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ilias saxelmwifo universiteti semiotikis kvleviTi centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

XIII SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2013

2 UDC 8122

mTavari redaqtori cira barbaqaZe

Editor-in-Chief Tsira Barbakadze

redaqtorebi Tamar berekaSvili Tamar lomiZe gia joxaZe

Editors Tamar Berekashvili Tamar Lomidze Gia Jokhadze

eZRvneba prof. zurab kiknaZis 80 wlis iubiles

ilias saxelmwifo universiteti, semiotikis kvleviTi centri 2013

ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT: E-mail: semiotics@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
Mmilocva Ggigi TevzaZe (ilias saxelmwifo universitetis

reqtori)
sinqronuli zurab kiknaZe

Tema: sivrcis semiotikuri perspeqtivebi


(sivrcis semiotika) naira bepievi (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
sivrcis semiotika narTebis eposSi 19 Tamar berekaSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
sivrce(adgili) fentezis Janris literaturaSi 24 daviT bostanaSvili (Tbilisi, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti) sivrce _ mTxrobeli 34 konstantine bregaZe (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
sivrcis ageba da daSla romantikul da modernistul mxatvrobaSi 51 nino gogiaSvili (Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis saxelmwifo universiteti)

gamrudebuli dro da sivrce mirza gelovanis omis lirikaSi 62 lali daTaSvili (Tbilisi, saqarTvelos mxatvrul-olamuri sivrce Zvel qarTul literaturaSi 71

pedagogTa kvalifikaciis amaRlebis centraluri instituti)

elizbar elizbaraSvili (Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis saxelmwifo universiteti) drois `wakiTxva~ samyaros meoTxe ganzomilebis sivrciTi koordinatis mixedviT 86 eTer inwkirveli (Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa

rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti)


semiotikuri centris dinamika `nacarqeqias~ zRaparSi 94 irine maniJaSvili (Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblis

universiteti (sdasu)
realur-istoriuli sivrce emigrantul mwerlobaSi 104 ada nemsaZe (Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis

qarTuli literaturis instituti)


imperiis sivrculi modelebi 118 salome omiaZe (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
piradi sivrcis proeqcia qarTul lingvokulturaSi 126 nino popiaSvili (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
literaturuli sivrce da qalTa literatura132 Tamar ziger-popiaSvili (Tbilisi, ivane

javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universiteti)


Kkulturuli sivrcis ganzomilebebi 138 zeinab saria (zugdidi, SoTa mesxias saswavlo

universiteti)
urbanistuli sivrce qarTul literaturul modernizmSi 142

nino qavTaraZe (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universiteti) Julien grakis sivrcis poetika 152 Eeka CikvaiZe (Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis

qarTuli literaturis instituti)


dro (realuri, literaturuli, siuJeturi da gramatikuli) nikoloz gulaberisZis ,,sveticxovlis sakiTxavSi~ 161 maia jaliaSvili (Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa

rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti)


sivrculi gzajvaredinebi 171

semiotika da sxva Tamar lomiZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
sulxan-saba orbelianis `sityvis kona~ (semantikuri struqtura) 182 cira barbaqaZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
`vefxistyaosani~ da fentezi 191 rozeta gujejiani (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
qarTuli xalxuri dResaswaulebi TurqeTis respublikis eTnikur qarTvelTa Soris 198 mariam marjaniSvili (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
emigrantul-epistolaruli memkvidreobis semiotika 210

nana mrevliSvili (Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti) drois kategoriis gageba ioane damaskelis `gardamocemaSi~ 220 ekaterine gaCeCilaZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
enobrivi niSnis asimetria, rogorc enis funqcionirebis fundamenturi kategoria 229 Ggiorgi patariZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti, doqtoranti)
jvris semiotika 237 Sorena barbaqaZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis

saxelmwifo universiteti, doqtoranti)


Eesoposis igavebi_ Cafiqreba sindisierebaze 243 qristine adeiSvili (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universiteti, doqtoranti) Aavtoritetis argumenti politikur diskursSi 252 tariel daTiaSvili (quTaisi, damoukidebeli mkvlevari) arsebuli da ararsebuli sivrceebi 260

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naira bepievi sivrcis semiotika narTebis eposSi


narTi kaci gamudmebiT mogzaurobs. misi mogzauroba mravalgvari mizniTaa ganpirobebuli: is xan sabrZolveladsalaSqrod midis, xan sanadirod _ nadiris mosaklavad da amiT saxelis mosaxveWad, xan Tavis gamosacdelad, _ vaJkacobis dasamtkiceblad; igi xan Temis sxva wevrTa Sorisaa _ saerTo saqmisaTvis garjili, xan samogzaurod miemarTeba, sxvadasxva adgilebisa da sxvadasxva adamianebis gacnoba-Seswavlis mizniT da vin moTvlis, ramdeni saxis mogzurobaa maT cxovrebaSi niSandoblivi. narTis yvela mogzaurobis mizandasaxulebaa, yvelgan Rirseulad wardges, narTis saxeli arsad Searcxvinos da umTavres kredod yovelTvis daisaxos borotebis winaaRmdeg brZola da sikeTis Tesva. narTis cxovrebis Sinaarsi TiToeuli aseTi saxis mogzaurobaSi devs. narTebis eposSi narTebis samoqmedo sivrce usazRvroa. isini Tavisuflad dadian miuval mwvervalebze, gaSlil velze, ugzo-ukvlo adgilebSi. narTebisaTvis sruliad bunebrivia wyalSi yofnac. mTis viwro xeobebSi gansaxlebulTa am eposs ukidegano

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naira bepievi

teritoriuli masStabebi aqvs. sivrcis (wylis qveS Tu cis kabadonze) da drois uzarmazari masivebi, romelTac Zleven narTebis gmirebi, xalxis Soreuli samSoblos sivrceebia, _ aRniSnavs prof. zurab kiknaZe (1. gv.17). am sivrceSi isini laRad da bunebrivad grZnoben Tavs, radgan maTi gmirebi RvTiuri warmomavlobisani arian, ufro metic, zogjer cis, miwisa da wylis substanciac gadanawilebuli ki ar aris sxvadasxva personaJSi, aramed erT gmirSia warmosaxuli es sami sawyisi. narTebis sasaxelo gmiri baTraZi miwieri arsebaa, magram zeciuri warmomavlobisaa, romelic, amave dros, wylis binadrebTan (donbedTirebTan) erTad izrdeba. baTraZi garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi wyalSi cxovrobs (2. gv. 36). magram kosmiuri samyaros warmomadgenlebi mas Tavisianad miiCneven. mze eubneba baTraZs: narTebs TavisTan mihyavxar da wadi, gahyevi. Sen zecaSi yovelTvis geqneba gza (migesvleba) da Seni adgili zeciuri Zalebis sufraze yovelTvis iqneba. _ mzis sityvebs mec veTanxmebi da damilocnixaro, _ ase mimarTavs RmerTi baTraZs. (2. gv. 40). narTebs marTlac miaCniaT, rom maT yvelgan miesvlebaT, zeciur saufloSic, xmeleTzec da wyalSic bunebrivad grZnoben Tavs. iyo dro, roca erTmaneTTan mimosvla zeciuri da miwieri arsebebisa Cveulebrivi iyo.: Soreul cidan angelozT gundi dedamiwaze mofrindeboda. aseve kacic, Zexorcieli, miwidan cisken eSureboda. (3. gv. 1) narTi bunebiT, cxovrebis wesiT, mogzauria, es bevri ramiTaa ganpirobebuli. isini bevrs mogzauroben. mogzauroben sxvadasxva mizandasaxulebiT. samyaros mTlian sivrceSi triali mogzauroba es narTi kacis arsebobis ZiriTadi atributia, misi cxovrebis Sinaarsia da es qmedeba narTis leqsikaSic aisaxa.

sivrcis semiotika narTebis eposSi

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specifikuri Sesityveba , Zalian xSirad gvxvdeba narTebis eposSi. am SesityvebaSi konkretuli mizandasaxuleba ara Cans da zogadad farTo sivrceSi gasvlas niSnavs. erTdroulad niSnavs samogzaurod, salaSqrod, saalafod, saTareSod, saxetialod (saTavgadasavlo mogzauroba) wasvlas. aRniSnul SesityvebaSi sanadirod wasvlac igulisxmeba, Tumca TiToeul am cnebas (nadirobas, laSqrobabrZolas, mogzaurobas) osur enaSi Tavisi zusti Sesatyvisi leqsemebic aqvs. es mogzauroba zogjer TveobiT grZeldeboda da yvelaze warmatebuli svla saqonlis jogis an cxvris faris SemomatebiTac ki sruldeboda (rac mTel Tems unawildeboda). ufro metic, narTebis eposSi gvaqvs SemTxvevebi, roca samogzaurod wasul narTs iqidan coli mouyvania. narTisTvis zogjer (samogzaurod wasvla) erTgvari gamocdac iyo. TavgadasavlebiTa da siZneleebiT savse gzaze rogor gamoiCenda Tavs da rogor gaumklavdeboda am mogzaurobis sirTules _ amaze iyo damokidebuli narTi vaJkacis avtoriteti da misi adgili narTebs Soris. mas unda am dros Tavi gamoeCina, es erTgvari naTlobac iyo vaJkacobisa. amitom iyo, rom zogjer martodmartoc midioda narTi am gamosacdel gzaze, zogjer ki mTeli Temis rCeulebi ikribebodnen da ise midodnen. narTma soslanma sanadirod wasvla gadawyvita. didxans emzadeboda da bolos, rogorc iqna, gaemgzavra. soslani ise wavida sanadirod, rom narTebisaTvis ar gaugebinebia. (soslani da vacilas vaJi) (2.. gv. 391). gmiris marto wasvlas aqvs garkveuli mizani, is amjerad mxolod Tavisi Tavis imedad midis da Tavis TavSi (da ara marto Tavis TavSi) imis dasarwmuneblad, rom mas SeuZlia siZneleebTan martos Sebma da gamklaveba. Tumca zogierTi gmiri aseTi amocanis winaSe mdgari WoWmanobs da es arcaa gasakviri, mas SeiZleba uTanasworo brZolaSic mouxdes CarTva da am gamocdam SesaZlebelia misTvis savalalo Sedegi moitanos. ase ki araerTxel momxdara narTis cxovrebaSi, romelic Zalian bevri moulodnelobiT iyo aRsavse. aseTi saxis gamgzavrebas Tavisi wina rituali axlda Tan. narTebi wanaswar, karga xniT adre emzadebodnen. amisaTvis; isini

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naira bepievi

wmendnen da amzadebdnen iaraRs, sagangebod imaragebdnen (sagzali, romelsac ojaxi sagangebod umzadebda), winaswar garkveuli rituali sruldeboda _ nixasi (uxucesTa sabWo) dalocavda da Semdeg karga manZilze gaacilebdnen. dabrunebis dros ki win gamogzavnidnen xolme macnes, romelic Tems atyobinebda maTi warmatebisa Tu warumateblobis ambavs. warmatebuli laSqrobis dros mas aucileblad asaCuqrebdnen, rogorc kargi ambis macnes da amitom yvelas exaliseboda maxaroblad TemSi gamgzavreba. Tumca amas pirovneba ar wyvetda, mxolod ufrosebis gadasawyveti iyo, vin SeirCeoda. SerCevis mTavari kriteriumi ki yovelTvis iyo simarde, siyoCaRe da gambedaoba, rac macnesaTvis unda yofiliyo aucileblad damaxasiaTebeli. balcidan mobrunebulebs aucileblad xvdebodaT ukve momzadebuli ludi, nanadirevi TviTon mohqondaT da imarTeboda narTebis yofis aucilebeli (didi lxini). rac xSir SemTxvevaSi kviriT-kviramde grZeldeboda. aq isic unda aRiniSnos, rom am dros mopovebuli nadavli nawildeboda absoluturad yvelaze, ara mxolod mogzaurobis monawile vaJkacebze, aramed mTel Temze, maT Soris, upirvelesad, umweo da sapyar adamianebzec, romelTac ar SeeZloT samogzaurod wasvla. gansakuTrebulad did mosakiTxs axvedrebdnen qvriv-obolT da umweo moxucebs. zogjer balcidan dabrunebul adamians TviTon araferi Sexvedria, magram uZlur adamianebs ki aucileblad xvdebodaT wili (sa xai). osur folklorSi sxvadasxva miTosuri xalxis Sesaxeb arsebobs Tqmulebebi. niSandoblivia, rom wasvla mxolod narTebisTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli. Mmxolod narTebi awyobdnen aseT mogzaurobebs. narTebis Tqmulebebis sxva personaJebi salaSqrod, sabrZolvelad midian, magram maT mimarT brZolis aRmniSvneli sxva konkretuli sityva gamoiyeneba da ara , romelsac garkveuli sakraluri daniSnuleba aqvs, radgan aq aris asparezi narTi gmirisTvis saxelis mosaxveWad. aq gamoCndeba misi vaJkacoba, gambedaoba, SemarTeba da zogadad narTi kacisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli saukeTeso Tvisebebi (aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom Tu uvargis adamians narTi aseTi saxis mogzaurobaSi ar waiyvanda).

sivrcis semiotika narTebis eposSi

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narTebs aseve aqvT TiTqmis paraleluri mniSvnelobis aRmniSvneli Sesityveba (salaSqrod wasvla), rac niSnavs salaSqrod, sanadirod, saTareSod, sabrZolvelad wasvlas. or Sesityvebas Soris gansxvaveba ufro konteqstSia. narTebis am svlas ufro sabrZolo daniSnuleba aqvs, xolo ufro samogzauro, saTavgadasavlo, umetesad mSvidobiani mizniT wasvlas gulisxmobs, maSin roca aucileblad Sebmis, brZolis elementebs gulisxmobs. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom Tavgadasavlebis maZiebeli saTavgadasavlo mogzauroba aseve Sebma, brZolaSi CaerTos brZola mouxdes, magram Tavidan aseTi ganwyoba ar aris TviTmizani, rac ganasxvavebs mas isagan. osur enas aqvs aseve sityvaTSexameba , rac pirdapir saomrad wasvlas niSnavs. narTis pirdapiri mizani, daniSnuleba am SemTxvevaSi salaSqrod, konkretulad sabrZolvelad wasvlaa. miuxedavad imisa, rom osuri ena samogzaurod wasvlas sxvadasxva sityvaTSexamebiT gadmoscems da maTSi yvelgan igulisxmeba samogzaurod wasvla, mainc SesamCnevia, maT Soris niuansobrivi gansxvaveba. am sami specifikuri leqsemidan ; da ori ukanaskneli sxva TemebisTvisac aris damaxasiaTebeli da ufro sabrZolvelad wasvla da mizandasaxuleba aqvs, miuxedavad imisa, rom ufro mSvidobiani misia aqvs, brZola-laSqroba arc aq aris gamoricxuli, magram mainc ufro mSvidobian mogzaurobas aRniSnavs, es mxolod narTebi midian aseTi daniSnulebiT, rasac metad sagulisxmo Sinaarsi aqvs. _ es aris yvela vaJkacisaTvis, yvela narTisaTvis aucilebeli rituali, es aris narTi kacis triali im ganusazRvrel sivrceSi, romelic mas moaxveWinebs bevr rames (maT Soris materialursac) da maT Soris yvelaze umTavress _ saxels, risTvisac narTebi maradiulad iRvwodnen. is faqti, rom narTi gamudmebiT mogzaurobs, aris imisi maniSnebeli, rom Zieba, mogzauroba, aTasgvari saTavgadasavlo istoriebi misTvis cxovrebis erT-erTi umTavresi daniSnulebaa. amitomaa, rom narTebis eposi savsea aseTi saxis mogzaurobiTa da

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naira bepievi

masSi ikiTxeba narTebis suliskveTeba, yoveldRiuri yofisaTvis, sasicocxlo pirobebis gaumjobesebisaTvis brZola-zrunvaSi gamoxatos mzadyofna vaJkacuri idealebisaken swrafvisa. am qmedebasTan dakavSirebuli leqsikaSi arsebuli SesityvebaTa nairgvaroba maniSnebelia, rom narTi kacisaTvis sivrce ar aris SemosazRvruli. narTi kaci modis zecidan da zeciuri binadaria, is cxovrobs xmeleTze da misTvis esec mSobliuri adgilia, is wylis binadaria da misTvis es sivrcec nacnobi da axlobelia. am ukidegano sivrceSi, sadac mas yovelTvis vxedavT is Tavis raobas, Tavis meobas imkvidrebs brZoliT xan zeciur ZalebTan, xan xmeleTze macxovreblebTan, xan wylis binadrebTan. es dapirispireba, Sejaxeba, brZola misTvis imdenad romantiulia, miuxedavad Zalian didi dramatizmisa, mas periodulad izidavs, ixmobs raRaca didi JiniTa da survilebiT aRavsebs, romelsac am mogzauroba-laSqrobiT, nadiroba-garTobiTa da zogjer samkvdro-sasicocxlo SerkinebiT iklavs. amitom axlavs sivrceSi aseT mogzaurobas bataluri scenebi, rac mainc ver klavs narTi kacis arsebaSi dasabamidan damaxasiaTebel sxvadasxva saxis mogzaurobis Jinsa da survils, maradiulad mogzaurobisa, iqneba es , Tu . umTavresi ki aris is, rom narTma kacma unda gamudmebiT itrialos sivrceSi, radgan igi Tavis mizandasaxulobas, cxovrebis Sinaarss, amqveynad movlinebis umTavres daniSnulebas aseTi saxis mogzaurobaSi xedavs.

literatura

1. osuri zepirsityviereba, Tb., 2005. 2. , , , 3. narTebi, staliniri, 1947. 1989.

Tamar berekaSvili sivrce (adgili) fentezis Janris literaturaSi


rogori banaluric ar unda iyos es fraza, misi dafiqsireba aucilebelia: sivrce uaRresad mniSvnelovania ara marto calke aRebuli individisTvis, aramed mTeli sazogadoebisTvis da kulturisTvis, xelovnebis yvela dargisTvis. warmodgenebi mxatvrul sivrceze da misi warmisaxvis formebi icvleba imisda mixedviT, rogor icvleba sazogadoeba da am sazogadoebis Rirebulebebi. samyaros suraTi, romelic yalibdeba sazogadoebaSi, didwilad moicavs Sexedulebebs sivrceze. p. florenski amtkicebda, rom mTeli kultura SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc sivrcis organizebisken mimarTuli qmedeba. {1} mirCi eliadec xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom sivrce upirvelesi, Zireuli cnebaa ukve arqauli cnobierebisTvis. teritoriis aTviseba es sakraluri centris gansazRvris aqciaa; sakraluri centri ki adamianis samyaros centria, saidanac is ukavSirdeba sxva samyaroebs, romlebic ganlagebulia vertikalur RerZze - zeciurze da miwisqveSa. {2}

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Tamar berekaSvili

didi xnis manZilze iTvleboda, rom dro da sivrce adamianisTvis sinamdvilis aRqmis Tandayolili formebia. Cveni SegrZnebebis sivrciseul xasiaTze saubari daiwyo XIX saukuneSi, rodesac am sakiTxma SeiZina mniSvneloba filosofosebisTvis. am droidan sivrcis cneba xelovnebaSi gaxda sxvadasxva filosofiuri mimarTulebis Seswavlis obieqti. SexedulebaTa siWrelis miuxedavad, yvela aRiarebs, rom mxatvruli sivrce specifiuria da misi ganxilva sruliad avtonomiurad unda xdebodes, ramdenadac is ar emTxveva arc maTematikur da arc fizikur sivrces. i. lotmanis gansazRvrebis mixedviT, sivrce warmoadgens kontiniums, romelSic Tavsdebian personaJebi da xdeba moqmedeba. {3} mxatvrul nawarmoebSi fizikur realobebs ar warmoadgenen arc personaJebi, arc moqmedeba da arc sivrce, isini mxatvruli fenomenebia. xSirad saubroben mxatvruli sivrcisa da drois ganuyofelobaze, rac baxtinma gamoxata qronotopis cnebiT. qronotopi droiTi da sivrciTi mimarTebebis arsebiTi urTierTkavSiria, romelic mxatvrulad aTvisebulia literaturaSi.{4} dro sivrcis meoTxe ganzomilebaa. qronotopi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs Janris Camoyalibebisas, is axasiaTebs gmirs da qmnis erTianobas mxatvrul nawarmoebsa da realur sinamdviles Soris. baxtinma daaxasiaTa sxvadasxva epoqebis mxatvruli literatura qronotipis specifikis mixedviT. swored baxtinis midgomis gamoyenebiT, sainteresoa fentezis Janris literaturis ganxilva, rasac gTavazobT miudgeT, rogorc erTgvar gonebriv savarjiSos, saxaliso gaTamaSebas. rogorc araerTgzis aRiniSna, fentezis met-naklebad sruli da amomwuravi gansazRvreba ar arsebobs. mis Taviseburebebze, safuZvlebze, arsze msjeloben ara marto kritikosebi, literaturis Tu xelovnebis specialistebi, filosofosebi, aramed Tavad fentezis avtorebi (tolkieni, sapkovski). Tu Tvals gadavavlebT fentezis yvela SesaZlo daxasiaTebas, davinaxavT, rom yvela saubrobs fentezis msgavsebaze da gansxvavebaze jadosnur zRaparTan, mis myar kavSirTan miTebTan da fantastikur JanrTan. Cven davamatebdiT mis msgavsebas Sua saukuneebis raindul romanTan. ikveTeba pralelebi bevr sxva

sivrce (adgili) fentezis Janris literaturaSi

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JanrTanac, magram amas myari xasiaTi ara aqvs da icvleba nawarmoebis erovnuli niSnebis mixedviT. rogorc aRiniSna, fentezis Janris literaturaSi uaRresad mniSvnelovania misi miTologiuri Sinaarsi. xelovneba, sazogadod, amodis miTidan da masTan mudam inarCunebs kavSirs. sivrciseuli xatebis ena asrulebs did rols. sivrcis miTologiuri warmodgenebi advilad aRmosaCenia iseT Tanamedrove literaturaSi da koncefciaSi, romelic fentezis ar miekuTvneba. rodesac vsaubrobT fentezis miTologiur safuZvlebze, aucileblad aRsaniSnia, rom miTebi, romelTa Seqmnasac cdiloben yvelaze popularuli avtorebi, kelturia, metic xSirad mefe arturis mrgvali magidis miTebiT ikvebeba. magram arturis mrgvali magidis istoriebi amave dros raindul romansac warmoadgens. rainduli romanis ganxilvisas baxtini (4) yuradRebas amaxvilebs Semdeg momentebze: rainduli romani muSaobs avantiurul droSi. dro iSleba mTel rig monakveTebad avantiurebad, romelTa SigniT is abstraqtul-teqnikuradaa organizebuli. misi kavSiri sivrcesTan agreTve teqnikuria. am romanis qronotopi antikuri berZnuli literaturis qronotopis msgavsad mravalferovnad ucxo da erTgvarad abstraqtuli samyaroa. mTavar Semkrav funqcias asrulebs gmirebis Sesabamisoba iseTi Rirebulebebisadmi, rogoricaa siyvaruli, erTguleba, megobroba, rainduli movaleobis kodeqsis dacva. berZnuli romanis gmiri cdilobs aRadginos kanonzomiereba, SeaerTos normaluri cxovrebis mimdinareobis jaWvidan amovardnili rgolebi da aRiqvams avantiuras, Tavgadasavals, rogorc RmerTebis mxridan mis dasjas. rainduli romanis gmiri cxovrobs TavgadasavlebSi, es misTvis bunebrivi atmosferoa da samyaros normaluri mdgomareoba. saswaulebi, romlebic aq xdeba da xdeba moulodnelad, amave dros iqcevian mosalodnelad. am saswaulebs mudmivad elian da isinic mudam xdeba. (baxtini).

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fentezis Janris romanebs Tu SevadarebT, erTi mxriv, aRmoCndeba, rom rainduli romanis msgavsad, saswaulebi, magiuri movlenebi aq mudmivad xdeba, magram isini ar iqcevian gmirisTvis arsebobis atmosferod. gmiri ara marto cxovrobs amaSi, aramed cdilobs, axsnas es saswaulebi da berZnuli romanebis gmirebis msgavsad, daubrunos samyaros simSvide, kanonzomiereba, siyvaruli da a.S. fentezis gmiri mudmiv ZiebeSia, rac ganasxvavebs mas sxva Janrisa da epoqebis gmirebisagan. es Zieba ara marto fizikuria, - is moZraobs, icvlis adgilsamyofels, mogzaurobs, transgresirebs da sxva - aramed sulieric. am Ziebisas is ara marto moipovebs sasurvel (saZiebel) artefaqts, aramed pirovnuladac icvleba, Rrmavdeba misi identuroba, meoba. rainduli romanis gmirebi maTTvis Cveul saswaul samyaroSi Cadian sagmiro saqmeebs da ixveWen saxels. miTologiuri gmirebic saxelovanni xdebian TavianTi gmirobebis wyalobiT. fentezi, rogorc axali miTis, axali epoqis Janric, aseTi saxis gmirebs warmogvidgens, magram es gmirebi xdebian uneblied, sruliad sayovelTao da bunebrivi, daviwyebuli Rirebulebebis Ziebis procesSi. maTi gmiruli Tavgamodeba mimarTulia simyudrovis, harmoniis dabrunebisken da ragind didi jgufebiT, TanamoazreebiT, armiebiT iyos maTi swrafva gamyarebuli, isini mainc marginalurni arian, ucxoni erTgvarad TviT am TanamoazreebisTvisac, imitom rom ZiriTadad swored maTi transformireba da Camoyalibeba xdeba unikalur individualur, TviTkmar pirovnebebad. sagmiro romanSi, rogorc aRniSnavs baxtini, Cndeba droiT subieqturi TamaSi, misi emociur-liriuli gaWimva da SekumSva, mTeli movlenebis gaqroba, rogorc ararsebulis. fenteziSic gvaqvs msgavsi suraTi da es exeba ara marto dros, aramed sivrces. gavixsenoT, rogori vrceli da farTo xdeba Cveulebrivi karavi Signidan meoTxe wignSi hari poterze ((hari poteri da cecxlis Tasi). rogor gadaTamaSdeba arasasurveli movlenebi mesame tomSi. aRsaniSnavia mxatvruli sivrcis gamosaxviTi mniSvneloba. is avtoriseul Canafiqrs damatebiT xatovanebas sZens da sarwmunos xdis mas. baxtinis sityvebiT, qronotopi, rogorc sivrcisa da

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29

drois materializacia, warmoadgens gamoxatviTi konkretizaciis centrs (4, 101). qronotopis wyalobiT avtoris yvela filosofiuri, socialuri ganzogadoebebi, ideebi, ganazrebebi da sxva, saxierdeba da iZens mxatvrul gamomsaxvelobas. qronotopebi agreTve atareben Janrul-tipobriv xasiaTs. ramdenadac qronotopi gansazRvravs literaturuli nawarmoebis da arsebul sinamdvilesTan misi mimarTebas mxatvrul erTianobas, amitom is yovelTvis Seicavs Tavis TavSi Rirebulebriv moments. literatura, iseve rogorc mTlianad xelovneba, gamsWvalulia qronotopuli RirebulebebiT. baxtini gamoyofs ZiriTad qronotopebs da maT Soris, upirveles yovlisa, Sexvedris qronotops, romelic misi azriT, gamoirCeva maRali emociur-Rirebulebrivi intensivobiT. masTan dakavSirebuli gza ufro farTo moculobisaa, magram naklebi emociur-Rirebulebrivi intensivobiT xasiaTdeba. Tumca baxtinisTvis gza warmoadgens drois mimdinareobis burjs, Cemi SexedulebiT, piriqiT, sivrce warmogvidgeba gzis xiluli xatiT sivrcea ganmsazRvreli ara marto Rirebulebebisa, aramed droisac. gzaze Sexvedra xSirad sabediswero qveteqts moicavs. gza Tavadaa Tavgadasavali, gamocda. is sicocxlis adekvaturadac warmogvidgeba xolme. gamarjoba, batono kurbe!, gamarjoba, batono gogen - am ferweruli tiloebiT maTi avtorebi Tavisi pirovnulobis, unikalurobis mniSvnelobas afiqsirebdnen. arafers eubneba msoflios, sazogadoebas, fraza an Tundac naxati: gamarjoba, qalbatono Tamar. (Tumca erTgvarad orazrovnad da idumalad JRers), magram gamarjoba, batono gogen _ misi cnobadobis, mniSvnelobis dadasturebaa. fenteziSi Tumca ki simboloebs, magiur artefaqtebs, sityvebs didi mniSvneloba aqvT, magram gza da Tundac Sexvedra ar atarebs egzom did, gadamwyvet filosofiur datvirTvas. Sexvedra mniSvnelovania da saintereso yovelTvis da yvelgan, gansakuTrebiT pirveli Sexvedra, fenteziSic Sexvedrebi da gzebi TamaSoben rols gmiris istoriaSi; fentezis gmirebi xom mudmiv gadaadgilebaSi arian, gzad arian gadebulni, magram amasTan gza aq ar gvevlineba im adgilad, sadac mTavari da gadamwyveti moqmedebebi xdeba. ufro did mniSvnelobas iZenen iseTi adgilebi, rogorc sasaflao, cixe-simagre, tye, zRva.

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sicocxlesac, Tuki mivusadagebT raime metaforas, ufro tye gamogvadgeba, vidre gza. (aki dantec Tavis sicocxles ufro tyes amsgavsebs, vidre gzas). Zalian mniSvnelovani movlenebi xdeba tyesa da WalebSi tolkinis beWdebis mbrZanebelSi, uaRresad datvirTulia TavgadasavlebiT tye hari poterTan. tyea Cveuli garemoa sapkovskis, martinis gmirebisTvis. cixe-simagre, sasaxle ukve Sua saukuneebidan gvevlineba im umniSvnelovanes adgilad, sadac xdeba sakvanZo movlenebis ganviTareba. gasakviri ar aris, rom fentezis Janris nawarmoebebSi es Zalian arsebiTi adgilia. cixe-simagre atarebs saukuneebis da Tavgadasavlebebis daRs. is tradiciis, siZvelis, mexsierebis kargi simboloa. mexsierebis, romelSic bevri ram dakargulia, bevri Camalulia mtverSi Znelad misaRwev sardafebsa Tu sxvenebSi. sasaxle inaxavs misi Zveli macxovreblebis sulebis aCrdilebs. is erTgvari skivria gamocdilebisac da gamocdisac. is SeiZleba gaxdes mxsneli, SesaZloa _ xafangi. fenteziSi naklebadaa gamosaxuli Tanamedrove, axali drois nagebobebi da adgilebi, magram yovelTvis, rodesac aseTi adgilebi figurireben, isini ganasaxiereben gulgrilobas, uadamianobas, zedapirulobas, warmavlobas, sixarbes, mokled sxvadasxva saxis cdomilebebs, codvebs, naklulobebs. didi roli eniWeba fenteziSi iseT qronotopebs, rogoricaa: Wa, sardafi, qveskneli. isini yovelTvis miuTiTeben raRac krizisul viTarebaze, sabediswero movlenaze. maTgan amosvla, Tavis daRweva yovelTvis didi gamarjvebaa da gmiris kidev erTi Zireuli cvlileba pirovnuli identobis Semecnebis gzaze. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani qronotopia transfiguracia, rac xSirad gvxvdeba fentezis Janris literaturaSi. uaryofiTi gmirebi xSirad kargaven Tavis adamianur iers da gadaiqcevian gaugebar arsebebad. winsarTi trans bevr moqmedebas axasiaTebs, romelic fentezis Janris literaturaSi xdeba. gmirebi gadaadgildebian transcendirebis gziT, icvlian ier-saxes, aqvT Tavisi transcendenturi gamosaxulebebi - iremi, mgeli, ciyvi, . . . anu erTgvarad gansuldebian cxovelebsa Tu nivTebSi.

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xSiria jadosnuri, miTiuri arsebebis gamosaxva: gnomebi, elfebi, goblinebi, feniqsi, drakoni, kentavri da sxva. TiToeuli maTgani, pirvel rigSi, emsaxureba imis xazgasmas, rom samyaro, romelSic xdeba moqmedeba, sxvaa, gansxvavdeba Cveni samyarosgan, romelSic amaoa harmoniis da azriani cxovrebis Zieba. nivTebze da cxovelebze Cven vsaubrobT imdenad, ramdenadac SeuZlebelia sivrceze, adgilze msjeloba im sagnebisa da arsebebis gareSe, romlebic mas avseben. swored isini axdenen sivrcis mowyobas, hkraven mas da amkvidreben, rogorc sivrcul centrs. sivrce ar aris erTgvarovani, is ar warmoadgens evklideseul erTgvarovan sivrces, romelic yvelgan erTnairia. is Taviseburi da yovelTvis gansxvavebuli realobaa, yovelTvis mowesrigebulia da arasodes ar aris neitraluri. is gadaadamianurebulia. miTis Seqmnis upirvelesi funqciac xom samyaros mowesrigebaa, qaosidan kosmosis Seqmna, rac gulisxmobs mis danawevrebas, gansakuTrebuli adgilebis gamoyofas. danawevrebuli seqtorebi araTanabaria ara marto zomiT, aramed daniSnulebiT, funqciurad, emociurad. adamiani Tavisi miznebis, Sexedulebebis, moTxovnilebebis, gadawyvetilebebis gamosaxvas, pirvel rigSi, sivrceSi axdens, adgilis konstruirebisa da organizebisas. literaturul nawarmoebSi adgilebi gvevlinebian am tradiciuli mniSvnelobis matareblebic da erTgvari maniSneblebic im sazrisisa, romelic avtors aqvs gamosaxatavi. amdenad, yvela is qronotopi, romelic Cven CamovTvaleT, ara marto garemos qmnis, romelSic gmiri cxovrobs da moqmedebs, aramed qmnisn kidec gmirs. rac Seexeba sagnebs, sagnad, nivTad yofnis Tviseba sivrcis funqciaa, sagani pirveladia, radganac sivrce adgilia sakraluri obieqtebisTvis da maTSi is warmoaCens Tavis arss. verafriT ver warmovidgenT saxls, Tu mas raime obieqtebiT ar davaxasiaTebT, romliTac is TiTqosda sulierebas iZens. arafers gveubneba winadadeba: vnaxe saxli, Tundac davumate: vnaxe saxli, romelic asi aTasi dolari Rirs (egziuperis magaliTia, magram sxva konteqstSi), magram Tu gvesmis: vnaxe saxli, romlis rafaze vardebi yvaoda da cisferi fardebi ekida fanjrebze, maSinve saxli warmogvidgeba

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da miuxedavad imisa, rom ar viciT es saxli didia Tu patara, mis mimarT cocxali simpaTia gviCndeba. da bolos, fentezis Janris nawarmoebebSi, rogorc wesi, gamosaxulia samyaro, romelic ararsebulia Cvens sinamdvileSi. miTologiuri siuJetis gamo, is uZvelesi drois qveyanas mogvagonebs, magram maSinac ki, rodesac TiTqosda Cveni Tanamedrovea, rogorc hari poterSi, is mainc paraleluria, uxilavia Cveulebrivi adamianisTvis.* adgili, sadac adamianma SeiZleba icxovros harmoniulad, myarad, icodes vin aris mteri da vin megobari, yvela grZnoba hqondes cocxali da axarebdes xvalindeli dRe, Cvens samyaroSi, Cvens sivrceSi, ar moiZebna.

_________________ *am Tanamedroveobis gamo zogierTi avtori eWvs gamoTqvams imis Taobaze, rom hari poteri miekuTvneba fentezis Janrs da miakuTvneben literaturul zRapars.
im pirobebSi, rodesac yvela Tanxmdeba imaze, rom fentezis zusti gansazRvreba ar arsebobs, ucnauria aseTi mtkice daskvna, rom is fentezi ar aris. erT-erT sabuTad moyvanilia is faqti, rom fentezi efuZneba miTs, romelsac ar gaaCnia fiqsirebuli dro da adgili. hari poterze ki viciT, rom es londonia da moqmedeba 90-an wlebSi viTardeba. unda avRniSno, rom me versad davinaxe, rom 90-ani wlebia da ara 80ani an ufro adrindeli. miuxedavad imisa, rom londoni aq saxeldeba, gaugebaria sad mdebareobs jadoqrebis qveyana da sad aris platforma 9 da . miTebiT da miTiuri artefaqtebiT, cnebebiT, miniSnebebiT savsea wigni. saxierdebian miTiuri personaJebi da SeTxzulia mravali axali miTi. amitom SeuZlebelia imis mtkiceba, rom hari poteri aris miTs moklebuli.

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is, rom aqamde arsebuli am Janris yvelaze saxelovani nawarmoebebi marTlac kelturi miTebis erTgvar gadamRerebas warmoadgens, ar niSnavs, rom marto asea SesaZlebeli fentezis miTTan kavSiri.\ dabolos, Tavad tolkini Tavis wigns miakuTvnebda jadosnur zRapars, magram dRes uklebliv yvela, vinc fentezize wers, Tavis msjelobas beWdebis mbrZanebeliT iwyebs da amTavrebs.

literatura

1.

, .. - ; : , .. . .: , 2000, . 112 , . , .: - -, 1994. . 27 , .. : ./ // .. . .: . ., 1975. .. // .. . .: , 1997 , . / . // : 2 . . 1. .: - . , 1998

2. 3.

4.

5.

6. J.R.R.Tolkien, The Monsters and The Critics and Other Essays, Harper Collins Publishers, 1997

daviT bostanaSvili

sivrce mTxrobeli
werilis saTauri, sasveni niSnebis gareSe mocemuli, im vrcel polisemias mianiSnebs, romelsac "sivrcis" da "Txrobis" sintagmaturi dakavSireba gulisxmobs. am polisemiidan SevecdebiT movixelToT sami SemTxveva; imis mixedviT Tu romeli maTgani dawinaurdeba, romeli gadaiqceva ganmsazRvrelad, viRebT Semdeg mimarTebebs: Txrobis sivrce sadac sxvisi sityvebi Caenacvlebian samyaros (Txroba rogorc sivrce) da meores mxriv sivrcis Txroba sivrciTi diskursi (sivrce rogorc Txroba). mesame SemTxvevaSi - mTxrobeli sivrce orivea, sivrcec da Txrobac. Txrobis sivrce sxvadasxva niSnur sintagmebad gadaiSleba: enobrivi niSnebis sintagmebad (literaturuli teqsti), gamosaxulebebad (fotografia, komiksebi), sagnebad (Teatri, muzeumebi); gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa Sereul mediaSi ganxorcielebuli Txrobis

sivrce mTxrobeli

35
kompiuteruli TamaSebi, qalaqi rogorc

sivrce (filmebi, teqsti).

erTis mxriv, Txrobis sivrce martivad SeiZleba gavigoT rogorc sivrce, sadac xorcieldeba Txroba. meores mxriv, es SeTanxmeba gulisxmobs mxatvruli teqstis sivrciT struqturas, romlis analizs didi yuradReba eTmoba semiotikur kvlevebSi. am saxis kvlevis gamorCeuli magaliTia iuri lotmanis werili "SeniSvnebi mxatvruli sivrcis Sesaxeb" (1986). lotmanisTvis RvTaebrivi komedia uzarmazari arqiteqturuli nagebobaa, universumis konstruqciaa. igi ganixilavs mogzaurobas, rogorc ormag raobas TxrobaSi mogzauroba aseve mogzaurobaa am uzarmazar "arqiteqturul nagebobaSi" (lotmani 1986: 25). swored aq vlindeba am ori terminis mTavari Tviseba: "Txroba" da "sivrce" ver pouloben stabilur mdgomareobas. Txrobis sivrce umal sivrcis Txrobad gadaiqceva da piriqiT. lotmanis dakvirveba zogadad yovel literaturul teqsts SegviZlia mivusadagoT. sivrcis Txroba, erTis mxriv aseve martiv gagebas gvTavazobs TxrobiT aRwerili an/da reprezentirebuli sivrce. SeiZleba Tu ara, rom arqiteqtori amgvar mTxrobelad moviazroT? rTuli saTqmelia. erTis mxriv nebismier "dagegmarebas", "daproeqtebas" win uZRvis dasaxeleba imis moyola Tu sad (romel sivrceSi) ra (funqcia) unda iyos. magram, Senobis funqcionirebis moyola ar unda gavaigivoT sivrcis TxrobasTan. bucasTvis (arqiteqtori viqtor jorbenaZe, ritualebis sasaxlis avtori d.b.) Senobis ageba - gagebaa (g/ageba), am

sityvis farTe mniSvnelobiT (samyaros gageba, samyaros modeli). bucam unda gaigos da gaigonos sagani: gaigonos - gaiazros da gaigonos - moisminos; da rom moisminos unda Tqvas, qvas vidre daawyobs, aagebs Senobas - aawyobs.

