlovanSi, sadac axla aris saepiskoposo eklesia. maSin Tqva wminda ninom: `kurTxeul ars

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ufali ieso qriste da mama uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi. romelmac moavlina wminda sityva misi zecis simaRlidan, Zlieri taxtisgan gadmosuli qveynad, mdablad Sobili daviTis Teslisgan, dedakacisgan mxolodSobilisa wmindisa da ubiwoisa. Cveni cxovrebis mizezi, romelmac cis qveS yvelaferi gaanaTla da morwmuneni acxovna, romelic iSva rogorc kaci, naTeli yovelTa, mama RmerTis xati da viTarca vinme sulis msaxurma naTel iRo wylisagan da sulisagan da jvars ecva, daefla da aRdga mesame dRes, da aRxda simaRlesa mamisa Tana, da kvlav mova didebiT, romelsac Svenis yovelive dideba, pativi da Tayvaniscema mamiT da suliT wmidiT~.

aRmarTebisaTvis patiosnisa jvrisa


qarTlis moqcevis dros idga erTi xe kldis borcvze, Seuval adgilas, es xe iyo friad mSvenieri. da sakvirveleba am xisgan is iyo, rom isarcemuli nadiri, romelic mividoda da SeWamda am xis foTols an Tesls, aRar mokvdeboda, Tundac sasikvdilod daWrili yofiliyo. es Zlier akvirvebda pirvel warmarTebs. auwyes episkopos iovanes am xis Sesaxeb. xolo episkoposma Tqva: `aha, WeSmaritad, es qveyana Tavdapirveladvea Senaxuli RvTisgan Tavis msaxurad, rameTu RmerTisgan aRmocenda es xe, am droisaTvis Senaxuli, rameTu axla moefina RmerTis madli qarTls, da am xisgan jer ars patiosani jvris Seqmna, romelsac Tayvans scems qarTlis mTeli simravle~. da wavidnen rev, Ze mefisa, episkoposi da xalxis simravle. mohkveTes es xe da Tavis rtoebianad wamoiRes da mohqonda aT aTeul kacs, zeze rtoebiT da foTlebiTurT, Semoitanes qalaqSi, zamTris dros, roca sxva yoveli xe xmeli iyo, xolo es foToldaucveneli, surnelovani da saxilvelad mSvenieri. da Zirze daayenes eklesiis karebTan, samxreTiT, sadac uberavda neli niavi da Slida mis foTlebs, Zravda mis rtoebs da misi xilva mSvenieri iyo, rogorc gvsmenia _ alvis xisa. es xe mohkveTes 25 marts, paraskevs, da idga ase 37 dRe. da ar Seicvala feri misma foTlebma, idga Tavis Zirze, wyaros TavTan, vidre ar Seimosa yvela xe foTliT, xolo nayofis gamomRebeli xeebi _ yvaviliT. maSin, 1-el maiss, Seqmnes jvari, 7 maiss aRmarTa mefis xelis dadebiT qalaqis mTelma xalxma, da aha, zecidan Camovida cecxlis jvari da rogorc varskvlavT-gvirgvini daadga eklesias ganTiadamde. gariJraJisas misgan gamovida ori varskvlavi, erTi wavida aRmosavleTiT da erTi dasavleTiT. da is TviTon (varskvlavgvirgvini) aseve brwyinvaled nel-nela gadavida aragvze da dadga kldis borcvze, zemo mxares, im wyaros siaxloves, romelic wmida ninos cremlebma aRmoacena da iqidan amaRlda zecad. da ase mravalgzis ixila mTelma xalxma macxovareba RvTisa Cvenisa. maSin gamohkiTxes wmida ninos, Tu ra aris, rom erTi brwyinvale varskvlavi aRmosav-

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leTiT midis, meore ki dasavleTiT, da Tqva man. `ganavlineT kaci maRal mTebze aRmosavleTiT kaxeTis mTamde da dasavleTiT am qalaqis sanaxebamde, roca gamobrwyindebian is mTiebi, naxon, Tu sad dadgebian da iq aRemarTos jvrebi ieso qristesi~. maSin hyo mefem egre. es dRe iyo paraskevi da SabaTi Tendeboda. moxda igive saswauli, rogorc pirvelad. meore dRes movidnen dasavleTSi gagzavnilebi, romelnic idgnen qvabTa Tavze da mouTxres mefes, rom `gamovida is varskvlavi, amaRlda da miiwia TxoTis mTaze, kaspis gadasasvlelTan, dadga erT adgils da srulebiT gauCinarda~. aseve movidnen kaxeTis mTidan da Tqves: `vixileT varskvlavi Cvensken momavali da daadgra daba bods kuxeTisas~. maSin ubrZana netarma ninom: `waiReT ori jvari, da aRmarTeT erTi TxoTs, sadac gagimxila RmerTma Tavisi Zala da erTi miec salomes qristes mxevals, aRmarTos ujarmis qalaqSi, rameTu bodSi aris eris simravle. bodis daba iqneba RvTis saTno adgili~. hyves egre, rogorc brZana dedofalma. xolo zeciuri saswaulis CvenebiT es patiosani jvari mcxeTaSi datoves. mividnen borcvis qveS, wyarosTan aTies Rame, iloces RmerTis mimarT, netari nino cremliT azavebda wyaros, da iyo kurnebani da didi saswaulebi. meore dRes avidnen kldeze, movida netari nino borcvze, davarda qvebze, tiroda, da masTan erTad mefeebi, mTavrebi da yoveli simravle erisa, ise rom mTebi eqos aZlevdnen. da daado xeli qvas da uTxra episkoposs: `modi, rameTu Senda jer ars, da daswere jvari am qvas~. da man hyo egre da iq aRimarTa is jvari didebiT mefeTagan, daiCoqa uricxvma xalxma da Tayvanisces jvars da aRiares jvarcmuli WeSmaritad Zed RvTisa cxovelisa, da irwmunes samebiT didebuli RmerTi. xolo didi mTavrebi ar ganSordnen wmida eklesias, naTlis svets da cocxal jvars, rameTu hxedavdnen uzomo saswaulebs da miuTxrobel kurnebebs. aRdgomis dResaswaulis kvira dRes mirian mefem da mTelma mcxeTam Seswires Sesawiravi da es dRe ganawesa jvris msaxurebad, aRdgomis dResaswauli, yovelma qarTlma dRevandlamde. ramdenime dRis Semdeg suli wmidis mofenidan ixiles saswauli didad saSineli, oTxSabaT dRes naTlis sveti jvris saxiT daadga am jvars da Tormeti varskvlavi mis garSemo gvirgvinis saxiT. xolo is borcvi akmevda surnelebas. xedavdnen am saswauls yovelni da mravali uRmerToTagani moiqca da moinaTla im dRes. xolo qristianebi kidev ufro morwmuneni gaxdnen da adidebdnen RmerTs. mere kvlav ixiles jvris sxva saswauli _ mzeze Svidjer ubrwyinvalesi naTeli daadga jvars Tavze da RvTis angelozebi aRvidodnen da gardamovidodnen masze, viTarca RumelSi naperwklebi. xolo is borcvi Zlier iZroda. am saswaulis dacxromisas Zvrac wydeboda. ixiles es saswauli, gaukvirda yvelas, ufro da umetesad adidebdnen

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RmerTs. am saswauls xalxi xedavda SiSiT da ZrwoliT. modiodnen gulmodgined Tayvanissacemad. am dros mefis Zes, revs, hyavda sasikvdilod sneuli patara Svili. marto is hyavda. moiyvana da dado jvris winaSe da cremliT Tqva: `Tu miboZeb am yrmas cocxals, avaSeneb luskumas (budes) Sens sayofelad~. maSinve ganikurna is yrma, gacocxlda da gankurnebuli waiyvana. mere movida Tavisi aRnaTqvamis aRsasruleblad da misca madli didi sixaruliT da gulmodgined aaSena mcxeTis jvris luskuma revma, mefis Zem. yovelwliurad modioda da aRasrulebda aRnaTqvam msxverpls. mis Semdeg ufro modiodnen uZlurni da sneulni da ikurnebodnen, sixaruliT adidebdnen wminda jvars. iyo erTi, orive TvaliT brma, Wabuki. ijda is qristes jvris win da meSvide dRis Semdeg aexila Tvalebi, xedavda da adidebda RmerTs. mere iyo vinme dedakaci, ukeTuri sulisgan marad gvemuli rva wlis manZilze, ise, rom Zali da goneba warTmeuli hqonda, Tavis samosels xevda. roca moiyvanes da patiosan jvars amTxvies, meTormete dRis Semdeg ganikurna da Tavisi fexiT wavida, adidebda RmerTs da Tayvansscemda patiosan jvars. iyo aseve erTi mcire yrma, uceb daeca da mokvda. aiRo dedamisma da dado jvris win mkvdari, dilidan saRamomde dedamisi tiriliT loculobda jvris win, sxvebi eubnebodnen: `waiRe, dedakaco, da damarxe, rameTu mkvdaria, nuRar aCereb~. xolo man ar warikveTa sasoeba, aramed ufro da umetesad sawyaloblad tiroda da loculobda. xolo saRamo Jams yrma mosulierda, Tvali aaxila da meSvide dRis Semdeg ganikurna. gacocxlebuli waiyvana yrma dedamisma da adidebda RmerTs. xolo roca ixiles saswaulebi da kurnebani yovlad wmindisa jvrisa, mravali uSvilo midioda, iTxovdnen Svilierebas da mravalSvilianebi xdebodnen, Sesawiravebs da madls aZlevdnen. ara marto mosulebi iRebdnen kurnebas, aramed isinic, romelnic Soridan loculobdnen, maSinve misi SewevniT iRebdnen madls da madlobis Sesawiravad modiodnen. mravalni uRmerTonic ki, WirSi Cacvenilni, rogorc ki SesTxovdnen wmida jvars, maSinve SordebodaT Wiri da modiodnen jvris samTxvevad, saswrafod inaTlebodnen da adidebdnen patiosan jvars. patiosani jvris ZaliT ikurnebodnen piradi satanjvelisgan, modiodnen savedreblad da ikurnebian dRevandel dRemde da adideben mamas, Zes da suli wmindas.

wigni, romelic miswera romis patriarqma da branjTa mefem ninos, mefe mirians da qarTlis ers
am dReebSi mouvida wigni romis patriarqisagan wmida ninos, mefes da qarTlis mTels ers. moavlina branji diakoni qebis Sesasxmelad da kurTxevis misacemad, netari ninosgan locvis wasaRebad da misi madlis saziareblad.

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mas hqonda aseve branjTa mefis wigni wmida ninosTan, rameTu mamamisisgan mieRo naTeli branjTa qveyanas. gagebuli hqondaT ierusalimsa da konstantinepolSi es yovelive, rom simarTlis mze moefina qarTlis qveyanas. amisTvis sanatreli wigni moewera, raTa euwyebina misTvis saswaulebi svetisa da mayvlovanis kurnebis Zala. yovelive moismina da ixila branjma diakonma, rac momxdariyo mcxeTaSi da gakvirvebuli adidebda RmerTs. waiRo wignebi da wavida. maSin uTxra mefem wmida ninos da episkoposs: `mnebavs, raTa iZulebiT, maxviliT movaqcioT mTiulebi da Cemi siZe ferozi, davumonoT isini RvTis Zes da vaTayvanoT patiosan jvars~. maSin uTxres: `ara brZanebul ars uflisgan maxvilis aReba, aramed saxarebiT da patiosani jvriT vuCvenoT WeSmariti gza, mimyvani saukuno cxovrebasTan. RvTis madlma gananaTlos sibnele maT gulebSi~. da wavidnen wmida nino, episkoposi iovane da maT gaatana mefem erTi erisTavi. movidnen da dadgnen wobens, mouxmes mTiulebs, pirutyvis saxis kacebs, WarTalelebs, fxovelebs, wilknelebs da gudamayrelebs. uqadages maT qristianTa WeSmariti rjuli, saukuno cxovrebasTan mimyvani, xolo maT ar inebes naTlisReba. maSin mefis erisTavma mcired warmarTa maxvili maTze da ZleviT Semusra maTi kerpebi. iqidan gadavidnen da JaleTs dadgnen, uqadages erwo-TianeTelebs. maT Seiwynares da naTel-iRes, xolo fxovelebma datoves TavianTi qveyana da gadavidnen TuSeTSi. sxva mTiulTa umravlesoba ar moiqca, daumZima maT xarki mefem, roca ar inebes naTlisReba, xolo ukanasknel Jams, maTi nawili moaqcia abibos nekreselma episkoposma da zogierTni maTganni darCnen warmaTobaSive dRemde. xolo wmida nino wavida ranisken ferozis mosaqcevad. mivida kuxeTSi, daba bodSi da dahyo iq ramdenime dRe. modiodnen masTan kaxeTidan. aRiara misi swavla eris simravlem. dasneulda iq. gaigo es rev, mefis Zem da misma colma salomem, romelnic cxovrobdnen ujarmaSi, mividnen ninosTan. acnobes mefesa da dedofals, maT gagzavnes episkoposi iovane ninos wamosayvanad. magram wmida nino ar daemorCila, maSin wavida TviT mefe da xalxis simravle. xedavda xalxi mis saxes rogorc zecis angelozis pirs. mis samosels bolo nawilebs aclidnen, iRebdnen da sarwmunoebiT emTxveodnen. garSemo msxdom yvela dedofals TvalTagan cremli dioda moRvawe moZRvrisa da sneulTa xelovani mkurnalis ganSorebis gamo. salome ujarmeli da peroJavri sivnieli, maTTan erisTavebi da mTavrebi, hkiTxavdnen: `Tu vina xar an saidan moxvedi am qveyanaSi Cvens macxovrad? sad aRizarde, dedofalo, gvauwye Cven Seni saqme. ratom ambob tyve varo, tyveTa mxsnelo da sanatrelo, rameTu Sengan gviswavlia, rom iyvnen winaswarmetyvelebi RvTis Zis uwinares, Semdgom Tormeti mociquli, sxva samocdaaT-

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ni. CvenSi aravin moavlina RmerTma Sens garda da rogor ityvi, tyve varo da rogora xar ucxo~. maSin daiwyo sityvis Tqma wminda ninom da Tqva: `sarwmunoebis asulno, Cemo maxlobelo dedoflebo, gxedavT Tqven rogorc im pirvel qristian qalebs, gnebavT Cemi gzis cnoba, glaxaki mxevlisa. axla gauwyebT, rom misulia Cemi suli Cems xorcTan da meZineba me dedaCemis ZiliT saukunod, magram aiReT Tqveni sawerlebi da dawereT Cemi glaxaki da udebi cxovreba, raTa icodnen Tqvenma Svilebma Tqveni sarwmunoeba, Cemi Sewynareba, RvTis saswaulebi, romelnic uxilavT~. maSin swrafad aiRes sawerlebi salome ujarmelma da peroJavri sivnielma. daiwyo sityvis Tqma wminda ninom da isini werdnen. mouTxro yovelive, rac Cven zemoT davwereT, cxovreba am wmindisa da netarisa da Sehvedra mefes iakob mRvdeli, raTa iovanes Semdeg iyos is episkoposi. maSin iovane episkoposma swira da aziara wmida nino qristes sisxliT da xorciT. Seavedra Tavisi suli cis meufes, misi qarTlSi mosvlidan meToTxmete wels, qristes amaRlebidan samas ocdaTvramet wels dasabamidan welTa xuTiaTas rvaas ocdaTvramets. SeiZra orive qalaqi, mcxeTa da ujarma, da yoveli qarTli ninos micvalebisas. iq mividnen da damarxes ZleviT Semosili misi gvami imave adgilas _ kuxeTs, daba bodSi, rameTu iq iTxova TviT mefisgan daflva. simdablisaTvis qmna es, radganac es adgili saxelganTqmuli ar iyo. mwuxare iyo mefe da yvela warCinebuli iq misi daflvis gamo, magram mcnebisa da anderZis asrulebisTvis dafles iq. roca aResrula es yovelive, RvTiT ganbrZnobilma mirian mefem ganamtkica wminda samebis da yovelives dambadebeli RvTis sarwmunoebaze yoveli qarTli da hereTi. maSin konstantine mefem gamogzavna mZevali _ mirianis Ze baqari didi ganZiT da moswera ase: `me, konstantine mefe, TviTmpyrobeli, caTa meufis axali mona, pirvelad eSmakisagan datyvevebuli da mere gamoxsnili dambadeblis mier, gwer Sen, RvTiv ganbrZnobils da CemsaviT axalnerg morwmune mefe mirians. iyos SenTan mSvidoba da sixaruli, vinaidan ican sameba erTarseba, RmerTi dausabamo yovlisa dambadebeli, aRar minda me Sengan mZevali, aramed sakmarisia Cvens Soris Suamdgomlad qriste, Ze RmrTisa, JamTa upirveles Sobili, romelic gankacda Cveni xsnisaTvis, da misi patiosani jvari, romelic mocemuli gvaqvs sawinamZRvrod mis guliT mosavebs. dambadebeli RvTis SuamdgomlobiT viyoT Cven ZmebiviT, siyvaruliT. Seni Svili SenTvisve mominiWebia, ixile da gaixare da RmerTisgan movlinebuli mSvidobis angelozi iyos SenTan maradis. dambadebelma RmerTma gandevnos Seni sazRvrebidan eSmaki~. movidnen mirian mefis Ze baqari da mefe konstantines mociquli mcxeTaSi. aRivsnen sixaruliT mirian mefe da dedofali nana da adidebdnen RmerTs. maSin mirian mefem ganasrula saepiskoposo eklesiac, aRasrula misi wlisTavis dResaswauli mravali didebiT. mirian mefis moqcevidan ocd-

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amexuTe wels mokvda misi Ze, revi, siZe Trdat somexTa mefisa, romelsac mamis sicocxleSive mieca mefoba. dafles Tavis mier aSenebul akldamaSi. imave wels dasneulda mirian mefe da aResrula. moiyvana Tavisi Ze baqari da coli nana da uTxra nanas: ...aha, me waval, saidanac movedi, vmadlob mravalmowyale RmerTs, cisa da qveynis dambadebels, romelmac eSmakisgan datyvevebuli mixsna jojoxeTis pirisgan da Rirsmyo marjveniT missa. `Sen, nana, Tu SeZleb, Cemi sikvdilis Semdeg gayavi Cveni samefo ganZi orad da wariRe ninos, Cveni ganmanaTleblis samarxs, droTa cvalebadobiT rom ar Seicvalos is adgili ukunisamde, radgan Tumca mefeTa sajdomia, magram mwiria~. aseve Seevedra episkoposebs, raTa adidon dideba im adgilisa, rameTu Rirs ars pativiscemisa. moayvanina wminda ninos jvari, romelic Tavdapirvelad hqonda, Camohkida samefo gvirgvini jvarze, moiyvana Ze misi baqari, mis Tavze gamosaxa jvris saxe, aiRo gvirgvini jvridan da daadga Zes Tavze. aResrula mirian mefe da daefla zemo eklesiaSi saSualo svetis samxreTiT, CrdiloeTis mxrisaken. am svetSia nawili RvTiv aRmarTuli svetisa. meore wels mokvda nana dedofali da daefla imave svetis dasavleTiT, sadac mirian mefe iyo damarxuli.

qarTlis moqcevis wyaroebi


uZvelesi qarTuli wyaro, romelic mogviTxrobs qarTlis moqcevis Sesaxeb, aris `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~. specialistebs ara aqvT erTiani azri am Txzulebis Sedgenilobisa da daweris TariRze. `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~ Sedgeba ori nawilisagan. pirveli nawili aris istoriuli qronikebis nakrebi. am nawilSi SesaZlebelia gamoiyos fenebi, rac adasturebs, rom is saukuneTa manZilze ivseboda. masSi SedarebiT kargad aRwerilia ambebi VII saukunis bolomde, ufro zustad 681 wlamde VI msoflio saeklesio krebamde, radganac kaTalikosebi orive redaqciis (a, b, redaqciebi)65 Tanaxmad, colosnebi arian, xolo VI krebam episkoposTa colosnoba akrZala. `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ meore nawili aris wmida ninos cxovrebis saeklesio sakiTxavi. es cxovreba ikiTxeboda eklesiaSi da gankuTvnili iyo mrevlisTvis (an monastris berebisTvis) xmamaRla sakiTxavad. amitomac mas win uZRvis wignis mkiTxvelis (medaviTnis) Txovna mRvdlisadmi: _ `gvakurTxen mamao~. rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, `moqcevaAs~ pirveli nawili istoriuli qronikebi, dawerilia sxvadasxva dros da Sekrebilia am wignSi erTad. mis `mefeTa siaSi~ mefeTa saqmianoba qristemde III-I saukuneebSi da I-II saukuneebSi SedarebiT dawvrilebiT aris aRwerili, im gagebiT, rom am drois

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mefeebis saqmianobaca da qveyanaSi maT dros momxdari ambebic aris CamoTvlili, xolo II saukunis nawilisa da III saukunis mefeTa mxolod saxelebia Camowerili, ufro sworad, miwerilia wina qronikaze. es uCvenebs, rom marTali iyo pavle ingoroyva, roca `moqcevaAs~ am nawils qarTvelTa gaqristianebamde Sedgenilad Tvlida. warmarT mefeTa sias mosdevs pirveli qristiani mefis cxovrebis dawvrilebiTi aRwera da wmida ninos moRvaweoba mis dros. Semdeg erTvis IV-V saukunis mefeTa qronikebi. VI saukunis ambebi da VII saukunis dasawyisi (herakle keisris moqmedeba sparseTsa da saqarTveloSi) SedarebiT srulia. amis Semdeg mxolod CamoTvlilia saxelebi kaTalikosTa da zogierTi erisTavisa (VIII-IX saukuneebi, aSot kurapalatis CaTvliT), maTi cxovrebis movlenebis yovelgvari aRniSvnis gareSe. Camowerilia kaTalikosebis mxolod saxelebi. mwerals saTqmeli mravlad eqneboda, Tundac aSot kurapalatis cxovrebis Sesaxeb, magram `moqcevaAs~ ZiriTadi nawilis avtori ar aris aSotis Tanamedrove. `moqcevaAs~ ZiriTadi nawili dawerilia VII saukunis 30-ian wlebamde drodadro, `JamiTi-Jamad~. rogorc vTqviT, am da wina saukuneTa mTavarepiskoposebisa da kaTalikosebis cxovreba SedarebiT aRnusxulia, xolo VIII-IX saukuneebis kaTalikosebi ki mxolod CamoTvlilia. saerTod `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~ qronika rom aris, es dasturdeba imiT, rom igi mTavrdeba sityvebiT: `xolo amisa Semdgomad vinca Seicvalebodis kaTalikozTagani, iwerebodis~.66 `moqcevaAs~ II nawili (`Tavi b~), rogorc vTqviT, eklesiaSi xmamaRla sakiTxavi wminda ninos cxovrebaa. is SeiZleba dawerili iyos nebismier dros, damoukideblad wina nawilisagan. IV saukunidan IX saukunemde. `wminda ninos cxovrebis~ am teqsts istorikosi m. CxartiSvili uwodebs `vrcel redaqcias~, xolo `moqcevaAs~ I nawilSi (qronikebSi) moTavsebul wminda ninos ambavs `mcire redaqcias~. m. CxartiSvili wers _ `...vrcel `ninos cxovrebas~ mogonebaTa krebulis saxe aqvs. ninos biografiis sxvadasxva moments igoneben TviT nino da misi mowafeebi Tu TanamoRvaweni (ebraeli qali sidonia, mamamisi abiaTari, saberZneTidan Camosuli mRvdeli iakobi, mefe miriani)... vrcel `ninos cxovrebaSi~, rogorc wesi, yvela faqts Tavisi mxilveli da mTxrobeli hyavs. erTaderT gamonakliss warmoadgens Sesavali, romliTac ixsneba krebuli. aq aRwerili movlenebis gadmomcemi pirovneba dasaxelebuli ar aris. krebulis gagebisaTvis es nawili umniSvnelovanesia. swored aqedan viciT, rom Cvens xelT arsebuli Zegli qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblis Sesaxeb TviTmxilvelTa mogonebebis Canawerebis krebulia. qarTlis istoriaSi ninos rolis lakonurad gansazRvris Semdeg aq yuradReba aqvs miqceuli im xalxmraval Tavyrilobas, romelic sasikvdilod dasneulebul ninosTan gamosaTxovrad Semdgara daba bodSi. am dros uTxoviaT ninosTvis moeTxro Tavisi cxovrebis Sesaxeb. ninos naambobi CauweriaT salomesa da peroJavrs.

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rogorc vxedavT, Sesavali krebulis masalebiT igi aSkarad sxva araferia, Tu ara avtoris mogoneba, Semdgenlis winaTqma... magram `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Seqmnisas vrceli `ninos cxovrebis~ istoriul qronikasTan mierTebam gamoiwvia am dasawyisis mokveca da avtoris Sesaxeb pirdapiri cnobac amitom daikarga... avtori jer gvamcnobs, rom ninos naambobi erTdroulad orma pirma Caiwera, xolo Semdeg, Tavebis saTaurSi martooden salomes aRniSvniT, gvizustebs, Tu konkretulad romelia Semqmneli warmodgenili ori variantidan... miTiTebuli garemoeba swored salomes avtorobas migvaniSnebs... salomes avtoroba ar Cans moulodnel, konteqstidan amovardnil faqtad... Tu zemoT moxsenebul gamosaTxovar Tavyrilobaze SevaCerebT yuradRebas, ar SeiZleba TvalSi ar mogvxvdes, rom ninos pirvel rigSi ekiTxeba xolme, danarCenebi ki mis naTqvams imeoreben. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom kreba mas mihyavs, misi aseTi aqtiuroba ki logikuria: aRniSnuli RonisZieba xom uJarmeli dedoflis samflobeloSi bodSi mimdinareobs. aq ufliswulis meuRlea diasaxlisi, mas Sehferis umaspinZlos qal ganmanaTlebels... qarTlis pirveli qristiani mefis Zis coli (salome) IV saukunis moRvawea, xolo Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis sami didi specialisti _ n. mari, iv. javaxiSvili, k. kekeliZe `ninos cxovrebis~ aRniSnul redaqcias gviani xaniT aTariRebdnen... SesaZlebelia, `ninos cxovrebis~ vrceli redaqcia iyos IV saukunis Zegli? 1897 wels n. marma gamoTqva varaudi imis Sesaxeb, rom `ninos cxovrebis~ vrceli redaqcia ar unda iyos IX saukuneze adrindeli Zegli. n. mars es argumentacia aSkarad sakmarisad ar eCveneboda. es Cans ara marto iqidan, rom zemoT motanil daskvnas varaudis forma aqvs, aramed iqidanac, rom 1906 wels gamoqveynebul sxva naSromSi `ninos cxovrebis~ vrceli redaqciis TariRTan dakavSirebiT man miuTiTa ara sakuTari zemoT aRniSnuli Sroma, aramed 1900 wels gamosuli iv. javaxiSvilis `andria mociqulisa da wminda ninos moRvaweoba saqarTveloSi~... rac Seexeba iv. javaxiSvils, mas zemoT dasaxelebul werilSi araviTari sagangebo msjeloba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ratom maincdamainc aRniSnul saukuneebs unda ganekuTvnebodes es Zegli, mocemuli ara aqvs. Tavis `Zvel qarTul saistorio mwerlobaSi~ ki `ninos cxovrebis~ vrceli redaqciis TariRze saubrisas n. maris naSromi da is argumenti aqvs miTiTebuli, romelic Tavis droze n. marma sakmarisad ar miiCnia da arc moiSvelia amis gamo. vrceli `ninos cxovrebis~ gviani xaniT damaTariRebel erT-erT sabuTad k. kekeliZes miaCnia is garemoeba, rom TxzulebaSi naxmaria martis weliwadi, romelic misi miTiTebiT, IX saukunis naxevarSi Semovida CvenSi... k. kekeliZis sxva naSromidan ki vigebT, rom Turme, imis garkvevas, Tu rodis Semovida CvenSi martis weliwadi, mkvlevari axdens TviT vrceli `ninos cxovrebis~ saSualebiT, imis daSvebiT, rom igi IX saukunis Zeglia... zemoT Tqmulic aSkaras xdis, rom

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qarTuli wyaroebis mimarT hi perkritikuli damokidebulebis pirobebSi `ninos cxovrebis~ vrceli redaqciis gviani saukuneebiT daTariReba xdeboda faqtebze ZaldatanebiT. rogorc msjelobaSi logikuri wris Semcvlelni n. maris, iv. javaxiSvilis, k. kekeliZis mtkicebani ar SeiZleba miRebul iqnas argumentebad gansaxilveli Zeglis TariRis garkvevisas. dRes specialistTa nawilis mier vrceli `ninos cxovrebis~ gvian xanaSi Seqmnis Sesaxeb Tvalsazrisis gaziareba emyareba mxolod da mxolod dasaxelebul mkvlevarTa avtoritets da ara raime gamtkicebul sabuTs. amgvarad, ara gvaqvs araviTari safuZveli ar davujeroT Txzulebisve miTiTebas imis Sesaxeb, rom igi meoTxe saukunis Zeglia. aqedan gamomdinare, salome uJarmelis avtorobasac araferi eRobeba win. wyaroTmcodneobaSi miRebuli wyaros `udanaSaulobis prezumfciis~ princi pis Tanaxmad, Cveni Zieba aq unda Sewydes. wyaros `ar evaleba~ gvimtkicos, rom sworia. Tu ver vamCnevT, rom misi monacemi yalbia, maSasadame, igi miRebul unda iqnas, rogorc WeSmariti... Txzulebis avtoria qarTlis pirveli qristiani mefis mirianis Zis meuRle salome uJarmeli... IV s-is II naxevarSi bizantiaSi imyofeboda salomes SviliSvili, maSin jer kidev ufliswuli, SemdgomSi qarTlis mefe bakur Trdatis Ze. man cnobil bizantiel istorikosebs gelasi kesarielsa da rufinuss uambo qarTvelTa gaqristianebis istoria. es monaTxrobi `ninos cxovrebis~ Taviseburi modifikaciaa... is garemoeba, rom bakuris mier gadmocemul istorias literaturulad daxvewili forma aqvs da agreTve is, rom orive istorikosTan saubarSi man arsebiTad erTisa da imaves ganmeoreba SeZlo, migvaniSnebs, bakuri saxeldaxelod ki ar Txzavs iberTa moqcevis istorias, aramed winaswar mofiqrebul sagangebod SemuSavebul ambavs hyveba... qarTlis gaqristianeba, rogorc es ukve naCvenebia specialur literaturaSi, iyo ara stiqiuri movlena, aramed politikuri aqti. werilobiTi fiqsaciis gareSe mas ar hqonda araviTari mniSvneloba, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom arc arsebobda, amitom SeuZlebelia vaRiarebdeT imas, rom qarTlSi qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebas IV saukuneSi hqonda adgili da amave dros vamtkicebdeT, rom cnobebi am faqtis Sesaxeb mxolod IX saukuneSi Caiweres. esec rom ara, rogor SeiZleba warmovidginoT, rom V saukuneSi `rigiT~ wmindans SuSaniks saqarTveloSi eZRvneboda specialuri Txzuleba, qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblis `mociqulTa sworis~ ninos cxovreba ki aRwerili ar iyo!.. roca aseTi ndobiT ekidebian gelasi da rufinusi bakuris naambobs qarTvelTa gaqristianebis Sesaxeb, xom ar iTvaliswineben imas, rom qarTveli ufliswuli emyareba didedis Canawers, romelic qarTvelTa moqcevis istoriis sakiTxebSi marTlac `mecnier iyo yovelsave WeSmaritad~, `friadsarwmunoc~ amitom xom ar aris bakuri?~67 `uZvelesi wyaro, romelSic moxsenebuli yofila qarTvelTa moqcevis ambavi, aris IV s-is berZeni istorikosis (gardaicvala 395 w.) gelasi

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kesarielis `saeklesio istoria~, samwuxarod, es Txzuleba dResdReobiT dakargulad iTvleba da CvenTvis cnobili ar aris. magram mermindel avtorebs SemounaxavT TavianT SromebSi misi cnobebi. maT Soris uZvelesia romaeli saeklesio istorikosi rufinusi. rufinusi gelasi kesarielis umcrosi Tanamedrove iyo (gardaicvala 410 w.). mas uTargmnia da Tavis TxzulebaSi Seutania gelasi kesarielis cnoba qarTvelTa moqcevis Sesaxeb. rufinusze dayrdnobiT moTxrobili aqvs iberTa gaqristianebis ambavi V sauk. berZen istorikoss sokrates (dab. 380 w.) Tavis `saeklesio istoriaSi~. iberTa gaqristianebis ambavi gadmocemuli aqvs V s-is meore berZen istorikoss Teodorite kvirels (daib. 390 w.) `saeklesio istoriaSi~, romelic mas dauweria daaxloebiT 449 wels... qarTlis moqcevis ambavi aseve aqvs gadmocemuli kidev erT berZen saeklesio istorikoss sozomens. sozomens Tavisi wigni dauweria 444 wlis maxloblad... sozomens uSualod rufinusiT usargeblia.68 V saukunis berZeni istorikosi gelasi kvizikelic gelasi kesarieliT sargeblobda. gelasi kesarielis istoria, romliTac sargeblobdnen SemdegSi berZenromaeli istorikosebi, daiwera IV saukunis bolos, sul raRac naxevari saukunis Semdeg qarTlis gaqristianebidan. uaRresad sayuradReboa gelasi kesarielis cnoba, rom mas qarTvelTa gaqristianebis ambavi gaugia iberTa samefo saxlis erT-erTi warmomadgenlis, bakurisagan.69 bakur ufliswuls gelasisaTvis gadaucia Semdegi: `iberebTan moxvda vinme qristiani tyve qali. igi qadagebda qristianobas da qristes Zalis daxmarebiT kurnavda avadmyofebs. ase ganukurnavs mas mZimed daavadebuli iberTa dedofalic. amas didi STabeWdileba mouxdenia iberTa mefeze, magram mas jer kidev ver gadauwyvetia qristianobis miReba. cota xnis Semdeg mefe sanadirod wasula, uecrad iseTi burusi Camowolila, rom mefe Tavis mxleblebs daSorebia da martod darCenils gza veRar gaugnia. SeSinebul mefes daxmarebisaTvis miumarTavs tyve qalis RmerTisaTvis. burusi maSinve gafantula da isev naTeli dRe damdgara. Sin dabrunebulma mefem TavisTan ixmo tyve qali da dawvrilebiT gamohkiTxa yovelive misi sarwmunoebis Sesaxeb. amis Semdeg dauwyiaT eklesiis mSenebloba. mSeneblobis dros xalxSi rwmenis gansamtkiceblad RmerTma saswauli moavlina: erTerTi sveti mSeneblebma verafriT ver daayenes Tavis adgilas. RamiT tyve qalis vedrebis Semdeg es sveti Sveulad gaCerda haerSi Tavisi adgilis zemoT. rodesac diliT xalxi isev Segrovda, sveti TavisiT daeSva safuZvelze. eklesiis aSenebis Semdeg imperator konstantines gaugzavnes elCoba TxovniT: gamoegzavna mRvdelmsaxurebi eklesiis kurTxevisa da xalxis mosanaTlavad. konstantines es Txovna sixaruliT ausrulebia~.70 rogorc zemoT moyvanili teqstidan Cans, gelasi gadmogvcems `moqcevaA qarTlisaASi~ Sesuli wmida ninos cxovrebis ramdenadme Semoklebul Si-

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naarss. amitomac m. CxartiSvili marTalia, roca fiqrobs, rom bakurma gelasis gadasca salome ujarmelis mier dawerili `cxovrebis~ arsi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom V saukuneSi TiTqmis yvla cnobili istorikosi _ rufinusi, sokrate, Teodorite kvireli, sozomeni, gelasi kvizikeli da agreTve mose xoreneli weren wmida ninosa da qarTvelTa gaqristianebis Sesaxeb, xolo Cveni Tanamedrove qarTveli istorikosebi, romlebic `qarTuli wyaroebis mimarT hi perkritikulad arian ganwyobilni,~ amtkiceben, rom qarTvelebma wmida ninos Sesaxeb cnobebi mxolod IX saukuneSi Seagroves, `legendac wmida ninos Sesaxeb~ swored maSin SeTxzes. marTlac, rogorc ukve iTqva zemoT, V saukuneSi qarTvelebma wmida SuSanikis Rvawli aRweres da nuTu wmida ninos cxovrebas ar aRwerdnen im dros, roca yvela mezobeli xalxis istorikosebi wmida ninos cxovrebas aRwerdnen? unda davaskvnaT, rom uZvelesi qarTuli wyaro, romelic mogviTxrobs qarTvelTa gaqristianebas, dawerilia IV saukuneSi salome ujarmelis mier. es gaarkvia m. CxartiSvilma. `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ qronikebSi (I nawilSi) aris cnobebi qarTuli eklesiis meTaurebis Sesaxeb IV saukunidan IX saukunemde. Cven moviyvanT amonawerebs maT Sesaxeb wignidan: `Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi,~ I, 1964, gv. 81-97.

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qarTuli eklesiis meTaurebi

( `moqcevaA qarTlisaA ~)
varianti a da varianti b 71

iovane episkoposi _ mTavarepiskoposi

`da mosca mefeman iovane episkoposi da orni mRdelni da erTi diakoni~ (a, gv. 86). `xolo mefeman (konstantine) waravlinna episkoposi iovane da orni mRdelni da erTi diakoni~ (b, gv. 86) `iTxoves xe ebiskoposman da nino, raATa Seqmnan juari~ (b, gv.86) `aRivso urviTa (mefe)... vidre ara iswava mTavarebiskoposisagan~ (b, gv. 87) `wariyvana iakob mRdeli, saberZneTiT mosuli da erisTavi erTi...~ (a. gv. 88) ,,wariyvanes maT Tana mTavarepiskoposi da mRdeli da erisTavi~ (b. gv. 88)

iakob mRvdeli _ mTavarepiskoposi

I iovane episkoposi mTavarepiskoposi

`Sewira Jami iovane da aziara nino...~ (a. gv. 90) `Sewira Jami mTavarebiskoposman da aziara...~ (b, gv. 90)

I I iakob mTavarepiskoposi

`dajda mefed bakur, ZH revisi da mokuda iovane ebiskoposi da dajda iakob, mRdeli igi muniTve mosruli, mTavarepiskoposad~ (a, gv. 91)

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`dajda mefed bakur, Ze revisi, da mokuda ioaneca episkoposi da mis wil dajda mRdeli, romeli eneba ninos mTavarepiskoposad~ (b, gv. 91)

I I I iob

`da dajda mefed ZmaA misi Trdat da mTavarebiskoposi iyo nerse somexTa kaTalikozisa diakoni iob~ (a, gv. 91) dajda ZmaO misi Trdat. maSin mTavarepiskoposi iyo nerse...~ (b, gv. 91,) `da Semdgomad misa dadga varaz-bakur mefed, da misa zeve sparsTa mefisa marzapanni Semovides sivnieTa da igi Kidrad ukujda da mTavarebiskoposi iyo igive iob. da maSin mivida qram xuar borzard sparsTa mefisa pitiaxSi tfilisad qalaqad, cixed, da qarTli missa xarksa Sedga da somxiTi da sivnieTi da guaspuragani~. (a, gv. 91-92) `mefobda bakur ZH Trdatisi, da mTavarebiskoposi iyo elia~ (a, b, gv. 92) `mefobda farsman, diswuli Trdatisi da mTavarebiskoposi iyo sYmeon~ (a, gv. 92) `mefobda arCil da mTavarepiskobosi iyo iona... misve arCilisze oTxni mTavarepiskoposni gardaicvalnes~ (a, gv. 92) `merve arCil da mTavarebiskoposi iyo iona... maT JamTa oTxni mTavarebiskoposni gardaicvalnes~ (b, gv. 92)

I V elia V svimeon VI iona da, agreTve me-VII, me-VIII, me-IX da me-X mTavarepiskoposebi

XI glonoqor XII iovel

`da merme mefobda mirdat da mTavarebiskoposi iyo glonoqor. da ese mTavarebiskoposi erisTvadca iyo barazbod pitiaxSisagan qarTls da hereTs. da misa Semdgomad mefobda didi vaxtang gorgasali, da mTavarebiskoposi iyo iovel. maSin wariyvanes vaxtang sparsTa da

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XIII miqael

Semdgomad raodenisame Jamisa moiqca da mTavarebiskoposi iyo miqael da man miamTxYa ferKi pirsa mefisasa vaxtangs (a, gv. 93), romlisaTYs mizezisaTYs, da ganaZo eklesiisagan. maSin mefe aRivso guliswyromiTa mravliTa da eqca feri pirisa misisaA da ganizraxvida mravalTa borotTa damKobad qristeanobisa~... (b, gv. 93) `da mswrafl waravlinna mociqulni saberZneTad da iTxova mefisagan da patriaqisa kaTalikozi da mosces kaTalikozi petre da Tana hyvanda samueli... da dasua mun Sigan petre kaTalikozi. da ese iyo qarTlisa moqceviTgan 170-e welsa. maSin gardacvalebul iyvnes mefeni aTni da kaTalikozni cametni. aqaTgan iwyes kaTalikozTa mamadmTavrobad. pirveli kaTalikozi iyo petre vaxtangis mefisa ze~ (b, gv. 93) `aRaSena quemoO eklesiaO vaxtang mefeman da dasua petre kaTalikozi. da ese iyo qarTlis moqceviTgan ro welsa. mefeni gardacvalebul iyvnes aTni da mTavarebiskoposni aTcametni. xolo pirveli kaTalikozi iyo petre~ (a, gv. 93) `...mefobda daCi uJarmeli da kaTalikozi iyo samovel~ (a, gv. 93) `mefobda daCi da kaTalikozi iyo samoel~ (b, gv. 93) `da amisa Semdgomad mefobda daCi uJarmeli da kaTalikozi iyo samovel da misa ze tfiliss kacni dasxdebodes da mariamwmidaA eklesiaA aRaSenes da kaTalikozi iyo petre da amisa Semdgomad mefobda bakur, ZH daCisi da kaTalikozi iyo samovel~. (a, gv. 94). `da misa Semdgomad mefobda farsman da kaTalikozi iyo TavfaCag da misa zeve Cimaga~ (a, gv. 94)

XIV petre I kaTalikosmamamTavari

XV samoel II kaTalikosi

XVI TavfaCag XVII Cimaga

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`da misa Semdgomad mefobda farsman sxuaA da kaTalikozi iyo dasabia, mkYdri mcxeTeli da aqaATgan orTa saxlTa aRiRes kaTalikozobaO mcxeTelTa. mkYdrTa da misve mefisa ze kaTalikozi iyo evlale~ (a, gv. 94). `sxvaA farsman da kaTalikozi iyo saba, mkYdri mcxeTisa aqaiTgan orTa sxuaTa dai pyres kaTalikozoba mkYdrTa mcxeTisaTa~ (b, gv. 94) `mefobda bakur da kaTalikozi iyo makari da... Semdgomad kaTalikozi iyo samovel da merme simon-petre da mis bakuris zeve daesrula mefobaA qarTlisaA~ (a, gv. 94) `mefobda bakur da kaTalikozi iyo makari~ (b, gv. 94) maSin mcxeTaA aTxeldeboda da tfilisi eSeneboda... da kaTalikozi iyo samovel da nelad re Sekrba qarTli. da ganaCines erisTavad guram da merme kurapalatadca. aman dadva safuZveli patiosnisa juarisaO da amas zeve iyo kaTalikozi samoelve sxuaA da tfilisisa mkYdrTa didsa eklesiasa daiwyes... da kaTalikozi iyo barTlome~ (a, gv. 95) `maSin sparsni uflebdes qalaqsa da somxiTsa da sivnieTsa da guaspuragansa da kaTalikozi iyo samuel (meaTormete) da nelad-re Sekrba qarTli... ganaCines guram didi... da kaTalikozi iyo (meaToTxmete) barTlome. (b, gv. 95)

XVIII dasabia// saba XIX evlale

XX makari XXI samovel XXII simon-petre

XXIII samovel XXIV samovel sxvaA

XXV barTlome

XXVI barTlome meored

`da erisTavobda igive didi stefanoz da kaTalikozi iyo barTlome meored~ (a, gv. 96) `erisTavobda stefanoz da kaTalikozi iyo barTlome: 15~ (b, gv. 96)

XXVII iovane XXVIII babila XXIX Tabor

`da Semdgomad erisTavobda adarnerse da misa ze samni kaTalikozni icvalnes: iovane, babila, Tabor~. (a, gv. 96)

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`Semdgomad erisTavobda adarnerse da mis ze samni kaTalikozni icvalnes: iovane (16), (17) Tabor da babila (18); (b, gv. 96)

XXX samovel XXXI evnon

`...tfiliss dajda stefanoz da kaTalikozi iyo samovel da misa zeve evnon~ (a, gv. 97) ,,amis Semdgomad erisTavobda stefanozve, Zmai misi da kaTalikozi iyo samuel da evnon~ (b, gv. 97)

XXXII TavfaCag XXXIII evlale XXXIV iovel XXXV samovel XXXVI georgi XXXVII kYrion XXXVIII izid-bozid XXXIX `T - e~ Teodore XL petre XLI mamaA XLII iovane XLIII grigol XLIV klementios XLV sarmean XLVI Talale XLVII samovel XLVIII kYrile XLIX grigol

xolo kaTalikozni, romel evnonisiTgan momarT iyvnes: TavfaCag 1; evlale 2; iovel 3; samovel 4; georgi 5; kYrion 6; izid-bozid 7; Teodore 8; petre 9; ese cxrani colosanni iyvnes. merme mama 1; iovane 2; grigol 3; klementos 4; sarmean 5; Talale 6; samovel 7; kYrile 8; grigol 9; samovel 10; georgi 11; gabriel 12; ilarion 13; arseni 14; evsuqi 15; basili 16; miqael 17; daviT 18; arseni 19; (a, gv. 97)

232 L samovel LI georgi LII gabriel LIII ilarion LIV arseni LV evsuqi LVI basili LVII miqael LVIII daviT LIX arseni

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xolo kaTalikozni, romelni TvobiTgan iyvnes: TavfaCag 21; avlali 22; iovel 23; samoel 24; giorgi 25; kvirion 26; izibod 27; Teodore 28; petre 29; ese colosanni iyvnes (b, gv. 97)

qarTuli eklesiis uflebrivi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb


CvenSi azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa imis Sesaxeb, Tu vis eqvemdebareboda qarTuli eklesia Seqmnis droidan. erTi, ufro gavrcelebuli azriT miRebulia, rom qarTuli eklesia IV saukunis dasawyisSi antioqiis iurisdiqciaSi Sevida, meore, amJamad miRebuli azriT, qarTuli eklesia konstantinopols daeqvemdebara. magaliTad, Cveni enciklopedia wers qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxeb `eklesia V saukunemde ierarqiulad eqvemdebareboda jer konstantinopols, Semdeg antioqiis sapatriarqoebs~.72 aseTi Tvalsazrisi ar iTvaliswinebs eklesiaTa Soris arsebul realur urTierTdamokidebulebas, romelic arsebobda gansaxilvel dros. ai, ras wers amis Sesaxeb g. narsiZe: `zogierT samecniero naSromSi gamoTqmulia Tvalsazrisi, rom saqarTvelos eklesia Tavdapirvelad konstantinopolis episkoposs emorCileboda. es Sexeduleba ar aris swori, radgan ar iTvaliswinebs saeklesio ierarqiis ganviTarebis periodebs. nikeis I saeklesio krebis dadgenilebiT, imdroindeli msoflio sam kaTedras gaunawilda (ukve arsebuli tradici-

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is Sesabamisad): roms, antioqias da aleqsandrias. TiToeuli am qalaqis mTavarepiskoposi Tanabrad iyo miCneuli. romis mTavarepiskoposi ganagebda dasavleTs, aleqsandriisa _ afrikas, xolo antioqiis _ mTel aRmosavleTs. nikeis krebaze (325 w.) bizantiis Sesaxeb araferi iyo naTqvami im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom konstantinopoli jer kidev ar iyo imperiis dedaqalaqi. is dedaqalaqi gaxda mxolod 5 wlis Semdeg, magram amis Semdegac konstantinopolis episkoposi eqvemdebareboda herakliis episkoposs da Sedioda Trakiis diocezSi. mxolod ax.w.aR-is 381 wlidan _ konstantinopolis II msoflio saeklesio krebidan _ daiwyes konstantinepolisaTvis uflebaTa miniWeba, xolo diocezi da sapatriarqo uflebebi mas mxolod qalkedonis IV msoflio saeklesio krebis (451 w.) dadgenilebis 28-e muxliT daumtkicda. e.i. saqarTvelo IV saukunis 20-30-ian wlebSi konstantinepols ver daeqvemdebareboda, radgan amgvari daqvemdebareba I saeklesio krebis dadgenilebiT akrZaluli iyo. saqarTvelos daqvemdebareba mxolod antioqiis mTavarepiskoposisadmi iyo SesaZlebeli. TviT konstantinopolis episkoposis gamgeblobis zona ar scildeboda sakuTar qalaqs, romelic antioqiis diocezSi Sedioda.~73 savsebiT samarTliania g. narsiZe, rodesac wers, rom qarTuli eklesia misi daarsebis dros konstantinopols ver daeqvemdebareboda, radganac: 1. TviTon konstantinopolis episkoposi sxvaze iyo daqvemdebarebuli: herakliis episkoposze Trakiis diocezSi; 2. aseT daqvemdebarebas maSin arsebuli saeklesio kanoni krZalavda; 3. qarTuli eklesiis daarsebis dros, rac uTuod 326 wlamde moxda, konstantinopoli jer kidev ar arsebobda. is 330 wels daarsda, magram g. narsiZe ar aris swori, roca wers, rom nikeis I saeklesio krebis dadgenilebiT imdroindeli msoflio sam kaTedras gaunawildao~. es sakiTxi RvTismetyvelTa mier kargadaa damuSavebuli. amis Sesaxeb cnobili kanonistis profesor troickis azris moyvanamde unda iTqvas Semdegi: Sua saukuneebSi eklesiisa da saxelmwifos Serwymam bizantiis magaliTze gamoiwvia is, rom bizantiis imperia eklesiurad pretenzias acxadebda mTel msoflioze. am dros warmoiSva Teoria e.w. `pentarqiis~ Sesaxeb, TiTqosda mTeli msoflio 5 saimperio sapatriarqos Soris ganawilda msoflio krebebis mier. imperiaSi arsebobda 5 sapatriarqo: romis, konstantinopolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiis da ierusalimis. TiTqosda am sapatriarqoebs mTeli msoflio gaunawildaT. ai, ras upasuxebs amis Sesaxeb `pentarqiis~ Teoriis damcvels profesori s. troicki, aRiarebuli da marTlmadideblur samyaroSi saxelganTqmuli kanonisti: _ `avtori cdilobs aRadginos Sua saukuneTa bizantiuri Teoria pentarqiisa, romlis mixedviT TiTqosda msoflio krebebma xuT sapatriarqoTa Soris gahyo msoflio. magram rogor SeiZleba iTqvas, rom I-ma msoflio krebam gahyo msoflio 5 patriarqs Soris, maSin roca sapatriarqoebi saerTod ar arse-

234

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bobda, ara marto I msoflio krebis dros, aramed kidev did xans mis Semdeg, roca konstantinopolis eklesia daqvemdebarebuli iyo herakliis mitropolitze, xolo ierusalimisa Seadgenda erT eparqias kesariis mitropolitisas, roca eklesiebi yvela romauli provinciisa (isini iyvnen daaxloebiT 100), balsamonis cnobiT (II msoflio krebis meore kanonis ganmarteba, aTen. s. int. 11. 171), avtokefalurni iyvnen da mxolod mniSvnelovani qalaqebis eklesiebma gaaerTianes TavianTi Zalauflebis qveS ramdenime provincia, rasac sanqcia misca I-ma msoflio krebam. pentarqiis gageba ar hqonia arc II msoflio krebas, romelmac Tavisi me-2 kanoniT daamtkica avtokefalia yvela diocezis eklesiebisa, aseTi iyo aTze meti... kerZod, daadastura TavisTavadoba asiis, pontosa da Trakiis diocezuri eklesiebisa da gauTanabra isini aleqsandriisa da antioqiis eklesiebs, xolo konstantinopolis eklesias misca mxolod pativis upiratesoba da ara Zalaufleba. Zvel msoflio krebaTa aqtebis saukeTeso Tanamedrove mcodne eduard Svarci ambobs konstantinopolis eklesiis Sesaxeb, rom 380 wels is iyo `mxolod mcire marTlmadidebluri Temi () da rom oqropiri mxolod `cdilobda~ Seeqmna Tavisi kaTedrisTvis raRac msgavsi saeklesio provinciisa~. ucxo iyo pentarqiis fiqri IV msoflio krebisTvisac, mis kanonebSi laparakia mxolod sami diocezis konstantinopolis saydarze daqvemdebarebis Sesaxeb, xolo aqtebSi teritoriebis gayofis Sesaxeb antioqiasa da ierusalimis eklesiaTa Soris. mxolod VI msoflio krebis 36-e kanonSia saubari `xuTi saydris~ Sesaxeb, Tumca kanoni maT ar uwodebs sapatriarqoebs, magram iq sityvac ki ar aris daZruli mTeli msoflios gayofis Sesaxeb am saydrebs Soris, aramed mxolod dgindeba maTi rangi, radganac 36-e kanonSi CamoTvlili yvela eklesia imyofeboda erT berZnul-romaul imperiaSi, romlis gareTac arsebobda sxva avtokefaluri eklesiebic _ siro-sparsuli, qarTuli, somxuri. TviT berZnulromaul imperiaSic imyofeboda kvi prosis avtokefaluri eklesia, romlis konstantinopolis eklesiisgan damoukidebloba daamtkica amave VI msoflio krebis 39-e kanonma. agreTve arsebobdnen avtokefaluri eklesiebi karTagenis da I iustinianisa... sinamdvileSi konstantinopolis eklesiam ise, rogorc yvela avtokefalurma eklesiam SeiZleba avtokefalia mianiWos mxolod Tavis sakuTar nawils. visgan miiRo konstantinopolis eklesiam gansakuTrebuli ufleba, mianiWos avtokefalia (msoflios sxva eklesiebs), avtori ar ambobs, radganac aseTi ufleba mas arasodes miuRia. mravali avtokefaluri eklesia arsebobda maSin, roca TviTon konstantinopolis eklesias ar gaaCnda avtokefalia, aramed damokidebuli iyo herakliis mitropolitze, araviTari saerTo konstantinopolis patriarqs ar gaaCnda kvi prosis, karTagenis, I iustinianis, qarTul, siro-sparsul, somxur eklesiebis avtokefaliebTan~.74

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arasworia azri, TiTqos qarTuli eklesia V saukunemde ierarqiulad eqvemdebareboda ucxoeTs, ucxoeTis sapatriarqoebs. jer kidev 451 wlamde sapatriarqoebi saerTod ar arsebobdnen, miT umetes, IV saukunis dasawyisSi konstantinopolis episkoposs patriarqi ar ewodeboda. garda amisa, rogorc zemoT davinaxeT, I-ma msoflio krebam 325 wels `msoflio sam kaTedras~ ki ar gaunawila, aramed sanqcia misca arsebul faqts, rom imperiis didi qalaqebis episkoposebs Tavisi Zalaufleba ukve gavrcelebuli hqondaT ramdenime Tavis garSemo arsebul provinciaze. krebam am qalaqebis episkoposebs ar CamoarTva es provinciebi, aramed cno es ukve arsebuli iuridiuli faqti. laparakia ara mTel msoflios ganawilebaze, aramed didi qalaqebis irgvliv arsebul provinciebze. saerTod unda iTqvas, rom rogorc I, ise II msoflio krebis droisTvis `msoflios ganawilebis~ problema ar arsebobda. aseTi gageba mxolod imis Semdeg gaCnda, rac imperiis dedaqalaqebis eklesiebi gadaiqcnen sapatriarqoebad da am sapatriarqoebma imperiis teritoria erTmaneTs Soris gainawiles, e.i. ufro gvian, gansakuTrebiT ki iustinianes epoqaSi (VI s.) da mis Semdeg. zemoT moyvanilidan gamomdinare azri, rom qarTuli eklesia antioqiis episkoposs daeqvemdebara imis gamo, rom msoflios ganawilebis dros aRmosavleTi antioqias Sexvdao, asaxavs ara IV s-Si arsebul viTarebas, aramed Camoyalibebulia Semdgom saukuneebSi, `pentarqiis~ Teoriis Camoyalibebis periodSi, gansakuTrebiT 451 wlis msoflio krebis Semdeg. antioqiis Zlier eklesias IV saukuneSi CrdiloeTiT esazRvreboda pontos diocezis aseve Zlieri eklesia, romelic uSualod emijneboda saqarTvelos. 381 wels II msoflio krebam me-2 kanoniT daamtkica yvela diocezis eklesiebis avtokefalia, maT Soris pontosi, da gauTanabra is antioqiis eklesias. pontos Zlieri eklesia IV saukuneSi ar dauSvebda, rom antioqias, mis Tanabar eklesias, iurisdiqcia gaevrcelebina pontos uSualod mosazRvre, mezobel saqarTveloze, imis gamo, rom antioqiasa da saqarTvelos Soris swored pontos vrceli diocezi (mcire azia) iyo gadaWimuli (pontos diocezi faqtobrivad mTel mcire azias moicavda). qarTuli wyaroebi erTxmad miuTiTeben, rom qarTuli eklesiis dafuZnebaSi monawileoba miiRo antioqiis episkoposma. es faqti SeiZleba aixsnas imiT, rom 330 wels, konstantinopolis daarsebamde, qalaqi antioqia, faqtobrivad iyo dedaqalaqi romis imperiis aRmosavleT nawilisa, amitomac rodesac qalaq romSi imperatorTan Cavidnen wmida ninos mier gagzavnili elCebi da survili gamoTqves qarTuli eklesiis daarsebisa, imperatorma antioqiis episkoposs daavala am misiis Sesruleba. saqme is iyo, rom imis Semdeg, rac imperatorma diokletianem imperia ramdenime nawilad dahyo, imperiis aRmosavleTis yovelgvari saqme, samxedro Tu samoqalaqo, unda gadaWriliyo ara romSi, aramed aRmosavleTSive misi sagangebo mmarTvelis mier. aRmosavleTis

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saeklesio saqmeebic aseve aRmosavleTis mmarTvels daekisra. amitomac episkoposs, romelic antioqiaSi ijda, daevala daxmareboda qarTvelebs saeklesio saqmis mowyobaSi. `diokletianem (284-305) daawesa e.w. `tetrarqia~ _ `oTxis mmarTveloba~, ris safuZvelzec romis imperias marTavda ori imperatori da ori keisari. imperatori diokletiane da keisari galeriusi ganagebdnen imperiis aRmosavleT nawils, maqsimiane da konstancius xlori _ dasavleTs~.75 qarTuli eklesiis saqmis gadaWra aRmosavleTSi mjdom mTavari qalaqis episkoposs daekisra, IV s-is dasawyisSi. amitomac savsebiT SesaZlebelia, imperatoris sagangebo davalebiT antioqiis episkoposi saqarTveloSi Camosuliyo IV s-is dasawyisSi, magram es srulebiT ar iZleva uflebas, gakeTdes daskvna, rom amis Semdeg qarTuli eklesia antioqiis eklesias daeqvemdebara. isic unda iTqvas, rom qarTuli eklesiis dafuZnebis dros imperiis dedaqalaqi konstantinopoli rom yofiliyo, qarTuli eklesiis organizaciis saqmeSi daxmarebis gaweva daevaleboda ara antioqiis episkoposs, aramed dedaqalaqisas (saubaria ara ierarqiul daqvemdebarebaze, aramed eklesiis organizaciaSi daxmarebis gawevaze). mainc romeli eklesiis iurisdiqciis qveS imyofeboda qarTuli eklesia IV saukuneSi antioqiis, ierusalimis Tu konstantinopolis? amJamad da winaTac, es sakiTxi yovelTvis sadavo iyo. mecnierebis erTi nawili asaxelebs antioqias, meore konstantinopols, mesame ierusalims, imis gamo, rom arc erT Cvenamde moRweul sabuTSi mtkiced ar aris dadgenili es sakiTxi, ufro metic, sabuTebi ar iZlevian amis dadgenis saSualebas. vfiqrob, unda vilaparakoT ara sabuTebis naklovanebis Sesaxeb, aramed sabuTebis mimarT midgoma unda Seicvalos. Tu Cven am sakiTxs mivudgebiT im TvalsazrisiT, romelic jer kidev XII saukuneSi gamoTqva cnobilma kanonistma balsamonma, sabuTebis naklovanebis Sesaxeb aRar vimsjelebT. balsamoni wers, rom IV saukuneSi romis imperiaSi avtokefaluri iyo yvela provinciis eklesia. IV saukuneSi imperia dayofili iyo provinciebad, arsebobda 100-ze meti provincia. balsamonis azriT, im dros 100-ze meti avtokefaluri eklesia arsebobda mxolod romis imperiaSi, radganac yvela provinciis mitropolia avtokefaluri iyo da mitropolitebi xeldasxmulni iyvnen Tavisive provinciis saeklesio krebis mier. T. balsamoni me-2 msoflio krebis me-2 kanonis ganmartebisas rCevas iZleva: `miaqcie yuradReba, rom am kanonis Tanaxmad, provinciebis yvela mitropoliti avtokefaluri iyo da xeldasxmulni iyo Tavisi krebis mier~.76 amrigad, balsamonis Tanaxmad, IV saukuneSi imperiaSi arsebuli yvela provinciis eklesia avtokefaluri iyo. igive iTqmis diocezTa eklesiebzec. msxvili administraciuli erTeuli diocezic Tavis mxriv provinciebad