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daviT bostanaSvili

buca yveboda.., diax, Senobas yveboda da ase moyol-moyoliT mihyveboda bolomde: Casaxvidan eskizamde, romelic isev Txroba iyo, an Txroba ufro iyo, vidre grafika (isic drodadro), radgan Txrobis dro qmnida Txrobis sivrces, romelsac Txzavda, anu xazavda, romelSic azavebda (uTanxmebda) da ganazavebda (Seurwyamda) sxvas da mes - sityvas da sagans Casaxvidan agebamde; agebis Semdeg, da ufro adrec - dakveTis miRebamde; dakveTis misaRebad da ise - umiznod da umizezod.., Tumca mizezsac ar elodeboda - Tavadve qmnida; sul mizezobda, sul mZimed iyo sulmZimed (bostanaSvili 2012: 138).
mTxrobeli gansakuTrebuli sityvaa. am gansakuTrebulobaze gvindoda migveniSnebina zemoT moyvanili pasaJiT. sivrcis Txrobis (aq: moTxrobili sivrcis) meore magaliTad SegviZlia gavixsenoT umberto ekos romani "vardis saxeli" da avtoriseuli komentari: nebismieri Txrobis win aucilebelia Seqmna sivrce TxrobisTvis Seqmna samyaros detaluri saxe (romelmac SeiZleba pirdapiri asaxva arc hpovos nawerSi). am sivrceSi SeZlebs Txroba sakuTari naratologiuri kanonebiT ganviTarebas: igi [proza] aseve Tavad aris samSeneblo ofisi. ramdeni dro daikava arqiteqturulma Ziebebma [...] me SevimuSave saabatos

gegma, gadavzome yvela SesaZlo manZili, gadavTvale xveuli kibis TiToeuli safexuri (eko 1998: 611).
"vardis saxelSi" mTavar Temad iqceva labirinTi bibilioTekis Senobis labirinTi (moTxrobili sivrce) da Tavad deteqtiuri Txroba (gansivrcebuli Txroba) rogorc labirinTi. aRsaniSnia, rom ekoseuli labirinTi erTdroulad aris sivrcec da erTgvari krosvordic. igi moiTxovs, rogorc labirinTis sivrciTi Tavsatexis amoxsnis teqnikis codnas, aseve krosvordis amoxsnis da wakiTxvis xerxebis flobas. es erTdrouloba ar aris moulodneli: sityvis da sivrcis (sagnis) arqetipuli sinTezi babilonis saxeli da godolia: Tqves: aba, aviSenoT qalaqi da godoli, da cas mivuwvdinoT

sivrce mTxrobeli

37

misi Txemi. aRvmarToT niSansveti, rom ar gavifantoT dedamiwis zurgze (dab. 11:4).
sivrcis Txrobis mesame magaliTad SegviZlia movixmoT popularuli samagido TamaSi dungeons and dragons. am TamaSs hyavs warmmarTveli (dungeon master), romlis funqciebSi Sedis ambis moyola moTamaSeebisaTvis, im garemoebebis aRwera, Tu ra mdgomareobaSi arian maTi gmirebi, wesebis dadgena da im sivrcis gamogoneba (Tavisi TavsatexebiT da urCxulebiT), sadac mogzauroben moTamaSeebi. amgvarad, saxezea warmosaxviTi sivrce romelsac acocxlebs xma (mTxrobelis). ra Tavisebureba SeiZleba hqondes "sivrcis" da "Txrobis" amgvar mdgomareobas "sivrce mTxrobeli". dasawyisisTvis mivmarToT erTgvar gamartivebas da CavTvaloT, rom terminebi "sivrce" da "garemo" erTmaneTTan mkafio sazRvrebs ar adgenen. sivrcis Canacvleba garemoTi erTgvarad gviiolebs amocanas; is, rom garemom SeiZleba moyves ambavi iolad mosaxelTebeli azria. garemo gulisxmobs ara mxolod sivrces, aramed sagnebs, movlenebs, bgerebs da yvela saxis SesaZlo niSans, rac sivrceSi aris. alan parsonss Semoaqvs TxrobiTi garemos (narrative environments) cneba. igi aRniSnavs, rom es SeTanxmeba ara mxolod polisemiuri, aramed paradoqsulicaa (parsonsi 2009). Txrobis garemo is fizikuri an/da virtualuri sivrcea, sadac ambavi iSleba. mTxrobeli garemo amgvarad SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT: cxovrebiseul yoveldRiurobaSi mudmivad garemoculebi varT ambebiT: Tavad Cveni egzistenciuri gamocdileba; sxva adamianTa ambebi; is dagrovili istoriebi, romlebic Canergilebi arian konkretul adgilebSi; grafikuli da arqiteqturuli niSnebis kolaJi, romlebic ganawilebulni arian konkretul topografiaze (maT, rogorc Setyobinebebs, aqvT damatebiTi

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funqcia isini migvaniSneben gzis gakvlevis, sivrceSi gadaadgilebis SesaZleblobebze). amgvarad, Txroba aris is, rac gviyveba, garemo aris is rac gars gvartyia. tradiciuli gagebiT, Txroba droSi migvmarTavs, xolo garemo - sivrceSi. narativi amasTan orivea: Tavad Txroba (Txrobis aqti) da monaTxrobi. aseve garemo aris (1) is, rac Tavis TavSi gvaqcevs, gvketavs, pirobebs gvidgens da (2) Tavad is struqturebi, kategoriebi da arsobebi, rac Cven irgviliv aris. amgvarad, mTxrobeli sivrce (garemo) alan parsonsis mixedviT Semdeg samuSaos asrulebs: samyaros Cveneuli SemecnebisTvis igi aris Suamavali; igi Tavs gvaxvevs gagebas; is Cven gagebaSi aRwevs. am saxiT gagebuli samyaros SigniT vmoZraobT da varkvevT orientirebs droSi (narativis meSveobiT) da sivrceSi (garemos meSveobiT). alan parsonsis mixedviT, mTxrobeli garemo ar Semoifargleba raRacis reprezentaciiT an aRweriT; igi amasTan raRacas akeTebs igi performatiulia. igi ara mxolod adgilia, aramed Tavad uCens adgils (sagnebs, movlenebs). Txrobis sivrce ara mxolod reprezetaciaa (niSani), aramed performatiuli qmedebebis krebuli niSani-qmedebaa. meore sakiTxad, sivrce da Txroba SegviZlia moviazroT erTi speqtris or ukiduresobad. narativis SemTxvevaSi samyaro moqceulia kulturis mier dadgenil wesrigSi. sivrcis SemTxvevaSi samyaro kulturuli wesrigis miRma dgas Tavisi bunebrivi an/da veluri mdgomareobiT. narativi da sivrce kulturis da bunebis opoziciad warmodgebian. mTxrobeli sivrce mxolod kulturulia. aqve SevniSnoT, rom bunebrivi garemo SeiZleba iyos mTxrobeli, Tu is aris kulturad qceuli (mag. baRebi, parkebi, lend arti). azriT kulturuli sivrce Txrobis sivrce adgilobis Semqmneli situaciaa. mTxrobeli sivrce adgilia. am

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adgilis Tema ki ukve sxva kvlevebisken gvibiZgebs. mocemul werilSi "adgils" ar davuTmobT adgils.

*** arqiteqturas mivmarToT, im fizikur garemos (sagamofeno darbazi muzeumSi, savaWro sivrcis foie, Senobis garSemo arsebuli sajaro sivrce), sadac ambis Txrobaa SesaZlebeli sivrceSi. muzeumi karg magaliTad gvesaxeba. igi ufro ambavTa krebuls warmoadgens, vidre erT mTlian romans TiTo sivrce erT Temas eZRvneba. Temebs Soris gadabmulobas ZiriTadad qronologiuri Tanamimdevroba emsaxureba. am mxriv muzeumi enciklopediis Txrobis sivrcis gasagnebuli mTxrobeli sivrcea, sadac anbanuri Tanamimdevroba SesaZlebels xdis iseTi sagnebis mezoblobas, romelTac araferi aqvT saerTo. maT saerTo adgils Tavad sivrce qmnis, igive "saoperacio magida-cxrili". aqedanve SeiZleba daisvas sakiTxi, rogori SeiZleba iyos borxesiseuli enciklopedia heterotopia enis sivrcis gareT, realur sivrceSi. heterotopiaSi arsebiTia, rom "Tavad Sexvedris sivrce aris warxocili" (fuko 2004: 23). borxesis enciklopediaSi dalagebul sagnebs ar gaaCniaT saerTo adgili da mxolod xmas SeuZlia erTmaneTis gverdiT ganalagos ukiduresad daSorebuli sagnebi. rogor gamoiyureba Txroba heterotopiaSi? fukos 1 gansazRvrebis mixedviT heterotopiebs aqvT Zala, rom erT arsebul adgilSi moaxdinon erTmaneTTan SeuTavsebeli

Michel Foucault, "Des espaces autres" in Architecture Mouvement Continuite #5 (october, 1984).

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gansxvavebuli sivrceebis erTdrouli zeddeba. heterotopiis winaaRmdegobriv da bundovan sivrceSi nebismieri Txroba SeuZlebeli Cans. heterotopiuli Txrobis sivrce borxesis "Cinuri enciklopediaa", xolo mTxrobeli sivrce SeiZleba sxvadasxva SeuTavsebeli Txrobebis erTdrouli sivrciTi zeddeba aRmoCndes. fukos mixedviT, muzeums heterotopiulobis maRali xarisxi gaaCnia: aq xdeba yvela epoqis, yvela gemovnebis, yvela formis, yvela drois dagroveba da amasTan muzeumi-sivrce udroo mdgomareobaSi arsebobs. magram muzeumi ar aris "mTxrobeli sivrce". igi erTis mxriv aris namdvili Txrobis sivrce (iq sadac xorcieldeba Txroba) an/da "mTxrobeli garemo". muzeumi Tu rames gviyveba, es mxolod eqsponatebis meSveobiT xorcieldeba da ara sivrcis meSveobiT. aq sivrce mxolod neitraluri mediaa da igi niSnebisTvis (eqsponatebisTvis) qmnis konteqts. semiotikurma kvlevebma dagvanaxes "neitraluri" da "gamWvirvale" mediis SeuZlebloba. SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom (muzeumis) medialuri sivrce ukve datvirTulia kulturuli mniSvnelobebiT. zogadi dakvirvebebis Semdeg yuradReba mivaqcioT im sivrciT praqtikebs, sadac Txroba da sivrce erTmaneTis gareSe ver Sedgebian.

praqtika mTxrobeli sivrceebis Ziebisas arCevani im mediaze gavakeTeT, sadac sivrce (misi simulacia) gadamwyvet rols asrulebs. es aris kompiuteruli TamaSebi. aq ar aris sakmarisi organzomilebian sibrtyeze samganzomilebiani sivrcis proecireba (gansxvavebiT kinosgan); aq saWiroa sivrcis simulaciis Seqmna, sadac mayurebels (moTamaSes) aqvs moZraobis da gadaadgilebis Tavisufleba.

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monitoris organzomilebiani da uZravi ekrani im sivrcis simulacias gvTavazobs, sadac xdeba TamaSi. amgvarad sivrce mudam saxezea. Cveni Temidan gamomdinare interesis sagans warmoadgens TamaSi, sadac moTxrobilia ambavi. kompiuteruli TamaSebi mraval Janrad warmodgebian. winamdebare werilSi SeuZlebelia am vrceli mediis mimoxilva. aqedan gamomdinare unda davakonkretoT, romeli Janri da romeli tipia CvenTvis saintereso. ramdenime Janrobrivi gamonaklisis garda, ar arsebobs TamaSi, romelsac Tan ar axlavs ambavi. ambavi SeiZleba winaswar iyos mocemuli igi win uswrebs TamaSis dro-sivrces da ambavi TamaSis Sinaarss gansazRvravs (mag.: angry birds). ambavi SeiZleba gamoCndes mxolod TamaSis dasrulebis Semdeg da bolos gairkves Tu ra moxda (rogorc TamaSSi super mario). yvela SemTxvevaSi TamaSis mTavar mizans Tavad TamaSi warmoadgens. ambis Sinaarsobriv sisavses an mis absurdulobas aranairi xarisxobrivi cvlilebebi ar moaqvs Tavad TamaSisTvis. meore Janris TamaSebi ori mediis Sexvedris adgilia kinosi da TamaSebis. erT SemTxvevaSi ambis mosayolad TamaSebi kinematografiul scenebs (cut scene) da mizanscenebs iyeneben. meore SemTxvevaSi Janrobrivi sazRvrebis gauqmebasTan gvaqvs saqme, rodesac TamaSi gadaiqceva filmis yurebad, sadac moTamaSe upirveles yovlisa uyurebs ambavs; igi dro da dro ereva TxrobaSi (sxvadasxva arCevans akeTebs). amgvari Txroba moTamaSis gakeTebuli arCevaniT viTardeba. Cveni interesis sagania TamaSi, romelic Tavad gviyveba ambavs da ra roli aqvs am TxrobaSi sivrces. Cven gvainteresebs

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ambavi, romelic TamaSis sivrceSi moZraobiT iSleba2. SegviZlia


erTgvari paraleli gavakeToT teqstTan, rogorc fizikur mocemulobasTan - masSi (mkiTvelis mzeris da xSirad TiTis) gadaadgilebiT viTardeba Txroba. kompiuterul TamaSebSic sivrceSi gadaadgileba aris TxrobaSi gadaadgileba. dro meore planze gadaiweva. sivrcis xasiaTis TvalsazrisiT TamaSebi mimdinareoben organzomilebian Caketil sivrceebSi, xazovan organzomilebian sivrceebSi (sivrceSi gadaadgileba mxolod marcxnidan marjvniv), organzomilebian sferul sivrceebSi (Sesabamisad marjvnidan gasvlis SemTxvevaSi moTamaSe marcxnidan Semodis), samganzomilebian sivrceebSi. sivrceebi SeiZleba iyos kerZo (erTi moTamaSe) an sajaro (mravali moTamaSis Sexvedras onlain sivrceebi maspinZloben). TamaSebSi ufro da ufro metad gvxvdeba sivrceze konvenciuri warmodgenebis gauqmeba igulisxmeba sivrceSi gadaadgilebis gansxvavebuli modelebi (mag.: parkuri, teleportacia); gadaadgilebis gansxvavebuli modelis magaliTia SeRweva akrZalul, paralelur sivrceebSi kerZod saventilacio gayvanilobis labirinTuli sivrce; igi erTgvari arqetipic ki aris TamaSebis samyaroSi. sxva arqetipebs Soris aris qtonuri sivrceebi (dilegebi, sakanalizacio qseli) da nagebobaTa saxuravebis sivrceebi. gvxvdeba aseve fardobiTi sivrceebi (sadac ar aris gansazRvruli orientaciebi zedaqveda), gamrudebuli sivrceebi, 2d da 3d sivrceebis zeddeba da urTierTqmedeba.

pirvel aRiarebul nimuSad iTvleba TamaSi half-life (1997 w.) sadac ar aris gamoyenebuli damatebiTi kinematografiuli mizanscenebi da moTamaSe uSualod TamaSis sivrceSi mogzaurobisas igebs ambavs.

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mesame gansxvaveba aris is, Tu rogor aris warmodgenili sivrce: saerTo zedxediT (ruqis msgavsad); pirveli piris TvalTaxedviT sadac moTamaSe mTlianad gaigivebulia personaJTan; mesame piris TvalTaxedviT, sadac moTamaSe xedavs avatars, romelic mis magivrad myofobs. Cveni arCevani gavakeTeT samganzomilebian, pirveli piris TvalTaxedviT gadmocemul TamaSebze, sadac sivrce SeiZleba iyos kerZo an sajaro. xSirad, aseT TamaSebSi moTamaSem unda gadalaxos winaaRmdegobebi gamarjvebis mosapoveblad. es winaaRmdegobebi aramxolod brZolas gulisxmoben. TamaSebSi yovelTvis gvxvdeba sivrciTi Tavsatexebi erTgvari labirinTebi. miuxedavad amisa, sivrcis struqtura am TamaSebSi mainc xazovani xasiaTisaa da mxolod tovebs labirinTis STabeWdilebas. Tu TamaSis siuJeti xazovania, TamaSis sivrcec xazovan gadaadgilebas gvTavazobs. xazovan moZraobas qvesivrceebi anawevreben. Tavad isini labirinTis saxiT arian mocemulni TiToeuli maTgani muzeumis calke aRebuli darbazis tolfasia Tavisi sivrciTi TavsatexebiT da ganviTarebuli dramatuli movlenebiT. erTi darbazis amowurvis Semdeg momdevno "darbazSi" gadavinacvlebT xazovnad. ra Tqma unda TamaSebSi es "darbazebi" erTmaneTSi SeumCnevlad gadaedinebian da sivrce vizualurad uwyveti saxiT aris mocemuli. araxazovani narativis mqone TamaSebi ZiriTadad gaxsnil sivrceebSi viTardeba. aq moTamaSe Tavad akeTebs arCevanTa serias rogorc TxrobaSi, aseve sivrceSi gadaadgilebisas. Tumca imisTvis, rom narativi mTlianad ar gaqres, TamaSis sivrceSi aris fiqsirebul adgilTa (wertilTa) mTeli bade, romlebic amavdroulad Txrobis sakvanZo momentebia. moTamaSis arCevanis Tavisufleba am wertilebis monaxulebis rigiTobaSi da marSrutis arCevaSi mdgomareobs.

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sruliad Ria sivrce aranair narativs ar gvTavazobs. am tipis TamaSs qviSis saTamaSo moedans adareben (sandbox game), sadac nebismieri moTamaSe Tavad qmnis im struqturebs da sivrceebs, romlebic mas moesurveba. aseTi TamaSi principSi amouwuravia. erTi am saxis TamaSi aris minecraft (2011 w.). aq samyaros srul Riaobas da TamaSis uTavboloobas uzrunvelyofs is faqti, rom TamaSSi mocemulia ara siuJetis mixedviT damzadebuli sivrce aramed mTeli "samyaro" Tavisi masalebiT, mineralebiT, arsebebiT, kanonebiT, receptebiT. am TamaSis samganzomilebiani sivrce maTematikuri algoriTmiT dinamiurad iqmneba da Sesabamisad mTliani samyaro Teoriulad usasruloa. kidev erTi garemoeba aris is, rom TamaSis sivrce moduluria mTeli samyaro mcire kubebisgan aris agebuli da maTi mocileba-damatebiT moTamaSe gansakuTrebuli teqnikuri unarebis (3d modelireba) flobis gareSe qmnis misTvis saocnebo struqturebs arqiteqturas. es yvelaferi TamaSis kerZo sivrceSi xdeba. aq moTamaSe(ebi) miznis da dasasrulis gareSe ikvleven axal miwebs, aSeneben axal sivrceebs da dausruleblad ebrZvian qtonur arsebebs da sxva urCxulebs. arqiteqturul interess iwvevs is sivrciTi praqtika (formebi), rasac ariteqturis araakademiuri gamocdilebis mqone moTamaSeebi qmnian iseve rogor bavSvebis mier Seqmnili qviSis sasaxleebi. Cveni interesi iwyeba iq, sadac kerZo "qviSis cifruli sasaxleebi" sajaro da saziaro qmnilebebad gadaiqcevian. swored es moxda sruliad spontanurad minecraftis saTemoSi. ar iqneboda gasakviri, rom moTamaSeebs gasCenodaT survili sakuTari qmnilebebi sxvebisTvis gaeziarebinaT. saintereso aris is, rom rig SemTxvevebSi, sakuTari qmnilebis Cvenebis survils Tan axlavs raRacis moyolis survili. ase spontanurad Seqmnes am TamaSis moyvarulebma axali Janri

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saTavgadasavlo ruqa (adveture map) 3. Tavad es saxeli ukve exmianeba Cven Temas. es aris sivrce (map), romelic giyveba ambavs (Tagadasavali). rTuli gasarCevia, Tu ra amoZravebT minecraft-is 4 saTavgadasavlo ruqebis Semqmnelebs : ambis moyola, risTvisac maT sWirdebaT sivrciTi formis Seqmna, Tu sivrciTi formebis Cveneba da amisTvis sWirdebaT ambavi. aq vercerTi ver moipovebs upiratesobas da es aris saintereso SemTxveva arqiteqturisTvis ver aCveneb arqiteqturas (virtualur sivrceSi), Tu ar gaqvs ambavi (an Tu virtualuri arqiteqturuli sivrce Tavad ar iZleva TamaSis SesaZleblobas). kidev erTi mizezi, Tu ratom aris es konkretuli Janri interesis sagani mdgomareobs imaSi, rom saTavgadasavlo ruqis Semqmneli erTdroulad unda flobdes ambis mTxrobelis da sivrcis amgebis unarebs5.

teqnika rogor gviyveba minecraft-is saTavgadasavlo ruqa ambavs? aq ver ganvixilavT CanacvlebaTa da pirobiT niSanTa mTel im

igulisxmeba ruqa, romlis masStabi aris 1:1. Sesabamisad ruqa Tavad aris TamaSis sivrce. aRsaniSnia, rom sazRvari moSlilia niSanTa avtorsa da momxmarebels Soris. am saTavgadasavlo sivrceebis Semqmnelebi Tavad moTamaSeebi arian. msxvil Tu saSualo studiebSi muSaoben profesionali dizainerebi, romlebic TamaSis sivrciT da vizualur xarisxze zrunaven da mwerlebi, romlebic qmnian moqmed gmirebs, weren siuJets, adgenen dialogebs d.a.S.
5

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ansambls, romelic moTamaSeTa saTemosTvis saerTo ritorikuli kodebis repertuars Seadgens da mxolod zogad mimoxilvas SemogTavazebT. dasawyisSi moTamaSe aRmoCndeba specialur, sivrceSi sadac trfaretebze mocemulia is wesebi romelTa dacva aucilebelia. es teqsturi niSnebi, rig SemTxvevaSi, mokled uyvebian moTamaSes winare istorias da viTarebas (zog SemTxvevaSi amgvari Sesavali ar gvxvdeba da moTamaSe uSualod aRmoCndeba Txrobis sivrceSi). ori saxis niSani (trafaretebi da wignebi) gamoiyeneba siuJetis uSualod, teqstis saxiT gadacemisTvis. es Setyobinebebi mimarTaven moTamaSes da sivrceSi moZraoba im momdevno Setyobinebebis Ziebad iqceva, romlebic ambis Txrobas ganagrZoben. Txrobis momdevno adgilas misvlamde moTamaSe gadis sivrceebs, sadac mas elodeba brZola an sxvadasxva saxis Tavsatexebis amoxsna. es SemaerTebeli sivrceebi erTgvari saspensis rols asruleben TxrobisTvis, xolo meore mxriv swored isini qmnian TamaSis TviTmiznur motivacias. rTulia daasaxelo saTavgadasavlo ruqis mTxrobelis vinaoba. kinosgan gansxvavebiT aq Tavad mkiTxveli aris uSualo monawile da personaJi. Sesabamisad kompiuteris ekranis ukan mjdomi subieqtisTvis Txroba pirveli piris xedviT viTardeba. amasTan winaaRmdegobaSi modis is, rom mTxrobeli aseve aRmoCndeba am saTavgadasavlo sivrcis Semqmneli. da bolos, rogorc zemoT vTqviT, siuJeti ZiriTadad gadmocemulia trafaretebis da wignebis saxiT, da aq Txroba homodiegeturia es Canawerebi TamaSSi arsebul personaJTa datovebuli niSnebia. amgvarad, Txroba mocemulia sami poziciidan: (1) ambis da sivrcis SemTxzveli (yovlismcodne mTxrobeli), (2) Tavad moTamaSis ekranis CarCo, rogorc kinokamera, romelic emTxveva

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mkiTxvelis pozicias da (3) personaJebi (kinosgan gansxvavebiT, isini uSualod mimarTaven moTamaSes). saboloo jamSi SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tavad TamaSis sivrce gviyveba ambavs am sami poziciis erTobliobiT. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa mimarTvis forma: xSirad gamoiyeneba meore piris mimarTva Sen, rac TiTqmis arasdros ar gvxvdeba sxva Janris narativebSi, garda interaqtiuli mxatvruli literaturisa (masSi Sedis wignis formatSi gamocemuli TamaSebi da teqstze dafuZnebuli kompiuteruli TamaSebi). magaliTisTvis: moTamaSe aRwevs sivrcis da Txrobis garkveul adgils da am dros wignis an/da trafaretis saSualebiT mas mimarTaven: Sen gesmis xma Soridan..., Sen xvdebi rom xar..., Sen fiqrob rom..., Sen askvni, rom..., Sen gadawyvite rom.... ra xdeba am dros Cems (moTamaSis) cnobierebaSi, rodesac teqsti pirdapir mommarTavs da matyobinebs Cems sakuTar azrebs (Sdr. cnobierebis nakadi). aq ar xdeba aranairi mosalodneli konfliqti cnobierebaSi, ramdenadac Janris kanonebis mcodneTaTvis, sxvis mier miwodebuli misive azrebi instruqciebad transformirdebian da igi agrZelebs svlas am miTiTebebis mixedviT. kuTxiT yvela saTavgadasavlo sivrce interteqstualuria. yovel maTgans gaaCnia (Jerar Jenes terminologiiT) hipoteqsti yvelaze xSirad es gaxlavT fentezis, fantastikis, deteqtivis JanrebSi dagrovebuli winare teqstebi. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT sivrcis roli SemdegSia: sivrceSi gadaadgileba aucilebelia, radgan mis sxvadasxva wertilSi siuJetis momdevno sakvanZo momenti inaxeba. sivrce kidev erT gansakuTrebul rols asrulebs: xSir SemTxvevaSi yoveli personaJi zustad erTnairad gamoiyureba. teqnikuri mizezebis gamo sul xuTi-eqvsi 3d modeli SeiZleba siuJetis

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iyos gamoyenebuli yvela personaJisTvis, romlebsac moTamaSe sxvadasxva adgilas xvdeba. amgvarad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi identoba da saxe dacilebulia; dacilebulia aseve identoba da xma (ramdenadac, magaliTad yvela darajs erTi adamiani axmovanebs erTi da igive xmiT). magram moTamaSisTvis TiToeuli maTgani calke pirovnebaa. maT identobas adgens adgili: imisda mixedviT Tu sivrcis romel wertilSi xdeba Sexvedra, moTamaSe adgens Tu vin aris mis win. SeiZleba Tu ara vTqvaT, rom am saTavgadasavlo ruqebSi sivrce gviyveba ambavs. sivrcis cnebis polisemiidan gamomdinare rTulia amgvari ganacxadis gakeTeba. am SemTxvevaSic, ara sivrce gviyveba ambavs, aramed sivrceSi damaluli teqstebi (mag.: wigni, trafaretebi); am mxriv sivrceSi moZraobis mizani am teqstebis povna da wakiTxvaa. rogor unda mogviyves sivrcem ambavi (gansxvavebiT garemosgan)? erTis mxriv SegviZlia visaubroT im sivrcis Sesaxeb sadac xorcieldeba Txroba, meores mxriv sivrceSi gadaadgileba SeiZleba Tavad gaxdes ambavi (TviTrefleqsuri mTxrobeli sivrce). da bolos, marTebuli iqneboda gvesaubra ara sivrceze, aramed sivrciTobaze. maSin sakiTxi dadgeba Semdegnairad - Txroba sivrciTia Tu droiTi. gaCereba, moZraoba, marSruti (xazovani, rizomuli) es rCeba sivrcisgan, Tu gvinda rom gavTavisufldeT terminisgan "garemo". moZraobebi da SeCerebebi droiT kategorias ufro emorCilebian vidre sivrcis. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sivrce uqmdeba igi droiT ganisazRvreba. Txrobis sivrce aRmoCndeba Txrobis drod. es dakvirvebebi kvlav baxtiniseul qronotopis konceptTan gvabruneben. qronotopSi xdeba droiTi da sivrciTi Tvisebebis gacvla: dro Sededdeba, mkvrivdeba; sivrce intensificirdeba, drois, siuJetis, istoriis moZraobaSi CaiTreva (lotmani 1986a: 3,4).

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rTulia iTqvas, rom qronotopis cneba aucilebeli instrumentia iseTi SedarebiT martivi Janris analizisTvis, rogoric kompiuteruli TamaSebia. Tumca Cveni Temis mizani arc yofila kompiuteruli TamaSebis semiotika. semiotika, rogorc interdisciplinatuli sivrce Tavad qmnis adgils axali xedvebisTvis. aq xvdebian erTmaneTs refleqsiebi sivrcis Sesaxeb (arqiteqtura), naratologia da TamaSebis subkultura. dakvirvebebi "sivrceze", "Txrobaze" da "TamaSze" qmnian akademiur potencials arqiteqturuli ganaTlebisTvis mzard mniSvnelobas iZens multi-medialuri sivrceebi; kompiuteruli TamaSebis virtualuri sivrce erTerTi amgvari potencialia. aq "proeqtireba" gadaiqceva ambis Txrobad da sivrcis Txzvad. aq sazRvrebi gauqmebulia sivrcis mTxzvelsa (arqiteqtori) da mTxrobels (literatori) Soris.

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literatura

daviT bostanaSvili

bostanaSvili 2012: bostanaSvili S., bostanaSvili d. buca

- xuroTmoZRvari viqtor jorbenaZe. Tb.: universali, 2012.


lotmani 1986: . . , 19, , 1986. lotmani 1986a: . . , 19, , 1986, eko 1998: , . . ..: , 1998. parsonsi 2009: Parsons, Allan. Narrative environments: how do they matter? http://www.narrativeenvironments.com/research/research-paper/narrative-environmentshow-do-they-matter. ukanasknelad iqna gadamowmebuli 16.10.2013 fuko 2004: fuko m. sityvebi da sagnebi. Tb.: diogene, 2004.

Kkoka bregaZe

sivrcis ageba da daSla romantikul da modernistul mxatvrobaSi (k.d. fridrihisa da e. H operis mxatvrobis mixedviT)
germaneli romantikosi mxatvris, kaspar david fridrihis (1774-1840) ferweraSi sivrcis proecireba imTaviTve ukavSirdeba romantikul msoflmxedvelobriv poziciebs: kerZod, miuxedavad e. w. tragikuli cnobierebisa (das tragische Bewusstsein), romelic damaxasiaTebelia rogorc, zogadad, romantizmisaTvis (mwerlobaSi _ l. tiki, e. T. a. hofmani, i. fon aihendorfi, ql. brentano da sxv.; musikaSi _ l. van beThoveni, r. vagneri da sxv.), ise fridrihis ferweruli tiloebis personaJebis, an misi landSafturi ferwerisTvisac (ix. misi beri zRvasTan [1808-1810], an dilis nisli mTaSi [1808], saabatos nangrevebi muxnarSi [1808-1810]), am romantikosi mxatvris ferweraSi (iseve rogorc zemoT CamoTvlil romantikos avtorebTan) mainc mocemulia e. w. romantikuli swrafva (Sehnsucht) saRvTo transcendenturobisaken, anu im

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dakarguli WeSmariti egzistensisaken, romlisken swrafvas zRudavs, erTi mxriv, protagonistis warmavali da sasruli arsi, meore mxriv, Tavad yofierebis SezRuduli da sasruli arsi, gamomdinare iqidan, rom es ori mocemuloba droiT da sivrciT SemosazRvruli empiriuli ganzomilebania. Aam aprioruli swrafvis mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, fridrihis ferweruli tiloebis personaJebisaTvis mudmivad damaxasiaTebelia egzistenciis e. w. zRvriseul situaciaSi (Grenzsituation) (k. iaspersi) yofna, anu romantizebis/garomantiulebis (Romantisieren) (novalisi) situaciaSi yofna, rodesac egzistencialur zRvarze myofi protagonisti cnobierebiseuli nebelobis safuZvelze sakuTar sulSi aviTarebs sasrulobaSi usasrulobis, warmavlobaSi waruvalis, empiriulSi transcendenturobis dafuZnebis process:
samyaro unda garomantiuldes. ase movipovebT kvlav pirvelsazriss. garomantiuleba sxva araferia, Tu ara xarisxobrivi potencireba. am operaciis dros xorcieldeba mdabali TviTobis maRal TviTobasTan identificireba. iseve rogorc Cven warmovadgenT amgvar xarisxobriv potencirebaTa rigs. es operacia jer kidev Seucnobia. rodesac me ubralos diad azrs vaniWeb, Cveulebrivs idumalebiT vmosav, nacnobs Seucnoblad gadavaqcev, sasruls usasrulobas vaniWeb, me samyaros varomantiuleb. da piruku, igive operacia Seesabameba umaRless, Seucnobs, mistikursa da usasrulos. romantikuli filosofia. am SeerTebiT xdeba logariTmizeba da miiReba kargad nacnobi gamoxatuleba. Lingua romana. cvalebadi amaRleba da damdableba (novalisi 1977-1988: 545).

swored es aris cnobili romantikuli ironia (die romantische Ironie) (fr. Slegeli), rodesac subieqti sakuTar Semecnebasa da egzistenciaSi avlens paradoqsis niWs, anu sakuTar Sezudul anTropologiur arssa da egzistenciaSi gamoimuSavebs potencirebul, anu axal xarisxSi ayvanil, amaRlebul warmodgenas sakuTar anTropologiur arsze, sakuTar egzistenciasa da yofireebaze, rac, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobs Tavisebur romantikul eTikur aqts sakuTari da samyaros empiriuli SezRudulobis apriorul gadalaxvas, anu transcendirebis procesis dafuZnebas. A

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amasTan, romantikuli ironia gulisxmobs SeuTavsebeli mocemulobebis (mag. xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvile, grZnobadi da zegrZnobadi samyaroebi da a. S.) apriorul Tanaarsebobasa da urTierTgamomdinareobas. F fridrihis ferweruli tiloebis poetika swored romantikuli ironiisa da garomantiulebis konceptebs efuZneba, rodesac sasrulobaSi xdeba usasrulobis porecireba da integrireba, da piriqiT. amis brwyinvale nimuSia fridirhis cnobili tilo qali fanjarasTan [1822], sadac gamosaxulia transcendirebis procesSi myofi protagonisti, romelic Tavis cnobierebaSi afuZnebs romantikul ironias, garomantiulebis process, xolo Tavad ferweruli tilos sivrcobrivi ganfena aseve emyareba romantikul ironias, anu garomantiulebis process: oTaxis sasrulobaSi integrirebulia da Tanaarsebobs usasruloba, rasac, erTi mxriv, aviTarebs protagonistis qceva _ zecisken miqceuli da mzera da Wvretis procesi, meore mxriv, zecisa da oTaxis dispozicia _ aq mocemulia siaxlove

da siSore, viwro interieri da diadi SoreTi, aqaurobasa da axlaSi Caketiloba da natvriTmosili mzera, momentebi, romlebic novalisis cnobil definicias mogvagoneben (ix. zemoT
k. b.) (volfi 2003: 15). A

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aqedan gamomdinare, vsaubrobT k. d. fridrihis personaJebze, rogorc transcendirebad presonaJebze, rogorc romantikuli ironiis ganmaviTarebel personaJebze, paradoqsis niWiT aRWurvil personaJebze, romlebic zRvrul situaciaSi myofni aviTareben samyaros garomantiulebis/romantizebis process da israfvian transcendenturobisaken, rasac fr. Slaiermaxeri uwodebs gaunelebeli swrafvis gancdas (Das Gefhl einer unbefriedigten Sehnsucht), usasrulobasTan kavSirs (Zusammenhang mit dem Unendlichen) da universumis Wvretas (Das Anschauen des Universums). Sesabamisad, fridrihis ferweraSi am RvTaebriv da, amavdroulad, dakargul da miuwvdomel transcendenturobas, romelsac romantikosebi aseve uwodeben usasrulobas (das Unendliche) (fr. Slaiermaxeri, fr. Slegeli, novalisi) an universums (das Universum) (fr. Slaiermaxeri, fr. Slegeli),

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simbolurad ganasaxierebs mis tiloebze proecirebuli (ZiriTadad) lurji/laJvardovani ferTametyvelebiT proecirebuli Semdegi sivrculi ganzomilebani zeca (saRamo [1824]) an qalaquri landSafti (qalaqi, rogorc zeciuri ierusalimi _ Sdr. qalaqi mTvaris amosvlisas [1817], ialqnian gemze [1819]), an Tavad buneba (Sdr. nisli [1807], bohemiis landSafti [1810-1811], dila rizengebirgeSi [18101811], dila [1821] da sxv.).* aqedan gamomdinare, fridrihTan sivrce isea konstruirebuli, rom protagonistis, an mayureblis mzera imTaviTve mimarTulia sivrceSi, anu usasrulobaSi gaWrisaken; sivrce TanTadaTanobiT ixsneba da mTliand moicavs rogorc protagonistis, ise mayureblis cnobierebasa da nebelobas: anu, rogorc protagonisti, ise mayurebeli apriorulad CarTulia transcendirebis procesSi, sivrceSi gaRwevis procesSi, anu RvTaebriobisaken swrafvisa da masTan Serwymis procesSi (Sdr. fridrihis Semdegi ferweruli tiloebi: baRis terasa [18111812], qalaqi mTvaris amosvlisas [1817], kirqvis kldeebi kunZul riugenze [1818], mogzauri nislis zRvis winaSe [1818], qali Camavali mzis winaSe [1818-1820], qali fanjarasTan [1822], ori mamakaci mTvaris Wvretisas [1819-1820], qali da mamakaci mTvaris Wvretisas [1824] da sxv.). Aaq ki ikveTeba fridrihis ferweris poetikis is Tavisebureba, rasac germanuli romantizmisa da germanulenovani modernizmis cnobili mkvlevari silvio vieta geometriulobasa da konstruqtiulobas (Konstruktivismus) uwodebs (vieta 2001: 133, 143), romelsac ufuZneba, erTi mxriv, fridrihis ferweruli tiloebis dinamikuri sivrculi ganfena da, meore mxriv, Tavad mayureblis mier sivrcis aRqmisa da Wvretis intensivoba:
mWvreteli protagonisti suraTebSi isea Semoyvanili, rom suraTSi ara mxolod landSaftis sivrce ixsneba, aramed Tavad landSaftis Wvreta zurgSeqceuli mWvreteli protagonistis perspeqtividan aigeba. daxatulia ara mxolod landSafti, aramed danaxulis xedva. xolo suraTis mWvreteli Tavad suraTis mWvretel protagonistTan erTad gamodis winaplanze, romelic suraTis mWvretels xedvis areals uCvenebs. Sedegad suraTSi mocemulia refleqsia xedvis aqtze: xedvis xedva (Das Sehen des Sehens) da masSi suraTis mWvretelis

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monawileoba. [...] fridrihis protagonistebi suraTis mWvreteli subieqtis xedvaSi arian integrirebulni. F[...] fridrihi Tavis motivebs sivrcisa da kompoziciis geometruil agebas uqvemdebarebs: kaspar david fridrihis suraTebi geometrizebuli mzeris proecirebaa (vieta 2001:
137-138; 140, 142-143). Sdr.: bunebis esTetizebis procesSi amavdroulad vlindeba romantikosi avtoris mier bunebis arsis miTo-sakraluri gaazreba: anu, bunebisadmi romantikosi avtorisa, Tu misi lirikuli gmiris swrafva ukve aris ara zedapiruli sentimentaluri grZnobebis gamowvevisa da aRZvris saSualeba, ara erTjeradi emociebis aRZvris saSualeba, aramed samyaros sulisa (Weltseele) da usasrulo transcendenturobis mudmivi cxovelmyofeli siRrmiseuli gancdis gamowvevis saSualeba, rasac safuZvlad udevs bunebis Sesaqmeseul cocxal arsad, RvTis qmnilebad, RvTaebrivi sawyisis Semcvel fenomenad gaazreba. amgvarad Semecnebuli da SemoqmedebiT procesSi moqceuli empiriuli buneba ukve iZens saxismetyvelebiT esTetikur Rirebulebas, mas ukve simboluri datvirTva eniWeba da romantikosebis mxatvrul teqstebsa Tu ferwerul tiloebze umeteswilad fuZndeba, rogorc dakargul paradizul yofaze aluzia da saRvTo transcendenturi sivrcis mxatvruli simbolo (bregaZe 2012: 126-127). *

amgvarad, sivrcis ageba fridrihis tiloebze imTaviTve mimarTulia mayureblis mzeris erT wertilSi, am SemTxvevaSi, landSafturi an zeciuri sivrcis siRrmeSi koncentrirebaze (mageometrizebeli mzera//geometrisierender Blick), rodesac suraTis protagonistis Wvretis aqtis intensivobis safuZvelze xorcieldeba Tavad mayureblis mzeraze zemoqmedeba. Sedegad mayureblis mzera erT wertilze koncentrirdeba da gaWrilia ferweruli tilos landSaftur an zeciur sivrceSi. garda amisa, mayureblis mzeraze iZuleba da misi sivrceSi aprioruli gaWrisa da Tavad sivrcis dinamikuri ganfenis funqcia amavdroulad akisria ferweruli tilos napirebs, romlebic an oTaxis geometrizebuli sivrciTaa mocemuli (Sdr. qali fanjarasTan [1822]), anda suraTis kideze gamosaxuli kldeebis samkuTxa formebiT (Sdr. kirqvis kldeebi kunZul riugenze [1818]) (lankhaiti 1978: 691-692).

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mogzauri nislis zRvis winaSe [1818] mzis winaSe [1818-1820]

koka bregaZe

qali Camavali

eduard hoperis (1882-1967) modernistul ferweraSi ki ukve mudmivad mocemulia modernizmis epoqis adamianis disocirebuli, darRveuli/ganrRveuli egzistencialuri viTareba, J. bodriaris analogiiT Tu vityviT, mocemulia Taviseburi modernistuli mgrZnobeloba gaucxoebis procesi, paradizuli yofierebisa da egzistenciis saboloo dakargva, egzistencialuri SiSiT Sepyrobiloba, TviTidentobis vermopoveba, komunikaciis SeuZlebloba da saganTsamyaros ganzomilebebiT saboloo TviTSemosazRvra. yovelive amis metaforebad hoperis tiloebze mocemulia sicivis, siCumisa da sicarielis toposebi (Sdr. saxli rkinigzasTan [1925], an eqskursia filosofiaSi [1959]) (reneri 2009: 85):
hoperTan asaxulia martooba, aseve martoobisgan mogvrili saSinelebis gancda. hoperi afiqsirebs adamianebs Soris arsebul mdumare, amouvseb distancias, gaqvavebul mdgomareobaSi myof adamians, romelic gamoketilia Tavis sasrulobaSi, rac maradisobad evlineba mas. [...] misi subieqturoba am cariel sivrceSi/oTaxSi sakuTar TavTanaa darCenili da igi am sicarieleSi qreba (Smidi 1999: 19, 25).

eqskursia filosofiaSi [1959]

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amitomac, romantikosebTan da, maT Soris, fridrihis ferwerul tiloebze dominirebuli dinamikuri da cxovelmyofeli sivrce, rogorc transcendirebis toposi da transcendenturobis simbolo, hoperis tiloebze ukve darRveuli da gauqmebulia: hoperis tiloebze sivrce ki ar ixsneba, aramed igi xSirad CamoWrilia, izRudeba da viwrovdeba, rac simbolurad ganasaxierebs romantizmiseuli usasrulobis rRvevasa da adamianis empiriul sasrulobaSi apriorul moqcevas. Sesabamisad, es daviwroebuli sivrce arc protagonistSi da arc mayureblSi aRar iwvevs transcendirebas, aramed aintensivebs modernizmis epoqis adamianis sasrulobaSi saboloo determinebulobas (Sdr. oTaxi/Senoba, rogorc subieqtis sasrulobisa da egzistencialuri gamouvalobis toposi fr. kafkas prozaSi, an f. felinis filmSi 8 1/2). SemTxveviTi araa, rom sivrcisaken miqceuli hoperis protagonistebis mzera mudmivad exleba gareT myof funqcionalur Senobebs, anu modernizmis epoqis mier motanil konstruqciebs, romlebic abrkoleben protagonistis mzeras transcendenturobisaken. amitomacaa, rom hoperTan fridrihiseuli zeca (heaven) ukve gadaqceulia cad (sky) (Sdr. hoperis Semdegi ferweruli tiloebi: saxli rkinigzasTan [1925], kvira dila [1930], oTaxi bruklinSi [1932], oTaxi zRvis piras [1951], dilis mze [1952], sastumro rkinigzasTan [1952], ofisi patara qalaqSi [1953], mzis Suqi kafeteriaSi [1958], eqskursia filosfiaSi [1959]).

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oTaxi bruklinSi [1932] sastumro rkinigzasTan [1952]

literatura

bregaZe

2012: k. bregaZe, zRvis saxismetyveleba kaspar david fridrihis ferweraSi (gv. 124-143); wignSi: k. bregaZe, germanuli romantizmi, hermenevtikuli cdani, gam-oba meridiani, Tbilisi, 2012.

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vieta 2001: S. Vietta, sthetik der Moderne. Literatur und Bild, Fink, Mnchen, 2001. volfi 2003: N. Wolf, Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840). Der Maler der Stille, Taschen, Kln, 2003. lankhaiti 1978: K. Lankheit, Caspar David Friedrich (S. 683-707); in: Romantik in Deutschland, hrsg. von R. Brinkmann, Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 1978.KK novalisi 1977-1988: Novalis: Schriften. Die Werke Friedrich von Hardenbergs, Bd II; hrsg. von Paul Klukhohn und Richard Samuel. 3., nach den Handschriften ergnzte, erweiterte und verbesserte Auflage in 4 Bdn und 1 Begleitband, Stuttgart, 1977-1988. reneri 2009: R. Renner, Edward Hopper (1882-1967), Transformation der Wirklickeit, Taschen, Kln, 2009. Smidi 1999: W. Schmid, Philosophie der Lebenskunst. Eine Grundlegung, 4. Aufl., Shurkamp, Frankfurt/M., 1999.

Nnino gogiaSvili gamrudebuli dro da sivrce mirza gelovanis omis lirikaSi


meore msoflio omis totalurad damangreveli rezultati TiTqmis mTelma dedamiwam ganicada, Tumca yofili sabWoTa kavSirisa da masSi Semavali saqarTvelos respublikis xalxTaTvis igi did samamulo omad ( ) moinaTla. es termini, sabWoTa kavSiris garda, TiTqmis arc erT qveyanaSi ar gamoiyeneboda, miuxedavad imisa, rom am omSi CarTuli iyo bevri maTgani. samSoblosaTvis, stalinisaTvis! sabrZolo paTosiTa da safronto deviziT, uamravi qarTveli Seewira am oms, da maT azrovnebaSi stalini samSoblosTan asocirda, erovnuli identobis ganmsazRvreli ki didi da mZle sabWoTa kavSiri gaxda. mirza gelovani erT-erTi maTgani iyo, visi fizikuri arsebobac imsxverpla omma, Tumca, sabrZolo sivrceSi moxvedris Sedegad, poetma dagvitova ara erTi SesaniSnavi Tematuri leqsi, romlebzedac am naSromSi visaubrebT. jer kidev Zalian axalgazrda poeti, arsebuli, mSobliuri qarTuli sivrcidan, ruseTis ucxo da vrcel

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miwaze xvdeba: iwva ruseTi usasrulo, farTo, keTili, xvdeboda brZoliT dRis ganaTebas, - wers mirza gelovani da Cven vfiqrobT, - ratomaa poetisTvis ruseTi keTili? imitom xom ara, rom samamulo omad saxeldebul omSi, mis gverdiT, masaviT axalgazrda ymawvilebi ixocebian da es erTgvari Tanaziaroba, usaSvelo tragizmi, wamiT gamkrTali aRmafrena, gmirobis apologia da gundurad brZolis Jini diadi ideisaTvis TavisSewirvis kaSkaSa iluzias badebs? an da, iqneb, ver acnobierebda poeti, ra politikuri boroteba imaleboda ruseTis usasrulo imperiaSi? an, iqneb, marTla sjeroda diadi sabWoTa kavSiris ideis da komunizmis beladebis? Tumca, is omSi moxvda, sadac ase awuxebs cas gaTeneba da uneburi SiSi mkvlelobis da iq daRupuli yvela mebrZoli gmiri iyo: am sisxls xsovnisTvis gulze waicxebs, gmirobas misas ar daiviwyebs ruseTis miwa... swored ruseTis miwaa misi da misi TanamebrZolebis gmirobis mTavari mowme, Semnaxavi da ukvdavmyofeli, da, albaT, amitomacaa keTili. mirza gelovanis cxovrebis sivrce gamrudebulia, dro ki - dakonservebuli. swored amitomaa mis leqsebSi ruseTi usasrulo omis dros sasruli ar gaaCnia da poetis WeSmariti, privatuli droidan sruliad amovardnilia. omis sivrce da dro gardauvalobis simZlavriT izidavs arsebul sivrcesa da dros, da gravitaciis erTgvar efeqts axdens. arsebuli mocemuloba gravitaciuli Zalebis niutoniseuli mizidulobis kanoniTa da ainStainis fardobiTobis zogadi TeoriiT aixsneba da mis principul models imeorebs - msoflio mizidulobis kanoniT yvela materialuri sxeuli erTmaneTze zemoqmedebs. kerZod, omis stiqia unikaluri gravitaciiT gamoirCeva da izidavs da amrudebs adamianTa dro-sivrcul veqtors. amis paralelurad, adamianebi izidaven omebs da masSi eZieben samyaros ganwmendas (omi aris mSvidoba - fridrix nicSe). omis apologia da gmirobis kulti mirzas Tanatol lado asaTianis poeziaSi, romelic tuberkulozis gamo ar waiyvanes omSi, ufro mZlavri impulsebiT vlindeba: Tavs ar moiklavs qarTveli, ara! is SeiZleba brZolaSi mokvdes.... an da - hei, Tqven, aragvelebo, gaumaZRarno omiTa... da a.S. mirza ki, frontis xazidan, momxibvlel qarTvel qalebze wers da unazesi grZnobiT aRvsili, aseT dauviwyar saxes qmnis:

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bedma ucnobi gziT gamaqana, Tqven darCiT Sori... cazedac Sori... da, rogorc kartSi aguris qalebs, gqondaT qera Tma da yeli brolis.

nino gogiaSvili

brtyeli evkliduri sivrcis (omisgareSe, mSvidobiani yofa) sapirispirod axalgazrda poeti xvdeba yovlismomcveli omis totaluri gravitaciiT gamrudebul sivrceSi - brZolis qarcecxlSi. poeti ucnob gzaze saubrobs, da ara - ucnob sivrceze. omi, Tavisi gardauvali mizidulobiT, bedi da sakraluri xdomilebaa, romelic ucxo da uxilav gzebs sTavazobs subieqts. am SemTxvevaSi, dReebi, rogorc qurdebi, gamrudebul drosa da sivrceSi iparaven lirikuli gmiris realur dros da anadgureben mis pirobas - dabrunebis. anTebul guls, mxolod tyvia Tu gaaciebs saSineli ganadgurebiT, sxvanairad am vnebebisa da grZnobebis mospoba ar SeiZleba. samxreTSi mxrebze dadgmuli da CrdiloeTSi guliT waRebuli Ramec aqaa, omis dro-sivrceSi da yvela sxva dResa da RamesTan erTad Tavmoyrili, erT mTlianobad qceula, mTlianobad, romelic omamde iyo, mTlianobad, romelic omSi unda daiSalos namsxvrevebad. aelvebuli Tbilisi mxolod sadRac, ukanaa darCenili da saSineli brZolebis nislSi ikargeba. qalaqSi ayvavebuli nuSi ki ganaxlebuli tkivilia, tyviis Wrilobaze saSiSi da mtkivneuli, acdenili drois utyuari indikatori. swored amitom wers mirza gelovani: nu mwer, rom baRSi ayvavda nuSi, rom mTawmindaze ca dawva TiTqos, rom saqarTvelo am gazafxulSi, rogorc yovelTvis, waagavs xviTos. mirza gelovanis diqotomiuri dro usasrulod ganagrZobs dayofasa da danawevrebas da daRmaval dro-sivrcul qronotopSi avismomaswavlebeli dinamikis ganmsazRvrelad gvevlineba. dedav, grigalSi gadakarguls wuxiliT micdiT, -

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mimarTavs dedas da drois danawevrebisa da sivrcis garRvevis faqtze esaubreba igi - mTawmindisaTvis esoden axlobeli poeti: hkiTxeT qars, egeb, man giamboT Cemi sikvdili da ucnauri dabadeba Cemi giamboT. sikvdili, rogorc Savi xvreli, isrutavs da STanTqavs axalgazrda mirzas fizikur arsebobas da, amasTanave, mis gmirad dabadebas uzrunvelyofs. rogorc fizikosi stiven houkingi ambobs: Savi xvrelebi arian Cveni meTvalyureobis miRma da es sruliad ar niSnavs, rom radgan Cven maT ver vakontrolebT da maTSi Cakarguli sagnebi Cveni TvalTaxedvidan uCinardebian, gamovitanoT daskvna, - Sav xvrelebSi sagnebi ikargebian. sikvdili - Savi xvreli, omis gravitaciiT gamrudebuli sivrcis ukiduresi gamovlinebaa, - sikvdilis saocar, idumal, intimur mizidulobas veravin gaurbis da swored sikvdilia is erTgvari gadanacvleba da cvaleba (garda-cvaleba), romelsac mivyavarT sicocxlis aRiarebamde (Seni Wirime, sikvdilo, sicocxle Svenobs SeniTa, - vaJa - fSavela). poeti grigalSi gadakargulia (grigali, rogorc mZlavri impulsi da biZgi omis gravitaciisken) da yvelaferi im erTi saRamodan iwyeba, rodesac dedas daemSvidoba da frontis xazze aRmoCnda. aRmoCnda da ara wavida, radgan Tavis sivrced da adgilad poeti Tbilissa da mTawmindas moiazrebs, da wuxiliT, cremliT, dakarguli bavSvuri RimiliT izniqeba sivrceSi, sadac ar unda moxvedriliyo. mxolod gamarjvebaa is magiuri xdomileba, romelic mas naZaladevi, Tavsmoxveuli sivrcidan Tavis sivrceSi daabrunebs. mis leqsebSi mudmivi, gabmuli patiebis Txovnaa qveynisadmi, ojaxisadmi, megobrebisadmi, Seyvarebulisadmi. danaSauli ardabrunebis miutevebel codvad awevs da dabruneba mainc mxolod da mxolod misi valia. ra sastikia, ra satirali, sxvis qveyanaSi pirveli Tovli, - wers svel farajaSi gayinuli poeti da mSobliuri saxli axsendeba:

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magram omia, dReni wavlian, me ki ver vigrZnob mSobliur siTbos, iq, Cvens ezoSi, ZaRli javria javrobs, ymuis da es me var TiTqos.

nino gogiaSvili

ZaRlic rom javriaa, es SemTxveviTi sulac ar aris, radgan sxva leqsSi mirza gelovani wers: me ar mqonia qveynad bavSvoba, me maqvs ubavSvo biografia, raa bavSvoba, Tu ar gvanaTebs, raa trfoba, Tu ar gvalamazebs... mocemuli frazebiT dasturdeba, rom poetis mgrZnobiare Sinagani samyaros rRveva jer kidev bavSvobaSi iwyeba, mxolod rRveva da ara gamrudeba, radgan roca morig sikvdils amarcxebs martod marto, isev yrmoba da am dros gancdili wuTebi ezmaneba. misi bavSvobis sociokulturuli sivrce SedarebiT myaria, saimedo da naTeli, omis moulodneli agresia ki yvela SesaZlo momavals axSobs. moval, moviTxov idumal Svelas, Tu gza meyo da bedi meRirsa, - wers poeti da gzis (sicocxlis) simcireze da bed-iRbalze pedalirebs. bedi, am SemTxvevaSi, Cveul, mSvidobian, mSobliur garemoSi dabrunebaa, omi ki, Sesabamisad, ubedoba. swored amitom vfiqrobT, rom omis apologia da brZolis Jini ar aris poetis sulieri rxevebisa da msoflmxedvelobis ganmsazRvreli faqtori, erTgan wers kidec me ar var gmirio... is qartexilebs Sewiruli umanko sulia, romelic dReniadag siyvarulsa da sikeTeze ocnebobs, da, amave dros, gmiricaa, keTilSobili, mamaci sulierebiT aRvsili vaJkaci: me, erTi ubralo jariskaci, ar vfiqrob Cemze. me maTze vfiqrob, mWadiT dazrdil Savtuxa biWebze da menaneba maTi uvaJkacod datovebuli ojaxebi da minda mTeli ZaliT viyviro, rom daubrunon isini saqarTvelos miwas, daubrunon isini da dae, pirvelma tyviam mimsxverplos me, -wers frontidan moweril werilSi. Sen midiodi... gza iyo sisxlis... da bavSvis Tvalebs ucvlida iers... sikvdilisagan Sen verra gixsnis,

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TviTon sikvdili Tu ara sZlie. igi 1939 wels gaiwvies meore msoflio omSi. hoda, ai, gamaweses anu nomeri damakres da wamarTves sakuTari gvari da saxeli, rom Tu vinicobaa... nomriT gamomicnon, - gagzavnes ucxo miwaze, sadac, roca jariskacebiT savse eSelonebi Camodgebodnen, qarTvelebiT savse vagonebi gugunebdnen: vaime Cemo, vaime Cemo venaxo... leqsSi es iyo weli... wers, rom TvaliT sinjavdnen erebs erebi da omis RmerTebs Sexsnes avSara da es iyo weli ocdacxrameti, gadayolili cecxlsa da demons, roca davkargeT Cven erTmaneTi da damnaSave Cvenve viyaviT. teqstSi aSkarad ikiTxeba, rom is araa satrfosadmi miZRvnili, aramed avtori saubrobs saxelmwifoebis, erebis, adamianebis erTmaneTis mimarT mtrobasa da gaucxoebaze, eSmakeul, borotebiT aRsavse zogad atmosferoze, sadac adamianebi kargaven erTmaneTs da es movlena samaradiso wamebad qcevia poets. omis dro, SeCerebuli, an ufro zustad - udroo droa, roca gamrudebuli sivrcis ucilobeli atributebia: sangrebi, Tofebi, tyviebi, tankebi, sisxli, gvamebi... rogorc kanti ambobs, dro sxva araferia, Tu ara Sinagani grZnobis forma, e.i. Cveni Tavis da Sinagani mdgomareobebis Wvreta, aqedan gamomdinare, dro CvenSia da misi warmarTvac mxolod Cven xelgvewifeba. erTi SexedviT, sapirispiros gvimtkicebs qarTuli sityvaTSeTanxmebebi - dro midis da drois mdinare, romlebic drois TviTnebur, daukiTxav, fatalur dinamikaze migviTiTeben. an, iqneb, drois mdinareba aqac azrTa mdinarebas Seesatyviseba da misi definiciisas isev SigniT, CvenSi gvabrunebinebs mzeras? asea Tu ise, omis dro, mirza gelovanTan, sivrcis gazneqvis ekvivalenturia da rogorc sivrcis meoTxe srulfasovani ganzomileba, zustad imeorebs mir rxevebsa da vibracias: guliswamRebad scridnen Rrublebi, grigalic hqroda guliswamRebad... aseT droSi poeti ukvdavebaze saubrobs: vinc ukvdavebas, rogorc xviTos, qveynad afasebs, dalieT Rvino Cemi Tasidan da dasZens - dalieT sisxli Cemi Tasidan... graali, rogorc wminda barZimi, romelic ieso qristem gamoiyena saidumlo serobisas da misi wminda sisxlis wveTebis saWurWlea, ukvdavebasa da maradiulobasTan asocirdeba. amrigad, leqsis konotaciuri plani bibliis teqstebSi ikiTxeba da TviTon fraza ki bibliur aluzias warmoadgens. sivrce,

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bibliuri droidan omis dromde, TiTqos ikumSeba da yvela meorexarisxovan movlenasa da nivTs avtomaturad ugulebelyofs; rCeba ieso, wminda graali da avtori. am universaluri samkuTxedidan ikiTxeba mxolod erTgvari azri: leqsis interteqsi bibliaa da masSi mocemuli ukvdavebis idea poetTan Semdegi lozungiT transformirdeba: uari yvelas... siyvaruli erTs aTasidan, - poeti universums sTavazobs Tavis, ganuzomel, ukvdav siyvaruls, romelic mis leqsebSi koncentrirdeba da misive poeziidan gadmoedineba ulevad. aseT formulirebas gansakuTrebul aqcents sZens sisxlis semantika, rogorc omisa da sulierebis (sisxli - suli) simbiozi, sadac siyvaruli da xelovnebaa umTavresi da RmerTkaci da Semoqmedic erT sivrceSi moiazreba. omSi sisxlis Rame da sisxlis logini gardauvalia, Tumca, am miwur qoxSi, siyvarulicaa iebis sunTqva, romelic sxvas yvelafers abaTilebs da aneitralebs: var erTi vinme, casaviT sufTa da caze vrceli gulis patroni. omis droSi ocnebaa gamosavali da mxolod ocnebisa da Wvretis Zala abrunebs poets Tavis sivrceSi, radgan mxolod satrfoze fiqrs SeuZlia ixsnas poetis guli da bavSvoba kvdomisgan. Tumca, sxva leqsSi ambobs mirza gelovani, rom omSi guli ara kvdeba da iq gmirebi iRupebian imgvarad, rogorc mZlavri muxis xeebi iqcevian. guli darCa, da rodesac xelCarTuli

dneprs gadaRma Cadga omis mquxareba, me vigrZeni saguleSi Seni guli da mtris blindaJs SevukeTe yumbarebi. omi, romelic anadgurebs materias, ver ereva iseT gonebriv da sulier substanciebs, rogoricaa guli da masSi Casaxlebuli simamace da Tavganwirva. swored aq ikiTxeba yvelaze ukeT omis sivrcis dajabvna omis droiTve, omis avtofrustracia da mamaci gulis apologia. guli, romelic miTologiuri

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feniqsiviT ferflidan aRsdgeba, maradiuli ganaxlebis simboloa da omis drois apokalifsze miuTiTebs. daCexilebs Tbilisis ca gvamTelebda, Cvens saSvelad mTawmindidan wamomdgari, - omisa da sikvdilis gamrudebul droze siyvarulisa da samSoblos namdvili dro dominirebs da mirza gelovanis SeCerebuli droc mxolod da mxolod ukvdavebasTanaa wilnayari, igi mkvdari ki ara, maradiulia. misi mkvdari TanamebrZolis xmasac qaris Sriali imeorebs da finur danaze basri yinva, romelic leningradisken mimaval jariskacebs gzas uketavs, ufro autanelia, radgan icis, rom cocxlebsa da mkvdrebs Soris gawyda gzebi Tu azri, da, rogorc sunTqva, TrTolviT gaTavda... omSi isec xdeba, rom misTvis acdenili tyvia, amxanags moxvdeba anda, qali, romelic mas uyvarda, aRar daucdis. arada, jariskacs, yvelaze metad, samSoblosTan erTad, im erTaderTi qalis siyvaruli asuldgmulebs, romelsac odesme, gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi, daubrundeba. qali is orientiria, romelic gamarjvebis sixaruls gvirgvins adgams da damarcxebis SemTxvevaSi navsayudelad evlineba. me dabrunebiT tkivilebs wavSli, oRond mosvlamdis, oRond bolomdis, rogorc gazafxuls elian mTaSi,Seni lamazi guli melodes. aseTi brwyinvale lodinis jildo ki mTebis Seryeva da qorwilis zecis sufraze gaSlaa. am Sori sizmris axdena gamrudebuli drois revanSi da omis paradigmis rRvevaa, radgan aseTi masStaburi boroteba yovelTvis SedarebiT mcire borotebebisgan konstruirdeba, Sesabamisad, misi destruqciac negativis aRkveTiT anu pozitiviT - sikeTiT, siyvaruliT iwyeba. mirza gelovani omis gamrudebul dro-sivrceSic ukve omze imarjvebs da gvamebis, sisxlis, yumbarebis, tankebis garemocvaSi wers: wuxel vebrZodi cecxls da uragans

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da saSineli brZolebis nislSi me momeCvena sadRac, Cvens ukan aelvebuli idga Tbilisi. orTaWalaSi hyvaoda nuSi, mTawmindis mxrebze mze iwva TiTqos, da Sen, Zvirfaso, am gazafxulSi, rogorc yovelTvis, mohgavdi xviTos.

nino gogiaSvili

Llali daTaSvili M xatvrul-olamuri sivrce Zvel qarTul literaturaSi


Sua saukuneebis qristianul kulturaSi mxatvrul-olamuri droisa da sivrcis kategoriebs hqondaT ara mxolod pirdapiri, aramed eTikuri da simboluri mniSvnelobanic, sarwmunoebisa da cxovrebis wesis mixedviT, ganirCeoda sauflo, Cveulebrivi da codvili teritoriebi. gansakuTrebiT pativsacemi macxovris Sobis, jvarcmis, aRdgomis, amaRlebisa da raime saxis moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebuli adgilebia da, mogvianebiT, am adgilTa memkvidreebi Tu maTi madlis mowileni. hagiografiaSi axsnilia, rom romelime qveyana xSirad simboluri mniSvnelobis Semcvelia, mag. egvipte (rogorc israelis tyveobis adgili) jojoxeTis miwieri saxea: pirveli igi axlisa mis sjulisa siZe igi faraosi, farao uxorcoisa mis faraoisi, viTarca

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egvipte jojoxeTisai, urTierTas maxlobelni saxiTa (Zeglebi 1978: 359). ierusalims (rogorc macxovris qalaqs) samoTxis miwier gamoxatulebad miiCnevdnen, egviptes (rogorc israelis tyveobis adgils) _ jojoxeTis, egviptidan gamosvla jojoxeTis klanWebidan Tavdaxsnasa da Tavisuflebas moaswavebda, ierusalimis Sviloba _ sasufevlis damkvidrebas. qveynis sarwmunoebis mixedviT daxasiaTebis SemTxvevaa giorgi merCulis sayovelTaod cnobili sityvebi: qarTlad friadi qveyana aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aResrulebis (Zeglebi 1978: 175). hagiografi qarTlad miiCnevs im qveyanas, romelSic qarTul enaze loculoben; SeerTebulia ena (qarTuli), rwmena (qristianoba) da mamuli (friadi qveyana). Amgvarad, enis, mamulisa da sarwmunoebis gaerTianebiT miiReba qarTli _ didi qveyana. 1235 w. Seqmnil, ebstorfis pirvel qristianul rukaze (ix. danarTi) asaxul qveyanaTa teritoria damokidebulia maTs sarwmunoebriv mdgomareobaze: marTlmorwmune qveynebs didi adgili uWiravT, araqristianulT _ patara, dedamiwis centrSi ki moqceulia ierusalimi, radgan qronotopuli cnebebi Tu Rirebulebani eTikuri kategoriebia da ara _ geografiuli. ase mag.: saqarTvelos, rogorc pirvel saukuneSi gaqristianebul da satanis SemCerebel qveyanas (anu keTils, kargs), didi adgili aqvs daTmobili, xolo ruseTs, rogorc gogisa da magogis ers, satanis potenciur samSoblos (anu borotebisa da kaciWamiebis budes), _ patara. qveynebi ganawilebulia macxovarTan siaxlovisa da sulieri Rirebulebebisa da ara geografiuli mdebareobis mixedviT.

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es ruka olamuricaa. olamuri sivrce mikro da makrokosmosebis erTianobas, adamianis, rogorc sivrculi wertilisa, da mTeli samyaros, rogorc sulTa siras, urTierTkavSirs gulisxmobs. olamis yoveli wertili mTels moicavs Tavis TavSi da mgrZnobiarea nebismieri sxva wertilis mimarT. sivrce udris usasrulobas, sazRvari _ usazRvroebas, ixsneba yovelgvari sivrciTi barieri. ebstorfis rukis Semdgenlis koncefciiT, macxovari TviTon aris mikro da makrokosmosi, wertilica (rogorc axali adami) da galaqtikac (rogorc yovlis Semoqmedi), misi yoveli wertili moicavs mTel dedamiwas, misi sxeuli igive dedamiwaa, igive samyaroa. qristianul kulturaSi simbolurad moiazreba mxareebi aRmosavleTi uflis mxarea, dasavleTi _ esqatologiuri aRsasrulis, samxreTi _ madlis, CrdiloeTi _ codvis; uflis marjvniv samoTxea, marcxniv _ jojoxeTi. amitom Txzulebis dro-sivrce, anu m. baxtinis terminiT, qronotopi (m. baxtini: 102), sainteresoa ara mxolod TavisTavadi mniSvnelobiT, aramed Sesaqmiseul da esqatologiur movlenebTan mimarTebiT. rodesac hagiografi nawarmoebis romelime epizodSi gamokveTs sivrciT faqtors, mas qveteqstur mniSvnelobasac SesZens. ninos cxovrebaSi amovikiTxavT, rom TxzulebaSi CrdiloeTi moxmobilia ara mimarTulebisa Tu erTerTi mxaris aRsaniSnavad, aramed gauqristianebel, codvebiT savse teritorias migvaniSnebs. saqarTvelo Crdilois qveyana imitomaa. rom igi daklebulia ieso qristes madls da ara imitom, rom romelime konkretuli aTvlis wertilidan CrdiloeTiT mdebareobs: da iyo odes moxeda RmerTman wyalobiTa qveyanasa daviwyebulsa, Crdilosa. da iyo qveyana

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mzisagan simarTlisa daklebul, daklebul qristes, Zisa RmrTisa moslvisTvis da cxorebisa, viTarca saxeli erqva samarTlad Crdiloi. ara Tu amas mzesa cisasa daklebul iyo, romelic aw ars, romels yoveli cisa qveSe myofi ixilavs da xedavs, xolo amisTvis erqva Crdiloi, Tu raodenni welni da Jamni da naTesavni gardaxdes adamisgan... da Semdgomad moivlina qveyanasa mas Cvensa qadagi WeSmariti nino, dedofali Cemi, viTarca bnelsa Sina mTiebi, romel ars ciskari, da naTobn da mis ukan aRmovals didi igi mflobeli dRisai da ganmanaTlebeli Cveni (Zeglebi 1978: 360). wm. SuSanikis sakani cixeSi swored CrdiloeTiT mdebareobs. abos wamebaSic CrdiloeTi gauqristianebel, codviT dacemul qveyanas niSnavs: nerse... Sevida qveyanasa mas Crdiloisasa, sada-igi ars sadguri da sabanake ZeTa magogisTai, romel arian xazarni, kac velur, saSinel piriTa, mxecis buneba, sisxlis mWamel, romelTa sjuli ara aqvs (Zeglebi 1978: 67). aq, qveyanasa mas Crdiloisasa, gamoirCevian qristianTa qalaqebi da soflebi. Hagiografiasa da himnografiaSi, pirdapiris garda, simboluri mniSvnelobisacaa garkveuli sivrciTi monakveTebi: zeca Tu miwa, cis kabadoni, gza, samSoblo, taZari, saxli, qalaqi, udabno, zRva, wyali, mdinare, wyaro, farexi, xnarcvi, ormo, mRvime, klde, mTa, borcvi, cixe, kari da bWe, wmindanis samoRvaweo adgili... zeca uflisaa, miwa _ kacTa codviT dacemis adgili, Sesabamisad ganirCevian zecis kacebi da sawuTros moyvareni;

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cis kabadoni uflisken mimavali gza da is sasinaTloa, romlis gavliT adamiani sasufevels daimkvidrebs. amitom evedreba d. guramiSvili ufals, sasinaTlo auxvritos; samSoblo samoTxea miwaze, aq adamiani Tavs kargad grZnobs, misi suli mSvidadaa, `gulic iq iwevs, Tvalica (vaJa). mamuli sicocxlis wyaroa. umisod mamuliSvili avaddeba, Tavs oblad grZnobs. eqvTime mTawmindeli kvdeba qarTuli enis daviwyebisa da samSoblos moSorebis gamo. aq cxovrebas giiolebs dis cremli da Zmis mxarSi dgoma (d. guramiSvili). aq TiTqos aRar SeigrZnoba soflisa da zesTasoflis, cisa da miwis dapirispireba, orive Zvirfasia, orive saTnoa, `ca firuzia, xmeleTi _ zurmuxti (akaki), samoTxiseulia samSoblos miwaca da cac; saxli sulis navsayudelia, ubinaoba miusafroba da ganwirulobaa, bina _ sulis navsadguri da TavSesafaria, daviT guramiSvili amitom SesTxovs ase mxurvaled yovladwmida RvTismSobels, mowyales, codvilT meoxars, daifaros gansacdelTagan: mowyalebis karo, Sens zRurbls movekaro, usaxlkaro varo, viTxov, Semifaro (guramiSvili 1977: 271). aseTive daniSnulebisaa ezo, rogorc saxlis nawili, farexi (rogorc cxvris sadgomi, gamomdinare adamianis, rogorc cxvrisa, da macxovris, viTarca mwyemsi keTilis, metaforebidan). Tu wmindanni TvalmuSorebliv mihyvebian uflis gzas, isini arian erT samwyso erTisa mwyemsisa da uflis ezosaganni, sxvani _ cxovarni gzaSecdomilni eSmas zegavleniT ikargebian, sxva ezoSi aRmoCndebian da macxovris Sewevnas saWiroeben. urjuloTa mier datyvevebuli daviT guramiSvilis locva lukas saxarebis gamoZaxilia (ix. luka 18, 12-

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13). igi, rogorc olamidan amovardnili, dakarguli cxvari, mgelT warsatacad farexTa gare, uzenaess moZiebasa da amqveynad _ samSobloSi, im qveynad ki sasufevelSi damkvidrebas evedreba; poeti SehRaRadebs macxovars, eSmas, anu uxilavi mxecisagan daicvas, TikanTa _ jojoxeTisTvis ganwirulTa rigebSi ar Caayenos da samoTxis mkvidrT _ kravebs SeuerTos: Sen, ieso, mwyemso Cveno, CvenTvis sisxlis damanTxeo! viT cxovari var wymendili, nu damkargav, momnaxeo... (guramiSvili 1977: 278). am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa, rom niko samadaSvili leqsSi beTania (ukanaskneli qristianebi) mTas uflis kvarcxlbekad moixseniebs. misi striqoni _ fara kvarcxlbekis axlo simboluri Sinaarsisad migvaCnia da im uflis kacTa krebulze mimaniSneblad, romelTa ricxvic komunistebis epoqaSi sagrZnoblad Semcirda; xolo rjuldawyvetili qarTvelebi, romelTa xilva TviT macxovarsac ki akrTobs, _ im umwyemsod darCenil, naxirad gadaqceul adamianebad, romelTa Tvalsa da gulSi ufali mokvda, romelnic urwmunoebisa da antiTeizmis WaobSi iyvnen CaZirulni da sakuTari nebiT mieqanebodnen jojoxeTisaken: aq Tavis TaTiT iTxrida saflavs mwyemsdaRupuli soflis naxiri (samadaSvili 2004: 47). mTa, borcvi, klde sauflo teritoriebia, radgan maTze myarad mdgari kaci uflisaken midis. lurji mTebi morwmuneTa miwieri myofobis, sulieri zigzagebis adgilia. aqedan axlosaa uZiro ca, sulTa maradiuli samyofeli... goderZi Coxeli gadmogvcems, rom Coxis wmida giorgis ymebis rwmeniT, elias mTa mTa ki ar aris, aramed wminda wignia, sadac Zveli aRTqmisa da axali aRTqmis niSnebi ikiTxeba. Tavisi mSobliuri garemoTi aRfrTovanebuli Cvenc gvarwmunebs: marTla iseTi lamazia arxoti, kaci aqeT-iqiT iyureba, RmerTi xom arsad zis, an yvavilebSi xom ar daseirnobso... arxoti

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RmerTis taxtiviTaa Cadgmuli mTebs Soris am dedamiwaze (Coxeli 2011: 84); xolo xnarcvi, ormo, codvis liaa. adamiani rac metad scodavs, miT ufro Rrmad efloba ormoSi. daviT guramiSvili SehRaRadebs RmerTs: ieso, mwyemso keTilo, Cemebr warwymendilT mpovelo, Cavvardi codvis xnarcvSia, vscade da ver amovelo, viTxov, Semindev codvani, ros mkvdari ganmacxovelo. (guramiSvili 1977: 276). wmindanis misiac ase esmodaT, rom mas ara mxolod TviTon unda gaekvala gza cxonebisa, aramed Cveulebrivi adamianis _ sawuTros kacis (iakob xucesi), gzas acdenili cxvrisTvis, xeli unda gaewodebina Tu SeeSvelebina, codvis ormodan amoeyvana da zecisken mimaval gzaze daeyenebina. zecisa kacebs da queyanisa angelozebs (giorgi merCule) ase SehRaRadebs giorgi mcire: xnarcvsa Sina vnebaTasa mdgomare varT, viTarca ixila didman paxumi, da veZiebT msgavsTa TqvenTa xelismicemad, raiTamca mier aRmovediT da mRvimisagan glaxakobisa da Tixisagan uyisa kldesa zeda saTnoebaTasa ferxni Cvenni davamtkiceniT (Zeglebi 1978: 208). siwmindisa da madlis ganawilebis mizniT xdeba sivrcis sakralizacia: saxeldebiT, wm. nawilis dabrZanebiT, raRac nivTis gadataniT. amitom arsebobs msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi da, maT Soris, saqarTveloSic golgoTa, TxoTi, beTania, beTlemi, geTsimania, eleoni, Tabori, sina. mcxeTa moiazreba, rogorc meore iarusalimi. aqve inaxeba macxovris kvarTi, elia winaswarmetyvelis xaleni, RvTismSoblis kvarTi, wm. giorgis, wm. ioane naTlismcemlis, nino mociqulTasworis jvris, Zelicxovlis wm. nawilebi da sxva uamravi siwmide; sivrcis sakralizaciisTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania wmindanis roli. is, viTarca soflis

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marili, amqveyniuri simyralis ganmaqarvebelia; viTarca sanTeli sasanTlesa zeda gabrqyinebuli, cdilobs gaakeTilSobilos, gaamSvenieros sofeli, Semoitanos sinaTlis sxivi rogorc garemoSi, ise adamianTa sulebSi; mis keTil qcevaTa gamo rcxvenis sofelsa, rogorc ambobs giorgi merCule. amisi magaliTebi wm. nino mociqulTaswori, wm. asureli mamebi, wm. grigol xanZTeli da sxvani arian, romelTa Rirsi ara iyo sofeli ese. serapion zarzmelis cxovreba ganmartavs: margalitni da Tvalni patiosanni, mimoganbneul ra iyvnen TanaaRreviT miwasa, ara esreT brwyinven winaSe Tvalebsa xilvis moyvareTa, viTar-igi raJams gamoixurven da ganwmden da oqroTxzulebiT Seiwyvnen keTilTa maT mWedelTa, maSinRa gamoCndes brwyinvalebai maTi da iqos muSaki da Suenierebai maTi. egreTve adgili ese, raJams xel-yon xelovanTa muSakTa, maSin ixilos Tvalman Suenierebai adgilisai amis (Zeglebi 1978: 96). wm. SuSanikma ganabrwyina da ganaSvena yoveli igi cixei sulieriTa miT qnariTa (Zeglebi 1978: 38).; wm. abom Tavisi damwvari sxeuli sakmevlad miupyra RmerTsa, Tavisi sikvdilis adgili aronisa da zaqarias bervars daamsgavsa, xolo Tbilisi gadaaqcia uwmides sakurTxevlad abelisi, enuqisi, abrahamisi da eliaisi, romelni-igi mrguliad dasawuvelTa maT tarigTa Seswirvides RmrTisa (Zeglebi 1978: 84). giorgi merCule ambobs, rom axovani moRvawe taZriTa miT sulisaiTa queyanisa cad Semcvalebelia (Zeglebi 1978: 201). marTlac, wmindanis moRvaweobiT

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da ufalTan

miwieri sivrce zeciurad gardaiqmneba aRmaRldeba sakralurqmnili.

wm. grigol xanZTelis misia udabnos qalaqyofaa _ murvan yrusagan aoxrebuli, gaudaburebuli, nadirTa saRmuvlod gadaqceuli tao-klarjeTi, mosaxleoba rom gawyvetila da or-ori, sam-sami ojaxi tyeTa Sina, adgil-adgil mimalula, am didma moRvawem, zecisa kacman da queyanisa angelosman, isev qalaqad unda gadaaqcios, rac gulisxmobs iqaurobis ara mxolod fizikur ganaSenianebas, aramed sulier aRmavlobaaRorZinebasac. man kargad icis daviT winaswarmetyvelisgan Seswavlili, rom uflisTvis yvelaze metad saTno da mosawoni Zmobis mier aRvlenili galobaa (raime keTil, anu raime Suenier, aramed damkvidrebai ZmaTa erTad _ fsalm. 132, 1), amitom ganizraxa samonastro mSeneblobisTvis mieyo xeli da Tavisi samSoblo madlmosil, ufalTan amaRlebul qveyanad eqcia. garda amisa, wm. grigoli saukeTeso zegavlenas axdens irgvliv myofebze _ xelmwifeebs, xanZTaSi yofnisas miwidan gasvlis, samoTxis moxilvis gancda ipyrobT da Tavi zecas, wmidasa banaks damkvidrebuli hgoniaT (Zeglebi 1978: 172). gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisa iyo saqarTvelos yovladwmida RmrTismSoblis wilxvedr qveynad gamocxadeba. amiT ara mxolod ganiwmindeboda da ufalTan amaRldeboda aqauroba, aramed udidesi meoxi da mcveli edgineboda iverias da izrdeboda misi pasuxismgeblobac macxovris winaSe, rogorc rCeuli erisa. sakraluri rogorc wyaro adgilebia wmindanTa sikeTisa. amitom isini saflavebi, da maTze

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aSenebuli samartvileebi mlocvelTa mudmivi swrafvisa da sasoebis savaneebia; xSirad cxovrebis wess Seusabamebdnen garemos. mowameebi sicocxleSive jojoxeTur pirobebSi arian, vfiqrobT, iakob xucesis mier sagangebod hiperbolizebulia wm. SuSanikis cixis cudi garemo pirobebi, radgan aseTi klimati, faqtobrivad, ar arsebobs saqarTvelos teritoriaze. Tanac dedofali xuravs sarkmels, Tavs igvems, rom sicocxleSive gaiaros jojoxeTi, aqa itanjos da mun ganisuenos. samagierod, madliT savsea xanZTis, opizis, Satberdis, iSxnis midamoebi, mziTa da haeriT keTilad Sezavebuli, saamo wyliT, sasiamovno klimatiT, ganwesebuli, mzuare, wvimisas xamlic ki ar utalaxiandebaT berebs, raTa mkiTxveli mixvdes, rom isini sicocxleSive samoTxis mkvidrni arian. Cveni azriT, amisi mizezi is unda iyos. rom mowamisTvis umniSvnelovanesi sikvdilTan uSiSrad da Seurcxvenlad Sexvedra iyo da ara _ moRvaweobis xangrZlivoba, moRvawe wmindanebi ki rac mets icocxlebdnen, miT mets Seqmnidnen da bevrs moaswrebdnen. wmindani xSirad cdilobs, SemoisazRvros samoRvaweo sivrce. amiT, rogorc Cans, Tavs daculad grZnobs, rogorc sawuTros kacTagan, ise amqveyniur sacdurTagan. amave dros, ganmartoebuli loculobs, mudmivad ufalTanaa da misi wyalobis imedadaa. wm. SuSaniki sul cdilobs, patara senakebSi ganmartovdes, sarkmelsac ki xuravs, rom garesamyarom yuradReba ar gaufantos; wm. grigol xanZTeli erT Zmas, romelic eSmakisagan igvemeboda, Tavisi xeliT Seqmnili jvrebiT

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SemousazRvravs sivrces. eSma veRar ekareba jvrebiT dacul, ganwmendil teritorias da bersac veRar scems; wm. serapion zarzmelmac jvrebi aRmarTa monastris oTxive mxares da am gziT zarzma jvarTagan Secvulad gadaaqcia, ramac didi, gamanadgurebeli miwisZvris dros uvneblad gadaarCina samonastro teritoria. monasteri uflis saxlia, caa miwaze, locva da saeklesio galoba eSmasTvis borot saqmeSi xelis SemSleli zRudea, amitom samonastro teritoriis, rogorc miwieri samoTxis, SerCeva gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania. Tu adgili ukve sakraluria (macxovris kvarTi an raime siwmidea STafluli, romelime mowamis saflavia, uflisa Tu romelime didi wmindanis moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebuli teritoriaa), taZari aucileblad iq Sendeba; Tu ase ar aris, wmindanebs, Cveneba-gamocxadebisa Tu saswaulis saSualebiT, xSirad ufali mianiSnebs misTvis saTno adgils taZris asaSeneblad. hagiografiaze dayrdnobiT, ase aigo xanZTa, Satberdi, zarzma, SiomRvimi, jvari... zogjer TviTon wmindani SearCevs saeklesio adgils, Tumca aseTi pativi rCeulTa xvedria. wm. grigol xanZTeli ara mxolod ubisisTvis eZebs Sesaferis teritorias, aramed Teodoresa da qristeforesac im pirobiT aZlevs monasterTa aSenebis kurTxevas, Tu misi TanamonawileobiT ganisazRvreba, sad aaSenon taZrebi.

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wmindanis samoRvaweo arealis asaxviT warmoCndeba misi avtoriteti. wm. SuSaniki curtavis midamoebSi trialebs, radgan misi Rvawli hereTis sapitiaxSosTvisaa saWiro, romlis deda da dedofalia; abos wamebis geografia farToa: arabeTi, qarTli, xazareTi, afxazeTi, radgan wm. abo, rogorc gaqristianebuli arabi muslimani, hnaTobn yovelTa; wm. grigol xanZTelis samoRvaweo areali kidev ufro farToa: qarTli, tao-klarjeTi, afxazeTi, konstantinopoli, ierusalimi. giorgi merCule gviCvenebs, rom wm. mama Tavisi sulieri madlmosilebiT gadaswvdeba mTel qristianul samyaros da amiT cdilobs, igi msoflio mniSvnelobis wmindanebs gauTanasworos; ilarion qarTvels misi cxovrebis avtori ase axasiaTebs: yovlad brwyinvalei mnaTobi, romeli-igi aRmosavliT aRmoxda da saTnoebaTa elviTa dasavalsa myofni gananaTla (Zeglebi 1978: 230). hagiografi amiT ilarion qarTvels msoflio mniSvnelobis wmindanad acxadebs, romelic avtoritetiT swvdeba mTel samyaros, aRmosavleT-dasavleTs. sivrce yvelaze mkafiod moZraobisas aRiqmeba. d. lixaCovi miuTiTebs, rom gzis siZneles, manZilis gadalaxvis sirTules hagiografi ar asaxavs, aramed gadmogvcems mxolod oriode sityviT: wamovida da moiwia (lixaCovi 1970: 65), yuradRebis miRma rCeba mogzaurobis sawyissa da saboloo punqtebs Soris moqceuli sivrce. asea qarTul hagiografiaSic, ase modis varsqeni sparseTidan hereTSi, wm. abo _

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baRdadidan _ TbilisSi, wm. grigoli _ Tbilisidan _ opizaSi, xanZTidan _ konstantinopolSi da ukan... olami saerTod xsnis sivrcis faqtors. sidonias dedas SeuZlia mcxeTaSi gaigos macxovrisTvis dartymuli lursmnis xma da jvarcmuli RmerTis TanagrZnobiT savse aResrulos; daviT guramiSvili ise mosTqvams kacTa siaviT gaocebuli, mkiTxvels aviwydeba igi XVIII saukunis moRvawe romaa da gvgonia, poeti jvarcmis win mdgomare Sestiris ufals, evedreba, miutevos codvil kacobriobas da Tavze ewveTeba macxovris xelT, ferxT, gverdT sisxli. soflisa da zesTasoflis urTierTmimarTebidan gamomdinare, aisaxeboda vertikaluri da horizontaluri sivrcis proporciuloba. gadaadgileba horizontalur sivrceSi, miwier-zeciuri erTobidan gamomdinare, vertikalze amaRlebas, ufalTan daaxloebas an masTan daSorebas, dacemas, jojoxeTisken svlas niSnavs. wmindanis mier realurad ganvlili, anu daZleuli, sivrcis yoveli axali wertili simbolurad Seesabameba mis axal sulier simaRles. iovane sabanisZe wm. abos mier horizontalur sivrceSi gavlili gzis TiToeul monakveTs sulieri kibis safexurs Seusabamebs. _ baRdadSi, roca vecnobiT, abo muslimania; TbilisSi Camosvlis Semdeg kaTakmeveli xdeba; xazareTSi gaqristiandeba; afxazeTisken marxviT, locviTa da mdumarebiT mimavali xdeba marTali; afxazeTSi Casuls ukve wmindanad miiCneven; TbilisSi dabrunebuls awameben da martvilad wardgeba macxovris winaSe. e. i. yovel gadaadgilebas miwier sivrceSi mosdevs abos amaRleba vertikalze, igi nabij-nabij uaxlovdeba ufals. am svla-amaRlebas sqematurad ase gamovsaxavT: baRdadi (muslimani) _ Tbilisi (kaTakmeveli) _ xazareTi (qristiani) _ gza afxazeTisken (marTali) _ afxazeTi (wmindani) _ Tbilisi (mowame).