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iyo dayofili. IV saukunisaTvis imperiaSi 12 administraciuli erTeuldiocezi yofila, xolo TiToeul am diocezSi 16-mde provincia Sedioda.77 cnobilia, rom diokletianem (284-305) administraciul nawilebad dayo imperia `uzarmazari imperiis erTpirovnuli marTva Wirda, amitom diokletianem saxelmwifo jer orad gayo, meore naxevris mmarTvelad airCia Tavisi axlobeli maqsenciusi da mas `avgustusis~ tituli mianiWa, xolo Semdeg imperiis TiToeuli naxevari orad gayo da am gamonayof olqebs saTaveSi Cauyena ori keisari. amrigad, imperia oTx nawilad gaiyo (tetrarqatis sistema). konstantine I-ma (306-337) aRadgina imperiis erTianoba, magram SeinarCuna saxelmwifos teritoriuli dayofa 4 provinciad, romelTagan TiToeuli 12 diocezad iyofoda. konstantines droidan imperatoris xelisuflebis Zlier dasayrdenad iqca qristianoba~.78 b. lominaZem aRniSna, rom IV saukunisaTvis provinciebSi arsebuli eklesiebi avtokefalurni iyvnen. provinciaTa eklesiebis (anu eparqiebis) avtokefaluroba imiT gamoixateboda, rom provinciis saeklesio kreba irCevda da adgenda meTaur episkoposs (mitropolits), garedan Caurevlad. imperiaSi provinciaTa didi ricxvis gamo avtokefaluri eklesiebis ricxvic didi iyo. ukve IV saukuneSive daiwyo da V saukuneSi, faqtobrivad, TiTqmis dasrulda avtokefaluri eklesiebis gaerTianeba jer diocezebis eklesiebSi, xolo Semdeg sapatriarqoebSi. amitomac IV saukuneSi arsebuli 100 avtokefaluri eklesiis nacvlad V saukunis Sua wlebSi imperiaSi 6 avtokefaluri eklesiaRa darCa. es procesi avtokefaluri eklesiebis gauqmeba da msxvili sapatriarqoebis daarseba TandaTan xdeboda. `IV-V saukuneebSi, patriarqatis Camoyalibebis periodSi, gaCnda miswrafeba, moespoT mitropolitebis avtokefalia da diocezis meTaur `upirveles~, `uwarCinebules~ mitropolitebs (momaval patriarqebs) mieRoT eparqiis `Tavis~, `mitropolitis~ dadgenis ufleba. magram vidre patriarqatis sistema sabolood gaimarjvebda (qalkedonis 451 wlis IV msoflio krebis kan. 28) da vidre yvela mitropoliis avtokefalia gauqmebuli ar iyo, msoflio saeklesio krebebi sakmaod iZleodnen mitropoliebis avtokefaliis SenarCunebis garantias (nikeis I, kan. 7; efesos, kan. 8), amitomac jer kidev ar iyo Zneli sadavod qceuli avtokefalia isev Zveli avtokefaliis sasargeblod gadaWriliyo (kviprosis magaliTi 431 wels efesos krebaze).79 manamde ki, mitropoliebis avtokefaliis mospobamde, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, `bizantiaSi saeklesio provinciis (igive eparqiis) meTaurs (aerTianebda eparqiaSi Semaval episkoposebs) ewodeboda `Tavi~, `pirveli~, aseve `Tavis~ mniSvnelobiT ixmareboda `mitropolitic~ (miRebuli iyo, rom saeparqio (provinciis) eklesiis `Tavad~ aucilebliv is episkoposi unda daesvaT, romelic samoqalaqo administraciis (provinciis) dedaqalaqSi (metropolis) ijda, mas dedaqalaqeli ewodeboda da amas garda Tavisi sakuTari

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gansagebeli hqonda, rogorc erT-erT episkoposTagans (antioqiis kr., kan 9). episkoposTa `Tavs~ bizantiaSi adgenda TviT saeklesio olqis (eparqiis) episkoposTa kreba, garedan Caurevlad (mociqulTa, kan.34; nikeis I, kan.6; antioqiis, kan. 9; efesos, kan.8).80 amitom saeklesio mitropoliebi (eparqiebi) warmoadgendnen avtokefalur eklesiebs (balsamonis komentari konstantinopolis II ms. krebis me-2 kanonis Sesaxeb:81 marTlac, IV saukuneSi saxelmwifos yvela olqis, anu provinciis eklesiebis avtokefalurobas adastureben ara marto IV saukuneSi mowveuli krebebis kanonebi (mag. nikeisa da efesosi), aramed Semdeg saukuneTa kanonistebic (mag. balsamoni). amitomac amasTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba daisvas aseTi kiTxva: Tu IV saukuneSi imperiaSi yvela olqis eklesia avtokefaluri iyo, ratom ar unda yofiliyo IV saukuneSive daarsebuli qarTuli eklesia avtokefaluri da ratom unda yofiliyo qarTuli eklesia daqvemdebarebuli ucxoeTis sxva eklesiaze? CvenSi dabejiTebiT miRebulia, rom qarTuli eklesia ierarqiulad eqvemdebareboda konstantinopolis anda antioqiis eklesiebs. magram aseTi daqvemdebareba xom ewinaaRmdegeboda mamaTa kanonebs? nuTu msoflio eklesia dauSvebda kanonebis darRvevas qarTuli eklesiis mimarT? kanoni ki, rogorc iTqva, aseTi iyo: `episkoposTa `Tavs~ bizantiaSi adgenda TviT saeklesio olqis (eparqiis) episkoposTa kreba, garedan Caurevlad (mociqulTa, kan. 34, antioqiis, kan. 9, nikeis I, kan. 6, efesos, kan. 8)~82 SeuZlebelia qarTuli eklesiis mimarT IV saukunis TiTqmis yvela krebis kanonebi daerRviaT. IV saukuneSi saqarTvelo iyo ara romis imperiaSi Semavali provincia, aramed damoukidebeli saxelmwifo. saqarTvelo imperiis provinciac rom yofiliyo, maSinac ki qarTuli eklesia avtokefaluri unda yofiliyo imperiis sxva provinciaTa eklesiebis msgavsad, magram, saqarTvelo rogorc vTqviT, damoukidebeli saxelmwifo iyo. amitomac, miT umetes, misi eklesia avtokefaluri unda yofiliyo. miuRebeli da mouTmeneli iqneboda IV saukuneSi arsebuli saeklesio kanonebis darRveviT damoukidebeli saxelmwifos _ saqarTvelos eklesia daqvemdebareboda imperiis romelime provinciis eklesias. riT gamoixateboda IV saukuneSi eklesiis avtokefalia? imiT, rom am eklesiis meTaurs saeklesio olqSive (provinciaSi) adgendnen garedan Caurevlad. qarTuli wyaroebic adastureben IV saukuneSive qarTuli eklesiis meTaurebis saqarTveloSive dadgenis faqts, qarTvel mefeTa da gavleniani wreebis mier CvenSi `ismebodnen~ eklesiis meTaurebi, garedan Caurevlad. wmida nino evedreboda mefe mirians, rom episkoposad `daesva iakobi~. qarTuli eklesiis meore episkoposi iakobi mefe mirianis nebiT dajda eklesiis meTaurad. am episkopos iakobis sikvdilis Semdeg qarTvelTa mefem episkoposad `dasva~ elia. `...mokuda episkoposi iakob, da dasua mis wil elia~.83 elias sikvdilis Semdeg aqve, saqarTveloSive, axal episkoposad

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`dasves~ svimoni _ `...mokuda elia episkoposi, da dasues sYmon~.84 aseve saqarTveloSive mRvdeli miqaeli `daadgines episkoposad~. es mRvdeli saberZneTidan yofila Camosuli, magram episkoposi ki ar yofila, aramed mRvdeli, episkoposad is saqarTveloSive `daadgines~ _ `moiyvana mRdeli WeSmariti saberZneTiT, saxeliT miqael da daadgina igi episkoposad...~85 da ase Semdeg. episkoposebs aqve, saqarTveloSive, `adgenen~ an `svamen~ Sesabamisi wreebi. am dros, Cans, im saeklesio kanons eyrdnobian, romlis Tanaxmadac eklesiis meTaur episkoposs irCevs da adgens saeklesio kreba, romelSic adgilobrivi episkoposebi monawileoben xelisuflebis nebarTviT. antioqiis 344 wels mowveulma krebam daakanona ukee arsebuli wesi, romlis Tanaxmadac eklesiis meTaurad episkoposTa Soris unda SeerCiaT dedaqalaqis episkoposi (antioqiis krebis kan. 9); am meTaurs anu `Tavs~ adgenda TviT saeklesio olqis episkoposebis kreba. am kanonis Tanaxmad, qarTuli eklesiis `Tavi~ IV saukuneSive unda aerCia qarTuli eklesiis episkoposebis krebas, mefis anda Sesabamisi administraciis nebarTviT da es `Tavi~ aucileblad unda yofiliyo dedaqalaqis mcxeTis episkoposi. marTlac, Cveni wyaroebi swored amas miuTiTeben, rom mefe yovelTvis qarTuli eklesiis meTaurad `svams~ mcxeTis episkoposs. amiT imdroindeli saeklesio kanonebi daculi iyo. imisTvis, rom saqarTveloSive aerCiaT eklesiis meTauri da daesvaT is Tavis saydarze, saWiro iyo episkoposTa krebis gadawyvetileba, anu saWiro iyo, rom saqarTveloSive im dros ori an meti episkoposi mainc yofiliyo. iyo, Tu ara saqarTveloSi IV saukuneSi ramdenime episkoposi? diax, iyo. Cven gvaqvs wyaro, romlis Tanaxmadac, ukve mirian mefis sikvdilis droisTvis (IV saukunis 60-ian wlebSi) saqarTveloSi iyo ramdenime episkoposi, magram agreTve arsebobs XX saukunis mecnierTa varaudi, rom im dros saqarTveloSi erTi episkoposi unda yofiliyo. es varaudi ar efuZneba raime wyaros, amitomac Cven unda vendoT im Zvel qarTul wyaros, romelic wers, rom mefe mirianma sikvdilis Jams `...davedra episkoposTa, raTa adidon dideba mis adgilisa~86 _ wmida ninos saflavisa. mirianma Tavisi ukanaskneli neba ganucxada ramdenime episkoposs, imJamad myof episkoposebs, `episkoposTao~ _ weria wyaroSi. swored es `episkoposni~ TavianT krebaze irCevdnen qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs, xolo mefe `svamda~ mas. krebis Catareba, arCeva da dasma ar iyo ucxo imdroindeli qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis. garkveuli wreebi TviT mefes irCevdnen da svamdnen taxtze. magaliTad, mefe mirianis Zmiswuli Trdati mefed `dasves~ qarTvelma warCinebulebma _ `maSin warCinebulTa qarTlisaTa zraxva yves da dasues mefed simamri varaz-baqarisi, Ze revisi, Zmiswuli mirianisi, kaci moxucebuli, saxeliT Trdati...~87

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aseve mefe arCil I aznaurTa krebam `dasva~ mefed. `SeiTqunes aznaurni qarTlisani... dasues mefed arCil~88 unda vifiqroT, rom radganac imdroindeli qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis Sekreba da meTauris gamorCeva uCveulo ar yofila, qarTveli episkoposebic TavianT krebaze gamoirCevdnen eklesiis meTaurs, rogorc amas moiTxovda zemoT miTiTebuli msoflio saeklesio kanonebi. qarTul eklesiaSi ramdenime episkoposi yofila ara marto mefe mirianis dros, rasac miuTiTebs matiane, aramed mis Semdegac, magaliTad, vaxtang gorgasals, roca is sparseTidan dabrunda, miegebnen qarTveli episkoposebi, ara saeklesio reformis Semdeg, aramed reformamde _ `warmovida vaxtang qarTlad, da miegeba Ze misi daCi da mis Tana yovelni spasalarni da maT Tana episkoposni~.89 cnobilia, rom saeklesio reformis Semdeg vaxtangma episkoposTa ricxvi gaadida, magram matianis cnoba, rom am reformamdec qarTul eklesiaSi iyo araerTi episkoposi, Zalze mniSvnelovania. TviT vaxtangis siWabukis drosac qarTul eklesiaSi ori gamorCeuli da didi avtoritetis episkoposi yofila. matiane wers: `da ganmzada mefeman saxli erTi da dajda saydarTa zeda maRalTa, xolo juanSer spaspeti da ornive episkoposni dasxdes saydarTave, da sxuani yovelni erisTavni dasxdes selebiTa...~90 vaxtangis saeklesio reformamdec (V saukunis I naxevarSi) Cvens eklesiaSi mravali episkoposi yofila.91 Tumca, naxsenebi `ori episkoposis~ Sesaxeb sxvadasxva azria gamoTqmuli, magram rogorc TviT konteqstidan Cans, erTi episkoposi iyo berZnuli saeklesio orientaciisa, xolo meore siro-sparsuli saeklesio orientaciisa, amitomac axlo mdgomi qristian maniqevelTa mimdinareobasTan. Tu gavixsenebT, rom maniqevelizmi warmoadgenda garkveulwilad cecxlTayvanismcemlobisa da qristianobis sinTezs,92 maSin gasagebi gaxdeba, rogorc aRniSnavda p. ingoroyva, ratom uwodebdnen am qristian episkoposs mwvalebels `sparsels~. jer kidev vaxtang gorgaslis reformamde qarTul eklesiaSi rom mravali episkoposi iyo, amas miuTiTebs isic, rom qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs im dros hqonda tituli `mTavarepiskoposi~, e.i. ufrosi, mTavari, pirveli episkoposi, es igivea, rac `episkoposTa Tavi~. `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~ Cveni uZvelesi matiane, romelsac VII saukunes miaweren, Tumca masSi wina saukuneTa fenebic aris, qarTuli eklesiis yvela meTaurs, garda pirvelisa, mTavarepiskoposs uwodebs. `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~ ganasxvavebs episkopossa da mTavarepiskoposs da, Cans, realurad asaxavs eklesiaSi arsebul viTarebas. magaliTad, is pirvel meTaurs qarTuli eklesiisas `episkoposs~ uwodebs garkveul dromde, misi moRvaweobis pirvel xanebSi, xolo Semdgom mas ukve `mTavarepiskoposs~ uwodebs. aseve mTavarepiskoposs uwodebs mis Semdeg yvela episkoposs, romelnic meTaurobdnen qarTul eklesias, V saukunis 70-wlebamde (kaTalikosobis dawesebamde).

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`moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ orive redaqcia (a da b),93 qarTuli eklesiis pirvel meTaurs, saberZneTidan Camosul iovanes `episkoposs~ uwodebs _ `da mosca mefeman iovane episkoposi da orni mRdelni da erTi diakoni~ (gv. 86, a), `xolo mefeman (konstantinem) waravlinna episkoposi iovane da orni mRdelni da erTi diakoni.. (gv.86, b). magram imis Semdeg, rac mefe mirianis wyalobiT qarTuli eklesia gaZlierda, xalxi masiurad gaqristianda da qveyanaSi eklesiebis Seneba daiwyes, iovane ukve mTavarepikoposis xarisxSia moxsenebuli _ `...aRivso urviTa (mefe)..., vidre ara iswava mTavarepiskoposisgan~ (gv. 87, b). ioanes Semdgom meTaurs qarTuli eklesiisas, aseve mTavarepiskoposs uwodebs matianis orive redaqcia. `dajda mefed bakur Ze revisi, da mokvda ioane ebiskoposi da dajda iakob mRvdeli igi muniTve mosruli, mTavarepiskoposad~ (gv. 91, a). `dajda mefed bakur, Ze revisi da mokuda ioaneca episkoposi da mis wil dajda mRdeli, romeli eneba ninos mTavarepiskoposad~ (gv. 91,b); moqcevaA qarTlisaA da `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobebi erTmaneTs avseben. Tu `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, mefe mirianis gardacvalebis dros Cvens eklesiaSi ukve ramdenime episkoposi iyo, `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad, am episkoposebis meTaurs ukve aqvs tituli `mTavarepiskoposisa~. `dajda mefed ZmaA misi Trdat da mTavarebiskoposi iyo nerse somexTa kaTalikozisa diakoni iob~ (gv. 91, a); `dajda ZmaA misi Trdat, maSin mTavarepiskoposi iyo nerse~ (iqve, b). varaz baqaris drosac, rodesac sparselebma dai pyres saqarTvelo, mTavarepiskoposi kvlav iobi yofila `da mTavarebiskoposi iyo igive iob, da maSin movida qram xuar borzard sparsTa mefisa pitiaxSi tfilisad qalaqad cixed da qarTli missa xarksa Sedga...~ (gv. 92, a) bakuris mefobis dros ukve elia mTavarepiskoposobda _ `mefobda bakur, ZH Trdatisi da mTavarebiskoposi iyo elia~ (gv. 92, a,b), xolo farsmanis mefobisas mTavarepiskoposobda svimon `mefobda farsman diswuli Trdatisi da mTavarebiskoposi iyo sYmon~ (gv. 92, a,b). arCilis mefobis dros oTxi mTavarepiskoposi gardaicvala mefobda arCil da mTavarebiskoposi iyo iona ... misve arCilis ze oTxni mTavarepiskoposni gardaicvalnes~ (gv. 92, a). mefe mirdatis dros mTavarepiskoposi glonoqori mTavarepiskoposic yofila da erisTavic. xolo vaxtang gorgaslis dros kaTalikosobis dawesebamde mTavarepiskoposobdnen ioveli da miqaeli. `da mere mefobda mirdat da mTavarepiskoposi iyo glonoqor da ese mTavarebiskoposi erisTvadca iyo barazbod pitiaxSisagan qarTls da hereTs. da misa Semdgomad mefobda didi vaxtang gorgasali da mTavarebiskoposi iyo iovel. maSin wariyvanes vaxtang sparsTa da Semdgomad raodenisame

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Jamisa moiqca da mTavarebiskoposi iyo miqael~ (gv. 92-93, a); miqaelis Semdeg qarTuli eklesiis meTauris tituli iyo ara `mTavarepiskoposi~, aramed `kaTalikosi~. rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, matianeTa Tanaxmad, kaTalikosobis dawesebamde IV da V saukuneebSi qarTul eklesiaSi iyo mravali episkoposi, amitomac, upirveles episkoposs ewodeboda `mTavarepiskoposi~. mTavarepiskoposis kaTedra mcxeTaSi (dedaqalaqSi) iyo da arsebuli wesis Tanaxmad, is samoqalaqo mTavrobis nebiT unda `damjdariyo~ saydarze, qarTuli eklesiis meTauri ucxoeTidan ki ar CamohyavdaT, aramed saqarTveloSive irCevdnen Tanamdebobaze da aZlevdnen Sesabamis wodebas, Tumca is erovnebiT SeiZleba araqarTveli anda dabal xarisxSi myofi Camosuliyo saqarTveloSi. magaliTad, miqaeli ubralo mRvdeli iyo, roca saberZneTidan Camoiyvanes. is saqarTveloSive akurTxes da dasves mTavarepiskoposis taxtze, xolo iobi diakvnis xarisxSi myofi Camovida saqarTveloSi. is aseve saqarTveloSi iRebs axal, maRal tituls. SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva: Tu qarTuli eklesia IV saukuneSi iseve avtokefaluri iyo, rogorc imperiis provinciaTa eklesiebi, maSin ratom gamogzavna qarTuli eklesiis pirveli episkoposi romis imperatorma konstantinem? `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ cnobebis Tanaxmad, qarTuli eklesiis formirebisas, xalxis monaTvlisa da damoZRvrisaTvis saWiro iyo ucxoeli samRvdeloebis daxmareba, magram SemdegSi qarTuli eklesia, cxadia, iseve unda mowyobiliyo, rogorc mTel maSindel romis imperiaSi iyo mowyobili sxva eklesiebi, kerZod, yoveli provinciis eklesia avtokefaluri iyo da maTi meTauri provinciis samRvdeloebis mierve irCeoda. aRsaniSnavia, rom provincias, anu olqs ZvelqarTulad ewodeboda `samTavro~ da did sjulis kanonSi IV saukunis krebebis kanonebis gadmocemis dros sityva `samTavro~ mravaljer ixmareba. II msoflio kreba, romelic 381 wels iqna mowveuli, imperiis aRmosavleTSi asaxelebs ramdenime avtokefalur eklesias, maT Soris antioqiisas, asiisas, pontosas, Trakiisas da wers: `TiToeulsa samTavrosa krebaA mis samTavroAsaA ganagebs nikeas gansazRvrebulisa kanonisaebr~. (II msoflio krebis me-2 kanoni). rogorc aRvniSneT, `samTavro~ ZvelqarTulad ewodeboda romaul `provincias~ da am provinciaSi arsebul eklesiasac. am kanonis Tanaxmad, TiToeuli olqis (provinciis, `samTavros~) eklesia (anu eparqia) imarTeba am olqis saeklesio krebis mier. II msoflio kreba meore kanonSive asaxelebs imperiis gareT arsebul eklesiebsac, romelnic mamaTa mier damtkicebuli Cveulebisamebr unda imarTebodeso. aq igulisxmeba, pirvel rigSi, amave kanonSi moxsenebuli nikeis krebis kanonebi, romelnic cnobdnen da icavdnen arsebuli saeklesio samTavroebis, anu imperiis gareT myofi (`barbarozebrTa warmarTTa Soris myofTa~)94 eklesiebis avtokefalias.

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swored aseve esmoda es kanoni udides kanonist balsamonsac da aseve wers cnobili kanonisti s. troicki amis Sesaxeb: `meore kanoni meore msoflio krebisa, swored im krebisa, romelmac gansazRvra swavla erTiani eklesiis Sesaxeb, saerTod ukrZalavs yvela adgilobriv eklesias, gaavrcelos Tavisi iurisdiqcia Tavisi sazRvrebis iqiT... istoria mowmobs, rom im krebis dros TavisTavadni, avtokefalurni iyvnen eklesiebi, Tu romis yvela provinciaSi ara (provincia iyo 100-mde), yovel SemTxvevaSi yvela ToTxmetive diocezSi romis imperiisa... roca zogierTi didi eklesia Seecada daeqvemdebarebina sxva patara adgilobrivi eklesiebi, maSin mociqulTa kanonebis erTgulebam da RvTis suliT ganaTlebul msoflio episkoposTa krebam aRkveTa aseTi cdebi. roca antioqiis didi eklesia Seecada daeqvemdebarebina kvi prosis patara eklesia, III msoflio krebam merve kanoniT aseTi cda daaxasiaTa, rogorc `saqme, romelic ewinaaRmdegeboda eklesiisa da mociqulTa kanonebs (igulisxmeba mociqulTa 35-e kanoni)~.95 `balsamoni meore msoflio krebis epoqaSi avtokefalurebs uwodebs provinciaTa yvela mitropolits.~96 `arsebobs mravali magaliTi ramdenime avtokefaluri eklesiis erT eklesiad gaerTianebisa, magaliTad, IV saukunis pirvel naxevarSi yvela provinciaTa da mitropoliaTa eklesiebi (isini iyvnen daaxloebiT 100-mde,) balsamonis mowmobiT (aTenis sint. II, 173) iyvnen avtokefalurebi. amasobaSi meore msoflio krebis droisaTvis mitropoliebi gaerTiandnen did eklesiebSi egzarqatebSi, saxelmwifo diocezebis paralelurad, romelnic iyvnen ToTxmeti, rac daadastura krebam Tavisi meore kanoniT, xolo Semdeg dedaqalaqis eklesiebma, Tavidan romisam, xolo misi magaliTisamebr konstantinepolisam, gaaerTianes TavianTi Zalauflebis qveS ramdenime diocezi, ase rom VI saukuneSi berZenTa imperiaSi aRmoCnda sul eqvsi avtokefaluri eklesia, aseTi gaerTianebebi axal droSic xdeboda. 1920 wels gaerTianda sami avtokefaluri eklesia...~97 rogorc zemoT moyvanili ganmartebidan Cans, IV saukunis dasawyisSi romis imperiaSi avtokefaluri eklesiebis ricxvi 100-mde aRwevda, im mizezis gamo, rom romis yvela provinciis eklesia avtokefaluri iyo. Semdgom, amave saukuneSi mimdinareobda Serwyma-SeerTeba avtokefaluri eklesiebisa imperiaSi arsebul diocezTa paralelurad, radganac imperiaSi iyo 14 diocezi, aseve 381 wlisaTvis imperiaSi aRmoCnda 14 avtokefaluri eklesia. avtokefalur eklesiaTa Serwyma-gaerTianebis procesi Semdgomac grZeldeboda, gansakuTrebiT V saukunis pirvel naxevarSi. axla ukve imperiis mTavari qalaqebis eklesiebi Tavis garSemo aerTianebdnen ramdenime diocezis avtokefalur eklesias. ase gaerTianda qalaq romis eklesiaSi ramdenime diocezi, xolo 451 wels krebam qalaq konstantinopolis eklesias dauqvemdebara sami diocezis asiis, pontos da Trakiis diocezTa avtokefaluri eklesiebi. amitomac, V saukunis bolosaTvis imperiaSi avtoke-

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falur eklesiaTa ricxvi Zlier Semcirda, da VI saukuneSi, rogorc iTqva, ukve eqvsi avtokefaluri eklesia arsebobda mTel imperiaSi. VI saukunisaTvis avtokefalia dakarges iseTma Zvelma eklesiebmac, romelTagan zogierTni TviT mociqulTa mier iyo daarsebuli. TviT ierusalimis eklesiamac ki dakarga avtokefalia da kesaria-palestinis episkoposis xelqveiT imyofeboda. IV msoflio krebam misi avtokefalia mTlianad aRadgina. aseve, s. troickis Tanaxmad, mociqulTa mier daarsebulma aTenis eklesiamac avtokefalia dakarga da mxolod mravali aseuli wlis Semdeg aRidgina igi. riT gamoixateba eklesiis avtokefalia? s. troicki kiTxvas ase upasuxebs: `TviT avtoritetuli ganmmarteblebi kanonebisa avtokefaliis arss xedaven swored xeldasxmaSi, rom mocemuli eklesiis episkoposebs SeuZliaT xeli daasxan, anu akurTxon TavianTi eklesiis axali episkoposebi. ar eqvemdebarebian arc erT patriarqs eklesiebi bulgareTisa, kvi prosisa da iberiisa (e.i. qarTuli), radganac mRvdelmTavrebi am eklesiebisa Cveulebriv iReben xirotonias Tavisive episkoposebisagan~, _ wers Tavis alfabetur sintagmaSi maTeos blastari.98 yovelive zemoT moyvanilidan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom 320-ian wlebSi organizebuli qarTuli eklesia usaTuod iseve unda mowyobiliyo, rogorc imperiaSi arsebuli sxva eklesiebi. imperiaSi ki yvela provinciis anu administraciuli erTeulis eklesia avtokefaluri iyo. saqarTvelo romis provincia ar yofila, is iyo imperiis gareT arsebuli saxelmwifo. Tuki imperiaSi yovel administraciul erTeuls hqonda Tavisi avtokefaluri eklesia, bunebrivia, saqarTvelos saxelmwifos eklesiac avtokefaluri unda yofiliyo. qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalias safrTxe emuqreboda ara IV saukuneSi, aramed V da VI saukuneebSi, radganac jer kidev IV saukuneSi dawyebuli provinciebis eklesiebis avtokefaliis gauqmeba V saukuneSi TiTqmis dasrulda, xolo VI saukuneSi ukve dakanonebuli iyo. rogorc vTqviT, imperia dayofili iyo 12-14 diocezad, Zalze msxvil administraciul erTeulebad, erT diocezSi Sedioda 16-mde provincia. II msoflio krebis droisTvis, provinciaTa eklesiebis SeerTebis Semdeg, imperiaSi mxolod diocezTa eklesiebi iyvnen avtokefalurni. saqarTvelos eklesia ar SeiZleboda romelime diocezis eklesias SeeerTebina, radganac saqarTvelo iyo TavisTavadi da damoukidebeli saxelmwifo, amitomac provinciaTa eklesiebis Serwyma qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliaze araviTar gavlenas ar moaxdenda. V saukunis Sua wlebisaTvis ki savsebiT SesaZlebeli iyo, imperiis romelime dedaqalaqs pretenzia ganecxadebina qarTul eklesiaze. saqme is iyo, rom ukve V saukunisaTvis imperiis mTavari qalaqebis eklesiebma SeierTes TavianT garSemo myofi diocezebi. am dros didi qalaqebis (romis, antioqiis, konstantinopolis. aleqsandriis, ierusalimis) xelqveiT aRmoCnda mTe-

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li imperia, maT moipoves agreTve gavlena imperiis gareT arsebul teritoriebze. magaliTad, pontos diocezi Tavisi misioneruli moRvaweobis wyalobiT gavlenas avrcelebda imperiis gareT mcxovreb xalxebze, axladmoqceul qristianebze. pontos diocezi 451 wlis msoflio krebam dauqvemdebara konstantinopols, amitomac pontos diocezis gavlenis qveS myofi imperiis gareTa qristianebic konstantinopols daeqvemdebarnen. aseve antioqiac Tavisi misioneruli moRvaweobis gamo gavlenas ZvelTaganve avrcelebda axladmoqceul barbarosebze (imperiaSi an imperiis gareT mcxovreb araberZnul xalxebze): swored V saukunidan gaCnda miswrafeba imperiis dedaqalaqisa da sxva sapatriarqoebisa, rom TavianT iurisdiqciaSi moeqciaT sxva eklesiebi. amitomac, qarTuli eklesia SeiZleboda avtokefaluri yofiliyo IV saukuneSi, xolo V saukuneSi misi avtokefalia sadavod gaexadaT, ecadaT moespoT qarTuli eklesiis damoukidebloba. Cven unda vifiqroT, rom IV saukuneSi qarTuli eklesia iseve damoukidebeli iyo, rogorc imperiaSi arsebuli provinciebisa da diocezebis eklesiebi. SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva, Tu IV saukuneSi arsebobda avtokefalur eklesiaTa didi raodenoba, ratom gamoiwvia winaaRmdegoba mefe papis mier somxuri eklesiis avtokefaliis gamocxadebam 370-ian wlebSi? cnobilia, rom kanonikuri samarTlis korifem basili didma gaaprotesta da anaTemas gadasca somxuri eklesiis es moqmedeba. saqme is iyo, rom am droisaTvis ukve provinciaTa eklesiebi gaerTianebuli iyo diocezebSi. basili didi iyo pontos diocezis egzarqosi. somexTa is nawili, romelmac avtokefalia gamoacxada, administraciulad pontos diocezSi Sedioda, e.i. administraciulad iyo ara damoukidebeli saxelmwifo, aramed Sedioda romis imperiaSi, kerZod ki, pontos diocezSi. mTel pontos diocezze ki Tavis iurisdiqcias axorcielebda am diocezis eklesia da misi egzarqosi basili didi. amitomac iyo is winaaRmdegi, mis diocezSi mcxovreb xalxs mieRo avtokefalia. es mas miaCnda diocezis saeklesio ganxeTqilebad. jer kidev nikeis I msoflio krebis (325 w.) me-9 kanonis Tanaxmad, SeizRuda avtokefalur eklesiaTa uflebebi saolqo mitropolitis sasargeblod, `TiToeuli samTavros episkoposebi unda emorCilebodnen dedaqalaqis episkoposs (mitropolits)~. am kanonis Tanaxmadac, pontos diocezis yvela episkoposi diocezis egzarqos basili dids unda daqvemdebareboda da avtokefalia, damoukidebloba ar unda gamoecxadebina. es somex episkoposebsac Seexeba, romelTac mefe papis dros somexTa eklesiis avtokefalia gamoacxades. es kanoni (I msoflio krebis kan. 9) saqarTvelos saxelmwifos dedaqalaqis, mcxeTis episkoposs uqvemdebarebda am saxelmwifos yvela qristians. dedaqalaqis episkoposs Seexeba agreTve sardikiis me-6 kanoni, romelic ambobs: `Tu arCeul unda iqnas dedaqalaqis episkoposi (mitropoliti),

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saWiroa maxlobeli episkoposebis mowveva~. Cveni eklesiis mimarT es imas niSnavs, rom mcxeTis arqiepiskoposis kurTxevis dros saWiro iyo maxlobeli eklesiebis episkoposebis mowveva an maTi Tanxmoba. CvenTvis mezobeli eklesiebi iyvnen antioqia, somxeTi, ponto, konstantinopoli. Cans, maTac ekiTxebodnen, am kanonis Tanaxmad, axali episkoposis kurTxevis Tanxmobas. dedaqalaqis episkoposs Seexeba, agreTve, qalkedonis krebis me-12 kanoni, `ramdeni qalaqic samefo sabuTebiT dedaqalaqis pativiTaa damtkicebuli, hqondeT maT es pativi~. es, pirvel rigSi, Seexeboda imperiis aRmosavleT nawilis mTavar qalaqebs, magram, cxadia, ganzogaddeboda saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis, mcxeTis arqiepiskoposzec. am kanoniT miiCneva, rom dedaqalaqis episkoposi aris mitropoliti, avtokefaluri eklesiis meTauri. amitomac damoukidebelia saqarTvelos saxelmwifos dedaqalaqis meTauric, romelsac marTlac hqonda `mTavarepiskoposis~ maRali tituli. s. troicki wers, rom mTavarepiskoposis tituli, rogorc wesi, hqonda avtokefaluri eklesiis meTaurs. `IV-VIII saukuneebSi tituli arqiepiskoposisa niSnavda ierarqs, romelsac hqonda ufro meti Zalaufleba, vidre mitropolitis Zalaufleba iyo da, rogorc wesi, miekuTvneboda avtokefaluri eklesiis meTaurs~.99 rogorc aRvniSneT, `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad, ukve IV saukunis I naxevridanve qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs `mTavarepiskoposis~ tituli hqonda, is avtokefalur eklesias edga saTaveSi.

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Tavi IV qarTuli eklesia V saukuneSi

` d i d - b u n e b o v a n k a c T a d a s a x e l o v a n gm i r T a m a ga l i T e b i T i s t o r i a swu r T n i s e r s a , zrdis, da didebulni saqmeni kidev g uls u k e T e b e n m o q m e d e b i s a T v i s , a q ez e b e n , a m x n e v e b e n , T u n a m e t n a v a d i s m a ga l i T e b i e r i s s a k u T a r i s i s t o r i i s a n i a r i a n .~


ilia marTali

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qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba V saukuneSi


V saukunis dasawyisSi saqarTvelo ukve daxarkuli qveyana iyo sparselTa mier. marTalia, sparselebma ver SeZles qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmeba, magram daufaravad cdilobdnen qarTvelebis asimilacias. pirvel rigSi, maT surdaT qarTvelebs mieRoT sparsuli sarwmunoeba _ cecxlTayvanismcemloba. isini ebrZodnen da krZalavdnen qarTul erovnul wesCveulebebs da tradiciebs. qristianoba im droisaTvis ukve qarTul erovnul sarwmunoebad iyo qceuli da qarTvelebs qristianuli wes-Cveulebebi hqondaT. maTi moSliT sparselebs imedi hqondaT, rom qarTvelebis erovnul saxes moSlidnen da sparsuls dauaxlovebdnen. garda amisa, sparselebi qarTul saxelmwifoebriobas, anu mefobas Zirs uTxridnen. maT V saukuneSi SeZles somxeTsa da albaneTSi mefobis gauqmeba, magram saqarTveloSi es ver moaxerxes, cxadia, im mizezis gamo, rom qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba Zlieri iyo da misi mospoba advili ar iyo. sparselebs imedi hqondaT, rom TviT saqarTveloSi moZebnidnen im Zalebs, romelnic SeebrZolebodnen qarTvel mefeebs da mospobdnen mefobas. qarTveli mTavrebi da didi aznaurebi sparselebis daxmarebiT saqarTvelos mefes ebrZodnen.1 marTlac, VI saukunis dasawyisSi mefobis gauqmeba mTavrebisa da didi aznaurebis meoxebiT momxdara. VI saukuneSi mefobis gauqmebis Semdeg `qarTlis mTavrebi da didi aznaurebi ki Tavs kargad grZnobdnen. mefobis mospoba qarTlSi xom umTavresad maTi saqme iyo. Zveli qarTveli mematiane amtkicebs, rom mas Semdeg, rac vaxtangis STamomavlobas mefis ufleba waarTves, qarTlSi ukve aznaurebi gabatondneno. marTlac, didi aznaurebi advilad Seuxmatkbildnen sparselebs da exmarebodnen maT qveynis marTva-gamgeobaSi. samagierod, sparselebic maT Tavis wyalobas ar aklebdnen, msxvil Tanamdebobebsa da jildoebs urigebdnen da zogjer memkvidreobiTac umtkicebdnen micemul moxeleobas.~2 Tuki sparselebi cbierebiTa da veragobiT cdilobdnen qarTvelTa gatexas, bizantiis,3 anu `berZnebis~ damokidebuleba sruliad sxvagvari iyo saqarTvelos mimarT. bizantiam IV saukunis bolos CamoaWra qarTul saxelmwifos samxreTis teritoriebis didi nawili, uSualod miuerTa imperias, xolo V saukunis pirvel naxevarSi dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani nawili miitaca. Tuki sparselebi, ase Tu ise, erovnul institutebs (mag.,

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qarTul saxelmwifos, qarTul eklesias) xels ar axlebdnen da mxolod daxarkviT kmayofildebodnen, bizantia mitacebul qarTul miwebze saerTod auqmebda yovelgvar qarTul instituts, amitomac qarTvelebisaTvis araqristiani sparselebis batonoba ufro mosaTmeni iyo, vidre qristiani berZnebis moqmedebaa. swored aman hpova asaxva `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~, sadac naTqvamia, rom roca bizantielebma dasavleT saqarTvelos miwebi miitaces, mTel saqarTveloSi didi urva da wuxili Seiqmna da yoveli qarTveli didad glovobdao: `masve Jamsa gamovides berZenni... da daipyres egriswyliTgan vidre cixe-gojadmde, maSin iqmna glova da wuxili yovelTa zeda qarTvelTa da ityodes... samarTlad moawia RmerTman Cuen zeda ese risxva, rameTu migucna Cuen wartyuenvad ucxoTa naTesavTa da migYRo Cuen sazRvari berZenTagan, viTarca miuRo varaz-baqars mefesa klarjeTi...~4 yoveli qarTvelis glova, mematianeebis mier aRwerili, SeiZleba iTqvas, erTaderTi SemTxvevaa qarTveli eris mravalsaukunovani istoriis manZilze. qarTvelebis saerTo glova imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom bizantia mitacebul qarTul miwebs swrafad rTavda imperiis sisxlsavse cxovrebaSi da swrafadve kulturulad `aberZnebda~ qarTul mosaxleobas. Tuki qarTvelebs sparselTa winaaRmdeg farad hqondaT qristianuli sarwmunoeba, berZnuli asimilaciisgan maT araferi ar ifaravda. miuxedavad amisa, radganac saqarTvelos didi da umTavresi nawili sparsTa gavlenis qveS imyofeboda, mTavari safrTxe mainc sparselebisgan modioda. am dros ki, rogorc aRvniSneT, qarTvelTa damcveli swored berZnuli orientacia da qristianobis is saxe iyo, romelsac im dros bizantiaSi aRiarebdnen. vaxtang gorgasali berZnuli orientaciisa iyo da sikvdilis win anderZic datova, rom qarTvelebs `berZenTa siyvaruli~ ar mietovebinaT, Tumca `berZnebs~ SeebrZola kidec da saqarTvelos daubruna maTgan mitacebuli teritoriebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom im dros, V saukuneSi, arsebobda ori gansxvavebuli mimarTuleba qristianobaSi. erT mimarTulebas bizantia mfarvelobda da aRiarebda, xolo meore mimarTulebas sparseTis saxelmwifo mfarvelobda. qristianobis im mimarTulebas, romelsac sparseTi mfarvelobda, s. janaSia `sparsul~ qristianobas uwodebs. ase magaliTad. is wers: `pirvel kaTalikosad vaxtangma diofizitobis momxre piri daniSna da amiT `sparsul~ qristianobas, monofizitobas, aSkara brZola gamoucxada.~5 ar iqneboda swori, Tu warmovidgendiT, rom sparseTi qristianobis yovel mimarTulebas ebrZoda. sparseTi mxolod im mimarTulebas, qristianobis im frTas ebrZoda, romelic im momentSi romis (bizantiis) imperiaSi iyo aRiarebuli. TviTon sparseTSi mravali qristiani cxovrobda da sparselebis arcTu mcire nawili qristiani iyo, maT hqondaT TavianTi eklesia da TavianTi saeklesio ierarqia, xolo sparseTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi xalxebi, magaliTad, sirielebi da somxebi qristianebi iyvnen, romelTa eklesiebic sparseTisaTvis misaRebi iyo.

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sparseTis samefo karma, roca mixvda, rom mazdeanobis gavrceleba arcTu advili iyo da qristiani xalxebi ar daTmobdnen TavianT sarwmunoebas, Secvala sarwmunoebrivi politika. im mizniT, raTa mis imperiaSi mcxovrebi qristianebi bizantiuri gavlenis qveS ar yofiliyvnen, sparseTma ineba, rom isini moqceuliyvnen iranofilurad ganwyobili qristianuli eklesiebis gavlenisa da kontrolis sferoSi. aseTebi iyvnen antibizantiurad ganwyobili siriuli da sparsuli eklesiebi. `mis Semdeg, rac daeca somex mefeTa taxti (428 w.), somxeTSi sparsTa xelisuflebam fexi mtkiced moikida, bizantiis imperiisadmi dapirispirebuli iranis Sahis kari im xanebSi mxars uWerda siriuli kulturis gavlenis gavrcelebas berZnulis sawinaaRmdegod, siriul kulturas somxeTSi, isedac Rrmad hqonda fesvebi gamdgari da mTavrobis mfarvelobis pirobebSi mas kidev ufro gaeSala frTebi~.6 sparselni siriul qristianobas mfarvelobdnen bizantielTa sapirispirod. aRsaniSnavia, rom am droisaTvis siriuli qristianobis centri antioqia iyo. V saukunis Semdeg, ki siriuli eklesia orad gaiyo: dasavleTi siriuli eklesia, romelic siria libans moicavda, da aRmosavleTi siriuli eklesia, romelic Crdilo mesopotamias da irans moicavda.7 sparseTis (qaldeuri) qristianebi (mogvianebiT nestorianebi) odesRac Tavis Tavs nestorianebs ar uwodebdnen. es saxeli maT uwodes berZnebma da monofizitebma. moxerxebuli erovnuli baza berZnuli eklesiisagan ganSorebisaTvis siriulenovani eretikosebisaTvis iyo sparseTi. maTi ganmanaTlebeli iyo sasazRvro edesis skola. sparseTis qristianebma 410 wlis krebaze gamoacxades TavianTi avtokefalia Tavisi kaTalikosis meTaurobiT. adre isini cdilobdnen antioqiis gaTavisuflebas berZeni patriarqisagan. 423 wlis krebam aukrZala am eklesiis wevrebs yovelgvari kavSiri antioqiis patriarqTan~8 (isini antioqiis marTlmadideblur eklesias `melqiturs~ uwodebdnen, rac qarTulad `samefos~ niSnavs). siriuli eklesiis (romelic Semdeg iakobitebad da nestorianebad gaiyo) centri antioqia iyo. antioqiaSi uamravi qristianuli sarwmunoebrivi mimarTuleba arsebobda. V saukuneSi antioqiis eklesia dayofili iyo mraval iurisdiqciad. IV saukunis bolos, a. kartaSevis Tanaxmad, kidev axali iurisdiqcia warmoqmnila: `antioqia am dros ukve dayofili iyo sam iurisdiqciad, axla warmoiqmna meoTxe. aq arsebobda: 1. meletis iurisdiqcia. 2. evzois iurisdiqcia (arianulis magvari). 3. pavlinis iurisdiqcia. 4. apolinaris (375 wlisaTvis) iurisdiqcia~.9 ase rom, V saukunisaTvis qristianobaSi arsebobda sparsofiluri frTa, romelic mkveTrad gamoxatuli antiberZnuli mimarTulebisa iyo. TviT sparseTSic ki avtokefaluri eklesia arsebobda, romelsac kaTalikosi marTavda. Tu V saukunis dasawyisSi sparsofiluri iyo siriisa da sparseTis

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eklesiebi, am saukunis bolosTvis somxeTis eklesiac ZiriTadad sparsofiluri da sparseTis saxelmwifosTvis misaRebi eklesia iyo. cxadia, aseTi mdgomareoba gavlenas moaxdenda sparseTis gavlenis sferoSi arsebul saqarTvelos sazogadoebaze. saqarTveloSi V saukunisaTvis uTuod arsebobdnen rogorc berZnuli (elinofiluri), aseve sparsofiluri qristianuli saeklesio dajgufebani. swored amitom saqarTvelos mefe sagangebo da Zalze daZabul mdgomareobaSi imyofeboda. rogorc aRvniSneT, sparseTis survili iyo saerTod moespo qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba, amitomac mTavrebsa da did aznaurebs xels uwyobda amaSi. garda amisa, qveyanaSi arsebuli sparsofiluri saeklesio wreebi, sparsTagan daxmarebis moimedeni, albaT, swored sparseTis politikis ganxorcielebisaTvis zrunavdnen. Tavis mxriv, bizantiac aqtiurad ereoda saqarTvelos sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi da dausjelad ar tovebda sparsofilebis gavlenis gafarToebas. magaliTad, roca mefe varaz-baqaris dros bizantiam miitaca klarjeTi da vaxtangis dros egrisis nawili, qarTvelebi ambobdnen: `...ara keTilad vi pyarT sjuli qristesi da wesi iovanes mcnebisa, samarTlad moawia RmerTman Cuen zeda ese risxva, rameTu migucna Cuen wartyuenvad ucxoTa naTesavTa da migveRo Cuen sazRvari berZenTagan, viTarca miuRo varaz-baqars mefesa klarjeTi da igi codviTa varaz-baqarisiTa moiwia, rameTu ver keTilad epyra sjuli qristesi~.10 qarTveli mefeebi, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, erTdroulad an orive dampyrobels _ sparseTsa da saberZneTs _ ebrZodnen, anda brZnulad iyenebdnen winaaRmdegobas am saxelmwifoTa Soris da xan berZnebs ebrZodnen sparselTa ZaliT, xan ki sparselebs berZenTa ZaliT. 398-400 wlebSi mefobda farsmani. `mefeTa ambavis~ Tanaxmad, farsmans xarkis gadaxdac ki Seuwyvetia iranelebisaTvis, meore mxriv, TiTqosda bizantielebsac ebrZoda.11 Semdgomi mefe mirdati `mter eqmna berZenTa da sparsTa. berZenTagan eZiebda klarjeTs, sazRvarsa qarTlisasa, xolo sparsTa ara miscemda xarksa~.12 sparselebma is daamarcxes. V saukunis 20-ian wlebSi gamefda arCili. juanSeris Tanaxmad, am arCilma `moirTo Zali saberZneTiT da warZRuanebiTa juarisaTa iwyo brZolad sparsTa~. cecxlis msaxurni ganudevnia, eklesiebi moukazmia, sinamdvileSi ki, n. janaSias azriT, qarTli am dros irans emorCileboda. V saukunis 40-iani wlebidan iranma daiwyo axali, metad aqtiuri da agresiuli politikis gatareba, romlis mizani iyo moespo qarTlis Sinagani damoukidebloba da gadaeqcia is (da amierkavkasia) iranis provinciad. iranelebma gadawyvites qarTlis (da amierkavkasiis) izolacia arairanuli (berZnul-romauli) samyarosagan.13 `sainteresoa, rom iranelebs kavSiris gabma mouxerxebiaT qristianul eklesiasTanac ki, romelsac isini saerTod ebrZodnen. amas uadvilebdaT is

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garemoeba, rom am dros qristianul eklesiaSi uamravi sxvadasxva mimdinareoba arsebobda, romlebic erTmaneTis mimarT uaRresad mtrulad iyvnen ganwyobilni. orTodoqsalur eklesias konstantinopoli mfarvelobda, magram mas uZlieresi opozicia hyavda ZiriTadad aRmosavleTSi. iranelebi mxars uWerdnen opozicionerebs, romlebsac orTodoqsebisa da maSasadame, maT ukan mdgomi saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg iyenebdnen.14 `am periodSi qarTlsa da amierkavkasiis sxva qveynebSi mimdinareobs feodalizaciis procesi, romelic gulisxmobs gaafTrebul brZolas centralur xelisuflebasa (mefes) da centridanul Zalebs (feodalebs) Soris. feodalTa mizani iyo memkvidreobiT daemtkicebinaT is miwebi da Tanamdebobebi, romlebic maT eWiraT. amasTan, isini cdilobdnen maqsimalurad SeezRudaT mefis uflebebi maT xelqveiT arsebul miwebze. mefe ki imisTvis ibrZoda, rom Tavisi gamgeblobidan ar gaeSva es miwebi, sruli Zalaufleba SeenarCunebina mTeli samefos miwa-wyalze da yovel Tanamdebobaze daniSvna mxolod misi surviliT momxdariyo. iranelebi iyenebdnen am winaaRmdegobas da feodalebs hpirdebodnen maTTvis sasurveli privilegiebis damtkicebas. yovelive zemoaRniSnuli saSualebas aZlevda iranelebs amierkavkasiis qveynebis saeklesio cxovrebaSic Careuliyvnen. pirvelwyaroebSi kargad aris asaxuli, Tu rogor ereodnen isini somxuri eklesiis saqmeebSi (magaliTad, V saukunis 20-iani wlebidan somxeTis eklesiis meTaurs, kaTalikoss Sahi niSnavda Tavisi survilis mixedviT). Cans, iranelebs qarTlSic daumyarebiaT kavSiri garkveul saeklesio wreebTan. am mxriv yuradRebas ipyrobs `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ matianis cnoba, romlis Tanaxmadac, arCilis Zis, mirdatis dros qarTlis mTavarepiskoposi glonoqori `erisTvadca~ iyo barazbod pitiaxSisagan qarTls da hereTs~.15 bunebrivi iqneboda, rom glonoqorisTvis iranelebs daekisrebinaT ara marto erisTavoba, aramed romelime sxva mniSvnelovani saero funqcia. magaliTad, Cven viciT, rom swored am periodSi iranelebis mier daniSnuli somxeTis kaTalikosebi cxovel monawileobas iRebdnen iranelebisaTvis xarkis akrefaSi. asea, Tu ise, rogorc n. janaSia aRniSnavs, `iranelebis mier qarTlis eklesiasTan kavSiris gabma arsebiTad niSnavda adgilobrivi aznaurebis garkveul fenasTan kavSiris damyarebas~.16 `roca zogi aznauri gamdidrda da gaZlierda, mas ukve mefis morCileba aRar surda. garda amisa, aznaurebs mefisgan mamulebi hqondaT miRebuli samsaxuris pirobiT. mefe am mamulebs Tavis sakuTrebad Tvlida. aznaurebs ki maTi daTmoba enanebodaT da sabolood miCemeba surdaT. gaCaRda brZola mefesa da did aznaur-mTavrebs Soris. amiT isargebles sparselebma, mefis ukmayofilo aznaurebTan kavSiri gaabes da isini Tavis mxareze gadaibires~.17 qarTuli eklesia V saukuneSi udides miwismflobelad gadaiqca da iseTive interesebi gauCnda, rogorc sxva miwismflobelebs, es Cans rogorc `qarTlis cxovrebidan~, ise `moqcevaA qarTlisaAdan~.

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`episkoposebad am dros ukve warCinebulebs, aznaurebs vxedavT. am episkoposebs axla Tavisi mefe iseve moZulebuli hyavdaT, rogorc mTavrebsa da sxva did aznaurebs. eklesias V saukuneSi ukve didi mamulebi hqonda. am mamulebis gamo qarTlis mefesa da samRvdeloebas Soris iseTive brZola gaCaRda, rogoric mefesa da sxva did aznaurebs Soris iyo. amitom dauaxlovda erTmaneTs sparselebi da qarTlis samRvdeloeba. TandaTan qarTlis mTavarepiskoposi da episkoposebis umravlesoba sparselebis mxares gadavida iseve, rogorc mezobel somxeTSi. samagierod sparselebi Tavis momxre episkoposebs uxvad ajildoebdnen. iyo iseTi SemTxvevac, roca qarTlis mTavarepiskoposi erisTavadac ki iyo daniSnuli sparselebis mier. ase daiwyo qarTlis mTavrebisa da episkoposebis brZola sparselebTan xelixel CakidebiT qarTlis mefis winaaRmdeg~.18 `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da sxva wyaroebSi gadmocemuli miqael mTavarepiskoposisa da vaxtang mefis brZola uTuod adasturebs s. janaSiasa da n. janaSias zemoT moyvanil Tvalsazriss. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, vaxtang gorgasali pirdapir eubneba miqaels, rom mas saeklesio simdidre aqvs dagrovili da am simdidris dakargvisa eSinia, _ `vecxlismoyuare xar Sen, rameTu Senca meguadruce xar qristesi~.19 `meguadruce~ niSnavs molares, simdidris damgrovebelsa da Semnaxvels. swored am dagrovili simdidris dakargvis eSinoda miqaels. umTavres simdidred im dros miwa iTvleboda. miwa aznaurebsa da sxva feodalebs, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, mefisgan hqondaT miRebuli. miwis sabolood misakuTrebis survili iyo mizezi mefesa da aznaurTa Soris gaCaRebuli omisa. somxeTSi 428 wels adgilobrivi feodalebis SemweobiT sparselebma mefoba gaauqmes. aseve momxdara qarTlSic VI saukunis dasawyisSi. aqac didma aznaurebma sparselTa daxmarebiT mefoba gaauqmes. qarTuli matiane aRniSnavs kidec amas: `xolo vinaATgan moaklda mefoba SvilTa gorgaslisaTa, miT JamiTgan epyra ufleba qarTlisa aznaurTa vidre amaTadmde, aramed daesrula ufleba qarTlisa aznaurTa borotTa saqmeTa maTgan~.20 sparsma xelisufalma qarTlSi mefobis gauqmebis Semdeg. `...uwyo zraxvad erisTavTa qarTlisaTa: aRuTqua keTili didi da dauwera saerisTaoTa maTTa mamuloba SviliTi-Svilamde, da esreT waribirna liqniTa da gandges erisTavni da TYs-TYsad xarksa miscemdes qasre ambarvezsa~.21 ara marto sparselebi emxrobodnen qarTvel didaznaur-erisTavebs qarTvel mefeTa winaaRmdeg omSi, aramed berZnebic. isini erisTavebs saxeloebs da mamulebs utovebdnen memkvidreobis uflebiT, maSin roca qarTvel mefeTa dros maT Tanamdebobebi da miwebi samsaxuris pirobiT hqondaT micemuli da Tanamdebobidan gadayenebis dros miwebsac kargavdnen. axla ki maTi Tanamdeboba memkvidreobiT Svilebsa da SviliSvilebs gadaecemoda: `esreT ra ucalo iqmnes sparsni, maSin SeiTqunes yovelni erisTavni qarTlisani, zemoni da qvemoni, da wargzavnes mociquli winaSe berZenTa

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mefisa da iTxoves, raTa ...iyvnen erisTavni igi TYs-TYssa saerisTaosa Seucvalebelad~.22 Tu aqamde, qarTvel mefeTa dros, qarTuli eklesiis meTauri mefis mier `ismeboda~ da kaTalikosis sikvdilis Semdeg mis adgils sul sxva gvaris adamiani iWerda, amis Semdeg kaTalikosis Tanamdebobac memkvidreobiTi gaxda. mcxeTaSi VI saukuneSi or ojaxs kaTalikosis Tanamdeboba memkvidreobiT miuRia da kaTalikosobas am ojaxis wevrebi iRebdnen. amis Sesaxeb `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~ wers: _ Semdgomad mefobda farsman sxua da kaTalikozi iyo dasabia. mkYdri mcxeTeli. da aqaATgan orTa saxlTa aRiRes kaTalikozoba mcxeTelTa mkYdrTa~.23 rogorc Cans, zemomoyvanili gvaZlevs uflebas iTqvas, rom eklesia iyo mdidari miwismflobeli, romlis meTaurebsac erisTav-aznaurTa msgavsad surdaT (da miaRwies kidec) mieRoT memkvidreobiTi Tanamdebobebi. gaafTrebuli brZolebi centralur xelisuflebasa (mefesa) da centridanul Zalebs (feodalebs) Soris, romelic mimdinareobda V saukunis manZilze, damTavrda centraluri xelisuflebis damarcxebiTa da mefobis mospobiT. uTuod, zemoaRniSnuli iyo mizezi vaxtang gorgaslisa da miqael mTavarepiskoposis SebrZolebisa da ara sarwmunoebrivi gansxvaveba. iv. javaxiSvili fiqrobda, rom vaxtang mefe monofiziti iyo, xolo miqaeli qalkedoniti, ris gamoc konfliqtur urTierTdamokidebulebaSi imyofebodnen. es swori ar unda iyos, vaxtang gorgasali monofiziti ar yofila. is iyo qalkedoniti marTlmadidebeli, ise rogorc miqael mTavarepiskoposi. arc sapirispiro azria swori _ miqaeli monofiziti ar yofila, aramed samagaliTo qalkedoniti iyo.24 mefesa da mTavarepiskoposs Soris konfliqti arsebobda swored zemoaRwerili winaaRmdegobis gamo centralur xelisuflebasa da aznaur erisTav-feodalebs Soris. iqamde, naxevari saukuniT adre, V saukunis ormociani wlebis dasawyisSi Sahma iezdigerd II-m (438-457) Tavis qveSevrdom qveynebs, maT Soris qarTlsac, ubrZana cxenosani jari gaegzavnaT Sua aziaSi, sadac iranelebi quSanebs ebrZodnen. Sahis brZanebiT amierkavkasiaSi Catarda aRwera: gadamxdelTa kategoriaSi iranelebma axla qristianuli eklesiac Seiyvanes. amjerad iranelebma gadamwyveti brZola gamoucxades qristianul eklesiasac. amierkavkasiisa da bizantiis religiis erTianoba miuRebeli iyo iranisTvis. Sahi Seecada mazdeanoba gaevrcelebina. man somxeTSi gaagzavna brZaneba mazdeanobis miRebis moTxovniT. somxebma uari SeuTvales. maSin Sahma qarTlis, somxeTisa da albaneTis Tavkacebi saswrafod TavisTan daibara. V s-is somexi istorikosis lazar farpecis sityviT, `qarTvelTa qveynidan (wavidnen) bdeSxi arSuSa da qveynis sxva tanuterebi~.25 Casulebs Sahma kategoriulad mosTxova mazdeanobis miReba. sxva gamosavali rom ar Canda, samive qveynis

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Tavkacebma gadawyvites daTanxmebuliyvnen Sahis moTxovnas, magram samSobloSi dabrunebisTanave isev qristianoba mieRoT, razedac fici misces erTmaneTs... rogorc etyoba, Sahs eWvi Sehparvia maT gulwrfelobaSi. qarTlis pitiaxSi arSuSa da somxeTis marzpanis vasak siunis ori vaJi mas TavisTan dautovebia. amierkavkasiel didebulebs iranelebma Tan gamoayoles mogvebi, romelTac unda daexuraT eklesiebi, aRmoefxvraT qristianoba. mxolod somxebs 700-ze meti mogvi mihyveboda. somxeTSi mogvebis moqmedebam `gamoiwvia saerTo-saxalxo ajanyeba iranelebis winaaRmdeg (450 w.). male ajanyeba moedo albaneTsac. 451 wels iranelebma SeZles misi CaxSoba... iranelebi mainc iZulebuli gaxdnen ajanyebulTa winaSe rig daTmobebze wasuliyvnen... iranelebma uari Tqves amierkavkasiis xalxTa asimilaciis politikaze, aRadgines sarwmunoebrivi Tavisufleba, Seamsubuqes samxedro begara da gadasaxadebi... miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTls ajanyebaSi monawileoba ar miuRia, ajanyebas gavlena unda moexdina iranis politikaze qarTlis mimarTac~.26 uTuod amis Sedegi iyo, rom qarTvelebma amis Semdeg gabedes da qarTuli eklesiis meTaurad saberZneTidan Camoiyvanes mRvdeli da is mTavarepiskoposad dasves. vaxtang gorgaslis dedam sagduxtma `moiyvana mRdeli WeSmariti saberZneTiT, saxeliT miqael da daadgina igi episkoposad zemosa eklesiasa~.27 451 wlis ajanyebamde (romlis Semdegac sparseTi eklesiebisa da qristianobis mimarT damTmobi gaxda) SeuZlebeli iyo saberZneTidan mowveul proberZnuli orientaciis pirs eklesia emarTa. marTlac, 436-448 wlebSi qarTul eklesias marTavda proiraneli, sparsofili mobidani, romelsac Cveni mematiane `naTesaviT sparss~ uwodebs. `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad ki, vaxtang gorgaslis mamis, mirdatis dros, V saukunis 40-ian wlebSi, qarTuli eklesiis meTauri iyo sparsofili, sparsTa mier qarTl-albaneTis erisTavad daniSnuli glonoqori. somxeT-albaneTis ajanyebis Semdeg sparseTma eklesiis mimarT politika Searbila. aman ki SesaZlebeli gaxada proberZnuli orientaciis miqaeli daeyenebinaT qarTuli eklesiis saTaveSi. 463 wels iranelebma daamarcxes albanelebi da mefoba gaauqmes albaneTSi. iranis Sahis perozis (459-484) dros irans omi hqonda Sua aziaSi. aq perozi damarcxda da tyved Cavarda. gaTavisufleba man SeZlo uzarmazari gamosasyidis gadaxdiT. 60-iani wlebis Sua xanebSi kavkasionis qedi gadmolaxes hunebma, daarbies qarTli da somxeTi. juanSeri maT osebs uwodebs, romelTac moaoxres qarTli da moitaces vaxtang mefis da miranduxti. vaxtangs mdgomareoba garTulebuli hqonda qveynis SigniT, iranelTa gamTiSveli politikis wyalobiT zogierTi umaRlesi didebuli srulebiT ar epueboda mefes,28 magaliTad, varsqen pitiaxSi. iranelebi xels uwyobdnen brZolas TviT samefo saxlSic. samefo saxlis ori Sto _ baqarisa da

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revis STamomavlebi erTmaneTs ebrZodnen. vaxtangi baqar mirianis Zis Stos ekuTvnoda. vaxtangs mniSvnelovani opozicia hyolia eklesiaSi. `...am periodSi mravldeba sxvadasxva religiuri mimdinareoba da seqta. brZola maT Soris Seurigebeli iyo. gabatonebuli iyvnen diofizitebi, romelTa mTavar mowinaaRmdeged monofizitebi gamodiodnen. qarTlSi gavrceleba miuRia nestorianobasac, romelsac am periodSi mxars uWerdnen iranelebi~.29 s. janaSia wers: _ `raki qristianobis mospoba da mazdeanobis sayovelTaod gavrceleba sparselebma ver moaxerxes, maT politika gamocvales. am dros qristianebi sxvadasxva mimarTulebad iyvnen dayofilni, romelnic erTmaneTs ebrZodnen. es brZola sazogadoebrivsa da erovnul niadagze iyo warmomdgari, magram garegnulad igi sarwmunoebrivi sakiTxebis garSemo warmoebda. sabolood romis saxelmwifoSi diofizitobam gaimarjva. diofizitobas mxars uWerda romis mTavroba. am garemoebas CaebRauWa axla sparseTis mTavroba, romelsac undoda esargebla qristianebis Sinauri SfoTiTa da brZoliT Tavisi sakuTari interesebisaTvis. axla sparseTis mTavroba mxars uWerda iseT qristianobas, romelsac ebrZoda sparseTis mteri _ romis mTavroba. Tu qristianobis daTmoba ar gsurT, maSin iseTi qristianoba mainc unda miiRoT, romelic romis mefis sarwmunoebisagan gansxvavdebao _ ase moiTxovda axla sparseTis Sahi Tavisi qristiani qveSevrdomebisagan... am xerxiT sparselebma Tavis mxareze gadaiyvanes umaRlesi samRvdeloeba da didi aznaurebi somxeTSi, qarTlsa da albaneTSi. episkoposebad am dros ukve warCinebulebs, aznaurebs vxedavT. am episkoposebs axla Tavisi mefe iseve moZulebuli hyavdaT, rogorc mTavrebsa da sxva did aznaurebs.30 juanSeris mixedviT, iranelebs vaxtangi wauyvaniaT saomrad Sua aziaSi da indoeTSi, `vaxtangis sparseTidan dabruneba SeiZleba daidos 60-iani wlebis bolosaTvis... Cans, swored am droidan iwyeba vaxtangis ZiriTadi saqmianoba, romlis mTavari xazebi iyo brZola saxelmwifos centralizaciisa da qveynis damoukideblobisaTvis. es xazebi mWidrod iyo gadaxlarTuli erTmaneTTan, radgan centraluri Zalebi Tavis brZolaSi mniSvnelovan wilad iyenebdnen iranelebs, romelnic Tavis mxriv eyrdnobodnen am Zalebs. Tavisi saqmianoba vaxtangma, da savsebiT gonivruladac, daiwyo brZoliT qveynis Sinagani simtkicis SeqmnisaTvis. pirveli ieriSi man miitana eklesiaze, romlis reorganizaciac dausaxavs miznad~.31 iv. javaxiSvili wers: `is garemoeba, rom dakrulva da eklesiidan gaZeveba anu, albaT, gankveTa mefis garda spasac ewia, ueWvelia, imis momaswavebeli unda iyos, rom uTanxmoeba maSin marto mefis moqmedebis gamo ki ar unda iyos Camovardnili, aramed spas, e. i. maRal samxedro wres da raindobasac edeboda brali. maSasadame, vaxtang gorgasalis gegma da moqmedeba marto misi piradi ganzraxva ar unda yofiliyo, aramed, rogorc etyoba, am mowinave samxedro wrisac.