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amgvarad, moZraoba geografiul sivrceSi aris gadaadgileba religiuri faseulobebis vertikalur skalaze (leqsikoni 1974: 211). wmindanebs sikeTeSi aZlierebs gadalaxuli manZili. sivrceSi gadaadgilebisas qristianisTvis yvelaze pativdebuli siwmideebis molocva da maTs madlTan ziareba, wminda adgilebSi mosalocad svlaa. moxilva, gavrcelebuli da SedarebiT pativdebuli forma mogzaurobisa, moiazreboda ara mxolod rogorc svla wmida adgilebisken, aramed rogorc gza RmerTisken (gureviCi 1972: 86). am skalis TavSi ierusalimia, rogorc wyaro madlisa, taZari RvTisa, qalaqi, romlis xuroTmoZRuar da Semoqmed RmerTi ars. ierusalimis molocva zeciuri ierusalimis, anu sasufevlis moxilvas gulisxmobda. radgan qristian moRvaweTa rwmeniT, miwieri gzebi erwymis zeciurs (gureviCi 1972: 84). aq, uflis miwier saxlSi, misuli Tavs zeciur sasaxleSi warmoidgenda, aqauri madly samoRvaweod aZlierebda. giorgi mTawmindeli tao-klarjeTis, ierusalimisa da sinas gavliT, mTeli aqauri madliT gaZlierebuli midis aTonze. warvide da wyalobiT moxedva-yos RmerTman Cemzeda da saxierebisa da sitkboebisa misisaTvis daadinos Cem zeda wveTi madlisa da sitkboebisai _ fiqrobs daviT garejeli (Zeglebi 1978: 237), samudamo samyoflad ierusalims irCevs mosalocad wasuli ilarion qarTveli... aseve, sayuradReboa sivrculi da zesivrculi movlenebis urTierTmimarTeba: Cvenebis, gamocxadebis, sizmrisa da xilvis asaxva, mogoneba-gaxsenebebis gziT Txzulebis qronotopSi axali dro-sivrcis CarTvis xerxebi da principebi. am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebod migvaCnia wm. grigol xanZTelis cxovreba, masSi avtori CaurTavs zesivrcul movlenebsac (Cveneba-xilvani taZarTa asaSeneblad) da axal qronotopebsac: zenonis Tavgadasavals, aSotisa da adarnerses satrfialo ambebs, cqiris xrikebs, naambobebs

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didi mamis mowafeebze... aseTi CanarTebi hagiografiul Txzulebebs umatebs mxatvrul Rirebulebas.

Lliteratura baxtini 1975: baxtini m.n., literaturisa da esTetikis sakiTxebi, m. 1975, rusul enaze; guramiSvili 1977: orbeliani s.-s., sibrZne sicruisa; guramiSvili d., daviTiani, Tb. 1977; gureviCi 1972: gureviCi a. i., Suasaukuneobrivi kulturis kategoriebi, m. 1972, rusul enaze; leqsikoni 1974: bibliuri RvTismetyvelebis leqsikoni, briuseli, 1974, rusul enaze; lixaCovi 1970: lixaCovi d. s., adamiani Zveli ruseTis istoriaSi, moskovi, 1970, rusul enaze; samadaSvili 2004: samadaSvili n., feriscvaleba, Tb. 2004; Coxeli 2011: Coxeli g., moTxrobebi, Tb. 2011; Zeglebi 1978: Zveli qarTuli literaturis Zeglebi, Tb. 1978. 1. grigol noseli cxovreba, Tb. 2010 w.; _ wmida makrinas

elizbar elizbaraSvili drois `wakiTxva` samyaros meoTxe ganzomilebis sivrciTi koordinatis mixedviT
Tqven ambobT dro gadis. sulelebo es Tqven gadixarT. Talmudi
amerikeli filosofosi samuel aleqsanderi 1927 wels werda me mgonia gadaWarbebuli ar iqneba Tu vityviT, rom filosofiis yvela sasicocxlo problemis gadawyveta damokidebulia sivrcisa da drois problemis gadawyvetaze da kerZod imaze, Tu rogor urTierTobaSia isini erTmaneTTan ( Alexander Samuel. Space, Time and Deity. vol. I. London. 1927 gv. 35) sakacobrio azrovneba odiTganve axdenda droisa da sivrcis fenomenebze refleqsias: maT bunebaze, maT urTierTmimarTebaze, Tu romeli iyo maTgan pirveladi da romeli meoradi. azri gamoiTqmeboda, rogorc miTosur, aseve religiur-Teologiur azrovnebaSi. kacobriobis pirvel werilobiT teqstSi ( dRemde SemorCenil) droisa da sivrcis fenomeni urTierTdamoukideblad ganixileboda, sadac dro iyo pirveladi, Seuqmneli da

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maradiuli. rigvedas monakveTSi dasabami nivTTa Cven vkiTxulobT: masSina ar iyo ra: arca yofna, arc aryofna. ar iyo sivrce, arc saaqao, arc saiqao... riT ifarvoda yovelive an ra iZvroda? vin flobda wyalsa da ufskrulT siRrmes? ar iyo maSin arc sikvdili da arc sicocxle. ar iyo maSin dRisa da Ramis sxvadasxvaoba. mxolod sunTqavda TavisTavad erTi, urxevi qarniavTagan; ara ra iyo Tvinier misa. ( rig veda. X. 129 )

am fragmentSi naTlad Cans rom sivrce da dro srulebiT urTierTdamoukidebelia. dro arsebobs samyarosa da sivrcis Seqmnamde. mxolod sunTqavda TavisTavad erTi miuTiTebs drois dinebaze, ritmze, romelic samyaromde arsebobda. am pozicias, Tanamedrove eniT, drois absolutisturi Teoria ewodeba. magram uZveles droSive, isev indoeTSi Seiqmna Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviT droisa da sivrcis raRac siRrmiseul, Sinagan kavSirze daiwyes saubari, rom dro ukavSirdeba sivrces da aseve rom sivrce aris pirveladi. es Tvalsazrisi pirvelad upaniSadebis teqstSi gaJRerda. brihadaraniaka upaniSadas III TavSi gargi ( vaCaknavas asuli) ekiTxeba iajniavalkas: 3. razedaa, iajniavalka, sigrZiv da ganiv moqsovili igi, raica zesknelSia, da raica qvesknelSia da raica zesknelsa da qvesknels Suaa da rasaca ewodeba gardasulica, awindelica, mowevnadica. 4. gargi, igi, raica zesknelSia, da raica qvesknelSia, da raica zesknelsa da qvesknels Suaa, da rasaca ewodeba gardasulica, awindelica, mowevnadica igi sigrZiv da ganiv moqsovilia sivrcezed ( upaniSadebi. xomli Tbilisi 1995. brihadaraniaka upaniSada. Tavi III brahmana merve. Targmani leri alimonakisa). ese igi, kacobriobis istoriaSi upaniSadebis es fragmenti pirvelad gamoTqvams azrs rom dro ( Tavisi samive

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modusiT warsuliT, awmyoTi da momavliT) da sivrce erTianobaSia da rom dro ukavSirdeba da daiyvaneba sivrceze, rom drois buneba Seqmnilia moqsovilia sivrciT. raze iyo aq saubari? ratom Sedgeba dro sivrcis materiisagan? razedac an risganacaa moqsovili, bunebrivia isaa misi materia, saSeni masala. ra igulisxmeboda am moqsovis metaforaSi upaniSadebis avtorebSi? sivrcis da drois erTianoba, sivrcis pirveladoba da drois sivrceze dayvana aseve gamosWvivis plotinis naazrevSi, rodesac eneadebSi igi wers: dro warmoadgens sicocxlis mzgavs sigrZiT ganzomilebas, es sigrZe xorcieldeba uCumrad damdgar cvlilebebSi, romlebic miedinebian Tanabarzomierad ( III . 7, 11. 1. . . . 469) sxvagan ki vkiTxulobT: dro aris sulis cxovreba, romelic imyofeba gardamaval moZraobaSi erTi cxovrebiseuli gamovlenidan, meorisaken ( III . 7,10 .. . 1927 . 306) kargad vxedavT rom dro aqac sivrciT raRac ganzomilebasTan aris dakavSirebuli. nebismieri sigrZe xom sivrcis gareSe ar arsebobs, is sivrcis erTerTi ganzomilebaa. aseve am fragmentebSi aRsaniSnavia rom dro ukavSirdeba raRac gardamaval moZraobas, sigrZeSi ganxorcielebul raRac dinebas, romelic aRiwereba sivrcobrivi terminebiT. netarma avgustinem gaagrZela sakacobrio istoriaSi droisa da sivrcis am idumal kavSirze saubari da drois modusebze msjeloba sivrciTi koordinatebis aRmniSvnel terminebSi warmarTa; xom ver metyvis vinme, rom es droebi - warsuli da momavali, iseve arseboben, magram erTerTi maTgani ( momavali), awmyoSi gadmosuli, aq modis CvenTvis gaugebari sadRacidan da meore ( warsuli), awmyodan Tavis warsulSi gadasuli, midis CvenTvis gaugebari sadRacisken, mzgavsad zRvis moqcevisa da miqcevisa? marTlac, rogor SeeZloT, magaliTad, winaswarmetyvelebs, ewinaswarmetyvelaT momavali, daenaxaT es momavali, Tuki is ar iarsebebda? radganc rac ar arsebobs, misi danaxvac SeuZlebelia. ( . XI. 17 ). axla vxedav, rom dro aris sinamdvileSi raRac ganfeniloba... ase rom, unda vivaraudoT, rom warsulic da momavalic aseve arsebobs,

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marTalia CvenTvis miuwvdomeli saxiT ( . 1969. 1. .587-588). yoveli dro, misi monakveTi Seesabameba raRac adgils, warmoadgens raRac adgils, romelsac zogs vxedavT da zogs ver vxedavT midian sadRac, gamodian sadRacidan. dro avgustinesTan aRiwereba sivrciTi ganzomilebiT da aRiarebulia rom mas aqvs sivrciTi buneba. igi sivrceSi gaSlilia, sivrcezea moqsovili rogorc amas upaniSadebis avtorebi ambobdnen. e.i. sivrciTi Tvisebebi aqvs. raRac idumali sivrcea, rasac Cven ver aRviqvamT, ver vxedavT da ver ganvicdiT da gansxvavdeba CvenTvis Cveulad miCneuli sivrcisagan, romelic evklides samganzomilebiani sivrcea. sakmaod Zlieri argumentia avgustines mxridan rogor SeiZleba principulad momavlis danaxva winaswarmetyvelisaTvis Tu is sivrceSi, anu sadRac ar imyofeba ukve? dgeba kiTxva romel CvenTvis ucnob, uCveulo sivrceze SeiZleba iyos aq laparaki? XX saukunis dasawyisSi orma mecnierma jer anri puankarem da Semdgom germane minkovskim ( igi alfred ainStainis maswavlebeli iyo), Camoayalibes oTxganzomilebiani realobis, oTxganzomilebiani samyaros Tvalsazrisi. maT gaaerTianes sivrce da dro da Seqmnes sivrce-drois erTiani kontiniumi. minkovskis TvalsazrisiT samyaro drosa da sivrceSi gadaadgilebad obieqtTa samyaro ki ar aris, aramed samyarouli xazebis Sejgufeba, romelic yovel wams 300 000 kilometriT izrdeba. am samyarouli xazebis wamier ganasers Cven aRviqvamT rogorc obieqtebs, radganac TviTonac gadavaadgildebiT igive siCqariT. samyarouli xazebi aris realurad arsebuli obieqtebi, romelSic warsuli aris gayinuli da agrZelebs arsebobas, magram Cven mas veRar aRviqvamT radganac erTi wamis Semdeg Cven gadavaadgildiT ukve 300 000 kilometriT daSorebiT. am oTxganzomilebian samyaroSi dro aris sivrcobrivi koordinatis Tanabarzomieri. am Teoriis mixedviT erTaderTi realuri movlena aris samyarouli xazze gadaadgilebadi subieqtis aRqmaSi erTi da meoris Semdgomi gancdebi. samyarouli xazebis zrdas Cven aRviqvamT rogorc drois dinebas. es oTxganzomilebiani samyaro aris iseTi sadac drois koordinati mudmivad icvleba da es moZraoba daiwyo samyaros dasabamidan didi afeTqebidan. didi afeTqebis Semdgom samyarom daiwyo

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gafarToeba ara evklides sami ganzomilebis mimarTulebiT, aramed minkovskis oTxi ganzomilebis mimarTulebiT. is dResac farTovdeba, magram samyarouli xazebi rCeba. maSasadame minkovskis samyaroSi dro niSnavs sivrcobrivi koordinatis bunebriv zrdas meoTxe ganzomilebaSi. es aris moZraoba, raRac uxilav, sxvagvar sivrceSi da romelSi moZraobis Sedegsac Cven veZaxiT dros. gamodis rom Tuki samyaros oTxganzomilebian sivrceSi ganvixilavT sam ganzomilebaSi Cveni koordinati an moZraobs, an gaCerebulia, xolo meoTxe ganzomilebaSi mudmivad da Tanabarzomierad moZraobs da es Cvenze aranairad ar aris damokidebuli. minkovskis samyaroSi drois ganzomilebis koordinati icvleba mudmivad da igi Tavisi arsiT sivrciT cvlileba-gadaadgilebaa. mecnierebma puankare-minkovskis es Tvalsazrisi Tavidan abstraqtul sqemad CaTvales, xolo SemdgomSi misi realuroba da fizikuroba savsebiT aRiarebuli gaxda. amaze saubrobs astro-fizikoso n.a. kozirevi statiaSi minkovskis oTxganxomilebiani geometriis realurobis astronomiuli mtkicebuleba. igi wers : es minkovskis oTxganzo-milebiani samyaro SesaZlebelia warmoadgendes realur samyaros, sadac Cven vcxovrobT... aseTi samyaros realurobis TvalsazrisiT, yvelaferi, is rac SesaZlebelia moxdes, ukve arsebobs momavalSi da agrZelebs arsebobas warsulSi. drois RerZze gadaadgilebulni, Cven mxolod vejaxebiT movlenebs Cvens awmyoSi... am samyaroSi momavali ukve arsebobs, da amitomac araa gasakviri, rom misi axlave dakvirveba SeiZleba... iseve rogorc warsuli.(Kozyreu N.A.Astronomical proofs of reality of fourdimensional geometry by H.Minkowski. http://www.chronos.msu.ru/RREPOR TS) a.a.sazanovi statiaSi minkovskis oTxganzomilebiani samyaro wers: samyaro Sedgeba uTvalavi materialuri nawilakisagan, romelTa samyarouli xazebi xan gadaixlarTebian erTmaneTSi da warmoqmnian ama Tu im sagans, xanac daiSlebian imisaTvis, rom axal kombinaciebSi Seqmnan samyaros axali obieqtebi. (.. . . 1988) Semdeg agrZelebs: drois RerZis gaswvris materialuri wertilis moZraoba Zalze gvagonebs sivrceSi moZraobis

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fizikur process, imiT gansxvavebuls, rom is arasivrcobrivia, romlis drosac sxeulis sivrcobrivi koordinati ar icvleba. aseve mkvlevari a.nikolenko statiaSi drois dineba: pirobiToba Tu fizikuri realoba? wers: drois moZraoba ( sxeulebis moZraoba drois ganzomilebaSi) ar warmoadgens pirobiT process... aramed warmoadgens damoukidebel, fundamentur, fizikur process, romelic realurad miedineba sivrce-dros kontiniumSi ( .. : ? : 4 2005 .52) a. sazanovic adasturebs: mravali mkvlevari Tvlis, rom oTxganzomilebiani sivrce-dro da samyarouli xazebi obieqturad arseboben. anri puankaresa da germane minkovskis mier dafuZnebuli samyaros oTxganzomilebiani xedva Tanamedrove astrofizikis iseTma mniSvnelovanma figurebma gaiziares, rogorebic dRes arian stiven hokingi da rojer penrouzi. isini erTobliv wignSi sivrcisa da drois buneba, romelic 1994 wels kembrijis universitetSi wakiTxul leqciebis cikls warmoadgens, weren: dro da adgili urTierTdakavSirebulia... dro iqceva ise, rogorc sxva sivrcobrivi ganzomileba sxva adgilas vkiTxulobT: imisi gaazreba, rom dro ise iqceva rogorc adgili, warmoadgens axal alternativas. hokingisa da penrouzis kvleviT, samyaros sawyis etapze, damtkicebulia rom yvela oTxive ganzomileba iqceoda ise, rogorc sivrcobrivi ganzomileba. ( 1994 http://www.scientic.ru ) Tanamedrove filosofiaSi pirvelad samuel aleqsanderma daicva fundamenturad poankare-minkovskis es Teoria, rodesac is wignSi sivrce, dro da RmerTi werda, rom araviTari sivrce ar arsebobs drois gareSe da Ddro sivrcis gareSe (Alexander Samuel. Space, Time and Deity. vol. I. London. 1927 gv. 44). aleqsanderi TiTqmis sityva-sityviT imeorebs minkovskis azrs sivrcisa da drois universaluri kavSiris Sesaxeb. igi Semdeg agrZelebs yoveli sivrce aris xangrZlivoba da yoveli xangrZlivoba aris sivrce ( gv. 269), dro aris sivrcis suli, xolo sivrce drois sxeuli

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naTqvamidan gamomdinare mivdivarT im azramde, rom uZveles teqstebSi upaniSadebi, plotini, netari avgustine gamoTqmuli idumali, metaforebSi gaxveuli da yovladdaujerebeli azri, XX saukunis dasawyisidan Tanamedrove mecnierebis erTerTi aqtualurad gansaxilvel da saintereso Teoriad Camoyalibda. drois sivrcobrivi buneba, sivrcezed moqsoviloba, rogorc amas brihadaraniaka upaniSada gvamcnobs, Tanamedrove astrofizikaSi konkretul racionalur Sinaarss iZens. dRes yvela mniSvnelovani fizikosi saubrobs temporaluri drois ararsebobaze da mis ganfenil bunebaze. warsuli, awmyo da momavali, rogorc samyaroSi adgilebi, meoTxe ganzomilebis sivrciTi monakveTebi mudmiv arsebulad miiCneva, romelsac gadis cnobiereba da es gasvla aRiqmeba drois dinebad. sinamdvileSi dro ar miedineba, misi dineba iluziaa, igi samyaroul xazze cnobierebis moZraobis efeqtia, sinamdvileSi mis magivrad gvaqvs meoTxe ganzomilebaSi mudmivi moZraoba, koordinatis mudmivi gadaadgileba. gadaadgildeba mTliani sakoordinato sistema. XX saukunis saintereso filosofosi h.veili yvelaze kargad aRwers filosofosTagan drois amdagvar bunebas wignSi sivrce, dro, materia rodesac igi wers: realobis moqmedebis scena aris ara evklides sivrce, aramed oTxganzomilebiani samyaro, romelSic ganuyofeladaa dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan sivrce da dro. es oTxganzomilebiani kontiniumia, romelic araa arc dro da arc sivrce. mxolod cnobiereba, romelic moixelTebs nawils am samyarosi, ganicdis im fragments, romelTanac mas mouwia Sexvedra da Semdeg tovebs mas sakuTari Tavis ukan, rogorc istorias. anu rogorc process, romelsac droSi mimdinareobisas adgili aqvs sivrceSi. ( Weyl H. Raum, Zeit, Mature. Berlin. 1923 gv.218)

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literatura

1. upaniSadebi. xomli Tbilisi 1995. brihadaraniaka upaniSada. Tavi III brahmana merve. Targmani leri alimonakisa 2. . 1969. 1 3. .. . . 1988 4. .. : ? : 4 2005 5. III . 7,10 .. . 1927 6. 1994 http://www.scientic.ru

7. Alexander Samuel. Space, Time and Deity. vol. I. London. 1927 8. Kozyreu N.A.Astronomical proofs of reality of fourdimensional geometry by H.Minkowski. http://www.chronos.msu.ru/RREPOR TS) 9. Weyl H. Raum, Zeit, Mature. Berlin. 1923

eTer inwkirveli semiotikuri centris dinamika ,,nacarqeqias,, zRaparSi


,,uZraobaa safuZveli Zraobisa lao-Zi
zRapris, rogorc folkloruli Janris, arsebiTi niSnebi propiseuli funqciebiT, anu moqmedebebiT ganisazRvreba. gmiris umoqmedoba, rogorc funqcia, vladimer propis zRapris struqturul sistemaSi kerZo funqciad ar gvxvdeba. Tumca umoqmedobis tavtologiebi folklorSi sakmaod gavrcelebulia da sxvadasxva transformacias iZens (mijaWva, ormoSi datyveveba, dilegSi damwyvdeva, gadaylapva). Tumca, sabolood, yoveli maTgani erT adgilze damagrebas ukavSirdeba. am SemTxvevaSi ar aqvs mniSvneloba, gmiri ZaladobiT aris damagrebuli, Tu sakuTari nebiT irCevs cxovrebis amgvar wess (rusul zRaprebSi gavrcelebuli ivanuSka sulelis Rumelze wola, nacarqeqias keriasTan jdoma). mTavari isaa, rom erT adgilas damagrebiT, asocialuri cxovrebis wesiT, SesaZlebeli xdeba gmiris individualizebuli, subieqturi ganviTareba, rogorc gmiris sibrmave/dabrmaveba misi Sinagani xedvis gaxsnas moaswavebs.

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keriasTan mjdomi nacarqeqias arCevani nebayoflobiTia. buxris/cecxlis piras jdoma da CxiriT nacris qeqva mas gansakuTrebul mdgomareobaSi ayenebs. erTis mxriv buxari Tavisi vertikaluri formis gamo samyaros RerZis simbolos warmoadgens, xolo meores mxriv TviTon keria erTgvari semiotikuri centria. keriasTan da, Sesabamisad, sakvamurTan jdomiT nacarqeqia vertikalurad urTierTobs sivrcesTan/casTan, 1 radganac dasazRvrulia misTvis horizontaluri speqtri. nacarqeqiasTvis arsebobs ori realoba: cnebebi ,,Sin da ,,gareT misTvis gansakuTrebul simZafres iZens, radgan gmiris piradi sivrce (saxli Tavisi keriiT centriT), Sida samyaro, kosmoss asaxavs, romlis sazRvris miRma qaosi an antisamyaro sufevs. arsebobs ori realoba, magram mxolod erTi sinamdvile. ori realobidan mxolod erTia namdvili, myari, meore ki ,,ubralod arsebobs. nebismieri narativi ukve gulisxmobs dros da sivrces. xolo iq, sadac dro TiTqos gaCerebulia, cikluria da ar miedineba, batonobs sivrce. nacarqeqias piradi sivrce statikuria, transformacias ar ganicdis, TiTqos ar viTardeba, magram amavdroulad misi sivrce xdeba daculi, Sekruli wre, romelic gmirs TviTCaRrmavebis da z. kiknaZis terminiT mWvretelobis saSualebas aZlevs (kiknaZe 2007: 109). keriasTan, cecxlTan axlos yofniT nacarqeqia Seimecnebs samyaros Sida sivrces, mis guls, es ki niSnavs, rom is imecnebs garesamyarosac, rogorc makrokosmoss. misi Caketva, asocialuroba erTgvari protestia, romelsac gmiri garesamyaros (rogorc aranamdvilis) mimarT gamoxatavs. mTavari ki isaa, rom nacarqeqias keriasTan jdoma mis umoZraobasTan ar asocirdeba. upirveles yovlisa es aisaxa gmiris sakuTari saxelis zmnuri warmoebiT. meore mxriv ki nacarqeqia, e.w. ,,umoZrao moZraobaSia, viTarca ,,uZravi Zrava (aristotele). yovelgvari moZraobis safuZvels lao-Zi swored umoZraobaSi

mirCa eliades ganmartebiT, Weris RriWos, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo mravali tradiciuli arqiteqturisTvis, magaliTad, CinurSi ewodeboda ,,zecis sarkmeli, es termini ki amavdroulad aRniSnavda keriasac (eliade 2002: 47).

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xedavda, rogorc niadags azris (logosis) gaCenisa da yofierebisa. azri ukve pirveli qmedebaa umoqmedobaSi Cadenili. ,,niSandoblivia, rom mistikosebisaTvis, romlebic samoTxis ,,warmosaxviTobas amtkicebdnen, iuri lotmans imiervolgispireli berebis magaliTi mohyavs, mogzaurobis, geografiul sivrceSi gadaadgilebis aucilebloba ar arsebobs (lotmani 2012: 114), radgan mniSvnelobaTa geografiuli veli savsebiT Seicvala zneobrivi semantikiT. ,,geografiul sivrceSi gadaadgilebis amsaxveli siuJetebi zneobrivi aRorZinebis alegoriad aRiqmeboda (lotmani 2012: 114). am azriT, nacarqeqias umoZraoba misi mWvretelobisa da TviTCaRrmavebis aucilebeli pirobaa, romlis drosac gmiri geografiul sivrceebs warmosaxviT iTvisebs. Tavis mxriv Caketili yofa, daxSuli sivrce sikvdilia, romelic Tavis TavSi dabadebasac Seicavs. nacarqeqias qceva ritualizebulia, anu cikluria da is moicavs sikvdil aRdgomasac. kulturologiuri TvalsazrisiT ki, gamudmebiT keriasTan, anu cecxlTan mjdomi nacarqeqia erTgvari damcvelia kulturisa, radgan cecxli ara mxolod regeneraciis da ganwmendis simboloa, aramed niSania kulturisa, ramdenadac warmoadgens gamyofs ,,ums/,,nedls da ,,moxarSuls Soris... igulisxmeba, rom keriasTan jdomiT, misi dacviT nacarqeqia iRebs ,,mzareulis, simbolurad ojaxis nayofierebaze mzrunvelis an gamanayofiereblis funqcias. erTaderTi kavSiri garesamyarosTan aris misi ojaxis wevrebi, kerZod rZali. sivrcis SemosazRvriT, misi dakanonebiT uZlurdeba denadi dro, TiTqos gaCerebulia. araferi xdeba, araferi icvleba da am inerciiT arc Seicvleba. magram simbolurad swored aRdgoma dRes nacarqeqias pirad sivrces urRveven: nacarqeqias statikurobiT gabezrebuli rZali saxlidan gaityuebs mazls. gmirs ecvleba sivrce da zRurblis gadalaxviT iwyeba misi gasocialureba. amitom, saxlidan gamgdebi rZali aris personifikacia im Zalisa, romelic Caketili wridan gamosvlisken, qmedebisken ubiZgebs gmirs 2. rom

aRsaniSnavia, rom zRapris zogierT variantSi gmirs ara rZali, aramed Zmebi agdeben gareT (qeTelauri 1977: 233237). es motivacia, SesaZlebelia, arqauli dualuri kosmogoniis

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ara nacarqeqias saxlidan gamogdeba, is darCeboda keriis mfarvelis erTgul qurumad, mWvretelobiT miRebuli an gandobili codnis Semnaxvelad da dammarxvelad, damkonservebladac ki. dinamika iwyeba gagdebiT. ritualizebuli cikluri yofidan nacarqeqia gadadis sivrcobriv yofaSi, centridan periferiaSi; saxlidan gagdebuli gmiri erTveba mudmivad cvalebad droSi da siuJetis wrfiv ganviTarebasTan erTad iwyeba sivrcis horizontaluri speqtris aTviseba. rogorc ukve vTqviT, saxli da, gansakuTrebiT, keria mocemuli semiotikuri velis centrs warmoadgens. gmiris dinamika iwyeba centridan da mimarTulia periferiisken da ara piriqiT periferiidan centrisken, rac ufro mosalodnelia zRapris gmirisgan (am TvalsazrisiT igi saerTod emijneba odisevss, romlis qarTul prototipadac miiCneven, rameTu odisevsi centrisken/iTakisken mimavali gmiria). saxlis zRurblis gadalaxva pirveli nabijia sivrcis horizontaluri aTvisebisken, romelsac mosdevs masStabis gafarToeba mdinaris gadalaxviT. TandaTanobiT nacarqeqia iwyebs garesamyaros aTvisebas da amavdroulad piradi sivrcis gafarToebas. iwyeba imis transformacia, axleburad konstruireba, rac am dromde iyo xelSeuxebeli, ar iyo ,,nalaxi. centridan periferiaSi gadasuli gmiri, romelic kargad icnobs semiotikuri centris struqturas, iwyebs axali semiotikuri centrebis konstruirebas. es faqtori Tavis mxriv mianiSnebs nacarqeqias gandobilobaze, erTgvar xeldasxmaze, romelsac igi TviTCaRrmavebis da gandgomilobis dros iRebs. magram imisaTvis, rom zRapris gmirma moipovos sruli triumfi (socialur, inteleqtualur da sulier planSi), saWiroa misi mravalgzis gamocda da dabrkolebaTa gadalaxva. yoveli gmiri Tavisi monacemebis mixedviT iRebs gadawyvetilebebs problemis gadasaWrelad; Tavisi

asaxva iyos zRaparSi, romlis sqema ori Zmis (xSirad tyupebis) dapirispirebas iTvaliswinebs. erTi maTgani gmiria, meore antigmiri, erTi konstruqciul Zalas ganasaxierebs, meore destruqciuls.

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Sexedulebisamebr irCevs, ra sWirdeba mas - mfrinavi xaliCa, uCinmaCinis qudi Tu nacari, sadgisi da Wyinti yveli. zRapris gmiri midis mdidari sacolis, zogjer sibrZnis mosapoveblad, nacarqeqias wasvla ki ar aris tradiciulad motivirebuli. is saxlidan gagdebuli gmiria, TiTqos mizani ar aqvs da Sesabamisad, arc samoqmedo gegma. arafers eZebs, TiTqos yvela sikeTis mflobelia ukve. gmirs uketaven kars (simbolurad uWrian Wiplars) da iZulebuli xdeba, ,,axali kari moZebnos, axal samyarosTan kulturuli adaptacia moaxdinos. Tumca ,,dialogis moTxovnileba, dialoguri situacia win uswrebs realur dialogs da misTvis saWiro enis arsebobasac ki (lotmani 2012: 48). metic, kontaqts win unda uswrebdes kontaqtisken urTierTswrafva (lotmani 2012: 57), amitomac nacarqeqias umoZraod yofac SeuZlebelia gaviazroT, rogorc samyarosgan sruli izolacia an masTan kontaqtze uaris Tqma. piriqiT, nacarqeqia Cabmulia kosmiur TamaSSi imTaviTve qeqavs nacars, Tu epaeqreba devs. misi funqcia sruliad gansazRvrulia, rogorc yvelasi, vinc TamaSSi monawileobs. samyarosTan urTierTobis sakuTari wesebi da forma aqvs nacarqeqias. sazRvris gadalaxviT nacarqeqia sivrces icvlis da misi qceva icvleba sivrcis cvlilebasTan erTad. yoveli sivrce gulisxmobs Tavis kulturas. qceva, rogorc kulturis ena, am kulturis ganmsazRvreli niSania. enis aTvisebiT xdeba kulturis daufleba. amitomac iseT saganTa moTxovna, rogoricaa nacari, sadgisi da Wyinti yveli, gaugebaria sazRvris gareT myofTaTvis. Tumca sazRvari is universaluri cnebaa, romelic ,,erTi mxriv yofs, xolo meore mxriv aerTianebs. is yovelTvis raRacis sazRvaria da Sesabamisad, erTdroulad ganekuTvneba orive sasazRvro kulturas, urTierTmomijnave semiosferoebs (lotmani 2012: 3334). nacarqeqias mijaWvuli cxovreba icvleba sruliad axali moxetiale cxovrebiT yvelasaTvis gaugebar artefaqtebTan erTad - sadgisi, nacari, Wyinti yveli. yveli, rogorc moxetiale, mwyemsuri kulturis gastronomiuli niSani, nacari, rogorc sakuTari winareyofis da misi xsovnis, anu aRdgomis

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simbolo, xolo sadgisi, rogorc misi erTaderTi samuSao iaraRis - saCxreklis gameoreba 3. mirCa eliade, saubrobs ra mWedlobis Sesaxeb, aRniSnavs, rom indur vedebSi samsxverplo ganixileboda rogorc mdedrobiTi, xolo ritualuri cecxli, rogorc mamrobiTi simbolo. meores mxriv, cecxli ganixileba rogorc Sedegi (,,STamomavloba) joxisa (mamrobiTi sawyisis simbolo) da keriis (romelic samyaros Wips warmoadgens) urTierTobisa (seqsualuri aqtTan asocirdeba). analogiur simbolikas mirCa eliade mraval arqaul sazogadoebaSi adasturebs (eliade 1998: 159). saxlidan gagdebuli nacarqeqia Tvaluwvdenel sivrceSi Tavs ise grZnobs, rogorc neofiti Caketil qoxSi; misi srulyofa iwyeba swored Caketili sivrcis gadalaxvis Semdeg. da nacarqeqiac SeSindeba devis danaxvisas. magram swored am momentSi dgeba Caketili sibrZnis gareT gamotanis, emanaciis dro. Tu neofitisTvis gamosacdeli sivrce gansazRvrulia Caketili sivrciT, (rogoricaa mag. tyeSi ganmartoebuli qoxi, xSirad drakonis formis), nacarqeqias gamosacdeli sivrce gaSlili da dausazRvrelia. orive SemTxvevaSi sivrcis SecvlasTan, ucxo samyaroSi adaptaciis momentTan gvaqvs saqme. pirveli SegrZneba, rac saxlidan gagdebul gmirs eufleba, aris SiSi. devis danaxva aSinebs nacarqeqias, radgan sustia fizikurad; misi biosfero naklebad ganviTarebulia noosferosgan gansxvavebiT. fizikuri sisuste TiTqos aiZulebs mas, ipovos gamosavali da daarwmunos devi sakuTari realobis upiratesobaSi (anu nacarqeqias realobis namdvilobaSi). misi erTaderTi iaraRi swored mWvretelobiT miRebuli saganTa arsis codnaa. centridan gamosuli gmiri periferiaSic ar kargavs ,,centristul/centralur unar-Cvevebs. Tavisi buneba sTxovs centris Seqmnas yvelgan, sadac moxvdeba. da radgan periferiaSi (rogorc aranamdvil yofaSi) Tavis namdvil bunebas ver gamoavlens, gmiri simulirebul semiotikur centrebs qmnis, swored iseTs, rogorsac periferia (rogorc aranamdvili yofa)

variantSi, sadac Zmebi agdeben nacarqeqias saxlidan, mas gamxmari Svindis Cxiri miaqvs da ara sadgisi (qeTelauri 1977: 233237).

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karnaxobs: erT SemTxvevaSi nacars amtverebs, riTic devis gakvirvebas iwyebs; meore SemTxvevaSi yvels wuravs, rom devi daajeros sakuTar zebunebriv ZalaSi. mesame SemTxvevaSi ki Tavis upiratesobas imiT udasturebs devs, rom mosTxovs msaxurebas mdinaris erTi napiridan meoreze gadayvanas. devi ver aprotestebs mis moTxovnas da morCilad gadahyavs gmiri, romelic Turme msubuqi imitomaa, rom cali xeliT cas ekideba. aRsaniSnavia, rom am epizodis xatvisas skolis moswavleebi devze amxedrebul nacarqeqias swored cali xeliT zemoT apyrobils xataven. iqmneba samyaros RerZis vertikaluri simbolo, romelSic devi miwisqveSeTs ganasaxierebs, nacarqeqia qveyanas, romelic sityvebiT - xeli cas mikidia - TiTqos cis simulacias axdens, sinamdvileSi ki sadgisis vertikaluri simbolo niSania erTi mxriv samyaros RerZis, meore mxriv ki qvena bunebis dapyrobisa da damorCilebis (rogorc mxedrisa da lagamis simbolika egzegetikur literaturaSi). magram es jer kidev ar niSnavs nacarqeqias srul dabadebas. anu fizikur Zalaze srul gamarjvebas. man unda gaifarTovos socialuri sivrce, ara mxolod vertikalurad, horizontaluradac. simboluria, rom devebis saxlSi misuls devebi isev keriasTan toveben: gmirma kecs unda udarajos, romelzec puri cxveba. puris cxoba winaminiSneba imisa, rom nacarqeqia nelnela binadar cxovrebas unda daubrundes: is isev keriasTanaa, isev cecxlTan. marTalia, es fsevdokeriaa, radganac gmiri ver agrZelebs aq Tavis nacarqeqiul meditacias, magram cxadia, rom TviTgadarCenis da metic, sasicocxlo Zalebs is swored cecxlisgan iRebs, iseve rogorc axali gvineis an trobrianis Samanebi da jadoqrebi, romlebsac SeuZliaT yovelgvari dazianebis gareSe Seexon nakverCxals, an sakuTar sxeulSi Seqmnan ,,Sinagani sicxe. am process mirCa eliade sakuTar organizmSi ,,cecxlis warmoebas uwodebs da adamianuri bunebis gadalaxvas ukavSirebs (eliade 1998: 183). aseve ar wvavs gavarvarebuli keci nacarqeqias, rodesac mas keci gulze daecema, magram simZimis gamo Tavs ver iTavisuflebs misgan, rac mis Sinagan ,,cecxlovan temperaturasa da fizikur sisusteze miuTiTebs. iqneb swored rogorc cecxlovani niSani erideba nacarqeqia gmiri wylis stiqias, rodesac devs gaRma napirze gayvanas mosTxovs.

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Semdegi gamocda nacarqeqiam unda Caabaros kvlav vertikaluri modeliT: man unda SeZlos Rvinis amoReba Widan da misTvis mZime xeladiT sufrasTan motana. upirveles yovlisa, unda iTqvas, rom Rvino samiwaTmoqmedo kulturaa da misi mopovebisTvis gmiri miwis amoTxras iwyebs. sivrcis vertikaluri modeli aucileblad moicavs miwisqveSeTsac. miwisqveSeTic unda Seimecnos nacarqeqiam. Tu ar Seimecna, ver aiTvisebs, ver daipyrobs da ver gabatondeba masze. mesame gamocda ki devebis daceminebaze WerSi atyorcnili nacarqeqia ukve sruliad erTazrovnad nacarqeqias mier zeda sivrcis dauflebis mimaniSnebelia. nacarqeqias struqtura jadosnuri zRapris sqemaSi Tavsdeba. eWvs iwvevs mxolod misi aratradiciuli finali. jadosnuri zRapris struqturaSi moqceuli teqsti ar mTavrdeba qorwinebiT. metic, nacarqeqias ucolSviloba asketur cxovrebas emsgavseba. gmiris mizani ar aris sacolis mopoveba. is mzadaa, mTeli cxovreba keriasTan ijdes da nacari qeqos. ,,sakidlisa da keriis simbolur sistemaSi keria mdedria (kiknaZe 2011); misi funqcia sruliad cxadi gaxdeba, Tu gavixsenebT, rom msoflios TiTqmis yvela miTologiaSi ojaxis mfarvelis kulti qalRvTaebas ukavSirdeba. berZnul miTologiaSi esaa hestia, romaulSi vesta, slavurSi makoSi, xolo qarTul miTo-religiur warmodgenebSi ojaxis mfarvelad wminda barbare gvevlineba. es uZvelesi rwmenawarmodgena, savaraudod, didi dedis miTosis gadmonaSTia an misi gagrZeleba. mirCa eliades TqmiT, cecxlis Tavdapirveli mflobeli mdedrobiTi sawyisi iyo (raSic is matriarqalur ideologias xedavs), romelic mamrs umalavda cecxls, Tumca maT mainc moaxerxes cecxlis daufleba (eliade 1998: 184). Tu didi dedis kultis zenitSi yofnisas upiratesi adgili mis msaxurTa Soris qurum qalebs ekavaT (sixaruliZe 2006: 13), risi magaliTicaa e.w. ,,vestas qalwulebi 4, mogvianebiT,
4

vestas qurumebs 610 wlis asakSi aristokratiuli ojaxebis qaliSvilebidan irCevdnen da maT 30 wlis manZilze unda SeenarCunebinaT qalwuloba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi cocxlad marxavdnen. vestas taZarSi isini maradiul wminda cecxls inarCunebdnen, amitom Tavadac unda daecvaT sxeulebrivi siwminde.

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sicocxlis ganaxlebis funqcia wyvilis gareSe ukve warmoudgeneli xdeba. q. sixaruliZis azriT, ,,Tavdapirvelad mamakacisatrfo (is jer mokvdavi adamiani iyo) qalRmerTis mfarvelobis qveS imyofeboda da Tavisi RvTaebrivi bunebiT bevrad CamorCeboda mas (sixaruliZe 2006: 14). savaraudod, nacarqeqia swored keriis mfarveli qalRvTaebis mamri qurumis funqcias asrulebs. swored amitom, misi qorwineba ar xdeba zRapris arc erT variantSi. metic, Cveni azriT, is swored saidumlo qorwilidan gamodis, gadalaxavs ra saxlis zRurbls. samonadireo miTosSi mravali paralelis moyvana SeiZleba, roca nadirobis qalRmerTi irCevs mamr monadires, aqvs masTan sasiyvarulo da xSirad sqesobrivi kavSiric. mamakacs am dros ekrZaleba kanonier colTan urTierToba, vidre qalRmerTi ar moibezrebs Tavis satrfos. am saidumlo kavSiris gamxela samonadireo miTosSi aucileblad moaswavebs tragikul finals. zRapris finali erT orazrovnebasac Seicavs. zogierT variantSi nacarqeqias rZalTan miaqvs mTeli qoneba, zogierT variantSi ki devebis nasaxlarze rCeba da ojaxis wevrebs moiyvans TavisTan. mTqmeli axsenebs nacarqeqias bednier cxovrebas ojaxTan erTad, magram variantTa umravlesobaSi ar gvxvdeba, rogor gaagrZela nacarqeqiam cxovreba, miubrunda Tu ara Tavis sayvarel saqmianobas (Cven mier moZiebuli erTaderTi variantis garda), rac, sxvaTa Soris, bavSvebis umravlesobis interesis sagans warmoadgens. nacarqeqias miTosuri saxis funqcia, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, zRaparSi profanizebulia. gmiris gasocialureba ar niSnavs misi funqciis dakargvas. saboloo bednieri cxovreba garantirebuli maSin aris, Tu qurumi Tavis namdvil yofas, namdvil funqcias daubrundeba. Cveni varaudiT, sawyisTan dabrunebis miTologema zRapris TxrobaSi daikarga Tavis Tavdapirvel miTosTan erTad. magram mTlad zRaprad Camoyalibebac ver moaxerxa keriis mfarvelis qurumis miTma, rasac qorwilis ararsebobac migvaniSnebs da mis arqaul warmoSobas gvafiqrebinebs. amasTan, zRapris personaJebis samyaro minimumamdea dayvanili aris erTi gmiri da erTi antagonisti; xdeba mxolod winaaRmdegobaTa tiraJireba, rac zRapris struqturaSi erT funqciaze daiyvaneba. amitom migvaCnia, rom teqstSi miTosi metad aqtiuria, vidre zRapruli narativi.

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gansxvavebuli finali - nacarqeqia rCeba devis saxlSi SesaZlebelia, SedarebiT gviandel sazogadoebriv wyobasTan iyos dakavSirebuli, roca gaCnda zRvari socialurad dawinaurebul da CamorCenil fenebs Soris da masTan erTad gaCnda survili sxvisi simdidris dauflebisa. meore mxriv ki devis saxli ucxo sivrces, ,,sxva samefos warmoadgens da misi daufleba axali semiotikuri centris gaCenisa da konstruirebis surviliT aris motivirebuli. periferiaSi SesaZlebelia axali semiotikuri centris/centrebis gaCena; miT umetes, rom am dinamikis saSualebas nacarqeqia gmiris funqcia da xasiaTi ganapirobebs.

literatura eliade 2002: : , / . . - .: ; .: , 2002. eliade 1998: : . / . ., ., . - .: -, 1998. kiknaZe 2007: kiknaZe, zurab: qarTuli folklori, Tsu gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2007. kiknaZe 2011: kiknaZe, zurab, zRva da xmeleTi qarTul miTosSi, Jurnali ,,semiotika, http://semioticsjournal.wordpress.com/2011/04/14/ lotmani 2012: lotmani, iuri: moazrovne samyaroTa SigniT, ilias universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2012. qeTelauri 1977: iyo da ara iyo ra : qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebi / Seadgina da daamuSava sulxan qeTelaurma ; Tbilisi : nakaduli : 1977.

Lirine maniJaSvili realur-istoriuli sivrce emigrantul mwrlobaSi


emigrantul mwerlobaSi da kerZod, XX saukunis 20-30-iani wlebis qarTul emigraciaSi sakmaod sainteresod aris gaazrebuli sivrcis semiotikuri Sreebi. Ddro da sivrce materiis arsebobis sayovelTao formebia. Aam kategoriebis meSveobiT adamiani ayalibebs samyaros sakuTar models, romelSic gamovlenilia mis mier samyaros aRqma da sinamdvilis gaazreba. emigraciaSi myofi qarTveli mwerlebisTvis, romlebic Sors iyvnen samSoblos mware realobisgan da amas mtkivneuladac ganicdidnen, gansxvavebulia droisa da sivrcis SegrZneba. maT SemoqmedebaSi gvxvdeba e.w. sivrculi gzajvaredinebi, sadac warsuli, awmyo da momavali erT mTlianobad aRiqmeba. zogjer Znelia gaivlos mijna, zRvari istoriasa da realobas Soris, warsulsa da awmyos Soris. Aamjerad Tqvens yuradRebas SevaCerebT erTi emigranti mwerlis Semoqmedebaze da SevecdebiT, mis poeziaSi mivyveT sivrcis semiotikur kvals. Ees gaxlavT qarTveli mkiTxvelisTvis naklebad

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cnobili simon(simonika) bereJiani(1899-1942ww.). saqarveloSi zepirad ician TiTqosda noe Jordanias saflavis qvaze warwerili epitafiis sityvebi: var Cemi qveynis guldamwvari Wirisufali, eris brwyinvale momavaliT msurs gavixaro. Tu saqarTvelo ar iqneba Tavisufali, Dde, mtvrad qceulic damenaxos mTeli samyaro! (bereJiani 1943:52) Mmagram es sityvebi warmoadgens ukanasknel strofs leqsisa mgosani, romlis avtoria simon bereJiani (TayaiSvili iyo misi namdvili gvari da atarebda biZis saxelsa da gvars, romelmac iSvila). samwuxarod, am mravalmxrivad niWier adamians 90-ian wlebamde ar icnobda qarTuli sazogadoeba. Mmwerali, poeti, mxatvarkarikaturisti, msaxiobi, emigraciaSi simonikad cnobili simon bereJiani guram SaraZem gagvacno 1993 wels gamocemul wignis ucxoeTis cis qveS III tomSi. Mmisi poezia mTlianad samSoblos natvriTa da nostalgiiT aris nasazrdoebi, TiTqmis yvela leqss gasdevs samSoblos sivrculi foni, istoriuli foni. Aavtori TiTqos sxva ganzomilebiT cxovrobs, is irCevs e.w. legendarul dros, romelic arsebuli realobisgan sruliad gansxvavebulia (wvima, urmuli, TeTr giorgelTa simRera, paemani mTawmindaze das xv.). Eemigranti poetisTvis xSirad istoriuli da misi Tanamedrove saqarTvelo ganuyofelia. TviTon xan moqmedi piria, xan movlenaTa Semfasebeli. amgvari sivrculi mTlianobisTvis is iyenebs sizmris simbolikas. sizmari itans droismier anaqronizms. zogjer dakargulia realuri droisa da sivrcis SegrZneba da misi warmosaxva irealursa da realur samyaros Soris monacvleobs. Ggmiruli, didebuli warsulis xateba mosvenebas ukargavs poets. Mmis SemoqmedebaSi erT-erTi gamorCeuli leqsia mgzavri, romelic savsea saxe-simboloebiT.

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Ppirvelive striqonebiT avtori Zlier STabeWdilebas axdens mkiTxvelze:

wamiqcevs qari ezoSi muxas, walekavs giJi mdinare Walebs. davanTeb koSkSi Zvelebur buxars da cecxli warsuls aaSrialebs. (bereJiani 1943:33) Mmisi qveynis gmiruli warsuli da bneli awmyo zRapris saburvelSia gaxveuli. Ppoets ar asvenebs damarcxebulis, Ronemixdilobis SegrZneba da amis paralelurad Tavs axsenebs darbaiseli winapari fexmokecili CibuxiT xelSi. Ddidebuli warsulis aCrdilebi da usasoqmnili awmyos suraTebi enacvleba cxovrebis zRaparSi erTmaneTs. zogjer brZolis Jini mouvlis gmirs, survili winsvlis, gzis gagrZelebis. viyavi mefe da vgavar zRapars. Mmovkvdebi, isev gameRviZeba. Zvel koSkebidan davanTeb lampars Dda mzeT-unaxavs CavesiZebi.

Aarc sinanuli, arc Tavis daxra... zecam marguna es bedi wilad: uZluri mefe qarSi umayrod mivemgzavrebi dRes saqorwilod.

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RvTismSoblisadmi

saocari siaxlove mimarTvaSi:

da

gulwrfelobaa

Cemi bavSvoba gaxsovs, mariam? TeTri xelebiT gTxovdi Sendobas, dRes ki iseTi cudi daria, rom CavexuteT qselSi obobas. rasakvirvelia, emigrant poets meti SemoqmedebiTi TavisuflebisTvis. Aamitom Seufaravad godebda samSoblos bnel awmyoze. sivrce hqonda is pirdapir,

rogorc aRvniSneT, leqsSi mgzavri, uimedobas zogjer cvlis brZolis Jini da tatos meranis gavlenac, rogorc Cans, Zlieria poetisTvis: Cemo merano gadiqec qarad! Ggahkafe mkerdiT tyeni uvali sad mamam brZoliT dRes gaiara, gaivlis medgrad xval momavali. simon bereJianis SemoqmedebaSi iSviaTia maJoruli toni, imediani ganwyoba da mgzavri erT-erTi gamonaklisia am mxrivac(rogorc mxatvruli RirebulebiT, iseideuri TvalsazrisiT). Ggamougzavnis mze bnel qveyanas Aaxal raindebs, awyvetil raSebs! amaRelvebelia leqsis finali, zRapris dasasruli... ganumeorebeli mxatvruli saxeebi iSleba mkiTxvelis Tvalwin: moacureben Rrublebi navebs... gadmoeSveba zecidan gzebi...

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da gaiSlian oqros nawnavebs RameSi TeTri angelosebi... Ggmirs esmis mayruli xmebi, xedavs rogor mohyavT Cemi ocneba da siyvaruli, asuli nazi... magram didia camde manZili... es siSore ar asvenebda poets mTeli Tavisi xanmokle sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi. aSkaraa misi Sinagani gaoreba da kontrasti realobasa da warmosaxvas Soris: romeli cxovrobs exla Cven orSi? dRe mzis TvalebiT CemSi vis xedavs? Bbednier mefes? Tu svel mindorSi Ggayinul cxenze usulo mxedars? Ffaqtia, rom realuri sinamdvile misTvis absoluturad miuRebelia. Ppoeti ver axdens sakuTar identifikacias verc evropul sivrceSi da arc tyvedqmnili samSobloa misTvis misaRebi sivrce, amitom inacvlebs legendarul warsulSi. simon bereJians aqvs miZRvniTi leqsebic saqarTvelos gmirebisadmi, romlebic gamorCeulia erovnuli muxtiT Tu mxatvruli RirsebebiT. 1927 wels al.batoniSvilis (erekle mefis mexuTe Svili, romelic kategoriuli winaaRmdegi iyo ruseTTan SeerTebis da mis winaaRmdeg ibrZoda sikvdilamde) xsovnisadmi miZRvnil saRamoze, parizSi, s. bereJians waukiTxavs leqsi batoniSvils: CavageT xmlebi... Segvirigda anCxli irani... krwanisis velmac daiviwya buki, naRara Dda Zmobis niSnad gadafurcla molam yurani, iskander mirzas roca miwa gadaeyara.

--batoniSvilo! CrdiloeTiT mosul avdarSi,

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gaSavda jvari, daiJanga da moixara da Seni xmali moqneuli, gadatyda tarSi... -batoniSvilo, aRar gargebs Zili, aRara! (SaraZe 1993:206) Eerovnuli gmiris, qaquca ColoyaSvilisadmi miZRvnili leqsi optimisturi ganwyobiT aris savse:

Tqven ambobT: mokvda! mivabareT dRes ucxo miwas, ar gvyavs qaquca, dagvioblda SeficulT kera. Seficulebo, nu qviTinebT, Tqvens Tavsa vficav, Ees tyuilia, ar momkvdara, me es ar mjera... (bereJiani 1943:53) Ppoetis fiqriT, mkerdSi daWrilma, daqanculma gmirma didi muxis Ziras ineba nabdis gaSla da ... miZineba: da sZinavs, sZinavs mefur ZiliT sayvarel belads... Cumad... nu stiriT... movasvenoT guSagi eris. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, s. bereJiani xSirad mimarTavs sizmris simbolikas (wvima, urmuli, paemani mTawmindaze das xv.). sizmarSi dasaSvebia droismiri anaqronizmi. rodesac koncentrireba xdeba warsulis sivrceze, orientireba konkretul gmirebze, sizmari iZleva amis saSualebas. Eemigranti poeti qmnis iseT sivrcul models, sadac istoriuli da misi Tanamedrove saqarTvelo ganuyofelia. Aam mTlianobas is sizmris meSveobiT aRwevs. cnobilia, rom sivrcis tradiciuli hermenevtika wesrigs emyareba. Aaq es mTlianoba aris Sinaganad mowesrigebuli. Tumca, zogjer gadaWarbebulic da romantikul saburvelSi gaxveuli.

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Mmkvlevari r. niSnianiZe marTebulad aRniSnavs: zogadad emigraciisTvis da gansakuTrebiT qarTulisTvis, damaxasiaTebelia politikuri romantika. Aara mxolod is SemTxvevebi, roca momxdari ararealurad fasdeba, es kidev sxva sasaubro Temaa, aramed roca movlenebisa da pirovnebebis idealizacia xdeba, leqsebSi xSirad figurireben erTi da igive gmirebi. Aam SemTxvevaSi orientaciis dakargva ki ar xdeba, aramed piriqiT, zedmeti orientireba warsulze: mefe Tamari, daviT soslani da sxv(niSnianiZe 2005: 65). leqsSi wvimapoeti acocxlebs Tamaris da daviT soslanis epoqas. Avtoris emocias kidev ufro amZafrebs leqsis ritmuli sinqronuloba: -Rrublebo, Rrublebo, devnilno qariT, saiTken iCqariT esoden muqariT?! -mze-qalis asuli xval qorwils apirebs. unda mivaSuroT Savi zRvis napirebs!.. movigde nabadi da Rrublebs gavyevi: zRva... mTebi... velebi... ferdobi... xan xevi... da diliT, roca gamomeRviZa, vicani, vicani kopwia miwa. (bereJiani 1943:39) sizmriseul kopwia sasaxles cixe artyia, galavanze samasi xevsuria, xolo qveviT, mindorzejari. jars Cauqrola mefe Tamarma, samefos droSa mohqonda Tavad daviT soslansa, oseTis Tavads.

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TeTr arabulze vicani mgoni Mmgosani SoTa bagrationi. Aavtori Tavis Tavs aigivebs am istoriul sivrceSi. Llirikuli personaJis survilia, miuaxlovdes moqmedebis centrs: mominda maTTan mec axlos misvla. sasaxlis baRze daveSvi nislad... miwaze eSveba, magram saSineli realoba xvdeba. Zveli sasaxlis nacvladmZime lodebi da damWknari are-mare, daxocili xevsurebi, marabdis velze didi mouravis gadatexili xmali... Tumca, uflisadmi rwmena optimalurad ganawyobs lirikul gmirs da wvima aclis goliaT warsuls xavssa da mtvers. Sens mamuls, qarTvelo, ufali icavs! emTxvie mkerdiT noyier miwas. Ddaxocil lomebs Seasxi qeba! saqmeni maTi ar ikargeba. -----------------------------------Ddidi warsuli, Zveli dideba ganmeordeba, ganmeordeba! Ees leqsi kidev erTi dasturia imis, rom poetisTvis warsuli, awmyo da momavali erT mTlianobad aRiqmeba. Mmis warmosaxvaSi zogjer ramdenime epoqa erT sivrceSi erTiandeba. leqsSi urmuli mSobliur sivrceSi: isev sizmris saSualebiT aRwevs poeti

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Aarxevda wynarad fiqrebs mwuxares, Aarxevda velebs, arxevda Walebs... ----------------------------------------------sadRac uremma daiWriala. gautylaSuna meurmem xarebs da SemosZaxa urmuli tkbili. (bereJiani 1943:42)

irine maniJaSvili

samSoblos zecaze angelozebisa da RvTismSoblis xilva Svebas gvris poets da momavlis imeds aZlevs. sarwmunoebrivi momenti mSobliur sivrceSi ufro mZafrdeba da yovelTvis exmareba poets realobis daZlevaSi: madli ufalsa! Aam kuTxis gamCens! zecaSi cxovrobs didi msajuli. imRere glexo! Cven gadagvarCens Seni harale da krimanWuli! realur-istoriuli sivrcis dakavSireba erTmaneTTan gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba s. bereJianis poemaSi paemani mTawmindaze, romelic ilia WavWavaZis dabadebidan 100 wlisTavs eZRvneba. poemaSi sxvadasxva epoqis moRvaweni, literaturuli personaJebi mowiwebiT midian ilias akldamasTan da ulocaven iubiles. Aavtori erTgvar sanaxaobriv suraTs qmnis: amarTes droSa mefisa mTawmidis galavanSia, gaSales sufra, ra sufra! ilia dasves TavSia.

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avTandil sufras ganagebs, tariel mwvadis wvaSia, fridoni meriqifea, da SoTa tolumbaSia. sityvas iZaxis margalits, vusmen, maJrJolebs tanSia. (bereJiani 1943:59) Aaq TiTqos mTliandeba istoriuli warsuli da saerTo mogonebaTa sivrces qmnis avtori. Llxinis dros sxvadasxva niSnebi da aqcentebia kodirebuli mniSvnelovan istoriul movlenebze. Bbolos, tyvedqmnili darejanis saxeSi alegoriuli miniSnebiT avtori mTavar saTqmelze gadadis. Ddarejanis gamoxsnis gegma sxvadasxvagvaria, magram bWoba SoTas sityviT mTavrdeba: zogjer sificxiT daSavdes, zogjer mixtomac jeria. Mmartoni veras gavxdebiT: ver iqms erobas eria. jiqur misvlasa ar girCevT, sjobs rom gavides xania. lodiniT ar daSavdebis: wamogvezrdeba yrmania. Ees avtoris poziciaa, romelic Sesafer dros da xanas elodeba. Ppoema daTariRebulia 1937 wlis 26 noembriT. Uunda aRiniSnos, rom avtori Sinaganad mTliani da gawonasworebulia istoriuli sivrcis aRdgenis dros, rodesac

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axerxebs sasurvel warsulSi dabrunebas, droSi mogzaurobas. sakmaod sainteresod aris gaazrebuli sivrculi kombinaciebi. erTiaobieqturi geografiuli sivrce anu evropa, sadac is cxovrobs, xolo meorepoetis cnobierebaSi arsebuli sivrce, samSoblo. misi goneba da warmosaxva sul iq aris. realuri sivrce misTvis miuRebelia. sxvebTan TuU ucxoeTi dedinacvlad ixsenieba, s. bereJianTan evropa maminacvalia da am niSans araerT leqsSi vxvdebiT: roca warsuli gardaicvala, TeTri kabebi SevRebe Savad Dda aviyvane avi menave Uucxo qveynebSi maminacvalad. (samSoblo ucxoeTSi) Aamave leqsSi: gamxmar TiTebSi Zvirfas sigarebs Aabolebs dinji maminacvali, Kkvamli exveva qalaqebs, hqreba; dDa bnel quCebSi me bevrjer vnaxe, Cems maminacvals rom emuqreba wiTeli droSa, yviTeli saxe.

simon bereJiani grZnobs wiTeli xelisuflebis evropaSic. sevda da naRveli gasdevs mTlianad leqss. me qarTveli var da zanti Tvali ver movaSore mowyenil sivrces. Mmiyvars umiznod gzebi savali

safrTxes

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Dda maminacvals neta rad mimces? (bereJiani 1943:27)

Ppoets cnobierebaSi arsebuli mSobliuri sivrce mosvenebas ar aZlevs da amave dros exmareba realobis gadalaxvaSi. e.w. istoriuli sizmrebi s. bereJianis Semoqmedebisa da cxovrebis mudmivi Tanmdevia. cnobilia fsiqologiidan, rom pirovnebis amgvari ganwyoba, fantazia gamanadgurebel gavlenas axdens adamianis fsiqikur wyobaze (d. uznaZefantaziis gavlena mexsierebis sxvadasxva formaze; k. iungiistoriuli sizmrebis funqcia). Tu am mosazrebebs gaviTvaliswinebT, SesaZloa savsebiT logikurad miviCnioT s. bereJianis cxovrebis tragikuli dasasruli. samwuxarod, misi saflavic ar aris cnobili. simonika bereJiani aResrula meore msoflio omis dros, rumineTSi. Mmas aRmoaCnda sulieri daavadebis niSnebi da samxedro lazareTidan ikargeba misi kvali... Ppoetis Sinagani samyaros rRveva asaxvas hpovebs mis Semoqmedebazec. Uukve aSkaraa darRveuli sivrcis niSnebi leqsSi nasaxlari, sadac mTeli simZafriT aris mocemuli mSobliuri, sayvareli sivrcis dramatuli suraTi:

Ggatexil xulas dasCxavis yvavi, Ddampal svetebze qanaobs oda... Mme rom alvisxed gavCeniliyav, SenTan darCena SemeZleboda. (bereJiani 1943:46) sxvagan ki mainc ar kargavs dabrunebis imeds da Tavis gadias mimarTavs(mercxlis wyevla):

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davubrundebi daqceul keras, rogorc firali gaWrili mTaSi. Kkvlav gavagoneb Cem gulis Zgeras, Tavs rom Cavudeb velebs kalTaSi. (bereJiani 1943;37)

irine maniJaSvili

keTili gadiac im monatrebuli sivrcis nawilia. Mmas avtori Zalze gulwrfelad da xelSesaxebad xatavs: roca gestumros mgzavri zecidan, Ggansvenebis Jams Caicvi Tbilad, rom samareSi ar gamicivde, Mmoisxi mxrebze Salis TavSali Caicvi matylis sqeli windebi. s. bereJianis SemoqmedebaSi mkveTrad igrZnoba qarTuli kulturuli sivrcis pulsacia. qarTuli xibliT aris gajerebuli misi warmosaxva: xo, marTali xar! Mmiyvars yanwi, Cxaveris Rvino, Tavze wakruli yabalaxi... xelze mimino. (bereJiani 1943:48) s. bereJianis poezia ar iyo mcdeloba dasavleTevropul literaturul da kulturul sivrceSi TviTdamkvidrebis, aramed viwro, qarTuli emigraciis wreebSi gasamxneveblad, sulis saoxad Seqmnili poezia, romelsac samSobloSi gamomzeurebis arc ufleba hqonda da arc pretenzia. Ppoeti marTalia xSirad ar iyenebs simboloebsa da kodebs, magram mainc axerxebs ara marto geografiuli, aramed sazogadoebrivi sivrcis asaxvasac. Eemigranti poeti realur sivrceSi ver axerxebs sakuTar identifikacias. is aaqtiurebs

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istoriul-kulturul Sreebs, raTa Seqmnas samyaros miRebis iseTi modeli, romelic misTvis Zalze tevadi da Rrma sulierebis matarebelia.

literatura

1. bereJiani 1943: bereJiani s. nawerebi, berlini, 1943 2. bereJiani 1982: bereJiani s. leqsebi, parizi, 1982 3. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis qarTuli emigraciis muzeumi. Gguram SaraZis kerZo koleqcia. 4. kvaracxelia 1995: kvaracxelia g. mxatvruli enis Seswavlis lingvisturi aspeqtebi, Tb, Tsu, 1995 5. niSnianiZe 2000: niSnianiZe r. XX saukunis qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, Tb, lomisi, 2000 6. niSnianiZe 2005: niSnianiZe r. saqarTvelosamans iqiT... wigni II, Tb, merani, 2005 7. SaraZe 1993: SaraZe g. ucxoeTis cis qveS, t. III, Tb, merani, 1993

Aada nemsaZe imperiis sivrculi modelebi oTar WilaZisa da givi margvelaSvilis romanebSi
XX saukunis II naxevridan qarTulma literaturam gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcia droisa da sivrcis problemebs. swored aqedan iwyeba miTosuri, bibliuri Tu antikuri modelebis aRorZineba da maTi gamoyeneba sxvadasxva simboluri datvirTviT, rasac Tan axlavs dro-sivrculi problemebis axleburi gaazreba. rogorc nodar kakabaZe SeniSnavs, `erTi mxriv, Tanamedrove proza da romani intensiuri, intraspeqtruli gaxda, amisda Sesabamisad, Semcirda, daviwrovda dro da sivrce. magram, meore mxriv, fantastikisa da warmosaxvis, warmodgenebis, vizionebis momZlavrebis gamo usazRvrod gafarTovda da gaiSala, magram ara empiriuli, realuri dro da sivrce, aramed warmosaxuli, adamianis fsiqikaSi transformirebuli. personaJis cnobierebas mkiTxveli gadahyavs uSores warsulsa Tu momavalSi, istoriasa Tu miTosSi, magram es droisa da sivrcis mxolod fiqciuri, mxolod cnobierebis gafarToeba-ganvrcobaa~ (kakabaZe 1988: 84-85). oTar WilaZe da givi

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margvelaSvili TavianT romanebSi gansxvavebul sivrcul modelebs qmnian, romelTagan amjerad yuradRebs gavamaxvilebT imperiuli, deformirebuli sivrcis amsaxvel modelebze. romanSi `yovelman Cemman mpovnelman~ sivrcis ramdenime gansxvavebuli modeli gvxvdeba, romlebic erTmaneTs aramxolod geografiulad ukavSirdebian. esenia: makabelebis karmidamo _ uruqi _ kaxeTi (romlis zogad saxesac warmoadgens Telavi) _ saqarTvelo (Tbilisi) _ ruseTis imperia (katorRa, tiumeni). am mxatvruli modelebidan TiToeuli atarebs (zogan SefarviT, zogan ki aSkarad), imperiis zogad tipologiur niSnebs, radgan yoveli maTgani misi Semadgeneli nawilia. makabelebis ezo uaryofiTad formirebuli sivrcea, aq boroteba, siZulvili da undobloba normaa. amave dros, am sivrceSi arsebobs keTili sawyisic (anas, giorgas, babucasa da aRaTias saxiT), romelic jer kidev susti da gaubedavia da atmosferos ver cvlis. makabelebis viwro socialuri sivrce imdenad winaaRmdegobrivi da aramyaria, rom sikeTe-borotebis Widili sabolood mas or urTierTsawinaaRmdego polusad yofs: qaixosros orsarTuliani saxli uaryofiTi identifikaciis simboloa, saxedris gomuri ki _ dadebiTisa. makabelTa qviTkiris saxlis sapirispirod sikeTe batonobs gomurSi, romelsac madls fens giorgas cxovreba. igi anasa da qaixosros qorwilis dRidanve iwyebs im saqcielis monaniebas, riTac maiori gadakida dedamiss da sakuTari sikvdiliT amTavrebs mas. makabelTa sulieri aRorZineba gomuridan iwyeba da nel-nela farTovdeba. anasa da giorgas sikeTe gadadis momaval TaobaSi, nikoSi, aleqsandreSi da anetaSi. samive maTgani saxlidan garbis, ase gadis anasa da giorgas madli ojaxidan da efineba momavals. makabelTa ojaxis ZaladobiTa da uzneobiT gajerebuli sivrce aris swored imperiis zogadi saxe-modeli. irma ratiani Tavis monografiaSi `qronotopi antiutopiur romanSi: esqatologiuri antiutopiis interpretaciisaTvis~ wers: `esqatologiuri antiutopiis mTavari centraluri problema aris ara mxolod groteskuli protesti arsebuli reJimis mimarT, aramed `idealuri wesrigis~, `koleqtiuri~ paTosisa da `masobrivi~ ideologiis wiaRSi Cakarguli pirovnebis gamoRviZeba, individualuri `mes~ sabediswero janyi realobis winaaRmdeg, arsebul dro-sivrcul garemosTan misi sruli SeuTavseblobisa da sxva alternatiuli dro-sivrculi ganfenilobisaken

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ltolvis demonstrireba~ (ratiani 2005: 158). anas Cumi protesti (gomurSi gadasaxleba da darigeba - `Tu ginda moisveno, Zmas CaakiTxe~) aris swored is fesvi, razec jer nikos, Semdeg ki aleqsandresa da anetas janyi amoizrdeba da amarcxebs borotebas. qaixosros mentaluri xazis damarcxebiT mwerali qmnis imperiuli ideologiis droebiTobis koncefcias. `rkinis TeatrSi~ moqmedeba xdeba baTumSi. mwerali metad saintereso periods irCevs siuJetis ganviTarebisTvis. esaa ruseTis imperiis bolo wlebis (XIX-XX saukuneTa mijna) cxovrebis mxatvruli asaxva, nawarmoebis siRrmeSi ilandeba I msoflio omis suraTebic, magram yvelafer amis miRma erTi mniSvnelovani miniSneba imaleba _ mefis ruseTisa da komunisturi ruseTis imperiaTa gaigiveba. calkeuli pirovnebebis fsiqologiuri xasiaTebis gaxsniT mwerali xatavs zogadad adamianis cxovrebis tragedias imperiuli mmarTvelobis periodSi. misTvis Cveuli xelweriT simboloebiTa da kodebiT WilaZe axdens ara marto geografiuli, aramed sazogadoebrivi sivrcis asaxvasac. erovnuli suli, marTalia, cxovrebaSi aRar Cans, magram jer kidev cocxalia (`nato gabunias piridan iavardi scvioda~... `yazbegi xanjlebiT cekvavda~...); cxovrebas arc boroti sawyisi aklia (`marines prospeqtze etli SeCerdeboda da beWdiani TiTi fostis win atuzul meZavs moixmobda~... `diliT yelgamoWril kacs poulobda policia quCaSi~...); xelovneba da kultura borkilebSia moqceuli (`cenzorebs kalami momarjvebuli hqondaT, sityva `saqarTvelo~ rom ar gahparvodaT~...); imperiulma mmarTvelobam adamianebsac ucvala saxe (`polkovniki veziriSvili acekvebul cxenze ijda, cxeniviT aqnevda Tavs da xvixvinebda: maqvs pativi, maqvs pativio~...) imperiuli mmarTvelobis mier motanil gaxrwnilebaze, rwmenis dakargvasa da moralur gadagvarebaze miuTiTebs is faqti, rom gauqmebul eklesia-monastrebSi jari dgas da jariskacebi mTvral monazons acekveben. dabolos, refreni - `cxovreba ki duRda da gadmoduRda, rogorc Sampanuri tanwerweta WiqebSi~ swored sivrcis amsaxveli umoklesi formulaa. gaxrwnili zneoba, gabatonebuli usamarTloba da daundobloba, dakarguli erovnuli TviTSegneba imperiuli mmarTvelobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli tipologiuri niSnebia. amitomac aseT sivrceSi gelas brZola simarTlisaTvis

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`danaSaulia~, xolo natos gulwrfeli da didi siyvaruli _ `uzneoba~. gamosavali aqac erTia: janyi, romlis wamomwyebic da damamTavrebelic aris swored gela da ara mamamisi. natos siyvaruliT dawyebul amboxebas sazogadoebaSi gabatonebuli pirovnebis damTrgunveli normebis winaaRmdeg `ugzoobis qveynidan~ gamoqceviTa da pirovnuli Tavisuflebis mopovebiT amTavrebs gela. swored esaa sivrcis rRvevisTvis umTavresi faqtori. masobriv ideologias dapirispirebuli gela gaZlierebuli ubrundeba koleqtivs, romlis gamosaRviZeblad axla mas kidev erTi umniSvnelovanesi mizezi aqvs - Svili: `marto Svili ki ar iyo viRacisa, aramed viRacis mamac. Ze warsulisa da mama momavlisa! modioda...~ (WilaZe 1987: 394). yvelaze SexuTuli, viwro da arajansaRia sivrce `avelumSi~, yvelafrisTvis gamousadegari da xelisSemSleli. mas qmnis erTmorwmune mezobeli, romelic `xan `gubernias~ eZaxda moferebiT, xan `respublikas~. amasobaSi ki dRiTi-dRe ebzareboda da erRveoda saukuneobiT nagebi cixe-galavani zneobisa, patiosnebisa, kdemamosilebisa~ (WilaZe 2007: 297). erTmorwmune mezoblis mier samyaroSi SemosazRvruli sivrce SeuZlebelia, sakmarisi aRmoCndes erisTvis, rac unda didi iyos igi. radgan Tavisufleba TviTon awesebs sakuTar sazRvrebs da vinmes mier dadebuli sazRvari ukve Tavisuflebis SezRudvaa. romanSi imperiuli modelis warmosaxvas emsaxureba sabWoTa sivrcis warmodgena saknad, romlis patimrebadac Tvlian Tavs avelumi da fransuaza. SemosazRvruli sivrcis mxatvruli xatia romanSi minosis labirinTic _ es uzarmazari da Tan saocrad SezRuduli garemo, sadac Tavs verasodes grZnob bednierad, sadac sul viRac giTvalTvalebs, saidan gamosasvleladac aucileblad gWirdeba ariadnes Zafis gorgali, radgan marto amas ver moaxerxeb da bunebrivia, aseT sivrceSi verc verasodes miaRwev im netar gancdas, Tavisufleba da sakuTari me-s povna rom hqvia. rogorc m. jaliaSvili aRniSnavs, minosis labirinTi igive ruseTia, romelsac eris sasicocxlo energia ewireba, rac ori didi inkviziciiT (1956 wlis 9 martiTa da 1989 wlis 9 apriliT) aris warmodgenili (jaliaSvili 1997: 102). imperiuli mmarTveloba adamians ukargavs zneobriv saxes da maRali sulieri Rirebulebebis mqone pirovnebebisaTvis amgvar garemoSi cxovreba metismetad mZime xdeba. swored amitom Seguebisa da damonebisaTvis sabWoTa imperiam axali meTodi -

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masobrivi SiSis gabatoneba Semoitana arsenalSi, amis ganxorcieleba ki 9 martis sisxliani agnariSsworebiT SeZlo. Tavisuflebas karga xniT Seekveca frTebi. SiSi Rrmad idgams fesvebs eris koleqtiur aracnobierSi, rac iCens kidec Tavs avelumis sizmarSi. fsiqologiaSi sizmari auxdeneli ocnebebisa da ganuxorcielebeli survilebis gamovlenis asparezad aris miCneuli. am sizmarSi avelums arc fransuazas uari, arc misi mSoblebis ucnauroba, arc Tavis oficiantoba ar akvirvebs. mas mxolod fransuazas sityvebi aSfoTebs: `Cemi wigni Tu ar mogwons, Sen TviTon dawere ukeTesio~ (WilaZe 2007: 124). es sityvebi avelums auxdenel ocnebas axsenebs, mas xom didi xania, unda maradiuli simboloebis moSveliebiT daweros wigni, sadac imperiis siverage da sisastike iqneba mxilebuli, davuSvaT, minosisa da dedalusis urTierTobis fonze. miTis restavracias aq erTi mizani aqvs: imperiuli sisastikisa da daundoblobis, azrdakarguli, TamaSadqceuli cxovrebis daxatva, sadac adamianebi mxolod im rolebs asruleben, rasac imperia aZlevs maT. imperiuli sivrcis rRveva manam ar daiwyeba, sanam uSiSari Taoba ar mova da brZolas ar daiwyebs. es ki avelumis Taobas ar ZaluZs. `Sen, albaT, SeSinebulTa sameuls amTavreb _ papaSeni rom cocxali iyos, samalavis ZebnaSi iqneboda ukve... mamac enaCaylapuli, gulxeldakrefili iwveboda isev. magram, meore mxriv, uSiSari sameulis damwyebica xar, ramdenadac am sameulis ori mesamedi axalgazrdobaze modis (Svili, SviliSvili). Seni qaliSvili Tavis oTaxSi, albaT, isev samferovan droSas keravs da momavali mitingisTvis emzadeba~ (WilaZe 2007: 29-30). `idealuri wesrigis~ damrRvevad da meamboxed `avelumSi~ ekaekaterinekatos Taoba gvevlineba, igi amsxvrevs kidec yvelaze sistiki da daundobeli `borotebis imperiis~ uaryofiT sivrces. amrigad, oTar WilaZis mxatvruli sistemis gaTvaliswinebiT SegviZlia davaskvnaT: Tuki sivrce moaxerxebs TviTidentifikacias da personaJebic daZleven gaucxoebas sivrcis meSveobiT, SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rom momavlis koncefcia, garegnulad mainc, amoxsnilia. misi personaJebi am rwmeniT cocxloben da am rwmenisTvis ibrZvian. gaubedavi mamebis gabeduli Svilebi axerxeben swored imperiuli sivrcis rRvevas da Tavisuflebis surnelis Semotanas.

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sabWoTa sivrcis sruliad gansxvavebul models gvTavazobs givi margvelaSvili Tavis avtobiografiul romanSi `kapitani vakuSi~. esaa romanebis cikli, romelic 7 dasrulebuli wignisagan Sedgeba (amJamad avtori merve nawilze muSaobs) da dReisaTvis qarTulad naTargmnia mxolod I wigni - `kapitani vakuSi. doiqsilandSi~. masSi asaxulia 20-40-iani wlebis germaniaSi mcxovrebi qarTuli emigraciis yofa. romanSi mocemuli imperiuli sivrcis modeli sruliad unikaluria im TvalsazrisiT, rom avtori xatavs imas, rac arasodes unaxavs TvaliT, esaa 20-30-iani wlebis sabWoTa saxelmwifo (igi 1927 wels daibada berlinSi da sabWoTa kavSirSi pirvelad 1946 wels moxvda). amitom misi codna sabWoeTze gadmocemebiTa da naambobebiT Semoifargleba mxolod. es postmodernistuli elementebiT savse teqsti daSifruli saxiT gvTavazobs imperiuli sivrcis models. sainteresoa, rom givi margvelaSvilTan uamravi saerTo niSani aqvs sabWoTa sivrcesa da nacistur germanias. amitomacaa, rom mwerali maT erTi simboloTi aRniSnavs - esaa goglimogli, xolo gasarCevad wlebs amatebs: magaliTad, goglimogli 17 aris oqtombris revolucia, goglimogli 39 - germanuli nacizmi, xolo axali goglimogli - sabWoTa epoqa. amiT mwerali nacisturi germaniisa da sabWouri mTavrobis saerTo ideologiur safuZvels gaxazavs: pirovnebis bedi orivegan meorexarisxovania, mTavari maxasiaTebeli niSani ki Tavisuflebis SezRudvaa. rogoria sabWoTa goglimoglis sivrce? `iqaurebi (gansakuTrebiT ki isini, vinc 1917 wlidan moevlinen qveyanas) erTi sityviT, umravlesoba, am mamasaxlisisa da misi goglimoglis momxreni iyvnen, anda, SedarebiT naklebi raodenobiT, momxreni, magram mamasaxlisis mowinaaRmdegeni, an kidev (rasac kidev ufro iSviaTad SexvdebodiT), mamasaxlisis momxreni, magram goglimoglis mowinaaRmdegeni. yvelaze cotani da lamis ukve gadaSenebamde misulni eqsmamasaxlisis momxreni iyvnen, xolo sul cotaze cota (magram mainc raRac minimaluri raodenobiT rom arsebobdnen) iseTebi, romlebic arc mamasaxliss emxrobodnen da arc eqsmamasaxliss~ (margvelaSvili 2005: 123). mocemuli fragmentidan Cans, rom teqstSi mTlianadaa kodirebuli sivrcis Semadgeneli elementebi, imis miuxedavad, Tu vin igulisxmeba maTSi: konkretuli pirovneba,

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adamianTa jgufebi Tu mniSvnelovani istoriuli movlenebi. romanSi mocemul modelSi cvlilebebi mxolod sivrcis SigniT xdeba, mxolod Sida ragvaroba icvleba. es cvalebadoba ki Tavisuflebis momxreTa TandaTanobiTi klebiTa da imperiuli sistemis momxreTa - `wiTeli mamasaxlizmis fanatikuri warmomadgenlebis~ - raodenobis zrdiT xasiaTdeba. es imperiuli mmarTvelobis tipuri niSania. givi margvelaSvilTan xazgasmulia sivrcis ara mxolod fizikuri (geografiuli) sazRvari, aq gacilebiT mniSvnelovania sulieri SemosazRvruloba, sazRvari gonebaSi, rac individis mier sakuTari Tavis mkacr kontrols gulisxmobs. es sabWouri modelis maxasiaTebelia, am `rkinis fardis~ miRma, ocnebasa da survilSic ki ar unda gadadiodes sabWoTa moqalaqe. SiSis dasanergavad ki bevri saSualeba aqvs `warmoSobiT kolx mamasaxlisimuss~. mwerali SeniSnavs, rom gansakuTrebuli simkacre iyo 1953 wlamde da sastikad isjeboda Tavisuflebis sul mciredi gamovlinebac ki, magaliTad iseTi, rogoricaa werilis dawera sazRvargareT mcxovrebi megobris Tu naTesavisTvis gasagzavnad: `amgvari cdebi mudam am kapitnebis Sua aziis udabnos tramalebSi deportaciiT mTavrdeboda. Tanaxmad mamasaxlisis brZanebisa, romelsac ucxoeTSi mimoweriT garTulebi ar epitnaveboda da imwamsve moTminebis fiala evseboda~ (margvelaSvili 2005: 286). givi margvelaSvilis mier daxatul imperiul sivrces aqvs kidev erTi mkafio niSani - garedan igi sakmaod mimzidvelia, kargadaa SeniRbuli misi WeSmariti saxe. amitomac, jerac ucnob samSobloSi moxvedril vakuSs egzotikuri suraTebi stacebs Tvals: `pirveli STabeWdileba warmtaci gaxldaT... magram kurortebs Semdeg dasaxlebuli punqtebi mohyva, sadac maT axali goglimogli daxvdaT uxvad _ memarcxeneTa reJimi maSin jer kidev mkacrze mkacri iyo da amaT sul male naobaxtebic ixiles eqsmamasaxlisebisaTvis~ (margvelaSvili 2005: 282). sabWoTa sivrcis WeSmariti saxe mxolod sivrcis SigniT moxvedrili adamianebisTvis xdeba cxadi, aq Tavisuflebis yvelaze umniSvnelo gamovlinebac ki umkacresad isjeba. `kapitan vakuSSi~ goglimogls upirispirdeba diqsilendi, rac jazuri musikiTa da Tavisufali seqsiTaa nominirebuli. diqsilenduri cixe-koSki germaniaSi asrulebs Tavis movaleobas: aRviZebs ideologiaSi Cakargul individualur me-s da qmnis

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axal alternatiul dro-sivrcul ganfenilobas, romlis mTavari niSanic Tavisuflebaa. esaa zogadad yovelgvari totalitarizmisagan Tavis dasaRwevi gza. rac Seexeba sabWoTa imperiuli modelis rRvevas, es procesi romanis am wignSi asaxuli ar aris Cven mier ukve dasaxelebuli obieqturi mizezis gamo.