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amgvarad irkveva, rom kaTalikosebis dawesebasa da axal episkoposTa daniSvnasTan dakavSirebul uTanxmobaSi or mopirdapire banakTan unda gvqondes saqme. erTi mxriT, yofila vaxtangi, `spa~ da petre da samuel episkopozebi danarCeni 12 saepiskopozo piriTurT, meore mxriT, miqael mTavarepiskopozi Tavisi TanamoazreebiTurT.32 `erTi ki cxadia, amdeni episkoposis erTad kurTxeva aSkarad migviTiTebs imaze, rom vaxtangi qarTlis eklesiis raRac did reorganizacias isaxavda miznad. amasTan, rogorc irkveva, es reorganizacia ufro politikuri xasiaTisa unda yofiliyo, vidre saeklesio. kaTalikosobis dawesebiT, samefo xelisufleba, ueWvelia, met gavlenas iZenda mRvdelmTavarze, romlis arCevaSi mefes meti xma eZleoda. da bolos, vaxtangma moicila mTavarepiskoposi, romelic, etyoba, mis mowinaaRmdegeTa banaks ekuTvnoda. axlad daniSnuli episkoposebis simravle (Tormeti episkoposi) gviCvenebs, rom vaxtangma, erTi mxriv, Secvala zogi episkoposi, cxadia, miqaelis momxre da meore mxriv, daawesa axali saepiskoposoebi. yuradRebas iqcevs is garemoeba, rom axalxeldasxmul episkoposTagan xuTi kaxeT-hereT-kuxeTSi unda mjdariyo. rogorc irkveva, vaxtangi gansakuTrebiT yuradRebas aqcevda Tavisi domenis, kaxeT-kuxeT-hereTis ganmtkicebas, radgan savsebiT gasagebi mizeziT, mas surda sruli baton-patroni gamxdariyo Tavis ZiriTad dasayrden miwa-wyalze~.33 gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa n. janaSias azri imis Sesaxeb, rom qarTul eklesiaSi kaTalikosobis dawesebamde yofila ara erTaderTi saepiskoposo, rogorc amJamad fiqrobs zogierTi istorikosi, aramed mravali saepiskoposo da ukve arsebuli saepiskoposos zogierTi meTauri vaxtangs Seucvlia kaTalikosobis dawesebis dros. vaxtangma Secvala misi politikis mowinaaRmdege episkoposebi. `amave mizniT iqneboda axali episkoposi daniSnuli rusTavSi. unda vifiqroT, rom man Secvala Zveli, vaxtangis mowinaaRmdege mRvdelmTavari. marTlac, aq Cven saqme unda gvqondes swored episkoposis SecvlasTan da ara saepiskoposos daarsebasTan. SeuZlebelia, aseT did saerisTavo centrSi, samefo sagvareulos erT-erTi Stos rezidenciaSi, rusTavSi, manamde episkoposi ar mjdariyo. am dros qarTlSi sul ocamde saepiskoposo yofila: mcxeTis, samTavisis, ruisis, niqozis, wilknis, Tbilisis, manglisis, bolnisis, curtavis, Weremis, rusTavis, ninowmindis, xornabujis, bodbis, CelTis, awyveris, wundis, axizis, eruSeTis da sxva~.34 maSasadame, jer kidev kaTalikosobis dawesebamde, qarTul eklesiaSi mravali saepiskoposo yofila. am Tvalsazrisis gamoTqmisas n. janaSia eyrdnoboda iv. javaxiSvilis, s. janaSias, s. kakabaZis, k. kekeliZis, z. aleqsiZis Sromebs.35 `kaTalikosobis dawesebis TariRis Sesaxeb unda iTqvas, rom 472 wels `SuSanikis wamebaSi~ jer kidev ixsenieba episkoposTa Tavi, magram ukve 506

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wlis saeklesio krebis sabuTebSi qarTlis mRvdelmTavars kaTalikosi ewodeba. wyaroebis erTmxrivi mowmobiT kaTalikosobis daweseba uSualod mohyolia vaxtangis dabrunebas iranidan. amitom safiqrebelia, rom es unda momxdariyo V saukunis 70-ian wlebSi~.36 kaTalikosobis dawesebiT vaxtangma eklesia daumorCila saxelmwifos. 482 wels vaxtangma omi daiwyo sparselebis winaaRmdeg. 484 wels vaxtangma varsqeni moakvlevina da amiT Tavidan moiSora sparselebis momxre aznaurTa meTauri. manamde ki vaxtangma aaSena axali qalaqebi, cixe-simagreebi, gaamagra isini. xelT igdo kavkasionis gadasasvlelebi da gaamagra. kavkasiis gadaRma mcxovreb hunebTan gamarTa molaparakeba da pirobac miiRo maTgan, rom sparselebTan omis dros jars miaSvelebdnen. `am ambavis gagonebaze somxebs gauxardaT da imedi moecaT, qarTvelebi da Cven erTad sparselebs rogorme vZlevTo. magram erTma somexma naxararma Tavisi TanamoZmeebi daabezRa da sparseTis marzpans maTi moqmedebis gegma Seatyobina. amis Semdeg sparselebi mzadebas Seudgnen~.37 iranelebma ori didi laSqari gamoagzavnes. qarTvelebs hunebis maSveli jari ar mouvidaT, aseve somxebic. vahan mamikonianis sityviT `...somxebs Soris ar iyo erTianoba da mosalodneli iyo Ralati~,38 rogorc SemdgomSi aRmoCnda, vahanis SiSi ar iyo moklebuli realur safuZvels.39 `...moRalateebma Tavisi danapirebi Seasrules, miatoves brZolis veli, arev-dareva Seitanes mebrZolTa rigebSi da bolos, mTeli laSqari Sedrka da gaiqca. iranelebi daedevnen gaqceulebs, bevri daxoces, bevric tyved Caigdes, magram Tavisi gamarjveba mainc ver miiyvanes bolomde...~40 iranelTa sardals mouvida brZaneba, `qarTlis mefe vaxtangi an Seepyra, an moekla, anda qveynidan ganedevna~.41 iranelTa sardali Sevida qarTlSi, sadac Sekriba adgilobrivi didebulebi, romlebic Tavidanve mxars ar uWerdnen vaxtangs, maT SeuerTdnen isinic, vinc gorgasals SemdgomSi ganudgnen... vaxtangma Tavi Seafara egriss. am dros iranidan movida perozisa da iranelTa jaris daRupvis ambavi... iranelebi uaRresad mZime viTarebaSi aRmoCndnen, aman aiZula isini mTel rig mniSvnelovan daTmobaze wasuliyvnen... ajanyebul somexTa moTxovniT, iranelebma piroba dades SeewyvitaT qristianobis devna, ar daerRviaT adgilobrivi tradiciebi... 485 wels ajanyebulTa meTauri vahan mamikoniani somxeTis marzpanad daniSnes. iranelebi albanelebis mimarTac wasulan daTmobaze, kerZod, iq mefoba aRudgeniaT~.42 sparseTma Sewyvita qristianTa devna mTel amierkavkasiaSi. qarTvel mefeTa taxti ganmtkicda. Tundac is, rom albaneTSic ki, sadac mefoba gauqmebuli iyo, mefoba aRdga, miuTiTebs qarTuli samefo taxtis ganmtkicebas. es iyo vaxtang gorgaslis gamarjveba. vaxtangi, cxadia, amis Semdeg SeebrZoleboda Sinaur mtrebs da gaimarjvebda maTzec. mas `spa~ edga mxarSi.

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vaxtangma SeZlo reformebis Catareba eklesiaSi. Secvala da daniSna axali episkoposebi, magram yvelaze mniSvnelovani, albaT isaa, rom vaxtangma SeZlo saqarTvelos gaerTianeba. d. musxeliSvili wers: `gorgaslis epoqis Tanadrouli bizantiuri da somxuri wyaroebis analizis safuZvelze Cven SevecadeT dagvesabuTebina, rom leonti mrovelis mowmoba Seesabameba sinamdviles da rom qarTlis mefem vaxtang gorgasalma namdvilad gaaerTiana dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo V saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi da egrisis yofili mmarTveli Tavis erisTavad gaxada... Cven ar gamovricxavT SesaZleblobas msgavsi politikuri situaciis arsebobisa farnavazis dros~.43 vaxtangis dros SesaZlebeli gaxda qarTvelebs daubrkoleblad eRiarebinaT qristianoba (sparselTagan amis gamo SiSi aRar hqondaT) da saqarTvelos daubrunda mterTagan mitacebuli nawilebi. es, cxadia, vaxtangs xalxis usayvarles gmirad xdida. `saerTod, mermindel qarTvel istorikosebs vaxtang gorgaslis mTeli cxovreba-moRvaweoba umTavresad aseTi sarwmunoebisa da qristianobisaTvis warmoebul brZolad aqvT dasuraTebuli. TviT vaxtang gorgaslis sikvdilsac ki juanSeri qristianobisaTvis wamebad sTvlida. misi sityviT, qarTveli `morwmune eri hnatrida mefesa, rameTu qristesTvis moiklao~.44 `arseni kaTalikozis sityviT, mefe vaxtangi maRali tanis kaci yofila. mefis samxedro iaraRi da samoseli, Turme, arsenis drosac ki inaxeboda. igi ambobs: vaxtang mefe iyo `hasakiTa umetes yovelTa kacTa, rameTu aTormeti brWali kacisa iyo simaRle misi da awca romel ars abjari da samoseli misi, misgan ufros sacnaur ars~ mefis goliaTuri simaRleo~.45 vaxtangi gardaicvala 502-506 wlebSi. s. gorgaZe vaxtangis gardacvalebas 503 welze debda, misive Tanaxmad, vaxtangi unda dabadebuliyo 443 wels. iv. javaxiSvili vaxtangis gardacvalebas 502 wlis SemdgomiT aTariRebda.46

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mefe mirdatis datyvevebis Semdeg, sparselebma daipyres saqarTvelo, Sebilwes eklesiebi. qarTvelebma damales jvrebi da yovel eklesiaSi cecxlismsaxurma sparselebma aRagznes cecxli. qarTvel mefeTa ojaxi kaxeTis xevSi darCa. sami wlis Semdeg aRmosavleTidan mtris Semosevis gamo sparsTa mefem saqarTvelosaTvis ver moicala. maSin SeiTqvnen aznaurebi, dasves mcxeTaSi mefed mefe Trdatis Ze arCili, romelic mefe mirdatis Zmiswuli iyo. arCilma moiyvana coli saberZneTidan. man ganacxada sparsTa mtroba. gamoaCina jvrebi da mokazma eklesiebi. mosres da ganasxes cecxlmsaxurni saqarTvelos sazRvrebidan. mefes mouvida maSveli Zala saberZneTidan da jvris warZRvanebiT daiwyo

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sparsTa winaaRmdeg brZola. sparsTa mefis erisTavma, romelic erisTavobda ransa, movakansa da qarTlSi arCilis gamefebamde, Sekriba spa ranisa, movakanisa, adarbadaganisa da gaemarTa arCilis winaaRmdeg. arCil mefe dauxvda ranisa da qarTlis sazRvarze mdinare berdrujze. patiosani jvris ZaliT daamarcxa, daxoca da daatyveva mteri, Sevida ranSi da movida qarTlSi gamarjvebuli. ganavlina qadagi sruliad saqarTveloSi. auwya yvelas `ara Cveni ZaliT, arc simxniT, arc sibrZniT, arc spis simravliT vZlieT mters, aramed Cveni uflis, RvTis Zis, ieso qristes ZaliT, romelmac mogvca winamZRvrad da saWurvelad jvari misi patiosani. axla yovelma qarTvelma adideT sameba erTarseba, RmerTi dausabamo, yovlis dambadebeli. SewireT madloba da mtkice iyos Tqveni guli wmida samebis sarwmunoebaze~. da yovelTa qarTvelTa Seswires madloba RmrTis mimarT da ganaaxles eklesiebi. arCil mefem aaSena mcxeTaSi stefanwmidis eklesia, aragvis karze. arCils hyavda Ze, romelsac uwoda mirdati. morwmune da RvTismsaxuri, mamis msgavsad. umetesad ebrZoda sparselebs, Sedioda da aoxrebda ransa da movakans, radganac im dros sparsTa mefe ebrZoda indoelebs, sindebsa da abaSebs da ar SeeZlo didi spis saqarTveloSi gamogzavna, xolo ranis, movakanisa da adarbadaganis spas qarTvelebi amarcxebdnen, Sediodnen da i pyrobdnen ransa da movakans. im dros ranis erisTavi iyo barzabodi, is winaaRmdegobas ver uwevda qarTvelebs da amagrebda cixe-qalaqebs, xolo ranSi Sesuli qarTvelebi SebrZolebisas mis laSqars mudam amarcxebdnen. barzabods hyavda asuli qmnulkeTili da mSvenieri, romelsac erqva sagduxti. es qali Seuyvarda mirdats da qalis siyvarulisTvis ineba mSvidobis Camogdeba ransa da qarTls Soris. mirdats SerTes sagduxti, isini samSvildis saerisTavoSi cxovrobdnen arCilis mefobis dros. am sagduxt dedofalma gamoikiTxa qristes rjuli. misma qmarma mohgvara sjulis mcodne kacebi, uTargmnes sagduxts Cveni uflis, ieso qristes saxareba da auwyes mas, rom WeSmariti RmerTi aris qriste, romelic Cveni xsnisaTvis gankacda.

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sagduxt dedofalma gulisxma-hyo da icno WeSmariti rjuli, datova cecxlismsaxureba, moinaTla da Seiqna morwmune da aRaSena samSvildis sioni. arCilis dros gardaicvala sami episkoposi: iona, grigoli da basili. basilis Semdgom arCilma dasva episkoposi, romelsac erqva mobidani. is iyo `naTesaviT~ sparseli, aCvenebda marTlmadideblobas, sinamdvileSi ki iyo urjulo mogvi da SemSleli wesTa. ver igrZno arCil mefem misi urjuloeba. mobidanic ar acxadebda Tavis rjuls, aramed farulad werda sacdur wignebs, romelnic Semdgom dawva WeSmaritma episkoposma miqaelma, romelic ganikveTa vaxtang mefis mimarT kadnieri qcevisTvis. arCilis Semdeg gamefda misi Ze mirdati. dedofalma sagduxtma Sva asuli, uwodes saxeli xuaranZe. oTxi wlis Semdeg Sva Ze da uwoda mas saxeli sparsulad varan-xuasro-Tang, xolo qarTulad vaxtang. vaxtangi aRsazrdelad moiTxova didi vedrebiT spaspetma saurmagma, misca mas mefem, rameTu wesi iyo, rom mefeTa Svilebi warCinebulTa ojaxebSi unda aRzrdiliyvnen. meeqvse wels sagduxtma Sva asuli, romelsac miranduxti uwodes. mas kaspis spasalari zrdida qalaq kaspSi. amis Semdeg meore wels mokvda mirdat mefe da darCa vaxtang Svidi wlis yrma. sagduxt dedofals SeeSinda, rom mamamis barzabods Suri ar eZia Tavisi qveynis mooxrebisTvis, qarTlSi ar SemoWriliyo da ar warewymida qristes rjuli. wavida bardavSi, Seevedra mamamiss, muxlmodrekilma, Tavmoxdilma da ZuZuebamoyrilma cremliT iTxova Sewyaleba. evedreboda ar exsenebina namoqmedari qmrisa da mamamTilisa, Seendo rjulis datoveba, ar aeZulebina qristes rjulis datoveba, rameTu igi aris WeSmariti RmerTi, da evedreboda, raTa misi Svili Tavis mamulSi daetovebina da misi mouravi yofiliyo sparsTa mefis winaSe. maSin barzabodma, gamzadebulma qarTvelTa borotis yofisTvis, Seiwyala Tavisi asuli, aRasrula yoveli misi Txovna, xolo rjulisTvis ase Tqva: `iZulebiT arc erT qarTvels qristes rjuls ar davagdebineb, magram gavagzavni Tqvens qalaqebSi cecxlis msaxurebs da iyvnen iq Cveni rjulis episkoposebi, romeli qarTvelic Tavisi nebiT airCevs Cvens rjuls, mas nu daabrkolebT~. sagduxt dedofali SiSis gamo daeTanxma. maSin barzabodma mcxeTaSi gamogzavna cecxlismsaxurebi da maTi episkoposi binqarani. isini dasxdnen mogvTas. barzabodis sikvdilis Semdeg, mis nacvlad sparsTa mefem daadgina varaz-bakuri, Zma sagduxt dedoflisa. mefem gardacvlili spaspetis, saurmagis nacvlad daadgina sxva spaspeti, romelsac erqva juanSeri. binqaran, cecxlis msaxurTa episkoposi, qarTvelebs aswavlida Tavis rjuls. man warCinebulTagani veravin Seacdina, magram wvrili eridan mravali miaqcia cecxlismsaxurebaze. da Seeria qarTlis wvril ers cecxlmsaxureba. amisaTvis mwuxare iyo sagduxt dedofali. magram sparsTa mZlavrobis

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gamo verafers bedavda. maSin moiyvana saberZneTidan WeSmariti mRvdeli, saxelad miqaeli da daadgina igi zemo eklesiis episkoposad. rameTu mobidan episkoposi gardacvlili iyo. es miqael episkoposi winaRudga binqaran macdurs da yovel qarTvels aswavlida WeSmarit rjuls. aman Tavis rjulze daayena yoveli warCinebuli qarTveli da eris umravlesobac. magram wvrili eris mcire nawili cecxlmsaxurebaze miiqca. maSin, roca vaxtangi aTi wlis gaxda, gadmovida osebis uricxvi spa.48 maT motyvevnes qarTli mtkvris Tavidan xunanamde, magram cixe-qalaqebi ver aiRes, kaspis garda. qalaqi kaspi Semusres da sami wlis miranduxti, vaxtangis da waiyvanes. am dros darCaT warutyvevnelad xevni qarTlisani: kaxeTi, klarjeTi da egrisi. Cavles rani da movakani, isic wartyvevnes da darubandis kariT dabrundnen oseTSi. im dros Semovidnen berZnebi afxazeTidan, rameTu berZnebs eWiraT egriswylis qvemo qveyana da dai pyres berZnebma egriswylidan vidre cixe-gojamde. maSin Seiqna glova da wuxili yovelTa qarTvelTa da ityodnen: `ganvamravleT codva RvTis mimarT da ara keTilad vi pyariT sjuli qristesi da wesi iovanes mcnebisa. samarTlianad moawia RmerTma es risxva Cvenze, rameTu migvca Cven warsatyvevnelad ucxo ers da Cveni sazRvari miitaces berZnebma, ise, rogorc mefe varaz-baqaris dros klarjeTi. is varaz-baqaris codviT moiwia, rameTu keTilad ver i pyra qristes rjuli. xolo es ara Cveni mefeebis codvisagan iqmna, aramed eris codvisagan, axla Cveni mefe yrma aris da ara gvyavs winamZRvari, romelic qristes sasoebiT da jvris winamZRolobiT wargviZRveboda win. magram unda viZioT Cven Suri pirvelad osebze da Semdgom unda moviZioT berZenTagan mitacebuli qarTlis sazRvari~.49 amas ambobda yoveli qarTveli da iyvnen did mwuxarebaSi. vaxtangi izrdeboda da swavlobda miqael episkoposisgan uflis yovel mcnebas. siyrmidanve Seiyvara qristes rjuli, qarTlis yovel mefeze ufro metad. magram wuxda imis gamo, rom qarTli datyvevebuli iyo cecxlmsaxurebis mier, xolo qarTlis sazRvrebi ki mitacebuli. magram sparsTa mZlavrobis gamo ver acxadebda. roca vaxtangi TxuTmeti wlis gaxda, mouxmo qarTlis yvela warCinebuls. yvelani Semoikribnen qalaqSi. mefem gaamzada erTi saxli da dajda maRal saydarze (e.i. taxtze), spaspeti juanSeri da orive episkoposi agreTve saydrebze dasxdnen, xolo sxva yoveli erisTavi selebze dasxdnen. aTasisTavebi, asisTavebi da eri fexze idga. mefem, viTarca moxucebulma da brZenma, da rogorc filosofosTa Soris aRzrdilma, warmoTqva sityva. mouwoda osebze SurisZiebisken. es rom sparsTa da berZenTa mefeTagan mogvsvloda, moviTmendiT, magram imis moTmena, rac Cven mogvawies osebma, ar SeiZleba, sikvdili sjobs CvenTvisao.

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juanSer spaspetma grZeli sityviT mimarTa mefes da uTxra, Tumca sibrZniT, ZaliT, simxniT da agebulebiT srulyofili xar, magram mxedrobisTvis arasrulwlovani xar. gamoarCie erTi vinme CvenTagani spis winamZRvrad, xolo Sen iyav Sin da ganage mefoba, Sen rom omis dros iZlio, qveyana warwymdeba, radganac qveyanaze Seni nacvali sxva aravin ariso. vaxtang mefe ar daeTanxma da TviTve ineba jaris winamZRvroba. Semoikriba saqarTvelos spa asi aTasi mxedari da samoci aTasi qveiTi. gamogzavna agreTve varazbakurma Tavisi spa Tormeti aTasi mxedari. SeuerTdnen mas kavkasieli mefeebi ormocdaaTi aTasi mxedriT, da waremarTa RvTis saxeliT, ganvlo darialanis kari da, roca Sevida oseTSi, iyo Teqvsmeti wlis. oseTis mefeebma Sekribes TavianTi spa, miiRes agreTve xazareTidan Zalebi da daxvdnen vaxtangs mdinareze, romelic darialans gaivlis da Cadis oseTis velze. am mdinaresac aragvi (Tergi) hqvia, rameTu erTi mTidan gamodis orive: qarTlis aragvi da oseTis aragvi. orive jarma mdinaris aqeT da iqiT daibanaka. pirvel Svid dRes mdinareze erTmaneTs bumberazebi ebrZodnen. ibrZoda erTi xazari goliaTi, saxelad Tarxani. man qarTveli saxelganTqmuli mebrZoli daamarcxa, romlis msgavsi jarSi aravin iyo. meore dRes TviT vaxtangi gavida mis winaaRmdeg. Tarxanma uTxra, me goliaTebs da gamocdil gmirebs vebrZvi da ara ymawvilebs, magram SenTvis Tavs davimdablebo. mokla is vaxtangma oroliT. meore dRes gamovida sabrZolvelad bayaTar osi. gamovlo man mdinare da isrebs esroda vaxtangs. magram vaxtangi Tavisi gonebis simaxviliT, Tvalis sificxiTa da taiWis sikiskasiT iridebda isrebs, rameTu Soridanve xedavda momaval isars, xldeboda da simarjviT mieaxleboda. amier da imier spaTagan iyo cema bukebisa da dafdafebisa. iZroda xmisagan mTa da borcvi. mohkla xmliT vaxtangma bayaTari. qarTvelTa jari gaemzada saomrad: win dadgnen cxen-Torosani da jaWvCabalaxosani meomrebi. maT ukan qveiTni, xolo qveiTTa ukan mxedrebi. Zlieri brZolis Semdeg osebi iZlivnen da gaiqcnen. mravali daatyveves. daimorCila vaxtangma osebi da yivCaRebi50 da Seqmna karni oseTisani, romelsac Cven darialisad vuwodebT, aRaSena masze maRalni godolni. da maxlobeli mTielebi mcvelebad daudgina. yivCaRebs da osebs iq gadmosvla aRar SeuZliaT qarTvelTa mefis brZanebis gareSe. vaxtangi Sevida paWanikeTSi, rameTu maSin paWanikeTi oseTs esazRvreboda da iqve iyo jiqeTi. mravali drois Semdeg paWanikebi da jiqebi Turqebma am adgilebidan gandevnes. paWanikebi dasavleTiT wavidnen, xolo jiqebi damkvidrdnen afxazeTis bolos. vaxtangma gamoixsna Tavisi da miranduxti tyveobisagan da gamogzavna is saqarTveloSi darialis gziT, xolo TviTon qarTvelTa didi spiT wavida afxazeTSi. im dros berZenTa mefe moucleli iyo sparselebTan brZolis gamo, amitomac ar SeeZlo vaxtangis winaaRmdeg afxazeTSi Tavisi spis gamogzavna. vaxtangma aiRo afxazeTis yvela cixe sam weliwadSi, vidre cixe-gojamde.51

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vaxtangi dabrunda sameufo qalaq mcxeTaSi. qalaqis mosaxleoba, qalebi da kacebi, fexqveS ufendnen naWrebsa da samosels, Tavze ayridnen dramasa da drahkans, aRuwevneli xmiT Seasxamdnen qebas, rameTu arc erT mefes aseTi Zlieri wyoba-SebrZolebis xelovneba ar hqonia. gaugzavna vaxtangma sparsTa mefes Zvirfasi ZRveni binqaran episkoposis xeliT da iTxova sparsTa mefisagan asuli colad, romelsac erqva balenduxti. sparsTa mefem misca Tavisi asuli da mziTvad somxeTi da yoveli kavkasieli mefe. miswera wigni vaxtangs da mouxmo berZenTa keisris winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. Sekriba vaxtangma Tavisi da kavkasieli mefeebis spa orasi aTasi kaci. SeuerTda mas ranis erisTavi, misi dedis Zma varaz-bakuri ardabadaganis, ranisa da movakanis orasi aTasi mxedriT. im dros vaxtangi iyo ocdaori wlis, yvela kacze maRali, saxiT umSvenieresi, ZaliT Zlieri, iseTi, rom aRWurvili, fexiT irems eweoda da rqiT iWerda da agreTve SeWurvil cxens mxrebiT aiRebda da mcxeTidan armazis cixeSi adioda. vaxtangi da misi debi iyvnen STamomavlebi baqar mirianis Zisa. xolo miriani da grigoli iyvnen rev mirianis Zis STamomavlebi. maT kuxeTi hqondaT da rusTav-qalaqSi cxovrobdnen, magram Semcirebulni iyvnen erTmaneTis kvliT. mirian mefidan vaxtang mefemde gardasuli iyo Taoba rva, xolo mefeni aTni. gasuli iyo 157 weliwadi, xolo episkoposi WeSmarit wesze mdgomi gardacvlili iyo rva, xolo sxvebi wesis SemSlelebi iyvnen. vaxtangi gaemarTa saberZneTisken. Sevida somxeTSi, mas aq SeuerTdnen somxeTis erisTavebi. cixe-qalaqi, romelsac karnu qalaqi ewodeba, ver aiRes, radganac sami maRali zRude hqonda. datova iq sabrZolvelad mxedroba da TviTon Sevida pontoSi. gzaze sami qalaqi moaoxra: anZoreTi, ekeleci da steri. Semoadga laSqari pontos zRvispireTis did qalaqs da laSqarma TiTqmis konstantines qalaqamde miaRwia. sparselebi eklesiis msaxurebs hklavdnen. vaxtang mefem amcno somxebis spas, agreTve sparselebs, ar moeklaT samRvdeloeba, aramed daetyvevebinaT. vaxtangma warmoTqva sityva da uTxra maT: roca mirian mefe sparsT mefes Semohyva aq berZenTa winaaRmdeg saomrad, aseve uyofdnen moweseebsa da eklesiis msaxurebs, amitomac damarcxdnen. im droidan berZnebma Cven, qarTvelebs, wagvarTves miwebi pontos (Savi) zRvis aRmosavleTiT, da erTmaneTs SeebrZolnen anZianZorSi, sadac amJamad aris saflavi didi moZRvrisa grigolisa da aqedan ukuiqcnen Cveni mefeebio. vaxtangma somxeTis spas Seaxsena TavianTi eklesiis istoria da yvelas mouTxro Sinaarsi nebroTis im wignisa, romelic dafarulad hqondaT qarTvel mefeebs. yvelas ubrZana, araferi evnoT eklesiebisa da RvTismsaxurebisaTvis. vaxtangma amcno yvela damalul moweses (samRvdeloebs), gamosuliyvnen

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samalavidan. tyveebi gaaTavisufla. gamovidnen mRvdlebi, diakvnebi da mowese monazvnebi samalavebidan. maTTan iyo ori kaci: petre mRvdeli, grigol RvTismetyvelis erT-erTi mowafe, romelic mis saflavze mRvdelobda da samoel monazoni. isini warudgnen vaxtangs tyveTa da eklesiebis ganTavisuflebisaTvis madlobis Sesawirad. vaxtangma petre mRvdeli da samoel monazoni TavisTan daitova. uTxra mas petrem: `eklesiani xorcTani ufro metia RvTis winaSe, vidre qvis eklesiebi. qvis eklesiebi rodesme dairRvevian da amave qvebiT kvlav aRaSeneben, xolo eklesiani xorcTani roca dairRvevian, veravin SeZlebs maT gankurnebas, verc mkurnali da verc mefe, da Sen ramdeni marTali kaci dagicia! me msurs Seni aRdgineba, raTa ar iyo im kacTa msgavsi, romelnic marjveniT ageben, xolo marcxeniT arRveven da arc iseTi, romelnic piriT akurTxeben da guliT swyevlian da agineben. aramed iyo rogorc keTilxsenebuli mefeebi, romlebmac dai pyres sofeli da arc sasufevels ganSorebian. me mnebavs, raTa Sens mier aRgznebuli es cecxli Senve daSrito da iyo megobari keisrisa, rogorc dRemde iyavi sparselebisa. berZnebi arian naTesavni RmrTisani~. miugo mefem: `mnebavs, rom am Rames Tqveni locvis ZaliT meCvenos Cemi da keisris Sekreba da rom Cvens Soris siyvarulis damyarebaze unda iyos msjeloba, raTa vcna me, rom qristes surs CemTan Seni amgvari laparaki~. petrem iTxova dro locvisTvis da wavida. mefem iloca da dawva. Tvalis mirulvisas warmoudga mas wmida nino da uTxra: `adeq, mefev, da mokrZalebiT win miegebe SenTan momaval or mefes zecisas da qveynisas~. mivida vaxtangi da ixila ori taxti: erTze ijda Wabuki gvirgvinosani saWurvliT, meoreze moxucebuli mjdomare spetaki zewriT, mas Tavze edga ara oqros, aramed naTlis gvirgvini da mis fexTiT ijda nino. da vaxtangis marjvena xeli eWira petre mRvdels, xolo marcxena samoels. uTxra samoelma: Tayvani eci pirvelad zecis did mTavars grigols. mivida da Tayvani sca da uTxra grigolma: `es ra boroteba Caidine, kaco, rameTu moaoxre Cemi banaki da mxecebs SeaWame Cemi sacxovari. ukeTu ara eg orni, romelnic gverdiT gidganan da es saTno dedakaci, romelic marad iRvwvis mariamTan erTad TqvenTvis _ Surs vigebdi Senianebisgan, romelnic cecxls sasoeben da ara yovelTa ganmanaTlebel brwyinvalebas~. da gauwoda xeli da eambora xelze vaxtangi. man mokida xeli naTlis gvirgvins da iseTive gvirgvini misca vaxtangs da uTxra: `daadgi eg petres~. da aiRo petrem Tavis gvirgvinze udaresi gvirgvini da daadga samoel monazons. uTxra ninom vaxtangs: `axla midi mefesTan da miiRe Seni saboZvari~. mivida mefesTan, eambornen erTmaneTs da adgili misca taxtze Tavis gverdiT. misca beWedi Tavisi xelidan, romelsac hqonda friad naTeli Tvali da Tqva keisarma: `Tu gnebavs gvirgvini, aRuTqvi mas, vinc Cvens win dgas,

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rom SeebrZolebi mis mtrebs, da miiRe misgan gvirgvini~. moixeda vaxtangma da ixila jvari, romelsac frTebze hqonda gvirgvini, jvris xilvam SeaZrwuna da dadumda. aRdga wmida nino, gaixeda petresa da samoelisken da erTxmad Tqves: `Cven varT Tavsmdebi, rom yvelaze ufro metad Seasrulebs~, da mihyo xeli keisarma, da aiRo gvirgvini jvarisagan da daadga vaxtangs. ukan gamosvlisas Seexmiana episkoposi samgzis: `vaxtang, vaxtang, vaxtang! umetesad morwmune iqnebi Sen sparsTa Soris~. meored: `aSendebian Sengan eklesiebi da ganewesebian episkoposebi da episkoposTa mTavari~. da mesamed: `wamebis gvirgvinsac miiReb~. gamovida vaxtangi da uxmo ZilSive petresa da samoels, da mouTxrobda ZilSive Cvenebas, xolo isini uxsnidnen: `taxtze, romelic ixile, naTlis gvirgvinosani, aris didi moZRvari grigoli da rac momeca misi gvirgvinisgan, is iyo, rom mimeca episkoposTa mTavroba, xolo rac miveci Cveni gvirgvinisgan Cems moyvass, is aris, rom Cemgan miecema episkoposoba. xolo oqros gvirgvinosani iyo keisari. beWedi, romelic mogca, is aris, rom Tavis asuls mogcems colad da yoveli sazRvari qarTlisa, misgan mitacebuli, mogces. xolo gvirgvini, romelic jvarisgan mogeca, is aris, rom did Rvawls gadaixdi jvris SewevniT. xolo Cveni moZRvari samgzis rom Segexmiana, sami simdidre moiTxova SenTvis RmerTisgan: raTa Sens mier qarTlis WeSmariteba daemtkicos kaTalikosebisgan da episkoposebisgan, sZlev Sens mtrebs Sens aRsrulebamde, xolo aRsrulebisas wamebis gvirgvins miiReb brZolisas da mtrebs xelSi ar Cauvardebi. yovelive aRsruldeba Sens siberemde da dauZlurebamde~. gaRviZebisas vaxtangma madloba Seswira RmerTs da mouxmo petresa da samoels. maTac RamiT igive Cveneba naxes. petres uTxra: `aravin aris Cven Soris WeSmariti morwmune, romelic danerga Cvenma mamam mirianma anda Trdatma, dediT naTesavma Cemma. amaT yovelTa sarwmunoeba vici, romelic savse aris sacduriT~.52 petre mociqulad gagzavna keisarTan. vaxtangma meore dRes Seityo, rom sparseTidan dabrunebuli berZenTa spa konstantinopolSi Sevida. man mouxmo meTaurebs da uTxra: `berZnebs mravalricxovani spa hyavT, brZolisas marjveni arian, aseve zRvazedac. meSinia, ar movidnen zRviT, gza ar mogviWran da ar amogvxocon, rogorc bakSi Semwyvdeuli. avyaroT laSqari da zRvis samxreTiT davibanakoT, raTa gvqondes gza Wirisa da lxinisa~. moxsnes qalaqis alya da daibanakes iqidan xuTi dRis savalze, speris siaxloves. madloba Seswires vaxtangs sikvdils miwevnilma qalaqebma. petre mivida keisarTan da mouTxro yovelive. keisarma friad gaixara da yovelive, rac ixila vaxtangma CvenebaSi, misca. petres piriT SeuTvala vaxtangs, rom misi mefobis Tanasworad CaTvlida. xolo orTaves laSqari sparselebs daamarcxebda, roca vaxtangi da igi (keisari) gaerTiandebodnen. keisarma zRviT gamoagzavna 500 xomaldi, 500500 jariskaciT. isini unda misuliyvnen vaxtangTan da ubrZolvelad unda

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damdgariyvnen. TviTon keisari gamoemarTa pontos gziT 800 000 kaciT, da roca movida zRviT mosuli spa, sparselebs undodaT maT winaaRmdeg brZola, xolo vaxtang mefe aCerebda sparselebs da ar miuSva sabrZolvelad. keisris mociqulebma vaxtangs saidumlod moarTves jvari, gvirgvini da Sesamoseli. aRuTqva keisarma vaxtangs, rom ukanve miscemda Tuxariss da qarTlis sazRvrebs. vaxtangma keisars amcno: `rac ar Svenis Sens RvTismoyvarebas, sxvas nu aiZuleb, rameTu Ralati patiosani kacis xeloba ar aris. Tu axla Sen mogcem dasamarcxeblad sparselebs, Cemi saxeli xom gacruvdeba? Semdgom ki, roca Cveni saqme gadawydeba, ufro umjobesad mogemxrobi sparselTa winaaRmdeg~. vaxtangma keisars urCia, Tavi Seekavebina SebrZolebisgan. berZnebis laSqari moiwevda, xolo vaxtangi aCerebda Tavisianebs da uSlida berZnebTan SebrZolebas. miiWra masTan sparsTa erisTavi, dedis Zma misi da uTxra vaxtangs risxviT: `mamaSenis deda berZeni iyo, gZlia Sen misma bunebam da siyvaruli gaqvs im jvarcmuli momkvdari kacisa. gnebavs, rom berZenTa xelSi Cagvyaro~. vaxtangma mas uTxra: `aha, Sen da aha, berZnebi, ixilav Sen im momkvdari kacis Zalas~. gavidnen sparselebi, somxebi da darubandis mefe berZnebTan sabrZolvelad. mefe vaxtangi da qarTvelebi ar ibrZodnen, idgnen da uyurebdnen. damarcxdnen aRmosavlelebi, mokles omSi vaxtangis dedis Zma, sparsTa erisTavi. amis Semdeg, keisris nebis gareSe, berZenTa spasalari SeebrZola qarTvelebs. vaxtangma is pirispir SebrZolebisas mokla. omSi daiRupa 43 000 qarTveli, maT gaimarjves. vaxtangma amis Semdeg gaaTavisufla datyvevebuli 780000 qali da kaci. gaugzavna isini keisars da amiT nugeSini-sca berZeni spasalaris mokvlisaTvis, romelic keisris naTesavi iyo. keisarma friad gaixara da Sexvda vaxtangs. hyves urTierTaRTqma da fici, niSnobis saqme moagvares. ukumisca keisarma vaxtangs qarTlis sazRvari cixe Tuxarisi da mTliani klarjeTi,53 gamoikiTxa keisarma saberZneTis sazRvari afxazeTSi da Tqva ase: `egriswylidan vidre mcire xazareTis mdinaremde54 es aris sazRvari saberZneTisa aleqsandre makedonelis droidan, romelic Sen Cvengan waiRe Seni mklavis ZaliT. axla ukanve mogveci es Cveni qveyana da, roca waiyvan Cems asuls colad, maSin misgan mogcem amave qveyanas~. da mosca mziTvad Tavis qaliSvils qveyana, moqceuli egriswyalsa da klisuras Soris, da sxva afxazeTi ukanve misca vaxtangma berZnebs.55 da wamovida vaxtangi klarjeTis gziT, gaiara Tuxarisi, moewona da es saxeli daarqva, Sua klarjeTSi, artanujSi daadgina erisTavi da ubrZana cixis aSeneba. agreTve, ubrZana, gamoenaxa iq samonastro adgili da aeSenebina eklesia. artavaz erisTavma aaSena iq artanujis cixe. da iqve aaSenes monasteri (artanujis xevSi), msgavsi maT mier saberZneTSi nanaxi monastrebisa. garda amisa, aaSena opizis monasteri da sami eklesia: daba merisa, Sindobisa da axizisa, agreTve ganaaxla axizis cixe.

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mcxeTaSi misul vaxtangs eri didi sixaruliT Sexvda. roca sparsTa mefem cno, rom vaxtangi berZnebs miemxro, ukanve gabrunda sparseTSi da iq mokvda. mefed misi Ze dajda da mis momwifebamde gavida sami weli. vaxtangis colma Sva tyupebi, Ze da asuli. da mokvda mSobiarobis dros balenduxt dedofali, sparsTa mefis asuli. vaxtangma uwoda Tavis Zes daCi. maSin vaxtangma ver moicala saberZneTidan keisris asulis colad moyvanisaTvis da verc kaTalikosis moyvanisaTvis, radganac moeloda sparsTa SemoWras, amagrebda cixeebsa da qalaqebs. hkazmavda da amzadebda sabrZolvelad mxedrebs. maSin Seagdo sapyrobileSi binqaran macduri, cecxlis msaxurTa episkoposi, mospo da gayara cecxlismsaxurni sazRvargareT. sami wlis Semdeg sparsTa mefe gamoemarTa vaxtang mefesTan sabrZolvelad. vaxtangma amcno berZenTa mefes: `aha, is dRe, romelic aRgiTqvi, rom sparselebs Semovamwyvdevdi Sens xelSi. moviyvane isini qarTlis Sua sazRvarze, maTTan aris 300 000 jariskaci. sparsTa mefe fiqrobda Tavisi spis gamravlebas somxeTisa da kavkasiis mefeebisagan, magram maT ver gabedes masTan SeerTeba, rameTu zogierT maTgans jvarcmulis sasoeba hqonda. zogierTi ki eSmakma Seacdina (darubandeli mefeebi SeuerTdnen). me aRvasrule Cemi aRTqma, romelic aRmiTqvams: rameTu, sadac ki vi pove cecxlis saxli, davavse fsliT, maTi mogvebi da mzirebi satanjvels miveci. macduri binqaran Sevagde sapyrobileSi da sikvdilis SiSiT gai para da gaiqca. swored man moiyvana sparselebi qarTlSi da davsvi episkoposad miqaeli, sarwmuno kaci. xolo binqarani, roca mouaxlovda qarTlis sazRvars, mokvda. axla saswrafod gamoemarTos Cvenken Seni spa, raTa aq dasces jvris yvela mteri, da Sen gaTavisufldebi yvela mtrisagan, xolo Tu Cven gvZleven sparselebi, Semovlen Sens sazRvrebSi~. keisari xazareTSi iyo wasuli, amitom ver SeZlo qarTlSi mosvla. vaxtangma gaaZliera qalaqebis cixeebi da urCeulesi mebrZolebi, 100 000 mxedari da 100 000 qveiTi TavisTan daitova. daibanaka diRmidan `qarTlis karamde~ (armazamde), da sparselebma daibanakes `cxenis terfis~ (didubesTan) qvemoT. sparselebi da qarTvelebi erTmaneTs ebrZodnen armazsa da mcxeTaSi Tbilisis fonamde. vaxtang mefes exura oqros Cabalaxi, romlis wina mxares gamosaxuli iyo mgeli da ukan lomi. romel mxaresac qarTvelebi marcxdebodnen, iqiT miemarTeboda da spobda sparselebis spas, rogorc lomi kanjars. sparselebi ver uZlebdnen mis brZolas, daimaxsovres is, romelsac mgeli da lomi hqonda gamoxatuli da roca vaxtangs ixilavdnen, ambobdnen: `dur az gorgasal~, anu `moerideT mglis Tavso~. amis Semdeg saxelad ewoda mefes gorgasali. oTx Tves gagrZelda brZola. movida keisrisgan dasaxmareblad 80 000 mxedari. keisris brZanebiT, Tu vaxtangs dasWirdeboda, unda daxmareboda berZeni mxedarTmTavari leoni Tavisi jariT.

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berZenTa laSqari javaxeTSi iyo Semosuli, roca Seityo sparsTa mefem maTi Semosvla. daiwyo molaparakeba vaxtangTan: `risTvis vwyvetT erTmaneTs? Zmebi varT, davdgeT Cveni mamebis siyvarulze da TiToeuli Cvengani Tavis saTno suls emsaxuros~. daTanxmda vaxtangi sparsTa SemonaTvals da mociqulis piriT uTxra: `Cems RmerTad iyos qriste, xolo Sen giwodeb mamas da ufals~. sparsTa mefem Seiwynara vaxtangis sityva da gaugzavna ZRvnad anTrakis gvirgvini. Sexvda erTmaneTs ori mefe. dades aRTqma, rom Tav-Tavis rjulzeve darCebodnen. uZRvna vaxtangma sparsTa mefes mravali saCuqari da Txova, rom mSvidoba yofiliyo massa da keisars Soris: `mnebavs, raTa iyos mSvidoba Sen Soris da keisrisa~. sparselebma mSvidobis nacvlad moiTxoves im miwebis dabruneba, romelnic berZnebs sparselebisgan hqondaT mitacebuli. daTanxmda am winadadebas berZenTa mxare. berZnebi da sparselebi dazavdnen, ganaCines sazRvrebi, misces berZnebs jaziri da filistimi ierusalimTan erTad da sparsTa mefem Tqva: `qalaqi rjulisa Tqvenisa aris ierusalimi~. sparsTa mefem jazirisa da filistimis gacemis sanacvlod, vaxtangs sTxova, mieTxovebina colad Tavisi da da, agreTve, gahyoloda saomrad abaSTa, elabelTa da hindoTa winaaRmdeg. misca vaxtangma sparsTa mefes colad Tavisi da miranduxti, romelic osebisgan iyo datyvevebuli da gamoixsna vaxtangma. moiyvana Tavisi Ze daCi, romelic iyo xuTi wlisa. daadga gvirgvini da datova mefed da datova masTan Tavisi Svidi warCinebuli: pirvelad juanSer spaspeti, Sida qarTlis da yovelTa erisTavTa mpyrobeli da demetre erisTavi kaxeTisa da kuxeTisa, grigol hereTis erisTavi, nersarani, xunanis erisTavi, adarnase samSvildis erisTavi, samnaRiri, Siga egrisisa da svaneTis erisTavi, bakuri, margvisa da Takveris erisTavi. waiyvana Tan artavazi, klarjeTis erisTavi, nasar, wundis erisTavi da bivritiani, oZrxis erisTavi da didi ejibi saurmagi. maTTan aTi aTasi rCeuli mxedari. vaxtangs Seevedrnen deda da misi da xuaranZe, raTa Tan waeyvanaT ierusalimSi salocavad. waiyvana isini. Sevidnen ierusalimSi, iloces wmida aRdgomis taZarSi, moiloces yoveli wmida adgili, Sewires didi Sesawiravi da wavidnen qalaq antioqiaSi, sadac maT eloda xosro. aq sparsTa mefes keisrisgan miarTves miuwvdomeli ZRveni, aseve vaxtangs ganZi. Seikriba iq vaxtangis brZanebis qveS 50 000 mxedari qarTveli, berZeni da somexi. aqedan wavidnen sparseTSi. baRdadSi gadaixades sparsTa mefisa da vaxtangis dis qorwili. qorwilis Semdeg deda da da wavidnen qalaq urhaSi, sadac unda dalodebodnen vaxtangs. pirvelad vaxtangma da sparselTa laSqarma wartyvevnes jorjaneTi da iq daemkvidrnen sparselebi. sami weli ibrZoles indoeTSi. indoeTis qveynebis umravlesoba wartyvevnes. wamoiRes xarki. aqedan Sevidnen sindeTSi,

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romlis mefe iyo mxne da goliaTi. mokles aq saurmagi, vaxtangma Seutia sindelebs da maT Seaswres qalaqis kedlebSi. maSin sindTa mefe gadmodga qalaqis karze da xmamaRla uTxra vaxtangs: `vaxtang mefeo, msgavsi xar Sen im ugunuri yvavisa, romelmac i pova arwivisagan dawylulebuli da daglejili qori, romelsac afrena ar SeeZlo da sikvdils iyo miaxlovebuli. yvavma ar qmna ise, rogorc aris yvavebis wesi, rameTu yvavi roca ixilavs qors, iwyebs xmamaRla yivils, Seasmens sxvebs da yvavebis simravle daesxmeba qors, raTa gaagdon TavianT samyofelidan da uSiSrad gaataron TavianTi dReebi, rameTu pirutyvebmac ician TavianTi Tavis sargebeli. ar qmna yvavma ase, aramed Seiwyala is qori. datova gamosakvebad Tavis budeSi, marad aWmevda mkalsa da gvels, rameTu sxvisi Sepyroba ar SeeZlo da miT acocxlebda qors. roca qors frTebi gaezarda, Tqva Tavis gonebaSi: `ai, mravali dRis manZilze varsebobdi mkalisa da gvelis WamiT da ar momeca me Cemi dedisa da mamis Zala, rameTu mkaliT ver gavZlierdebi, rom SevZlo frinvelTa miweva da maTi WamiT arseboba. sjobs, Sevi pyro is yvavi, Cemi gamzrdeli, SevWamo da ori dRe davisveno: momecema Zala da daviwyeb wesisamebr nadirobas, msgavsad Cemi winaprebisa~. aRasrula es. Seipyro yvavi da SeWama. amis Semdeg daiwyo nadiroba did da swraf frinvelebze. ar Seaqes yvavi Tavisi mowyalebisTvis, aramed ugunurad da Tavismkvlelad CaTvales. arc qors daayvedres uwyaloeba da keTilisuxsenebloba, rameTu es aris gvari da wesi qorisa. ganileoda da mokvdeboda mkalis WamiT. qmna wesisamebr da aicila sikvdili. xolo yvavi wesisamebr ar moiqca da mokvda. sparselebi, romlebic (dRemde da dReis Semdeg ukunisamde) jvarismsaxurTa mtrebi arian, amJamad, uRonobis gamo, liqniT siyvaruls gaCveneben da rogorc ki dro miecemaT, keTils aRar gaixseneben da uwyaloni iqmnebian. es bevrjer viciT wignebidan. roca ixile sparselebi, Cems mier dakninebuli, ar gaixare, RmerTs madloba ar Sewire, ar aRagzne mtrebi sparselebis winaaRmdeg da ar Seewie sparseTis mtrebs, es ar gaakeTe, aramed dagitovebia Seni mamaTa sayofeli, saqristianos did spas winamZRvrob, ori wlis gza gamogivlia da sparselebs aZliereb, raTa gaZlierdnen, moaRwion da wargwymidon Sen da Seni qveyana, romelsac dai pyrobs jvarismsaxurebis warsawymedelad. mefe xar TviTmpyrobeli da axovani, Seni nebiT migicemia Tavi Seni mtrebis monad da rogor ar giwodo ugunuri?~ vaxtangma uTxra: `Sen gegona sibrZniT Tqvi, magram Seni sityvebi arian cru. Txunela, romelsac ar asxia Tvalebi da mzis brwyinvaleba da velTa mSveniereba ar icis, Tu ra aris, Tavdajerebuli cxovrobs miwis qveS da hgonia, rom yoveli cocxali arsebis cxovrebac asevea mowyobili. Txunelas msgavsad Senc brma xar gonebis TvaliT da yru gonebis yuriT, ar xedav da ar gesmis sulieri cxovreba da arc survili gaqvs mixvide saukuno cxovrebamde da dausrulebel naTlamde, mis gonebiT miuwvdomel

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didebamde. da arc icnob Sen yovelives Semoqmed RmerTs, romlis mier Seiqmna yovelive. am qveyanaSi movedi ara am soflis didebisTvis da ara sparsTa mefis msaxurebisTvis, aramed dausabamo RmerTis msaxurebisTvis. rameTu Cemi aq mosvliT pirvel rigSi gamovixseni ierusalimi wmida qalaqi, sadac dadgmula fexi Cveni uflisa ieso qristesi, iq aRasrula yovelive Cveni sulebis xsnisTvis, da amis Semdeg yoveli saqristiano davixseni mooxrebisgan, rameTu sparsTa mefes miniWebuli hqonda Jami mTeli saqristianos motyvevnisaTvis. me Cemi ZaliT da qristes SewevniT davixseni qristianebi didi Wirisgan am Jams da amis Semdeg RmerTma icis. Sen aqeb qors, romelmac Tavisi gamzrdeli yvavi SeWama, aqeb mis naqmnars, xolo Cveni buneba aseTia, rom Cveni keTilismyofelisaTvis davdvaT Cveni suli, raTa movigoT madli RvTisagan da vpovoT cxovreba saukuno da Tu movkvdebiT, ukvdavnive viqnebiT da sikvdilis mier saukuno cxovrebaSi gardavicvlebiT~. maSin Tqva sindTa mefem: `gamodi CemTan sabrZolvelad, raTa Cems mier gardaicvalo dRes sikvdilis Semdeg saukuno cxovrebaSi~. Tqva vaxtangma. `axlandeli sikvdili ar miCns sixarulad, rameTu codvili var da RmerTis mcneba srulad ar aRmisrulebia. Cemi codvebi srulad ar aRmixocia sinanuliT, magram qristes ZaliT ar meSinia sikvdilis, rameTu is aris Cemi mfarveli da daculi var srulebiT, mravalmowyale RmerTi, Cemi xeliT mogklavs Sen, mis mgmobels da Seni suli wava garesknelis bnelSi da uSret cecxlSi~. SeebrZolnen erTmaneTs. daamarcxa vaxtangma da ar mokla, aramed aiRo misgan xarki da mZevlebi. amis Semdeg sparsTa mefem da vaxtangma daamarcxes abaSni. sparsTa mefem abaSTa naxevari ahyara da sxva qveynebSi adgil-adgil daasaxla. eseni arian qurTebi, romlebic warmotyuena vaxtan mefem abaSTagan. merve wels ukan dabrunda vaxtangi da mivida qalaq urahSi, sadac mSvidobiT daxvdnen deda da daA misi. gagzavna berZenTa mefesTan mociquli colis wamosayvanad da agreTve petre kaTalikosisa da samoel episkoposisaTvis. Semovida vaxtangi qarTlSi da miegebnen mas misi Ze daCi, yvela spasalari da maTTan erTad episkoposebi. roca gaigo episkoposma,56 rom vaxtangma gagzavna mociqulni kaTalikosisa da episkoposebis mosayvanad, daumZimda es da iwyo amboxi da mizezoba. miugzavna mefes kaci da uTxra: `Sen dagitovebia qriste da cecxls esav~, vaxtangma SeuTvala: `qristes ZaliT Sevedi da qristes ZaliTve gamovedi simarTliT, ubralo var, icis RmerTma, magram gavagzavne mociquli kaTalikosisa da episkoposis mosayvanad~. roca es moismina episkoposma da daidastura, ifiqra, SfoTiT daebrkolebina es saqme da maTi mosvla. dawyevla mefe da yoveli spa misi. mefem Tqva: `marTalia, Cven udanaSauloni varT, magram simdable jer ars

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Cvengan~. da mivida mefe, CamoqveiTda, raTa mTxveoda episkoposis fexebs. gaZra fexi, qoSis qusli pirSi Caartya da mefes kbili Caumtvria. xolo mefem Tqva: `es aris ampartavnobis silaRe da eSmakis sacduri. Tu Cveni codvebis simravlem aRgZra, neba ara gaqvs borotebis gakeTebisa, aramed unda Seundo, rogorc ityvis saxareba: `ara daSrito patruqi mgzebare, arca gantexo lerwami daCeCqili~. Sen ggonia, rom Seni siveragiT Cven qristes siyvaruls uarvyofT. Seni saqme maSin gamoCnda cxadad, roca mogesma Senze umTavresis saqarTveloSi moyvana da aRegzne boroti SuriT, rogorc iuda petres mimarT, rameTu Sen xar rogorc iuda, xolo eklesia aris rogorc petre. vercxlis moyvare xar Sen, rameTu Senc qristes megvadruce57 xar. axla gaggzavni konstantinopolis patriarqTan da rogorc wesia, gangikiTxavs~. gagzavna despanebTan erTad da gagzavna Tavisi kbilic da SeuTvala, rom kaTalikosi da Tormeti episkoposi saswrafod gamoegzavna. maT Soris petre kaTalikosad da samoeli episkoposad, da sxvebi, romelnic surda. roca moiyvanes miqael episkoposi konstantinopolSi, uTxra mas patriarqma: `radganac Sens mier daiTxia sisxli, aRara xar Rirsi episkoposobisa, xolo mefis kadrebisaTvis gekuTvnis sikvdili. naTqvamia: `daemorCileT Tqvens mefeebs, rameTu xmali ubralod ar abiaT, is RmerTis mier mTavrobs, rogorc lomi cxvrebs Soris~. da eqsoriaSi gagzavnes miqael episkoposi mRviZarTa monasterSi. gagzavna petre mRvdeli da samoel monazoni antioqiaSi. da misweres antioqiis patriarqs mefem da konstantinopolis patriarqma ase: `Tavdapirvelad, romaeli qalis ninos mier qarTlis moqcevis dasabamisas, aqedan iq mivlenil iqna episkoposi. magram Semdeg, radganac sparselebsa da berZnebs Soris SfoTi iyo, ver moawyes es saqme wesisamebr. amasTanave, Cven viciT, rom qarTli, aRmosavleTi da CrdiloeTi mag wmida saydrisani arian, rogorc ganaweses mociqulebma saxarebaSi, romelic uwinares unda davicvaT~. da antioqiels misweres yoveli saqme didi vaxtang mefisa, rom `is episkoposi, romelic maT mier iyo dadginebuli, ukuvadgineT, da CaTvaleT qarTli axalnergad.58 axla es ori, maT mier moTxovilni, akurTxe da agreTve sxva Tormeti, visac isurveb, isini akurTxe. Semdeg ki CvenTan gamogzavne, raTa Cven ganZiTa da saxmari nivTebiT gavamgzavroT~. da antioqielma patriarqma akurTxa Tormeti episkoposi da petre kaTalikosad. mividnen konstantinopolSi, misca mefem didZali ganZi da Tavisi asuli elene, vaxtangis sacole. sazRvarze maT Seegeba mefe. mcxeTaSi vaxtang mefem aaSena mociqulTa eklesia sveticxoveli. am taZarSi samxreTiT im adgilas, sadac iyo sionis didi eklesia, dasva petre kaTalikosad. xolo samueli mcxeTaSive dasva episkoposad `saepiskoposoSi~.59 da dasva sxva episkoposebidan erTi episkoposi klarjeTs, axizis eklesiaSi, erTi eruSeTs artanSi; erTi javaxeTs _ wundaSi, erTi manglisSi,

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erTi bolnisSi; erTi rusTavSi; erTi ninowmindaSi _ ujarmis karTan, romelic gorgasalma aaSena. erTi missave aSenebul WeremSi da iq daaarsa qalaqi misganve aSenebul or eklesias Soris; erTi CeleTSi (`Sua sofelSi~), erTi xornabujSi da erTi agarakSi, romelic xunanis pirdapiraa. amis Semdeg aaSena erTi eklesia niqozSi cecxlis sagzebelTan da dasva iq episkoposi, sadac daflulia wmida raJdenis gvami, romelic sparsTa mier iwama. es raJdeni iyo mamamZuZe vaxtangis pirveli colisa (sparsTa mefis asuli), gaqristianda is da Seiqna didad morwmune, xolo brZolisas Zlieri. Sei pyres sparselebma da aiZulebdnen, rom uareyo qriste, xolo am wmindanma aRiara waruvali dideba da iwama qristesTvis. hyavda vaxtangs berZeni colisgan sami Ze da ori asuli. man Tavisi pirveli colis Zes, Tavis pirmSo daCis misca qalaqebi Weremi, nekresi da kambeCovani, romelic aris xornabuji, da mTeli qveyana mtkvris aRmosavleTiT. TviT vaxtangi dajda ujarmaSi da aaSena is uzomo naSenebiT. da Tavisi daA xuaranZe misca somxeTis pitiaxSs bakurs da ramdenime xnis Semdeg mokvda sparsTa mefe xosro da mis wil dajda Ze misi xosro. am dros gaZlierebulni iyvnen sparselebi (vaxtangis meoxebiT yvela mteri damorCilebuli hyavdaT) da gamoemarTa sparsTa mefe berZnebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. mociquli gamougzavna gorgasals da SeuTvala, gaewia winamZRoloba berZenTa winaaRmdeg omSi da mieca asuli colad. maSin vaxtangi miweuli iyo 60 wels da Tqva: `uTxariT mefe xosros: pirvelad ganemzados CvenTan sabrZolvelad da Semdeg Sevides saberZneTSi~. gagzavna qadagi, raTa daetovebinaT is soflebi da qalaqebi, romlebic Zlierni ar iyvnen da Sesuliyvnen kavkasiasa da kaxeTSi, rameTu kaxeTi tye iyo da mtris mier Seuvali. mefe daCi da misi diswuli gadavidnen kaxeTSi da dadgnen lopotis xevSi, kldiT mozRudul qveyanaSi (da iyvnen im qveynis adamianebi cecxlisa da wylis msaxurebi da is xevi, vidre nosramde, xalxiT iyo savse). Sevidnen gorgaslis coli da Svilni _ ujarmis xevSi. wina cixeSi TviTon dadga, masTan iyvnen juanSeri da adarnase. xolo mcxeTaSi demetre, nerse da bivritiani. gaugzavna mociquli keisars. movida xosro mefe da Semusra qalaqi kambeCovani, Wermis cixe da veliscixe. mividnen kaxeTSi da daibanakes iorze. Seibnen, ibrZodnen sami dRe. orive mxridan uricxvi spa daeca. maSin vaxtangma uxmo petre kaTalikoss da uTxra: `icode, rom gvebrZvian ara xarkis micemisaTvis, aramed qristes datevebisTvis. me ganzraxuli maqvs ase: saukuno cxovrebisaTvis umjobesi aris qristes saxelze sikvdili, raTa aRTqmuli sasufeveli gvqondes maTTan, romelTac uTxra: `romelic wariwymeds Tavis Tavs CemTvis, is ipovis mas~. uTxra mas petre kaTalikosma: `Tu ar ibrZoleb samkvdro-sasicocxlod, maSin ara marto saqarTvelo gairyvneba mtris mier, aramed ierusalimic, romelic aris mSobeli naTlis Svilebisa~.