Lliteratura kakabaZe 1988: kakabaZe n. Tanamedrove germanulenovani literaturis ZiriTadi tendenciebi. dasavleT evropis literatura (XX saukune). Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1988. margvelaSvili 2005: margvelaSvili g. kapitani vakuSi, wigni I, Targmani k. jorjanelisa. Tb.: `kavkasiuri saxli~, 2005. ratiani 2005: ratiani i. qronotopi antiutopiur romanSi: esqatologiuri antiutopiis interpretaciisaTvis. Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2005. WilaZe 1987: WilaZe o. Txzulebani 3 tomad, tomi 3. Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1987. WilaZe 2007: WilaZe o. avelumi. Tb.: arete, 2007. jaliaSvili 1997: jaliaSvili m. wigni - saukunis xati // Jurnali `ciskari~, #8, Tb., 1997.

salome omiaZe piradi sivrcis proeqcia qarTul lingvokulturaSi


sivrciTi orientaciis fenomeni konceptTa parametrul tips ganekuTvneba. igi, rogorc fizikuri samyaros universaluri xedva, TiTqos moklebuli unda iyos Semfaseblobasa Tu eqspresiulobas, magram es iTqmis mxolod iseT specialur enobriv erTeulebze, rogoricaa zmniswinebi, Tandebulebi da zmnizedebi, romlebic sivrciTs ganzomilebaSi sagnebis urTierTmimarTebisa Tu adamianis orientaciis garkveul ZiriTad koordinatebze migviTiTeben. Tumca am erTeulebze dakvirvebamac ki SeiZleba gamokveTos konkretul lingvokulturaSi sivrcis aRqma-asaxvis specifikuroba. magaliTad, is, rom qarTulSi morfologiis doneze kategoriis statusi aqvs zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedebis mimarTulebas pirveli piris poziciidan, universalurad namdvilad ver CaiTvleba. orientaciis morfologiur kategoriad qceva is gramatikuli movlenaa,

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romelic lingvokulturologiur interess iwvevs, rogorc sivrcis Semecnebis erovnul-determinirebuli faqti. miuxedavad imisa, rom sivrceSi myofobisa da gadaadgilebis aRmweri ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi _ horizontaluroba, vertikaluroba, statikuroba, dinamikuroba, gamosvliToba, miwevniToba, TanakveTa, siaxlove, siSore, Sina sivrce, gare sivrce Tu misT. _ universaluria, mocemuli komponentebis gansxvavebuli kombinacia sxvadasxva diskursSi mainc specifikur suraTs iZleva. sivrciTi orientacia emyareba ara mxolod sivrciTs warmodgenebs, aramed sivrciTs qcevasac, romelic, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobs garemoSi sensomotorul aqtivobasa da pirTaSorisi urTierTobisas sivrciT sargeblobis pirobebs. es wesebi da pirobebi, romlebsac proqsemika Seiswavlis, yovel enobriv erTobaSi gansxvavebulia (konceptTa anTologia 2007: 414). proqsemuli qceva sociokulturuladaa Sepirobebuli da misi erovnuli modelebis Seswavla lingvisturTan erTad paralingvisturi movlenebis gaTvaliswinebasac moiTxovs. sivrcis danawevreba Ria da daxurul, pirad da sajaro, mikro- da makrosivrceebad Tu sxva, yvela kulturisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. Cven davinteresdiT, rogor aris proecirebuli piradi sivrce qarTul lingvokulturaSi da SevecadeT aRgvewera is universaluri da erovnul-specifikuri niSnebi, romlebiTac xasiaTdeba es koncepti qarTul diskursSi. koncept `piradi sivrcis~ daxasiaTebas lingvokulturologiasa da kognitiur lingvistikaSi ukanasknel dros gavrcelebuli sqemebis mixedviT Tu mivudgebiT, unda aRvniSnoT, rom misi nominaciuri veli semiotikuri simWidroviT gamoirCeva. aRniSnul sqemebSi warmodgenil konceptis ganmaxorcielebel enobriv saSualebaTagan, iqneba es arapirdapiri nominaciebi, saerTo fuZis mqone sityvebi, sinonimebi, konteqsturi sinonimebi, similarebi,

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morfologiuri saSualebebi Tu sxva, TiTqmis yvela realizebulia qarTul diskursSi. `piradi sivrce~ makrokonceptia, romlis srulad aRwera SeuZlebelia iseTi konceptebis Seswavlis gareSe, rogoricaa `Tavisufleba~, `saidumloeba~, `piraduloba~, `martooba~, `sakuTreba~ da sxv. Cven SevecdebiT leqsikuri semantikis doneze gamovavlinoT `piradi sivrcis~ komponenti, mimovixiloT paremiuli masala da myari Sesityvebebi, rogorc is ubani, romelSiac xalxis msoflxedva, misi suli yvelaze naTlad Cans. piradi sivrcis konkretuli parametruli maxasiaTeblebi sxvadasxva lingvokulturaSi gansxvavebulia, magram piradi teritoriis 4 sivrcul zonad danawevrebas yvelgan vxvdebiT. esenia intimuri, sakuTari, socialuri da oficialur-sajaro zonebi. sayuradRebo faqtia, rom Cven mier gaanalizebuli masala umetesad pirvel or zonas _ intimursa da sakuTars _ ukavSirdeba. Cven am masalis semantikur jgufebad klasifikacia vcadeT. adamianisa da sivrcis problema adamianis mier garemos wvdomiT iwyeba, rasac sakuTari Tavis Secnoba uswrebda, amitom savsebiT logikuria, rom kulturis kodebs Soris anTropomorfuli kodi yvelaze mniSvnelovania. adamiani fizikuri sxeulis erTgvar gagrZelebad miiCnevs sivrcis garkveul monakveTs da amitom sxeuliviT sakuTrad miaCnia igi. uZvelesi droidan sivrcis gasazomi universaluri erTeulebi adamianis sxeulis parametrebi yofila. amasve mowmobs sigrZis sazomTa sistema Zvel qarTulSi, romlis Semadgenlebia: biji/nabiji, goji, gojeuli, TiTi, mtkaveli, mxari, wyrTa, cida. dResac araerT anTropomorful metaforas vxvdebiT qarTul diskursSi, romelTa mixedviTac SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom Tanamedrove qarTvelis kognitiur cnobierebaSi kvlav aqtualuria zogadi sivrcis sazomad piradi sivrcis gamoyeneba. siaxloves aRniSnaven Semdegi sityvebi Tu gamoTqmebi:

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Tvalwin; cxvirwin; yuris ZirSi; erT nabijze (erTi fexis gadadgmaze); or nabijze; xelis gawvdenaze (erTi xelis gawvdenaze) da sxv. gansakuTrebiT mravalricxovania jgufi im zmnebisa, romlebic piradi sivrcis darRvevas ukavSirdeba. am jgufSi erTiandeba yvela is zmna, romlis leqsikuri mniSvneloba adamianis fizikuri Tu sulieri myudroebis xelyofas gulisxmobs, aseve nebismieri zmnis kauzaciuri forma, romelSic iZulebis semantikaa dominanturi. magaliTad, zmnebi awvalebs, scems, awuxebs, dascinis, amcirebs, lanZRavs, anerviulebs da misT. piradi sivrceSi SeWras rom gulisxmobs, naTelia, Tumca erTi SexedviT savsebiT uwyinari axatvinebs forma am jgufSi rom gaerTiandes, konteqstma unda gvikarnaxos, kerZod, konteqstis mixedviT, damxatvels xatvis survili ar unda hqondes. piradi sivrcis oTxi zonidan umTavresi intimuri zonaa. adamiani swored mas ufrTxildeba da icavs yvelaze metad, rogorc Tavisi fizikuri sxeulis uSualo gagrZelebas, rogorc erTpirovnul sakuTrebas. am sivrceSi Sesvlis ufleba aqvT mxolod uaxloes adamianebs: mSoblebs, Svilebs, meuRleebs. rodesac intimuri zona mesakuTris nebiT sxvisTvis misawvdomi xdeba, es maT Soris mWidro emociur urTierTobas mowmobs, ris ilustraciasac Semdegi gamonaTqvamebi warmoadgens: gulSi

Caikravs; guls gadauSlis; kalTis qveS hyavs; sulSi iZvrens; cxviri cxvirze aqvT midebuli; kudi kudze aqvT gadafskvnili; xelis gulze atarebs da sxv.
Zaladobrivi Sinaarsis mqonea intimuri zonis darRvevis amsaxveli Semdegi myari gamoTqmebi: sulSi uZvreba; sulSi

xelebs ufaTurebs, suls uxuTavs; Tavze azis; kiserze azis; nervebs uSlis; xelidan gamoaclis; xels SeaCvevs; xelSi uWiravs; pirSi burTs CasCris; pirSi ecema; pirze daadgeba; Tavzars dascems; yurs auwevs; fexs daaWers da sxv.

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diskomforts iwvevs, magram agresias moklebulia intimuri zonis gadalaxva Semdeg magaliTebSi: enas/pirs SeaCvevs; pirSi

Calas gamoavlebs; Tvals auxvevs; fexebSi eblandeba; TvalebSi eCxireba da sxv.


sxvisi intimuri zonis darRvevasac SeiZleba hqondes keTili miznebi, magaliTad, zurgs umagrebs; kalTas gadaafarebs,

mxarSi amoudgeba, mxars miscems, mxars umSvenebs, xels daafarebs; pirs moswmends; Tvals auxels da sxv. rogorc zemoT
aRvniSneT, am enobrivi masalis analizis dros mniSvnelovania iseTi paralingvisturi faqtorebi, rogoricaa subieqtisa da obieqtis urTierToba, subieqtis intencia da misT. qarTul diskursSi gvxvdeba piradi sivrcis mofrTxilebis amsaxveli gamoTqmebic, axlos ar migiSvebs; Tavi

Sors uWiravs; ver gaekarebi; axlos ar ikarebs; saTofeze ar ikarebs da sxv. amave jgufs unda mivakuTvnoT piradi sivrcis darRvevis prevenciis gamomxatveli formulebi: ar momekaro! TvaliT ar damenaxvo! Seni xma ar gamagono! Seni fexi aq ar iyos! / fexi ar moadga! Sors Cemgan! da sxv.
koncept piradi sivrcis aRwera misi xelSeuvalobaxelyofis mimarTulebiT srul suraTs ver mogvcems, radgan qarTul lingvokulturas saukuneebis manZilze msWvalavs Caketili piradi sivrcis, sulieri oblobisa Tu fizikuri simartovis sakiTxi, misi gansja. am TvalsazrisiT mxatvruli literatura kargad aris Seswavlili, amitom yoveli calkeuli naSromis gaTvaliswineba mocemuli konceptis Sedgenilobas mniSvnelovnad Seavsebs. am mimarTulebiT sagangebo kvlevas moiTxovs paremiologiuri fondi da yofiTi diskursi. mxolod am movlenis amsaxvel leqsikur erTeulTa gamoyofac ki calke saqmea, imdenad didia maTi da maTgan nawaroeb sityvaTa ricxvi. Cven mxolod nawils CamovTvliT: marto, martodmarto, martoka,

martomyofi, martosuli, martoxela, xelmarto, ganmartoebuli, euli, kentad darCenili, suliT oboli, gandegili, uTvistomo,

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tlu, ukareba, karCaketili, gulCaxveuli, gulCaTxrobili, guldaxuruli, idumali Tu sxva. es mcire CamonaTvalic ki
mowmobs, rom cal-calkea gansaxilveli nebayoflobiTi da iZulebiTi, garemoebebiT gamowveuli fizikuri Tu sulieri simartove. piradi sivrce ara mxolod adamianis Sinagan samyarosa da mis axlos arsebul sivrciTs monakveTs gulisxmobs, aramed im sagnebsa da pirebsac, romlebic am sivrcis sazRvrebSi myofoben. esenia: ezo, saxli, bina, oTaxi, kuTxe, piradi nivTebi, mSoblebi, Svilebi, ojaxis wevrebi anu `Sin da Sinaurebi~, rac or damoukidebel, Tumca urTierTSemavsebel konceptad SeiZleba ganvixiloT. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, piradi sivrcis, rogorc lingvokulturuli konceptis, sruli aRwera TiTqmis Tezaurusis Seqmnas utoldeba, radgan lingvisturTan erTad eqstralingvisturi samyaros srul deskrifcias gulisxmobs imdenad, ramdenadac enobrivica da araenobrivi sivrcec pirad da mis gareTa sivrceebad iyofa. literatura konceptTa anTologia 2007: / . . . , . . . .: , 2007.

Nnino popiaSvili literaturuli sivrce da qalTa literatura


kacobriobis dasabamidan dRemde qali STagonebis wyaroa, Tumca qalis rolisa da wvlilis sakiTxi sazogadoebriv, politikur, ekonomikur da sxva mniSvnelovan sferoebSi mudmivad dgas kiTxvis niSnis qveS. sazogadoebrivma ganviTarebam qalebis TviTSegnebis amaRleba gamoiwvia, aseve, qalisa da mamakacis rolebis, sazogadoebrivi stereotipebis garkveulwilad Tavidan gaazreba da axleburi daskvnebis, Sexedulebebis, mimarTebebis Camoyalibeba. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi qali iyo mamakacis trfobis obieqti. qals uZRvnidnen leqsebs, xatavdnen, aqandakebdnen, umRerdnen mis silamazes, gansakuTrebulobasa da gamorCeulobas. qals miiCnevdnen silamazis etalonad, Tumca genderuli kvlevebis TvalsazrisiT, rac ufro aRmerTebdnen qals da Tayvans scemdnen mas istoriis ama Tu im monakveTSi, miT ufro damorCilebul mdgomareobaSi iyo igi sinamdvileSi. qalis mimarT stereotipuli Sexedulebebis ganmtkicebaSi monawileobda literatura da filosofiac.

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literaturuli teqsti Sesabamisi diskursidan gamomdinare, SesaZloa aRqmuli iyos, rogorc istoriuli dokumenti. genderuli kvlevebis mixedviT, literaturuli teqstis gaazrebisas swored sazogadoebrivi diskursia mniSvnelovani. qali avtorebis mimarT naklebi yuradRebis gamaxvileba da araRiareba mWidrod aris damokidebuli imdroindel sazogadoebrivpolitikur faqtorTan, rodesac rolebis gagebis tradiciuli SexedulebiT, mamakaci aqtiuri, dominanti rolis mqone iyo, xolo qals pasiuri roli hqonda da sajaro cxovrebaSi monawileobis nacvlad ojaxur garemoSi moRvaweobda da ojaxze zrunavda. aseT identifikacias: mamakaci _ sazogadoeba, qali _ ojaxi sabolood mihyavda qalis roli garkveul naklovanebebamde da garkveul binarul opoziciebamde, romelsac qalsa da mamakacs Soris genderul safuZvelze aRmocenebuli gansxvavebebi Seadgenda. meoce saukunis samociani wlebis politikurad motivirebuli qalTa moZraobis dawyebis Semdeg, rogorc literaturaSi, ise, zogadad, samecniero samyaroSi qalis rolis Sesaxeb zogierTi Sexeduleba Seicvala da dazustda. erTi mxriv, Seiqmna qali avtorebis mier emansipaciuri literatura, romelic sakuTar, qalur istoriebze dayrdnobiT iyo SeTxzuli, meore mxriv ki, warmoiSva feministuri literaturis Teoria, romelmac axali damokidebulebis Sesabamisad, literaturaTmcodneobaSi daamkvidra qali avtoris (qalurobis, rogorc eTikuri kategoriis) cneba (ingl. Femininity, germ. die Weiblichkeit, rus. ).

feministuri kritikis mixedviT, qali avtorebis teqstebi imiT aris gamorCeuli da saintereso, rom TvalsaCinoa qalurad motivirebuli gamocdileba, emociebi da, zogadad, azrovneba. feministuri literaturis Teoriis warmoSoba da ganviTareba Tavis safuZvelSi politikur xasiaTs atarebs. am Teoriis upirvelesi mizani iyo kritikuli analizis gamoyenebiT qalebis motivireba da qalebis literaturuli saqmianobis xelSewyoba, Tundac, gacnobierebuli marginaluri winapirobebiT.

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qalze orientirebuli kvlevebis paralelurad ukanasknel aTwleulebSi samecniero TvalsawierSi damkvidrda genderuli kvlevebi (Gender Studies). iseve rogorc feministur literaturaTmcodneobaSi, aseve genderul kvlevebSic yuradReba gamaxvilebulia sqesTa Soris rolebis gadanawilebis sakiTxebze, rac ar aris biologiur sxvaobaze dafuZnebuli. Tu feministur literaturaTmcodneobaSi biologiuri sxvaoba reprezentirebulia inglisuri terminiT _ sqesi, genderul kvlevebSi socialuri da kulturuli komponentebis determinizireba gaxda SesaZlebeli da amisaTvis gramatikidan nasesxebi termini genderi ~Genus/gendergamoiyeneba. feministuri kvlevebisagan gansxvavebiT, genderuli kvlevebi ar ayenebs qalurobis sakiTxs kvlevebis/analizis centrSi. aramed genderuli kvlevebis mTavari obieqtia genderuli definiciebi sociokulturuli, istoriuli da sazogadoebrivi fenomenis diskursSi. dReisaTvis termini genderi Tanabrad ixmareba humanitarul da socialur mecnierebebSi, aseve samarTalmcodneobasa da ekonomikaSi. yoveli dargi Tavisi specifikis, interesis mixedviT akonkretebs termins. Tu koleqtiuri, folkloruli teqstebis literaturul gagrZelebad saavtoro literaturas miviCnevT da antikur epoqas gadavxedavT, aSkaraa, rom uZveles literaturaSi qali avtori ukve Tanaarsebobs mravalricxovan mamakac avtorebs Soris. rogorc cnobilia, berZeni poeti safo platonma 10 saukeTeso mweralTa Soris daasaxela. SuasaukuneebSi, rodesac ZiriTadi saganmanaTleblo kera eklesia-monastrebi iyo, sadac SesaZlebeli iyo wera-kiTxvis Seswavla da wignebis kiTxva, qalebisaTvis, ZiriTadad, evropaSi, arsebobda garkveuli SesaZleblobebi, monastris wiaRSi bavSvis aRmzrdelis profesiis dasaufleblad (ZiZa, guvernanti qali, aRmzrdeli qali) garkveuli swavla-ganaTleba mieRo. renesansisa da humanizmis xanaSi, rodesac adamianebis individualoba, TviTSecnoba da sakuTar TavSi wvdomis survili gaizarda, gaCnda garkveuli SesaZleblobebi qalTa ganaTlebisaTvis. dRis wesrigSi dadga orive sqesis ganaTlebis sakiTxi, rogorc ojaxSi idealuri humanisturi urTier-

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Tobebis amosavali da winapiroba. mag., agripa fon neteshaimi da erasmus fon roterdameli mxars uWerdnen qalTa ganaTlebis sakiTxs. miuxedavad imisa, rom qalebi sakuTar SemoqmedebaSi cdilobdnen qalebis mier aRqmuli da qalis gamocdilebaze dayrdnobili samyaro eCvenebinaT, qalTa Semoqmedeba ar iyo saTanadod aRqmuli. qali avtorebis Semoqmedeba mxolod qalis perspeqtividan unda yofiliyo Sefasebuli, qali mkiTxvelebisa da qali kritikosebis perspeqtividan gaazrebuli da danaxuli SeiZleboda Caswvdomoda qali avtoris namdvil da WeSmarit saTqmels. mxolod qalTa sazogadoebas SeeZlo qali avtorebis teqstebis swori Wvreta, azrebisa da mniSvnelobebis SegrZneba, rac, aRniSnul epoqebSi, mamakacurad formulirebuli literaturuli tradiciebis fonze, jer kidev miuRweveli iyo. sakuTari, qaluri azrebi da Sexedulebebi rom daecvaT da TavianTi nawarmoebebi gadaerCinaT, aseve, mkiTxvelebis pozitiuri Sexedulebebi gamoewviaT, mravali qali avtori iZulebuli iyo gaqceoda qali avtoris saxels da mamakacis fsevdonimiT ewera. me-18 da me-19 saukuneebSi qalebi werdnen anonimurad, sakuTari xelmoweris gareSe, an mamakacis fsevdonimiT. amgvari SeniRbva erTaderTi gza iyo mravali qalisaTvis, SeeRwiaT mamakacebisaTvis legitimur da mamakacebisaTvis gankuTvnil samwerlo samyaroSi. meoce saukunis dasawyisidan qalTa sakiTxis irgvliv mravali formalur-samarTlebrivi cvlileba moxda. daarsda gogonaTa umaRlesi skolebi, rac SesaZlebels xdida, qalebs mieRoT sauniversiteto ganaTleba, qalebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxda mravali profesia da samuSo adgili, romlebic manamde mamakacebs hqondaT dakavebuli. meoce saukunis ocian wlebSi evropelma qalebma miiRes arCevnebSi xmis micemis ufleba. bunebrivia, sazogadoebrivi cvlilebebi aisaxa im epoqis qali avtorebis SemoqmedebaSi. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom mas Semdeg, rac qali avtorebis Semoqmedeba calke mecnieruli dakvirvebis sagani gaxda, gaCnda aucileblobac qali avtorebis Semoqmedebis periodizaciisa da istoriul-kulturuli SemosazRvrulobisa. am mxriv, mecnierTa nawilis azriT, miuxedavad imisa, rom qali avtorebis Semoqmedeba Zalze farToa da sxvadasxva istoriul

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periods moicavs, qali avtorebis Semoqmedebis kvleva unda daiwyos qalTa moZraobis gaaqtiurebis periodidan, anu im droidan, rodesac qali avtori sruliad gaSinaarsebulad da cnobierad qmnida mxatvrul literaturas da swored qali avtoris poziciidan, axali literaturuli xedviT, sadac yuradRebis centrSi qali, misi samyaro, misi xedva, perspeqtivebi da interesebi iyo. xolo im dros, rodesac qali ubralod Tanamonawileobda literaturul procesebSi, rodesac jer kidev ar arsebobda genderuli definicia literaturaTmcodneobaSi, rodesac qali iZulebuli iyo Tanamonawile yofiliyo literaturuli procesisa, romelic mkveTrad mamakacuri iyo, rodesac qali mamakacis fsevdonimiTac ki sargeblobda imis gamo, rom misi Semoqmedeba saTanado seriozulobiTa da interesiT aRqmuliyo, qali avtorebis Semoqmedeba, bunebrivia, ver asaxavda im xasiaTsa da literaturul Sinaarss, riTac qalTa literatura SemdgomSi daitvirTa. Tumca, miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, qali avtorebis Semoqmedeba xSirad saerTo niSniT, arsebuli istoriuli da sazogadoebrivi faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT ganixileba. aRmosavluri literatura Tavisi tradiciebiTa da diqotomiiT bevrad ufro ~mamakacuri iyo, vidre evropuli. rac, pirvel rigSi, aRmosavleTis bunebiT aris ganpirobebuli. qali, rogorc trfobisa da morCilebis obieqti mxolod iSviaT SemTxvevaSi Tu axerxebda sakuTari interesebis, survilebisa da miswrafebebis literaturulad gardasaxvasa da asaxvas. aRmosavleTi bevrad ufro mkacri iyo qalisadmi da es damokidebuleba religiuri dogmebidan iRebda saTaves. islamuri qveynebis literaturis ganviTarebas win uZRvis mistikuri tradiciebi, rac aRniSnuli literaturebisaTvis dRemdea damaxasiaTebeli. gansakuTrebiT didi gavlena mistikuri tradiciebisa Cans satrfialo teqstebSi, sadac siyvaruli ormag WrilSia warmodgenili: miwier da zecier mniSvnelobebSi. mistikuri enis ambivalenturoba moiTxovda met Tavisufal garemos imisaTvis, rom yvelaferi moecva da yvelaferze esaubra, Tumca islamuri garemo amas codvad Tvlida da tabus adebda. swored amitomac satrfos qeba, misi Tvalebis, gamoxedvis xotba yvelaze miRebuli norma iyo, raSic Tavsdeboda mTeli Sinaarsi trfobisa. poezia, musika da cekva aRmosavluri mistikisa da eqstazis Semadgeneli nawilebia, rac emociu-

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rad gamoxatavs trfialebas da swrafvas, romelic sxeulis enis nacvlad aisaxeba nawerSi, Sesabamisad, iqmneba aRmosavluri garemo sxeulis enisa Tu enis sxeulis formebSi. Tumca islamur mistikasa da literaturas Tavis fundamentSi Zalze cota ram aqvs saerTo qalis SemTxvevaSi kidev ufro mZime formebSi gamovlenil islamur misticizmTan. qali avtoris sakiTxi, genderulad markirebuli literaturis adgili da roli qarTul literaturaSi sruliad Seuswavlelia. sakiTxis mravalmxrivoba, aseve qarTul literaturul sivrceSi arsebuli rogorc istoriuli, ise Tanamedrove procesebi da tendenciebi aSkarad mowmobs, rom problema mravalmxrivi kvlevis wyaro unda gaxdes.

Tamar ziger-popiaSvili kulturuli sivrcis ganzomilebebi


kulturuli sivrce mravalmniSvnelovani terminia, romelic moiazreba socialur, humanitarul, kulturologiur, ekonomikur, politikur, istoriul, geografiul ganzomilebebSi. saerTo kulturuli sivrceSi gamoiyofa ZiriTadi formaluri proncipebi, rogorebicaa: mravalkulturulobis arseboba, subkulturis arseboba, rac uzrunvelyofs garkveuli kulturebisa da kulturuli jgufebis arsebobas saerTo kulturul sivrceSi. saerTo kulturuli sivrcis Sesaxeb pirveli kvlevebi XIX saukunis bolodan daiwyo da gulisxmobda kulturuli politikis ganviTarebas, aseve, kulturul urTierTqmedebas. kulturis fenomeni icnobs kulturaTa urTierTqmedebas, rac yalibdeba sul mcire, or kulturas Soris. am urTierTobaTa Sedegad ki yalibdeba gavlenebi da ormxrivi cvlilebebi, rac saerTo kulturul sivrces ganapirobebs. saerTo kulturuli sivrce SeiZleba iwvevdes kulturuli aqtivobebis formebis Secvlas, axali orientirebis gaCenas. msgavsi procesebi xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobs da sxvadasxva etapze sxvadasxva gavlenas tovebs

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kulturebSi. Sesabamisad, erTiani kulturuli sivrce gulisxmobs or an ramdenime mezobel kulturaSi erTnairi an msgavsi procesebis arsebobas. aRniSnulis safuZveli SesaZloa iyos bunebrivi da aracnobieri mibaZva, aseve, savsebiT gaazrebuli pragmatuli da racionaluri mibaZva, rac mezobeli kulturisaTvis sasargeblo SeiZleba aRmoCndes. amasTan, mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom mezobeli xalxebis Tanacxovrebis erTnairi istoria, xSir SemTxvevaSi, istoriulad saerTo mtrebis winaaRmdeg brZola, aseve, arsebobis erTnairi istoria ganapirobebs da uzrunvelyofs kulturuli sivrcis Camoyalibebas. gamoiyofa kulturaTa urTierTqmedebisa kulturuli sivrcis Camoyalibebis sami done: da saerTo

eTnikuri done erovnuli done civilizaciuri done eTnikuri donis SemTxvevaSi urTierToba eTnosebs Soris mimdinareobs, rac garkveuli gavlenebiT xasiaTdeba, dominanti eri aSkara upiratesobiT sargeblobs am SemTxvevaSi da gavlenac ufro metad am mxriv SeiniSneba. Tumca araa gamoricxuli piruku moqmedebebic, roca aradomonanti eris gavlenebi SeiniSneba. es SeiZleba exebodes enobriv, literaturul, kulturul da sxva sivrceebs. erovnul doneze urTierToba saxelmwifoebsa da politikur struqturebs Soris mimdinareobs. civilizaciuri done civilizaciebs Soris gavlenebs ayalibebs. mag., dasavluri da aRmosavluri civilizaciebi da sxv. saerTo kulturuli sivrcis pirobebSi SesaZlebelia visaubroT kultura-donorsa da kultura-recipientze. am mxriv mniSvnelovania dialogisa da ritorikis Sesaxeb m. baxtinis Sexeduleba: ritorikaSi aris aucileblad marTali da aucileblad mcdari. dialogSi mowinaaRmdegis ganadgurebiT nadgurdeba TviT dialogic (baxtini 1986). kerZod, kulturaTa dialogi da kulturaTa ritorika saerTo kulturul sivrceSi gansxvavebulad zemoqmedebs, Sesabamisad, gansxvavebul Sedegsac iZleva.

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kulturologiuri meTodebis kulturebis gansazRvreba moxdes:

Tamar ziger-popiaSvili

mixedviT,

SesaZlebelia

genetikuri meTodiT istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodiT. orive SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia saerTo sivrcis gansazRvra.

kulturuli

erT regionSi arsebuli kulturebisaTvis msgavsi kulturuli tonalobebisa da kulturuli aqcentebis arseboba, erTi mxriv, iluzorulia, xolo, meore mxriv, sruliad realisturi. kulturuli sivrcis iluzoruloba ganpirobebulia imiT, rom miuxedavad mravali msgavsi procesisa da niSan-Tvisebisa, kulturebi, maT Soris, mezobeli kulturebi, gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan da sruliad individualur fenomens warmoadgenen. am midgomis mixedviT, kultura ganixileba, rogorc mravalfunqciuri sistema, sadac yvela gamovlineba garkveuli kanonzomierebis Sedegia (bome 1996). meore mxriv, kulturuli sivrcis realisturi Sexedulebis mixedviT, sxvadasxva kulturaSi arsebuli saerTo niSan-Tvisebebi qmnian da ganapirobeben garkveul erTobas, romelic zemoqmedebs adamianebze da maT uCndebaT naTesaobis, msgavsebis, erTnairobis gancda SedarebiT sxva, ufro ucxo kulturebTan. Sesabamisad, es gancda aiolebs Tanaarsebobas da urTierTgagebis garkveuli garanti xdeba. kulturaTa urTierTqmedeba da saerTo kulturuli sivrcis Camoyalibeba xels uwyobs saerTo Rirebulebebze orientirebas. globalizaciisa da masobrivi migraciebis epoqaSi kulturuli faseulobebis gadatana da zemoqmedeba gansazRvravs individis srul orientirebasa da gansxvavebul garemoSi advilad misaRwev kulturul mdgradobas. cnobilia, rom geografiulad daSorebul qveynebsa da kontinentebzec ki SesaZloa moZiebul iqnas saerTo kulturuli sivrcis elementebi. amavdroulad, msgavsi elementebis arseboba SesaZlebelia sruliad gamoiricxos erT geografiul sivrceSi. saerTo kulturuli sivrcis Camoyalibeba istoriul saxes atarebs. xSir SemTxvevaSi es damokidebuli iyo imperialistur mcdelobebTan. magaliTad, rodesac kolonialisturi qveyana sakuTar kolonias da/an koloniebs gadascems sakuTar kulturas. rogorc

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cnobilia, kulturaTSoris urTierTobebSi gamoiyofa sami ZiriTadi tipi: konfrontacia simbiozi sinTezi aRniSnuli tipebidan simbiozisa da kulturuli sinTezis SemTxvevebSi saerTo kulturuli sivrce ori an meti sazogadoebis kulturuli maxasiaTeblebis sivrcobriobas ganapirobebs. erTiani kulturuli sivrce srulebiT ar niSnavs erT kulturas. es aris gansvavebul kulturaTa kavSiri, sadac mTavari orientirebi aris saerTo niSan-Tvisebebi da gamovlinebebi. Sesabamisad, rodesac saubroben evropul kulturaze, rogorc kulturul sivrceze, igulisxmeba, rom am kulturul sivrceSi Semavali kulturebi TviTmyofad da individualur kulturul fenomens warmoadgens, Tumca masSi arsebobs iseTi niSan-Tvisebebi, rac periferiul donezec ki saerTo kulturul suraTs qmnis. aRniSnulis gaazreba SesaZlebelia kavkasiis, rogorc saerTo kulturuli sivrcis konteqstSic. Aarsebobs ZiriTadi, TavisTavadi, damoukidebeli mxolod garkveuli eTnosisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kulturuli TviTmyofadoba, romelic misi raobis identobaSi umTavres adgils ikavebs da, amasTanave, arsebobs saerTo, mTlianad kavkasiaSi mcxovrebTaTvis niSandoblivi identoba, rac maT aerTianebs kidec erT mTlian kavkasiuri kulturis sivrceSi. erTnairi kulturuli maxasiaTeblebi kavkasiaSi mcxovreb xalxebs kidev ufro aaxlovebs da aerTianebs.

literatura baxtini 1986: . . . ., 1986;

bome 1996: Hartmut Bhme, Klaus R. Scherpe (Hrsg.): Literatur und Kulturwissenschaften. Positionen, Theorien, Modelle. RowohltTaschenbuch-Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1996.

zeinab saria urbanistuli sivrce qarTul literaturul modernizmSi k. gamsaxurdias dionisos Rimili da gr. robaqiZis gvelis perangi axali saazrovno paradigmebiT Semodis qarTul sinamdvileSi modernistuli romani. maT avtorebs mxolod qarTveli ki ara, msoflios nebismieri qveynis warmomadgeneli hyavT moazrebuli TavianT mkiTxvelad. patara mdinare zanas napirze dabadebuli mwerali ra droidanac SeuZaxebda sakuTar Tavs, ar gajobon didi mdinareebis piras dabadebulebmao, ukve isaxeba ocneba masStabur warmatebaze, provinciuli SezRuduli sivrcidan gaRwevis survili. grigol robaqiZe, romlis leqciebiTac iwyeba CvenSi qarTuli modernizmis ideologia /sigua 2008 :56/, axalgazrdobidanve globalur sivrceebs ziarebuli avtoria. igi quTaisis sasuliero seminariis Semdeg swavlas ganagrZobs tartus universitetSi. usaxsrobis gamo

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brundeba, magram male isev germaniaSia, laipcigis universitets amTavrebs, Semdeg ki safrangeTSi miemgzavreba, iqaur universitetebSi ismens leqciebs. aseve evropul sivrces moixilavs k. gamsaxurdia, msoflios yvelaze mcire mdinaris piras dabadebuli mwerali, udidesi mdinareebis piras dabadebulebTan paeqrobaSi gamowrTobili, erovnul CoxaSi mosiarule da evropuli TvalsawieriT gamorCeuli, kolxur koSkSi mobinadre, magram ganswavlis wlebiT kenigsbergTan, laipcigTan, miunxenTan, parizTan dakavSirebuli. orive mwerali modernistul-avangardistuli tendenciebis pirvelSemomtania saqarTveloSi. maT piradi cxovrebiT gaarRvies provinciuli yofis Caketili wre da evropis urbanizebul sivrceSi eziarnen ganaTlebas. iTvleba, rom dionisos Rimili pirveli modernistuli romania qarTul sinamdvileSi /lib.ge, wurwumia s. /, romelic mxatvruli struqturiTac, TematurSinaarsobrivadac Tvisebrivad sruliad axali movlenaa qarTul literaturaSi /nikoleiSvili 2002: 260/. igi 13 qebisa da 52 novelisagan Sedgeba. novelebi ciklebad aris dalagebuli. TiToeuli qeba Sedgeba oTxi Tavisagan /oTxi novelisagan/, garda IV da VIII qebisa, romlebSic xuTi Tavia. bolo XIII qebaSi ori Tavia. mTavar personaJs, konstantine savarsamiZes, mSobliuri Weri arsad eguleba, Tumca qveyana mouvlia. arc RmerTi binadrobs mis caze. did sivrceTa movla sulac ar niSnavs mSobliurobis gancdis gaCenas. miT ufro, aTiani wlebis meore naxevarSi, roca planeta pirveli msoflio omiT aris Setortmanebuli da Semdeg wlebSi misi eqo jerac mZafrad ismis. evropuli civilizaciis krizisi igrZnoba nawarmoebSi. bunebrivad SeiZleba daibados gancda, rom romanis mTavari personaJi Tavad saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi organizmia Tavisi damsxvreuli erovnuli idealebiT /Wania 2006 : 79/. 1921 wlis aneqsiisa da 1924 wlis amboxebis Semdeg daiwera dionisos Rimili. werilSi rogor vwer? avtori

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gveubneba, rom didxans nafiqria am romanis detalebi: wlebis ganmavlobaSi utarebia saxeebi Tu pasaJebi, calkeuli fragmentebi sxvadasxva dros dauweria. 1924 wels erTi Tavi J. kavkasionSic gamoqveynda. 1924-25 wlebSi iwereboda es nawarmoebi. 1925 wlis agvistoSi romani 2000 tiraJiT gamoica, 1924 wlis agvistos movlenebis wlisTavze. avtori Tavis megobrebTan erTad Sav Coxas ikeravs da glovobs Tavisuflebas. savarsamiZe udroobis gmiria. argveTis mTavrebis, daviTisa da konstantines STamomavals maTi suraTebi saZinebel oTaxSi sawolis pirdapir ekida da maTi gmirobis magaliTze izrdeboda. Cems cxovrebaSi mudam wminda konstantines gmirobasa da martvilobas vumiznebdi, nadirobis Tu zRvaze mgzavrobis dros, ucxoobasa Tu gaWirvebaSi. /dionisos Rimili/. argveTis mTavris, konstantines landi fexdafex dahyveboda da gmirobisken aqezebda. evropamovlils Tan dahyveba mamis wyevlac: Tu am ojaxis fuZe da saZirkveli daangrio... ojaxi saqarTvelos simboloa, misi Semcirebuli xati, xolo saqarTvelo ruseTis kolonizaciis marwuxebSia. gmirs uCndeba gancda, rom cxovrebis Sua gzazae SemoaRamda. qarTuli patriarqaluri tradiciebis didebulebidan mis dromde CairRva droTa kavSiris rgolebi. argveTis mTavris mrisxane warbebi Cans misi saxidan, magram asparezi? Tavisuflebadakargul qveyanaSi adamians aqvs gancda, TiTqos sapyrobileSia. Tu tradiciulad TavadaznaurTa wodebis warmomadgenlebs didi sazogadoebrivi da eronuli daniSnuleba hqondaT, axalma drom isini funqciadakargul adamianebad aqcia. urbanizebuli qalaqi, rogorc Tvlian, qmnis sakuTari cxovrebis stils. Tu soflis sazogadoebaSi urTierToba eyrdnoba naTesaobas, ojaxs, tradicias, socialur normebs, qalaqis sivrceSi Cndeba arCevanis Tavisufleba, damoukidebloba. rogori qalaqebi xvdeba savarsamiZes evropaSi? parizisa da berlinis salonebSi ewyoba orgiebi. aq arian lesboselebi, nimfomanebi, homoseqsualebi...