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uTxra mas mefem: `dadeqi wmida raJdenis eklesiaSi, romelic aris ujarmis rabatSi. veWvob, rom ujarmis garSemo yvela qalaqi iZlios, rameTu mtkice da Zlieri zRudeebi aq avageT~. hyo ase kaTalikosma da yvela wminda episkoposi iq Seikriba. vaxtangis laSqarSi iyo 240 000 mebrZoli, xolo sparselebisaSi 740 000. gahyo vaxtangma laSqari samad. da kldis mxridan miagzavna qveiTi. erT mxares miavlina pitiaxSebi da spaspeti, da sadac sparsTa mefe iyo, iq TviT vaxtangi mivida 100 000 meomriT. ciskarze vaxtangi daesxa sparselebs da uTxra Tavisianebs: `yoveli kaci, romelic sikvdils gadaurCeba da mtris Tavs an xels ar gamoitans brZolidan, Cvens mier mokvdeba~. ciskris miwurvisas daesxa da mivida mefis palatamde. Sevida mefis karavSi. mefem Seaswro cxenze. Ze misi bartam mokla da mohkveTa Tavi. maSin iq erTma sparselma sca isari vaxtangs mkerdSi. brZola gagrZelda SuadRemde. sZlia vaxtangma sparselebs da mokla 120 000 maTgani. vaxtangis spaSi mokvda 28 000-mde. aiyara iqidan sparsTa mefe da Cadga rusTavSi. daumZimda wyluli vaxtangs, rameTu filtvamde iyo isari miweuli. da wavida ujarmaSi, xolo qarTlis spasalarebi adgilsave darCnen. cnes sparselebma, rom daumZimda vaxtangs wyluli, moaoxres tfilisi da armazi (qarTli), xolo mcxeTa ver daipyres, magram zRudis gareT moaoxres. xolo berZenTa mefe, vaxtangis simamri, mokvda da dajda mefed zenoni, misi Ze. is movida sperSi, qarTlSi rom Sesuliyo, da roca gaigo vaxtang mefis daWris Sesaxeb, dadga karnu qalaqSi. iq movida xosro da Seibnen. ver sZlies erTmaneTs, radgan orTaves spa daexoca. vaxtangma Seityo, rom kvdeboda, miuxmo kaTalikoss da Tavis cols, Zeebsa da yvela warCinebuls da Tqva: `me mivdivar Cemi RmerTis winaSe, da vmadlob mis saxels, rom ar damaklo me mis siwmindeebs. axla mcnebas mogcemT Tqven, rom mtkiced dadgeT sarwmunoebaze, eZiebdeT qristesTvis sikvdils mis saxelze, raTa waruvali dideba moigoT~. da uTxra yvela warCinebuls: `Tqven, saqarTvelos mkvidrno, moixseneT Cemi sikeTe, rameTu pirvelad Cemi saxlidan miiReT saukuno naTeli da Cven saxls nu SeuracxyofT da berZenTa siyvaruls nu dautevebT~. da uTxra Tavis Zes daCis: `Sen xar Cemi pirmSo Svili, SenTvis momicia Cemi mefobis gvirgvini. Seni Zmebis nawilad mimicia taSiskaridan da wundidan, vidre somxeTamde da saberZneTamde, xolo afxazeTis sazRvari, egriswyalsa da klisuras Sua, Seni Zmebis dedis aris~.60 da mouxmo wundis erisTavs, klarjeTis erisTavs artavazs da oZrxis erisTavs bivritians da maT Caabara Tavisi coli elene da misi Svilebi, romelTac erqvaT leoni da mirdati. da samive erisTavs Seavedra cremliT. mTeli xalxisa da warCinebulebisTvis es iyo sasjelis dRe. TavSi icemdnen da iyridnen nacars, yvelani natrobdnen sikvdils. xmamaRali

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tirilisa da godebisgan qveyana iZroda. morwmune xalxi Senatroda mefes, rameTu qristesTvis moikla. da mokvda vaxtang, dafles mcxeTas, sakaTalikoso eklesiaSi, svetTan, romelSic aris RvTivaRmarTuli svetisgan dapyrobiT. saflavze gamosaxulia misi xati, misi simaRlis Tanaswori. xolo amJamad Semonaxuli misi abjari da samoseli ufro naTlad warmogvidgens mas. da dajda mis taxtze misi Ze daCi. xolo coli da vaxtangis ori Ze waiyvana samma erisTavma, daiWires qarTlis dasavleTi, romelic misca maT vaxtangma. zafxulobiT qalaq wundaSi iyvnen da zamTrobiT oZrxeSi. maT ewodaT ara mefeebi, aramed erisTavTa mTavrebi da iyvnen mefe daCis morCilebis qveS. mefe daCim daiwyo qarTlis Seneba, rameTu mooxrebuli iyo xevi qarTlisa, garda kaxeTis, klarjeTisa da egrisis xevebisa. ganasrula Tbilisis zRudeebi, rogorc brZana vaxtangma da is Seqmna samefo saxlad. mokvda petre kaTalikosi da dajda samoel. da mefem mas miaTvala mcxeTa, rameTu ase brZana vaxtangma. amanve mefe daCim kaxeTis mTiulebs SesTavaza qristes aRiareba, xolo maT ar inebes da gandgnen yovelni napatelni.61 vaxtangis berZeni colis Svilebidan mokvda leoni da darCa mxolod mirdati. am mirdats daevaWra misi Zma daCi: mefem gaucvala qveyana. mefem aiRo is qveyana, romelic moqceuli iyo egriswyalsa da klisuras Soris. es iyo mirdatis deduleTi sazRvari saberZneTis samflobeloebTan. mis nacvlad misca javaxeTi faravnidan mtkvramde. daiWira mirdatma qveyana faravnidan da taSiskaridan, vidre speris zRvamde da iq erisTavobda da morCili iyo mefe daCis. man aaSena wyarosTavis eklesia. mokvda daCi. daCis Semdeg, gamefda misi Ze bakuri. bakuris sikvdilis Semdeg, dajda misi Ze farsmani. mokvda kaTalikosi samoeli da dajda kaTalikosad TavfeCagi. misi sikvdilis Semdeg dajda kaTalikosad Cermag. vaxtangis Semdgom aqamde es mefeebi mSvidobiT iyvnen. am farsmanis mefobisas movidnen sparselebi, moaoxres qarTli da rani. qarTvelTa mefem iTxova sparsTa mefisgan, ar moeoxrebina eklesiebi da daeWira qarTli qristes rjulze. im dros berZnebi mouclelebi iyvnen. TavianTi qveynis dasavleTSi mtrebs ebrZodnen. ar SeeZloT qarTvelTa Sewevna da sparsTa winaaRmdeg gamosvla. maSin sparsTa mefem Seismina misi vedreba da daicva eklesiebi. farsmanma samagierod dauwera morCilebisa da msaxurebis aRTqma. da wavida sparsTa mefe. amis Semdeg gaiyvnen vaxtang mefis naTesavebi. daCis Svilebi sparselebs emorCilebodnen, farsmanis sikvdilis Semdeg, dajda mefed misi Zmiswuli, romelsac farsmanive erqva.

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is iyo morwmune da Seamko eklesiebi. iTxoves iustinianesgan62 qarTvelebma, raTa kaTalikosebad TviT qarTvelebi damsxdariyvnen, rameTu kaTalikosebi saberZneTidan modiodnen. iustinianem dawera Tanxmobis wigni da dabeWda Tavisi beWdiT, raTa kaTalikosebad qarTvelebi damsxdariyvnen da hqonodaT maT ufleba yvela eklesiaze da yvela mRvdelmTavarze. `mokvda kaTalikosi Cermag da farsman mefem dasva saba. amis Semdeg aRar moyavdaT kaTalikosi saberZneTidan, aramed qarTvelebi sxdebodnen, warCinebulTa naTesavebi~.

`ver moawies saqme ese jerisaebr sjulisa...~

(proiranuli saeklesio dajgufebani vaxtang gorgaslis reformamde)


IV saukunis bolodan V saukunis 70-ian wlebamde, vaxtang gorgaslis reformamde, ucxour wyaroebSi qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxeb cnobebi daculi ar aris. qarTuli wyaroebi ki amdroindeli qarTuli eklesiis mdgomareobas uaryofiTad da kritikulad afaseben. `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad, qarTlis moqcevidan kaTalikosobis dawesebamde, anu mirian mefidan vaxtang gorgaslamde gasuli iyo 170 weli.63 am periodSi, romelsac kidev ufro azustebs `qarTlis cxovreba~, rva episkoposma daicva `WeSmariti wesi~, xolo sxvebi iyvnen `SemSlelni wesisani~. `mirian mefiTgan vidre vaxtang mefisadmde gardacvalebul iyo naTesavi rva da mefeni aTni da weliwadi 157, xolo episkoposni wessa zeda WeSmaritsa gardacvalebulni rvani, xolo sxuani SemSlelni wesisani~.64 Tanaxmad matianisa, qarTul eklesiaSi raRac saeklesio wesi ver daucavT. qarTuli eklesiis pirveli meTauris _ episkopos iovanes Semdeg, vidre petre kaTalikosamde sul 12 meTauri Seicvala eklesiisa. aqedan mesamedi `wesisSemSleli~ yofila, rac aRniSnulia vaxtang gorgaslis matianeSi. es imas niSnavs, rom swored vaxtangis dros iyvnen qarTuli eklesiis wina istoriis mimarT kritikulad ganwyobilni. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom vaxtangis dros ara marto saeklesio moRvaweni afasebdnen uaryofiTad qarTuli eklesiis Sinagan mdgomareobas, aramed TviT xalxic ki. ai, rogor glovobs xalxi Tavis ubedurebas: `arakeTilad vipyarT sjuli qristesi da wesi iovanes mcnebisa~. vis gulisxmobda xalxi `iovaneSi~, romlis `mcnebac~ ar daucavT? erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom aq saxarebiseuli romelime iovane igulisxmeba (ioane naTlismcemeli an mociquli ioane), magram konteqstidan Cans, rom es

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ase araa (marTlac, sxvagvarad SeuZlebelia). `iovaneSi~, romlis mcnebis wesic ar daucavT, igulisxmeba mxolod pirveli meTauri Cveni eklesiisa, episkoposi ioane, romelic saberZneTidan iyo Camosuli da romlis drosac qarTuli eklesia berZnuli saeklesio orientaciisa iyo. Cvens samecniero literaturaSi garkveulia, rom es ioane nikeis krebis erTguli iyo. `nikeis krebaze damswre antiarianuli mrwamsis episkoposTa Soris erTerTi wamyvani figura `evstaTi didi~ (rogorc mas Teodorite uwodebs), antioqiis kaTedras 324 an 325-330 wlebSi ganagebda da mis mier qarTlis eklesiis meTaurad ioanes xeldasxma am wlebSi unda momxdariyo... cxadia, evstaTis mier xeldasxmuli ioane episkoposi qarTlSi nikeis rwmenas danergavda~.65 amitomac, daarsebisTanave qarTuli eklesia swori sarwmunoebrivi mimarTulebisa yofila, anu qarTuli eklesia aRiarebda qristianobis im mimarTulebas, romelic maSindel romis imperiaSi (saberZneTSi) iyo aRiarebuli. qarTuli eklesia nikeis rwmenis erTguli iyo Semdeg saukuneebSic, arasodes ar Seucvlia es rwmena, rasac adastureben rogorc giorgi mTawmindelis epoqis, ise sxva epoqaTa moRvaweni, magram, rogorc Cans, nikeis krebis erTguli qarTuli eklesia gansaxilvel epoqaSi, 380-iani wlebidan 470-ian wlebamde, berZnuli saeklesio orientaciisa ar yofila. cxadia, sxvaa sarwmunoebrivi mimarTuleba da sxvaa saeklesio (administraciuli) orientacia. magaliTad, Tumca somxuri eklesia amave epoqaSi (380-iani wlebis Semdeg) nikeis krebis erTguli iyo, magram igi ixreboda siriulsparsuli saeklesio wiaRisken, ufro ki erovnul damoukidebel saeklesio politikas icavda. somxeTis eklesia Camoscilda berZnul saeklesio wiaRs, magram, rogorc aRvniSneT, nikeis krebis erTguli iyo (igulisxmeba 380-450-iani wlebi). qarTuli eklesiis pirveli meTauri iovane, rogorc cnobilia, romis imperiidan (anu rogorc qarTvelebi uwodebdnen, `saberZneTidan~) iyo gamogzavnili da am episkoposma daaarsa (organizaciuli TvalsazrisiT) erTiani qarTuli eklesia. meore meTauric qarTuli eklesiisa saberZneTidan Camosuli piri iyo. matianeTa Tanaxmad, ukve mesame meTauri, romelic swored gansaxilvel periodSi, kerZod, 375-390 wlebSi moRvaweobda,66 ar iyo saberZneTidan Camosuli da arc raime uSualo kavSiri (ierarqiul-administraciuli) hqonia saberZneTTan (igulisxmeba mTavarepiskoposi iobi). aseve, vaxtang gorgaslis saeklesio reformamde, kaTalikosobis dawesebamde, Cans, episkoposTa (eklesiis meTaurTa) mxolod Zalze mcire nawili yofila saberZneTidan Camosuli. es garemoeba uTuod mizezi gaxdeboda imisa, rom qarTul eklesiaSi ver daicavdnen pirveli episkoposis, iovanes `mcnebis wess~, rac, albaT, imiT gamoixateboda, rom iovanes dros arsebuli proberZnuli orientacia ar daicveboda.

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marTlac, 380-iani wlebis Semdeg, politikuri mizezebis gamo, SeuZlebeli iyo qarTul eklesias proberZnuli orientacia daecva. am dros qarTli, somxeTi da amierkavkasiis ZiriTadi nawili sparseTis moxarke qveynebi iyvnen, sadac sparseTi sastikad devnida proberZnul, rogorc saeklesio, ise politikur orientacias. Tavis mxriv, saberZneTisaTvis srulebiT mouTmeneli iqneboda qarTuli eklesiis araberZnuli orientacia. saqarTveloSi arsebuli mdgomareobis gamo saberZneTi (bizantia) sastikad sjida saqarTvelos. jer kidev vaxtang gorgaslis bavSvobaSi is SemoWrila CvenSi da saqarTvelosTvis CamouSorebia dasavleT saqarTvelos nawili, xolo ufro adre samxreT saqarTvelos nawili. es nawilebi saberZneTs uSualod Tavis imperiisaTvis miuerTebia. berZenTa aseT moqmedebas ase ganmartavda qarTveli xalxi: `masve Jamsa gamovides berZenni afxazeTiT, rameTu berZenTa hqonda egriswylis qvemoTi kerZo yoveli, da daipyres egrisis wyliTgan vidre cixe-gojamde. maSin iqmna glova da wuxili yovelTa zeda qarTvelTa da ityodis: `ganvamravleT codva RmrTisa mimarT. da arakeTilad vi pyarT sjuli qristesi da wesi iovanes mcnebisa. samarTlad moawia RmerTman Cuen zeda ese risxva. rameTu miguca Cuen wartyuenad ucxoTa naTesavTa da migYRo Cuen sazRvari berZenTagan, viTarca miuRo varaz-baqars mefesa klarjeTi~.67 Cveni matianis Tanaxmad, am epoqaSi qarTuli eklesiis orientaciiT Zalze ukmayofilo yofila bizantiis imperatori. bizantiis imperatorsa da konstantinopolis patriarqs gaugzavniaT aseTi werili antioqiis patriarqisTvis: `pirvelad, dasabamsa qarTlis moqcevisasa dedakacisa hromaelisa ninos mier, ganivlina aqaT episkoposi, rameTu Soris sparsTa da berZenTa SfoTi iyo, da miT ver moawies saqme ese jerisaebr sjulisa~...68 am werilis azri ase SeiZleba gavigoT: qarTuli eklesiis Camoyalibebisas, IV saukuneSi, qarTuli eklesiis orientacia proberZnuli iyo, radganac aq episkoposi imperiidan Camovida, xolo Semdeg imis gamo, rom sparseTsa da bizantias Soris `SfoTi~, omianoba iyo, qarTul eklesiaSi mdgomareoba `ver moawies jerisaebr sjulisa~. aseTia azri bizantiis saxelmwifo da saeklesio meTaurebisa qarTuli eklesiis mimarT (reformebis Catarebamde). am werilis gagrZelebidan Cans, rom `rjulis wesis~ darRvevad, bizantiel xelisuflebs miaCndaT is, rom qarTuli eklesia damoukidebeli iyo bizantiuri eklesiisgan. konstantinopolidan antioqiis patriarqs qarTuli eklesiis damoukideblobis mizezad moaxsenes zemomoyvanili politikuri mdgomareoba _ `SfoTi berZenTa da sparselTa Soris~, xolo Semdeg auwyeben, rom mociqulTa ganwesebis Tanaxmad, radganac aRmosavleTisa da CrdiloeTis qveynebis eklesiebi antioqiis sapatriarqo saydars unda eqvemdebarebodes, amitomac qarTuli eklesiac Seni gavlenis sferoSi unda Sediodeso.

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`...rameTu Cuen uwyiT, viTarmed qarTli da aRmosavleTi da Crdilo magis wmidisa saydrisani arian, viTarca ganaweses mociqulTa saxarebasa Sina, romel ars uwinaresoba~.69 unda aRiniSnos, rom es qarTuli wyaro zustad asaxavs im saeklesio politikas, romelic V saukunis bizantiaSi arsebobda, gansakuTrebiT, 451 wlis qalkedonis krebis Semdeg, kerZod, gaZlierebuli bizantiuri sapatriarqoebi ierTebdnen mezobel eklesiebsa da diocezebs. Cans, bizantiaSi cdilan, arc qarTuli eklesia yofiliyo gamonaklisi. ganvixiloT saqarTvelosa da qarTuli eklesiis mdgomareoba 370-iani wlebidan ufro dawvrilebiT. IV saukunis 70-iani wlebis bolos, amierkavkasia da misi mimdebare qveynebi, romlebic aqamde romis gavlenis sferoSi Sedioda, sparseTis gavlenis qveS moeqca. 377 wels romma, vestguTebis ajanyebis gamo, gaiyvana Tavisi jari somxeTidan, rac, faqtobrivad, safuZveli gaxda imisa, rom somxeTi, iberia da misi mimdebare qveynebi sparseTma daimorCila da daxarka. qarTlis mefe varaz-baqarma romaelebis daxmarebis gareSe ver gabeda Sebmoda saqarTveloSi SemoWril sparselTa laSqars. mas uimedod CauTvlia Crdilokavkasieli tomebis gadmoyvanac sparselebTan saomrad da Tavi Seufarebia kaxeTSi, xolo mosaxleobisTvis rCeva miucia, qristianuli niSnebis daufaravi CvenebiT ar gaeRizianebinaT sparselebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom im droisaTvis saqarTvelos mosaxleobis yvela fena, rogorc ubralo xalxi, ise mmarTveli zeda fena, Tavdadebuli qristiani yofila, da isini iTxovdnen oms sparselebTan, magram mefem sxvagvarad gadawyvita: varazbaqaris dros qristianobaze `...moqceul iyo qarTli da didsa sarwmunoebasa Sina iyvnes aznaurni da yoveli eri qarTlisa... amis ze gamogzavna sparsTa mefeman erisTavi spiTa didiTa somexTa da qarTvelTa zeda xarkis dadebad... ukujda igi Kevsa kaxeTisasa, da aRaSena cixe xidars da ganamagrna cixe-qalaqni, da ubrZana yovelTa, raTa damalnen juarni. da movides sparsni pirvelad somxiTs da moaoKres somxiTi da Semovides qarTls. da aRaSena erisTavman sparsTaman tfilisis karTa Soris cixed mcxeTisad. maSin varaz-baqar ezraxa SevrdomiT da iTxova mSYdoba... da ganukveTa xarki, xolo erisTavman sparsTaman mosca cixe tfilisisa da warvida. da mieriTgan iqmnnes somexni da qarTvelni sparsTa moxarkeni~70 saqarTvelos samefo sparselTa moxarke qveynad iqca. `amrigad, IV saukunis 70-ian wlebSi iranelebma qarTlis samefo mTlianad daimorCiles. Tavdapirvelad qarTlSi mosula iraneli sardali, romelsac `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ matiane pitiaxSs, xolo `mefeTa ambavi~ erisTavs uwodebs. xarksac, etyoba, igive krefda. Semdgom iranelebs, rogorc Cans, es funqcia adgilobrivi mmarTvelobisaTvis daukisrebiaT... varaz-bakuris Semdeg, IV saukunis 80-90-ian wlebSi, qarTlis samefo taxtze ijda bakuri...

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bakuris dros grZeldeboda iranelTa batonoba... metad didi mniSvneloba hqonda qarTlisaTvis sazavo xelSekrulebas bizantielebsa da iranelebs Soris, romelic daido 387 wels, ramdenime wlis molaparakebis Semdeg. zavis pirobebis Tanaxmad, somxeTis ramdenime ganapira olqi somxeTs saerTod Camoscilda, darCenili nawili ki _ Sua qveyana, bizantielebma da iranelebma gaiyves. am qveynis oTxi mexuTedi ergo irans, danarCeni _ bizantias~.71 aRsaniSnavia, rom sparselebs qristianuli eklesiis mimarT Taviseburi midgoma hqondaT. qristianoba TviT sparseTSic gavrcelebuli iyo da sparsuli eklesia Tavisi saepiskoposoebiT warmatebiT moqmedebda sparseTis imperiaSi, iseve rogorc am imperiaSi arsebuli siriuli, somxuri da sxva eklesiebi (igulisxmeba IV-V saukuneebi). marTalia, sparseTisTvis politikuri TvalsazrisiT qristianoba misaRebi ar iyo, magram igi qristianobaSi ebrZoda mxolod proberZnul mimarTulebasa da saeklesio orientacias. sparseTi Tavis imperiaSi yvelafers akeTebda, raTa moespo ara eklesiebi, aramed eklesiebSi arsebuli proberZnuli orientacia. sparseTisaTvis miuRebeli iyo saberZneTidan Camosuli samRvdeloeba, berZnuli saeklesio wignebi da berZnuli enac ki. mose xoreneli aRniSnavs sparselTa antiberZnul moqmedebas somxur eklesiaSi. unda iTqvas, rom sparseTi cdilobda berZnuli gavlenis aRmofxvras ara marto somxur eklesiaSi, aramed Tavis imperiaSi arsebul yvela eklesiaSi. kerZod, sparseTs surda berZnulenovani wirva-locvisa da RvTismsaxurebis nacvlad somxur eklesiaSi daenerga siriulenovani RvTismsaxureba, radganac gansaxilvel epoqaSi jer kidev ar arsebobda somxuri anbani da somxurenovani wignebi. berZnuli enis nacvlad aswavlidnen sparsul enasa da wera-kiTxvas. sparseTis xelisufali somxeTSi `ra wignsac ki waawydeboda, igi wvavda, brZana, rom eswavlaT sparsuli da ara berZnuli wera-kiTxva, aravis hqonda ufleba elaparaka berZnulad anda eTargmna am enidan. amas TiTqos imitom Svreboda, rom somxebs jer kidev ar gaaCndaT anbani da berZnulad asrulebdnen RvTismsaxurebas~.72 bizantiuri gavlenis Semcirebis mizniT, sparseTi sastikad sdevnida ara marto proberZnul saeklesio orientacias, aramed berZnul kulturasac. imis gamo, rom somxur eklesiaSi siriul kulturas adreve hqonda gavlena mopovebuli, sparseTma ineba, rom somxuri eklesiidan (da aseve amierkavkasiis sxva eklesiebidan) gandevnili berZnuli kulturis nacvlad daenerga siriuli kultura. `ebrZoda ra bizantiis gavlenis gavrcelebas somxeTSi, iranis xelisufleba, amave dros, garkveuli politikuri mosazrebiT, mxars uWerda siriuli kulturis gabatonebas somexTa qveyanaSi~, _ wers a. abdalaZe.73 sparseTisTvis srulebiT mouTmeneli iyo eklesiaTa raime administraciul-ierarqiuli kavSiri berZnul eklesiasTan.

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jer kidev somxeTis mefis papis (367-374) dros somxuri eklesia ierarqiulad CamoSorda berZnuls sparselebis gulis mogebis mizniT, risTvisac imperatorma Teodosim sastikad dasaja papi. mose xoreneli wers, rom papma gamoZebna sahaki da `daadgina is nersesis magier kesariis did arqiepiskoposTan SeuTanxmeblad~.74 am dros somxuri eklesia gaTavisuflda berZnuli eklesiis ierarqiuli kavSirisagan. 387 wlis Semdeg, sparseTsa da bizantias Soris gayofil somxeTis nawilebSi eklesiaTa mdgomareoba sxvadasxvagvarad warimarTa. rogorc vTqviT, sparseTis somxeTSi gandevnili berZnulenovani wirva-locvis magier dainerga jer siriuli da maleve somxuri wirva-locva. saqme is iyo, rom somxebma SeZles SeeqmnaT somxuri anbani da umalve Targmnes somxur enaze saeklesio wignebi. sparseTi xels uwyobda nebismierenovan RvTismsaxurebis Catarebas berZnulis nacvlad, amitomac aRmosavleT somxeTSi somxurenovani wirva-locva da maStocis somxuri anbani swrafad gavrcelda. dasavleT somxeTSi ki, romelic bizantiis imperiaSi Sedioda, bizantiis xelisufleba yovelmxriv krZalavda da aferxebda somxuri anbanisa da somxurenovani wirva-locvis gavrcelebas. 391 wels somxeTis bizantiur nawilSi mefoba gauqmda, magram somexma samRvdeloebam gamoiCina simtkice da konstantinopolma male neba darTo somxur eklesias dasavleT somxeTSic gavrcelebuliyo somxurenovani RvTismsaxureba. bizantias Zalze aSfoTebda, rom somxuri eklesia prosparsul da prosiriul orientacias daadga. amitomac, mTlianad rom ar daekarga gavlena somxur eklesiaze, bizantiam, faqtobrivad, cno avtokefalia somxuri eklesiisa da dasavleT somxeTis eklesiis meTauris Rirseba gauTanabra kesariis arqiepiskoposis Rirsebas, gamouyo mas Tanxebi, neba darTo somxuri damwerlobis gavrcelebisa bizantiur somxeTSi.75 ase miswera man kidec somxuri eklesiis meTaurs, romlis rezidenciac sparsul (aRmosavleT) somxeTSi imyofeboda: `Zalian gamtyunebdiT Tqven, rameTu metismetad gadaixareT warmarTi mefeebisken... gansakuTrebiT imisaTvis gadanaSaulebdiT, rom ugulebelyaviT Cveni qalaqis swavlulni da viRac asurelebTan cdilobdiT sibrZnis povnas. amis gamo moviwoneT Cveni msaxurebis moqmedeba mag mxareSi, romelTac abuCad aigdes Tqveni amgvari moZRvreba...~76 `warmarT~ mefeebs sparsel mefeebs uwodebdnen. Tu zemomoyvanils SevusabamebT `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobebs, savsebiT dasajerebeli mogveCveneba Cveni matianis monaTxrobi, rom qarTlis mefis varaz-baqaris dros berZnebma dasajes es prosparsuli orientaciis mefe swored sarwmunoebrivi sakiTxebis gamo: mis saxelmwifos samxreTiT mdebare klarjeTis provincia CamoaWres. xalxis azri aseTi iyo: `migucna Cuen wartyuevnad ucxoTa naTesavTa da migYRo Cuen sazRvari berZenTagan, viTarca miuRo varaz-baqars mefesa klarjeTi da igi codviTa varaz-baqarisiTa moiwia, rameTu ver keTilad epyra sjuli qristesi~.77

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aseve wers xorenelic _ prosparsuli orientaciis gamo bizantia ara marto sjida da devnida, aramed abuCad igdebda somxur eklesias _ `...moviwoneT Cveni msaxurebis moqmedeba mag mxareSi, romelTac abuCad aigdes Tqveni amgvari moZRvreba~. bizantia sjida prosparsul qristianobas, xolo sparseTi sjida proberZnul qristianobas. cnobilia, rom qarTuli eklesia Tavisi Sinagani bunebiT proberZnuli orientaciisa iyo, amis gamo sparsTagan isjeboda kidec, ris Sesaxebac wmida raJdenis cxovrebaSi naTqvamia: `aRdges sparsni qristeaneTa zeda... rameTu didi iyo maSin brZolaAO da daucxromeli mtrobaAOqristeaneTa zeda da ufroAsad berZenTa mimarT, xolo Cuen qarTvelTa momarT amisaTYs, rameTu eZYneboda Cueni berZenTa mimarT siyvaruli da erTobaA da ese iyo nebaA maTi, raATa Cuenca maTTana mter veqmneT berZenTa~.78 marTalia, es exeba V saukunis Sua wlebs, magram sparseTi swored aseT antiberZnul saeklesio orientacias adga IV-V da VI saukuneebSi. aseTi politikuri situaciis dros, 380-iani wlebis Semdeg, roca qarTli daxarkuli iyo sparsTa mier, qarTul da berZnul eklesiaTa Soris raime ierarqiul urTierTdamokidebulebaze da, miT umetes, berZeni arqiepiskoposis saqarTveloSi Camosvlaze msjeloba SeuZlebelia. sparseTi, romelic ara Tu pirovnebas, aramed berZnul enaze laparaksac ki krZalavda, nebas ar darTavda berZen ierarqs saqarTveloSi Camosuliyo da emoRvawa. am periodis zogierTi qarTveli mefe antiberZnulad iyo ganwyobili. maTi aseTi ganwyoba gamoiwvia iman, rom bizantiam miitaca qarTuli qveynebi. gansakuTrebiT es iTqmis mefe mirdatze, romelic farsman mefis (398-400ww.) Semdeg ganagebda qarTul saxelmwifos V saukunis dasawyisSi. mirdatma ganagrZo farsmanis politika da is `mter eqmna berZenTa da sparsTa. berZenTagan eZiebda klarjeTs, sazRvarsa qarTlisasa, xolo sparsTa ara miscemda xarksa~.79 mirdatis dros SeuZlebelia qarTul eklesias raime kavSiri hqonoda berZnul eklesiasTan (igulisxmeba ara sarwmunoebrivi erTianoba, aramed ierarqiul-administraciuli kavSiri), radganac araberZnuli orientaciis mefe mirdati mtrobda da ebrZoda berZnebs. am dros Zalze dazaralebula qarTuli eklesia, is qveyanaSi Semosul sparselebs `gauryvniaT~. mefe mirdati `...Sei pyres sparsTa, movides qarTlad, dai pyres qarTli da ganryvnnes eklesiani~.80 SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am dros ganmeorda ociode wlis win momxdari ambavi, roca varaz-bakuris dros qarTlSi Semovida sparseli pitiaxSi, iobis mTavarepiskoposobisas _ `da mTavarepiskoposi iyo igive iob. da maSin movida qram xuar borzard sparsTa mefisa pitiaxSi...~81 es iobi saberZneTidan ki ar yofila Camosuli, aramed iyo `nerse kaTalikosisa

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diakoni~ (ase uwodebs iobs rogorc `qarTlis cxovreba~, ise `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~). sparsTa am laSqrobis dros Znelia qarTul eklesiasa da berZnuls Soris raime organizaciul-ierarqiul kavSirze laparaki. uTuod sparsTa nebiT qarTuli eklesia iseTive damoukidebel da erovnul organizaciad gadaiqca, rogorc gadaiqca somxuri eklesia am periodSi. sparseTi, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, ver iTmenda Tavis imperiaSi arsebuli eklesiebis kavSirs berZnul eklesiasTan. mdgomareoba ar Secvlila arc mefe arCilis dros, Tumca, `qarTlis cxovreba~ sxvagvarad aRwers mis cxovrebas. `mirdatis Semdeg, IV saukunis ocian wlebSi, samefo taxtze damjdara arCili... `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ matianis mixedviT, arCilis mefobaSi, safiqrebelia, igive mdgomareobaa, rac wina periodSi iyo. aq naxsenebi ar aris am periodSi momxdari raime mniSvnelovani movlena... samagierod, juanSerTan `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ arCilis mefoba maJoruli tonalobiTaa gadmocemuli, arCilmao `ganacxada mtroba sparsTa, gamoaCina juarni da mokazmna eklesiani, mosrna da ganasxna yovelni cecxlismsaxurni sazRvarTagan qarTlisaTa, moirTo Zali saberZneTiT da warZRuanebiTa juarisaTa iwyo brZolad sparsTa~... juanSeris es cnobebi realur viTarebas ar asaxavs. sinamdvileSi, qarTli am periodSic irans emorCileboda, da, albaT, ZiriTadad cdilobda daecva Tavisi kulturuli TviTmyofadoba. aseTive politikas atarebda, rogorc Cans, arCilis memkvidre mirdati, romlis mefoba 30-40-ian wlebze unda modiodes. magram qarTlis brZolas iranuli uRlisagan gasaTavisufleblad am periodSi raime xelSesaxebi Sedegi ar mohyolia~.82 rogorc mefe arCilis, ise mirdatis dros sparseTi Zalze gaZlierebuli iyo. 428 wels sparselebma somxeTSi mefoba saerTod gaauqmes da `sparsul somxeTs ganagebda sparsi mmarTveli _ marzapani, somex naxararebs CamoarTves saxelmwifo Tanamdebobani~.83 aseT dros, cxadia, kidev ufro damTmobi da loialuri gaxdeboda qarTuli saxelmwifo sparseTis mimarT, ar gaaRizianebda sparseTs da Seecdeboda eklesiidan saerTod aRmoefxvra proberZnuli orientaciis yovelgvari niSani. V s-is 40-ian wlebSi iranis axali, metad agresiuli politika gamoricxavda qarTuli eklesiis ierarqiul kavSirs berZnulTan. sworad aRiniSneba, rom aq garda sparseTis xelisuflebis nebisa, moqmedebda agreTve obieqturi faqtori, es iyo qveynis feodalizaciis procesi. V saukunis Sua wlebisaTvis erTmaneTs daupirispirda samefo xelisufleba da adgilobrivi aznaurebi, romelnic ukve feodal miwismflobelebad iyvnen qceulni. eklesiac aseve msxvili miwismflobeli iyo. mefe ibrZoda imisaTvis, rom Tavisi gamgeblobidan ar gaeSva es miwebi, samagierod feodalebi cdilobdnen maqsimalurad SeezRudaT mefe. am planSi srulebiT gasagebi xdeba konfliqti vaxtang gorgasalsa da mTavarepiskopos miqaels Soris.

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aseTi mdgomareobis dros vaxtang gorgaslis gasaocari sibrZne imaSi mdgomareobda, rom man SeZlo aznaurebisaTvis (feodalebisaTvis) CamoerTva saxelmwifo Tanamdebobebi da daeyo qveyana samxedro-administraciul erTeulebad _ saerisTavoebad. TiToeul am erTeuls marTavda erisTavi. erisTavebi, Tavis mxriv, uSualod eqvemdebarebodnen mxedarTmTavars _ spaspets, jarebis ufross. aznaur-feodalTa xelisufleba amiT maqsimalurad SeizRuda, isini TavianTi kuTxis mmarTvelobis saqmeSic ki uSualod veRar Caereodnen. yovel saqmes am kuTxeSi erisTavi wyvetda. erisTavi ki iniSneboda spaspetis mier, spaspeti ki mefis mier (`spaspeti~ swored im `spas~ meTaurobda, romelic mefesTan erTad dawyevla miqael mTavarepiskoposma). vaxtang gorgasalma aseTive procesi Caatara eklesiaSic, saxelmwifos kontrolisagan gasuli eklesia dauqvemdebara saxelmwifos imave saSualebiT, romliTac aznaurebi daimorCila, kerZod, `spiT~. amitomac daiwyevla `spa~ mefesTan erTad. unda vifiqroT, rom V saukunis Sua wlebisaTvis saqarTveloSi moqmedebda ara marto proiranulad, aramed proberZnuladac ganwyobili samRvdeloeba, magram samRvdeloebis orive dasisTvis mefis Zlieri, makontrolebeli da mmarTveli xelisufleba miuRebeli iyo. amitomac proberZnulad ganwyobili mTavarepiskoposi miqaelic ki konfliqtur damokidebulebaSia mefesTan. b. mWedliSvili wers: `vaxtang gorgasalis mefobis dros, juanSerisave mixedviT, SeiniSneba saeklesio dasTan uTanxmoeba. cnobilia, rom ukve IV saukunis dasawyisidan. irani cdilobs amierkavkasiaSi poziciebis ganmtkicebas da erT-erT qmediT iaraRad qristianul religiasac iyenebs. magaliTad, somxeTSi, dRidan daarsebisa, qristianul eklesias xelmZRvanelobdnen iranis mefeTa xeldasxmuli mTavarepiskoposebi anu kaTalikosebi. qarTli, romelsac bizantia mfarvelobda, ukeTes pirobebSi iyo da winaaRmdegobasac uwevda iranis moZalebas, magram zogierT SemTxvevaSi, irani, rogorc es vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebidanac Cans, mainc aRwevda mizans da qarTls Tavis politikas axvevda. miuxedavad imisa, rom am ambebis TiTqmis Tanamedrove prokopi kesarieli aRniSnavda _ `iberebi qristianebi arian da am sarwmunoebis wesebs yvela imaTze ukeT icaven, romelTac Cven vicnobT~ (georgika, II, 1934 w. gv. 21), qarTlSi mainc SeiniSneba saeklesio dajgufeba, romelic sxvadasxva niSniT SeiZleba swored proiranuli yofiliyo~.84 prosparsuli orientaciis mTavarepiskoposTa Soris gansakuTrebiT gamoirCevian glonoqori da mobidani. qarTuli eklesiis meTaurebi mWidro kavSirSi arian spars xelisuflebasTan da maT mierve arian kidec daniSnulni. glonoqori garda imisa, rom eklesias meTaurobda, agreTve sparselTa saero xelisufali, erisTavic yofila ara marto qarTlSi, aramed hereTSic, `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad: `da merme mefobda mirdat da mTavarebiskoposi iyo glonoqor, da ese mTavarebiskoposi erisTavadca iyo barzabod pitiaxSisagan qarTls da hereTs~.85

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qarTuli eklesiis meTauri mobidani (436-448), Tumca `aCuenebda igi marTlmadideblobasa, xolo iyo vinme mogY usjulo da SemSleli wesTa~.86 albaT, SeuZlebeli iyo qarTul eklesias raime ierarqiuli kavSiri hqonoda berZnul eklesiasTan glonoqorisa da mobidanis dros, radganac erTi sparselTa erisTavi iyo, xolo meore aSkarad gamoxatuli prosparsuli orientaciis mqone, wesis SemSleli. am dros qarTuli eklesia avtokefaluri, anu berZnuli eklesiisagan damoukidebelia, radganac mobidani saberZneTidan ki ar gamogzavnes, aramed TviT qarTvelTa mefe arCilma dasva eklesiis meTaurad: `amis arCilis ze gardaicvalnes samni episkoposni: iona, grigoli da basili. da basilisa Semdgomad amanve arCil dasva episkoposi, romelsa erqua mobidan. ese iyo naTesavad sparsi da aCuenebda igi marTlmadideblobasa. xolo iyo vinme mogY usjulo da SemSleli wesTa. da ver ugrZna arCil mefeman da Zeman misman usjuloeba mobidanisi, aramed hgonebdes morwmuned. da verca gannacxadebda qadagebasa sjulisa misisasa SiSisagan mefisa da erisa, aramed farulad werda wignebsa yovlisa sacTurebisasa, romeli Semdgomad missa dawua yoveli werili misi WeSmaritman episkoposman miqael, romeli ganikueTa kadrebisaTYs vaxtang mefisa~.87 aq yuradReba unda mieqces, rom Semdegdroindeli mematiane `mogus~ anu cecxlTayvanismcemels uwodebs qristianuli eklesiis meTaurs. xom ar unda vigulisxmoT, rom Semdegdroindeli moRvaweni `moguebs~ anu cecxlTayvanismcemlebs uwodebdnen prosparsuli orientaciis, anda romelime qristianuli (vTqvaT, maniqeur-qristianuli) mimdinareobis saeklesio pirebs? Tu CavTvliT, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi matianeSi aRniSnuli `mogYs~ anda cecxlTayvanismcemlis qveS unda vigulisxmoT qristiani episkoposi, maSin, iqneb, dagveSva, rom `cecxlismsaxurTa episkoposi binqarani~ iyo ara `cecxlTayvanismcemeli~ am sityvis pirdapiri gagebiT, aramed prosparsuli orientaciis mqone saeklesio piri, iseTive `mogY~, rogorc mobidani? matianeSi aRniSnulia, rom ranis sparselma erisTavma `barzabod warmogzavna cecxlismsaxurni mcxeTas da maT zeda episkoposad binqaran, da dasxdes moguTas~.88 aq TiTqosda srulebiT aSkaraa, rom binqarani cecxlismsaxurTa episkoposia, magram ratom aqvs mas qristianuli wodeba `episkoposi~? garda amisa, sxva qarTul matianeSi, `moqcevaA qarTlisaASi~, aRniSnulia, rom ran-qarTlis pitiaxSma barzabodma qarTl-ranis erisTavad daniSna glonoqori. SeiZleba `qarTlis cxovrebis~ `binqaran~ igivea, rac, `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ `glonoqori~, marTlac, orives ran-qarTlis erisTavi barzabodi agzavnis saqarTveloSi. qaragmebi binqaran _ `bnqrn~ da glonoqor _ `glnqr~ erTmaneTs Zalian hgavs, orive qaragmaSi meordeba erTi da igive Tanxmovnebi _ `nqr~, SeiZleba qaragmebi mematianeebma sxvadasxvagvarad gaxsnes. orive es episkoposi vaxtang gorgaslis epoqaSi moRvaweobs `da merme mefobda mirdat da mTavarebiskoposi iyo glonoqor da ese mTavare-

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biskoposi erisTvadca iyo barzabod pitiaxSisagan qarTls da hereTs. da misa Semdgomad mefobda didi vaxtang gorgasali...~89 `maSin barzabod warmogzavna... episkoposad binqaran... da Seeria qarTlis wurilsa ersa cecxlismsaxureba. amisTYs mwuxare iyo sagduxt dedofali, aramed mZlavrebisagan sparsTasa veras ikadrebda. maSin moiyvana mRdeli WeSmariti saberZneTiT, saxeliT miqael da daadgina igi episkoposad zemosa eklesiasa, rameTu mobidan episkoposi gardacvalebul iyo. da ese miqael episkoposi winaaRudga binqaran macTursa, rameTu aswavebda yovelTa qarTvelTa sjulsa WeSmaritsa. aman i pyrna sarwmunoebasa zeda yovelni warCinebulni da erica umravlesi, aramed mciredni vinme wurilisa erisaganni miiqces cecxlismsaxurebasa...~90 orive episkoposs, rogorc miqaels, ise binqarans, sapatio mdgomareoba eWiraT mefis karze. amas miuTiTebs samefo darbazobis dros orive episkoposis taxtze, `saydarze~ jdoma. aRsaniSnavia, rom am darbazobis dros taxtebze mxolod mefe, spaspeti da es ori episkoposi isxdnen. _ `ganmzada mefeman saxli erTi da dajda saydarTa zeda maRalTa, xolo juanSer spaspeti da ornive episkoposi dasxdes saydarTave da sxuani yovelni erisTavni dasxdes selebiTa, da aTasisTavni da asisTavni da yoveli eri warmodges ze~. uTuod, V saukunis I naxevarSi qarTlSi arsebobda ori saeklesio frTa _ proberZnuli da prosparsuli orientaciisa. qarTveli mefeebi xan erT mimdinareobas uWerdnen mxars, xan ki meores, magaliTad, mefeebis varaz-baqaris, mirdatis da sxvebis damokidebuleba proberZnulad ganwyobili samRvdeloebis mimarT, cxadia, ise keTilganwyobili ar iqneboda, rogorc berZnebis moyvaruli mefeebis arCilisa, vaxtang gorgaslisa da misi dedis sagduxtisa. SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom proberZnuli orientaciis samRvdeloebis centri iyo mcxeTis samTavro _ `zemo eklesia~, xolo prosparsul samRvdeloebas, albaT, mcxeTaSive sxvagan hqonda centri (mogvTas). saberZneTidan Camoyvanili `mRvdeli WeSmariti~ miqaeli sagduxt dedofalma `daadgina episkoposad zemosa eklesiasa~. am miqaelze matianeSi naTqvamia, rom is `aswavebda yovelTa qarTvelTa sjulsa WeSmaritsa...~, is iyo `WeSmariti mRvdeli~. Cans, proberZnuli orientaciis samRvdeloebas uwodebda mematiane `WeSmarits~. amitomac, roca igive mematiane ambobs, rom mirian mefidan vaxtang gorgaslamde episkoposebi `wessa zeda WeSmaritsa gardacvalebulni~ iyvnen rvanio, Cans, `WeSmaritis~ qveS swored proberZnuli orientaciis episkoposebs Tvlida. miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTul eklesiaSi proberZnuli orientacia sakmaod Zlieri iyo, es sakmarisad ar miuCnevia bizantias da vaxtang gorgaslis siymawvilisas, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, miutacnia saqarTvelos miwawyali egriswylidan cixe-gojamde _ `ara keTilad pyrobisaTvis qristian-

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uli sjulisa da iovanes mcnebisa~. `iovanes mcnebaSi~ swored proberZnuli orientacia igulisxmeba. rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, qarTul eklesiaSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis mizezad bizantiis imperators da konstantinopolis patriarqs miuCneviaT sparsTa da berZenTa Soris `SfoTi~, omianoba. am ganuwyveteli omis gamo `ver moawies saqme ese jerisaebr sjulisa~,91 _ weren isini. unda davaskvnaT: IV saukunis 70-iani wlebis bolodan V saukunis 60-70ian wlebamde, qarTli iranis mier daxarkuli da zogjer dapyrobili qveyana iyo. am dros sparseTi nebas ar miscemda qarTvel samRvdeloebas ierarqiuli kavSiri hqonoda berZnul eklesiasTan. amitomac am epoqaSi qarTuli eklesia berZnuli eklesiisagan damoukidebeli unda yofiliyo.

saeklesio-sarwmunoebrivi viTareba saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos daarsebisas


V saukuneSi mowveul iqna ori msoflio saeklesio kreba. orive kreba, ase Tu ise, Seexo eklesiaTa avtokefaliis (damoukideblobis) sakiTxs. unda aRiniSnos, rom am krebaTa gadawyvetilebebi kargad uCvenebs, Tu rogor icvleboda Sexeduleba eklesiaTa avtokefaliis Sesaxeb am saukuneSi. magaliTad, Tu efesos 431 wlis krebam sagangebo kanoni miuZRvna saerTod eklesiaTa avtokefaliis mtkiced da upirobod dacvis aucileblobas, kerZod ki, daicva kvi prosis patara eklesiis Tavisufleba, qalkedonis 451 wlis krebam gauqmebulad scno sami eklesiis (asiis, pontosa da Trakiis) TavisTavadoba konstantinopolis sasargeblod. imperator Teodosi mciris (408-450) mowveviT 431 wels efesoSi Catarda mesame msoflio kreba, kirile aleqsandrielis TavmjdomareobiT. krebam ganixila konstantinopolis arqiepiskoposis nestoris wvaleba. nestori, romelic krebaze ar gamocxadda, daamxes, xolo misi moZRvreba eretikulad gamocxadda. krebaze sxva sakiTxebis gverdiT gairCa kvi proseli episkoposis riginosis saCivari ioane antioqiel episkoposze. miuxedavad imisa, rom kvi prosis eklesia ZvelTaganve avtokefaluri eklesia iyo, antioqiis eklesia Seecada daemorCilebina igi. kvi prosis eklesia mociqulTa droidan TavisTavadi eklesia iyo da mas ZvelTaganve damoukidebeli episkoposi marTavda, romelic am kunZulis episkoposTa mier iyo arCeuli. amgvari qmedeba iyo kanonikuri aqti, ganmtkicebuli nikeis krebis im dadgenilebiT, romlis mixedviTac, yvela eklesias (saeklesio `samTavroebs~ anu provinciaTa da diocezTa eklesiebs) SenarCunebuli hqonda sakuTari upiratesoba marTva-gamgeobis mxriv. IV saukuneSi, nikeis krebis garda, sxva adgilobrivma krebebmac gamosces sagangebo kanonebi eklesiaTa (igulisxmeba patara eklesiebi) avtokefaliis

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dacvis mizniT. 381 wlis II msoflio krebamac gamosca amgvari kanoni _ me2 kanonma II msoflio krebisa, (swored im krebisa, romelmac Camoayaliba marTlmadidebluri swavleba erTiani eklesiis Sesaxeb), saerTod aukrZala yvela adgilobriv eklesias gaevrcelebina Tavisi iurisdiqcia Tavisi sazRvrebis gareT... istoria cxadyofs, rom am krebis dros TviTmyofadi, avtokefalurni iyvnen eklesiebi, romis imperiis yvela provinciaSi (daaxloebiT 100) Tu ara, yovel SemTxvevaSi, imperiis 14-ve diocezSi~.92 II msoflio krebam me-2 kanonSi daasaxela kidec zogierTi avtokefaluri eklesia _ aleqsandriisa, antioqiisa, asiisa, pontosa da Trakiisa maTi sazRvrebiT.93 `magram bizantiis imperiis farglebSi Semavali erovnuli eklesiebis saepiskoposoebidan yvela ver axerxebda damoukideblobis SenarCunebas. maT ar Sveloda dasaxelebul krebaTa dadgenilebani, Tavi damoukideblad egrZnoT. imperiis farglebSi moqceul eklesiaTa Soris adridanve damyarda urTierToba, romelic dafuZnebuli iyo ama Tu im eklesiis SedarebiT siZliereze da am qalaqTa politikur mniSvnelobaze, am qalaqis94 qristianuli Temis saerTo saeklesio avtoritetze. am pirobebis gamo pirvelobda imperiis aRmosavleT nawilSi antioqiis episkoposi. Tumca, nikeis krebis dadgenilebaTa Semdeg es pirveloba mxolod pativis gamomxatveli unda yofiliyo da ara realuri Zalauflebisa~.95 431 wels mowveulma III msoflio krebam, eklesiaTa avtokefaliis dasacavad, sagangebo kanoni im mizezis gamo gamosca, rom am droisaTvis (ise, rogorc wina saukuneSi) zogierTi didi eklesia cdilobda daemorCilebina sxva patara adgilobrivi eklesiebi. s. troicki wers, _ `roca zogierTi didi eklesia Seecada daemorCilebina sxva patara adgilobrivi eklesiebi, mociqulTa swavlis erTgulma da RvTis suliT ganaTlebulma msoflios episkoposTa krebam aRkveTa aseTi mcdelobani. roca didi antioqiis eklesias surda daemorCilebina patara kvi prosis eklesia, III msoflio krebam, Tavis me-8 kanonSi, daaxasiaTa aseTi mcdeloba, rogorc `saqme gareSe wesTa saeklesioTa da kanonisa wmidaTa mamaTaAsa (Cans, igulisxmeba mociqulTa 35-e kanoni), ganaxlebuli (e.i. warmoqmnili) da Tavisuflebisa yovelTaAsa ganmryuneli~, rogorc sazogado avadmyofoba, romelsac esaWiroeba Zlieri mkurnaloba, radganac SeuZlia didi zianis motana, _ `sazogado vneba, udidesisa moqene kurnebisa, viTarca udidesTa savnebelTa mizezi~, daadgina: `zedamdgomelebs kvi prosis wmida eklesiebisas, dae, hqondeT Tavisufleba iZulebis gareSe, wmida mamaTa kanonebisa da Zveli Cueulebis Tanaxmad, TviTonve daadginon Tavisive RvTismoSiSi episkoposebi.96 magram kreba ar Semoifargla kvi prosis eklesiis sakiTxis gadawyvetiT, aramed gamoitana saerTo kategoriuli gansazRvreba yvela eklesiis avtokefaliis xelSeuxeblobis Sesaxeb: `romeli-ese sxuaTaca gansagebelTa

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(e.i. olqTa) da yovliT kerZoTa samTavroTa (e.i. mitropolia, eparqia) Sina dacvul iyavn ucvaleblad. vinaAca numca vin RvTismoyuareTa episkoposTagani miitacebs sxuasa samTavrosa, romeli pirveliTganve da zemoATgan (e.i. Tavidanve) ara mis queSe da missa uwinaresTa saydris mpyrobelTa queSe ganwesebul iyos (e.i. mis an mis win myofi episkoposis xel qveS ar iyo), aramed ukueTu vinme miitaca da Kelmwifebasa TYssa queSe yo iZulebiT, kualad ganaTavisuflenin igi~. Semdeg kreba iZleva dasabuTebas Tavisi dadgenilebisa: `raATa arca kanonsa mamaTasa gardaKden, arca saxesa Sina mRvdelobisasa zuaobaA soflioAsa mTavrobis moyvareobisaA ipoos, arca warvwymidoT TavisuflebaA mciredmcired damviwyebelTa misTa, romeli TYsiTa sisxliTa moguaniWa Cuen ufalman Cuenman iesu qristeman, ganmanTavisuflebelman yovelTa kacTaman~.97 amis Semdeg kreba akeTebs saerTo daskvnas, uCvenebs praqtikul zomas yvela eklesiis avtokefaliis uzrunvelyofisaTvis da dasasrul, acxadebs arakanonierad yovelgvar dadgenilebas momavalSi, romelic sawinaaRmdego iqneba am dadgenilebisa: `sTnda wmida da msofliosa krebas, rom yvela samTavrom (eparqiam) wmidad unda daicvas misadmi Tavidanve miniWebuli ufleba, ZvelTaganve ganmtkicebuli Cveuleba. TiToeulma mitropolitma waiRos am dadgenilebis asli. xolo Tu vinme am gansazReruli kanonis sawinaaRmdego wess SemoiRebs, mas daumtkiceblad Tvlis wmida msoflio kreba~.98 qalkedonis 451 wels Catarebuli IV msoflio kreba garkveuli TvalsazrisiT (igulisxmeba eklesiebis avtokefaliis dacva) gansxvavdeboda 431 wels Catarebuli efesos III msoflio krebisagan. da es gansxvaveba TvalSi sacemi iyo. marTalia, 451 wlis krebas raime sagangebo kanoni ar gamoucia da amiT ar SeuzRudavs eklesiaTa avtokefalia, magram man uCvena magaliTi imiT, rom konstantinopolis eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Seiyvana sami eklesia _ asiis, pontosa da Trakiis da amiT oficialurad scno am eklesiaTa avtokefaliis gauqmeba. asiis, pontosa da Trakiis eklesiebi uZvelesi avtokefaluri eklesiebi iyvnen da isini didi xniT adre arsebobdnen konstantinopolis eklesiis daarsebamde. cnobilia, rom II msoflio krebam Tavis II kanonSi moixsenia sazRvrebi am avtokefaluri eklesiebisa, IV msoflio krebam ki, rogorc aRvniSneT, am eklesiaTa avtokefalia saerTod gaauqma. Tu III msoflio kreba Tavis me-8 kanonSi miiCnevda, rom yoveli mitropolia (eparqia, samTavro) `ZvelTaganve ganmtkicebuli Cveulebis Tanaxmad~ avtokefaluri, srulebiT damoukidebeli eklesia iyo, rac miiCneoda `Tavidanve miniWebul uflebad~, VI msoflio krebam (681) Tavis 36-e kanoniT daadgina xuTi mTavari avtokefaluri eklesiis rangi. es imas niSnavs, rom V-VII saukuneebSi Seicvala Sexeduleba eklesiaTa avtokefaliis Sesaxeb. safuZveli Caeyara Semdgom saukuneebSi gavrcelebul Teorias `pentarqiis~ Sesaxeb,

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anu msoflios ganawilebis Sesaxeb xuT avtokefalur eklesias Soris. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom aseTi Teoria IV msoflio krebas ar Camouyalibebia da ar gamoucia raime kanoni msoflios 5 eklesias Soris ganawilebis Sesaxeb. aseve 36-e kanonSi VI msoflio krebam ubralod CamoTvala im dros rom-bizantiis imperiaSi arsebuli 5 mTavari eklesia. niSnavda Tu ara es imas, rom am krebam CamoTvlil 5 mTavar eklesias msoflio gaunawila? ar niSnavda, radganac amave VI krebam Tavis 39-e kanonSi daadastura kvi prosis eklesiis avtokefalia. e.i. kreba Tvlida, rom savaldebulo ar aris avtokefaluri eklesiebis ricxvi ganisazRvros mxolod xuTi eklesiiT, aramed SeiZleba am ricxvis gazrda. am sakiTxze (msoflios 5 sapatriarqos Soris ganawilebis Teoriaze) imitom SevCerdiT, rom Zveladac da amJamadac TeologTa erTi nawili iyenebs am Teorias didi sapatriarqoebis sasargeblod. antioqia aRmosavleTSi upirvelesi eklesia iyo, romelic Tavis gavlenas TiTqmis mTel aRmosavleTze avrcelebda. es faqti srulebiT mouTmeneli iyo imperiis axali dedaqalaqis konstantinopolis eklesiisaTvis. Tu antioqia udidesi eklesia iyo, konstantinopolis episkoposi IV saukunisaTvis, SeiZleba iTqvas, diocezis gareSe iyo. konstantinopolis daarsebamde antioqia imperiis umTavresi qalaqi iyo aRmosavleTSi, amitomac misi eklesia gaZlierda. imis Semdeg, roca 330 wels umniSvnelo qalaqi bizantioni imperiis axal dedaqalaqad gamocxadda da konstantinopoli ewoda, `dRis wesrigSi dadga, `axali romis~ episkopossac Rirseuli adgili daekavebina imperiis episkoposTa Soris. marTlac, 381 wels konstantinopolSi gamarTulma II msoflio krebam, imperiis aRmosavleTSi mdebare eklesiaTa Soris konstantinopolis episkoposs pirveli adgili miakuTvna. Semdeg es daadastura IVkrebis 28-e kanonma, iustinianes 131-e novelam da trulis krebis 36-e kanonma. II msoflio krebis me-3 kanoni, romis episkoposis Semdeg, konstantinopolis episkoposs yvelaze maRla ayenebs, Tumca, kanonma konstantinopolis episkoposis iurisdiqcias arc erTi olqi ar dauqvemdebara.~99 romis episkoposis Semdeg aqamde aleqsandriisa da antioqiis episkoposebs ayenebdnen, amitomac II krebis gansazRvreba `konstantinopolis episkoposs, dae, hqondes upiratesoba Rirsebisa romis episkoposis Semdeg, radganac konstantinopoli axali romia~, konstantinopols amaRlebda aleqsandriasTan SedarebiT da mcirdeboda aqamde aRmosavleTSi pirvelobis mqone antioqiac `aq aqcenti aris ara romTan brZolaze, aramed aleqsandriasTan SedarebiT amaRlebaze. magram amiT usityvod mcirdeboda agreTve mTel aRmosavleTSi pirvelobis mqone antioqia.~100 miuxedavad amisa, `konstantinopolis episkoposi diocezis gareSe rCeboda, mxolod 451 wels qalkedonis IV msoflio krebaze miiRo konstantinop-

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olis patriarqma anatolim (449-458) antioqiis patriarq maqsimedan (451455) aziis yvela olqi skutridan galatiamde~.101 a. kartaSevi, cnobili kanonisti, vfiqrob, mkacrad wers: konstantinopolis episkoposs hqonda umciresi eparqia erTi dedaqalaqis sazRvrebSi da formalurad damokidebuli iyo aseve mcire herakliis mitropolitze... (maS, rogorRa SeeZlo gaevrcelebina mas Tavisi iurisdiqcia qarTul eklesiaze? m.a.j) konstantinopols ar gaaCnda araviTari saeklesio warsuli, araviTari damsaxureba eklesiisa da marTlmadideblobis winaSe, garda erTi gamaRizianebeli pretenziisa, yofiliyo daupatiJebeli meTauri eklesiisa saxelmwifo xelisuflebis iaraRi... TavianTi episkoposebis sasamarTloTi ukmayofilo wvrili eri (samRvdeloni da berebi) miedineboda imperiis dedaqalaq konstantinopolSi (imperatorTan) da sadavo saqmes asaCivrebdnen mis karze, am qalaqis (konstantinopolis) ierarqis SuamdgomlobiT... amitomac am ierarqis mniSvneloba... avtomaturad amaRlda mTel eklesiaze, rogorc eklesiis gasaxelmwifoebriobis Sedegi... konstantinopolis episkoposs qalaqis garda ar hqonda Tavisi saeparqio teritoriac ki... garkveuli xnis Semdeg konstantinopolma miierTa mTeli diocezebi: Trakia (aRmosavleTis ilirikia), biTvinia, ponto, asia mohyvnen misi dawolis orbitaSi da misces mas teritoria mTeli sapatriarqosaTvis. aseTi uneburi avtomaturi dapyroba, aseTi araeklesiuri `imperializmi~ konstantinopolis eklesiis xelisuflebisa ar SeiZleboda dausjeli darCeniliyo mis mier STanTqmulTa da ganawyenebulTa mxridan~.102 konstantinopolis eklesiis sazRvrebis gazrdam Seamcira antioqiis eklesiis sazRvrebi. ierusalimis sapatriarqos warmoqmnam V saukuneSi kidev ufro Seamcira antioqiis eklesiis gavlenis sfero. V saukunemde ierusalimis episkoposi ganixileboda qalaq kesaria-palestinis episkoposis xelqveiT. `V saukunis damdegs, qristianTa TvalSi, ierusalimisa da wmida miwis didi mniSvnelobis gamo, ierusalimis eklesia romis, aleqsandriisa da antioqiis eklesiaTa msgavsad, mociqulTa Tanaswor eklesiad iqna cnobili... magram samwysos gareSe da mxolod 451 wels qalkedonis msoflio saeklesio krebaze maqsime antioqielma ierusalimis episkopos iubenals (422-458) dauTmo palestina.~103 451 wlis msoflio krebis 26 oqtombris sxdomaze gadaWril iqna sakiTxi antioqiisa da ierusalimis sapatriarqoebs Soris sazRvrisa... ierusalimis sazRvrebi gafarTovda antioqiis xarjze. antioqias darCa e.w. ori finikia (libani da siria) da ganusazRvreli arabeTi, xolo ierusalimma miiRo `sami palestina~ sami samitropolito centriT: kesaria (zRvasTan), skviTopolisi (samxreTi palestina) da petra (iordaniis gaRma). 31 oqtombris sxdomaze ixileboda sakiTxi konstantinopolis sapatriarqosi. `daadgines, dakanondes Seqmnili praqtika, roca episkoposebi kon-

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stantinopolis mezobeli diocezebi Trakiisa (evropul mxareSi), pontosa da asiisa (mcire aziaSi) TiTqmis ar ganisjebodnen TavianTi mitropolitis mier, aramed umjobesad miiCnevdnen, mieRoT imperatoris karis samarTali, xolo is gadascemda dedaqalaqis arqiepiskoposis sasamarTlos.104 amrigad, am sami diocezis prestiJi TiTqosda Caylapa mTlianad konstantinopolma. e.i. dedaqalaqis episkoposi dasva konstantine didma Zveli herakliis mitropoliis im teritoriaze, romelic axal dedaqalaqs ekuTvnoda da romelsac axla ukve sami diocezi miekuTvna ise, rom ar Sexebia antioqiis, ierusalimis da aleqsandriis gavlenis sazRvrebs.105 amis winaaRmdeg arafris gakeTeba ar SeiZleboda, radganac ukve iyo faqtiuri mdgomareoba, me-9 da me-17 kanonebSi es asaxulia, xolo axalma mdgomareobam asaxva hpova 28-kanonSi (pontos diocezSi Sediodnen ankirisa da kapadokiis kesariis episkoposebi). 28-e kanoni uaryo papma da arasodes ucvnia romis eklesias, amitomac imperiis aRmosavleTis 520-ma episkoposma werili gaugzavna paps, sadac sTxoven: `Cven davamtkiceT Zveli Cveuleba, romlis ZaliTac konstantinopolis episkoposi svamda mitropolitebs asiis, pontosa da Trakiis diocezebSi, es gavakeTeT ara konstantinopolis kaTedris privilegiisaTvis, aramed samitropolito qalaqebSi simSvidisaTvis. Cven davamtkiceT II msoflio krebis kanoni, romelic garantias aZlevs konstantinopols me2 adgilisa, Tqveni samociqulo kaTedris Semdeg~.106 `pontos did diocezSi, romelic gadaWimuli iyo bosforidan evfratamde, ar iyo erTi saerTod aRiarebuli administraciuli centri, erTni miiCnevdnen kesaria-kapadokias, meoreni _ ankiras, mesameni uqvemdebarebdnen TavisTavs konstantinopols. amitomac, mcire aziaSi gamoCndnen olqebi da qalaqebi, romelTac TavianTTvis moxerxebulad da sasargeblod miiCnies, miemarTaT pirdapir dedaqalaqisaTvis, aseTia biTinia, rogorc nawili pontos diocezisa. biTiniaSi Semavali qalaqi qalkedoni iqca konstantinopolis gareubnad. saerTod, mTeli mcire aziis episkoposebi yovelTvis dedaqalaqSi iyvnen, mis arqiepiskoposTan, kaTedrasTan, TaTbirobdnen mis mimdinare ambebze, aqve gadmohqondaT TavianTi kamaTi da adgilobrivi saqmeebi. amitom man asaxva hpova IV msoflio krebis me-9 da me-17 kanonebSi, romlis Tanaxmadac, aRmosavleTSi TavianTi diocezebis (olqebis) krebebis gadawyvetilebiT ukmayofiloTaTvis umaRlesi saapelacio instancia iyo konstantinopolis saydari (kaTedra), magram es exeboda aRmosavleTis mxolod im nawils, romelic ar Sedioda sxvis sapatriarqoebSi. krebas ar ufiqria aseTi saapelacio ufleba dedaqalaqisa sxva sapatriarqoebzedac gaevrcelebina arc egvi pteze, arc siriaze, arc ilirikiaze evropaSi~.107 papma zemoT moyvanil werilze upasuxa: a) konstantinopolis aRzevebis motivi saeroa da ara eklesiuri, xom SeiZleba dedaqalaqi sxvagan yofiliyo? magaliTad, samefo kari axla ravenaSia, ravena gavuTanabroT roms? b)

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amiT dairRva kanonikuri ufleba antioqiisa da aleqsandriisa, rogorc samociqulo kaTedrebisa. g) dairRva mitropoliebis Rirseba nikeis krebis me-6 kanonis Tanaxmad. d) 381 wlis krebis me-3 kanonze miTiTeba miuRebelia, radganac am krebas ar cnobs romi. miuxedavad imisa, rom papisgan IV krebis dadgenilebis damtkiceba (28-e kanonis gamo) ar miiRo, imperatorma markianem mainc daamtkica qalkedonis krebis es dadgenileba. Semdeg is papmac daamtkica. 28-e kanonze dadumda, TiTqosda arc arsebuliyo. aRmosavleTSi es kanoni ZalaSi Sevida.108 konstantinopolma, marTalia, miiRo sami eklesia 451 wels, magram es imas ar niSnavda, rom man moi pova msoflios sxva sapatriarqoebze zedgomis ufleba. kanonisti ioane zonara (XII s-is II naxevari) qalkedonis me-17 kanonis ganmartebaSi wers, rom konstantinopolis patriarqs ar SeeZlo siriis an palestinis, finikiis an egvi ptis mitropolitTa saqme gaerCia maTi survilis gareSe.109 `me-12 saukunis komentatori ioane zonara qalkedonis me-17 kanonis ganmartebisas uaryofs konstantinopolis sapatriarqos msaxuris aleqsi aristines ganmartebas. TiTqosda am krebis me-9 kanoni aZlevs konstantinopolis patriarqs uflebas gaasamarTlos yvela sxva sapatriarqoebis mitropolitebi.~110 TviT konstantinopolis eklesiis oficialuri kanonikuri krebuli piladioni, kerZod, wers. `konstantinopolis patriarqs ara aqvs ufleba imoqmedos sxva sapatriarqoTa sazRvrebSi da diocezebSi, arsebuli kanonebiT mas ara aqvs ufleba mTeli msoflio eklesiis saboloo apelaciuri instanciisa...~111 cnobilia, rom vaxtang gorgasalma mTavarepiskoposi miqaeli, romelmac mefes Seuracxyofa miayena, dasasjelad gagzavna konstantinopolSi, imperiis dedaqalaqSi. vaxtangma uTxra miqaels _ `migavlino Sen patriarqisa konstantinopoled da viTarca jer iyos, gangikiTxos.~112 amitomac qalkedonis krebis me-9 kanonTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba daisvas aseTi kiTxva: _ xom ar daicva vaxtang gorgasalma me-9 kanonis moTxovna, romelSic, kerZod, naTqvamia: `Tu romelime sasuliero pirs samarTlebrivi saqme hqondes sxva sasuliero pirTan, gverds nu auvlis Tavis episkoposs da samoqalaqo samsjavros winaSe nu wardgeba... Tu samTavros mitropolitTan episkoposs an sasuliero pirs hqondes samarTlebrivi saqme, im mxaris egzarqoss (patriarqs), an konstantinopolis sameufo saydars mimarTon da mis winaSe ganisajon.~ rogor unda moqceuliyo gorgasali im situaciaSi, rodesac saeklesio `samTavros~ meTaurma dawyevla igi da kbili Caumtvria? Tu is fizikurad dasjida da gauswordeboda, amiT ukmayofilo darCeboda qristiani mosaxleoba, romelic qveynis umravlesobas Seadgenda. qristianTa momdureba sparseTTan saomari mdgomareobis dros ar ivargebda. SeiZleba amitomac

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vaxtangma gaixsena qalkedonis krebis is kanoni (me-9), romelic mouwodebda, rom saeklesio piris samarTlebrivi saqme gaerCia ara samoqalaqo samsjavros, aramed im mxaris egzarxoss (patriarqs), anda es sasuliero piri gaegzavnaT konstantinopolSi, raTa iqaur patriarqs ganesaja. radganac mTavarepiskoposi miqaeli TviTon iyo saqarTvelos eklesiis meTauri, amitomac misi gansja konstantinopolis saydars miandes. vaxtang gorgasalma daicva moTxovna qalkedonis krebis me-9 kanonisa da amiT moigo qristianTa guli. marTalia, zonara savsebiT samarTlianad wers, rom `konstantinopolis patriarqs ara aqvs xelisufleba imoqmedos sxva sapatriarqoTa sazRvrebSi da diocezebSi~ da amitomac vaxtangi ar iyo valdebuli miqaeli konstantinopolSi gaegzavna, magram saqarTveloSi Seqmnili politikuri situacia (saWiro iyo qristianTa darazmva sparselebTan sabrZolvelad, vaxtangi apirebda sparselebTan brZolisaTvis mieca sarwmunoebrivi xasiaTi) moiTxovda did sifrTxiles amgvar sakiTxebSi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom vaxtangma Tavis sasargeblod gamoiyena qalkedonis krebis es dadgenileba da garTulebis gareSe moiSora urCi mRvdelmTavari. garda amisa, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, saqarTvelos uSualo mosazRvrisa da mezoblis pontos (kesaria-kapadokiis) vrceli diocezis umaRlesi samRvdeloeba Tavis problemebsa da sakiTxebs am droisaTvis wyvetda ara Tavis eklesiaSi (diocezSi), aramed konstantinopolSi. esec SeiZleboda vaxtangisTvis magaliTi da impulsis mimcemi yofiliyo. amitomac, vaxtangis moqmedebidan (miqaelis konstantinopolSi gagzavnis gamo) ar SeiZleba iseTi daskvnis gamotana, TiTqosda im droisaTvis konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda qarTuli eklesia. pontos, asiisa da Trakiis diocezebis (`gansagebelTa~) episkoposebi qalkedonis krebis droisaTvis, TiTqmis mudam, Tavis Cveulebriv da yoveldRiur sakiTxebsac ki konstantinopoleli episkoposis karze wyvetdnen (es eklesiebi uSualod emijnebodnen imperiis dedaqalaqs). amitomac, wmida msoflio krebam mizanSewonilad miiCnia iuridiulad daekanonebina ukve arsebuli faqti. samive eklesia oficialurad SeuerTda konstantinopolis saydars da daarsda axali konstantinopolis sapatriarqo. amis Sesaxeb 28-e kanoni wers: `pontos, asiis da Trakiis gansagebelTa mitropolitebma da am mxareebSi myofma araberZnuli mosaxleobis episkoposebmac xeldasxma miiRon konstantinopolis didi eklesiisagan... mitropoliti zemoxsenebuli mxareebisa, rogorc iTqva, xeldasxmuli unda iyos konstantinopolis arqiepiskoposis mier, oRond Cveulebisamebr erTxmad unda iyos arCeuli winaswar da Semdeg warudges xeldasxmisaTvis konstantinopolis arqiepiskoposs.~113 rogorc zemomoyvanilidan (III da IV msoflio krebebis gadawyvetilebebis Sedarebidan) Cans, V saukuneSi ar iyo xelsayreli pirobebi avtoke-

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faluri eklesiis SeqmnisTvis. am saukunis dasawyisSi, marTalia, icaven da sagangebo kanonebs scemen ukve arsebuli avtokefaluri eklesiebis Tavisuflebis dacvisaTvis, magram V saukunis Sua wlebSi uqmdeba sami eklesiis Tavisufleba, Zlierdeba da TiTqmis mTavrdeba procesi imperiis ganawilebisa 5 did sapatriarqos Soris (es procesi VI saukunis dasawyisSi damTavrda), amitomac, SeiZleba gamoiTqvas varaudi, rom konstantinopoli, romelmac im periodSi miuerTa Tavis iurisdiqcias saqarTvelos uSualo mosazRvre ponto-kesaria-kapadokiis eklesia, qarTul eklesias mianiWebda ara avtokefalias, aramed pontos msgavsad Tavis saydars miuerTebda qarTul eklesias. da Tu im dros konstantinopolma qarTuli eklesia Tavis iurisdiqciaSi ar Seiyvana, mxolod im mizezis gamo, rom mas es ar SeeZlo (marTlac, rogor SeeZlo sparseTis saxelmwifos sazRvrebSi moqceuli qarTuli eklesia bizantias Tavis iurisdiqciaSi Seeyvana? es politikurad SeuZlebeli iyo). antioqiis iurisdiqciaSi ki qalkedonis krebamde qarTuli eklesia ar yofila (ix. qvemoT). qarTuli eklesiis mdgomareobis axsnisaTvis V saukuneSi, albaT, gamodgeba somxuri eklesia, romelic qarTuli eklesiis msgavsad, sparseTis sazRvrebSi iyo moqceuli. somxeTi da saqarTvelo V saukuneSi TiTqmis Tanabar mdgomareobaSi imyofebodnen _ orive sparsTa qveSevrdomi qveynebi iyo. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTveloSi kidev arsebobda erovnuli saxelmwifoebrioba, xolo somxeTSi sparselebma mefoba 428 wels gaauqmes. am mdgomareobis gamo sparseTi aqtiurad ereoda saqarTvelosa da somxeTis saeklesio saqmeebSi. jer kidev somxeTSi mefobis gauqmebamde, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, 420-iani wlebisTvis somxeTis kaTalikosebs iranis Sahi niSnavda. igive iTqmis qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxebac _ V saukunis dasawyisSi qarTuli eklesiis meTauri glonoqori (`moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad) sparseli xelisuflis mier qarTl-albaneTis erisTavadac iyo daniSnuli, xolo mTavarepiskoposi mobidani (436-448) aSkarad gamoxatuli prosparsuli orientaciis matarebeli iyo, mas `naTesaviT sparssac~ ki uwodebdnen. amitom SeuZlebelia da warmoudgenelic kia, 451 wlamde mainc (somxeTis cnobil ajanyebamde, romlis Semdegac irani wavida daTmobaze da aRadgines sarwmunoebrivi Tavisufleba), qarTul eklesias organizaciuli kavSiri hqonoda bizantiis imperiis eklesiebTan da romelime bizantiuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi yofiliyo. aseT kavSirs irani ar dauSvebda (igulisxmeba organizaciuli da ara sarwmunoebrivi kavSiri). es imas ar niSnavs, rom CvenSi im dros ar iyo proberZnuli saeklesio frTa, iseve rogorc prosparsuli orientaciisa. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom qarTveli mefeebi aRniSnul dros rogorc bizantiis, ise sparseTis mimarT mtrulad iyvnen ganwyobilni. magaliTad, mefe farsmani, romelmac irans xarki Seuwyvita da bizantias ebrZoda. aseve

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mefe mirdati, romelic iransac ebrZoda da bizantiasac. iranelebi yovelTvis amarcxebdnen maT winaaRmdeg ganwyobil qarTvel mefeebs da qarTls kvlav imorCilebdnen. swored am dros isini qarTul eklesiaSic sakuTar wesrigs amyarebdnen. rogorc aRiniSna, glonoqors, qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs, sparselebma qarTl-hereTis erisTavis funqciac mianiWes. e.i. qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs mianiWes is funqcia, romelic qarTvelTa mefes ekuTvnoda. eklesia da samefo xelisufleba erTmaneTs daupirispires. V saukunis reformamdeli ierarqebi _ glonoqori, mobidani da miqaeli (452-467) qarTvelTa mefis winaaRmdeg arian ganwyobilni da ibrZvian kidec yoveli saSualebiT mefis winaaRmdeg (mag. miqaeli). arc is aris dasaviwyebeli, rom sparseTi qarTlis erisTavebs aqezebda qarTvelTa mefis winaaRmdeg. erisTavebi mefes ebrZodnen, maT surdaT sakargavi Tanamdeboba da mamuli memkvidreobiT daemtkicebinaT, rasac marTlac miaRwies VI saukunis dasawyisSi, mefobis gauqmebis Semdeg. `erisTavi~ glonoqoric, rogorc sparsTagan daniSnuli, qarTveli erisTavebis gverdiT unda mdgariyo mefis xelisuflebasTan brZolisas. somexi episkoposi g. sarqisiani Tavis wignSi, romelic Seexeba V saukuneSi somxuri eklesiis mdgomareobas, gadmoscems: `rac Seexeba qveynis saSinao mdgomareobas, arc aq iyo simSvide, mefesa da msxvil naxararebs Soris politikuri brZola warmoebda. naxararebi qveynis decentralizaciisaTvis ibrZodnen. sparselebi im mTavrebs emxrobodnen, romelnic qveynis centralizaciis winaaRmdegni iyvnen da somxuri eklesiis im liderebs emyarebodnen, romelnic siriul tradicias uWerdnen mxars... (387-90w.) somxeTis gayofis Semdeg sparselebi yovelmxriv xels uwyobdnen somxeTSi siriuli kulturis gavrcelebas... berZnuli ena da kultura somxeTSi sastikad iyo akrZaluli... sparselni siriul qristianobas mfarvelobdnen bizantielTa sapirispirod.~114 arseni safareli kargad aRwers somxuri eklesiisa da sparselebis urTierTobas V saukuneSi `sparseTma somxeTi daipyro... maSin gamoZebnes Rone somxebma, SeuTanxmdnen sparseTs, rom misi moxarke gaxdebodnen. daarwmunes sparsTa mefe didi ficiT da TavisdebiT, rom kavSirs gawyvetdnen berZnebTan da SeuerTdebodnen maT. Zlier gaixara sparsTa mefem da somxebs somxeTi daubruna saCuqrebTan erTad. ramdenime xans somxebi mSvidobiT cxovrobdnen marTali sarwmunoebiT anu berZnuli rjuliT~.115 uTuod arseni safareli aq gulisxmobs somxeTis kaTalikos sahakis (397-448) dros. sahaki 51 weli kaTalikosobda, mis dros eklesiasa da erSi simSvide iyo. es iyo somxeTis `oqros saukune~. arseni safarelis mixedviT, am dros somxebs berZnebTan kavSiri gawyvetili aqvT, magram maT, amave dros, aqvT `berZnuli rjuli~. e.i. somxeTsa da mis eklesias bizantiasTan gawyvetili aqvs politikur-ierarqiuli kavSiri, magram sarwmunoebrivi erToba ki daculi aqvs.

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`nestorianebma didZali oqrosa da qrTamis micemiT sTxoves sparsTa mefes, raTa maTTvis mieca neba somxeTi moeqciaT nestorianul rjulze. gandrikes mefis guli da daarwmunes imaSi, rom `raJams ipovnian somxebi saberZneTTan erTobis saSualebas, ar moeridebian Sendami mocemul ficsa da siyvarulze Tavisdebas. berZnebi da somxebi SeerTebuli ZaliT usiamovnebas mogayeneben, amitomac Seucvale somxebs rjuli, amiT berZnebsa da somxebs Soris saukuno siyvaruls mospobo~. amis Semdeg peroz sparsTa mefem (457-484) aiZula somxebi mieRoT nestorianoba, magram somxebma uaryves mefis es ganzraxva, ganucxades mefis mociquls _ Cven Cveni sarwmunoeba gvirCevnia ara marto Cvens qveyanas, aramed Cven Tavsa da Svilebso~.116 Tu rogori Sinagani winaaRmdegoba iyo am `mSvidobian~ drosac ki, kargad Cans somexi kaTalikosebis magaliTze. iranis Sahma gaafrTxila kidec sahaki, rom misi probizantiuri saeklesio politika somexi eris ganadgurebis mizezi gaxdeboda. `sahaks orgzis mouwia qtesifonis samefo karze mosvla proberZnul orientaciaSi dadanaSaulebis gamo da orivejer Tavi gaimarTla. miuxedavad imisa, rom sahaki garegnulad iranofili iyo, rac udavod arsebuli politikuri viTarebiT iyo Sepirobebuli, sinamdvileSi sahaki elinofili iyo. elinofilobac iseve, rogorc iranofiloba, mas somxeTis interesebisaTvis esaWiroeboda.~117 423 wels somxeTis iranofilurma dasma gadawyvita daemxo da taxtidan Camoegdo mefe, romelic elinofilad miiCneoda (mas mxars uWerda sahaki). iranofilma naxararebma Sahs mimarTes. Sahis brZanebiT daemxo sahakic da somexTa mefe artaSesic. sahakis Semdeg kaTalikosad iyo siriuli (anu prosparsuli) orientaciis sarmaki. is antioqiuri (anu siriuli) eklesiis orientaciisa iyo, rac imas niSnavda, rom konstantinopolis tradicias mxars ar uWerda. misi momdevno ori kaTalikosis dros bizantiasTan, e.i. konstantinopolTan saeklesio kavSiri gawyda. maT Semdeg kaTalikosad, Sahis TanxmobiTa da naxararTa surviliT, meored dajda sahaki. rogorc aRvniSneT, `Sahma mkacrad gaafrTxila kaTalikosi, rom misi probizantiuri saeklesio politika somexTa ganadgurebis mizezi gaxdeboda.~ somxeTSi `kvlav ganaxlda ori qristianuli tradiciis brZola~118 (e.i. konstantinopoluri da siriuli (antioqiuri) saeklesio tradiciebisa). pirveli probizantiur, xolo meore prosparsul orientaciad miiCneoda. `sahakis brZnuli politikis wyalobiT siriulma tradiciam marcxi ganicada~.119 proiranuli orientaciis dasi siriis eklesiis gavlenis qveS imyofeboda. msgavsad somxuri eklesiisa, qarTul eklesiasac im dros prosparsuli orientaciis mTavarepiskoposebi marTavdnen _ glonoqori da mobidani. sahakis Semdeg kaTalikosi iosebi (hosef) bizantiuri orientaciisa iyo.

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msgavsadve am iosebis dros, qarTuli eklesiis meTauri gaxda bizantiuri orientaciisave mTavarepiskoposi miqaeli (452-467). aqedan is daskvna SeiZleba gamovitanoT, rom saqarTveloSi, iseve, rogorc somxeTSi ori saeklesio tradicia _ proiranuli da probizantiuri erTmaneTs ebrZvian. xelisuflebas xan erTi eufleba da xan meore... iosebis probizantiuri politikis gamo `somxeTis saeklesio urTierTobis gaRrmaveba bizantiasTan iranisaTvis saSiSi xdeboda, somexTa Seviwroeba ukve 452 wlidan daiwyo.~120 mSvidoba mxolod 483 wlidan damyarda, rodesac somexTa marzpanad vahan mamikoniani ganaCines. swored misi mmarTvelobis dros (485-505) somxeTis eklesiaSi Seudgnen qalkedonis krebis gadawyvetilebebis ganxilvas~.121 iosebis Semdeg TiTqmis yvela kaTalikosi siriul (prosparsul) saeklesio politikas atarebda. xolo vahan mamikonianis Semdeg, arseni safarelis Tanaxmad, sparsTa saxelmwifom da somxurma eklesiam kavSiric ki Sehkres. iosebis Semdegi kaTalikosi somxuri eklesiisa melite manazkerteli (454456) `siriuli eklesiis warmomadgeneli da misi orientaciis gamtarebeli iyo~,122 kaTalikosi movses manazkerteli (456-461) `prosparsuli saeklesio politikis gamtareblad gamodioda~123 `...siriuli eklesiis momxre adamianis somexTa sakaTalikoso saydarze dasma iranis xelisuflebis meoxebiT unda momxdariyo~;124 kaTalikosi giuti berZnuli eklesiis mimdevari iyo, xolo kaTalikosi mandakuni mis sapirispiro politikas icavda: `mandakuni giutis Semdgom iyo kaTalikosi da, bunebrivia, cdilobda, ar daeSva misi Secdomebi. im dros, roca somxeTSi SedarebiT mSvidoba sufevda, mandakuni ar aZlevda sababs iranelebs somxeTis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad~.125 aRmosavleTis qristianul eklesiaSi (rogorc siria-palestinaSi, aseve somxeTSi) ori saeklesio tradicia _ konstantinopolisa da siria-antioqiisa ebrZoda erTmaneTs. unda vifiqroT, rom aseve iyo saqarTveloSic. antioqia siriaSi mdebareobda. konstantinopolis daarsebamde is iyo imperiis politikuri, kulturuli da religiuri centri. iq iyo imperiis mTeli aRmosavleTis samoqalaqo da samxedro mmarTveloba. is qristianobis upirvelesi centri iyo romTan da aleqsandriasTan erTad. romi Tu dasavleTis qristianul centrad iTvleboda, aleqsandria egvi ptis (afrikis), antioqia aRmosavleTis eklesiebis centrad miiCneoda. es imas ar niSnavs, rom ierarqiulad aRmosavleTis yvela eklesia antioqias emorCileboda, aq ufro igulisxmeba sarwmunoebriv-eklesiuri kavSiri. marTalia, IX saukuneSi basili sofoneli werda, rom `antioqiis sapatriarqo saydari iberiamde da abasgiamde, armeniamde da Sida udabnoebamde, xorasansa, sparselebamde da midielebamde vrceldebodao,126 magram IX saukunis avtori sworad ar asaxavs im viTarebas, romelic arsebobda IV-V saukuneebSi, radganac pontosa da Trakiis diocezebi, qalkedonis 451 wlis

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krebamdec ar emorCilebodnen antioqias, aramed avtokefalurni iyvnen da konstantinopolTan hqondaT kavSiri, xolo am krebam es diocezebi saerTod miuerTa konstantinopolis saydars. basili sofonelis cnobidan Cans, rom saqarTvelos eklesiebi (iberiamde, anu qarTlis sakaTalikosomde da abasgiamde, anu afxazeTis sakaTalikosomde) mis dros da masze adre ar Sediodnen antioqiaSi. misi cnobidanve Cans, rom antioqias ar eqvemdebarebian arc somxeTi da arc sparseli qristianebi. am cnobiT, pontosa da asiis mrevli antioqias eqvemdebareboda, magram qalkedonis krebis Semdeg daiwyo antioqiis episkoposTa mrevlis Semcireba. saerTod, rac ufro Zlierdeboda konstantinopolis sapatriarqo, miT ufro mcirdeboda antioqiis mniSvneloba. konstantinopolma antioqias CamoaSora politikur-administraciuli mniSvneloba. konstantinopolis daarsebis Semdeg antioqiam dakarga mniSvneloba, rogorc aRmosavleTis umTavresma saeklesio centrma. magram antioqia ar urigdeboda konstantinopolis aRzevebasa da Tavis damcrobas, amitomac ibrZoda kidec amis winaaRmdeg, rac Tavis gamoxatvas hpovebda saeklesio cxovrebaSic. jer kidev qalkedonis krebamde arsebuli antioqiis saRvTismetyvelo skola upirispirdeboda imperiis sxva saRvTismetyvelo skolebs (mag. aleqsandriisas). nestori, romelic konstantinopolis patriarqi gaxda 428 wels, antioqiis skolis warmomadgeneli iyo, ise, rogorc misi maswavlebeli Teodore mofsuesteli. antioqiis skolis warmomadgeneli iyo barsuma _ nestorianobis damcveli. `449 wels e. w. `yaCaRur~ monofizitur krebaze igi icavda nestorianobas. roca bizantiis imperiaSi nestorianobis damarcxebis Semdeg nestorianuli eklesiis centrma sparseTSi gadainacvla, barsuma sparseTis mefeTa agenti gaxda. perozis mefobis dros (459-484) barsumam SeZlo misi mowinaaRmdege sparseTis qristianuli eklesiis kaTalikos babovais damxoba da nestorianobis gamocxadeba sparseTis eklesiis oficialur sarwmunoebad, rac miRebul iqna beT-lapatis sparseTis eklesiis krebaze (484 w.). krebas Tavad barsuma winamZRvrobda. barsumas mier daarsebuli nizibinis Teologiuri skola, iseve, rogorc mTeli sparsuli nestorianuli eklesia, faqtiurad antibizantiurad ganwyobil emigrantTa organizaciad gadaiqca~.127 antioqiuri skolis centrma sparseTSi (q. nizibinSi) gadainacvla (q. edesidan). V saukuneSi antiantioqiuri centri iyo konstantinopoli.128 aRmosavleTis qristianebi or banakad iyvnen dayofili, sxvebTan erTad arsebobdnen antioqiuri (siriuli) orientaciis qristianebi da konstantinopoluri (bizantiur-berZnuli) orientaciis qristianebi. siriasTan (antioqia) kavSiri iranofilobas niSnavda, radganac siriul eklesias mxars irani uWerda, xolo konstantinopolTan kavSiri elinofilobas, radganac mas mxars bizantiis imperatori uWerda. qalkedonis krebamdec ase iyo da mis Semdegac.

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malxasiancis SexedulebiT, siriuli tradiciis momxreT antiqalkedonuri pozicia ekavaT, xolo berZnuli eklesiis mimdevrebs _ qalkedonuri.129 antioqiuri skola Sedgeboda rogorc berZnebisagan, aseve sirielebisgan, magram saerTod proiranuli da antikonstantinopoluri iyo. `III-IV saukuneebSi sirieli misionerebi udides rols asrulebdnen somxuri eklesiis istoriaSi, somex swavlulTa did nawils qristianuli ganaTleba q. edesaSi hqonda miRebuli, romelic antioqiis skolas ekuTvnoda~.130 antioqiur skolasa da somxur Teologebs urTierToba hqondaT. marTalia, amis Sesaxeb wyaroebi arafers amboben 431 wlis efesos krebamde, magram g. sarqisiani amtkicebs, rom nestoris antioqiel maswavlebels Teodore mofsuetels, maStocisaTvis miuweria sami epistole zoroastrizmis winaaRmdeg.131 sayuradReboa inokenti maronies cnoba, romlis Tanaxmad, mas Semdeg, rac nestoris moZRvreba aikrZala, misma mimdevrebma xeli mohkides nestoris maswavleblis Teodores Sromebis siriul, sparsul da somxur enebze Targmnas. inokentis am cnobidan Cans, rom somxeTSi yofilan Teodores moZRvrebis mimdevrebi, romelnic mis Txzulebebs Targmnidnen da avrcelebdnen. Tumca, am moZraobis centri antioqiis skola unda yofiliyo.~132 `savaraudoa, rom Teodores somxeTSi mxars uWerda proiranuli orientaciis dasi, romelic siriis eklesiis gavlenis qveS imyofeboda...~133 somxeTSi nestorianobis gavrcelebis mcdelobis Sesaxeb arseni safarelic miuTiTebda. antioqiasTan kavSiris Sesaxeb SeiZleba daisvas aseTi kiTxva, ratom miuTiTeben dabejiTebiT qarTuli wyaroebi qarTuli eklesiis antioqiasTan kavSiris Sesaxeb? romel saeklesio dasTan hqonda qarTul eklesias antioqiaSi kavSiri, antikonstantinopolur saeklesio mimdinareobasTan, romelic umravlesobas warmoadgenda, Tu e.w. `melqitebTan~, romlebic konstantinopols uWerdnen mxars? qarTveli istorikosebi balsamonis cnobaze dayrdnobiT fiqroben, rom qarTulma eklesiam avtokefalia miiRo antioqiis patriarq petres dros. petre mkawvrali (knafeusi) meTaurobda antiqalkedonur opozicias. is iyo monofizitobisTvis Tavdadebuli mebrZoli. samjer avida antioqiis sapatriarqo taxtze da samjerve Camoagdes. imperatorma leon I-ma (457-474) gagzavna gadasaxlebaSi, gzidan gai para, Cavida konstantinopolSi da gamarTlda, magram gagzavnes `akumitebTan~ (monasterSi), 474 wels imperator leon I-is sikvdilis Semdeg, zenonma is ar gaaTavisufla, magram roca vasiliskma (475-476) gandevna zenoni, petre mkawvrali 475 wels xelaxla avida antioqiis kaTedraze, meore wels zenonma Camoagdo taxtidan vasiliski da petre gadaasaxla. axali patriarqi antioqiisa, stefane, monofizitebma mokles wirvisas. kaTedra erTxans vakanturi iyo.

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konstantinopolis imperatori zenoni (474-491) da patriarqi akaki qalkedonizmis droSiT ibrZodnen da xedavdnen monofizitebis reaqcias egvi pteSi, siriasa da palestinaSi. amitomac saWirod miiCnies religiuri daTmoba _ gamosces `henotikoni~. petre mkawvrali daabrunes gadasaxlebidan da igi meoTxed gaxda patriarqi. man miiRo `henotikoni~. manve SemoiRo monofizituri formula samwmidaobis galobaSi `jvarcmulo jvarze~. konstantinopolis patriarqi akaki Tavis Tavs Tvlida mTeli imperiis eklesiis meTaurad mas Semdeg, rac miiRo ufleba pontos, Trakiisa da asiis eklesiebze. ereoda iliriisa (evropaSi) da antioqiis saqmeebSic ki. antioqiisa da aleqsandriis patriarqebi misi nebiT iniSnebodnen.134 aseT viTarebaSi, roca konstantinopolis patriarqs Tavisi Tavi miaCnda mTeli msoflio eklesiis meTaurad, roca is cdilobda antioqiis sapatriarqos ara gazrdas, aramed misi gavlenis sferoebis Semcirebas da ereoda antioqiis saqmeebSi, gaugebari xdeba vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebaSi daculi cnoba, romlis Tanaxmadac, qarTuli eklesiis momavali meTaurebi konstantinopolis patriarqma sakurTxeblad gaugzavna antioqiis patriarqs, Tumca aqedan im varaudis gamotanac SeiZleba, rom aseT viTarebaSi konstantinopolels SeeZlo kidec daevalebina antioqielisaTvis am saqmis Sesruleba. vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebaSi daculia werili, romelic TiTqosda konstantinopolis patriarqma gaugzavna anitioqiis patriarqs. am werilis Tanaxmad, konstantinopoli `aRmosavleTsa~ da `CrdiloeTs~ miiCnevs antioqiis sapatriarqoSi Semaval teritoriebad. magram aRmosavleTSi konstantinopoli iurisdiqcias axorcielebda mcire aziaze (pontosa da asiis miwebze), aseve CrdiloeTis miwebi (igulisxmeba momavali ruseTisa da slavebis eklesiebis teritoriebi) Sedioda da Sevida kidec ara antioqiis, aramed konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi, amitomac es werili sinamdviles ar asaxavs. CrdiloeTis mTeli teritoriebi konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda TiTqmis XVI-XVII saukuneebamde. `miuweres antioqiisa patriaqsa mefeman da patriaqman kostantinepolelman esreT, viTarmed: `qarTli da aRmosavleTi da Crdilo magis wmidisa saydrisani arian, viTarca ganaweses mociqulTa saxarebasa Sina, romel ars uwinaresoba.~135 unda aRiniSnos, rom mociqulebs msoflio eklesia ar gauyviaT did eklesiaTa Soris, piriqiT, isini yoveli saeklesio Temis avtokefalias icavdnen136 amitomac qarTlis cxovrebaSi moTavsebuli es werili asaxavs ara realur viTarebas, aramed gamarTlebaa im mdgomareobisa, romelSic, albaT, eklesia imyofeboda am `CanarTi~ werilis Sedgenis dros. sxvaTa Soris, amave werilidan Cans isic, rom qarTuli eklesia wina epoqaSi ar Sedioda antioqiis iurisdiqciaSi, rasac uZebnian gamarTlebas da weren, rom `rameTu Soris sparsTa da berZenTa SfoTi iyo da miT ver

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moawies saqme ese jerisaebr sjulisa~.137 TiTqosda `sjuli~ moiTxovda, rom qarTli, CrdiloeTi da aRmosavleTi antioqias damorCileboda. v. goilaZe msjelobs, rom qarTlis pirveli kaTalikosi petre vaxtang gorgasalma gaicno bizantiis imperiis winaaRmdeg spars-qarTvelTa laSqrobisas 453-456 wels. am dros petre mRvdeli iyo kapadokia-qalkedonSi. male vaxtangi sparselebTan erTad aRmosavleTSi salaSqrod wavida. 468 wels iranidan momavalma vaxtangma `...waravlina mociquli warmoyvanebad colisa misisa da petresTYs kaTalikosisa da samoel episkoposisa~, Tan imperators sTxova qarTlis kaTalikosad petre daemtkicebinaT. Tavis mxriv, imperatorma petre da samoeli antioqiis patriarqTan gagzavna kurTxevis misaRebad, `rameTu... qarTli da aRmosavleTi da Crdilo magis wmidisa saydrisani arian, viTarca ganaweses mociqulTa~.138 roca qarTlSi gamosagzavni sasuliero pirebi antioqiaSi Cavidnen, qarTli diofizituri qveyana iyo.139 petre-samoelisa da danarCeni 12 sasuliero piris kurTxeva da qarTuli eklesiisTvis damoukideblobis micema antioqiis patriarqs ubrZana imperatorma, magram am dros antioqiaSi mimdinareobda saeklesio omi diofizitTa da monofizitTa Soris. V saukunis 70-iani wlebisTvis siriis dedaqalaq antioqiaSi monofizitebma TandaTan upiratesoba moi poves. maT meTaurobda petre mkawvrali (fuloni), romelic 470-71 wels antioqiis patriarqi gaxda. imperatori leon I (457-474) qalkedonis rwmenis damkvidrebisaTvis ibrZoda. igi emuqreboda petre fulons, Tu ar Seicvlida Sexedulebas, ZaliT daatovebinebda kaTedras da gadaasaxlebda. aseT dros petres ar SeeZlo ar Seesrulebina imperatoris brZaneba qarTveli kaTalikosis kurTxevis Sesaxeb. imperatoris muqaris gamo petre fuloni gaiqca. Semdeg v. goilaZe gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom qarTveli qalkedoniti samRvdeloeba, momavali kaTalikosi da episkoposebi ar ekurTxebodnen monofiziti petres xeliT, aramed ekurTxebodnen misi xeliT im dros, roca petre fulonma miiRo `henotikoni~. antioqiis mosaxleoba saerTod monofizitobas emxroboda, amitom imperatori da konstantinopolis patriarqi akaki (472-489) iZulebulni gaxdnen monofizitebTan Semrigebluri pozicia daekavebinaT. 482 wels monofizitebs `henotikoni~ (`erTobis formula~) SesTavazes. monofizitebma, maT Soris petre fulonmac, miiRo es henotikoni, romelic ZiriTadad mimarTuli iyo siriis, egvi ptis, libiisa da sxva eklesiebisadmi. antioqiis kaTedra imperator zenonis nebarTviT petre fulonma daibruna da v. goilaZis azriT, amis Semdeg petre fulonma akurTxa petre kaTalikosi da qarTul eklesias mianiWa avtokefalia _ `qarTlis moqcevidan 170 wlis Tavze, rogorc amas qarTuli wyaroebi amtkiceben _ 487-488 wels es saqme (qarTuli eklesiisaTvis avtokefaliis miniWeba) antioqiis adgilobrivma saeklesio krebam petre fulonis TavmjdomareobiT dadebiTad gadawyvita~.140

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rogorc v. goilaZis zemoT moyvanili msjelobidan Cans, qarTuli eklesia da is berZeni samRvdeloeba, romelnic saqarTveloSi samoRvaweod antioqiaSi unda kurTxeuliyvnen, aRniSnul dros mtkice diofiziti qalkedonitebi iyvnen da amitomac patriarqis xeldasxmas ar miiRebdneno. savsebiT SesaZlebelia, qarTuli eklesia aRniSnul dros, V saukunis meore naxevarSi, marTlac qalkedonituri qveyana iyo, TviT konstantinopolic ki im dros Zalze xSirad monofizituri gavlenis qveS iyo. zogierTi imperatoric ki uaryofda qalkedonis krebas. imperatorma vasiliskma uaryo qalkedonis kreba. imperiis aRmosavleTic monofizitebis xelSi iyo. aleqsandriaSi, siriasa da palestinaSi saerTod xalxi monofizitobis mxareze iyo da qalkedonitebs devnidnen. TviT imperiis dedaqalaq konstantinopolSi monofizitebis gavlena izrdeboda. 488 wlisTvis gamoCnda monofizitTa Soris saxelganTqmuli monazoni (beri) severiusi, romelic maiumSi, Razis maxloblad, aRikveca, sadac erTgulebdnen petre iberis tradiciebs. man henotikoni miiRo, maiumis berebi henotikons uWerdnen mxars.141 512 wels konstantinopolSi, TviT wmida sofias taZarSi Seitanes monofizituri galoba samwmidaobisa _ `romelic CvenTvis jvars ecvi~.142 qalaqSi daiwyo brZolebi morwmune qalkedonitTa da monofizitTa Soris. 513 wels qalaqSi Sevida dunais jarebi 60 000 jariskaciT wesrigis dasamyareblad (moiTxovdnen monofizitTa liderebis gandevnas). 518 wels gardaicvala imperatori anastasi. senatma daasaxela iustine I. iustine imperatorma monofizituri galoba akrZala. mowveul iqna kreba, konstantinopoli kvlav SeuerTda roms. imperator iustiniane didis (527-565) zeobis pirvel wlebSi dedaqalaqSi gaizarda monofizituri midrekileba. miwisZvris Semdeg xalxi sajarod yviroda `avgustus, dawvi qalkedonis krebis tomosi~, imperatorma garkveulwilad dauTmo monofizitebs. iustinianes surda erTiani msoflio qristianuli imperiis Seqmna. misi meuRlis, Teodoras gardacvalebis Semdeg, romelic monofizitebs mfarvelobda, iustiniane swor gzas daadga.143 rogorc zemomoyvanilidan Cans, TviT imperiis dedaqalaqic ki mtkice qalkedonitur gezs ar icavda da zogjer TviT dedaqalaqis quCebSic ki monofizitebi da diofizitebi erTmaneTs ebrZodnen. mTavar taZarSi monofizituri galoba iyo dakanonebuli. aseT situaciaSi Znelia mtkiceba imisa, rom monofizitebi saerTod ar arsebobdnen saqarTveloSi. qarTuli wyaroebi Zalze kargad weren amis Sesaxeb, xazs usvamen, rom qarTul eklesiaSi iyo iseTive sarwmunoebrivi mimarTuleba, rogoric iyo `saberZneTSi~. es ise unda gavigoT, rom roca `saberZneTis~ eklesia mtkiced icavda qalkedonitobas, qarTuli eklesiac am dros mtkiced icavda qalkedonitobas, da piriqiT. am wyarodan gamomdinare, Tu `saberZneTSi~ monofizitebi da diofizitebi V saukunis II naxevarsa da VI saukunis dasawyisSi erTad arian da Tanaarseboben, qarTul eklesiaSic msgavsi viTarebaa, saqarTveloSic

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arseboben rogorc qalkedonituri, ise monofizituri mimarTulebani. Tumca, SeiZleba saqarTveloSi aseT erTmaneTTan daundobel brZolas adgili ar hqonoda, piriqiT, savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom qalkedonitebi da monofizitebi erTiani ZaliT ebrZodnen saqarTveloSi arsebul warmarTobasa da cecxlTayvanismcemlobas. rogorc iTqva, somxur eklesiaSi arsebobda siriuli (anu prosparsuli) da konstantinopoluri (proberZnuli) mimarTuleba. male erTi frTa miemxro monofizitebs, xolo meore qalkedonitebs. cnobilia, rom somxeTSi siriulmonofiziturma mimarTulebam gaimarjva, xolo saqarTveloSi piriqiT, berZnulqalkedoniturma. Tu rogori rwmena da qristologia hqondaT qarTvelebs aRniSnul periodSi, amis Sesaxeb miuTiTebs VI saukunis dasawyisSi sparseli qristianebisadmi somxeTidan gagzavnili ori epistole.144 CvenSi miiCneoda, rom 506 wlis kreba iyo monofizituri, romelmac uaryo qalkedonitoba `dvinis 506 wlis krebasTan dakavSirebiT dRes Cvens istoriografiaSi Camoyalibebulia sami ZiriTadi debuleba: 1. 506 wlis krebaze qarTli oficialurad miemxro monofizitobas da ase darCa VII s-is damdegs qarTvelebsa da somxebs Soris momxdar saeklesio ganxeTqilebamde. 2. dvinis saeklesio krebam, SesaZloa, daadastura kavkasiis eklesiebis organizaciuli centris Camoyalibeba dvinis sakaTalikosos primatobiT. 3. aRniSnuli ideologiurorganizaciuli cvlilebebi iranis saxelmwifos gavleniT moxda~.145 z. aleqsiZe aRniSnul epistoleTa, sxva masalebisa da wyaroebis gamowvlilviTi analizis Semdeg daaskvnis: `kavkasiis eklesiebma Tavisi damokidebuleba msoflio eklesiaSi mimdinare dogmaturi kamaTisadmi pirvelad dvinis 506 wlis saerTo krebaze gamoTqves, rogorc Cans, krebam miiRo zenonis `henotikoni~ da mxari dauWira bizantiis keisarTa diofizitebisa da monofizitTa Serigebis politikas, amis Semdeg, VI s-is Sua xanebamde qarTuli da somxuri wyaroebi garkveuls arafers amboben maTi eklesiebis mrwamsis Sesaxeb. wyaroebis aseTi siCume iribad unda mowmobdes, rom kavkasiis eklesiebis poziciaSi mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ar momxdara, an kidev rac ufro savaraudoa, momxdari cvlileba sagangebo saeklesio krebas ar gauformebia.~146 maSasadame, sinamdvileSi saqme SeiZleba ase iyos: 506 wlis krebam miiRo henotikoni da antinestorianuli gadawyvetileba. sparseli nestorianebi im droisaTvis acxadeben, rom maTac igive sarwmunoeba aqvT, rac somxebs, qarTvelebs da berZnebso (`...ra mrwamss aRiarebdnen qarTvelebi, somxebi da albanelebi: sparseTSi nestorianebs xma gaevrcelebinaT, rom esenic nestoris mimdevrebi ariano~, `nestorianebi samefo xelisuflebas arwmunebdnen, rom mezobel qveynebSic igive sarwmunoebis aRsarebaa gavrcelebuli, rasac isini qadageben~).147 sparsel nestorianTa aseT Tvalsazriss sastikad uaryofs

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babgen somexTa kaTalikosi. ismis kiTxva, ratom miiCnevdnen nestorianebi berZnebs, somxebs, qarTvelebsa da albanelebs Tanamorwmuneebad? nestorianTa azriT, qalkedonis kreba iyo nestorianTa kreba. SecdomiT nestorianebi qalkedonis krebis gadawyvetilebebs nestorianebisadmi daTmobad Tvlidnen, radganac qalkedonis kreba qristeSi or bunebas aRiarebda (Seurevnelad da ganuyofelad), aseve nestorianebic ieso qristeSi or bunebas aRiarebdnen (erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad, maTi azriT, mama RmerTis logosi kacSi imyofeboda, rogorc taZarSi). qalkedonis krebam nestorianebi gaaxara, Cans, imis gamo, rom rogorc arseni safareli araerTgzis aRniSnavs, qarTuli eklesia mudam berZnul eklesiaSi miRebul qristologias aRiarebda, xolo saberZneTi am droisaTvis, ase Tu ise, qalkedonur qveyanad miiCneoda. nestorianebi somxeT-albaneTis qristianebs Tanamorwmuneebad Tvlidnen. babgeni Tavis I epistoleSi, kerZod, wers: `mwvaleblebi amboben... rom berZnebs, somxebs, qarTvelebsa da albanelebs igive sjuli da sarwmunoeba aqvT, rac Cvena gvaqvso. es SevityveT maTgan imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras amboben nestorianebi.~148 da iqve ganagrZobs _ ,,radgan isurveT, rom am saqmeTa Sesaxeb Cvengan SegetyoT, gacnobebT: berZnebs, Cven, somxebs, qarTvelebsa da albanelebs es RmerTis gmoba ar Segviwynarebia da arc veziarebiT, aramed SevaCvenebT, radgan ase amboben da aswavlian.~149 maSasadame, rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, sparseli nestorianebi berZenTa, somexTa, qarTvelTa da albanelTa nestorianobas im mizezis gamo amtkicebdnen, rom isini qalkedonitebad, anda qalkedonuri orientaciis mqone qristianebad miaCndaT. ismis kiTxva, icnobdnen Tu ara saerTod qalkedonis krebis gadawyvetilebebs somxeTsa da saqarTveloSi, anda eTanxmebodnen Tu ara mas? zaza aleqsiZem savsebiT damajereblad gaarkvia aRniSnul epistoleebze dayrdnobiT, rom `...pirvel epistoleSi somxuri sarwmunoebis aRsareba nikeis sarwmunoebis simbolos farglebidan ar gamodis da arianelTa sawinaaRmdego formuliT mTavrdeba. meoreSi ukve Cans antinestorianuli msjeloba samebis `damatebis~ Sesaxeb da momarjvebulia efesos krebis avtoriteti. Znelia Tavi gaiTavisuflo eWvisgan, rom dvinis 506 wlis krebis monawileebs jer kidev ar hqondaT naTeli warmodgena V s-is manZilze msoflio eklesiaSi mimdinare nestorianuli da monofizituri cilobis Sesaxeb, isini jer kidev nikea-konstantinopolis dogmatikis doneze imyofebodnen. meore epistoles Sedgenisas mdgomareoba arsebiTad gansxvavdeba. somxeTis eklesiis mesveurebi ukeT arian garkveuli Tanadroul religiur situaciaSi da mxars, Tumca jer kidev Semrigeblur doneze, magram mainc ufro monofizitobas uWeren... asea, Tu ise, qarTuli da albanuri eklesiebi meore epistolesTan ar arian dakavSirebuli da maTi mrwamsis Sesaxeb mxolod pirveli epistoleTi SeiZleba msjeloba. xolo pirveli epistoles mixedviT dvinis 506 wlis kreba qalkedonianobis sakiTxs ar ixilavda.~150

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ramdenadme gansxvavebulia g. sarqisianis Tvalsazrisi: `...somxebma marTla araferi icodnen qalkedonis krebis Sesaxeb? g. sarqisiani uaryofs am mosazrebas. saxeldobr, mas mohyavs ori cnoba: a) ioane mandakunis `damtkiceba~ da b) movses xorenacis traqtati. upirveles yovlisa, sayuradReboa ioane mandakunis traqtatis saxelwodeba: `damtkiceba, rom vaRiaroT ufali ori bunebisa Tu erTi bunebisa~, rac araorazrovnad miuTiTebs, rom aRniSnul traqtatSi is ZiriTadi sakiTxia dasmuli, romelsac centraluri adgili epyra qalkedonis krebaze. ufro sayuradReboa movses xorenacis traqtatSi Semonaxuli cnobebi, romelSiac timoTe eluris `qalkedonis krebis gadawyvetilebaTa uaryofis~ somxuri Targmanis gavlena igrZnoba... Targmani 480-484 ww. Soris unda iyos Sesrulebuli. g. sarqisianic am Tvalsazrisisaken ixreba da Targmans V s-is II naxevarSi saberZneTis kulturuli centrebidan somxeTs dabrunebul swavlulTa meore Taobas, e.w. `mTargmnelTa~ moRvaweobas miawers. Semoinaxa cnobebi, romelTa mixedviTac somxebma Tavdapirvelad miiRes qalkedonis krebis doqtrina, Semdeg ki VI s-is Sua xanebSi siriel monofizitTa zegavleniT monofizitizms daubrundnen. lazar farpeci vardan mamikonianisadmi wargzavnil epistoleSi wers, rom somxebma icodnen qalkedonis saeklesio krebis Sesaxeb. aRniSnul epistoleSi farpeci anaTemas ugzavnis sxva mwvalebelTa Soris evtiqisac, radgan Tavad farpeci kiriles qristologiis mimdevari iyo da am niSniT igi qalkedonis mowinaaRmdegeTa banaks miekuTvneba. g. sarqisianis azriT, SeuZlebelia qalkedonis krebis Sesaxeb araferi scodnoda somex mTargmnelTa meore Taobas, romelic bizantiasa da aleqsandrias iyo wasuli, magram ratom ar ixsenieba somxur wyaroebSi qalkedonis saeklesio kreba? g. sarqisians amis pirvel mizezad arsebuli politikuri viTareba miaCnia. imperator zenonis `henotikoni~ qalkedonis krebis miCqmalvas cdilobda da am pirobebSi Zneli iyo somxuri eklesiis mesveurTaTvis qalkedonis krebis anaTema. es unda iyos somxur wyaroTa dumilis erTi mizezi. meore mizezi ufro mniSvnelovania. radgan nestorianebi `henotikons~ ebrZodnen, somxebi nestorianobas qalkedonizmSi urevdnen, rac nestorianobisa da qalkedonizmis antimonofizitobiT iyo Sepirobebuli~.151 rogorc z. aleqsiZem gaarkvia, `...dvinis 506 wlis kreba qalkedonianobis sakiTxs ar ixilavda~, swored am krebas eswreboda qarTuli eklesiis warmomadgeneli. am krebis mier gacemul babgen kaTalikosis I epistoleSi qarTuli eklesiis qristologiacaa gadmocemuli, is ki antiqalkedonuri ar yofila. maSasadame, qarTul eklesias ise, rogorc somxur da albanur eklesiebs, 506-wlis krebaze qalkedonitoba ar daugmia (krebas qalkedonianobis sakiTxi arc ganuxilavs). z. aleqsiZe wers: `Tu dvinSi Sekrebili episkoposebi arc nestorianobis sakiTxs ganixilavdnen da arc qalkedonianobisa, maS ra unda yofiliyo krebis samsjelo sakiTxi? rogorc Cans, marTali unda iyvnen is special-