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moqalaqeni wuTis siyvaruliT kavdebian. urbanizebul yofaSi dakargula tradiciuli adamianuri faseulobebi. qalaqis mkvidrebiT savse quCebSi martooba eufleba adamians: udabno! udabno! didi qalaqis quCaa Cemi udabno! aq aravin micnobs, Ciradac aravin magdebs, aravin mesalmeba, aravin micqeris, TiTqos me sxeuli ar mqondes.../gamsaxurdia 1992 : 72/. gaCaxCaxebuli reklamebi eleqtronis mkvdari SuqiT avsebs urbanizebul sivrces. teqnizacia da avtomatizacia gamefebula did qalaqebSi. manqanuri, teqnokratiuli civilizaciis damkvidreba tragikul rakursSi aRiqva modernistulma azrovnebam. qalaqis ritmi aCqarebulia. garkveuli sixSiriT enacvleba erTmaneTs emociuri gamaRizianeblebi da adamiani icleba gancdebisagan, xdeba gulgrili. es Taviseburi TavdacviTi reaqciaa /jiSoSvili 2011 :87/. faqtia, rom aseT viTarebaSi adamiani ucxovdeba sakuTari adamianuri bunebisagan. aq SeuZlebelia ar gagvaxsendes rainer maria rilkes romani malte laurids briges Canawerebi, romelsac naira gelaSvilma erTi Zneli wigni uwoda /gelaSvili 2007 : 277 / da romelSic civilizebuli parizis suraTebia naCvenebi. maltem aq Seicno adamianis sruli umweoba qalaquri sinamdvilis winaSe. didi qalaqi adamianis ukiduresi gaucxoebis adgilia. urbanistul sivrceSi adamiani fizikurad Zalze axlosaa sikvdilTan. maltec usamSoblo moxetialea. swored qalaqis oromtrialSi ixila man usaxo sikvdili /avtokatastrofa/, romelsac masiur qarxnul produqciasaviT amzadebs didi qalaqi. avadmyofTa klinikaSi avtomaturi, TanagrZnobisagan daclili wesrigia. aq gulgrilad iReben da uSveben sneulTa uricxv rigebs swored ise, rogorc fabrikebi seriul produqcias. davubrundeT dionisos Rimils. nawarmoebis meore gamocemas /1932 w. / erTvis avtoris boloTqma, romelSic gaxsnilia qmnilebis arsi: am romaniT moZebnilia sinTezuri gezi evropulsa da sparsul samijnuro romans Soris. es ganapiroba eqspresionizmis gavlenam. romanSi warmosaxulia

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ucxouri garemo: safrangeTi, Ggermania, italia. savarsamiZes oraswlianma rusulma monobam erovnuli TviTigiveobis Secnobis problema gauCina. igi cxovrebis sazrisis ZiebaSia. evropaSi gadaxvewils eufleba nostalgia, melanqolia. imperiulma sinamdvilem misi, rogorc maRali wodebis warmomadgenlis misia nacartutad aqcia. daRlili sisxlis gancda da antiurbanistuli suliskveTeba erwymis erTmaneTs. axal sociokulturul sivrceSi fsiqosocialuri identifikaciisaTvis aucilebelia mamis gamokveTili roli, savarsamiZes ki mamasTan gaucxoeba sWirs. rogorc es romani gviCvenebs, modernistuli foni es aris urbanistuli sivrce, aq ki sicivea, gautanloba, gaucxoeba. korpusi korpuss ekvris, magram am simWidroveSi adamianebs Soris gadaulaxavi siSoris gancda warmoiSoba. 1925 wels iwereba gvelis Pperangi. es aris evropuli saazrovno ideebiT gamorCeuli mwerlis, germaniasa da SveicariaSi mcxovrebi qarTvelis romani. igi simboloebiTa da miTologiuri qveteqstebiT aris savse da, dionisos Rimilis msgavsad, asociaciuri xasiaTisaa. arCibaldis samoZrao arealic globaluria. is moivlis londons, mesopotamias, irans, saqarTvelos. mekeSis cnobierebac sakuTari Tavisa da fesvebisken aris mimarTuli. nawarmoebis TiTqmis dasawyisSi aris aseTi detali: arCibald mekeSi /arCil mayaSvili/, axalgazrda mxatvari, hamadanSi, msoflioSi dRemde SemorCenil erTerT uZveles qalaqSi, qvis lomTan zis da fiqrobs. misi fiqri Soreul warsuls wvdeba. igi sakuTari biografiis fragmentiviT igonebs, ori aTasi wlis winaT rogor Seagdo aleqsandre makedonelma Tavisi bucefali ekbatanas simagreebSi da erTi dakvriT rogor aiRo sasurveli qalaqi rogorc aTaswleulebSi naocnebari dedofali. am fiqrs kvebavs codna imaze, rom hamadani daarsda midiis imperiaSi da am teritoriaze iyo midiis imperiis dedaqalaqi ekbatana. Caiqrolebs aswleulebi da sxvaTa xelebi waepotinebian qalaqs. ar arsebobs erTmaneTisagan

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sruliad mowyvetili movlenebi. Sori ambebic ki SeiZleba erT sibrtyeSi moTavsdes. es samyarouli xedvaa. amgvari gaxlavT globaluri sivrceebis momxilveli adamianis cnobiereba. arCibaldi wuTisoflis wrebrunvas ufiqrdeba. imave wrebrunvam igi mamas mowyvita /1917 wlis kataklizmebi iribad moiazreba Tamaz mayaSvilis eqspatriaciis mizezad/. mamas mowyvetili Zis tragedia saerTo motivia dionisos RimilTan, oRond aq gansxvavebulad gamovlenili. mama baskeTSi isrola gangebam, Svili lordTan izrdeba, evropul ganaTlebas iRebs. vaJi sabolood ubrundeba samSoblos. mamac imave gzas gadis, radganac Tavis mxriv isic aris viRacis Ze. aq sacnauria Zis saxarebiseuli laitmotivi /janjibuxaSvili 2011:150-159/. arCibaldis samoZrao arealic globaluria. personaJi moivlis londons, mesopotamias, irans, saqarTvelos. am veeberTela sivrceSi rogorc savarsamiZe acnobierebs Tavis fesvebsa da sazogadoebriv misias, aseve arCibald mekeSis /arCil mayaSvilis/ cnobierebac sakuTari Tavisa da fesvebis ZiebiT aris dakavebuli. TavianTi bediT, cxovrebiseuli xvedriT hgvanan savarsamiZe da mekeSi, xolo samomavlo perspeqtiviT gansxvavdebian. mayaSvili ubrundeba sakuTar fesvebs, cxovrebas genetikuradac agrZelebs. mekeSis mayaSvilad transformireba sZens mas axal sasicocxlo energias. mTelidan gamoyofili erTi kvlav mTels ubrundeba. sruli Serwyma rom moxdes mSobliur wiaRTan, man unda Camoicilos yoveli adevnebuli. swored es aris misi olRasagan mowyvetis mizezi. avtorma mas es qali mitom moacila, raTa Seaxvedros matasis, romelic erovnulis simboloa romanSi. erovnul sivrceSi svla arCil mayaSvils amzadebs sasikeTo feriscvalebisaTvis. es simbolurad gvelis mier perangis gamocvlasTan aris dakavSirebuli da mTavari personaJis ganaxlebas ukavSirdeba. yoveli epoqa qmnis misTvis damaxasiaTebel nivTier garemos, gaSlil sivrces. modernistuli romanisTvis

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niSandoblivia dasavleT evropis urbanistuli sivrce /k. bregaZe, saubari qarTul modernizmze/. es gaxlavT axali sociokulturuli atmosfero qarTuli prozisTvis. adamianma ixila didi qalaqebis reliefebi, igrZno aCqarebuli ritmi da misma sulma axali vibraciebi gamosca; ganicada misi Tanamedrove epoqisTvis damaxasiaTebeli religiuri rwmenis krizisi. cxadia, am kriziss mowmobs ara mxolod es ori qarTuli romani, aramed imdroindeli msoflio literaturuli procesebic. gavixsenoT Tundac marto is, rom 1922 wels daibeWda eliotis unayofo miwa, aRsaqmelad, gasaazreblad uCveulod rTuli, magram umniSvnelovanes poemad miCneuli nawarmoebi, skandalur poetur miRwevad CasaTvleli, radgan, mkvlevar gia joxaZis sityvebisa ar iyos, wilad xvda uamravi dezinformacia, legenda da miTi imaze, Tu ras izraxavda poeti am teqstiT da joisis eqsperimentuli eposi ulise, modernizmis mwvervalad CaTvlili romani. berwi miwa adasturebs, rom Cveni saukune naadrevad daCaCanakda, Tanac imdenad, rom sityvasac ver Zebnis, sakuTari uZlureba rom daitiros, xolo mkvlevarebi Tvlian, rom berwi miwa poeturi ulisea, ganZarcvuli samyaros literaturuli nayofi /joxaZe 2013: 9, 23, 26/. modernistul epoqas axasiaTebs industrializacia, urbanizaciis maRali xarisxi, mecnierul-teqnikuri progresi, rac, rasakvirvelia, qalaqis maxasiaTeblebia. amitom bunebrivia, modernizmi qalaqebis xelovnebaa. Tu saxelmwifom CaTvala, rom misTvis arsebobs sazogadoeba da adamiani, warmoiSoba adamiani masa, TviTobas moklebuli erTeulebi. es kidev calke tragediaa. sityva moderni etimologiurad Tanamedroves niSnavs. am terminiT is Tvisobrioba aisaxa, XIX XX aswleulTa mijnidan rom damkvidrda, pirvel rigSi, dasavlur samyaroSi. XX saukune skolaTa da mimarTulebaTa arnaxuli mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva. es mravalferovneba pirobiTad termin modernizmiT gamoixateba. planetarul,

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msoflio sivrcis dauflebas cdilobs modernizmi. modernizmma gamoxatuleba hpova Zalian Zlier, mkveTri originalobiT gamorCeul xelovanebSi: matisi, pikaso, prusti, joisi, kafka, hese, folkneri, elioti, paundi, rilke, lorka... Tavs nebas mivcem maT rigebSi CamovTvalo k. gamsaxurdia da gr. robaqiZe. SeiZleba modernizmi gasuli saukunis Tanatolad CavTvaloT da XX saukunis stilad vcnoT. es aswleuli gamoirCa samecnieroteqnikuri revoluciis simZafriT. aman Secvala adamiani, axali rakursebidan daanaxa sinmdvile. heminguei Turme werda, rom mxolod mas Semdeg Caswvda kubistebis xelovnebas, roca aeroplanidan gadmoxeda dedamiwas da dainaxa, rogor gamoiyureboda igi /genisi 2007:140/. telefoni da telegrafi, radio da gramfirfitebi, aviacia, kino, kompiuteri... telefonma da kompiuterma uceb daapatarava planeta, gaxada SesaZlebeli swrafi urTierTobebi sxvadasxva qalaqebsa da kontinentebze mcxovrebTa Soris. froidma SesTavaza sazogadoebas sizmrebis Taviseburi axsna, naTeli moefina qvecnobieris garkveul segments... aman romantikuli Saravandedi Camoacila Zexorciels da Signidan dagvanaxa igi. naTeli gaxda, rom axali xelovneba principulad SeuTavsebelia klasikurTan. cnobieridan xelovanma gabedulad Seixeda aracnobierSi. nawarmoebi aigo mkiTxvelis TanaSemoqmedebis koncepciaze... amas Taviseburad avlens es ori romanic. dasaxelebuli teqstebi gviCvenebs adamianTa simravliT gamorCeul urbanizebul sivrceebSi martoobisTvis ganwirul subieqtebs; modernistuli prozisTvis niSandobliv ganzomilebebs samyaros harmoniulobis rRvevas, aSkara msoflmxdvelobriv skepsiss. grigol robaqiZe yofierebis maradganmeorebadobis ideas gamoxatavs, rac romanis saTaurSic Cans. konstantine gamsaxuriasTan dominanturia yofis usazrisoba, magram kiTxvis procesSi avtori Sinagani protestis gancdas warmoSobs da gvafiqrebinebs, rom sinamdvileSi mxatvruli ukuqmedebis Zala aqvs savarsamiZis uasparezobas. es

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aixsneba ase: zogjer hgoniaT, rom mxatvruli absurdi sicocxlis, cxovrebis, samyaros absurdulobas qadagebs da amdenad destruqciuli movlenaa. ar aris ase: mxatvruli absurdi ebrZvis cxovrebiseul absurds, ebrZvis SeZlebisdagvarad/bregaZe 2012 : 79/. modernizmis erTiani sivrcis nawilia saqarTvelo. es ori avtori aqtiurad qmnis garkveul inteleqtualur fons imisaTvis, rom qarTveli mwerali avangardistul fenomenad moviazroT. Seiqmna axali SemoqmedebiTi sivrce, romrlic organulad ewereba evropuli modernizmis konturebSi.

literatura 1. www.youtobe.com.k. bregaZe, ifiqre xmamaRla. GeolibTV.prof. k. bregaZe saubrobs qarTul modernizmze. masala daido 2013 wlis 3 oqtombers. 2. bregaZe l., tician tabiZis dadaisturi madrigalebi, cisferyanwelebisadmi miZRvnili leqsmcodneobis meeqvse samecniero sesiis masalebi, litinstituti, Tb., 2012 w. 4. gamsaxurdia 1992 gamsaxurdia k., dionisos Rimili, Txz. 20 tomad, t. II, Tb., 1992 w. 5. gelaSvili 2007 gelaSvili n., erTi Zneli wigni, anu malte laurids briges Canawerebi, rilkes Txzulebani xuT tomad, t. III, kavkasiuri saxli, Tb., 2007 w. 6. genisi 2007 genisi a., modernizmi rogorc XX saukunis stili, J. arCevani, 2007 w. #3. 7. nikoleiSvili 2002 nikoleiSvili a., konstantine gamsaxurdia, wignSi XX saukunis qarTuli mwerloba, quTaisi, 2002 w. 8. sigua 2008 sigua s., qarTuli modernizmi, gamomc. mwerlis gazeTi, Tb., 2008 w.

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9. www.lib.ge , wurwumia wurwumia s., maradmRviZari sarangi erisa. 10. Wania 2006 - Wania l., konstantine gamsaxurdia da yoveli saqarTvelo, Tb., 2006 w. 11. janjibuxaSvili 2011 janjibuxaSvili m., miTis poeturi transformacia grigol robaqiZis SemoqmedebaSi, wyarosTvali, Tb., 2011 w. 12. jiSoSvili 2011 jiSoSvili q., qalaquri sivrce da kulturis axali paradigm, J. semiotika, 2011, #9. 13. joxaZe 2013 joxaZe g., T.s. eliotis berwi miwa, hermenevtuli interpretaciebi, ilias saxelmwifo universiteti, Tb., 2013 w.

Nnino qavTaraZe Julien grakis sivrcis poetika


Julien grakis mimarT mxolod erT epiTets xmaroben: ukanaskneli klasikosi. XX saukunis mematianem cxovrebis da Semoqmedebis xangrZlivi gza ise ganvlo, rom arc erT literaturul mimdinareobas Tu skolas ar mimxrobia. sityvaZunwi korespondenti, romelic Jurnalistebs ar wyalobda, magram enawyliani geografiis maswavlebeli, pirad cxovrebas da Semoqmedebas maRali kedlis miRma mainc ar malavda; epataJs uaryofda da saukunis majiscemas yurs ugdebda ise, rom yovelTvis Tamamad, magram ara xmamaRla, ambobda Tavis saTqmels. simamacem arc maSin umtyuvna, rodesac tyeobagamovlili literaturas daubrunda, arc maSin, rodesac andre bretonTan megobrobis miuxedavad siurealizmis manifestze xeli ar moawera da arc maSin, rodesac uari Tqva frangul literaturaSi yvelaze prestiJul jildoze, gonkurebis premiaze,

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romelic 1951 wels, mis romans _ sirtis sanapiro, mieniWa. mweralis da geografiis maswavlebelisgan ar unda gagvikvirdes, rom ukanaskneli klasikosis SemoqmedebaSi sivrces da mis aRweras gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba. amas grakis wignebis saTaurebic adasturebs: sirtis sanapiro,

naxevarkunZuli, aivani tyeSi, dargolis cixe-simagre, grZeli gzis dRiurebi . . . Tavisufleba didi (Libert grande), da ara didi Tavisufleba, rac rogorc qarTuli aseve franguli yurisTvis
ufro Cveulia, erTaderTi poeturi krebulia, romelzec Julien graki xangrZlivi drois manZilze muSaobda: wigni 1946 wels gamoica, xolo sruli saxiT _ 1969 wels daibeWda. marTalia, krebulis saTaurSi sivrcis poetika ar amoikiTxeba, magram masSi Semavali TiTqmis yvela poeturi teqsti sivrcis mxatvruli aRqmis molodins qmnis da simbolurad Tu literalurad sivrces ukavSirdeba, magaliTad: urbanizmis

wasaxaliseblad, venecia, gangi, parizi ganTiadze, saloni, hanzas qalaqebi, piTagoras bazilika . . .

avejiani

xedvis da aRqmis mravalferovneba krebulSi Semavali teqstebis gansxvavebul analizs moiTxovs, magram maT erTi ram aerTianebs: am mxatvrul-literaturul teqstebs mwerali erTmaneTTan tradiciulad dapirispirebul cnebebze agebs. xSirad, saTqmeli ori ZiriTadi izotopis _ miwieris da zecieris garSemoa Tavmoyrili an oTxi elementis mxatvrul gaazrebas gvTavazobs. mwerali mkiTxvels xan eqspresiuli, xan gramatiuli tropebiT eTamaSeba. am TvalsazrisiT, arc am krebulis kidev erTi poeturi Canaxati, dakiduli baRebi (Les jardins suspendus) warmoadgens gamonakliss. Tumca, sxva poeturi teqstebisgan gansxvavebiT, dakiduli baRebi Tavisi sisadaviT gamoirCeva. teqsti, erTi SexedviT, protagonistis qalaqis da mis gareubanSi gaseirnebis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs, Sesabamisad swored garemos aRweris ganxilva xels Seuwyobs teqstis analizs. nebimieri teqstis aRqmisTvis mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor aris masSi organizebuli sivrce. mxolod mas Semdeg SeiZleba vimsjeloT sivrcis simbolur datvirTaze da mniSvnelobaze,

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roca davadgenT Tu rogoraa igi konstruirebuli, ramdenad warmoadgens dekoracias an qmnis ganwyobas. naratiul teqstSi sivrce aRweris funqionirebas da funqciis dadgenas ukavSirdeba. Tu arsebobs xdomilobiTi Txroba (rcit devenements) arsebobs sityvieri Txrobac (rcit de paroles) (Juvi 1997:29). swored es ukanaskneli moicavs aRweras. naratiul teqstSi sivrcis, e.i. aRweris CarTva uciloblad unda iwvevdes Txrobis Seyovnebas. dRes, zRvari prozas da poezias Soris meryevia. poeturi prozas axasiaTebs rogorc poeziis aseve prozis Tvisebebi. aqedan gamodinare, misi analizi eqvemdebareba rogorc naratiuli, aseve poeturis teqstebis analizs (tadie 1994:5). rasakvirvelia, J. grakis poetur krebulSi, sivrcis aRweris simbolur da poetikuresTetikur funqcias eniWeba upiratesoba. amave dros gvainteresebs emsaxureba Tu ara sivrcis aRwera Txrobis Seyovnebas da rogoria sivrcis konfiguracia. aRweras oTxi ZiriTadin funqcia aqvs: mimesuri, maTezuri, naratiuli da esTetikuri (Juvi 1997:43). grakis am teqstSi, aRwerilis zogadi xasiaTidan gamomdinare, mimesuri funqcia, romelic realobis efeqtis Seqmnas gulisxmobs, warmmarTveli araa. moTxrobili imdenad realisturia, rom deskrifciis sxva funqciis wina planze wamowevas unda varaudobdes: mwerals rutinul yoveldRiurobaSi poeturi aRmafrenis Setana surs, xolo sivrcis dawvrilebiT aRwera (rac poeturi teqstisTvis ucxoa) mwerlis mkiTxvelTan TamaSis nawilia, Tumca teqstis aRqmis gasaRebs iZleva. teqstura mkiTxvelisTvis gansakuTrebuli informaciiis miwodebasac ar emsaxureba, rac gulisxmobs, rom sivrcis aRweris maTezuri funqciac meorexarisxovania. magaliTad, krebulis erT-erTi Canaxatia hanzas qalaqebi. am poetur teqstSic aRwera zogadi saxisaa iseve, rogorc dakidul baRebSi. istoriulad cnobilia, rom savaWro gildiis centri lubeki iyo, magram mkiTxvelisTvis mainc gaugebaria hanzas orasi qalaqidan romels gviRwers avtori. am qalaqis zogadi, panoramuli aRwera mwerlis gamiznul TamaSad unda miviRoT. romel wlispira, okeanis Tu zRispira uZveles dasaxlebas gulisxmobs graki, maRali samrekloTi, patara, xalisis

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momgvreli, ,,saxlebis maqmanebiT morTul preriebs, romlebsac mdinare Suaze hyofs? gorakisken aRmavali ZvelisZveli quCebi, romelic samkuTxedis formis moedanze iyris Tavs adgilis konkretizacias ver axdens. Tumca, saTauris saSualebiT qronotopi mainc amoicnoba: hanzas Sesaxeb, romelic CrdiloeT evropaSi XII saukuneSi daaarsda, cnobebi 1358 wlidan moipoveba. aqedan gamomdinare, saTauri adgilis toposze (CrdiloeT evropa) da drois toposze (Sua sukuneebSi daarsebuli qalaqi) miuTiTebs (graki 1946:40). magram grakis dakidul baRebs saerTo araferi aqvs arc semiramidaze Seyvarebuli nabuqodonosoris didebul ZRvenTan, arc avgustusis terasul mavzoleulTan, arc romelime ziquratTan, amitom konkretizacias moklebul teqstSi, ganusazRvreli adgilebis rekonstruirebisas, moxseniebul terasas (bani), aRmarTebs, mdinares, zRvas verc erT qalaqs da mis gareubnebs ver davukavSirebT. dakonkreteba teqstis Tavisufali interpretacia iqneba da teqsti dakargavs ganzogadebiT miniWebul poetur xibls. mxolod industrialiazaciis msxverpli ufunqcio qarxnebi provinciuli qalaqis asociacias qmnis. grakis esTetikuri Sexedulebebi imdenad TviTmyofadia, rom arc sivrcis aRweris mesame esTetikuri funqciaa dakidul baRebSi qmediTi. aqedan gamomdinare, am mxatvrulliteraturul teqstSi aRweris naratiuli funqciis xvedriTi wili yvelaze didia, radgan igi gulisxmobs: a)poeturi ganwyobis Seqmnas (,,wablianis gril RameSi Sevabije./,,Je suis entr dans la nuit frache de marronniers.); b)konkretuli informaciis miwodebas (,,isev provinciuli qalaqis ganapiras.../,,Cest toujours vers les lisires des villes de province...); g)Txrobis dramatizebas (,,...ufunqciod darCenili qarxnebisken, sadac qari arxevs wnelis konebs saRebavgaclili gisosebis gasvriv gafenili, nafleTebad qceuli TeTreulis msgavsad... /,,...des quartiers dusines dsaffectes o tremblent au vent des bouquets de filasse, des dchets de lingerie comme des paritaires au long des grilles lpreuses des fentres ....);

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d)personaJis sulieri mdgomareobas gamoxatvas (,,rogor miyvars seirnoba..../,,que jaime suivre...); e)movlenaTa ganviTarebis momzadebas (,,...amboxis pirvel gasrolamde ufro Semzarav siCumeSi.../,,...dans un silence plus prenant que celui dune meute avant le premier coup de feu...)(graki 1946:65). grakis teqstSi, dakiduli baRebi, sivrcis aRqma izotopebis polarizaciazea dafuZnebuli. teqstSi SeiZleba gamovyoT Semdegi leqsikur-semantikuri velebi: I. miwieri/zecieri, moicavs: romelic kvintesencis arqetips

miwa: wabliani, qalaqebi, gareubnebi..../marronniers, villes, lisires des villes de province... haeri: datotvili gvirabebis lourdeurs humides de lai sous notio, CaxuTuli haeri/

le tounel de branches; qari/vent wyali: mdinareebi/rivires cecxli : cecxli (igulisxmeba gasrola/ coup de feu) es poeturi teqsti tropuli sistemiT Raribia, magram ramdenime stilistikuri figuridan gamoiCeva miwieris da zecieris erTianobis gamoixatveli Sedareba: okeanis msgavsi ca/ciel ocnique, Tumca grakis ,,amoyiravebul samyaroSi, miwieris da zecieris semantikuri velebi mwerlis Canafiqris amocnobas ar emsaxureba. II. teqstSi dapirispirebulia izotopTa sxva wyvilic _ urbanuli/naturaluri: urbanuli: provinciuli qalaqebi, qarxnebi, fanjara, asfalti, bani (terasa), kafe, saseirno navebi, gazonebi, savaWro urika, bulvarebi, velodromi, gareubani, daxli, frani/ villes de

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provonce, quatriers dusines, fentre, asphalte, terasse, caf, embarcations de plaisance,gazons, wagon de marchandises, boulevards, vlodrome, comptoire, cerf-volant); naturaluri: wabliani, yvavilis furclebi, xeebi, totebi, zRvis sivrce, mdinare, miwa, mcenareebi, okeanis msgavsi ca, foTlebi, qari, udabno/marronniers, ptales, arbres, branches, tendue marine, sol, verdures,ciel ocanique, feuilles,vent;

dakidul III. horizontaluris da warmodgenili:

mimarTulebis vertikaluris izotopuri bani Sxapuna,

baRebSi

markerebi wyviliTaa (terasa), kldovani

horizontaluri: asflati, minareebi/asphalte,terasse, rivires; vertikaluri: wvima, gisosebi, xeebi, sanapiro/pluie, grille, arbres, retomb, falaises.

IV. teqstSi dapirispirebulia moZraobis da uZraobis makrovelebic, amitom sivrce iZens gansakuTrebul datvirTvas statikis da dinamikis fonze. dinamika Semdegi semantikuri komponentebiT gadmoicema: Sevabije/Je suis entr), aRmovCndi/ linsertion soudaine...., arxevs/ tremblent, miyvars seirnoba/jaime suivre..., saaTi/heures, xetiali/circuler, nomadi/nomade....; statikas ki ufro emociuri leqsikur-semantikuri veli qmnis: sasaflao/cimetire, mTvlemare/somnolent, siCume/silence, uCumrad/ silencieusement, uZravi/ immobile, mkvdari/mort. moZraobis da uZraobis, sikvdilis da sicocxlis dapirispireba iseTive martivi da cxadi cxovrebiseuli metaforaa, rogorc moZravi isrebi uZrav ciferblatze: ,,...dro SeumCnevlad da ukvalod miipareba okeanis msgavsi cis bumbulebian ciferblatze... /,,...les heures glissent sans effort et sans trace sur le cadran plumeux dun ciel ocanique.... protagonistis qalaqidan gareubnisken gadaadgileba da Semdeg isev qalaquri sivrcis aRwera, erTi mxriv, moZraobis asociacias qmnis, meore mxriv ciklurobis: qalaqi > gereubani > veli > mdinaris xeoba >qalaqi. es uwyvetoba, romelic moqmedebis aRmniSvnel zmnebze metad windebulebiT gamoixateba (-ken/vers). semantikuri erTeulebis Tanmimdevruli monacvleoba, romlebic miwieris makrovelSi gaerTianebuli

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hiponimebiT iwyeba (wabliani, qalaqebi, gareubani/marronniers, villes, lisires . . .) Txrobis procesSi ise transformirdeba, rom mkiTxveli moZraobas, protagonistis sivrceSi gadadgilebas adevnebs Tvals da drois dinebas SeigrZnobs. sivrcis deiqsisi exmianeba drois dinebas, magram maradiulobis, usasrulobis STabeWdilebas ar tovebs. swored adamianis cxovrebis sasruloba, drois ulmobeli svla amoikiTxeba am teqstSi ori ZiriTadi hiperonimis (dinamika/statika) gamoyofiT da dapirispirebiT. amave dros, am or makrovels (dinamika/statika) akavSirebs adamianis kidev erTi, Sualeduri mdgomareobis gamomxatveli, am ori leqsikur-semantiuri velis gammaerTianebeli makroveli: mTvlemare/somnolent, Tvlema/somnolence, mTqnareba/billement. realoba iluzorul xasiaTs iZens da realisturi, poeziisTvis uCveulo, dawvrilebiTi aRweris fonze iqceva zmanebad. dakidul baRebSi garindula yvelaferi: navebiT aravin seirnobs, savaWro urikebi dacarielebula, umoqmedod darCenila qarxnebi; kafeebs da terasas, sadac Raribi bavSvebi TamaSobdnen xolme, balaxma gadauara... Tu sivrcis aRweris dinamikuri xasiaTi uZravi da statikuri xatebis urTierTCanacvlebiT iqmneba (espace scnique), aRweris simboluri xasiaTi warmarTavs warmosaxviTi xdomilobis eqspresiulobas da sasrulobis gancdac ikargeba. grakis teqstSi, xedvis rakursi zogads upirispirebs kerZoobiTs da individulaurs, magaliTad: garemos Sesabamisi semantikuri erTeulebi qmnis gare sivrcis semantikur makrovels: qalaqebi, gareubani, sasaflao, moedani, gazoni, udabno, sadguri, bulvari.../villes,banlieue,cimetire, place, gazon, dsert, gare, boulvard... yovelive upirispirdeba semantikuri erTeulebis mcire raodenobiT gamoxatul adgilsamyofelis semantikur vels: fanjrebi, gisosebi.../fentre, grilles... is, rom esqterieris amsaxveli semantikuri markeri ufro metia, vidre interieris, mxolod amZafrebs adamianis da garemos dapirispirebis SegrZnebas, rac inkipitSive amoicnoba (gaveranebuli qarxnebi) garemo aRiqmeba mtrul realobad, xolo adamiani _ gisosebs miRma gamomwyvdeul, daucvel arsebad.

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mxatvrul-literaturul teqstSi, aRwra xedvis rakurss, sagnis geografiuli adgilmdebareobis gansazRvras da sivrcis gamomxatveli semanatikuri erTeulebis zogad konteqstSi asimilirebas gulisxmobs (Juvi 1997:42). sivrcis Cveneba SesaZlebelia zevidan qveviT, marjvena Tu marcxena mxaris, interieris da eqsterieris aRweriT, qalaqis da provinciis dapirispirebiT... dakidul baRebSi, erTi SexedviT uZravi sivrcis mimoxilviTi xedva gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas iZens. arqisemebis cvla xedvis rakursis cvlas ganapirobebs: panoramuli aRwera horizontaluridan (asfalti, sasaflao, mdinare, udabno/asphalte, cimetire, dsert...) vertikalur (xeebi, qalaqebi, kldovani sanapiro, gisosebi/arbres, villes, falaises, grilles...) mimarTulebas iZens da qmnis sivrcul wyobas (ordre de lespace), romlis logikac parateqstSive Cans dakiduli baRebi. saTaurSi gamoxatulia moZraoba da mimarTuleba miwieris (baRebi) da vertikaluri (dakiduli) makrovelebis xarjze. am ori makrovelis erTianoba moZraobis iluzias qmnis. es efeqti miiRweva, pirvel rigSi, im calkeuli statikuri kadrebis erTainobiT da monacvleobiT, romelic aerTianebs urbanulis da naturaluris arqisemebs, dinamikis da statikis leqsikur-semantikur velebs; meore mxriv _ xedvis rakursis specifikiT, rac jer zevidan qveviT, xolo Semdeg, qvevidan zeviT aris mimarTuli: dakiduli baRebi zecis wyalobad aRiqmeba. erTaderTi moZravi sagani (Tu ar CavTvliT protagonist-fokalizators, romlis gadaadgileba warmosaxviTic SeiZleba iyos) frania miwis gzavnili, romelic qvevidan zeviT mifrinavs. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom grakis teqstis sivrcul deiqsisSi miwieris izotopi ufro mravalferovani da mravalricxovani semantikuri konponentebiTaa warmodgenili vidre zecieris. amiT dakiduli baRebi gansxvavdeba krebulSi Semavali teqstisgan Written in water. rogorc vxedavT, Julien grakis teqstSi _ dakiduli baRebi, sivrce aRqmulia rogorc metalingvisturi koncepti, romelic asaxavs realobas, gansazRvravs sxvadasxva toposebis funqcionirebas da moqmedebaTa Tanmimdevrobas warmoaCens _ ganurCevlad imisa, realuria es moqmedeba Tu warmosaxviTi. poeturi suraTi iqmneba swored statikuri sivrcis aRweriTa

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da CvenebiT, magram ritmi, romelic sivrcis Semcveli makrovelebiT Tu mikrovelebis monacvleobiT gadmoicema sivrcis temporalizacias iwvevs, rac prozad dawerils poetur teqstad aqcevs.

literatura graki 1946: Gracq J. Libert grande, ditions Jos Corti, Paris, 1946 varZelaSvili 2000: ., , , 4, 2000, gv. 8-13, nwww.vjanette.narod.ru/baku.html Juvi 1997: Jouve V.La potique du roman, ditions SEDES, Paris, 1997 tadie 1994: Tadi J.-I. Le rcit potique, ditions Gallimard, Paris, 1994 semantikuri analizis principebi 2013: Analyse smique-principes, www.droitmultilingue.com/langue2-analyse-semique-principes, 2013

Eeka CikvaiZe dro (realuri, literaturuli, siuJeturi da gramatikuli) nikoloz gulaberisZis ,,sveticxovlis sakiTxavSi,,
mxatvruli nawarmoebis qronotopi, anu droisa da sivrcis problema araerTgzis qceula literaturaTmcodneobis msjelobis sagnad. miuxedavad araerTi Teoriuli mosazrebisa, drois arsis qristianul xedvas vercerTi literaturaTmcodnis Teoria pirdapir ver asaxavs (am sakiTxs Sexebian m.m. baxtini, rikiori, baSliari, lixaCovi da sxv.), magram, garkveulwilad, Seicavs midgomebs, romelTa gamoyenebac iseTi specifikuri teqstebis qronotopis, Tu calke droisa da sivrcis problemasac gagvaazrebinebs, rogorebic qristianuli Txzulebebia. qristianuli Txzulebebis (Janrobriv-dargobrivi mravalferovnebis miuxedavad) umetesoba praqtikuli saWiroebis gadasaxedidan asaxavs sazogadoebis azrovnebas, stilis SegrZnebas, droiT nakarnaxev problemebs... qristianuli aRqma unificirebulia (Janrobrivi mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, bibliur xedvas ar cdeba) da ufro

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filosofiuri gaazrebaa, vidre meToduri midgoma (rasac bolodroindeli literaturaTmcodneebi gvTavazoben). dro bibliaSi araerT mkvlevars gauanalizebia (uaRresad saintereso am aspeqtiTac z. kiknaZis mosazrebebia). zogadad, meToduri midgomebi gamarTlebulia konceptualuri literaturuli mimdinareobebisTvis, xolo sasuliero TxzulebebisTvis - ara, radgan TviT egzegeti mamebi, gamoTqmuli mosazrebebis nairgvarobis miuxedavad, efuZnebian bibliur msoflaRqmas, magram azrTa sxvadasxvaobis sawindari swored bibliuri drois gansxvavebuli aRqmaa. drois aRqmis TvalsazrisiT uaRresad sainteresoa nikoloz gulaberisZis sveticxovlis sakiTxavi. gulaberisZe gelaTeli avtoria, e.i. elinofili da neoplatonur ideaTa aqtiuri mimdevari. mis Txzulebas, amave dros, aleqsandrielTa alegoriuli igavTmetyvelebis kvalic atyvia. am mravalmxriv saintereso TxzulebaSi cxadad gamokveTili ramdenime aspeqti ganiWvriteba: a. realuri/avtoriseuli; b. literaturuli (mxatvruli), g. siuJetur-kompoziciuri da d. gramatikuli (romelic gansxvavebulia avtoris konceptebis mixedviT). amave dros, mniSvnelovania, rogor dgeba TiToeuli maTgani avtoris Zireuli miznis samsaxurSi. nebismieri avtori nebismier detals ZiriTad koncepts uqvemdebarebs. asevea agebuli konceptualuri xazi sakiTxavisa. nikoloz gulaberisZis sveticxovlis sakiTxavis mizani samis (sveti, kvarTi da sveticxoveli) erTianobis warmoCenaa. amitom, sveticxovlis sakiTxavis droc da sivrcec nikoloz gulaberisZis Zireuli miznis Cenas emsaxureba (Semokribos da warmoaCinos kvarTis, svetisa da kaTolike eklesiis/sveticxovlis ara marto saswaulebrivi qmedeba, aramed msaxeebloba samebisa da dasabami daudos dResaswaulobas, romlis safuZvlis warmoCenasac cdilobs: samni ese, samebisa wmidisa msaxeebelni - kaTolike eklesia, kuarTi uflisai da sueti cxoveli saunjesa ukudavmyofelsa gnayofeben, mihronsa wmidasa RmerTmyofelsa da naTelmyofelsa gviwyaroeben da sanovaged wmidad ukudavebisad guagemeben, kedarTagan sibnelisaTa gamosnilTa...,-sakiTxavi: gv. 69); igive aqcentebi ganapirobebs Txrobis pirobiTobas. Txrobis yvela detali situaciuri Tu saerTo miznis Cenas eqvemdebareba, rac

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gansxvavebuli xedvis sawindaria. dro-sivrcis asaxvis TvalsazrisiT, gansxvavebul midgomas Janrobrivi specifikac (mTqmelisa da msmenelis, Tqma-miRebis momentic) ganapirobebs. gulaberisZe situaciuri amocanidan gaomdinare, sxvadasxva gadawyvetas gvTavazobs: a. koherentul-Tanmimdevruli (aRmavali qronologiis); b. darRveuli; g. metafizikuri (xilvasaswaulebis). Sesabamisad, mniSvnelovania kidev erTi sakiTxi rogor xdeba literaturuli da realuri droebis gramatikul droSi asaxva da kveTs Tu ara es ori dro erTmaneTs. qristianuli TvalTaxedviT, ar arsebobs araferi, rac gramatikul warsuls utoldeba. gramatikaSi ubnobis momentTan qmedebis procesis mimarTebiT imijneba warsuli, awmyo da momavali. magram gansxvavebulia bibliuri dro. netari avgustine ,,aRsarebaSi ganmartavs drois arss. misi azriT, ,,araferi rom ar gadiodes, ar iqneboda warsuli dro, araferi rom ar modiodes, ar iqneboda momavali, araferi rom ar iyos, ar iqneboda awmyoc. magram ranairad SeiZleba arsebobdes warsuli da momavali, Tuki pirveli ukve aRar aris, xolo meore jer kidev ar aris? an rogorRa movixelToT awmyo, roca igi SeuCereblad gadaedineba warsulSi? amitom, - wers netari avgustine, - arc warsuli arsebobs, arc momavali da arc awmyo, arsebobs - awmyo warsulisa, awmyo awmyosi da awmyo momavalisa. Tanac es yvelaferi arsebobs mxolod adamianis sulSi: awmyo warsulisa aris mexsiereba, awmyo awmyosi - uSualo Wvreta, awmyo momavalisa ki - molodini. dro aris raRac ganfeniloba, mimdinareoba, romelic adamianis sulSi izomeba da radgan asea, veravin uaryofs imas, rom ar arsebobs warsuli, awmyo da momavali (netari avgustine 1995: 232). bibliuri TvalsazrisiT, araferi ukvalod ar ikargeba da araferi umizezod ar xdeba. yvelafers aqvs mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri, maT Soris, droSi asaxul movlenebsa Tu sivrcul moZraobas. ambavi, konkretuli faqti, istoriuli movlena, saswauli, xilva, Cveneba, sasjeli, wyaloba... bibliaSi uflis Semecnebasa da adamianisa da uflis urTierTkavSirs (/an am urTierTkavSiris Cvenebas) emsaxureba. bibliuri azrovnebis mixedviT, drois gramatikul gaazrebas uaxlovdeba samyaros fizikuri, yofieri sibrtye, magram uaxlovdeba da ar uTanabrdeba, radgan a. fizikuri ganasaxovnebs suliers, e.i. fizikuri gamovlineba aqvs

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nebismier rames, rac ararsebobisgan arsebobaSia mosuli, anu, rac xilulia (bolos da bolos saswaulisa Tu xilva-Cvenebis funqciac vinmesTvis raimes gadacemaa da ara TavisTavad aRsrulebadoba) da b. fizikuric SeiZleba gaxdes droSi (gramatikulsa Tu realurSi) dautevneli (mag. elia Tesbitelis ataceba, lazares aRdgineba,.. am rigSi dgas, svetis aRmarTva, mzis dabneleba, radgan cdeba gramatikuli Sinaarsis formaSi asaxvas). es xedva gansazRvravs gulaberisZis koncefcias drois mxatvruli (literaturuli) modelis SemuSavebisas. es modeli (da ara midgoma, zogadi koncefcia) icvleba avtoris situaciur amocanasTan erTad da erTia sasuliero qristianuli TxzulebebisTvis, Janris, dargisa da specifikis miuxedavad. amitom, vfiqrob, marTebuli iqneba gamijvna meTodisa da situaciuri amocanis gadawyvetis gzebisa, radgan gansxvavebas dro-sivrcis aRqma-gadawyvetis TvalsazrisiT gvaZlevs ara gansxvavebuli midgoma, xedva, aramed konkretuli avtoris mier konkretuli amocanis gamklavebis sxvadasxva xerxi. am viTarebaSi ki gansxvavebul xedvaze saubari, vfiqrob, araswor daskvnebamde migviyvans. amitomve, miuxedavad imisa, agiografiazea saubari, himnografiaze, homiletikasa Tu egzegetikaze, marTebuli iqneba sakiTxis amgvarad dasma: Janris bunebisa Tu avtoris amocanis mixedviT, ras cvlis bibliuri midgomidan avtori (am SemTxvevaSi, gulaberisZe) da rogor aris gadawyvetili dro-sivrcis problema (radgan qristianuli msoflaRqmisa da samyaros SegrZnebis ganmsazRvreli, konceptualuri xedvis warmmarTveli swored bibliaa). cnobilia, rom mxatvruli, literaturuli dro aris sityvakazmuli Semoqmedebis erT-erTi fundamenturi elementi, romelic monawileobs ara marto Txzulebis kompoziciur wyoba-modelirebaSi, aramed mis mTlianobaSi aRqmaSi da, ise, rogorc nebismieri detali, emsaxureba saerTo ideas da winaaRmdeg am ideis garSemo konstruirebisa, mis CarTvas azri ekargeba, azrs kargavs avtoris mier SemoTavazebuli droiTi modelic, Tuki ZiriTadi RerZis garSemo ar alagebs faqtebsa da movlenebs. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, rogoria realuri dro sveticxovlis sakiTxavisa?

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a. realuri/avtoris dro: sakiTxavSi realuri dro avtoris dros emTxveva. sveticxovlis sakiTxavi Tamaris epoqaSi daiwera. realuri, avtoriseuli dro swored Tamaris epoqaa, kerZod, dro gulaberisZis mier qadagebis warmoTqmisa. realuri dro ikveTeba: a. Txzulebis Sedgenis mizezTa CamoTvlisas. e.i. gulaberisZe realur droSi ganmartavs, ratom wers Txzulebas (saWiro ukue vidreme iqmna Cuenda, RmrTismoyuareno, pirvel gardasrulTa amaT mravalricxuedTa welTa dumiliT Tanawardasa awRa sadme mosenebad da ganfrTxobad, rameTu udebebiTa TanawarmdelTa SemkobisaTs kaTolike eklesiisa da yovladwmidisa sauflosa kuarTisa da mas zeda RmrTivaRmarTebulisa suetisa cxovelisa dResaswaulsa ara vidreme ukue jerovan vhgone micemad daviwyebisa... (sakiTxavi: 70); b. realuri dro ikveTeba triptiquli aRqmis (realurad, samganzomilebiani samyaros modelis) warmoCenisas, roca gulaberisZe logikurad asabuTebs, ras niSnavs kvarTi, sveti da eklesia calcalke da maTi erTianoba da ganWvrets RvTis Semecnebis im aspeqts, romliTac Semoqmedis TviTeba SeqmnilSi isaxeba. msgavsi rigis msjelobiT nikoloz gulaberisZe warmoaCens rogorc sayovelTao, kaTolike eklesiis, ise, kerZod, qarTuli eklesiis mier RvTis didebas (raimcaRa vin SeuZlo gamoTqumad sulierebriTa maT da saRmrTod gankuTvnilTaTs, romelnica saukunod gebadoben; romelTaTs RmerTi moxarulobs, ese igi arian eklesiani wmidani, romelTa saydar RmrTisa ewodebis maT Sina maradis mkdryofisaTs RmrTisa...sakiTxavi: 70); g. realuri dro Cans wminda ninos Semosvlis mizezTa cxadyofisasac (xolo amieriTgan ukue saWiro ars Cuenda mosenebad aTormetTa Tanasa mis meaTcametisa WeSmaritisa mociqulisa, dedisaa mis Cuenisa qarTvelTasa ninossa, raTa mcired-rame Semoklebulad da sulmcired zogadre warmovaCinoT, Tu viTar mizez iqmna qarTlebrTa amaT aRmosavleTisa eklesiaTa simtkice da sacnaurmyofel netarebiT mosenebuli igi dedakaci da sulTa CuenTa gamomsnel samilisa monebisa da tyueobisagan. sakiTxavi: 75); d. realur droSi ganmartavs avtori homiliis Semdgom struqturasac: xolo Cuen, Sesabamad wmidisa amis dResaswaulisa mxolod aRmavsebelad kmasayofeli, reca sulmcired Semoklebuli TxrobiT moseneba ninosica

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aRvweroT da SemdgomiTi-Semdgomad SeudginoT yovelive jeroani gamosaCinebeli da sacnaurmyofeli suetisa cxovelisa da kuarTisa sauflosa didebuleba, ugunurebisa Cuenisagan SesaZlebeli (sakiTxavi: 75); e. realuri dro Cans sakiTxidan sakiTxze gadasvlisas. aseT SemTxvevaSi gulaberisZe mimarTavs monaTxrobis reziumirebas (xolo iqmnnes saswaulni didni da sakrvelni mas dResa Sina, romelnica friadisagan kninodenni raime warmovaCineniT, reca mizeziTa sruliad dauviwyeblobisaTa, romelnica, aha, esera sacnaur vyvneT saswaulni suetisani, sakiTxavi: 75), an logikur bmas (ese ukue vidreme aqa aRlagmul vyo sityua metyuelebisa Cemisa da sigrZesa metyuelebisasa aRrv-vasne, rameTu sixaruli dResaswaulisa da Jami Sekrebisa Cuenisa sxsaca rasme uaxlesisa da saxarulevanisasa elyofad iZulebul-guyofs... sakiTxavi: 89). v. realuri dro vlindeba gulaberisZis msjelobaSi naTesavTa TviTebebiT ganyofis Sesaxeb; garna vityode pirvelad ukue ese sacnaur vyo Tquendami, RmrTismoyuareno, romelica-ese namdlve Rirs ars Txrobisa (sakiTxavi:78). TavisTavad, es msjeloba sveticxovlis sakiTxavis avtors dasWirda imis gamosakveTad, ratom ar aris aRniSnuli samis (kvarTis, svetisa da eklesiis) erTianobis cxadi gamovlineba qarTvelTa naTesavT Soris; z. realuri dro ikveTeba ramdenime saswaulSi: xolo Seudgino eseca, rameTu dReTa maT patriaqobisa CuenisaTa, raJams vikiTxe, mas Jamsa Sina ukue vinebe ebiskoposTa sxuaTaca kurTxeva, romelnica ukurTxevelad vhpoven, xolo erTi maTTana ebiskoposi ukurTxebeli iyo ruisisa saydrisa... T. logikuri msjelobisa da narativis Sejamebisas; i. sakiTxavidan xairetizmze gadasvisas. amave dros, sapirispirod, is, rac am bmas (Sida makavSirebel msjelobas) mosdevs - gixarodeni/xairetizmi - mTlianad zedroulia. xairetizmi drois gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT sruliad gansakuTrebulia. aq ar ikveTeba konkretuli dro, arc realuri da arc mxatvruli, radgan aseTia mizani da koncefcia avtorisa: warmoaCinos miwieri xati zedrouli movlenisa: gixaroden, kuarTo saRmrToo... zedrouloba mizania, romlis miRwevac avtors surs da is veqtoria, romelic bibliur Wvretas srulad emTxveva.