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istebi, romlebic varaudoben, rom 506 wlis krebaze amierkavkasiis eklesiebma miiRes zenonis Semrigebluri `henotikoni~ (482 w.), romelic krZalavda qristes bunebis Sesaxeb kamaTs da nikea-konstantinopolis sarwmunoebis simbolos doneze rCeboda.~152 aRsaniSnavia, rom dvinis krebas ar miuRia monofizituri mrwamsi. 506 wlis kreba `monofizitobis sruli gamarjvebis~ kreba ar yofila, rogorc miaCndaT adre.153 piriqiT, `dvinis 506 wlis kreba mTels axlo aRmosavleTis qristianul eklesiaSi diofizitTa da monofizitTa Semarigebeli RonisZiebebis erT-erTi gamovlena iyo...~154 `msoflio eklesiaSi mimdinare polemikam kavkasiaSi SemoaRwia mxolod VI s-is damdegs. manamde somxebi, qarTvelebi da albanelebi ar iyvnen arc monofizitebi da arc qalkedonitebi. dvinis 506 wlis kreba mowveul iqna anastasi keisris religiuri politikis pirvel periodSi, rodesac igi zenonis Semrigebluri `henotikonis~ poziciaze idga da garegnulad mainc kidev ufro loialurad iyo ganwyobili qalkedonianTa mimarT, vidre misi winapari keisris taxtze. aseve `henotikonis~ doneze gansazRvrulad, an kidev ufro loialurad unda miviCnioT dvinis 506 wlis krebis mier aRiarebuli sarwmunoebis simbolo. yovel SemTxvevaSi, babgenis pirvel epistoleSi, romelic erTaderTi sando wyaroa dvinis I krebis monawileTa aRsarebis warmosadgenad, monofizituri mrwamsis niSanwyalic ar moipoveba. dvinis I krebis monawile eklesiebs aSkarad antinestorianuli pozicia ukaviaT... babgenis meore epistole dawerilia krebis Semdeg da mxolod somexTa mxridan... mas ukve emCneva `henotikonis~ memarcxene gaazreba da sirieli monofizitebis Zlieri gavlena... qarTul eklesias babgenis meore epistolesTan araviTari kavSiri ara aqvs da ra pozicia daikava man SedarebiT gvian qristes bunebis sakiTxSi, calke sakvlevia.~155 rogorc aRiniSna, Tavis II epistoleSi somexTa kaTalikosma dagmo qalkedonis kreba, radganac am krebas nestorianebi Tavis sasargeblod miiCnevdnen (am epistolesTan qarTul eklesias kavSiri ar hqonia). kidev erTxel unda aRiniSnos, rom im momentSi qalkedonis krebis dagmoba ar niSnavda monofizitobis aRiarebas. 506 wels krebam miiRo henotikoni, es imas niSnavs, rom somxebma da krebis sxva monawileebma (qarTvelebma da albanelebma) monofizitoba ki ar miiRes, aramed miiRes raRac saSualo Semrigebluri platforma monofizitobasa da qalkedonitobas Soris, da amave dros, dagmes nestorianoba, rac Tavis mxriv niSnavda qalkedonis nestorianuli gagebis gmobasac. zemoT moyvanili epistoleebidan Cans, Tu ra didi avtoritetiT sargeblobs somxuri eklesia sparseTis imperiaSi. is, SeiZleba iTqvas, sparseTis qristianTa Soris umTavresi avtoritetis mqone saeklesio centria, romelsac TviT sparseli qristianebi uweven angariSs. ram gamoiwvia somxuri eklesiis aseTi amaRleba sparseTis saxelmwifoSi? amis Sesaxeb arseni safareli wers:

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`amis Semdeg gavida ramdenime Jami, mokvda vahan mamkueni (505 w.) ...mis Semdeg erovnebiT sparselebma miiRes marzpanoba. maT Seuracxyves saqristiano wesi da eklesiaTa gangeba moispo. somex aznaurTa xelisufleba daeca marzpanis mier da kaTalikosebi da episkoposebi ganidriknen simarTlisagan. maT sparselebisgan miiRes ufleba win aRdgomodnen aznaurTa xelisuflebas. ufleba miecaT mosaxleobisgan TviTve moekribaT xarki da gadaexadaT sparselebisTvis, radganac episkoposebsa da qorepiskoposebs miandves somxeTi, rogorc sparsTa mefobis morCilebs. zogierTma kaTalikosma da episkoposma sparseTis mefeebi iSviles da TavianTi Zeebi uwodes kavad (488-531) da xosro (531-579) mefeebs. amiT miaRwies imas, rom samTavro msajuleba TviT miitaces da kanonis samarTlisamebr ar iqceodnen. eklesiis sakuTreba miiTvises da flangavdnen eriskacTa saCveneblad. sparsTa uRmerTo mefis saTnoebisaTvis somxeTis episkoposebi da monasterTa mamasaxlisebi RvTis gasarisxebel amao fufunebaze fiqrobdnen. da mere aznaurni da erisaganni maTi mibaZviT ganSordnen yovelgvar kanonebs, wmida nersesa da wmida sahakis mier ganwesebulT. dairRva yoveli sulieri sikeTis Cveuleba da wesi, da borotebam daimkvidra dRevandel dRemde. somxuri saepiskoposoebi gadaiqcnen qedismosaxrel adgilad. mividodnen xolme aznaurebi saepiskoposo karze da maT episkoposebi ar iRebdnen. Sercxvenili ukanve brundebodnen, rogorc marzpanis karidan. es didi Seuracxyofa mouTmeneli iyo.~156 rogorc arseni safareli wers, somxuri eklesia yovelmxriv misaRebi eklesia iyo sparseTis mefeebisTvis. Sahi kavadi, romlis drosac dvinis kreba Catarda 506 wels, somexi kaTalikosebis `Svilobili~ da `Ze~ iyo. aRsaniSnavia, rom arseni safarelis Tanaxmad, somxurma eklesiam monofizitoba miiRo ara 506 wlis krebaze, aramed VI saukunis 50-ian wlebSi nerse kaTalikosis dros. manamde, arseni safarelis Tanaxmad, somxur eklesias igive rwmena hqonda, rac berZnul eklesias da qarTul eklesiasac, amis gamo `mSvidad iyo~ (e.i. saeklesio kavSiri (sarwmunoebrivi) gawyvetili ar hqonda somxur eklesiasTan). arseni safarelis Tvalsazrisi, rom VI saukunis dasawyisSi (Sua wlebamde) somxur eklesias oficialurad ar hqonda miRebuli monofizituri mrwamsi, eTanxmeba sxva wyaroTa monacemebs. arseni wers: `sparsTa mefem raRac manqanebiT Seicvala Sexeduleba somexTa sarwmunoebis mimarT (igulisxmeba xosro I (531-579) da ganucxada somxebs, ganyofodnen da ganSorebodnen berZnul sarwmunoebas (e.i. marTalia, somexi samRvdeloeba uzneod iqceoda, magram maTi sarwmunoeba kvlav berZnuli iyo). mefem miuvlina maT mociquli da ganucxada: `erTi orTagan gamoarCieT, an miiReT asurelTa sarwmunoeba, melqitebis garda, romelTac berZnuli sarwmunoeba aqvT, anda datoveT Tqveni qveyana da wadiT. somxebi Zlier Sewuxdnen, maT arc sarw-

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munoebis Secvla surdaT da arc qveynis datoveba. Seiqmna didi fiqri da bWoba maT Soris sakmao xnis manZilze. mere am saqmis gadawyveta miandes nerse kaTalikoss (548-552), romelsac mijini erqva... somxebma mwuxarebiT amcnes sparsTa mefes, rom miiRebdnen iakobis rjuls (monofizitur rwmenas, romelic ufro axlos idga berZnulTan, vidre sxva seqtebi)... mefe dakmayofilda da miuvlina somxebs cxra iakobiti boroti moZRvari, cbieri melebis msgavsni. maT garyvnes somxeTi, namoRvawari wmida grigolis cremliT da SromiT, da hyves kreba qalaq dvinSi, miiRes xaCecari da gandgnen marTali (berZnuli) da WeSmariti sarwmunoebisagan. amis gamo isini mowyvetil iqnen didebul kaTolike da samociqulo msoflio eklesiisagan, iqve ganaweses arajori, dvins, da Tqves, es aris pirveli dRe Cveni sarwmunoebisao. somxuri welTaRricxva iwyeba dvinis am krebiT (551 wels). boroti borots daumates da ar eziarnen qalkedonis krebas da RvTispirisagan gavardnen~.157 arseni safarelis Tanaxmad, somxebma qalkedonis kreba oficialurad dagmes ara 506 wels, aramed 551 wels. amave wels miiRes maT xaCecari, e.i. monofizitoba. qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebi erTmaneTs daSordnen (arseni safarelis Tanaxmad, swored amis gamo) 551 wels da ara 607-608 wlebSi. amis gamo yoveli qarTli, meoTxe somxeTi ganeyenen somexTagan mRvdelobis xeldasxmas, xolo herni da sivnielni erT periodSi ganSordnen da Semdeg kvlav Seerivnen~.158 arseni safarelis Tvalsazrisi, SeiZleba iTqvas, gaziarebulia: `bolo xanebSi gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom qarTul eklesias monofizitoba Tavis oficialur ideologiad arasodes ucvnia, Tumca, igi VI s-is ganmavlobaSi Semrigeblur platformaze idga da Tavis samwysoSi hyavda monofiziti episkoposebi da mrevlic~.159 rogorc aRvniSneT, antioqiis patriarqi petre fuloni, romlis mierac, zogierTi qarTveli istorikosis Tanaxmad, _ qarTulma eklesiam miiRo avtokefalia, monofizitTa erT-erTi eresiarqi iyo. `monofizitobis istoriaSi Semdegi safexuri Seqmna antioqiis patriarqma petre mkawvrelma (fulonma), romelmac `samwmindaobis~ galobaSi Ze RmrTisas mimarT Seitana gamoTqma _ `romelic CvenTvis jvars ecvi~, es formula mowinaaRmdegeebma gaiges, rogorc RvTis jvarcmulad gamocxadeba da amitomac mis mimdevrebs `Teofaqsitebi~ (somxebs _ `xaCecarebi~) uwodes. kvlav davubrundeT sakiTxs V saukuneSi qarTvelTa sarwmunoebis, kerZod, mefe vaxtang gorgaslisa da miqael qarTlis kaTalikosis aRmsareblobis Sesaxeb. z. aleqsiZe juanSerisa da sxva wyaroebis analizis Semdgom wers: `aSkaraa, rom berZnebi da qarTvelebi juanSers calke gamouyvia da maT marTlmadideblebad Tvlis. juanSeris TvalSi ki marTlmadidebloba mxolod qalkedonitoba SeiZleba iyos. amasTanave, 472 wlamde, rogorc qarTlSi kaTalikosobis dawesebas aTariReben, bizantiis oficialuri kur-

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si qalkedonuri iyo. maSasadame, araviTari sayrdeni juanSerTan vaxtang gorgaslis monofizitobis samtkiceblad ar moi poveba. ar aris agreTve savaraudo, rom vaxtangi sparseTSi salaSqrod yofnis dros gadaixreboda monofizitobisaken, vinaidan am xanebSi sparseTi mxars uWerda nestorianobas da ara monofizitobas. ase, rom, miqael episkoposis braldeba vaxtang gorgaslisadmi (`dagitovebies qriste da cecxlsa esav~ unda pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT (ukeT ciliswamebad) gavigoT da masSi romelime qristianuli seqtis mimdevrobas ver davinaxavT.~160 aseve iTqmis miqael kaTalikosis Sesaxebac: `...legenda vinme petres qarTlSi Caqolvis Sesaxeb ukavSirdeba petre antioqielsa da miqael qarTlis mTavarepiskoposs... petre mkawvralis mkvleli miqaeli ki, legendis mixedviT, aqtiuri antimonofiziti da qalkedoniti moRvawea. amgvarad, ara gvaqvs araviTari safuZveli mis monofizitad CasaTvlelad~.161 `tradicia ki vaxtang gorgasalsa da miqaels marTlmadideblebad miiCnevs~.162 sruli ufleba gvaqvs davaskvnaT, rom ra sarwmunoebrivi aRmsareblobisac iyo saqarTvelos mefe da kaTalikosi, imasve aRiarebda sruliad saqarTveloc. magram iyo Tu ara vaxtang gorgasali sruliad saqarTvelos mefe? z. aleqsiZe Sesabamisi wyaroebis analizis Sedegad adasturebs, rom vaxtang gorgasali gamaerTianebeli iyo sruliad saqarTvelosi: `V saukunis bolo oTxi aTwleuli qarTlis samefosaTvis iyo did politikur warmatebaTa wlebi: vaxtang gorgaslis meTaurobiT qarTlma gaaerTiana aRmosavleTi da dasavleTi saqarTvelo, TiTqmis imave sazRvrebSi, romelic Semdgom ufro myarad gakeTda mxolod XI-XII saukuneebSi~.163 Tuki vaxtangis dros gaerTianda sruliad saqarTvelo da is qarTlis samefos farglebSi moeqca, unda vifiqroT, rom qarTulma eklesiam Tavisi iurisdiqciis sferoSi moaqcia dasavleTi saqarTveloc, radganac qalkedonis krebis Tanaxmad, eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvari unda damTxveoda saxelmwifo-administraciul sazRvrebs. qarTlis eklesia erTian qarTul eklesiad unda qceuliyo vaxtangis saxelmwifoebrivi moRvaweobis (saqarTvelos gaerTianebis) Sedegad da radganac mefe da kaTalikosi qalkedonitebi iyvnen, erTiani qarTuli eklesiac amave mrwamsis matarebeli unda yofiliyo. qarTuli eklesia, Cveni Zveli istorikosebis SexedulebiT, mudam im sarwmunoebriv mimarTulebas aRiarebda, romelic imavdroulad berZnul eklesiaSi iyo miRebuli. `475 wels bizantiis imperatoris taxti, mcire xniT xelSi Caigdo uzurpatorma basiliskma, romlis antiqalkedonur RonisZiebebSi pirveli adgili ekava gadayenebuli monofiziti ierarqebis uflebebSi aRdgenas. ase avida petre fuloni antioqiis saydarze xelmeored, Tumca, misi zeoba xanmokle gamodga. 476 wels zenon keisarma basiliski Camoagdo taxtidan

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da bizantiis imperatoris gvirgvini daibruna. zenonis moRvaweobis pirveli periodis damaxasiaTebelia aqtiuri proqalkedonuri politika. man dauyovnebliv aRadgina eklesiebSi basiliskamdeli mdgomareoba, rasac cxadia, antioqiaSi qalkedonitebis gamarjveba da petres damxoba mohyva Sedegad. mesamed da sabolood petres antioqiis saydari ekava 485-488 wlebSi.~164 `472-489 wlebSi konstantinopolis patriarqia akakiusi, romelmac sastiki winaaRmdegoba gauwia uzurpator basiliskis promonofizitur politikas da misi Camogdebis erT-erTi mTavari faqtori gaxda.~165 rogorc zemoaRwerilidan Cans, araviTari safuZveli ar arsebobs imisa, rom qarTuli eklesia V saukuneSi, sakaTalikosos daarsebis epoqaSi, miviCnioT monofizituri qristologiis mqoned, ufro metic, arc 506 wlis dvinis qarTvel-somex-albanelTa gaerTianebul krebas uRiarebia monofizitoba. miCneulia, rom TviT somxuri eklesiac ki mxolod 551 wlidan unda CaiTvalos monofiziturad. `kavkasiologiaSi gavrcelebulia Sexeduleba, rom 451 wlidan VII saukunis damdegamde qarTuli eklesiis oficialuri mrwamsi monofizitoba iyo da somxur eklesiasTan ideologiuri erTianoba am bazaze xorcieldeboda. SuSanikis kultis orive eklesiaSi arseboba TiTqos am Tezisis damadasturebeli unda yofiliyo, magram igive faqti am Teziss uaryofs kidec. ratom ar waSala qarTulma qalkedonurma eklesiam Tavisi Zveli monofizitobis kvali da ratom ar aiRo xeli somxur eklesiasTan saerTo wmidanebze? saqme is aris, rom qalkedonuri istoriografiis SexedulebiT, dvinis sakaTalikosom monofizitoba miiRo mxolod 551 wlis dvinis adgilobriv II saeklesio krebaze. manamde igi dasabamidan marTlmadidebluri iyo qarTlis eklesiasTan erTad, amitom aris, rom qarTuli da saerTod qalkedonuri eklesia scnobs yvela im saeklesio moRvawesa da wmindans, romlebic somxeTSi 551 wlamde moRvaweobdnen.~166 dvinis 506 wlis saerTo krebis Semrigebluri gansazRvrebani qarTulma da somxurma eklesiebma sxvadasxvagvarad gaiges: Cans, pirvelma masSi memarjvene qalkedonitoba dainaxa, xolo meorem memarjvene monofizitoba. Semdegi periodi am eklesiebis istoriaSi iyo poziciebis sul ukeT gansazRvris xana, rac VI s-is II naxevris dasawyisSi somexTa mxridan sagangebo saeklesio krebiT da ukiduresad memarcxene monofizitobis (ivlianitobis) aRiarebiT damTavrda. qarTls, rogorc Cans, aseTi kreba ar mouwyvia, radgan Tavis mrwamssa da saweso ritualSi mas radikaluri cvlileba ar mouxdenia... amrigad, VI s-is II naxevris manZilze qarTli, albaneTi da sivnieTi mxars qalkedonitobas uWerdnen, Tumca, aqtiur antimonofizitur ganwyobilebasac ar amJRavnebdnen. monofizitoba `naracios~ mixedviT, scnes mxolod taSiris, Zoraforis, gardmanisa da arcaxis xevebis somxurenovanma Temebma~.167

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saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos daarseba

cnobilia, romis imperator konstantinemde qristianoba saxelmwifo religia ar yofila. amitomac, SeiZleba iTqvas, qristianuli Temebi TavisuflebiT sargeblobdnen, im TvalsazrisiT, rom saxelmwifo ar karnaxobda qristianul eklesias, Tu ra saxis unda yofiliyo misi administraciuli struqtura. amis gamo IV saukunemde qristianuli Temi, mociqulTa 34-e kanonis Tanaxmad, unda daqvemdebareboda am Temis mTavarepiskoposs, Temebis mTavarepiskoposebi ki erTmaneTis mimarT damoukidebelni iyvnen. mTavarepiskoposs irCevda Temis (`naTesavis~) samRvdeloebis kreba, amitomac yoveli saeklesio Temi da saepiskoposo Tavisufali, TavisTavadi da avtokefaluri iyo. srulebiT Seicvala mdgomareoba saxelmwifos mier qristianobis aRiarebisa da am religiis gasaxelmwifoebriobis Semdeg. am droisaTvis, IV saukunis dasawyisSi, rogorc cnobilia, romis imperiaSi dawesda `tetrarqia~, `oTxis mmarTveloba~. administraciuli mmarTvelobis TvalsazrisiT, imperia calkeul nawilebad daiyo. imperias marTavda ori imperatori da ori keisari. imperiaSi arsebobda udidesi qalaqebi: romi, antioqia, aleqsandria, agreTve sxva didi qalaqebi, romlebSic kuTxeTa da provinciaTa mmarTvelebi isxdnen. am mdgomareobam gamoiwvia did qalaqebSi msxdomi episkoposebis gaZliereba, gamdidreba, maTi avtoritetisa da gavlenis gazrda. dedaqalaqebis episkoposebi moqmedebdnen am qalaqis saero mmarTvelTan TanxmobiT. saero mmarTveli dainteresebuli iyo mis qalaqSi mjdomi episkoposis avtoritetisa da gavlenis gazrdiT. amis gamo, ukve IV saukunis dasawyisidanve mimdinareobs procesi, romelsac SeiZleba davarqvaT mcire TviTmyofad eklesiaTa gauqmebisa da didi eklesiebis gavlenis sferoebis gazrdis procesi. ukve IV saukuneSi mowveuli msoflio krebebi, marTalia, adastureben patara eklesiebis avtokefalias, magram aseve adastureben mTavari qalaqebis episkoposebis gavlenis sferoebis gafarToebas. am mizezis gamo imperiis aRmosavleTis mTavarma qalaqma antioqiam Tavisi gavlenis sferoSi Seiyvana mis mezoblad mdebare avtokefaluri eklesiebi, aleqsandriam ki egviptis episkoposebi. es procesi grZeldeboda mTeli IV saukunis ganmavlobaSi da sabolood dasrulda 451 wlis IV msoflio krebis droisaTvis. IV saukunisaTvis, rogorc mravalgzis aRiniSna aRmoCnda, rom 330 wels daarsebul konstantinopolis episkoposs normaluri sididis eparqiac ki ar gaaCnda, xolo antioqiisa da aleqsandriis episkoposebi gavlenas avrcelebdnen maT garSemo mdebare teritoriebze. am mdgomareobas dedaqalaqis (konstantinopolis) episkoposebi ver urigdebodnen. a. kartaSevi wers, rom konstantine didis mier dasmuli konstantinopolis episkoposi Tavis iurisdiqcias mxolod am qalaqis teritoriaze avrcelebda, xolo, Tavis mxriv, es teritoriac herakliis samitropolitoSi Sedioda.168

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konstantinopolis garSemo arsebobda Zlieri avtokefaluri eklesiebi: pontos diocezisa, asiis diocezisa da Trakiis diocezisa. maTi avtokefalia jer kidev II msoflio krebam daadastura. imperiaSi iyo 100-ze meti provincia. s. troicki balsamonze dayrdnobiT werda, rom IV saukunisaTvis imperiaSi avtokefaluri iyo yvela provinciis eklesia, anu imperiaSi 100-ze meti avtokefaluri eklesia arsebobda, magram amave dros mimdinareobda provinciebis avtokefaluri eklesiebis Serwyma-SeerTebis procesi diocezis eklesiebSi. swored erTi aseTi iyo Cveni mezobeli pontos diocezi, iq arsebobda ramdenime provincia da am provinciaTa eklesiebi. saqarTvelos uSualod mosazRvre pontos diocezSi, romelic qristianobis erT-erTi Zlieri burji iyo mTel maSindel msoflioSi, episkoposebi erTmaneTisgan damoukidebelni iyvnen da TviTmmarTveloba hqondaT saeklesio sakiTxSi (igulisxmeba IV saukune). marTalia, aq liderobda pontokesariis episkoposi, magram man ver SeZlo gadaqceuliyo sayovelTao, ufros episkoposad Tavis diocezSi. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, a. kartaSevi amis Sesaxeb wers: `pontos did diocezSi, romelic gadaWimuli iyo bosforidan evfratamde, ar iyo erTi saerTod aRiarebuli administraciuli centri. erTni miiCnevdnen kesaria-kapadokias, meoreni _ ankvirias, mesameni uqvemdebarebdnen Tavis Tavs konstantinopols. amitomac, mcire aziaSi gamoCndnen olqebi da qalaqebi, romelTac miiCnies TavianTTvis moxerxebulad da sasargeblod, miemarTaT pirdapir dedaqalaqisTvis. aseTia biTinia, rogorc nawili pontos diocezisa. biTiniaSi Semavali qalaqi qalkedoni konstantinopolis gareubani gaxda. saerTod mTeli mcire aziis episkoposebi, rogorc aRiniSna, yovelTvis dedaqalaqSi iyvnen, mis arqiepiskoposTan, kaTedrasTan TaTbirobdnen iq mimdinare ambebze, aqve gadmohqondaT TavianTi kamaTi da adgilobrivi saqmeebi. amitomac, man asaxva hpova IV msoflio krebis me-9 da me-17 kanonebSi, romelTa Tanaxmadac aRmosavleTSi TavianTi diocezebis (olqebis) krebebis gadawyvetilebiT ukmayofiloTaTvis umaRlesi saapelacio instancia iyo konstantinopolis saydari, magram es exeboda aRmosavleTis mxolod im nawils, romelic ar Sedioda sxva sapatriarqoebSi~.169 zemoT moyvanili magaliTiT gvindoda gveCvenebina, Tu rogor gaerTiandnen Cveni mezobeli pontos eklesiis manamde TavisTavadi saepiskoposoebi erTi qalaqis episkoposis xelqveiT. konstantinopolis patriarqis xelqveiT pontos garda, sxva diocezTa episkoposebic gaerTiandnen. es mimdinareobda V saukunis pirvel naxevarSi, 451 wlamde, qalkedonis krebamde. am krebam es faqti daakanona 28-e kanoniT. saerTod, V saukune iyo TavisTavadi saepiskoposoebis did sapatriarqoebsa da sakaTalikosoebSi gaerTianebis saukune. 451 wlis krebam daaarsa ierusalimis axali sapatriarqo, romelSic Sevida saepiskoposoebi palestinisa (kesaria palestinisa da sxv.).

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qalkedonis krebis Semdeg, TavisTavadi damoukidebeli mravali eklesiis (eparqiebi, diocezTa eklesiebi) erTi sayovelTao episkoposis xelqveiT gaerTianebis Sedegad, bizantiaSi sul ramdenime didi eklesia aRmoCnda. konstantinopolis saydars daeqvemdebara Cveni mezobeli mcire aziis saepiskoposoebi (aseve evropaSi Trakiisa), ierusalimis saydars _ palestinisa, aleqsandriis saydars _ egvi ptisa, xolo antioqias ki is saepiskoposoebi, romlebic imperiis aRmosavleTSi imyofebodnen da ar Sediodnen arc erT zemoT xsenebul sxva sapatriarqoSi (kvi prosis gamoklebiT). msgavsi gaerTianebis procesi mimdinareobda imperiis gareTac. sparseTis qristianuli saepiskoposoebi gaerTiandnen sparseTis kaTalikosis xelqveiT. somexi saepiskoposoebis centralizacia erTian sakaTalikosoSi cota ufro adre daiwyo da am droisTvis (V s.) dasrulebuli iyo. saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos Camoyalibebac, amave dros, V saukuneSi moxda da msgavsi xerxiT. saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc Cvens mezobel pontos diocezSi, mravali saepiskoposo arsebobda sakaTalikosos daarsebamde. saeklesio kanonebis Tanaxmad (mociqulTa 34-e da sxva), es saepiskoposoebi TavisTavadni iyvnen. saqarTvelos yovel administraciul erTeulSi (saerisTavoebSi Tu sapitiaxSoSi) arsebobda saepiskoposoebi. s. janaSia qarTvelTa gaqristianebis aRweris Semdeg wers, Tu rogor moewyo qarTuli eklesia (igulisxmeba vaxtang gorgaslamde, IV s. da V s-is dasawyisi). `qristianul organizacias, qristianebis krebuls, berZnuli sityviT `eklesiiT~ aRniSnavdnen. SemdegSi qarTulad `eklesia~ daerqva im Senobasac, sadac qristianebis krebuli Tavs iyrida locvisaTvis. raki qarTlSi qristianoba saxelmwifoebriv sarwmunoebad gadaiqca, qarTlis eklesiamac iseTive wyobileba miiRo, rogoric hqonda TviT qarTlis samefos. ase xdeboda sxva qveynebSic. calke saerisTavoebis saeklesio saqmeebs ganagebdnen episkoposebi, romelnic emorCilebodnen qarTlis, anu mcxeTis mTavarepiskoposs. episkoposebs eqvemdebarebodnen xucebi anu mRvdlebi. male qristianuli samRvdeloeba qarTlSi mravalricxovani gaxda...~170 s. janaSias Tanaxmad, CvenSi vaxtang gorgaslamde imdenive saepiskoposo yofila, ramdeni saerisTavoc iyo qarTlis samefoSi, Tumca, b. mWedliSvilis mixedviT, episkoposebis ricxvi gacilebiT meti SeiZleboda yofiliyo: `gaqristianebul saxelmwifoSi yvela qalaqsa Tu mniSvnelovan dabas Tavisi episkoposi unda hyoloda, zogan oric. sxvagvarad qristianuli qveynis statusi da eklesiis struqtura warmoudgenelia. amasTan, Cven qvemoT vnaxavT, rom saqarTveloSi V s-is bolos 30-ze meti episkoposi moRvaweobda. juanSeri CamoTvlis, sad dasva vaxtangma episkoposebi... am siis mixedviT, sakuTriv qarTlSi mxolod ori episkoposi Cans, mcxeTisa da niqozis. Tbilisic ki, romelic TiTqosda vaxtangma daaarsa, eklesiis mesveuris gareSe aRmoCnda. garda amisa, ra vuyoT sxva Zvel qalaqebs: ufliscixes, armazcixes, kasps,

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nekress, tyetba-gulgulas, ujarma-kawareTs, gaCian-curtavs, samSvildesa da sxva CvenTvis ucnob qalaqebsa da dabebs. amdenad, juanSeris episkoposTa sia asaxavs mxolod vaxtangis mier dasmul episkoposTa raodenobas da ara eparqiebis ricxvs. Tavis droze iv. javaxiSvilmac miaqcia juanSeris cnobebis Seusabamisobas yuradReba da aRniSna: juanSeris sityvebidan iseTi daskvnis gamotana SeiZleba, TiTqos mas mxolod imaTi dasaxeleba sdomebodes, romelnic antioqiis patriarqma akurTxa. magram maSin marto juanSeris am cnobaze damyareba SeuZlebelia... maSasadame, iv. javaxiSvili gamohyofda `uZveles xanas~, romelic vaxtang gorgaslamdels gulisxmobs. am `uZveles xanaSi~ mTavarepiskoposebi xelmZRvanelobdnen qarTul eklesias. `mTavar~ an `Tavi episkoposTaAs~, TavisTavad igulisxmeba, hyavdaT xelqveiTi, rangiT dabali eparqiis episkoposebi, e.i. gorgaslamdec yofilan episkoposebi... saqarTvelos istoriis saxelmZRvaneloSi vkiTxulobT, rom IV saukuneSi `sapitiaxSo da saerisTavo centrebSi episkoposebic isxdnen~. ase rom, `aseTi centrebis ricxvs emTxveoda saepiskoposo saydarTa saTvalavic. ukve V s-is Sua wlebSi qarTlSi iricxeboda 30-iode saepiskoposo olqi~ (saq. istoria, I, 1958). avtorebi am wignisa arian: n. berZeniSvili, v. dondua, m. dumbaZe, g. meliqiSvili, S. mesxia, p. ratiani. analogiuri Sexedulebisaa m. lorTqifaniZe, romelic Tvlis: `rogorc aRniSnulia, am episkoposebis dadgineba ar unda niSnavdes yvelgan axali saepiskoposoebis daarsebas. amaTgan nawili marTlac axlad daarsebulia. aseTi unda iyos: ninowmindis kaTedra, Weremis, niqozis, xolo rig SemTxvevebSi Zveli episkoposebi, romelnic, albaT, miqaelis dasisani iyvnen, axlebiTaa Secvlili. udavoa, rom amaT garda sxva saepiskoposoebic arsebobda qarTlis samefoSi, magram juanSeris siaSi isini ver moxvdnen, radgan Cans, vaxtangs aq cvlileba ar mouxdenia.~171 sakiTxisaTvis sainteresoa agreTve juanSeris Txrobis is nawilic, romelic udavod win uswrebs gorgaslis reformebs. indoeTSi laSqrobidan dabrunebul vaxtangs `moegeba Ze misi daCi da mis Tana episkoposni. da viTarca cna episkoposman (miqael), viTarmed waravlina mefeman mociquli moyvanebad kaTalikosisa da episkoposTa, daumZimda mas zeda~. maSasadame, vaxtang gorgasals es-esaa daupirebia kaTalikosisa da episkoposebis axali jgufis mowveva, xolo masTan Sesaxvedrad mosuli arian Zveli episkoposebi... leonti mrovelis mixedviT, IV saukunis dasawyisSi, mefe mirianma sikvdilis win `davedra episkoposTa~ edidebinaT wmida ninos saflavze aSenebuli eklesia. wmida ninos `cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, igi damarxes daba bods da eklesia aRuSenes da episkoposi ganaCines mas zeda~. SeiZleboda am sakiTxis garCeva amiTac dagvemTavrebina, magram moviSvelioT qristianuli samyarosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli suraTic. cnobilia, rom

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iq, sadac qristianobam fexi moikida, TiToeul qalaqs ganagebda episkoposi. imis miuxedavad, rom siriaSi eklesiis ierarqiuli da kanonikuri ganviTareba sustad mimdinareobda da mwyobri organizaciac ar arsebobda, mainc ukve III-IV ss-Si, TiToeuli organizacia eqvemdebareboda eklesias da maSasadame, episkoposs.172 iranis mezobel olqebSi da TviTon iranSic (mesenaSi, suzaSi, rev-artaSirSi, baxreinSi) 225 w. (!) ukve dafuZnebuli iyo qristianuli saepiskoposoebi~.173 V saukunis somexi istorikosi lazar farpeci aRniSnavs, rom iranis mefis iezdigerdis dros (399-421) `somxeTis yvela gavaridan Seikribnen wminda episkoposni~.174 aRarafers vambobT TviT bizantiis qristianuli centrebis Sesaxeb, radgan suraTi TavisTavad naTelia. prokofi kesarielis zemoT motanili daxasiaTebac175 `xom gaumarTlebeli iqneboda, Tu qarTvelebi saeklesio ierarqiis Camoyalibebas mxolod V saukunis II naxevarSi moifiqrebdnen~.176 n. janaSia, b. mWedliSvili da, Cans, m. lorTqifaniZec fiqroben, rom vaxtang gorgaslis mier kaTalikosobis dawesebamde CvenSi arsebobda episkoposTa dasebi, romelTagan erTi dasi mefes emxroboda, meore dasi ki mefis mowinaaRmdege iyo. n. janaSia wers: `axlad daniSnuli episkoposebis simravle (Tormeti episkoposi) gviCvenebs, rom vaxtangma, erTi mxriv, daawesa axali saepiskoposoebi... amave mizniT iqneboda axali episkoposi daniSnuli rusTavSi. unda vifiqroT, rom man Secvala Zveli, vaxtangis mowinaaRmdege mRvdelmTavari, marTlac, aq Cven saqme unda gvqondes swored episkoposis SecvlasTan da ara saepiskoposos daarsebasTan. SeuZlebelia aseT did saerisTavo centrSi, samefo sagvareulos erT-erTi Stos rezidenciaSi, rusTavSi, manamde episkoposi ar mjdariyo~.177 rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, sruliad aSkaraa, rom CvenSi kaTalikosobis dawesebamde arsebobdnen saepiskoposoebi da maTi sazRvrebi emTxveoda saero-administraciuli olqebis sazRvrebs, anu saepiskoposos sazRvari saerisTavos sazRvars emTxveoda. romeli saerisTavoebic emorCilebodnen saqarTvelos mefes, im saerisTavoTa saepiskoposoebi daemorCilnen sataxto qalaqis, mcxeTis, sayovelTao episkoposs. eklesia CvenSi iseve iyo mowyobili, rogorc sxva qristianul qveynebSi, rogorc amas iTvaliswinebda msoflio krebaTa kanonebi. qristianobis saxelmwifos mier aRiarebamde saeklesio TemSi (eri, `naTesavi~) arsebobda ramdenime episkoposi. es episkoposebi, mociqulTa 34-e kanonis Tanaxmad, valdebulni iyvnen damorCilebodnen maT mierve gamorCeul, pirvelobis mqone `Tav~ episkoposs: `TiToeulisa naTesavisa episkoposTa uKms... raATa pirvelad da Tavad maTda Seeracxos episkoposi TYsi da araras iqmodin nametnavsa TYnier ganzraxvisa misisa~...178 saxelmwifos mier qristianobis aRiarebis Semdeg, romis imperiaSi saepiskoposos sazRvari TandaTan daemTxva administraciuli erTeulis (provinci-

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is) sazRvars. rogorc didi sjuliskanonidan Cans, romis administraciul erTeuls (provincias) qarTulad ewodeboda samTavro. 325 wlis nikeis krebidan Cans, rom samTavroSi (anu provinciaSi) iyo ara erTi episkoposi, aramed ramdenime. am krebis me-4 kanonis Tanaxmad, samTavros hyavs episkoposTa Tavi anu mitropoliti. samTavros mitropolitis TanxmobiT axal episkoposs daadgenda am samTavros yvela episkoposi, anda ukidures SemTxvevaSi, sami mainc. am kanonidanac Cans, rom saeklesio samTavro, anu romis provinciis eklesia, avtokefaluri da damoukidebeli iyo sxva, mis gareT arsebuli eklesiebisagan. qarTul sinamdvileSi saqarTvelos samefoSi saerisTavo iyo daaxloebiT iseTive administraciuli erTeuli, rogoric iyo romis imperiaSi provincia (Zveli qarTuliT `samTavro~). amitomac unda vifiqroT, qarTul saerisTavoebSi iyo ara erTi, aramed ramdenime episkoposi da maT Soris erT-erTi iyo `Tavi episkoposTa~, magaliTad gugarqSi, SeiZleba CvenSi saerisTavos saepiskopososac iseTive TavisTavadoba hqonda, rogorc romis provinciisas. romis imperiaSi provinciaTa eklesiebis avtokefalia TandaTan SeizRuda, didma qalaqebma (romma, aleqsandriam, antioqiam) SeZles maT garSemo myofi saepiskoposoebis daqvemdebareba. es ukve arsebuli faqti nikeis msoflio krebamac daadastura Tavisi me-6 kanoniT. 344 wels mowveuli antioqiis adgilobrivi kreba me-9 kanoniT avaldebulebs samTavros episkoposebs, daemorCilon Tavisi dedaqalaqis episkoposs. `...vinaATgan dedaqalaqad miiswrafian yovelni mqonebelni romelTave saqmeTani, romlisTYs guTnda, raATa pativiTaca uaRres iyos igi...~179 dedaqalaqis episkoposi zrunavs mTel samTavroze, radganac dedaqalaqSi yvela miiswrafis, visac saqme aqvs. amitomac is pativiTac upiratesi iyoso da mis gareSe sxva episkoposebma araferi moimoqmedono, _ ambobs es kanoni. am mdgomareobam gazarda ara marto samTavroTa dedaqalaqebis episkoposebis avtoriteti, aramed imperiis mTavari qalaqebis (antioqia da sxva) episkoposTa avtoritetic, radganac am qalaqebSi isxdnen an imperatori, anda qveynis vrceli mxareebis mmarTvelebi. amave kanonis Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSic unda gazrdiliyo ara marto avtoriteti dedaqalaqis, mcxeTis episkoposisa, aramed mas pativiT upiratesobac unda miniWeboda. mis gareSe sxva episkoposebs raime qmedebis neba ara hqondaT. marTlac, qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs kaTalikosobis dawesebamde hqonda tituli `mTavarepiskoposisa~ da, Cans, iTvleboda kidec episkoposTa Tavad im teritoriaze, romelic Sedioda qarTveli mefis gamgeblobaSi, magram cnobilia, rom mTeli samxreT dasavleTi saqarTvelo _ klarjeTi IV s-is 80-ian wlebSi miitaca bizantiam da is CamoSorebuli iyo saqarTvelos. cxadia, klarjeTSi mcxeTis mTavarepiskoposis gavlena am dros ar xorci-

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eldeboda, aseve zRvispireTis vrceli teritoria egriswylidan cixegojamde berZnebma miitaces. aqac mcxeTis mTavarepiskoposi Tavis gavlenas ver axorcielebda. garda amisa, qarTul eklesiaSi arsebobda prosparsuli da elinofiluri dasebi. unda vifiqroT, rom es iwvevda ierarqiul ganxeTqilebas. sparseTis momijnave gugarqisa da kaxeT-hereTis episkoposebi, albaT, prosparsuli orientaciisani iyvnen, xolo im dros saqarTvelos farglebs gareT myofi klarjeTis episkoposebi, albaT, uSualod eqvemdebarebodnen kesariakapadokiis (pontos) mRvdelmTavars. am kuTxeTa saepiskoposoebSi saWiro gaxdeboda mefis erTguli, anu proqarTuli orientaciis episkoposebis dasma da Zvelebis Secvla vaxtang gorgaslis mier saqarTvelos gaerTianebis Semdeg. marTlac, TiTqmis yvela (umetesi) episkoposi vaxtangma dasva swored klarjeTSi, gugarqSi, kaxeTsa da hereTSi, kerZod, `dasua erTi episkoposad klarjeTs, eklesiasa axizisasa~, `erTi artans, eruSeTs~ _ ueWvelad eruSeTi _ artaani, istoriuli klarjeTis nawili, mitacebuli iyo berZenTa mier, `erTi ki javaxeTs-wundas~ _ SeiZleba es ar iyo mitacebuli berZenTa mier, magram sazRvarze mdebareobda da berZnuli gavlena aq didi iqneboda. `erTi mangliss, erTi agaraks, erTi bolniss~ _ bolnisi, agaraki da manglisic gugarqSi an gugarqTan mdebareobdnen da sparseTTan siaxlovis gamo prosparsuli orientacia aq ufro metad aris savaraudo. arc is aris dasaviwyebeli, rom es mxare arcTu didi xnis dabrunebuli iyo saqarTvelos mefis mflobelobaSi. `erTi Werems, erTi CeleTs, erTi xornabujs~ _ kaxeTis es qalaqebi sparseTis siaxloves mdebareobda, im mxriv, rom kaxeTs aRmosavleTidan ranis sparsTa pitiaxSis teritoria sazRvravda. cnobilia, rom mTavarepiskoposi miqaeli saberZneTidan Camoiyvanes mRvdlis xarisxSi. amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom is iyo proberZnuli saeklesio orientaciis mqone. Tu es ase iyo, maSin miuxedavad misi mTavarepiskosobisa, prosparsuli orientaciis episkoposebi Seecdebodnen, mas ar damorCilebodnen da eklesiaSi ganxeTqileba iqneboda. cnobilia, rom vaxtang gorgaslamde qarTuli saxelmwifo Zalze dasustebuli iyo. es, uTuod, gavlenas iqoniebda eklesiaze, gaaZlierebda centridanul Zalebs, miT umetes, rom swored am dros qveynis feodalizacia mimdinareobda, rac gulisxmobda miwismflobeli feodalebis brZolas centrisgan damoukideblobisaTvis. imis Semdeg, rac vaxtangma gaaerTiana saqarTvelo, SemouerTa mas uzarmazari teritoriebi _ klarjeTi da zRvispireTi, romlebic moicavdnen mTel samxreT saqarTvelosa da miwebs cixe-gojidan klisuramde, vaxtangs aRar daakmayofilebda eklesiaSi centridanuli Zalebis arseboba, is Secvlida ara marto prosparsuli orientaciis episkoposebs, aramed im episkoposebsac,

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romelnic mefisgan damoukideblobisaTvis ibrZodnen, dagrovili simdidris (miwebis) da xelisuflebis (Tanamdebobis) SenarCunebisaTvis. vaxtangma ineba Caetarebina reforma eklesiaSi, qveynis gaerTianebam da saxelmwifos gaZlierebam moiTxova eklesiis centralizacia. vaxtangisTvis saeklesio reformis dros magaliTs warmoadgenda ara marto bizantiis eklesiebi, sadac swored am epoqaSi vaxtangis Tvalwin sxvadasxva saepiskoposoTa da samitropolitoTa (diocezTa) gaerTianebis gziT Seiqmna konstantinopolisa da ierusalimis sapatriarqoebi, aramed aRmosavleTis eklesiebic. aRmosavleTSic am dros sakaTalikosoebis Camoyalibebis procesi axali damTavrebuli iyo (sparseTSi, somxeTSi). rogori damokidebuleba arsebobda bizantiaSi saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris? bizantiaSi eklesia arsebobda saxelmwifos mkacri kontrolis qveS saxelmwifos interesebidan gamomdinare. aseve iyo sparseTis saxelmwifoSic. sparseTs daqvemdebarebuli sxvadasxva qveynis qristianuli eklesiebis meTaurebs TviT Sahi niSnavda (magaliTad, somxeTisas V saukuneSi). saqarTveloSi ki, Tumca vaxtang gorgasalma gaaerTiana saxelmwifo da mas axali teritoriebi SeuerTa, eklesiis meTauri miqaeli ar apirebda damorCileboda mas, mefis reformebi misTvis miuRebeli iyo (V s-is dasawyisSi ki, mTavarepiskoposi glonoqori sparsTa mier erisTavadac iyo daniSnuli). bizantiasa da sparseTSi im dros sxva suraTi iyo: Tu rogor imarTeboda rom-berZenTa imperiaSi saxelmwifos mier ara Tu romelime adgilobrivi eklesia, aramed msoflio saeklesio krebac (e.i. kanonmdebeli organo) ki, amis Sesaxeb wers arqiepiskoposi lolii (iurevski): `1. msoflio ekumenuri (da ara kaTolike-sayovelTao) kreba imperatorisa da saxelmwifos krebaa, mas ama Tu im olqis mitropoliti ki ar iwvevs, aramed imperatori (Tundac mounaTlavi, rogoric iyo, magaliTad, konstantine didi, romelmac saTave daudo msoflio krebebs); 2. krebas eswrebian ara TavianT samitropolitoebSi arCeuli episkoposebi, aramed imperatoris xelisuflebis Sexedulebisamebr daniSnulni da gamoZaxebulni, ris gamoc 3. yvela adgilobrivi eklesiis episkoposis daswreba ar iyo savaldebulo (me-3 msoflio krebaze ar iyo karTagenis 500-ze meti episkoposidan arc erTi); 4. krebis yvela gansazRvreba (aqti), kanoni da sarwmunoebis dogmati ZalaSi Sedioda, avtoritetsa da qmediTobas iZenda imperatoris mier maTi damtkicebis Semdeg; 5. amitom msoflio ekumenuri krebis dadgenilebaTa yvela mowinaaRmdege ganixileboda imperatoris gankargulebis mowinaaRmdeged da amis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo kanonebis Tanaxmad isjeboda; 6. saxelmwifo saxsrebiT kmayofildeboda (imperatoris gankargulebis Sesabamisad) krebis monawileTa samgzavro da sxva Sesanaxi xarjebi. 7. adgili (qalaqi) krebisaTvis miTiTebuli iyo imperatoris mier da episkoposebisaTvis saWiro Senobasac mTavroba gamoyofda~.180

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rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, TviT saeklesio kanonmdebeli organo msoflio krebebic ki imperatoris mier imarTeboda bizantiis imperiaSi, aseve somxeTSic. marTalia, V saukuneSi aq sparselebma mefoba gaauqmes, magram misi arsebobis dros kaTalikosi sahaki mefis momxre da erTguli iyo. saqarTveloSi ki vaxtangs eklesiaSi mZime mdgomareoba daxvda. eklesia ara Tu eqvemdebareboda qarTvel xelmwifes, aramed rogorc aRiniSna, qarTuli eklesiis meTaurma miqaelma fexze samTxvevad misul mefes fexis kvriT kbili Caamtvria. `vecxlismoyuare xar Sen~, _ uTxra amis Semdeg vaxtangma miqaels, `da meguadruce qristesi~181 (e.i. eklesia gamdidrebisa da piradi gamorCenisaTvis gnebavso). Cans, miqaelis Tavxedobis erT-erTi mizezi aris SiSi imisa, rom simdidre ar dakargos (amitomac aris `vecxlismoyvare, meguadruce molare). `qarTlis cxovrebis~ am cnobas exmianeba n. janaSia. is wers: `mxedvelobaSi misaRebia isic, rom am droisaTvis, sxva qristianuli qveynebis msgavsad, qarTuli eklesiac udides miwaTmflobelad gadaiqca da iseTive interesebi gauCnda, rogorc sxva miwaTmflobelebs... mefe ki imisaTvis ibrZoda, rom Tavisi gamgeblobidan ar gaeSva es miwebi, sruli Zalaufleba SeenarCunebina mTeli samefos miwa-wyalze da yovel Tanamdebobaze daniSvna mxolod misi surviliT momxdariyo. iranelebi iyenebdnen am winaaRmdegobas...~182 simdidrisa da miwebis dagroveba mefis nebis sawinaaRmdegod unda yofiliyo erTi mizezTagani winaaRmdegobisa mefesa da eklesiis meTaurTa Soris. TavisTavad es mizezi sruliad sakmarisi iyo imisTvis, rom mefes ezruna eklesiaSi reorganizaciisaTvis, raTa mas eklesia damorCileboda iseve, rogorc bizantiis sapatriarqoebi emorCileboda imperators, xolo sparseTSi ki sparsTa, somexTa kaTalikosebi da siriuli eklesiebis meTaurebi emorCilebodnen Sahs. magram yofila meore, kidev ufro didi da TiTqmis miutevebeli mizezi imisa, rom mefes efiqra eklesiaSi kardinaluri reformis Catarebis saWiroebis Sesaxeb: `iranelebs kavSiris gabma mouxerxebiaT qristianul eklesiasTanac ki~, rogorc wers n. janaSia. `orTodoqsalur eklesias konstantinopoli mfarvelobda, magram mas uZlieresi opozicia hyavda ZiriTadad aRmosavleTSi. iranelebi mxars uWerdnen opozicionerebs, romlebsac orTodoqsebisa da maT ukan mdgomi saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg iyenebdnen~.183 qarTvel orTodoqsebs vaxtang gorgasali mfarvelobda. cnobilia, rom is proberZnuli saeklesio orientaciisa iyo, Cans, swored imitom, rom irani eklesias iyenebda orTodoqsebisa da maT ukan mdgomi saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg. e.i. irani qarTuli eklesiis meTaurebs (prosparsuli orientaciis episkoposebs) qarTuli saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg iyenebda. aRsaniSnavia, rom aseve iyo somxeTSic. aseTi mdgomareobis dros, gasakviri aRar mogveCveneba qarTuli eklesiis meTauris miqaelis Tavxedoba. marTalia, SeiZleba miqaeli proberZnuli

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orientaciisa iyo, magram man icoda, rom vaxtangis sawinaaRmdego moqmedebisTvis sparseTi kmayofili darCeboda da prosparsuli orientaciis episkoposebsac miimxrobda. `vaxtang gorgaslis mefobis dros, juanSerisve mixedviT, SeiniSneba saeklesio dasTan uTanxmoeba. cnobilia, rom ukve IV saukunis dasawyisidan irani cdilobs amierkavkasiaSi poziciebis ganmtkicebas da erT-erT qmediT iaraRad qristianul religiasac iyenebs. magaliTad, somxeTSi, dRidan daarsebisa qristianul eklesias xelmZRvanelobdnen iranis mefeTa xelTdasxmuli mTavarepiskoposebi, anu kaTalikosebi. qarTli, romelsac bizantia mfarvelobda, ukeTes pirobebSi iyo da winaaRmdegobasac uwevda iranis moZalebas, magram zogierT SemTxvevaSi, irani, rogorc es vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebidanac Cans, mainc aRwevda mizans da qarTls Tavis politikas axvevda~.184 amitomac SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tu pirdapir ara, arapirdapir mainc miqaelis Tavxedobas sparseTi aqezebda, xolo miqaelis Tavdajereba (fexze samTxvevad misul mefes uSiSrad kbili Caamtvria qoSis kvriT!) imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom mis xelSi simdidre da qveynis miwebis didi nawili iyo Tavmoyrili (rac qveynis feodalizaciis procesiT iyo gamowveuli). misi xelisufleba mefis xelisuflebas ar Camouvardeboda. aq SeiZleba gavixsenoT arseni safarelis naTqvami, rom sparselebma xelisufleba CamoarTves erisTavebs (aznaurebs) da gadasces samRvdeloebas. marTlac, samRvdeloeba da eklesia ise Zlieria, rom vaxtangma ver gabeda Tavxedi mTavarepiskoposis fizikuri dasja, Tumca, uZvelesi qarTuli wyaros Tanaxmad, misi mrisxaneba ganuzomeli iyo: _ `Semdgomad missa mefobda vaxtang gorgasali, da mTavarepiskoposi iyo iovel. maSin wariyvanes vaxtang sparsTa. da Semdgomad raodenisame Jamisa moiqca da mTavarepiskoposi iyo miqael. aman miamTxYa ferKi gorgasalsa, romlisame mizezisaTYs da ganaZo eklesiisagan. maSin mefe aRivso guliswyromiTa mravliTa da eqca feri pirisa misisaA da ganizraxvida mravalTa borotTa damKobad qristeanobisa. aramed RmerTman, romelsa aravisi hnebavs warwymedaA, miuvlina gulsa missa keTili ganzraxvaA~.185 `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, miqaelma mefis fizikuri Seuracxyofis Semdeg mefe da misi spa eklesiidan mokveTa. Cans, Tu mefe miqaels SeuracxyofisTvis samagiero sasjels daadebda, amiT aimxedrebda qristianul mosaxleobasa da miqaelis momxre episkoposebs. aseT situaciaSi mefe qristianobis mtrad gamocxaddeboda, amitom wers matiane `qristianobis damxoba ganizraxao~. matianedan TiTqosda isic Cans, rom mefe eklesiaSi reformis Catarebas apirebs ara samRvdeloebaze da episkoposebze dayrdnobiT, aramed spis (laSqris) daxmarebiT. amitom laSqaric daiwyevla miqaelis mier. rogorc aRiniSna, saeklesio kanonebze186 dayrdnobiT da Seqmnili saerTaSoriso mdgomareobis gamoyenebiT vaxtangma umtkivneulod moiSora miqae-

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li, ise, rom ar gauRizianebia qristianuli mosaxleoba. gansasjelad gagzavna konstantinopolSi. amis gamo konstantinopolidan imperators werili miuweria antioqiis patriarqisaTvis: `...da miuweres yoveli saqme didisa vaxtang mefisa, viTarmed: `episkoposi igi, romeli maT mier dadginebul iyo, ukuvadgineT, da dRes icodeT axalnergad WeSmaritad qarTli~.187 e.i. amJamado, weria iq, Cven qarTvelebis mier dadgenili episkoposi ukuvadgineT da amis Semdeg axladmoqceulad unda CavTvaloT qarTlio, e.i. proberZnuli orientaciis mqonedo. sainteresoa, rom am werilis Tanaxmad, miqaeli episkoposad ekurTxa saqarTveloSi da qarTvelebis mier iqna dadgenili Tavis kaTedraze _ `maT mier dadginebuli ukuvadgineTo~. antioqiis patriarqma Tormeti episkoposi gamoagzavna qarTlSi. Cans, vaxtangma Secvala prosparsuli orientaciis episkoposebi da maT adgilas dasva proberZnuli orientaciis episkoposebi, aseve Secvala episkoposebi, romelnic Tavisi simdidrisa da gavlenis gamo mefis xelisuflebas ar cnobdnen da mefes ar eqvemdebarebodnen. `da antioqielman patriarqman akurTxna Tormeti episkoposni da petre kaTalikosad... xolo mcxeTas mefeman vaxtang aRaSena eklesia mociqulTa sueti cxoveli, da upyra suetsa Sina samxriT adgilsa mas, sada-igi dacemul iyo eklesia, romel ars sioni didi, da mun Sina dasues petre kaTalikosad da samoel episkoposad mcxeTasave saepiskopososa. da dasua erTi episkoposad klarjeTs, eklesiasa axizisasa, erTi artans eruSeTs, erTi javaxeTs, wundas, erTi mangliss, erTi bolniss, erTi rusTavs, erTi ninowmindas, erTi ujarmis karsa, romeli gorgasalsa aReSena, erTi Werems, missave aRSenebulsa da mun qmna qalaqi erTi Soris orTave eklesiaTa, romeli-igi manve aRaSena, erTi CeleTs, romeli sofelsa Sua aRaSena, erTi xornabujs da erTi agaraks, romel ars xunans gamarTebiT. Semdgomad missa aRaSena eklesia niqozisa sagzebelsa Tana cecxlisasa da dasva episkoposi~.188 vaxtang gorgaslis mier saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos daarsebasTan dakavSirebiT unda davaskvnaT: V saukuneSi qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis qveS myofi teritoriebi gaizarda, rac imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom vaxtang gorgaslis dros bizantiam saqarTvelos daubruna mitacebuli klarjeTi (samxreT saqarTvelo) da zRvispireTi (cixe-gojidan klisuramde). cnobilia, rom V saukuneSi qalkedonis krebis droisaTvis gamsxvilda zogierTi eklesia, magaliTad, Seiqmna ierusalimis sapatriarqo, pontos, asiisa da Trakiis diocezebi Sevida konstantinopolis patriarqis iurisdiqciaSi. msgavsadve, swored am epoqaSi, saqarTvelos gaerTianebisa da vrceli erovnuli teritoriebis dabrunebis Semdeg vaxtang gorgasalma ineba, rom qarTuli eklesia mowyobiliyo rogorc erTiani centralizebuli samamamTavro eklesia. e.i. dedaqalaqis (mcxeTis) episkoposi saqarTvelos

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eklesiisaTvis gaxda sayovelTao episkoposi, anu kaTalikosi (berZnuli sityvidan _ `kaTolos~ _ sayovelTao). am epoqis TiTqmis Tanadroul saistorio qronika `moqcevaA qarTlisaASi~ pirvel kaTalikos petres mamamTavari ewodeba. `aqaTgan iwyes kaTalikosTa mamadmTavrobad. pirveli kaTalikozi iyo petre, vaxtang mefisa ze~.189 b. lominaZe wers: `uflebrivi mdgomareobiT qarTlis kaTalikosi miaCndaT bizantiaSi im dros moqmedi patriarqebis tolad~.190 ismis kiTxva, ramdenad Seesabameba simarTles qarTul matianeebSi gadmocemuli cnobebi vaxtang gorgaslis mier saqarTvelos gaerTianebis Sesaxeb, Sevida Tu ara vaxtangis saxelmwifoSi dasavleTi da samxreTi saqarTvelo? vaxtang gorgasali mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mefe iyo, Tu erTiani saqarTvelosi? d. musxeliSvili, rogorc aRiniSna, wers: `leonti mrovelis istoriuli koncefciis Tanaxmad, rogorc cnobilia, V saukunis meore naxevris gamoCenili politikuri moRvawe vaxtang gorgasali iyo gamaerTianebeli dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelosi. istorikosis am cnobas, romelic iv. javaxiSvilis gamokvlevebis Semdeg CaTvlili iyo legendarulad, zogierTi istorikosi miiCnevs savsebiT realurad. epoqis Tanadrouli bizantiuri da somxuri wyaroebis analizis safuZvelze Cven SevecadeT dagvesabuTebina, rom leonti mrovelis mowmoba Seesabameba sinamdviles da rom qarTlis mefem vaxtang gorgasalma namdvilad gaaerTiana dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo V s-is 60-70-ian wlebSi da egrisis yofili mmarTveli Tavis erisTavad gaxada... Cven ar gamovricxavT SesaZleblobas msgavsi politikuri situaciis arsebobisa farnavazis dros~.191 vaxtangis mier daarsebuli saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos sazRvrebi, cxadia, emTxveoda saxelmwifos sazRvrebs da qarTuli eklesia Tavis iurisdiqcias SavizRvispireTSic axorcielebda. cnobilia, rom Zveli qarTuli matianeebi, istoriuli qronikebi da istorikosebi mudam dabejiTebiT miiCnevdnen, rom iberia, anu qarTli ewodeboda vrcel teritorias, romelic gadaWimuli iyo Savi zRvidan albaneTamde da somxeTamde, rom qarTli ewodeboda ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelosac da misi dasavleTi sazRvari iwyeboda SavizRvispireTSi jer mdinare egriswylidan, xolo Semdgom mdinare klisuridan. es istoriuli koncefcia Cveni Tanamedrove istorikosebis mier ratomRac miCneul iqna XI s-Si Camoyalibebulad, TiTqosda aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, `qarTlis~, sxva kuTxeebze hegemonobis dros. magram iyo Tu ara XI s-Si `qarTli~ saqarTvelos hegemoni? d. musxeliSvili amasTan dakavSirebiT wers: `X s-is dasawyisidan (904 w.), Tu IX s-is 70-ian wlebidan ara, swored qarTli warmoadgens dasavleT saqarTvelos e.w. afxazeTis samefos erT-erT saerisTavos. politikuri

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hegemonia ara mxolod X s-Si, aramed mTeli XI s-is ganmavlobaSic (ufro zustad 1122 wlamde) ekuTvnoda dasavleT saqarTvelos. Sesabamisad, arc XI s-saTvis... da arc IX-X ss-ze adre... araviTari `istoriuli koncefcia~, an `politikuri ideologia~, an `Teoria~, romlis Tanaxmadac, `saqarTvelo ganixileboda ZvelTaganve erTianad~ da `qarTli mis saTaveSi mdgomad~, SeuZlebelia Camoyalibebuliyo. swored amitom Cven uarvyofdiT imis SesaZleblobas, rom leonti mrovelis politikuri koncefcia SeiZleboda SemuSavebuliyo misi Tanadrouli politikuri situaciis gavleniT... marTlac, mecxre saukuneSi gamoricxulia iseTi politikuri situaciis warmoqmna, romelsac SeeZlo ganepirobebina qarTlis meTaurobiT aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos erTianobis politikuri koncefciis warmoqmna. qarTlSi jer kidev arabebi batonobdnen da es provincia warmoadgenda arabTa, kaxeTis mflobelTa, qarTvel da somex bagratidebs Soris gauTavebeli samxedro Setakebebis sarbiels. dasavleT saqarTvelos Sesaxeb TiTqmis araferi ismoda, magram Zalze niSandoblivia, rom swored IX s-Si iwyeba dasavleT saqarTvelos (`afxazTa~) mefeebis samxedro reidebi qarTlSi... aravin uaryofs, rom `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~-s qronikaluri nawilis, saboloo redaqcia Seiqmna IX s-Si. m. CxartiSvili, romelmac specialurad Seiswavla es nawili, VII s-is Sua wlebsac ki Tvlis am qronikis ara Seqmnis, aramed morigi redaqtirebis drod. yovel SemTxvevaSi, CvenTvis saintereso cnoba qarTlis samefos uZveles sazRvarTa Sesaxeb ueWvelad unda mivakuTvnoT am qronikis yvelaze adreul redaqcias da yvelaze Zvel wyaroebs. amaSi eWvi ar epareboda s. janaSias, is Tvlida, rom `yvelaze bunebrivia~, warmoqmna cneba `qarTlisa~, romelic Tavis TavSi Seicavda dasavleT saqarTvelosac (egrissac), vivaraudoT ara IX s-Si, aramed swored VII s-is I naxevarSi. s. janaSia varaudobda, rom es iyo sruliad saqarTvelos saeklesio-sakulto, an saeklesio-organizaciuli erToba. aseTi varaudi Cven xelovnurad gveCveneba, radgan `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ cnoba ueWvelad iTvaliswinebs sruliad gansazRvrul (Camoyalibebul) politikur koncefcias... epoqis Tanadrouli bizantiuri da somxuri wyaroebis analizis safuZvelze Cven SevecadeT dagvemtkicebina, rom leonti mrovelis cnoba Seesabameba sinamdviles da rom qarTlis mefe vaxtang gorgasalma namdvilad gaaerTiana dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo V saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi da egrisis yofili mmarTveli Tavis erisTavad gaixada. amgvarad, Cven SevecadeT mogvesinja is realur-istoriuli niadagi, romelzedac SeiZleboda dafuZnebuliyo dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ZirZveli erTianobis politikuri koncefcia, romelic XI saukunis istorikoss leonti mrovels ekuTvnis. roca vaxtang gorgaslis epoqas vvaraudobdiT leonti mrovelis politikuri koncefciis Seqmnis safuZvlad, Cven ar gamovricxavdiT msgavsi politikuri situaciis arsebobas farnavazis dros.~192

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farnavazis Tanamedrove istorikosi megasTene III saukuneSi qristeSobamde werda, rom iberebi cxovroben Savi zRvis sanapiroze. es aris mowmoba imisa, rom farnavazisdroindeli berZnuli samyaro SavizRvispireTSi mcxovreb egriselebs da sxva qarTul tomebs iberebad miiCnevda, swored iseve, rogorc qarTveli Zveli istorikosebi miiCnevdnen megrelebs, klarjebsa da sxva kuTxis mcxovreblebs qarTvelebad. `III saukuneSi Cvens welTaRricxvamde mosxebis mTeli qveyana (e.i. aWarac) miekuTvneboda qarTls (iberias). sxvaTa Soris, amis dasadastureblad gamodgeba farnavazis Tanamedrovis, Cvens welTaRricxvamde III saukunis dasawyisis istorikos megasTenis cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom iberebi cxovroben `pontos marjvena napirzeo~. es pirdapiri mowmoba erTmniSvnelovnad gulisxmobs, rom swored III saukunis dasawyisSi Cv.w.aR-mde qarTlis samefo samxreTdasavleTiT gadioda zRvaze da Sesabamisad, unda vifiqroT, masSi Sedioda aWara da klarjeTi~.193 Cveni azriT, megasTenes cnobaSi, rom iberebi Savi zRvis napirze cxovroben, unda vigulisxmoT ara marto aWara da klarjeTi, aramed egrisic. Savi zRvis piras mcxovreb iberebSi uTuod egriselebic igulisxmeba. Cans, swored amis Sesaxeb unda miuTiTebdes sxva berZeni istorikosi dionisios periegeti, romelic iberebs aseve SavizRvispireTSi mcxovrebad miiCnevs, oRond jiqebisa da henioxebis mezoblad. miiCneven, rom dionisios periegeti cxovrobda imperatorebis avgustosis da neronis dros (SeiZleba saukuniT adre an gvian). dionisios periegeti Tavis `dedamiwis aRwerilobaSi~ pirdapir wers, rom iberebi cxovroben SavizRvispireTSi, gulisxmobs ara samxreTSi, mdinare WoroxTan, aramed CrdiloeTSi. `...ai, amdenni cxovroben mdinare istrosis irgvliv. axla ki mixede evropis danarCen sazRvars, romelic sammagi napiriT aris gadaWimuli aRmosavleTisaken, aqedan erTia iberTa, meore panelinTa da mesame vaJkac avsonTa. magram es aris saocar iberTa ukanaskneli mezobeli okeanisken, dasavleTisaken~.194 aqedan Cans, rom iberebis sacxovrisi aris Sav zRvasTan, `istrosTan~. Cans, igulisxmeba SavizRvispireTis Crdilo aRmosavleTi. am cnobas exmianeba imave istorikosis sxva cnoba, rom iberebi arian mezoblebi `kamaritebisa~. rusi komentatoris Tanaxmad, kamaritebis `saxelwodeba warmoqmnilia Taviseburi zRvis navebis, `kamarebisagan~. strabonis aRweriT am navebis mflobelebi iyvnen aqeelebi, zigebi da henioxebi, romlebic, rogorc Cans, unda gavaigiveoT dionisesTan xsenebul `kamaritebTan~.195 dionise periegeti, iseve rogorc sxva Zveli avtorebi (maT Soris Zveli qarTveli istorikosebi), miiCnevs, rom roca iberebi (qarTvelebi) movidnen saqarTveloSi, maT aq sxva xalxi daxvdaT, romelTac sZlies qarTvelebma. fasisis Semdego, _ wers is _ `misgan Crdilo aRmosavleTisaken mdebareobs

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yeli kaspiis da evqsinis zRvas Soris. masze cxovrobs iberTa aRmosavluri tomi, romelic odesRac pirenedan movida aRmosavleTSi da hirkanielebTan sastiki brZola hqonda~.196 axali arqeologiuri monacemebi miuTiTebs, rom kolxeTi qarTvelebis sacxovrisia adreantikur epoqaSive. `ukanasknel dros Zalze saintereso faqtebi gamovlinda arqeologiuri gamokvlevebiT adreantikur kolxeTSi (dasavleT saqarTveloSi). axlaxan gamoqveynda statia arqeolog g. gamyreliZisa, romelSic Sekrebilia, SeiZleba iTqvas, mTeli arqeologiuri masala CvenTvis saintereso epoqisa am regionSi... rogorc cnobili xdeba, arqeologiuri Seswavla dasavleT saqarTvelosi aCvenebs, rom IV saukunis meore naxevridan (Cven welTaRricxvamde) TvalsaCino xdeba materialuri kulturis gansxvaveba zRvispira zolisa da Sida kolxeTisa. es aixsneba axali Zlieri talRiT, romelic qarTlidan (iberiidan) modioda da romelic gamoixateba damarxvis axali wesiT, axali, aRmosavleT qarTuli formiT da teqnikiT, keramikis gaformebisa da arqiteqturis axali formebiT. aranaklebi mniSvneloba aqvs amasTan kavSirSi vanis qalaqis gaTxrebSi aRmoCenil `armazuli~ damwerlobis fragmentebs Zv.w.aR-iT II-I ss. fenebSi, romelic Semdeg aRmosavleT saqarTvelos axasiaTebda~.197 dasavleT saqarTvelo rom farnavazis samefoSi Sedioda, amis Sesaxeb wers uZvelesi qarTuli wyaro `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~. iberiaSi Sedioda ara marto egrisi, aramed svaneTic. `rogori winaaRmdegobac ar unda gamoiwvios g. gamyreliZis zemoTmoyvanilma mosazrebam, arqeologiuri masala IV-III ss. Cvens welTaRricxvamde dasavleT saqarTvelodan ueWvelad mxars uWers ZvelqarTul mematianeTa mowmobas da, yovel SemTxvevaSi, arafriT ar gamoricxavs dasavleT saqarTvelos didi nawilis kuTvnilebas iberiis samefosadmi. sxvaTa Soris, am konteqstSi, Cven Zalze sainteresod gveCveneba strabonis mowmoba, romelic ZvelqarTul tom svanebze moTxrobisas, gvacnobebs, rom `zogierTebi maT iberielebs uwodeben~ (XI, _ 18). es mowmoba daumsaxureblad aris ignorirebuli istorikosebis mier. SeiZleba, Seicavs informacias iberebis (qarTebi) gardasuli xangrZlivi batonobis Sesaxeb svaneTSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT ar meCveneba zedmetad gavixsenoT, rom Semdgom, adre bizantiur epoqaSi, Cven gvaqvs ueWveli faqti, roca `svanebi lazebTan konfliqtis dros dasaxmareblad iwveven iberebs (da sparselebs).~198 yovelive zemoT moyvaniliT mxolod imis daskvna SeiZleba, rom qarTvelTa samefoSi vaxtang gorgaslamde da mis drosac Sedioda mTeli dasavleTi saqarTvelo (aWara, egrisi, svaneTi da, cxadia, argveTi). amitomac IV saukuneSive erTiani qarTuli eklesiis Camoyalibebis dros mTel dasavleT saqarTveloSi saeklesio ena iyo qarTuli ena, berZnul enasTan erTad,

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iseve rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. gansakuTrebiT es iTqmis gorgaslis epoqaze. vaxtangma gaaerTiana saqarTvelo da Seqmna saqarTvelos sakaTalikoso. da Tu es namdvilad ase iyo, maSin ueWvelia, wirva-locvisa da mRvdelmsaxurebis ena dasavleT saqarTveloSi (egrisSi, svaneTSi da sxvagan) iyo qarTuli ena, berZnulTan erTad. Cven matianeSi TvalnaTliv Cans, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos erT nawilSi berZnuli ena, rogorc erTaderTi saeklesio ena, SeiZleba danergiliyo VII saukunis dasawyisSi, imis Semdeg, rac zRvispira vrceli teritoriebi herakle keisarma saqarTvelos samefos CamoaWra. argveTi da misi momijnave teritoriebi ar Sedioda bizantiis imperiaSi, amitomac aq Zveleburadve qarTulenovani wirva-locva tardeboda. d. musxeliSvili wers: `Cven, Cveni mxridan, aseve vTvlidiT, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos gansazRvruli nawili (istoriuli provincia imereTis marjvena sanapiro) VII-IX saukuneebSi SeiZleba emorCileboda qarTlis kaTalikosis iurisdiqcias da, Sesabamisad, saeklesio msaxureba aq sruldeboda qarTul enaze~.199 cxadia, vaxtang gorgaslis dros, roca man mTeli saqarTvelo gaaerTiana mis saxelmwifoSi, saeklesio ena iyo qarTuli ena, radganac saeklesio kanonTa Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos Tavisi iurisdiqcia mTel saxelmwifoSi unda ganexorcielebina. ara marto dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed samxreT saqarTveloSi, klarjeTsa da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ukidures kuTxeebSi _ hereTsa da gugareTSi vaxtang gorgaslis dros saeklesio ena iyo qarTuli ena, radganac wesis Tanaxmad, yvela am mxareze saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos unda ganexorcielebina Tavisi iurisdiqcia. ivane javaxiSvili wers, rom gugarqi vaxtangis samefoSi Sedioda: `mexuTe saukuneSiac, magaliTad, vaxtang gorgasalis mefobaSi gugareTi winandeburad iberiis samefos sazRvrebSi Sedioda, magram marto politikurad ki ara, aramed saeklesio weswyobilebis mxrivac igi saqarTvelos ganuyofel nawils Seadgenda: rogorc me-6 saukunis damdegs momxdar saeklesio krebis monawile mRvdelmTavarTa siidan Cans, bolnisis, curtavis da rusTavis saepiskoposoebi mcxeTis kaTalikoss eqvemdebarebodnen. gugareTis saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebis simtkice da misi ganuyreli kuTvnileba SemdegSi momxdarma ubedurebamac gamoaaSkarava, rodesac sparsTa mier daaxloebiT 537 wels aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mefoba ZalmomreobiT mospobil iqna da qveyanas TviT sparsTa Sahebi daepatronen, aseT ukidures gaWirvebisa da politikuri bedis ukuRmarTobis drosac gugareTi saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi Sedioda. meSvide saukunis damdegsac, roca qarTvelTa da somexTa Soris sarwmunoebrivi uTanxmoeba da mtroba Camovarda, romelic am ori eklesiis sruli ganxeTqilebiT da ganSorebiT damTavrda, igi kvlavindeburad qarTul eklesias ekuTvnoda. saqarTvelos

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am politikuri dakninebisa da gansacdelis xanaSic rom gugareTi marTlac kvlav saqarTvelos ekuTvnoda, sulierad da politikurad masTan iyo mWidrod dakavSirebuli, amas TviT somxurive meSvide saukuneSi Sedgenili saistorio geografiac cxadad amtkicebs. aq pirdapir naTqvamia, rom es qveyana am dros qarTvelebis xelSi iyo~.200 marTlac, VII saukunis somxuri geografia wers, rom gugarqi mTlianad da misi yoveli gavari dasaxlebuli iyo mxolod qarTvelebiT, aq araviTari miniSneba ar aris gugarqSi romelime sxva eris cxovrebis Sesaxeb. `VII saukunis anonimur somxur geografiaSi naTqvamia: `gugarqi mdebareobs utis dasavleTiT da Sedgeba cxra gavarisagan, romlebic uWiravT qarTvelebs: Zorofori, wobofori, kolbofori, taSiri, TrialeTi, kangarqi, artahani, javaxqi, klarjqi...~201 vaxtang gorgaslis drosac gugarqi dasaxlebulia qarTvelebiT, gugarqi qarTvelTa qveyanaa V saukunis somexi istorikosis lazar farpecis cnobiT. is, wers: `qarTvelTa qveynidan wavidnen bdeSxi arSuSa da qveynis sxva tanuterebi~.202 `qarTvelTa qveyanaSi swored gugareTis sapitiaxSo igulisxmeba. gugarqi qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli qveyana iyo iqamdec, magram xSirad somxeTis saxelmwifos sazRvrebis SigniT eqceoda, amitomac Tavisi mezobeli albaneTis `utis~ provinciis msgavsad ganicdida armenizacias. gugarqis qarTvelebi iTvisebdnen somxur kulturasa da somxur enas. `gugarqi jer kidev II saukuneSi Zv.w.aR-iT waarTves somxebma iberias (straboni). somxeTis samefoSi igi calke erTeulad, sapitiaxSod Camoyalibda. amas, Cans, xels uwyobda isic, rom igi eTnikurad gansxvavdeboda. gugarqs hqonda midrekileba isev iberias dabruneboda. asec moxda kidevac 387 wels~.203 iv. javaxiSvili wers: `strabonis drosac I saukunis dasasruls qristes welTaRricxvamde da I saukunis damdegs qristes Semdeg es kuTxe jer kidev somexTa xelSi yofila. magram 35 wlidan qristes Semdeg moyolebuli, rodesac tacitis sityviT, iberiis mefeebi imdenad Zlierni iyvnen, rom somxeTSi SemoWril sparselebs ebrZodnen, da roca TviT somxeTSic ki qarTveli ufliswuli gamefda, cxadia, mdgomareoba TvalsaCinod unda Secvliliyo. SesaZlebelia, amave dros qarTvelebs somexTa mier miTvisebuli gugareTic ukan daebrunebinaT. amas is megobruli ganwyobilebac gvafiqrebinebs, romelic aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mefeebs romis keisrebTan hqondaT~.204 saukuneTa manZilze qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli gugarqi somxeTis saxelmwifos xelT iyo. amitomac es kuTxe, albaneTis msgavsad, armenizaciis process ver aicilebda. rogorc VI, ise VII saukuneebSi gugarqi qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda, rasac ver urigdeboda aqauri Temis episkoposi monofiziti mose, romelic cdilobda Tavisi samwyso gamoeyvana qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciidan da Seeyvana somxuri eklesiis iuris-

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diqciaSi. xelsayreli politikuri situaciis dadgomisTanave, kirion qarTlis kaTalikosma gugarqSi aRadgina qarTulenovani RvTismsaxureba. kirionis am moqmedebam safuZveli daudo ara somxebis `gaqarTvelebas~, rogorc miiCnevs zogierTi qarTveli istorikosi,205 aramed `somxurenovani~ qarTuli mosaxleobisaTvis aRdga vaxtang gorgaslis dros arsebuli qarTulenovani wirva-locva. vaxtang gorgaslis mier daarsebuli saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos aRmosavleTi sazRvari hereTsac moicavda. jer kidev wmida ninom, `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad, iqadaga albaneTis zogierT kuTxeSi: `moqcevaA qarTlisaASi~ naTqvamia: `da nino STavida kxoeTa da dadga kawareTs da monaTlna kxoelni da sojni eriTurT maTiT da gardavida kaxeTa da dadga qcel dabas da moiyvanna kaxni mTavarni da monaTlna~.206 mose xorenelis Tanaxmad, wmida ninom iqadaga albaneTSi vidre masquTebamde, romelic kaspiis zRvispireTSi mdebareobda. aRsaniSnavia, rom aRmosavleTSi am mogzaurobis dros wmida nino dasneulda da amis gamo is ukanve gamoemgzavra mcxeTaSi, magram mcxeTaSi misvla ver SeZlo da gzaSi, daba bodSi gardaicvala. swored asea aRwerili uZveles qronikaSi _ `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~: `da dasneulda da warmoemarTa mcxeTad da viTarca moiwia kxoeTs da dabasa, romelsa hqrYan bodini, veRara eZlo slvad...~207 `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ cnobebi wmida ninos Sesaxeb sando unda iyos, radganac es cnobebi, e.i. zemoT moyvanili ambavi, Cawerili Cans IV saukunis bolos, qarTvelTa mefis Trdatis dros, radganac am qronikisaTvis (wmida ninos Sesaxeb CanawerisaTvis) ukanaskneli qarTveli mefe aris Trdati. aq wmida ninos Sesaxeb naTqvamia: `gardavida erwud da dadga JaleTs, dabasa, edems, da naTel-sca erwu-TianelTa. da yuarelTa esma ese da gardakrbes ToSeTa, romelni ukanaAsknel ipovnes; Trdat mefeman moiyvanna da monaTlna~.208 aqedan aSkaraa, qronikis am adgilis CanawerisaTvis ukanaskneli, misi Tanamedrove, mefe aris Trdati (393-405 ww.). saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos sazRvrebi vaxtang gorgaslis dros vrclad yofila gadaWimuli da is, qalkedonis me-17 da sxva kanonebis Sesabamisad, emTxveoda saero-samoqalaqo, anu saxelmwifos sazRvrebs. amitomac is Tavis iurisdiqcias axorcielebda dasavleT saqarTvelos mTel miwa-wyalze (maT Soris egrisze), romlis sazRvari mdinare klisurze gadioda. aRmosavleTSi ki sakaTalikosos iurisdiqciaSi qarTl-kaxeTTan erTad Sedioda klarjeTi, gugareTi da hereTi. am dros mTeli sakaTalikosos sazRvrebSi wirva-locvisa da RvTismsaxurebis ena iyo qarTuli. vaxtang gorgasalma Tavisi saeklesio reformis Semdeg SeZlo eklesia saxelmwifos kontrolisaTvis daeqvemdebarebina, msgavsad bizantiisa da sparseTisa. amis Semdeg eklesiis ierarqTa didi avtoriteti da Zalaufleba aRar upirispirdeboda xelmwifis interesebs.

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vaxtang gorgasalma saqarTvelos daubruna berZenTa mier mitacebuli teritoriebi samxreT da dasavleT saqarTveloSi. man araTu aRadgina qarTlis samefos Zveli sazRvrebi, aramed Sehmata mas axali teritoria, moqceuli mdinareebs egriswyalsa da klisuras Soris. gazarda da gaafarTova eklesiis sazRvrebi, moawyo is, rogorc `samamamTavro~ eklesia-sakaTalikoso.

Teoriebi qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb


qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb saukuneTa manZilze gamoTqmuli iyo ori gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisi. pirvelis mixedviT, qarTuli eklesia daafuZna ierusalimidan Camosulma wmida mociqulma andria pirvelwodebulma da amitomac is avtokefaluri iyo dafuZnebisTanave, I-II saukuneebidanve, iseve, rogorc yvela sxva mociqulis mier im droisaTvis daarsebuli eklesiebi msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi. aRniSnuli Tvalsazrisi, rom qarTuli eklesia daarsebisTanave avtokefaluri iyo, saqarTveloSi gabatonebuli iyo Sua saukuneebSi da Tavisi gansakuTrebuli gamoxatuleba hpova wmida giorgi mTawmidelis pasuxSi antioqiis patriarqTan kamaTis dros, 1054-1056 wlebSi. Tvalsazriss andria pirvelwodebulisa da sxva mociqulebis, agreTve II-III saukuneebSi romis imperiidan Camosuli qristiani misionerebis mier saqarTveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebisa da maT mier eklesiis dafuZnebis Sesaxeb mxars uWers qarTuli, berZnuli, laTinuri da sxva wyaroebi. II-III saukuneebSi ki, TiTqmis IV saukunis miwurulamde, im drois msoflio eklesiaSi arsebuli kanonebis Tanaxmad, yoveli saepiskoposo da saeklesio `samTavro~ avtokefaluri iyo, gansakuTrebiT ki imperiis sazRvrebs gareT `barbarosTa~ qveynebSi arsebuli saeklesio `samTavroebi~ da saepiskoposoebi. meore Tvalsazriss _ V-XI saukuneebSi qarTuli eklesiisaTvis avtokefaliis miniWebis Sesaxeb _ Zalze susti sabuTebi aqvs. b. lominaZe wers: `qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis dasabuTebisas istoriul cnobaTa simciris gamo Zveli da Tanamedrove mkvlevarebi umTavresad amodian vaxtang gorgaslis droindeli saqarTvelos sagareo da saSinao politikuri viTarebidan, romelic qveynis mesaWes SesaZleblobas aZlevda eZia eklesiuri damoukidebloba da mieRwia misTvis~.209 Tvalsazrisi, romlis Tanaxmadac qarTul eklesias avtokefalia mieniWa V-XI ss-Si, ZiriTadad efuZneba qarTveli moRvawis, efrem mciris Txzulebas, aseve balsamonis erTi cnobis Tavisebur gagebas. ivane javaxiSvilma sagangebod gamoikvlia qarTuli eklesiis uflebrivi damokidebulebisa da TviTmwysobis da wesebis Sesaxeb arsebuli Teoriebi da gamoTqva aseTi azri: `prof. n. mari, ueWvelia, marTalia agreTve, rodesac amtkicebs, rom qarTuli eklesiis antioqiis patriarqisagan uflebrivi damokidebulebis Sesaxeb araviTari Zveli sando cnobebi ar moi poveba. magram amis Tqma gadaWriT

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mxolod IX-XI ss-is Sesaxeb SeiZleba, uZveles xanisaTvis ki jer metad mcire wyaroebia mkvlevaris xelT, rom am sakiTxis ase Tu ise gadaWris ufleba hqondes~.210 rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, ivane javaxiSvilis azriT, uZveles dros (IX saukunemde mainc) qarTuli eklesiis antioqiis patriarqze uflebrivi damokidebulebis Sesaxeb Zveli sando cnobebi ar moi poveba da amitomac Znelia dabejiTebiT mtkiceba imisa, rom qarTuli eklesia antioqiis eklesiis iurisdiqciis qveS imyofeboda (magram aqtiuri urTierToba hqonda am eklesiasTan). iv. javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, qarTuli eklesia arc ierusalimisa da arc somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciis qveS ar yofila. `amasTanave n. marisagan wamoyenebuli debulebisaTvisac, rom qarTuli eklesia uflebrivad ierusalimis sapatriarqosagan unda yofiliyo damokidebuli, VII saukunis damdegis kYrion kaTalikosis epistolis garda, romelSiac mxolod ierusalimis mamamTavris avtoritetia gamoyenebuli dogmaturi uTanxmoebis gadasawyvetad da Tanac aRniSnulia, rom grigol ganmanaTlebelma ierusalimis aRsareba moitana, sxva araviTari sabuTi ar arsebobs. wmida ninos Satberduli cxovrebis cnoba, rogorc cnobilia, mermindelsa da tendenciur CanarTsa da natyuar SenaTxzsac warmoadgens. amitom misi damowmeba ar SeiZleba. amnairad, arc ierusalimis patriarqisgan damokidebulebis damadasturebeli, ueWveli dasayrdeni cnoba ar moipoveba. maSasadame, gvrCeba mxolod debuleba qarTuli eklesiis uZveles xanaSi dvinis kaTalikosisgan damokidebulebis Sesaxeb, romelic asuruli VI s-is Zeglis cnobazea damyarebuli. viTarca Zveli cnoba, igi gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsia... asuruli CanarTi cnobis sazRvrebi unda ufro mWidrod SemoizRudos: igi ar SeiZleba 450 wlis uwinaresi iyos, aramed V s-is me-2 naxevrisa. maSasadame, asuruli CanarTi nawyveti srulebiT somxur-qarTul-albanuri eklesiebis uZveles xanas ar ekuTvnis da aq araviTari cnoba ar moi poveba kavkasiis xuTi qristiani erisaTvis saerTo kaTalikosis Sesaxeb. am cnobiT, arc qarTuli eklesiis dvinis kaTalikosisagan damokidebulebis debuleba marTldeba.~211 iv. javaxiSvilis zemoT moyvanili azrebidan Cans, rom I-IV saukuneebSi da V saukunis Sua wlebamde (vaxtang gorgaslis saeklesio reformamde) ar arsebobs damadasturebuli sabuTebi qarTuli eklesiis ierarqiuli daqvemdebarebisa antioqiis, ierusalimis an somxuri eklesiebisadmi. iv. javaxiSvili wers: `qarTuli eklesiis somexTa kaTalikosisagan uflebrivi damokidebulebis damcvelebs sabuTad, rogorc gamoirkva, mxolod ori cnoba moepovebaT: uZvelesi xanisaTvis agaTangelos-faustosisa da VI s-is damlevisaTvis ioane kaTalikosisa da uxtanesisa. faustosis cnoba damoukidebel mowmobas ar warmoadgens, aramed imave agaTangelosis Txzu-

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lebazea damyarebuli da grigol ganmanaTleblis cxovrebis arabulis msgavsi redaqcia unda hqondes mas safuZvlad, romelSiac grigoli somxebis garda qarTvelTa, albanelTa, afxazTa, TviT durZukTa da masquTTa gamaqristianebladac aris gamoyvanili. swored am orsave cnobaSi moxsenebuli `masquTni~ saukeTesod amJRavneben faustosis mowmobis am wyarosa da sadaurobas. agaTangelosis saxeliT cnobili nawarmoebi ki, rogorc aRniSnuli gvqonda, saxelnatyuar VI saukunis tendenciur Txzulebas warmoadgens, romelSiac istoriuli sinamdvilis niSanwyalic ki ar aris. am cnobas iseTive Rirebuleba aqvs, ra Rirebulebisacaa amave agaTangelosis cnoba grigolis mTeli kavkasiis ganmanaTleblobis Sesaxeb. cxadia, aseT mowmobaze damyareba ar SeiZleba. axla gansaxilvelia ioane kaTalikosisa da uxtanesis cnobebi kYrionis Sesaxeb... sabednierod, Tanamedrove mkvlevars sruli saSualeba aqvs ioane kaTalikosisa da uxtanesis am cnobaTa siswore Seamowmos im miwer-moweris wyalobiT, romelic `epistoleTa wignSia~ daculi. swored am werilidan Cans, rom somexTa eklesiis mesaWe patriarqis wodebulebis mqonebeli ar yofila... sxvanairad arc SeiZleba yofiliyo, radgan TviT msoflio eklesiis patriarqebic ki VII saukunemde TavianT Tavs iSviaTad Tu uwodebdnen patriarqs, aramed mxolod VIII-IX saukuneebSi xdeba es saxeli Cveulebriv wodebulebad... kYrion kaTalikosi rom marTlac somexTa kaTalikosisagan yofiliyo xeldasxmuli da nakurTxi, rogorc ioane kaTalikosi da uxtanesi amboben, warmoudgenelia, rom es garemoeba mainc somexTa eklesiis mmarTveli wreebis warmomadgenlebs an mxolod TviT abraams gamwvavebuli kamaTisa da miwer-moweris dros mainc ar wamoeyvedrebinoT, Cveni nakurTxi xar da aseTi umaduroba ki gamoiCineo. amasTanave kYrioni rom somexTa kaTalikosisgan ierarqiul-uflebrivad damokidebuli yofiliyo, abraam kaTalikosis moqmedebac qarTvelTa kaTalikosis winaaRmdeg sxvanairi iqneboda. abraams SeeZlo kYrioni gadayenebulad gamoecxadebina. araferi amis msgavsi ki abraamis ukanasknel mrgvlivmosavlel epistoleSi ar aris da eg garemoebac kaTalikosis uflebrivad damokidebulebis debulebas metad saTuoda xdis~.212 rogorc ukve aRniSnuli iyo, vaxtang gorgaslis mier kaTalikosobis dawesebamde qarTuli eklesia ierarqiulad msoflios arc erT sxva eklesiaze damokidebuli ar yofila. Semdgom saukuneebSi ki, kerZod, VI-X saukuneebSi ramdenime mezobelma eklesiam moiwadina da moindoma qarTuli eklesia Tavisi ierarqiuli daqvemdebarebis qveS myofad warmoedgina. kerZod, rogorc berZnebi, ise somxebi zogadad werdnen daaxloebiT ase: marTalia, qarTuli eklesia amJamad avtokefaluria, magram winaT is Cveni eklesiis ierarqiuli daqvemdebarebis qveS imyofebodao. asea es rogorc somxur (`epistoleTa wigni~), iseve berZnul-bizantiur zogierT wyaroSi (mag. `anti-

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oqiur xronoRrafSi~). msoflio eklesia im droisaTvis or ideologiur banakad _ aRmosavlur-somxur-monofizitur da berZnul-qalkedonitur banakad iyo gayofili, orive erTmaneTis moqiSpe banaki cdilobda pretenzia ganecxadebina qarTul eklesiaze. qarTuli eklesia somxurze ierarqiulad damokidebuli rom ar yofila arc I-V da arc VI-X saukuneebSi, es gamoarkvia iv. javaxiSvilma. berZnuli sapatriarqoebi VI-X saukuneebSi Seecadnen qarTuli eklesia ierarqiulad maTze damokidebulad warmoesaxaT, rasac, kerZod, asaxva upovia antioqiaSi Sedgenil `xronoRrafSi~, romelic Tavis wyarod gamoiyena efrem mcirem da amiT safuZveli daudo Semdeg saukuneebSi mraval mcdar Sexedulebas. efrem mcirem qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb gamoTqva Tvalsazrisi, romelic imeorebda berZnuli wyaroebisas. `XI saukunis Sua wlebsa da meore naxevarSi qarTuli eklesiis uflebrivi mdgomareobis sakiTxi berZnuli wyaroebis mixedviT iqna Seswavlili. efrem mcire Tavis cnobil gamokvlevaSi, `uwyebaA mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moiKsenebis~, sxva sakiTxTa Soris im problemasac Seexo, `Tu odes iwyes TYT KelTdasxmad, viTarmed ara TYnier wesisa da brZanebisa~. cnoba am sakiTxis Sesaxeb mas upovia `xronoRrafsa Sina antioqias aRwerilsa~... am cnobis mixedviT, ase gamodis, rom VII saukunis damdegidan moyolebuli VIII saukunis Sua wlebamdis qarTul eklesiasa da antioqiis eklesias Soris kavSiri Sewyvetili yofila. am gancxadebis Tanaxmad, safiqrebeli xdeba, rom manamde, VII saukunis damdegamde, qarTuli eklesiis saWeTmpyrobeli xeldasxmisaTvis antioqiaSi midioda iqaur patriarqTan~.213 am `antioqiur xronoRrafSi~ Semdegi yofila moTxrobili: VIII saukunis Sua wlebSi antioqiis patriarq Teofilaktesa (745-751) da imperator konstantine skoris (741-775) dros iberiidan antioqiaSi Casulma orma monazonma ganacxada, rom anastas patriarqis Semdeg (albaT, mowame anastasi II (602-610) maT aRar ukurTxebiaT iberiis sayovelTao episkoposi (kaTalikosi). Teofilaktem moiwvia episkoposTa kreba, romelmac gamosca werilobiTi nebarTva imisa, rom amis Semdeg iberTa eklesiis episkoposebis mierve xeli dasxmoda iberTa kaTalikoss. iqve akurTxes iberTa axali kaTalikosi. es cnoba mraval gaugebrobas iwvevs mkvlevarTa Soris. Tu am wyaros vendobiT, TviT VIII saukunis Sua wlebSic ki qarTuli eklesia avtokefaluri ar yofila. sinamdvileSi ki am `antioqiuri xronoRrafis~ cnoba Seexeba ara mcxeTis sakaTalikoso eklesias, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesias. rogorc XVII saukunis berZeni patriarqebis, ierusalimeli dosiTeosisa da xrisanfis azriT, ise Cveni Tanamedrove qarTveli mecnieris v. goilaZis213 azriT, efrem mcires mier moZiebuli `antioqiuri xronoRrafis~ cnoba

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Seexeba afxazeTis, anu rogorc Zvelad dasavleT saqarTvelos uwodebdnen, `qvemo iveriis~ eklesiis avtokefalias. mraval berZnul wyaroSi aris aseTi cnoba: `iveriaSi ori avtokefaluri eklesiaa, qvemo iveriisa da zemo iveriisa~. `zemo iverias~ berZnebi uwodebdnen aRmosavleTs, xolo `qvemo iverias~ `dasavleT saqarTvelos~. da wyaroebi gulisxmoben qarTlisa da afxazeTis sakaTalikosoebs. `antioqiur xronoRrafSic~ ewera ara `qarTli~, aramed `iveria~, rogorc efrem mciris Tanamedrove nikon SavmTelis slavuri Targmanidan Cans. efrem mcires ki uTargmnia sityva `iberia~ da `qarTli~ dauweria. maSasadame, `antioqiur xronoRrafSi~ ewera: VIII saukuneSi iveriis eklesias mianiWes (an cnes) avtokefalia antioqiaSio. marTlac, swored VIII saukuneSi daarsda, qarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmadac, afxazeTis avtokefaluri eklesia. swored am eklesias uwodebdnen berZnebi `qvemo iveriis~, an ubralod iveriis eklesias.214 saqme Seexeba SavizRvispira im teritoriebs, romlebic VII saukunis dasawyisSi herakle keisarma mostaca saqarTvelos. es teritoriebi TandaTan daibruna erT-erTma qarTulma (afxazeTis) saxelmwifom masze saeklesio avtokefaliis uflebiT (efrem mciris wyaroebis ufro dawvrilebiTi gamokvleva ixileT aqve, paragrafSi `arasruli avtokefalia~.) da mis bazaze VIII saukuneSi dasavleT saqarTveloSi daarsda afxazeTis sakaTalikoso, romelsac berZnebi `qvemo iveriis~ eklesias uwodebdnen. meore sabuTi, romlis mixedviTac qarTuli eklesiis mier avtokefaliis miRebas varaudoben V-XI saukuneebSi, es aris Teodore balsamonis cnoba qarTuli eklesiis meTaurisTvis `arqiepiskoposis~ pativis miniWebis Sesaxeb. sinamdvileSi is cnoba, romlidanac mohyavT zemoT moyvanili azri, faqtiurad asaxavs balsamonis Tvalsazriss imis Sesaxeb, rom IV saukuneSi qarTuli eklesia ukve avtokefaluri iyo, radganac es cnoba aris komentari 381 wels Semdgari II msoflio krebis II kanonisa, im kanonisa, romelic aRiarebda imperiaSi arsebuli zogierTi eklesiisa da imperiis gareT `barbarosebis~ qveynebSi arsebuli eklesiebis avtokefalias. balsamonma imitom daurTo qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb moxseneba II krebis II kanonis komentars, rom es kanoni mas rogorc qarTuli, ise sxva patara eklesiebis avtokefaliis safuZvlad miaCnda. unda aixsnas isic, Tu ratom ayenebdnen eWvis qveS qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalias Semdegi saukuneebis berZeni istorikosebi: makariosi, dosiTeosi da sxvebi. erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSlis Semdeg (XV s.), yoveli qarTuli samefosa Tu samTavros meTauri cdilobda Tavis samefoSi (samTavroSi) damoukidebeli eklesia hqonoda. am mizniT iwvevdnen ierusalimel an antioqiel berebsa da ierarqebs (xandaxan patriarqebsac ki), didi gasamrjelos fasad maT sTxovdnen daxmarebas TavianT samTavroSi mcxeTisgan damoukidebeli eklesiis dasaarseblad.

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pirvel rigSi mowveuli ierarqebi Seecadnen, am mizniT moepovebinaT kanonikur-istoriuli sabuTebi. verc antioqiasa da verc ierusalimSi maT aseTi sabuTebis moZieba ver SeZles. qarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, am moqrTamulma ierarqebma saqarTveloSive daiwyes maTTvis gamosadegi sabuTebis moZieba. isini wina saukuneTa qarTul sigel-gujrebidan da matianeebidan krefdnen cnobebs. maT mouZiebiaT da miugniaT mxolod efrem mciris zemoT aRniSnuli Txzulebidan Cvens matianeebsa da xelnawerebSi gadasuli cnobebisaTvis, amitomac dabejiTebiT unda iTqvas, makariosis, dosiTeosisa da sxvaTa cnobebi qarTuli eklesiis uflebrivi damokidebulebis Sesaxeb aris efrem mciris Txzulebis Taviseburi interpretacia. xolo rogorc aRvniSneT, TviT efremma cnoba afxazeTis (qvemo iveriis) Sesaxeb SecdomiT mcxeTis eklesiis cnobad miiCnia. qarTuli eklesiis I-II saukuneebidanve avtokefaliis Sesaxeb unda iTqvas: marTalia, im qarTvel istorikosebs, romelnic XX saukunis dasawyisSi ikvlevdnen qarTuli eklesiis avvtokefaliis sakiTxebs, ar swamdaT andria pirvelwodebulis saqarTveloSi qadageba (amitomac warmoudgenlad miaCndaT qarTuli eklesiis arseboba pirvel saukuneebSi), magram rusul saeklesio wreebSi im dros ukve arsebobda azri imis Sesaxeb, rom qarTuli eklesia Tavisi daarsebis dRidanve avtokefaluri iyo.215 imis gamo, rom qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis dawesebis Sesaxeb, SeiZleba iTqvas, wyaroebi TiTqmis ar arsebobda, mkvlevarebma qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalia daukavSires eklesiis meTaurisTvis kaTalikosis titulis miniWebas. sinamdvileSi ki eklesiis avtokefalia da misi meTauris tituli gansxvavebuli cnebebia. maT erTmaneTTan ar akavSirebda efrem mcire. magaliTad, efremis TvalsazrisiT, IV saukuneSi, daarsebisTanave, qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs ukve hqonda tituli kaTalikosisa, Tumca, qarTuli eklesia im dros, misi azriT, ara avtokefaluri, aramed antioqiis `saydris momdgomi~ iyo. efremi wers. `egreTve saxelica mivlinebulisa mis episkoposisaO esreT povnil ars, viTarmed TYT evstaTi iyo antioqel patriaqi, romelman daamyara eklesiaA igi mirianis mier mcxeTas aRSenebuli. da ukurTxa maT kaTalikosi mTavarepiskoposi... amier icnobebis Jami moqcevisaA da viTarmed antioqisa saydrisa momdgom iyvnes da mier KelTdasxmul iqmnebodes qarTlisa kaTalikozni~.216 efremis es gancxadeba safuZvels moklebulia im mizezis gamo, rom igi ar asaxelebs Tavis wyaros, garda amisa, amJamad cnobilia, rom qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs `kaTalikosi~ ewoda ara IV, aramed V saukuneSi. garda amisa, IV saukuneSi arc antioqiis eklesiis meTaurs hqonda `patriarqis~ wodeba. TxzulebaSi sxva ambebis aRweris dros efremi Tavis wyaroebs asaxelebs, xolo am SemTxvevaSi ambobs `povnil ars... TYT evstaTi iyo antioqel patriarqi~ unda vigulisxmoT, rom efremma Zebna da berZnul

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wyaroebSi moiZia mxolod saxeli antioqiis eklesiis meTaurisa IV saukunis 20-ian wlebSi. am wyaroSi, Cans, ar ewera evstaTisa da qarTuli eklesiis urTierTkavSiris Sesaxeb, amitomac efremma wyaro ar daasaxela. rogorc aRvniSneT, efremi ar ukavSirebda titul `kaTalikossa~ da avtokefalias erTmaneTs. eseni erTmaneTs mecnierebma daukavSires XX saukuneSi da ivaraudes, rom qarTuli eklesia maSin gaxda avtokefaluri, roca mis meTaurs ewoda `kaTalikosi~, e.i. V saukuneSi. marTlac, V saukuneSi, vaxtang gorgaslis dros, qarTul eklesiaSi momxdara didi cvlileba, reforma, romelic cnobili gamxdara antioqiis sapatriarqoSi da iq msjelobis sagani yofila. SeiZleba, swored amis gamoZaxilia Teodore balsamonis cnoba, romelic wyaroSi ki ar amoukiTxavs balsamons, aramed sxvisgan mousmenia: `amboben, rom petre Teopolisis (e.i. didi antioqiis) patriarqis dReebSi iyo sakrebulo gansazRvreba imis Sesaxeb, rom iveriis eklesiebi, romlebic maSin antioqiis patriarqs emorCilebodnen, iyvnen Tavisufali da damoukidebeli~.217 rogorc aRvniSneT, es cnoba balsamons wyaroSi ki ar unaxavs, aramed gadmocema gaugonia. amitomac zogierTi mecnieri fiqrobda, rom aq laparaki iyo XI saukunis antioqiis patriarq petreze, magram sxvebis TvalsazrisiT, aq laparakia antioqiis V saukunis patriarq petre fulonze. vaxtang gorgaslis Rvawli qarTveli eris winaSe saukuneTa manZilze moixseneboda da dauviwyari iyo. vaxtangs Cautarebia Zalze didi reforma qarTul eklesiaSi, romelsac qarTuli eklesiisTvis miucia is saxe da is mimarTuleba, romelic mas amJamad aqvs (kaTalikosoba da proberZnuli orientacia). vaxtang gorgaslis dros sparseTi gaZlierebuli iyo da is TanmimdevrobiT auqmebda amierkavkasiis qveynebis saxelmwifoebriobas, ase magaliTad, 428 wels iranelebma somxeTSi mefoba gaauqmes, 463 wels ki mefoba gaauqmes albaneTSi. aseT dros mefe vaxtang gorgasalma, qarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, SeZlo gaeTavisuflebina saqarTvelo sparselebis batonobisgan. garda amisa, gaaTavisufla berZnebis mier dapyrobili dasavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos miwebi. vaxtangma gaaTavisufla sruliad saqarTvelo. is mecnierebi, romelTac dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos gaerTianeba SeuZleblad miaCniaT, ar erwmunebian qarTuli wyaroebis cnobebs, amitomac isini vaxtang gorgasals mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mefed miiCneven. d. musxeliSvilma analizi gaukeTa bizantiur da somxur wyaroebs da daadastura `qarTlis cxovrebis~ monacemebi, rom vaxtangi erTiani saqarTvelos mefe iyo.218 vaxtang gorgaslis mier daarsebuli sakaTalikoso mravali saepiskopososagan Sedgeboda. `qarTul saepiskoposoTa sistema teritoriuli ganlagebis princi piT sruliad analogiuri iyo bizantiuri wesisa. aqac da iqac

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saeklesio sazRvrebi emTxveoda samoqalaqo-administraciul sazRvrebs da terminebic saero-administraciidan gadavida saeklesioSi. aRmosavleTis eklesia gansakuTrebulad savaldebulod xdida samoqalaqo-saero dayofis gadaRebas saeklesioSi, ase rom, yovel cvlilebas saeroSi Sesabamisi cvlilebebi unda mohyoloda saeklesioSi~ (qalkedonis IV ms. kr. kan. 13, 17 da sxva)..219 `rogorc Cans, saqarTvelos erTianobis xanaSi vaxtang gorgaslis dros vake,220 margveTi221 da Takveri222 `mcxeTis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda~, jer mTavarepiskoposis, Semdeg kaTalikosisa. momdevno xanaSi mTavarepiskoposs mxolod `vake~ SerCa, vidre XVI saukunemde.~223 b. lominaZem gaarkvia, rom vaxtangis dros kaTalikosi iyo patriarqis rangisa da mas `mamamTavari~ ewodeboda. `...vaxtang mefis drois pirveli kaTalikosi petre ierarqiulad iseTive rangisaa, rogorc konstantinopolis patriarqi, e.i. masze maRla aravin dgas, is iseTive avtokefali aris, rogorc konstantinopolis patriarqi... mag, `qarTlis moqcevis~ qronikaSi, pirveli kaTalikosis, petres dadgenasTan dakavSirebiT ikiTxeba: `aqadgan iwyes kaTalikosTa mamamTavrobad, pirveli kaTalikosi iyo petre, vaxtang mefisa ze~ (qarTuli `mamamTavari~ pirdapiri Targmania `patriarqis~). uflebrivi mdgomareobiT qarTlis kaTalikosi miaCndaT bizantiaSi im dros moqmedi patriarqebis tolad (agreTve mag., miqael modrekilis himnebi, w.II, gamosca g. gvaxariam, gv. 518-530, w.III, gv. 245; didi sjulis kanoni, gv. 372, 538; Satberdis krebuli, gv. 434 da sxv.)224

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Tavi V qarTuli eklesia VI saukuneSi

`q r i s t e s r j u l i q a r T v e l e b i s a T v i s m a r t o s a rwm u n o e b i T i a R s a r e b a k i a r i y o , igi a m a s T a n e r T a d p o l i t i k u r i q v i t k i r i c i y o s a q a r T v e l o s m r a v a l n awi l e b i s ga s a e r T e b l a d d a S e m o s a k r e b a d ... qarTveli eri amisTvis ufrTxildeboda T a v i s r j u l s , r o m e l i c T a v i s S i n a ga n R i r s e b i s ga r d a , d u R a b o b a s uwe v d a e r T o b a s a .~


ilia marTali

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VI saukunis dasawyisSi sparseTma saqarTvelo daimorCila, ris Sedegadac qarTlSi mefoba gauqmda. rogorc qarTul, aseve zogierT berZnul wyaros mefobis gauqmebis sakiTxi sxvadasxvagvarad aqvT gadmocemuli. kerZod, erTi qarTuli uZvelesi wyaro miiCnevs, rom VI saukunis dasawyisSi mefoba gauqmda da qarTvelebs mefe aRar hyavdaT1, sxva wyaroebi ki, magaliTad, `qarTlis cxovreba~, mefobis gauqmebas ar cnobs VI saukunis pirvel naxevarSi. Cans, aseTive mdgomareobaa berZnul wyaroebSic, kerZod, prokopi kesarieli mogviTxrobs, rom gurgen mefis ajanyebis Semdeg qarTvelebs neba aRar misces sakuTari mefe hyolodaT da mefoba gaauqmes. lazikidan gurgeni Tavis saxlobiTa da amaliT 523 wels bizantiaSi wavida. 532 wels sparseTsa da bizantias Soris daido `saukuno zavi~. TiTqosda amis Semdeg qarTvelebs sakuTari mefe aRara hyavT, magram bizantieli mematianeebi malala da Teofane axseneben qarTvelTa mefes, dedofalsa da didebulebs, romelnic 535 wels konstantinopolSi Casulan iustiniane keisarTan molaparakebisaTvis, _ `Tu rom bizantieli mematianeni malala da Teofane ara scdebian, albaT, gaqceuli mefe gurgenis moadgiled iberiaSi ZamanarZe (Zamanarzos) damjdara, romelic 535 wels konstantinopolSi wasula TanamecxedriTa da darbaislebiTurT (`sYnkletikon~) da iustiniane keisrisaTvis aRuTqvams romaelebis mokavSireebi da megobrebi viqmnebiTo. gaxarebul keisars didi pativi ucia mefisa, dedoflisa da darbaislebisaTvis, uxvadac dausaCuqrebia da Sin gaustumrebia~.2 bizantieli istorikosebis, malalasa da Teofanes da agreTve `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da asurel mamaTa `cxovrebis~ cnobebi imis Sesaxeb, rom VI saukunis pirveli naxevris manZilze (sparsTa mier saqarTvelos dapyrobis dros) qarTvelebs mefe hyavdaT, erTmaneTis msgavsia. SesaZlebelia, dampyroblebma qveyanas misces SezRuduli avtonomiis magvari raRac statusi, romlis meTauradac gorgaslian-farnavazianTa Zveli dinastia yofila. albaT, qarTvelTa garkveuli politikuri wreebi mefobis gauqmebas ar cnobdnen da dapyrobili qveynis meTaurs kvlav mefes uwodebdnen. yovel SemTxvevaSi, udavoa, rom qveyana VI saukunis 70-90-ian wlebamde sparsTa mier iyo dapyrobili da qarTuli erovnuli institutebi, maT Soris qarTuli qalkedonuri eklesia, did devnas ganicdidnen. iv. javaxiSvilis TvalsazrisiT, mefobis gauqmeba 532 wlis sazavo xelSekrulebam daakanona. `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ mematiane wers, rom `amis bakuris zeve daesrula mefobaA qarTlisaA~. `Cveni matiane mogviTxrobs, rom rodesac sparselebma... mefoba mospes da `daesrula mefobaO qarTlisaA~, sparsni `ganZlierdes~ da `qarTli umetesad daipyres da kavkasianTa Sevides da karni ovseTisani aignes... sxuaA vinme kaci daidgines mTavrad wanareTisa Kevsa da morCilebaA dasdves

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misi~.3 SesaZloa, rogorc wanareTis xevis mTavrad sparselebma `vinme kaci~ daadgines, aseve qarTvelTa erTiani qveynis mTavrad daadgines gorgaslianTa dinastiis memkvidre, romelsac qarTvelebi mefes uwodebdnen. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sruli dapyrobis Semdeg sparselebi berZenTa gandevnas cdilobdnen dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTidan. 542 wels xosro mefe didZali laSqriT aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan gadasula dasavleT saqarTveloSi da bizantielebis cixe-qalaqi petra auRia. dasavleT saqarTvelos sruli dapyrobis Semdeg gadauwyvetia aqedan qarTuli mosaxleoba sparseTSi gadaesaxlebina, xolo lazikaSi sxva tomis xalxi Caesaxlebina. qarTvelebi ajanydnen da 549 wels sparselebi lazikidan gandevnes. 550 wels sparselebi kvlav Sevidnen lazikaSi da muxurisis xeobaSi gamarTul omSi sastikad damarcxdnen. sparseTsa da bizantias Soris lazikisTvis omi dasrulda 563 wlis zaviT. lazika bizantielebs darCaT. `...kolxeTi da iveria urTierTSesaxeb bevrs sayuradRebo rasme gvamcnoben. movigonoT, rom uZvelesi droidan moyolebuli mTeli zemo imereTi, Sorapan-skandidan moyolebuli, yovelTvis IX saukunis damdegamdis iveriis farglebSi Semodioda. aq didi asparezi iyo urTierTmoqmedebisaTvis.~4 rogorc cnobilia, lazika ewodeboda ara dasavleT saqarTvelos mTlianad, aramed mis erT nawils. dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovan nawils im dros iberias uwodebdnen da is sparseTs hqonda dapyrobili. iv. javaxiSvilis mixedviT, lazikisa da iberiis sazRvarze mdebareobdnen skandisa da Sorapnis cixeebi.5 ueWvelad iberiaSi Sedioda im dros dRevandeli zemo imereTi da raWac da amitomac iberias svaneTTan sazRvari hqonia. dRevandeli zemo imereTi da svaneTis mosazRvre raWa iberiaSi Semavali rom ar yofiliyo, sparselebi svaneTs ar moiTxovdnen bizantielebisagan. (aq unda gavixsenoT strabonis mowmoba svanebis Sesaxeb _ `zogierTebi maT iberielebs uwodeben~ (d. musxeliSvili, dasax. naSr., gv. 64) am zaviT dasavleT saqarTvelo gaiyves bizantielebma da sparselebma, bizantielebs darCaT lazika, xolo sparselebs iberia. svaneTic am zaviT bizantias unda darCenoda, radganac svaneTi lazikis qveSevrdomi qveyana iyo. `bizantielebi gaiZaxodnen: svaneTic, viTarca lazikis qveSevrdomi qveyana, xelSekrulebis ZaliT lazikasaviT Cven unda dagvrCeso. sparselebi ki amtkicebdnen, svanebi sxva xalxia da viTarca Cvenken nebayoflobiT gadmosuli, Cvenve unda dagvrCeso~.6 dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani teritoria, romelsac iberia ewodeboda, Sorapnisa da skandas cixeebis CaTvliT, sparselebis xelSi iyo. Cans, omi lazikisTvis mimdinareobda cixe-qalaq petrasa da rions Soris mdebare teritoriaze, agreTve muxurisis velze quTaissa da cxeniswyals Soris. lazikis dedaqalaqs, ivane javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, `Zvelqalaqi~ (arqaAopolisi) ewodeboda. lazikis samxreTiT qalaqi petra mdebareobda, xolo CrdiloeTiT _ afSilebis qveyana, romel-

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ic lazebs emorCileboda. afSilebis CrdiloeTiT misimielni binadrobdnen da isinic lazikis mefis moymeni iyvnen. misimielebs sakuTari ena hqoniaT. Cans, lazebsa da afSilebs erTi ena hqondaT. misimielebi, afSilebi da lazebi qristianebi iyvnen, amitomac ufro bizantielebs emxrobodnen da berZnebi, bunebrivia, megobrebad miaCndaT, sparselebi ki mtrebad. afxazebi ufro CrdiloeTiT binadrobdnen. aRmosavleTiT lazikis sazRvari iberiasTan gadioda skandasa da Sorapnis cixeebTan. ivane javaxiSvili wers, rom 551 wels petras aRebis Semdeg bizantielTa sardals es cixeebic unda daeWira, magram mas es ar gaukeTebia, _ `ueWvelia, sifrTxile moiTxovda, rom igi Tavisi laSqriTurT lazikis da iberiis sazRvarze damdgariyo, rom iq mdebare cixeebi skanda da Sorapani daeWira da sparselebisaTvis gza Seekra~.7 590-iani wlebisTvis sparselebs iberiis mniSvnelovani nawilic daukargavT: Tu 563 wlis zaviT bizantielebma da sparselebma erTmaneTs Soris gaiyves dasavleT saqarTvelo, 591 wels gauyviaT aRmosavleT saqarTvelo. `...xosro II-m, somexi istorikosis sebeosis sityviT, iberiis mometebuli nawili q. Tbilisamde mavriki keisars gadasca. es unda momxdariyo, maSasadame, 591 wels da am daTmobis wyalobiT iberia kvlav orad gaiyo, amasTanave iberiis dasavleTi nawili q. Tbilisamde bizantiis keisris xelSi gadasula, xolo aRmosavleTi nawili isev sparsTa batonebs SerCeniaT. mefe xosrom amis garda Tavis samefoSi qristianobis Tavisufleba gamoacxada~.8 VI saukuneSi sparselebisaTvis misaRebi sarwmunoeba iyo monofizitoba _ `sparselebi mxars uWerdnen monofizitobas... axla sparseTis mTavroba mxars uWerda iseT qristianobas, romelsac ebrZoda sparseTis mteri romis mTavroba. Tu qristianobis daTmoba ar gsurT, maSin iseTi qristianoba mainc unda miiRoT, romelic romis mefis sarwmunoebisgan gansxvavdebao, _ ase moiTxovda axla sparseTis Sahi Tavisi qristiani qveSevrdomebisagan~.9 sparseTi somxur eklesias mfarvelobda. `roca sparselebi iZulebuli gaxdnen, uari eTqvaT mazdeanobis gavrcelebaze amierkavkasiaSi da samagierod, monofizituri qristianobis mfarvelebad iqcnen, maT saeklesio mwerlobas daavales, monofizituri ideebi da sparseTTan ganuyreli kavSiris aucilebloba eqadaga. am mizniT sparseTis mefis agentebma SeTxzes legendebi, viTomc qristianoba somxeTSi, qarTlsa da albaniaSi erTi piris mier aris danergili, viTomc qarTuli, somxuri da albanuri anbanebi agreTve erTi piris mier aris gamogonebuli da rom es `ganmanaTlebelni~ imave dros viTomc sparseTTan iyvnen dakavSirebulni~.10

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qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi VI saukuneSi

iv. javaxiSvili wers: _ `qarTuli eklesiis sazRvrebi vrclad yofila gadaWimuli: dasavleT-samxreTiT igi klarjeTsac Seicavda da sazRvrad aq taos saepiskopozo yofila, romelic am dros somxeTis eklesias kuTvnebia. 506 wels babgen somexTa kaTalikosis pirvelsave epistoleSi somxeTis sakaTalikosos xelqveSeT mRvdelTmTavrad dasaxelebulia atate taos episkopozi. xolo hohanes somexTa kaTalikosis VI s-is Sua wlebis epistoleSi stefanos taos episkopozi ixsenieba~.11 Tu samxreT-dasavleTiT qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebSi Sedis klarjeTi, vidre taomde, dasavleTiT qarTuli eklesiis sazRvrebi midis Sav zRvamde. `somexTa istorikosis ioane kaTalikosis cnobiT, kYrioni winandeli wesis Tanaxmad, qarTvelTa, gugarelTa da megrelTa arqiepiskopozad iqmna xeldasxmuli. gugarelTa Sesaxeb cnoba gasakvirveli ar aris, radgan didi xania, rac gugareTi saqarTvelos daubrunda da qarTlis kaTalikosis samwysos ekuTvnoda, magram misi megrelTa kaTalikosadac aRniSvna pirveli cnobaa. es cnoba imis momaswavebelia, rom qarTlis, anu mcxeTis kaTalikosis samwysos ukve dasavleT saqarTveloSic hqonda asparezi mopovebuli da sakaTalikosos sazRvari lixT imereTSic iyo gadaweuli. cxadia, ioane kaTalikoss es cnoba romelime werilobiTi wyarodan eqmneba amoRebuli, magram saidan momdinareobs es cnoba, amJamad amis gamorkveva SeuZlebelia. Tu momavalSi misi uTuoba damtkicda, maSin cxadi gaxdeba, rom imier-amier saqarTvelos politikur gaerTianebas win uswrebda da niadags gacilebiT ufro adre momxdari saeklesio erTobisa da mTlianobis procesi umzadebda~.12 amJamad ioane kaTalikosis cnobis WeSmariteba damtkicebulia imiT, rom atenis sionis freskul warwerebSi aRmoCnda identuri cnoba. kerZod, moxseniebulia stefanozi `qarTvelTa da megrelTa erisTavTa ufali~. is, am Zalze mniSvnelovani warweris mkvlevris azriT, qarTlisa da egrisis mmarTvelia. orive es cnoba erTsa da imave movlenaze miuTiTebs, rom saqarTvelos politikur-sarwmunoebriv orbitaSi moqceulia ara mxolod aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo, aramed dasavleTi saqarTveloc, rogorc amas `qarTlis cxovreba~ gvidasturebs. ioane kaTalikosis cnobiT, kirioni VI saukunis bolos dausvamT qarTvelTa, gugarelTa da megrelTa kaTalikosad, iseve rogorc winandeli wesi moiTxovdao. aqedan Cans, rom qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqcia, vrceldeboda dasavleT saqarTveloze, ara mxolod VI saukuneSi, aramed adrec, e.i. V saukuneSi _ `winandeli wesis Tanaxmad~.

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iv. javaxiSvilis gamokvleviT, V saukunis Sua wlebisa da meore naxevrisaTvis saqarTveloSi 21 saepiskoposo yofila. `juanSeri qarTlis kaTalikosis samwysoSi vaxtang gorgaslis dros, saxeldobr, Semdeg saepiskopozoebs ixseniebs: mcxeTis saepiskopozos, klarjeTSi axizisas, artaanSi eruSeTisas, javaxeTSi _ wundisas, qarTlSi niqozisas, manglisisas, bolnisisas, kaxeT-hereTSi _ rusTavisas. ninowmindisas, ujarmoisas, karisas, Weremisas, CelTisas, xornabujisas, agarakisas, anu xunanisas. amgvarad, sul Teqvsmeti saepiskopozo gamodis, magram es sia, cxadia, sruli ar aris~.13 iv. javaxiSvili am sias umatebs curtavisa da samefo saxlis episkoposebs, agreTve ruisis an urbnisis, wilknisa da samTavisis saepiskoposoebs. `...maSin 21 samwyso iqmneba da V s-is Sua wlebisa da meore naxevrisaTvis es ricxvi daaxlovebiT swori unda iyos. ueWvelia V s-is damlevisaTvis metic unda yofiliyo. 506 wels albanelTa, somexTa da qarTvelTa gaerTianebul saeklesio krebas saqarTvelodan kaTalikosianad sul 24 episkopozi daswrebia... radgan SesaZlebelia, am krebas yvela ver daeswro, amitom unda davaskvnaT, rom VI s-is damdegs qarTuli eklesia sul cota 24 saepiskopozos Seicavda. marTlac, cnobili asureli monofiziti moRvawis simeon beT-arSamelis (VI s-is damdegs) sityviT, mis dros henotikoni Seiwynares da mis aRsarebas misdevdnen qarTlis eklesiis 33 episkopozi mefiTa da aznaurebiTurT da sparseTis somxeTis 32 episkopozi da marzpani. maSasadame, VI s-is damdegs aRm. saqarTveloSi 33 episkopozi yofila~.14 taos saepiskoposo, romelic Turme somxeTis sakaTalikosoSi Sedioda, z. aleqsiZis mixedviT, VI s-is miwuruls Camoscilda somxeTs da SeuerTda qarTul eklesias, `...amave saukunis miwuruls somxeTis eklesias droebiT Camoscilda taos saepiskoposo~.15 SesaZlebelia, tao or nawilad iyo gayofili, erTi nawili Sedioda qarTul eklesiaSi, xolo meore nawili somxurSi, yovel SemTxvevaSi, tao VII s-is damdegs qalkedonuri qveyana yofila da iq somxeTidan ltolvil qalkedonitebs Tavi SeufarebiaT. `qarTuli eklesiis Sedgenilobis Semdegi cnoba VII s-is damdegisaa, saxeldobr, 607 wels daweril Tavis meore sapasuxo epistoleSi kYrion qarTlis kaTalikosi abraam somexTa kaTalikoss swerda, qarTlis sakaTalikosoSi sul 35 episkopozi ariso. erTi saukunis ganmavlobaSi qarTul eklesias mohmatebia 2 saepiskopozo. es garemoeba qristianobis warmatebuli winsvliT unda aixsnebodes...~16

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iv. javaxiSvili qarTuli eklesiis ukiduresi dasavleTi sazRvris garkvevisaTvis wers: `650 w. berZnuli taqtikonidan Cans mxolod, rom am dros fasisi, anu foTi lazikaSi samitropolitod iTvleboda da konstantinopolis sapatriarqo samwysos ekuTvnoda, masve hkuTvnebia afxazeTis avtokefaluri eklesiac. ara Cans, mudam ase iyo, Tu es mxolod meSvide saukunis damdegs moxda, herakle keisris aRmosavleTSi Zlevamosili laSqrobis Semdgom~17 foTis samitropolito, Tu foTi da `fazisi~ erTia, herakle keisris saqarTveloSi laSqrobis Semdeg rom Sesula konstantinopolis sapatriarqos samwysoSi, iqidan Cans, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT Savi zRvispireTi _ zRviskideTi _ herakle keisars saqarTvelosaTvis Camoucilebia da Tavis imperiaSi Seuyvania uSualod. swored am dros foTis samitropolito Camoscildeboda qarTul eklesias, radganac teritoriulad ukve bizantiaSi iyo moqceuli. ufro adre foTis qarTuli eklesiis samwysoSi arseboba iqidan Cans, rom kirioni egrisis mitropoliti yofila. ioane somexTa kaTalikosi werda kidec, rom kirioni qarTvelTa, megrelTa da gugarelTa arqiepiskoposad dainiSna Zveli wesis Tanaxmado.

saeklesio winaswarmetyvelebani qarTuli saxelmwifos gauqmebis Semdeg


VI saukune gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisaa qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi, radganac am saukuneSi gauqmda qarTuli saxelmwifo, ramac imdenad uaryofiTi gavlena iqonia qarTul erovnul institutebze da sazogadoebaze saerTod, rom misi Sedegebis aRmofxvras dasWirda saukuneebi. saero da sasuliero xelisuflebis umTavresi mizani VI-IX saukuneebSi iyo qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgena-restavracia im saxiT, rogoric iyo gauqmebamde. adrindeli saqarTvelo gaidealebuli iyo. igulisxmeboda, rom saxelmwifoebrioba Sesustda da daeca vaxtang gorgaslis memkvidreTa xanaSi, xolo gorgaslis saxelmwifo Tavisi politikuri siZlieriT, kulturiT sanatreli da samagaliTo iyo Semdgomi TaobebisaTvis. qarTuli sazogadoebrivi wreebis TvalsazrisiT, qarTuli saxelmwifo gauqmebis dros iyo erTiani, mis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda rogorc aRmosavleTi, aseve dasavleTi saqarTvelo. swored am mTlianobis aRdgena da gaerTianebuli samefos restavracia iyo mizani politikuri wreebisa, aseve eklesiisa. amitom miuxedavad imisa, rom saxelmwifoebrioba VI s-is bolosve aRdga da Semdgom ki Seiqmna ramdenime qarTuli saxelmwifo _ tao-klarjeTis, afxazeTis, kaxeT-hereTis samefoebi, am drosac ki qarTvelTa umTavresi mizani iyo Seqmniliyo erTiani saxelmwifo, aRdgeniliyo `qarTlis samefo~, anu gorgaslis droindeli aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos gamaerTianebeli saxelmwifo. vaxtang gorgaslis pirovneba gansakuTrebiT ganadides. ek-

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lesiis mamebi amxnevebdnen qarTvel ers _ isini winaswarmetyvelebdnen, rom aRdgeboda erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo, rom qarTuli ena kvlav daiWerda Tavis kuTvnil adgils. Cven ganvixilavT, Cveni Sexedulebisamebr, VI saukunis or winaswarmetyvelebas, erTi exeba qarTuli saxelmwifos aRdgenas, meore ki qarTuli enis aRdgenas kuTvnil uflebebSi. pirveli winaswarmetyveleba gadmocemulia abibos nekreselis cxovrebaSi, meore ki erT mcire TxzulebaSi, romelsac ganuzomeli mniSvneloba aqvs qarTuli kulturisaTvis, es aris _ `qebaA da didebaA qarTulisa enisaA~. abibos nekreselis cxovrebas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcia ivane javaxiSvilma. is wers: `...abibos nekreselis wamebis Tavdapirveli wigni unda an VI s-is damlevis, anda VII s-is damdegis, Tu pirveli naxevris Zeglad vigulisxmoT~.18

`arsen kaTalikoss xazgasmiT aRniSnuli aqvs, rom abibos nekreselis martvilobis pirvandel teqstSi gacilebiT meti cnobebi hqonia, vidre mas mouyvania Tavis ganaxlebul cxorebaSi: `amas ra giTxrob Tquen netarisa episkopozisa abibossa... anu viTar dedakacsa mas uwinaswarmetyvela Semdeg missa mosvla berZenTa da dapyroba queyanisa amis Cuenisa, romelica-igi iqmna mswrafl misve dedakacsa zeda, movides berZenni da ganasxnes usjuloni igi sparsni da dai pyres queyana ese Cueni da iyo yoveli iveria erT samefodve da daipyres queyanaO ese Cveni mieriTgan mefeTa CuenTa da iqmnes mpyrobel sruliad saqarTvelosa da dai pyres maT mtkiced da sxuanica mravalni, viTarca weril ars wignsa mas wamebisa misisa~-o.19 eris ubedurebis Jams, roca man VI saukuneSi dakarga saxelmwifoebrioba, qarTuli eklesiis mamebi mTel ers aimedebdnen, rom qveynis dapyroba didxans ar gagrZeldeboda.

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arseni kaTalikosi, romelic sargeblobda VI saukunis damlevis, anda VII saukunis damdegis wyaroTi, Tavis `abibos nekreselis cxovrebaSi~ wers: wmida abibosma sparsTa mier qveynis dapyrobis dros iwinaswarmetyvela, rom male saqarTvelos berZnebi gaaTavisuflebdnen sparsTa batonobisgan da sparsTa batonoba didxans ar gastanda. es winaswarmetyveleba marTlac amxdara VI saukunis bolos. iv. javaxiSvili wers: `...abibos nekreselis winaswarmetyveleba da misi axdoma VI saukunis damlevis aRm. saqarTvelos politikuri istoriis sruliad konkretul SemTxvevas hgulisxmobs...~20 mecnieri am winaswarmetyvelebas uwodebs `amxdar politikur winaswarmetyvelebas~.21 sparselebs VI saukuneSi damorCilebuli hqondaT ara marto aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani nawilic. maT xelSi TiTqmis mudam iyo Sorapnisa da skandas cixeebi, garda amisa, isini Zalze xSirad zRvispireTis iseT gamagrebul cixes utevdnen, rogoric petras cixe iyo, amitomac abibos nekreselis winaswarmetyveleba qveynis gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb Tanabrad exeboda qveynis orive nawils. marTlac, arseni kaTalikosi wers, rom Tavdapirvel wyaroSi mravlad yofila cnobebi `iveriis~, anu `saqarTvelos~ politikuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb VI sis bolosa da VII s-is damdegisa. is Tavis wyaroze dayrdnobiT wers: `...iyo yoveli iveria erT samefodve da daipyres queyana ese Cueni mieriTgan mefeTa CuenTa da iqmnes mpyrobel sruliad saqarTvelosa da dai pyres maT mtkiced da sxuanica mravalni, viTarca weril ars wignsa mas wamebisa misisa~-o.22 s. yubaneiSvilis mier gamocemul `cxovrebaSi~ weria: `...viTar dedakacsa uwinaswarmetyuela Semdgomad misa moslvaO berZenTaO da dapyrobaO queyanisa amis CuenisaA, romelica igi iqmna mswrafl misve dedakacisa ze. movides berZenni da ganasxnes usjuloni igi sparsni da dai pyres qveyanaO ese Cueni, mieriTgan erisTavni iqmnnes mpyrobelad qarTlisa~.23 s. kakabaZe da iv. javaxiSvili werdnen, rom am ZeglSi naxmaria Sereuli terminologia. es, iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, imiT aris gamowveuli, rom `...mwerals Tavis naSromSi Tavis uZvelesi wyaros moTxroba, rogorc Cans, TiTqmis iseve, ranairadac igi Tavdapirvel avtors dauweria, nawyvet-nawyvetad mouyvania...~24 amiT unda iyos gamowveuli is, rom am ZeglSi naxmaria sinonimuri politikuri terminebi _ `yoveli iveria~ da `sruliad saqarTvelo~ erTi da imave mniSvnelobiT. Cans, uZveles wyaroSi ewera `yoveli qarTli~, xolo gadamkeTebelma am Zveli terminis gverdiT advilad gagebis mizniT dawera `sruliad saqarTvelo~ _ `...iyo yoveli iveria erT samefodve da dai pyres queyana ese Cueni mieriTgan mefeTa CuenTa da iqmnes mpyrobel sruliad saqarTvelosa...~ aqedanac Cans Zveli avtorebis Tvalsazrisi, rom iveria anu qarTli ewodeboda ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, aramed `sruliad saqarTvelos~ dasavleT saqarTvelos CaTvliT. marTlac, VI saukunis dasasrulsa

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da VII saukuneSi sparselTagan gaTavisuflebis Semdgom qarTvelTa mefeerisTavebi TavianT Zalauflebas axorcielebdnen ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTveloze, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelozec. atenis sionis warwerebSi isini megrelTa erisTavTa uflebiTac arian moxseniebulni. dasavleT saqarTveloze qarTvel mefe-erisTavTa uflebas agreTve aRiarebs `qarTlis cxovreba~ da zogierTi somxuri wyaro, sadac kirions pirdapir ewodeba gugarelTa, qarTvelTa da megrelTa kaTalikosi. VI saukunis bolos, restavrirebul saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi rom ar Sesuliyo dasavleTi saqarTvelo, qarTuli eklesia Tavis iurisdiqcias ver ganaxorcielebda samegreloze da somxuri Tanadrouli wyaroebi kirions ar uwodebdnen megrelTa arqiepiskoposs, Semdgom ki qarTlis mefeerisTavebs _ megrelTa erisTavTa ufals. abibos nekreselis winaswarmetyvelebis aRsruleba imiT gamoixata, rom `yoveli iveria~, anu `sruliad saqarTvelo~ aRdga da mas marTavdnen qarTveli erisTav-mefeebi. aRdgena, anu restavracia SesaZlebelia warsulSi ukve arsebulisa, abibos nekreseli winaswarmetyvelebda V saukunesa da VI s-is dasawyisSi arsebuli gorgaslis erTiani `yoveli iveriis~, anu `sruliad saqarTvelos~ aRdgenas, rac aRsrulda VI saukunis bolosve. VI saukunis bolos aRdgenil sruliad saqarTvelos saxelmwifos didxans ar uarsebia, mas VII saukunis dasawyisSi bizantiis keisarma heraklem CamoaSora mniSvnelovani teritoriebi SavizRvispireTSi da dasavleT saqarTvelos am CamorTmeul miwebze ganaxorciela konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqcia, xolo yoveli iveriis darCenili teritoria arabebma daipyres. aseTia wmida abibos nekreselis winaswarmetyveleba saxelmwifos aRdgenis Sesaxeb. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa winaswarmetyveleba qarTuli enis Tavis kuTvnil uflebebSi aRdgenis Sesaxeb. VIII-IX saukuneebamde (afxazeTis, tao-klarjeTis, kaxeT-hereTis samefoebis Seqmnamde) VI-VII saukuneebSi qarTuli ena faqtobrivad aRar iyo saxelmwifo ena, garda amisa, SezRudula qarTuli enis uflebebi eklesiaSic ki. amis Sesaxeb gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa cnoba, romelic daculia wmida raJdenis wamebaSi _ `...aRdges sparsni qristianeTa zeda da aRiZrnes uricxYTa mKedrebiTa, rameTu didi iyo maSin brZolaA da daucxromeli mterobaOqristianeTa zeda da ufroAsad berZenTa mimarT, xolo Cuen qarTvelTa momarT amisaTYs, rameTu eZYneboda Cueni berZenTa mimarT siyuaruli da erTobaA. da ese iyo nebaA maTi, raTaA Cuenca maT Tana mter veqmneT berZenTa~.25 `wmida raJdenis wamebis~ es cnoba aris pirdapiri miTiTeba imisa, Tu qristianTagan vis devnidnen sparselebi. am cnobaSi, romelic eTanxmeba arseni safarelis cnobebs, naTqvamia, rom sparselebi saerTod ar uyurebdnen qristianebs kargi TvaliT, magram devnidnen ara yvela qristians, aramed

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berZnebsa da qarTvelebs. berZnebs devnidnen imis gamo, rom berZnuli qristianoba iyo rom-saberZneTis imperiis saxelmwifo sarwmunoeba, xolo romsaberZneTis imperia da sparseTi erTmaneTTan mebrZoli saxelmwifoebi iyvnen. mose xorenels aRwerili aqvs, Tu rogor devnidnen sparselebi yovelive berZnuls gansakuTrebuli sisastikiT, kerZod, wvavdnen berZnul wignebs, aravis aZlevdnen berZnulis Seswavlis nebas da, rac gasaocaria, berZnulad laparakis uflebac ki aRaravis hqonda, aikrZala berZnuli enidan Targmna. `wmida raJdenis wamebaSi~ Cans, rom sparselebi devnidnen ara marto berZnebs, aramed qarTvelebsac. am wamebis avtori wers, rom Cven, qarTvelebs, imitom gvdevnian, rom Cven gvaqvs berZenTa mimarT siyvaruli, rac Turme `eZYneboda~, anu Zalze aRizianebda sparseTs. friad sayuradReboa, rom es ori wyaro erTmaneTs eTanxmeba im sakiTxSi, Tu ra urTierTobas moiTxovdnen sparselebi berZnebis mimarT damonebuli xalxebisgan, kerZod, `...aRar hqonodaT berZnebTan megobruli urTierToba... ...eZYneboda Cueni berZenTa mimarT siyuaruli da erToba~.26 sparselebs amZvinvarebs qarTvelTa `siyvaruli da erToba~ berZenTa mimarT, aseve `megobruli urTierToba~. Tu am ori wyaros monacems SevadarebT mesame daudgeneli TariRis wyaros _ `qebaA da didebaA qarTulisa enisaAs~, davinaxavT, rom samiveSi TiTqmis erTi da imave sityvebiT berZnebTan megobroba-siyvarulsa da erTobazea saubari. `qebaASi~ naTqvamia _ `megobrobaA amisTYs Tqua~, `...nino... da helene... ese arian orni dani, viTarca mariam da marTa~.27 rogorc or das aqvs erTmaneTis mimarT siyvaruli da erToba, aseve aqvT berZnebsa da qarTvelebs `qebaAs~ avtoris Tanaxmad. is TiTqos imeorebs `raJdenis wamebis~ avtoris azrs qarTvelebisa da berZnebis siyvarulisa da erTobis Sesaxeb. `qebaASi~ pirdapir aris naTqvami am ori eris megobrobis Sesaxeb, rac mose xorenelis Tanaxmad, aSinebda sparseTis xelisuflebas. `qebaA da didebaA qarTulisa enisaA~ aris winaswarmetyveleba qarTuli enis Tavis uflebebSi aRdgenis Sesaxeb. aq nawinaswarmetyvelebia, rom damdablebuli da dawunebuli qarTuli ena aRdgeba. aqve dasaxelebulia TariRi, Tumca arapirdapir _ sxvadasxva xelnawerSi sxvadasxva _ 94 weli, 104, 92. SeiZleba am winaswarmetyvelebasac vuwodoT amxdari winaswarmetyveleba, radganac tao-klarjeTis, afxazeTisa da kaxeT-hereTis samefoebis warmoqmnis Semdeg qarTuli ena Zveleburadve saxelmwifo enad iqca. es iyo sruliad SeuzRudveli, ayvavebuli, amieridan Zlevamosili ena mefeTa da kaTalikosTa, mwignobrobisa da wirva-locvis ena, mosili mzrunvelobiTa da siyvaruliT. saqarTvelos erTiani samefos Seqmnis Semdgomac qarTuli ena erTaderTi saxelmwifo da kulturis enaa. verc tao-klarjeTis, afxazeTis, kaxeT-hereTis samefoebis arsebobisas da verc Semdgom qarTul enas veravin uwodebda _ `dafaruls~, `damarxuls~, qarTuli ena sruliadac ar

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iyo am epoqaSi dafaruli, arasazogadoebrivi, mxolod ojaxebsa da SinaurobaSi saxmari ena. miT umetes, mas veravin uwodebda _ `mZinares... mdabalsa da dawunebuls... mkudars~ _ rogorc uwodebs `qebaAs~ avtori. amitomac, unda vifiqroT, rom es Txzuleba dawerilia im dros, roca qarTuli da berZnuli enebi erTnairad idevneboda saqarTveloSi. avtori amxnevebs xalxs, rom aseTi devna qarTuli enisa didxans ar gagrZeldeba da daaxloebiT erT saukuneSi mdgomareoba mowesrigdebao. winaswarmetyveleba marTlac aRsrulda: jer VI s-is dasasruls qarTulma enam mcire xniT aRidgina Tavisi uflebebi, Semdgom ki VII s-Si nawilobriv da VIII s-dan is srul uflebebSia. arabebi, marTalia, qarTvel qristianebs devnidnen, magram maT mier qarTuli enis devna cnobili ar aris. berZnul da qarTul enebs devnidnen sparselebi VI s-sa da VII s-is dasawyisSi. sparselebs ar SeeZloT qarTuli enis devna V s-Si, radganac maSin qarTvel ers erovnuli saxelmwifo hqonda, xolo VII s-is dasawyisSi sparseTis saxelmwifo ganadgurda, is 629 wels herakle keisarma daamarcxa, xolo amave saukunis 40-ian wlebSi arabebma sabolood gaanadgures. Tu rogor aiZulebdnen sparselebi VI s-Si qarTvelebs ar SeeswavlaT berZnuli ena da ar gadmoeRoT Txzulebebi am enidan, aramed kavSirurTierToba hqonodaT somxurTan da asurulTan, wers k. kekeliZe: `...isini maT nebas ar aZlevdnen berZnuli ena SeeswavlaT da am enidan Txzulebebi gadmoeRoT TavianT enaze. TavisTavad cxadia, rom amasve moiTxovdnen isini qarTvelebisganac. aseT pirobebSi maSindel iberiaSi kidevac rom Zlieri yofiliyo berZnuli saeklesio-literaturuli orientacia, is xorcs ver Seisxamda, amitom qarTvelebi iZulebulni iqnebodnen literaturuli kavSiri da urTierToba daeWiraT umTavresad mezobel somxebTan da aRmosavleTis qristianebTan, kerZod asurelebTan~.28 V s-Si qarTul eklesiaSi wirva-locvisa da msaxurebis enebi iqneboda qarTuli da berZnuli, rac bunebrivia, sxva erovnul eklesiebSic ase iyo. garda amisa, kaTalikosebic ki VI s-is dasawyisSi saberZneTidan yofilan Camosulni. VI s-is dasawyisidan saqarTvelos dapyrobis Semdeg sparselebi eklesiebSi berZnuli enis xmarebas akrZalavdnen (sxvaganac ase moiqcnen) da berZnulis magier saeklesio msaxurebisaTvis qarTul enasTan erTad somxurs an siriuls danergavdnen, radganac somxur eklesias gansakuTrebul upiratesobas aniWebdnen da berZnuls upirispirebdnen. VI sSi qarTuli ena marTlac dafaruli (damarxuli) ena gaxda politikuri mdgomareobis gamo, mteri qalkedonitobas krZalavda. qarTuli ena qalkedonitobis elementad aRiqves. rogorc wers `qebaAs~ avtori, im dros berZnuli ena da eklesia qarTulis megobrad aris miRebuli, magram akrZalulia, qarTuli ena ki namdvilad iyo damdablebuli da dawunebuli. am dromde, TiTqmis aTasi wlis manZilze ki is saxelmwifo ena iyo _ farna-

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vazidan gorgaslis CaTvliT. `qebaASi~ berZnuli da qarTuli enebisa da eklesiebis Sesaxeb naTqvamia _ `da axalman nino moaqcia (qarTuli eklesia) da helene dedofalman (berZnuli eklesia), ese arian orni dani, viTarca mariam da marTa. da megobrobaO amisTYs Tqua...~29 mariami da marTa erTad imyofebodnen mwuxarebis dros, roca maTi Zma lazare gardaicvala, aseve mariami da marTa erTad iyvnen im didi sixarulis dros, roca ufalma ieso qristem maTi Zma, oTxi dRis mkvdari lazare mkvdreTiT aRadgina. wmida ninosa da wmida elene dedoflis eklesiebi da enebi erTnairad devnilni iyvnen sparseTis imperiaSi, kerZod, VI saukunis saqarTveloSi. isini ise, rogorc debi mariam da marTa erT bedqveS arian mwuxarebisas, magram amJamad damdablebuli da dawunebuli qarTuli ena mkvdreTiT aRdgeba uflis mier, rogorc lazareo. avtori arafers wers berZnuli enis aRdgenis Sesaxeb, rac bunebrivia. es ena Tavis qveyanaSi saeklesio ena iyo, xolo qarTuli ena Tavis qveyanaSi damalulad mosaxmari (`damarxuli~), dawunebuli da damdablebuli iyo. avtori winaswarmetyvelebs, rom saRvTo qarTuli ena uflis saxeliT Semkuli da kurTxeuli, didxans ar iqneba oTxi dRis mkvdris mdgomareobaSi, is aRdgeba rogorc lazare da mis aRdgomas niSnad, anu `saswaulad ese aqus _ oTxmeoc da aToTxmeti weli...~ Tu rogor idevneboda berZnuli ena sparsTa mier, kargad aqvs aRwerili mose xorenels: `...mehruJanma dawva berZnuli wignebi mTels Cvens qveyanaSi; amasTanave, somxeTis danawilebisas, sparsTa wil somxeTSi, sparseli moxeleebi aravis rTavdnen berZnuli mwignobrobis SeTvisebis nebas, mxolod asurulis Seswavla SeiZleboda~.30 anda _ `...ra wignsac ki waawydeboda, igi wvavda, brZana, rom eswavlaT sparsuli da ara berZnuli wera-kiTxva. aravis hqonda ufleba elaparaka berZnulad, anda eTargmna am enidan. amas TiTqos imitom Svreboda, rom somxebs sruliad aRar hqonodaT berZnebTan megobruli urTierToba da nacnoboba. sinamdvileSi ki qristianuli moZRvrebis aRmofxvra ewadaT, rameTu maSin somxebs jer kidev ar gaaCndaT anbani da berZnulad asrulebdnen RvTismsaxurebas~.31 berZnul enaze laparaki akrZaluli yofila. aqedan kargad Cans sparselebis damokidebuleba berZnuli enisadmi IV-V saukuneTa somxeTSi. wmida raJdenis wamebidan da sxva wyaroebidan Cans, rom sparselebi berZnebsa da qarTvelebs erTnairad devnidnen VI saukunis 70-ian wlebamde. qarTuli eklesia daaSores berZnuls da dauaxloves aRmosavlur-somxurs. saqarTveloSi daiwyo berZnuli enidan Targmnili wignebis somxuris mixedviT redaqtireba, ris Sesaxebac aRuniSnavs giorgi mcires.

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msgavsi magaliTi moxda somxeTSi. mose xoreneli wers, rom sparselebi somxebs RvTismsaxurebas uSlidnen maSin, roca somxur eklesias kavSiri hqonda berZnulTan IV s-is bolosa da V s-is dasawyisSi. amis Semdeg somxurma eklesiam sparseTis saxelmwifos zemoaRniSnuli sastiki zemoqmedebiT imas miaRwia, rom somxuri eklesia upiratesad dauaxlovda sparsul-siriul eklesiebs. a. abdalaZe SeniSnavs: _ `ebrZoda ra bizantiis gavlenis gavrcelebas somxeTSi, iranis xelisufleba, amave dros, garkveuli politikuri mosazrebiT, mxars uWerda siriuli kulturis gabatonebas somexTa qveyanaSi~,32 anda `...iranis Sahis kari im xanaSi somxeTSi mxars uWerda siriuli kulturis gavlenis gavrcelebas berZnulis sawinaaRmdegod. siriul kulturas somxeTSi isedac Rrmad hqonda fesvebi gamdgari da mTavrobis mfarvelobis pirobebSi mas kidev ufro gaeSala frTebi. amgvar viTarebaSi berZnul civilizacias naziarebi, misi Tayvanismcemeli moazrovneni aramcTu aRaravis undoda, maT devnidnen, aviwroebdnen kidec~.33 sparseTma miaRwia somxeTSi siriuli kulturis gabatonebas da aRmofxvra berZnuli. daaxloebiT 90-100 wlis Semdeg igive procesi daiwyo saqarTveloSi. aRmoifxvra berZnuli da berZnulis sanacvlod Seecadnen ara siriuli, aramed somxuri kulturis gavrcelebas. mizezi is iyo, rom somxuri eklesiis sagangebo politikis wyalobiT, VI-VII saukuneebSi somxuri eklesia iseve samagaliTo gaxda sparseTisaTvis, rogorc adre siriuli kultura, ena da eklesia iyo. xolo qarTuli eklesiis mier VI saukunis Sua wlebSi qalkedonituri midrekilebis gamomJRavnebam saboloo jamSi qarTuli enis xmarebis SezRudva gamoiwvia. saqarTveloSi VI saukunis 20iani wlebidan VI saukunis 70-ian wlebamde qarTuli da berZnuli enebi Tanabrad SezRudul pirobebSi imyofebodnen, rogorc debi, mosiyvarule debi mariam da marTa, lazares micvalebisas. VI saukunis 70-90-ian wlebSi saqarTvelos mier qalkedonitobis daufaravma aRiarebam da qveynis gaTavisuflebam qarTul da berZnul enebs kvlav daubruna Tavisi adgili kulturul cxovrebaSi. winaswarmetyveleba qarTuli enis aRdgomis Sesaxeb aRsrulda, ise rogorc abibos nekreselis winaswarmetyveleba. Semdgom saukuneSi kvlav SeizRuda qarTuli ena. is Tavis uflebebSi srulad aRdga tao-klarjeTis, afxazeTisa da kaxeT-hereTis samefoebis Seqmnis Semdgom. es marTlac hgavda lazares aRdginebas VI-VII saukuneebis devnasTan SedarebiT. k. kekeliZe wers, rom VI saukunis bolos wirva-locva qarTul enaze gaCaRebuli iyoo: `VI saukunis gasuls, rogorc `epistoleTa wignidan~ Cans, qarTlSi gaCaRebuli yofila wirva-locva da RvTismsaxureba qarTul enaze~,34 aseve yofila V saukuneSic. `qebaAs~ avtoris mier aRweril mdgomareobaSi qarTuli ena mxolod VI saukunis erT did periodSi imyofeboda.

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saeklesio ena albaneTSi, hereTSi, gugarqsa da dasavleT saqarTveloSi VI-VII saukuneebSi


a) saeklesio ena albaneTSi
Tavidanve unda iTqvas, rom albaneTis saeklesio ena somxuri iyo da ara mSobliuri albanuri ena. albaneTi iyo amierkavkasiis udidesi qveyana, gadaWimuli sevanis tbis mimdebare teritoriebidan vidre kaspiis zRvamde. albanelebi iberiul-kavkasiuri modgmis xalxi iyo, amitomac albanuri ena axlos idga qarTvelur enebTan da sruliad gansxvavdeboda somxuri enisgan. garda amisa, albaneTis eklesia iyo samociqulo, TavisTavadi eklesia, romelsac hyavda kaTalikosi, hqonda saeklesio ierarqia da mravali saepiskoposo. arsebobs sxvadasxva mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ratom iyenebda albaneTis xalxi saeklesio saWiroebisaTvis ara albanur, aramed somxur enas. erT-erTi mosazreba gamoTqmulia `Zveli msoflios istoriis~ III tomSi (moskovi, 1982), romlis Tanaxmadac, albaneTi mravalerovani qveyana yofila, ris gamoc SeuTvisebia samxreTeli mezoblebis yvela miRweva: `samxreTeli mezoblebidan aTvisebul miRwevaTa Soris redkolegia qristianobasac (monofizituri formiT) asaxelebs, Tanac Tu qristianobis pirvel wlebSi TviT somxeTSi RvTismsaxureba siriul enaze sruldeboda, `albaneTSi mwerlobisa da RvTismsaxurebis enad~ somxuria dasaxelebuli. dapyrobil qveyanaSi gabatonebuli xalxi, rogorc cnobilia, yovelTvis cdilobda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis asimilacias. am mxriv, rogorc zemoT vaCveneT, gamonaklisi arc somxeTis saxelmwifo iyo, magram albaneTis armenizaciis procesi Turme ZaldatanebiTi ar yofila. xSirad Tvlian, rom roca somxeTis mefeebi albaneTis provinciebis xarjze TavianT teritoriebs afarToebdnen, ZaliT axdendnen adgilobrivi mosaxleobis armenizacias. es Sexeduleba sruliad mcdaria. arc erTi Zveli saxelmwifo ar cdilobda ZaldatanebiT daenerga Tavisi ena ucxoenovan mosaxleobaSi. saerTod ki albaneTis im provinciebis mosaxleobas, sadac somxebi batonobdnen, `aravin uSlida saxlSi mSobliur enaze esaubraT~.35 albaneTi jer kidev IV-V saukuneebSi yofila nawilobriv armenizebuli _ gasomxebuli. v. goilaZe wers _ `...akad. s. eremianis Tanaxmad, mtkvris marjvena mxares mdebare albanuri olqebidan IV-V saukuneebSi arcaxi mTlianad, xolo utiki nawilobriv iyo armenizebuli.~36 miuxedavad amisa, albaneTSi V saukuneSi Seiqmna erovnuli anbani, mwerloba da albanuri istoriografiac ki _ `rogorc Cans, albanelebs mokle drois ganmavlobaSi hyavdaT TavianTi Zveli istorikosebi~, _ naTqvamia `Zveli msoflios istoriis~ III tomSi. magram `albaneTSi literaturuli ena ar Seqmnila~.37

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arsebobs sxva Tvalsazrisic. rogorc aRvniSneT, albanelma xalxma V saukuneSi Seqmna sakuTari erovnuli damwerloba, da Seqmnila kidec albanuri literaturis originaluri Zeglebi, romelTac Cvenamde ar mouRweviaT. damwerloba, cxadia, gamoiyeneboda saeklesio albanurenovani wignebis saWiroebisaTvis. aqedan Cans, rom V saukuneSi albaneTis eklesiebSi saeklesio enad albanuri ena gamoiyeneboda, Tu mTel albaneTSi ara, mis zogierT kuTxeSi mainc. amasTanave varaudoben, rom ukve VII saukunis albaneli istorikosi mose kalankatueli Tavis Txzulebas wers ara albanur, aramed somxur enaze. Tu V saukuneSi SemoRebuli albanuri damwerloba da albanurenovani wignebi VII saukuneSi ukve aRar gamoiyeneboda albanelTa mier, Cans, am ori saukunis Sua _ VI saukuneSi, albanur eklesiaSi moxda raRac cvlileba, kerZod, albanurenovani wirva-locva Seicvala somxurenovani wirva-locviT. marTlac, VI saukuneSi Zalze didi Zvrebi xdeba amierkavkasiis eklesiebSi. sparseTis mier dapyrobil amierkavkasiis qveynebSi eklesiebze zedamxedveloba moi pova somxeTis eklesiam. sparseTma somxur eklesias misca neba, lideroba moepovebina amierkavkasiaSi (sparsul nawilSi). amis gamo amierkavkasiis somxeTTan mosazRvre kuTxeTa eklesiebSi met-naklebad dainerga somxurenovani RvTismsaxureba. albaneTi adreve, IV-V saukuneebSi metnaklebad armenizebuli qveyana iyo, amitomac aq VI saukuneSi somxurenovani RvTismsaxurebis sayovelTaod gavrceleba Zneli ar iqneboda, amitomac somxurma saeklesio enam Secvala albanuri saeklesio ena. amis Semdeg albaneTi somxurenovania saeklesio TvalsazrisiT. albanuri wignebi da damwerloba maT Semdeg aRarasodes gamouyenebiaT _ arc erT saukuneSi. albaneli xalxic TandaTan gadagvarda. VIII s-is Semdeg somexi monofizitebis mier devnilma albanelma qalkedonitma berebma Tavi qarTul monastrebs Seafares, maT albaneTidan Tan wamoiRes albanurenovani saeklesio wignebi, _ albanuri anbaniT dawerilni, magram Semdgom maTi rigebi aRar Seivso da wignebi qarTvelebma gamoiyenes, isini palimsestebad gadaiqcnen, kerZod, SemdegSi albanur wignebs qarTuli wignebisTvis iyenebdnen.

b) saeklesio ena hereTSi


gansaxilvel periodSi, VI-VII saukuneebSi, hereTi albaneTis erT-erTi Semadgeneli nawili iyo, moqceuli mis dasavleTiT, amitomac is saeklesio reforma, Tu cvlileba, romelic albaneTSi mimdinareobda am dros (saeklesio enad somxuri enis danergva), hereTSic tardeboda Zvel qarTul istoriografiaSi miRebuli TvalsazrisiT. hereTi TviT IX-X saukuneebamde monofizituri iyo, is qalkedonitobaze moaqcia dedofalma dinaram. iq `mefobamde iSxanikissa pirvelni yovelni iyvnes mwvalebelni~.38

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amitomac, monofizituri hereTis saeklesio ena VI-IX saukuneebSi iyo somxuri ena, ise rogorc mTel albaneTSi saerTod. V saukuneSi hereTi Sedioda ara albaneTis SemadgenlobaSi, aramed qarTlis (iberiis) samefoSi. Cven amis damadastureblad gvaqvs ueWveli saistorio wyaro `SuSanikis wameba~, sadac hereTs pirdapir ewodeba qarTli. sparsTagan wamosuli varsqen pitiaxSio _ weria iq, Semovida qarTlSi, kerZod ki, hereTis qveyanaSio _ `...moiwia igi sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa, queyanasa mas hereTisasa.~39 xolo hereTSi wamebuli SuSanikis saqme `yovel qarTlSi~ ganiTqvao, radganac hereTi `yoveli qarTlis~ nawili iyo _ `ganiTqua yovelsa qarTlsa saqmH misi.~ SuSanikis sanaxavad `...aznaurni da uaznoni soflisa qarTlisani movides~40 _ TviT hereTs ewodeba qarTli, amitomac avtori aq sityva hereTs ar xmarobs da qarTls xmarobs mis magier. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, hereTi, ara marto V saukuneSi warmoadgenda qarTlis samefos, aramed qarTuli erovnuli saxelmwifos SeqmnisTanave, qristemde IV-III saukuneebSi, farnavazis dros, is samefos SemadgenlobaSi iyo. hereTi istoriulad qarTlis Semadgenel nawilad ganixileboda. eTnikurad, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, herebi arian qarTvelebis `Tvisni~. wmida ninos mier qarTuli erovnuli eklesiis daarsebis dros, IV saukuneSi hereTi qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda. wmida ninom TviT moaqcia hereTi qristianul rjulze. amis Sesaxeb cnobebi gvaqvs ara marto qarTul wyaroebSi, aramed somxurSic, kerZod, mose xoreneli wers wmida ninos Sesaxeb, rom man moaqcia qarTveli eri klarjeTidan vidre kaspiis karamde da masquTebis qveynamdeo. masquTebi kaspiis zRvasTan cxovrobdnen _ `man iqadaga klarjeTidan dawyebuli vidre alanTa da kaspiis karamde, masquTTa sazRvrebamde, rogorc amas agaTangelozi gauwyebs Sen~.41 aRsaniSnavia, rom mose xoreneli wmida ninos `qarTvelTa momaqcevels~ uwodebs, amitomac wmida ninos mier moqceuli mosaxleoba `klarjeTidan vidre kaspiis karamde~, Cans, mose xorenels qarTvelebad miaCnia. axla unda iTqvas V saukuneSi hereTis saeklesio enis Sesaxeb _ V saukuneSi hereTis saeklesio ena qarTuli iyo, imis gamo, rom aq IV saukunidanve vrceldeboda qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqcia. qarTuli ena wmida ninos mier daarsebuli eklesiis ena iyo, hereTi ki wmida ninos (e.i. qarTul) eklesiaSi Sedioda. is faqti, rom pirveli qarTuli qristianuli moTxroba SuSanikis wamebis Sesaxeb hereTs eZRvneba (da rogorc TviT moTxrobidan Cans, aqvea dawerili jer kidev gaunelebeli STabeWdilebiT), gvisabuTebs im azrs, rom V saukuneSi hereTis saeklesio ena qarTuli ena iyo.

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ra enaze laparakobdnen herebi, romeli iyo maTi mSobliuri ena? albaneli xalxis ena iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa jgufs miekuTvneboda da enaTesaveboda daRestnur enebs. albaneTis mniSvnelovani nawili mtkvris marjvena mxares da misi centraluri olqi utiqi armenizebuli yofila. albaneTSi iberiul-kavkasiur (daRestnur) enaTa jgufis garda gavrcelebuli yofila iranuli da Turquli enebi, agreTve adgilobriv mosaxleobas miuRia somxuri ena, anu nawilobriv armenizebuli _ gasomxebuli yofila. albaneTSi enaTa aseTi mravalferovnebis fonze srulebiT ar mogveCveneba gasakviri aq qarTveluri enebis arsebobac. marTlac, albaneTis dasavleT provinciaSi _ hereTSi _ mcxovrebi mosaxleoba (herebi) qarTulenovani yofila. mkvlevari zaza sxirtlaZe wers: `...ukanaskneli wlebis gamokvlevebSi, vrceli faqtobrivi masalis moxmobisa da gaanalizebis safuZvelze damajerebladaa dasabuTebuli, rom VII-X ss. hereTis teritoriaze adgilobrivi mosaxleobis (herebis, sujebis) kultura aRmosavlur-qarTul wres ganekuTvneboda, ena ki uciloblad qarTuli iyo~.42 magram somxur istoriografiaSi gamoTqmulia sxva mosazreba, kerZod, TiTqosda hereTis teritoriaze cxovrobda somxuri mosaxleoba _ amgvari varaudi dReisaTvis ucxo aRar aris _ igi, rogorc cnobilia, hereTis mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis Taobaze msjelobisas adrec ramdenjerme yofila gamoTqmuli~, kerZod, mecnierebs a. mnacakanians wignSi `kavkasiis albaneTis literaturis Sesaxeb~ da g. mkrtumians wignSi _ `kaxeT-hereTis samefo da somxur-qarTuli urTierTdamokidebuleba~ gamoTqmuli hqoniaT mosazreba _ `...hereTis teritoriaze somxuri mosaxleobis arsebobaze...~ amitom _ hereTSi an somxuri mosaxleoba cxovrobda da XI saukunis Semdeg es xalxi gaqarTvelda, anda piriqiT herebi qarTulenovani xalxi iyo, romelmac VI-X saukuneebSi ganicada nawilobrivi armenizacia albaneTis sxva kuTxeTa msgavsad, XI saukunidan hereTi kvlav qalkedonituri qveyana gaxda da amitomac aq eklesiebSi wirva-locvis enad kvlav aRdga herTaTvis mSobliuri qarTulenovani RvTismsaxureba. rogorc aRniSnuli gvqonda, X saukuneSi monofizituri hereTi qalkedonitobaze moaqcia dinara dedofalma. iqamde VI-IX saukuneebSi hereTi monofizituri iyo. monofizitebis saeklesio ena am periodSi somxuri ena iyo. Sesabamisad maSin, roca hereTi monofizituri iyo, aq wirva-locvis ena somxuri ena iyo, xolo roca hereTi kvlav daubrunda qalkedonitobas, misi saeklesio ena kvlav qarTuli ena gaxda. hereTis armenizacia ise Rrma ar yofila, rogorc Sua da samxreT albaneTisa iyo. Tu albaneTis mtkvris marjvena sanapiro da centraluri provincia _ utiqi mTlianad iqna armenizebuli, hereTis armenizacia Se-

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darebiT umniSvnelo iyo, imis gamo, rom herebi qarTulenovani xalxi iyo, mis mezoblad kaxeTsa da qarTlSi aseve qarTulenovani xalxi cxovrobda, rac xels uwyobda hereTSi qarTulenovnebis SenarCunebas. herebis sasaubro, saojaxo ena qarTuli ena iyo, mxolod eklesiaSi ixmareboda somxuri ena saeklesio saWiroebisaTvis _ monofizitobis dros. hereTis samefos Seqmnis Semdeg, IX saukuneSi, saxelmwifo (!) ena iyo qarTuli ena _ mosaxleobis deda ena. miuxedavad amisa, saeklesio ena am dros mainc somxuri iyo monofizitobis gamo. somxuri enis codna ganaTlebisa da mwignobrobis misaRebad aucileblad saWiro iyo, Tu romelime axalgazrda somxeTSi amisaTvis gaemgzavreboda. arsebobs lalaianis mier Cawerili legenda, romlis mixedviTac, cnobili mecnieri _ filosofosi VI saukunisa daviT uZleveli, warmoSobiT hereTidan yofila, hereTi ki V saukuneSi qarTlSi Semavali qveyana iyo. daviTi ganaTlebis misaRebad somxeTSi gamgzavrebula, Semdeg ki kvlav dabrunebula qarTlSi. hereTis istoriuli geografia saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi icvleboda. qarTvelebi hereTs zogjer mTel albaneTs uwodebdnen, rogorc magaliTad, arseni safareli Tavis TxzulebaSi. hereTi da gugarqi, anu qvemo qarTli erTmaneTis mezoblebi iyvnen da zogjer erTmaneTis teritoriebs nawilobriv faravdnen, magaliTad, curtavi xan hereTSia (iakob curtavelis Tanaxmad), xan kidev gugarqSia (`epistoleTa wignisa~ da uxtanesis Tanaxmad). axali gamokvlevebis mixedviT, hereTSi Sedioda Saqic. cnobilia, rom Zveli qarTveli saeklesio istorikosebi SuSaniks uwodebdnen `ranis dedofals~, magram Cven viciT, rom SuSaniki hereTis dedofali iyo. Cans, `rani~ Sua saukuneebSi ewoda hereTis erT nawils. aqedan Cans, rom hereTi did teritoriaze yofila gadaWimuli. da Tu `rani~ hereTis nawils ewoda, maSin hereTi albaneTis centraluri `utiqis~ provinciis mezobeli yofila. albaneTis es provincia ki armenizebuli, anu gasomxebuli iyo. dasavleTiT hereTi uSualod qalkedonur centrebs _ mcxeTa-Tbiliss emezobleboda. igi monofizitur da qalkedonitur qveynebs Soris yofila moTavsebuli, amitomac Sesabamisad mosaxleobis is nawili, romelic hereTis aRmosavleTSi cxovrobda, monofizituri iqneboda (ise, rogorc mTeli albaneTi), xolo hereTis dasavleTiT qalkedonitur qarTlTan mcxovrebi mosaxleoba naklebad iqneboda gamonofizitebuli da, albaT, nawilobriv mainc qalkedonituri iyo (igulisxmeba VI-IX saukuneebi). X saukuneSi hereTis mTlianad qalkedonitobaze moqceva dinara dedoflis mier warmoadgenda hereTis srul gamoyofas monofizituri albaneTidan, ufro zustad IX saukuneSi hereTi politikurad gamoeyo albaneTs, xolo X saukuneSi _ sarwmunoebrivad. yuradReba unda mieqces erT garemoebas, Tu herebis dedaena albanuri iyo, rogor moxda herebis `gaqarTveleba~?43 saerTod, amJamad miRebulia aseTi

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Teoria: roca romelime araqarTulenovani mxare qarTuli (mcxeTis) eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi eqceoda, xdeboda am mxaris `gaqarTveleba~. es Teoria srulebiT ver xsnis hereTis gaqarTvelebis sakiTxs. saqme isaa, rom VI-IX ssSi hereTi Sedioda ara qarTuli, aramed somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi. amitomac is monofizituri iyo da ara qalkedonituri. amis gamo hereTSi wirva-locvis ena somxuri iyo. miuxedavad amisa, hereTis samefos SeqmnisTanave, hereTis saxelmwifo ena qarTuli gaxda da ara somxuri, es im dros, roca arc qarTul (mcxeTis) eklesiasa da arc qarTul saxelmwifos hereTze xeli ar miuwvdebodaT. Tu herebi albanurenovani xalxi iyo am dros, iq unda danergiliyo saerTo-saxelmwifo somxuri ena, radganac mTel albaneTSi swored somxuri ena iyo saerTo-saxelmwifo-saeklesio ena. da radganac am pirobebSi hereTSi saerTo-saxelmwifo enad dainerga swored qarTuli da ara somxuri ena (igulisxmeba IX saukune, hereTis gaqalkedonitebamde), miuTiTebs, rom herebi iyvnen ara Tu qarTulenovani xalxi, aramed qarTvelebi. xSirad Zveli drois araqarTveli istorikosebi albaneTs iverias-iberias uwodebdnen da Sesabamisad albaneTs iverebiT dasaxlebulad miiCnevdnen. aseTi Tvalsazrisi nawilobriv aisaxa qarTul wyaroebSi. rogorc aRniSnuli gvqonda, `qarTlis cxovrebasa~ da sxva qronikebs albaneTis mniSvnelovani nawili _ hereTi `qarTlis samefos~ nawilad miaCndaT, mosaxleobas ki, herebs, qarTvelebad miiCnevdnen, ase rom, hereTs qarTls anu iverias uwodebdnen ara marto ucxoeli, aramed qarTveli avtorebic. amitomac, Cans, hereTis cnobili dedofali dinara ucxoel avtorTa mier iveriis dedofal dinarad iqna wodebuli, rac aisaxa kidec rusul TqmulebaSi `iveriis dedofal dinaras~ Sesaxeb. dinaras dedoflobis dros hereTi didi saxelmwifo iyo, romelic moicavda teritoriebs, romelTac Semdgom ewoda Saqi, rani, movakani da sxva. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Crdilokavkasiel tomebsa da mis CrdiloeTiT mcxovreb savromatul tomebs aqtiuri urTierToba hqondaT albaneTTan (da hereTTan) `Coris~, derbendis, kaspiis kariT. CrdiloeTSi mcxovrebi xalxebi albaneTsa da hereTs ukeT icnobdnen, vidre, vTqvaT, saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebs. albaneTTan mWidro kontaqtebi hqondaT xazarebsac, xolo maT Semdeg slavur da rusul tomebsac.44 amitomac, dedofali dinara, romelmac albaneTis mniSvnelovani nawili _ hereTi qalkedonitobaze moaqcia, CrdiloeTis xalxebisaTvis legendarul pirovnebad iqca, xolo TviT hereTi Crdiloeli xalxebisaTvis iberiis Sesasvleli, mTavari qveyana iyo (CrdiloeTis tomebi albaneTSi Sediodnen kaspiis gziT, derbendidan, `Coris~ kariT). hereTis dasavleTiT (qarTlis uSualo sazRvarTan) mdebareobda ganTqmuli daviT garejis lavra. ismis kiTxva: Tu hereTi VI-IX ss-Si monofizituri iyo albaneTis msgavsad, ra sarwmunoebrivi mimarTulebisa iyo es lavra?

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daviT garejelis cxovrebaSi gvaqvs aseTi momenti _ wmida mama daviTi Cadis garejis sanaxebSi, sadac mas Sexvdeba mis mimarT mtrulad ganwyobili aznauri, romelic somxurad metyvelebs. daviT garejeli iZulebuli xdeba mis mosaklavad SemarTul kacs somxuri eniTve upasuxos. `mas Jamsa Sina movida barbarozi vinme naTesavi adgilTagan ruAsTavisaTa... daukYrda barbarozsa mas da hrqua: `vinaA xar Sen?~ miugo man somxuriTa eniTa...~45 daviT garejelis cxovrebis zemoT moyvanili cnobidan Cans, rom hereTs ara marto aRmosavleTidan emezobleboda somxurenovani albanuri Temi utiqi, aramed dasavleTiTac (qvemo qarTl-gugarqSic) mosaxleobaSi nawilobrivad mainc somxurenovneba danergila. asurel mamaTa cxovrebidan Cans, rom isini qarTul enaze laparaks gansakuTrebul, principul mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ gvaqvs momenti, roca maT misagebeblad gamosul kaTalikoss asureli mamebi qarTul enaze upasuxeben. qarTul enaze laparaks maSin princi puli mniSvneloba hqonda, radganac VI saukunis I naxevarSi amierkavkasiis eklesiebze zedadgomis, zedamxedvelobis ufleba sparseTma mianiWa somxur-monofizitur eklesias da amitomac yvelgan inergeboda somxurenovani RvTismsaxureba. qarTul enaze saubars da qarTulenovan RvTismsaxurebas, Cans, antimonofizitur anu antisparsul movlenad miiCnevdnen. aseT dros asurel mamaTa mier qarTuli enis gamoyenebas proqalkedonituri da antimonofizituri mniSvneloba eniWeboda. sruliad ueWvelia, da yvelasTvis cnobilia, rom daviT garejis lavra VI-X saukuneebSi qarTulenovani monastrebisgan Sedgeboda. es faqti TavisTavad warmoadgens pasuxs am lavris sarwmunoebrivi mimarTulebis Sesaxeb. es lavra monofizituri mimarTulebisa rom yofiliyo, iq danergili iqneboda mxolod da mxolod somxurenovani wirva-locva da araviTar SemTxvevaSi qarTulenovani, magram aq somxurenovani wirva-locva ar yofila, cxadia, es lavra qalkedonituri iyo. aSkaraa, daviT garejis monastrebi aferxebdnen hereTis dasavleTi nawilis armenizacias da xels uwyobdnen hereTSi qalkedonuri mrwamsis aRdgenas. marTalia, hereTis mcire nawili, romelzedac daviT-garejis monastrebs gavlena hqondaT, qalkedonituri iyo, ZiriTadi nawili dinara dedoflamde monofizituri yofila, rasac Taviseburi gavlena eqneboda mosaxleobaze. uTuod amis asaxvaa sabereebis erT-erT eklesiaSi somxurenovani warwerebis arseboba.

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sabereebad wodebul samonastro kompleqsSi ramdenime eklesia yofila. erT-erT eklesiaSi aRmoCnda somxuri ganmartebiTi warwerebi. somxuri warwerebis aRmoCenam maSinve warmoSva azri hereTSi somxuri adgilobrivi mosaxleobis arsebobis Sesaxeb _ `...somxuri ganmartebiTi warwerebis arsebobis faqti, bunebrivia, badebs mosazrebas, romlis mixedviTac es epigrafikuli masala adgilobriv, hereTis (am SemTxvevaSi kambeCanis) teritoriaze somxuri mosaxleobis arsebobaze unda miuTiTebdes... monasterSi qarTvelebTan erTad moRvawe somxebic am eTnikuri jgufidan unda yofiliyvnen gamosulni. amgvari varaudi mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis Taobaze msjelobisas adrec ramdenjerme yofila gamoTqmuli~.46 z. sxirtlaZe ar iziarebs gamoTqmul varauds hereTSi somxuri mosaxleobis arsebobis Sesaxeb, Tumca uSvebs, rom _ `somxuri mosaxleobis wili hereTisa sazogadod da, kerZod, kambeCanis teritoriaze erTob mcire unda yofiliyo~.47 misi azriT, am monasterSi mosulan qalkedoniti somxebi, romlebic gaqarTvelebulan. Turme aq mimdinareobda qalkedonit somexTa denacionalizaciis procesi.48 sinamdvileSi ki rogorc masalebidan Cans, hereTsa da kambeCanSi cxovrobda ara somxuri mosaxleoba, aramed qarTvelebi, nawilobriv armenizebuli, rac Seexeba qalkedoniti somxebis `denacionalizacias~, somexi qalkedonitebi somxebadve darCnen, radganac maTSi erovnuli TviTSegnebisa da erovnuli siamayis, erisa da mamulis siyvarulis grZnoba sarwmunoebriv grZnobaze naklebi ara yofila. somxeTis mdidari istoriografia naTlad gadmoscems, rom somex ers Tavisi erovneba iseve amaRlebuli hqonda, rogorc sarwmunoeba da arasodes erTs meores ar anacvalebda. xolo hereTSi arsebuli sinamdvile srulad aris gadmocemuli qarTul wyaroebSi _ X saukuneSi hereTi qalkedonituri qveyana gaxda, aqamde ki is monofizituri iyo, TiTqmis 200-300 wlis manZilze VI_IX saukuneebSi, rac imas niSnavs, rom aq mwignobrobis, mecnierebis, damwerlobis, azris Caweris ena iyo somxuri ena, somxuri anbani. X saukuneSi, roca mTeli hereTi gaqalkedonitda, daviT-garejis monastrebSi da maT Soris sabereebSic hereTis sxva kuTxeebidan mividnen ukve qalkedoniti, yofili monofiziti berebi, maT wirva-locvis ena ki gaegebodaT, radganac qarTuli maTi dedaena iyo, magram, rogorc Cans, wera-kiTxva qarTulad ar icodnen, icodnen mxolod somxurad (romelic maT adre, siymawvileSive Seiswavles), SesaZloa, amitomac monastris winamZRvrebma qarTuli wera-kiTxvis ucodinari am qarTveli berebisTvis kedlebze sagangebod gaakeTebines somxurenovani ganmartebiTi warwerebi, raTa maT Tavisuflad SeZlebodaT gageba, Tu vin iyvnen gamoxatulni eklesiis kedlebze. momdevno axalma nakadma, albaT ukve icoda qarTuli wera-kiTxva (Seiswavles), amitomac Semdgom saukuneebSi saWiro aRar gaxda am da sxva eklesiebSi somxuri ganmartebiTi warwerebis gakeTeba.

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ase rom, hereTSi mimdinareobda ara `denacionalizacia~, aramed piriqiT, mosaxleoba daubrunda mSobliurenovan RvTismsaxurebas. unda davaskvnaT, rom hereTi qristianobis Casaxvis periodSi, IV-V saukuneebSi, qarTuli eklesiis nawili iyo. VI-X saukuneebSi hereTis didi nawili monofizitur-somxur eklesiaSi Sedioda. X saukuneSi hereTi daubrunda dedaqarTul eklesias, Sesabamisad, IV-V saukuneebSi hereTis saeklesio ena qarTuli enaa, VI-IX saukuneebSi _ somxuri ena, X saukunidan kvlav qarTuli ena.

g) saeklesio ena gugarqSi, anu qvemo qarTlSi


somxuri istoriografiis Tanaxmad, somxeTis CrdiloeTiT moqceuli vrceli qveynis _ gugarqis centri aris qalaqi curtavi. gugarqi qarTlis qveyanaa. curtavi dRevandel rusTavTan axlos mdebareobda, esaa qvemo qarTli. aqaur eklesiebsa da maT naSTebze V saukuniT daTariRebuli mravali qarTuli warwera arsebobs, rac imis utyuari niSania, rom gugarqSi saeklesio ena, anu wirva-locvis ena IV-V saukuneebSi iyo qarTuli ena. amave dros Cvenamde moRweulia pirvelxarisxovani saistorio wyaro _ `epistoleTa wigni~ VI-VII saukuneebisa, saidanac sruliad aSkarad Cans, rom saerTod gugarqSi da kerZod curtavSi (e. i. qvemo qarTlSi) arsebobda `somxurenovani~ mosaxleobis sakmao raodenoba. amJamad qarTul istoriografiaSi aris mcdeloba, es somxurenovani mosaxleoba gamoacxadon Zalze mcirericxovan Temad, romelic curtavSi saxlobda, magram aseT mosazrebas ewinaaRmdegeba `epistoleTa wigni~, sadac garkveviT weria, rom somxurenovani mosaxleoba Zalze mravalricxovania, maT gugarqSi aqvT `qveynebi~, soflebi, dabebi, hyavT aznaurebi da glexebi, axalgazrdebi da moxucebi, aseve mimarTaven kidec maT somexi ierarqebi _ `savaneTa xucesebs da soflis mRvdlebs, aznaurebsa da glexebs, moxucebsa da yrmebs somxurenovani qveynebis sruliad yovel msoflions, romelnic xarT curtavis eklesiis samwysoSi...~49 aqedan aSkaraa, rom mxolod erTi qalaqis (dabis) curtavis mcirericxovan somxurenovan Tems ki ar egzavneba es epistole, aramed curtavis eklesiis samwysoSi (anu eparqiaSi) moqceuli `qveynebis~ somxurenovan mosaxleobas, Torem ramdeni `savane~ unda hqonoda erTi dabis mcirericxovan Tems, rom es sityva mravlobiT ricxvSi ar daeweraT? curtavis somxurenovani Temi mravalricxovani yofila da mTel mis samwysoSi, anu gugarq-qvemo qarTlSi yofilan gabneulni. ras niSnavs `somxurenovneba~? fiqroben, rom somxuri ena am mosaxleobis dedaena, mSobliuri ena iyo, rac arasworia. somxuri ena am mosaxleobis saeklesio ena iyo, anu maT eklesiebSi somxur enaze tardeboda wirva-locva (monofizituri sarwmu-

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noebis gamo). eTnikurad es `somxurenovani~ xalxi qarTvelebi iyvnen da maTi dedaena iyo qarTuli ena. aseTi mtkicebis uflebas iZleva TviT `epistoleTa wigni~, sadac sruliad garkveviT, aSkarad weria, rom curtaveli episkoposi mose iyo `qarTvelTa~ episkoposi. `epistoleTa wignis~ erT-erTi Tavis dasaTaureba aseTia _ `mizezi orbunebianTa meoTxe krebisa, mose qarTvelTa marTlmadidebeli episkoposisa~.50 somxebi marTlmadidebels uwodebdnen monofizits, mose qarTvelTa monofiziti episkoposi iyo. cnobilia, rom es mose curtavis eparqiis mmarTveli episkoposi iyo, curtavis eparqia ki mTel gugarqs _ qvemo qarTls moicavda, moses saepiskoposoSi mTeli gugarqi Sedioda. gugarqis mosaxleoba (gugarelebi) rom eTnikurad qarTvelebi iyvnen, es kargad icodnen Zvelma somexma istorikosebma. amis Sesaxeb pirdapir wers uxtanesi. curtavi, _ wers uxtanesi, _ didi saxelovani dedaqalaqi iyo, samkvidrebeli gugarelTa didi pitiaxSisa, axla ki curtavi daba-qalaqia da gaCiani hqvia. am mxares ki `vrac daSti~, qarTvelTa veli ewodebao. uxtanesi aRwers gugarelTa