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aRsaniSnavia erTi kanonzomiereba: nikoloz gulaberisZe realur dros, umetesad, logikuri msjeloba-argumentirebisas mimarTavs, maSin, roca literaturuli, mxatvruli dro narativiT aris warmoCenili. sapirispirod, narativs (mag. ninos cxovrebis epizodebsa Tu Semokrebil saswaulTa gadmocemas) logikuri argumentireba ar ukavSirdeba, TumcaRa, TavisTavad narativisTvis argumentireba instrumentia, romliTac Txrobas warmarTavs avtori. aseTi realuri dro bibliaSic gvaqvs da magaliTad istoriuli Txroba (mefeTa, makabelebi, isu navesi, moses istoria da mravali sxva), an epistoleebi gamogvadgeba. zemoxsenebul pasaJebSi avtoris gamoCena, erTi mxriv, dasabuTebiT, meore mxriv - qadagebis kompoziciiTa da specifikiT ixsneba. 2. literaturuli dro: cnobilia, rom drois Sinaarszea damokidebuli sivrculi modelis agebuleba. mwerals SeuZlia dro daSalos, sruliad Seucvalos Tanmimdevroba, magram sabolood, garkveul fokusirebad, struqturul saxes mainc iRebs - radgan droiTi momentiT gansxvavebul pasaJebi kompoziciuri xedviT da ideuri konceptebiT erTiandeba. saerTod, erT fokusSi konstruirebul movlenaTa dros Txrobis dro ewodeba. Txrobis dros aqvs gamokveTili specifika. mxatvrul nawarmoebSi dro miedineba movlenebTan erTad. asea ,,sveticxovlis sakiTxavSic. avtori saintereso gadawyvetas gvTavazobs literaturuli, mxatvruli droisa, rac, rogorc zeviT aRvniSne, situaciuri amocanis - miznis (samis erTianobis damtkicebas Tavisi Senakadi qvepunqtebiT, saswaulTa saCino cxadyofisa) gadawyvetas emsaxureba. droiTi Tanmimdevroba ramdenjerme qmnis dasrulebul rkals. specifikuria Sida dinamikac: realur droze saubrisas aRvniSneT, rom avtoris dro logikuri filosofiurTeologiuri msjelobiT cxaddeba, xolo, roca narativs exeba saqme, Teoriuli (logikuri) argumentireba TxrobaSi gadaaqvs da bunebrivad Semodis axla ukve movlena, rogorc argumentidasabuTeba. TumcaRa, TavisTavad, narativic ,,sveticxovlis sakiTxavSi emsaxureba logikur dasabuTebas. droiT parametrebs avtori warmarTavs mtkicebis formuliT, e.i. saqme gvaqvs erTi ideis garSemo Semokrebil droiT segmentebTan, sadac, amave dros, sivrce TiTqmis dakargulia (pol rikiori da haiden

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uaiti am movlenas ideologiur implikacias uwodeben). Tumca es ar gamoricxavs imas, rom, bibliuri xedvidan gamomdinare, agiografiis msgavsad homiliaSic miTiTebuli iyos moqmedebis dro. dros gulaberisZe yovelTvis uTiTebs. zemoT aRvniSneT, rom sakiTxavSi gvxvdeba koherentulTanmimdevruli dro, aseTia is monakveTi, sadac ninos cxovrebaa gadmocemuli. es aris qronologiuri mimdevrobiT warmarTuli msjeloba, sadac qronologiuri dro gansazRvrulia ninos Semosvlidan aRsrulebamde! g. gulaberisZesTan gvaqvs uaRresad saintereso kveTa realuri da mxatvruli droisa. es aris kompoziciuri, siuJeturi dro sakiTxavisa. avtori Txrobas, rogorc aRvniSneT, ninos Semosvlis mizezTa ganbWobiT iwyebs. aq kveTs realuri da mxatvruli dro erTmaneTs. es aris bmiTi winadadebebi, romelTac realur-mxatvruli drois gamijvnac ekisrebaT. qronologiaSi ganfenili TanmimdevrulobiT warmoCenili dro droiTi markerebis miTiTebiT grZeldeba. avtori urTavs drois indikatorebs. msgavsad saxarebisa: mag.: ,,Jamsa mas irodi mefisasa... ,,pontielisa pilates ze... da a. S. gulaberisZe samjer iwyebs droSi Tanmimdevrul Txrobas: a. kvarTis, b. svetis, g. taZris saswaulTa aRwerisas. progresuli qronologiis aRmavali dro SeCerebulia realur avtoriseul drosTan. drois markireba orgvarad aris warmodgenili: Tuki saswauli ninos cxovrebas ukavSirdeba, Txroba, ase vTqvaT, Sida markirebiT, gansakuTrebuli gare markirebis gareSe mimdinareobs da drois gare faqtorebTan dakavSireba aRar aris saWiro. gansxvavebulia drois miTiTeba maSin, roca Semodis ninos momdevno periodis saswaulebi, romlebic ukavSirdeba sveticxovels. am saswaulTa qronologia rva saukunes moicavs, xolo, rakiRa mizani dResaswaulis dawesebaa, saswaulTa uwyvetobis warmoCeniT gulaberisZe madlis uwyvetobas amtkicebs, riTac dResaswaulis safuZvels amyarebs. dro-sivrcis modelirebis TvalsazrisiT, avtori am SemTxvevaSi orives gare markirebas aucileblad miiCnevs. magaliTad: ,,ukue Semdgomad mravlisa Jamisa mefe iqmna ra rev, Ze mirian mefisa, SeSinda ukue mefobasa Sina missa, nuukue sruliad ganSiSvldes sueti igi... ,,pirvelad viwyoT pirvelqmnulTave da SemdgomiTi-

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Semdgomad SeudginoT Sesabam qmnilebisa, rameTu Tqumul ars ese viTarmed, pirvelTave maT JamTa dedofali vinme yofil ars, saxeliT sujis... (sakiTxavi: 117). sakiTxavSi mniSvnelovania saswaulTa aRwera, radgan swored saswaulebiT mtkicdeba dResaswaulis realuri safuZveli. aqac gvaqvs kveTa. rogorc aRvniSneT, erTmaneTs kveTs realuri da mxatvruli dro. droiT aqcentebs ki kvlavac ukavSirdeba narativisa da logikuri dasabuTeba-argumentirebis meTodebi. realur dros - argumentireba, mxatvruls - narativi. amave dros, gamijnulia gramatikuli droc: realuri droisTvs es aris gramatikuli awmyo da gramatikuli momavali (kavSirebiTi kiloTi), mxatvrulisTvis - ZiriTadad, gramatikuli warsuli. amave dros, cxadia, dro ara aqvs xairetizms, arc literaturuli da arc realuri, es zedrouli pasaJi maradisobasTan - zedroulobasTan miwieri kavSiris (safuZvelis) maCvenebelia. aRniSnaven, rom SeiZleba Txroba mimdinareobdes istoriuli dro-sivrcisagan mowyvetil, sruliad Caketil, pirobiT garemoSi, romelsac filosofiis enaze apercefciuli, anu refleqsiuri sivrce ewodeba. aseTi pirobiTi sivrce aqvs saswaulebs, xilva - Cvenebebs. Tumca, ara yvelas. radgan mTel rig SemTxvevebSi xilvis konteqsti fizikur droSi moazrebulia. n. gulaberisZesTan gvaqvs samgvari dro: realuri/avtoriseuli, mxatvruli/literaturuli da maTi kveTa - siuJeturi. Txroba tipologizirebulia. realur-avtoriseuli dro, ZiriTadad, argumentirebuli, dasabuTebuli msjelobiTaa warmodgenili, literaturul-mxatvruli narativiT. gamonaklisia sveticxovlis is saswaulebi, romelnic uSualod gulaberisZes gardaxdenia (oriode pasaJSi, sadac nikoloz gulaberisZe, imavdroulad, avtoricaa da personaJic, ikveTeba realuri da mxatvruli droebi, magram Txrobis tipi naratiulia). drois tipologia gramatikuli niSniTac mkacrad gamijnulia: realuri dro, rogorc mosalodnelia, = gramatikul awmyos an gramatikul momavals (netari avgustineseul awmyo Wvretasa an awmyo-molodins), narativisa - gramatikuli warsuli (awmyo mexsierebisa).

170

eka CikvaiZe

literatura iv. amirxanaSvili, dro da sivrce literaturuli Ziebani, 2005, 26,1. qarTul agiografiaSi,

l. grigolaSvili, droisa da sivrcis poetikisaTvis qarTul himnografiaSi, ivironi - 1000 , Tsu, Tb., 1983. z. kiknaZe, bibliuri dro, Jurn. omega , 2001, 12. d. meliqiSvili, drois cneba, ls , 1987, 4, IX. netari avgustine 1995: netari avgustine, aRsarebani, laTinuridan Targmna da SeniSvnebi daurTo baCana bregvaZem, nekeri , Tb., 1995. platoni, timeosi , Zveli berZnulidan Targmna, winasityvaoba da komentarebi daurTo baCana bregvaZem, irmisa , Tb., 1994. sakiTxavi: ,,saqarTvelos samoTxe , sruli aRwera RuawlTa da vnebaTa saqarTvelos wmidaTa, Sekrebili g. sabininis mier, peterburgi, 1882w. r. siraZe, dro da Jami, literaturuli Ziebani, XXII, merani , Tb., 2001. .. , , . 6, , ., 2002. . . , , . 1. ,

, , . 1, --, , 2003.

Mmaia jaliaSvili
sivrculi gzajvaredinebi

grigol robaqiZis romanis mcvelni gralisa mixedviT


sivrces, rogorc mravalmniSvnelovan fenomens, grigol robaqiZis romanebSi gansakuTrebuli poeturi funqcia aqvs. am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa, rogor vlindeba gansxvavebul, warmosaxul Tu realur, sivrceTa urTierTmimarTeba mis romanSi mcvelni gralisa, romelSic eris gadarCenis idea swored sivrculi modelebis urTierTgadakveTiT Tu paraleluri warmoCeniT mJRavndeba. romanSi gvxvdeba erTgvari sivrculi gzajvaredinebi, metafizikur realobas rom qmnian da am wertilebSi personaJebs euflebaT erTgvari eqstazi, romelic iwvevs sulier transformacias da gmirs maradisobasTan ziarebaSi exmareba. warsulis, awmyosa da momavlis erTianoba mwerlisTvis mniSvnelovania im rwmenis asaRorZineblad, romelic damoukidebeli da Tavisufali qarTuli saxelmwifos materialur sivrceSi arsebobas gulisxmobs. miTosis, zRapris, legendis, poeziis warmosaxul sivrceebSi personaJebi

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mogzauroben dakarguli sulieri Zalebis mosapoveblad, raTa es energia Semdeg xalxis Rirsebisa da TviTSegnebis gamoRviZebisTvis gamoiyenon. mwerali qmnis klasikur tradiciaze dayrdnobil axal poetur miTs gralis Tasisas, romelSic mfeTqavi guli asvenia saqarTvelosi. is materializebuli saxea eris ukvdavi sulisa da misi samyofi sivrce, erTi mxriv, legendis, winaprebis sakraluri sivrcea, meore mxriv sizmrisa, Wvretisa Tu xilvisa. gralis Tasis Senaxva, gadarCena qarTvel xelovanTa mTavari misiaa, romelic romanSi xorcieldeba meoce sauunis 20-ian wlebSi sabWoTa demonur xelisuflebasTan brZolis pirobebSi. gralis mcvelis, levan orbelis, msxverplSewirva saRvTo ritualia, romelic gulisxmobs eris mzadyofnas gaimeoros jvarcmis misteria _ mama Svils swiravs codvilTa gamosaxsnelad. gralis Tasis usafrTxo sivrceSi, muxis gulSi, gadamalva mianiSnebs, bunebis, rogorc eris nawilis, Tanaziarobaze xalxis miswrafebebTan. gralis Tasis usafrTxo sivrceSi, muxis gulSi, gadamalva mianiSnebs, bunebis, rogorc eris nawilis, Tanaziarobaze xalxis miswrafebebTan. romanSi or urTierTapirispirebul poetur sivrces qmnis mwerali: 1. realur-istoriuli sivrce; 2. warmosaxuli sivrce _ romlebic TavisTavSi gulisxmoben sxva sivrceebsac. realur-istoriuli sivrce warmodgenilia meoce sakunis saqarTvelos 20-iani wlebiT, romelSic ori sivrcea SeWidebuli _ bolSevikuri xelisuflebiT marTuli, mis mier Seqmnili sivrce da damoukideblobas verSeguebul xalxis sivrce, romelic, upirvelesad, warmoCndeba sairmeSi. is aris erTgvari centri, romelic Tavis garSemo ikrebs da marTavs am sivrces. sairme robaqiZisTvis erTgvari simboluri sivrcea, mas vxvdebiT gvelis perangSic. Tavisuflebis suliskveTebiT gaJRenTili sivrce moicavs miTologiur sivrcesac, romelsac qmnis romanis mTavari ZarRvi _ ambavi gralis Tasisa. igi qmnis sakralur sivrces. is aris erTgvari winare xati

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Tavisufali saqarTvelos sivrcisa, romelic yovel droSi arsebobs da ganapirobebs qarTveli aris garkveul sivrceSi arsebobas. qarTuli kultura sivrculia. amgvari daskvna SeiZleba gavakeToT, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT v. Smidis Sexedulebas, romlis mixedviTac, `sivrcis kultura aRbeWdilia mSobliur adgilsamyofelze adamianTa da saganTa mijaWvulobis niSniT. es aris mSvidi, statikuri inercia, romelic adamianebs simyudrovis, usafrTxoebisa da movlenaTa prognozirebis gancdas aniWebs. drois kategoria am kulturisaTvis ucxo ar aris, magram igi, iseve rogorc masTan dakavSirebuli cvalebadoba, did rols ar TamaSobs. drois kulturis sworxazovani, swrafwarmavali droisagan gansxvavebiT, es cikluri droa, romelic wrebrunvas asrulebs gaCenas, aRsasrulsa da kvlav gaCenas Soris. sivrcis kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia myari sazogadoebrivi jgufebis arseboba, romlebic gansazRvraven calkeul individTa cxovrebas dabadebidan sikvdilamde da romlebTanac es individebi mWidrod arian dakavSirebuli. sivrcis kultura aRbeWdilia myari ritualebiT, wes-Cveulebebis SenarCunebisaTvis zrunviT. es wes-Cveulebebi am saxiT mxolod am kulturaSi - am sivrceSi, am niadagze arseboben, simyudrovisa da Sinaurulobis ganwyobas uqmnian im adamianebs, vis Cveulebebsac isini warmoadgenen~ (Smidi 2001: 2). samSoblodan iZulebiT gadaxvewili grigol robaqiZisTvis sabWouri saqarTvelo iqca darRveul dro-sivrced, romelSic sasicocxlo SemoqmedebiTi energia mTlianad Cakla da Caanacvla bolSevikurma damangrevelma, demonurma reJimma. literatura da germanuli kulturuli samyaro misTvis iqca TavSesafrad, sadac igi samSoblos sulier gadarCenas mxatvrul samyaroSi Seecada. emigraciaSi germanul enaze daweril romanSi `mcvelni gralisa~ man Seqmna aRdgenili saqarTvelos miTopoeturi modeli. amgvarad, man SeinarCuna erovnuli identoba da simbolurmiTosuri paradigmebis gziT saqarTvelos Tavdaxsnisa da gadarCenis rwmena gamoxata.

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romanSi aRwerili `miTiuri realoba~ warmoaCens, erTi mxriv, bolSevikuri xelisuflebis Zaladobas qarTvel xalxze, siwmindeTa Selaxvasa da tradiciaTa Seuracxyofas, pirovnebis xrwnas, fsevdokulturis damkvidrebas, meore mxriv, gralis Tasis, mwerlis mier klasikuri religiuri simbolos transformirebuli xatis, mcvelTa Tavganwirulobas madlisa da erovnuli meobis gadasarCenad. romanSi Seqmnil miTopoetur sivrceSi qarTveli eris wiaRidan, cocxali fesvebidan wamosuli energia winaaRmdegobas uwevs bnel Zalebs, sinaTlis ufskrulSi CanTqmas rom eswrafvian. `TviT xalxis sulier fesvebs emuqreboda ganadgureba. istoriis ganmavlobaSi maTi nawili mudam rCeboda xeluxlebeli, magram Tuki yvela fesvi moiwamla, saSveli aRarsadaa: maSin yofiereba iqceva iaraRad demonur ZalTa xelSi~ (robaqiZe 2012a: 178). naTlis mxedrebi, sityvis (uflis) erTgulni, sibneles ar emorCilebian. `vidre adamiani itanjeba, mas kidev rCeba Zala aRorZinebisaTvis~ (robaqiZe 2012a: 182). gralis Tasis mcvelobis simboluri mravalmniSvnelovneba, upirvelesad, Tavisuflebis, adamianSi RvTis xatebisa da msgavsebis gadarCenas gulisxmobs. romanSi mcvelni gralis Tasisa, romelic saqarTvelos mfeTqavi, cocxali gulia, erTi mxriv, arian winaprebi, meore mxriv, Tanamedroveni: Tavadi giorgi (Zveli, didebuli, damoukidebeli qveynis simbolo), romelmac winaprebisagan gadmocemuli Tasi Seinaxa da momaval Taobas gadasca, levan orbeli (mistikur-magiurad mWvreteli eris sulisa) da xelovanni (mwerlebi, poetebi, musikosebi, mxatvrebi, reJisorebi).avalas, odilianis, marjanis daSifrul saxeTa miRma mweralma qarTuli sityvis erTgul msaxurTa: tician tabiZis, paolo iaSvilis, kote marjaniSvilis, uSangi CxeiZis saxeebi warmoaCina. grigol robaqiZis azriT, qarTuli kultura inaxavs eris sulierebas, swored amitomac qmnis am romanSi warmosaxviT aRdgenil miTopoetur drosivrces, romelSic warsuli, awmyo da momavali

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ganuyofelia. am sivrceSi qarTvelebi dedamiwas epyrobian, rogorc `did dedas~ da mistikuri kavSiri aqvT kosmosTan. am dro-sivrceSi ukvdavyofilni arian gralis mcvelni, romelTac SeZles idealebis erTguleba da faseulobaTa gadarCena. erT wamSi moxelTebuli usasruloba sivrcis (robaqiZe 2012a: 229) _ambobs levan orbeli, mTavari gmiri romanisa da amgvarad swvdeba dro-sivrcis metafizikur erTianobas. is poetia da xSirad eufleba eqstazi, rodesac usazRvro, zepirovnuli siyvaruliT imsWvaleba, warsuls, awmyosa da momavals mTlianobaSi ganicdis da grZnobs kavSirs yovel cocxal Tu gardacvlil arsebasTan, misTvis esaa `maradisobis zRvari, vinc ki mas erTxel miuaxlovdeba, SeZlebs Seabijos netarTa samyofelSi~ (robaqiZe 2012a: 4). levan orbeli, mwerlis azriT, promeTeuli arsebaa, Sinagani cecxliT savse, amitomac swored igia simbolo saqarTvelos mistikurad gamamTlianebeli sivrcisa, romelic qarTvelobis arss inaxavs da aviTarebs. Tavisuflebis suliskveTebiT gaJRenTili sivrce moicavs miTologiur sivrcesac, romelsac qmnis romanis mTavari ZarRvi _ ambavi gralis Tasisa. igi qmnis sakralur sivrces, Tavisufali saqarTvelos erTgvar winare xats, romelic yovel droSi arsebobs da ganapirobebs qarTveli aris garkveul dro-sivrceSi arsebobas. rogor ixateba robaqiZis mier Seqmnili simbolo _ Tasi gralisa? es aris gralis Tasis erTgvari variacia, qarTul sulier sivrceSi gamovlenili. masSi uZveles droSi dasaRupavad ganwiruli qarTveli raindebi saswaulebrivad ayvavebul vazis jvarze gamosxmuli mtevnebs Cawuraven da gadarCebian. gralis Tasi aris kardus, qarTvelTa miTiuri mamamTavris, erTgvari hipostasi, romlis gadarCena eris xsnas eTanabreba, amitomac aris, rom romanSi misi upirvelesi mcvelni, Tavadi giorgi da levan orbeli fizikurad iRupebian, magram isini mistikurad erwymian am Tass.

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Tasis gadarCenisTvis brZola romanis mTavari motivia. romanSi gvxvdeba erTgvari sivrculi gzajvaredinebi, metafizikur realobas rom qmnian da am wertilebSi personaJebs euflebaT erTgvari eqstazi, romelic iwvevs sulier transformacias da gmirs maradisobasTan ziarebaSi exmareba. warsulis, awmyosa da momavlis erTianoba mwerlisTvis mniSvnelovania im rwmenis asaRorZineblad, romelic damoukidebeli da Tavisufali qarTuli saxelmwifos materialur sivrceSi arsebobas gulisxmobs. miTosis, zRapris, legendis, poeziis warmosaxul sivrceebSi personaJebi mogzauroben dakarguli sulieri Zalebis mosapoveblad, raTa es energia Semdeg xalxis Rirsebisa da TviTSegnebis gamoRviZebisTvis gamoiyenon. mwerali qmnis klasikur tradiciaze dayrdnobil axal poetur miTs gralis Tasisas, romelSic mfeTqavi guli asvenia saqarTvelosi. is materializebuli saxea eris ukvdavi sulisa da misi samyofi sivrce, erTi mxriv, legendis, winaprebis sakraluri sivrcea, meore mxriv sizmrisa, Wvretisa Tu xilvisa. misi Senaxva, gadarCena qarTvel xelovanTa mTavari misiaa, romelic romanSi xorcieldeba meoce sauunis 20-ian wlebSi sabWoTa demonur xelisuflebasTan brZolis pirobebSi. gralis mcvelis, levan orbelis, msxverplSewirva saRvTo ritualia, romelic gulisxmobs eris mzadyofnas gaimeoros jvarcmis misteria _ mama Svils swiravs codvilTa gamosaxsnelad. gralis Tasis usafrTxo sivrceSi, muxis gulSi, gadamalva mianiSnebs, bunebis, rogorc eris nawilis, Tanaziarobaze xalxis miswrafebebTan. grigol robaqiZe mkiTxvels unergavs rwmenas, rom saqarTvelos realur-materialuri sivrce arsebobs imdenad, ramdenadac qarTvel xalxs aqvs gancda erTiani, maradiuli droisa, romlis nawilnic TviTonve arian. amgvari metafizikuri aRqma sivrcisa safuZvelia eris gadarCenisa. levanis saxiT grigol robaqiZe qmnis imgvar personaJs, romelic Tavisuflebis idead gardaiqmneba.

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igi mzis niSniT aris aRbeWdili, rac imgvar arsebobas niSnavs, roca yovel wuTs mzad xar Tavi gaswiro da gaaCuqo mzesaviT. sagulisxmoa, rom romanSi kote marjaniSvili dgams piesas, romlis kulminaciaa epizodi, rodesac mebrZolebs DdaRupuli meomris cocxali guli SemoaqvT (am epizods TamaSoben uSangi CxeiZe da akaki vasaZe. levani wers swored am dros meomris warmosaTqmel sityvebs, romlebmac unda SeZran qarTveli mayureblis guli da TavganwirvisTvis aRZran). personaJi, rogorc Tavisuflebis idea _ gvaxsenebs vaJa-fSavelas mier Seqmnil luxumis saxes baxtrionSi. poemis bolos daWril luxumTan miaxloebuli sazareli gveli, iZleva sikeTis mier. misi arsebis bneli energia daiZleva da gadaifareba im sinaTliT, romelic luxumis arsebidan moedineba. es epizodi variaciaa vefxistyaosnis qajeTis cixis aRebisa da im sibrZnis dasturia, romelic gamJRavnebulia poemis aforizmebSi: borotsa sZlia keTilman, arseba misi grZelia, borotimca rad Seeqmna keTilisa Semoqmedsa, RmerTi keTils moavlinebs da borotsa ar dabadebs...). dionise areopagiseuli moZRvreba msWvalavs qarTul literaturas da es tradicia irekleba am romanSic. sagulisxmoa, rom mas Semdeg, rac levan orbeli gralis mcveli xdeba, is icvleba ara mxolod Sinaganad, aramed fizikuradac. igi TiTqos adamiani ki ara, cecxli iyo _siyvaruliT anTebuli. mas saocari naTeli gadaefineba, misi sxeuli ganimsWvaleba RvTaebrivi sikeTis ZalebiT, raTa man ara mxolod miwieri, aramed kosmiuri boroti Zalebi daamarcxos. mas sjera gralis Tasis gadarCenisa, amitom iolad ajerebs xalxsac, romelsac warsuls Txrobisas miTosad gardauqnis. misi azriT, rodesac eri qeds uxris dampyrobels, misi sulieri simrTele sasikvdilod ziandeba, xolo Tu vinme erTi mainc ar danebdeba, amiT eris sasicocxlo dvrita gadarCeba. mas arc sikvdilis eSinia; `me aq davrCebi gralTan erTad. sikvdilis win Cvens Tass wminda cecxls gadavcem, raTa uwminduri xeli ar Seexos. is saqarTvelos ukvdav

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gulSi ganagrZobs sicocxles. amieridan misi mcveli sxivosani laSari iqneba~ (robaqiZe 2012: 224). romanSi borotebas, romelic konkretul dro-sivrceSi bolSevizms emsaxureba, upirvelesad, ganasaxierebs velski, yviTelsaxiani wiTuri, molurjo-moiisfro, iribad gaWrili, Camuqebul upeebSi Camdari erTurTs arabunebrivad daSorebuli TvalebiT, `samurai unda yofiliyavi, misi mzerisTvis rom gageZlo~ (robaqiZe 2012:7). tibeteli jadoqariviT yru da momnusxveli xmiT. swored masTan dapirispireba simbolurad warmoaCens demonuri da RvTaebrivi Zalebis Widils. maT realur dapirispirebas win uswrebs levanis sizmari, romelSic es urCxuli mas yelis gamoWras upirebda. sxva koSmarul sizmarSi ki velski gralis TasSi SemZvral sazarel Sxamian obobad warmoudgeba. velski TviTonve aRiarebs, rom is gralis Semmusvrelia da emsaxureba usaxelos, igive satanas. rodesac Tavadi giorgis sasaxleSi SeWrili velski cdilobs, rom xelSi aiRos grali _ aq TiTqos zeciur ZalTa orTabrZola ixateba. velski mefistofeluri saxea. bolSevikuri xelisufleba uaryofda yovelgvar mistikurs, sakralurs (es kargad Cans legasa da velskis saubrebSi _isini gralis Tass sisuleled, jambazobad acxadeben), magram velski gveliviT gonieria, is swvdeba samyaroseul kanonzomierebas, man icis, risTvis aris amqveynad movlenili da, miuxedavad zedapiruli RvTisuarmyofelobisa, Sinagad swams misi arseboba da Tavisi winaaRmdegobis mniSvnelobac. levan orbelica da Tavadi georgic, gveleSapTan mebrZoli wminda giorgis xatebani, TviTon grigol robaqiZis alter egoni arian. orive gamoxatavs mis warmodgenebs qarTvelobasa Tu samyaroseul WeSmaritebebze. swored es ori personaJia mTavari Zala, romelic erTiani, damoukidebeli saqarTvelos ideis gadarCenas ewireba. robaqiZe trilogiad miiCnevda Tavis sam romans: gvelis perangs, Caklul sulsa da mcvelni gralisas. gvelis perangSi ixateba Tavisufali

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sirce, romelsac Caklul sulSi bRalavs, Slis da angrevs bolSevzmi, xolo romanSi mcvelni gralisa warmodgeniloa brZola bnel ZalebTan am sivrcis gadasarCenad. sagulisxmoa, rom grigol robaqiZe realuradac da am romanis mixedviTac, ver xedavs gamosavals SeaiaraRebuli gziT xelisuflebasTan dapirispirebaSi. es kargad Cans calkeul epizodSi. levan orbeli 1924 wlis ajanyebaSi ar monawileobs da winaaRmdegicaa amgvari brZolisa. basilasTan saubarSi mas es ajanyeba xalxis TviTgamanadgurebelad da srul sigiJed, xarakirad miaCnia. mas ar moswons, rom ajanyebas Tanasworobis komiteti xelmZRvanelobs da ara qarizmatuli winamZRoli: `ra fasi eqneba im jars, romelic hanibalis, aleqsandresa Tu napoleonis magier romeliRac komitets Sehyurebs?! esaa brbo, nacvlad muWad Sekruli Zalisa. lideris magier_komiteti? es xom anonimuri impotenciaa!~ (robaqiZe 2012a:163). mas aseve dauSveblad miaCnia is, rom ajanyebulni qaquca ColoyaSvilTan aqtiurad ar TanamSromloben. irubaqiZeTa ZvelisZveli saxelovani gvaris STamomavali, romelic gasabWoebis pirveli dReebidanve Tavis SeficulebTan erTad bolSevikebis winaaRmdeg Seupovrad ibrZoda, erTaderT liderad warmoudgeba. am ajanyebis kraxi romanSi didi gulistkiviliTaa warmoCenili. levan orbelica da Tavadi giorgic ibrZvian saqarTvelos pirvelxatis, sulis gadasarCenad. amitomac maTTvis mniSvnelovania gralis Tasis gafrTxileba, am mfeTqavi gulis gareSe, eris sulieri scocxlis gareSe misi fizikuri arseboba warmoudgenelia. robaqiZis azriT, es aris umniSvnelovanesi, Tu pirvelxati gadarCa, maSin is aucileblad gamovlindeba garkveul materialur sivrceSi, Tundac calkeuli adamianis gulSi. swored amas gulisxmobs levani, rodesac, cixesimagreSi gamagrebuli, zaqaras axali ordenis Seqmnaze esaubreba: `xalxi Sinaganad damsxvreulia,

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magram ara ganadgurebuli. Cveni valia, misi Zalebis aRorZinebas SevuwyoT xeli. unda Seiqmnas rCeuli kacebis mcire gaerTianeba, romelic sakuTar TavSi qarTul sulsa da arss wmindad da saidumlod SeinarCunebs~ (robaqiZe 2012a: 193). ra aZlevs robaqiZes am pirvelxatis gadarCenis rwmenas? `yovel sawyisSi Taursawyisi Tvlems da maradiuli calkeulSia warmodgenili. da Tu calkeuli Tavis Tavze maradiulis gamanayofierebel zemoqmedebas SeigrZnobs, amgvarad is maradiulTan wilnayaria. maSin misTvis yoveli sasikvdilo zRvari metad aRar aris sabediswero safrTxe da, metafizikur mijnas Sejaxebuli misi `me~ SeiZleba gadarCes. amgvarad, TaurSiSis daZlevis erTaderT gzad miTiuri realobis cocxali wvdoma gvesaxeba~ (robaqiZe 2012 b: 38) qarTvelis eris istoria, misi kultura, tradiciebi. es yovelive Znelad iZleva bolSevizmis mier: gavixsenoT, rom levanTan erTad monaTluli besia xelmZRvanelobs im jars, romelsac cixesimagris dangreva da meamboxeTa Sepyroba evaleba. rogor iqceva besia? is Tvals xuWavs. an kidev, rodesac Tavadi giorgis dakiTxvas avaleben mis naTluls, gpu-s maRalCinosan Savdias, is uars ambobs, xolo roca giorgi gpu-s talanSi arxeinad moseirne bagrations, saqarTvelos taxtis erTaderT memkvidres Tvals mohkravs, is Sercxvenili miimaleba. am adamianebs jer kidev gaaCniaT sindisi, romlis Cakvlasac bolSevikuri reJimi cdilobda. zurab kiknaZis azriT, `yvela sazogadoebaSi arsebobs mkveTri dapirispireba adgilis (miwis) mkvidrsa da ucxos (garedan mosuls) Soris~ (kiknaZe 2013: 1). sagulisxmoa, rom Tavadi giorgi velskis dakiTxvaze rusulad saubarze uars etyvis, caristulma ruseTma qarTvelebs gviRalata da am enasTan dakavSirebiT fsiqologiuri barieri meqmnebao. velski iZulebulia frangul enaze dahkiTxos. siyvaruli aris mTavari Zala, romelic gmirebs sulierad amtkicebs. norina, maradqalurobis simbolo,

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levanis STamagonebeli da Zalis mimcemia gralis Tasis gadasarCenad gamarTul uSeRavaTi brZolaSi. romanis bolo epizodSi norina fanjridan iisfer saRamos gascqeris. `uecrad levanis saxe ixila, sinaTliT iyo gamsWvaluli da naTels asxivebda~ (robaqiZe 2012: 241). es naTeli mkiTxvelsac gadaefineba da rwmeniTa da siyvaruliT aRavsebs. SeiZleba iTqvas, am romaniT, gralis Tasis mxatvruli saxis SeqmniT, mweralma saqarTvelo gaamTliana da gadaarCina, mas SeunarCuna sakraluroba, romlis SebRalvasac cdilobda bolSevikuri xelisufleba. grigol robaqiZe mkiTxvels unergavs rwmenas, rom saqarTvelos realur-materialuri sivrce arsebobs imdenad, ramdenadac qarTvel xalxs aqvs gancda erTiani, maradiuli droisa, romlis nawilnic TviTonve arian. amgvari metafizikuri aRqma sivrcisa safuZvelia eris gadarCenisa.

literatura kiknaZe 2013: kiknaze z., Zveli aRTqmis istoriis ritmebi, http://elasevenia.blogspot.com/2013/04/blog-

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robaqiZe 2012a: robaqiZe gr., `mcvelni gralisa~. Tbilisi: gamomcemloba artanuji, 2012 robaqiZe 2012b: robaqiZe gr., `demoni da miTosi~. Tbilisi: gamomcemloba artanuji, 2012 Smidi 2001: Smidi v.,gaz.: `Cveni mwerloba~ 49 (75), Tb., 7-14 dekemberi, 2001

semiotika da sxva

Tamar lomiZe sulxan-saba orbelianis `sityvis kona` semantikuri struqtura


XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi qarTul kulturul sivrceSi farTod GgaCaRda leqsikografiuli muSaoba. Tavdapirvelad, 1629 wels, romSi daibeWda pirveli qarTuli wigni `qarTul-italiuri leqsikoni~ (`leqsikoni qarTul-italiuri, Sedgenili stefane paolinis mier, wminda basili beris, qarTveli nikifore irbaxis daxmarebiT, sarwmunoebis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis misionerTa saxmarad~) da qarTuli anbani locvebiTurT. leqsikografiuli kvlevis meore etapi ki ukavSirdeba sulxan-saba orbelianis saxels. am leqsikonSi sityvaTa ganlagebis wesis Sesaxeb al. focxiSvili aRniSnavs, rom `masSi ZiriTadad sityvebi anbanuri rigis mixedviTaa dalagebuli, magram es wesi bolomde daculi araa. anbanuri rigis gverdiT sabas gamouyenebia e.w. ganyofilebis Semokrebilad daweris wesi, rac imas niSnavs, rom zogadi sityvis aRmniSvneli sityvis budeSi gaerTianebulia iseTi sityvebi, romlebic kerZo cnebebs aRniSnaven, ufro sworad, gvarovnuli cnebis

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aRmniSvnel budeSu gaerTianebulia masSi Semavali saxeobebi~ (focxiSvili 1995: 144). T. bolqvaZis azriT, sulxan-saba orbelianTan ganmartebis erT-erTi saxe _ mTelis nawilebad, zogadis kerZod dayofa amonios ermisis Txzulebebidan iRebs saTaves. sityvaTa logikuri ganmartebis principi am leqsikonSi VIII saukunis berZeni Teologis, ioane damaskelis `dialeqtikisganac aris davalebuli (bolqvaZe 2005:107). ramdenad kanonzomieria, rom `sityvis kona~ Seiqmna swored XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi? rogori iyo zogadi saazrovno tendenciebi, romelTac ganapirobes sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis Seqmna am epoqaSi? am sakiTxis gasarkvevad SeiZleba gamoviyenoT is cneba, romelic Zalze produqtiuli aRmoCnda evropuli kulturisa da mecnierebis analizisTvis. esaa miSel fukos mier sagangebo mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebuli cneba `epistemisa~. fukos cnobil TxzulebaSi `sityvebi da sagnebi~: humanitarul mecnierebaTa arqeologia~ gamokvleulia codnis im sami sferos ganviTarebis istoria, romlebic XIX saukunis dasawyisisTvis Camoyalibdnen filologiis, politikuri ekonomiisa da biologiis mecnierebaTa saxiT. am istoriaSi fuko gamoyofs sam urTierTdamoukidebel SemecnebiT vels anu epistemas (berZn. `codnas~) _ aRorZinebis epoqas, klasikuri racionalizms da Tanamedroveobas. TavisTavad, epistema aris struqtura, romelic gansazRvravs garkveuli Sexedulebebis, koncefciebis, mecnieruli Teoriebis arsebobis SesaZleblobas ama Tu im istoriul epoqaSi. TiToeuli epistemis Sida mimarTebebi fukosTvis ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre am epistemaTa urTierTmimarTebebi. erTaderTi, rac aerTianebs epistemebs, esaa maTi organizebis xerxi: sityvebisa da sagnebis semoitikur damokidebulebaTa esa Tu is tipi. romelic nebismieri periodis kulturaTa yvela sxva saxis gamovlinebis safuZvels warmoadgens. aRorZinebis periodSi, fukos mixedviT, funqcionirebda epistema,romelic emyareboda sityvebisa da sagnebis, samyarosa da misi aRmweri teqstebis erTianobas. ena aq samyaros nawilia, xolo samyaro _ enisa: sityvbi da sagnebi warmoqmnian erTian `teqsts~. ena warmoadgenda Tavisi Tavis uwyvet komentars. samyaro aRiqmeboda, rogorc niSan-Tvisebebisa da sityvebis

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xlarTi. amgvarad, ena miiCneoda samyaros (nivTieri samyaros) ganuyofel nawilad. klasikuri racionalizmis epistemaSi sityvebi da sagnebi emijneba urTierTs da maT akavSirebs mxolod azrovneba _ igiveobriobebisa da gansxvavebis mimarTebebaTa gamovlenis saSualebiT. enis ZiriTad funqciad miiCneva azris reprezentacia, misi warmodgena. ikargeba enis mTlianoba, ganuyofloba, monoliTuroba. klasicisturi ena iqceva niSanTa avtonomiur sistemad da TiTqmis Tanxvdeba TviT azrovnebasa da codnas. `es axali mimarTeba ixilavs enas ise, TiTqos es ukanaskneli aris wminda funqcia, meqanizmebis erToblioba, niSanTa diadi avtonomiuri sistema. magram, imavdroulad, mas ar SeuZlia ar dasvas sakiTxi enis WeSmaritebisa an mcdarobis, misi gamWvirvalebisa an bundovanebis Sesaxeb~ (fuko 1977:205). sulxan-saba orbelianis `sityvis kona~ _ swored imis wyalobiT, rom esaa `ganmartebiT-universaluri leqsikoni~, romlis gvareobrivi cnebebis aRmniSvnel budeebSi gaerTianebulia maTSi Semavali saxeobebi, miznad isaxavs swored imis gamokvlevas, Tu rogor funqcionirebs ena, rogor warmodgenebs gamoanawevrebs, rogor axdens analizsa da sinTezirebas. cxadia, rom renesansis epistemis droindeli ena, romelic daunawevrebeli iyo da romelSic vlindeboda mxolod paradigmatuli (msgavsebis) mimarTebebi, ver iqceoda refleqsiis sagnad _ msgavsi, erTgvarovani movlenebi ver ganmartaven erTmaneTs. im epoqaSi paradigmatulad aRiqmebioda, sazogadod, mTeli samyaroc, rogorc msgavsebaTa sfero. amgvar samyaroSi ganzavebuli ena, ra Tqma unda, kontinualuria _ rogorc TavisTavTan, aseve _ samyarosTan mimarTebaSi. is aRsaniSnisa da aRmniSvnelis arbitrarul urTirTmimarTebas ki ar gulisxmobs, aramed, piriqiT, maT uwyvetobas, erTianobas, msgavsebas. samyaro aRiqmeba, rogorc uwyveti nakadi, rogorc aradiferencirebuli mocemuloba. aseve aRiqmeba ena. mxolod maSin, rodesac samyaro da misi nawili _ ena _ iqca kritikis sagnad, SesaZlebeli gaxda enisave elementebiT enis arsis gaazreba, iseve, rogorc samyaros elementebiT samyaros gaazreba. es niSnavda samyarosa da enis danawevrebas diskretul elementebad. amgvarad, samyaros yvela nawili

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klasicistur epistemaSi gaiazreba sxva elementebis meSveobiT. samyaro adamianis cnobierebaSi diskretul mocemulobad iqca. amitomac xdeba SesaZlebeli Aam epoqaSi enciklopediebisa da ganmartebiTi leqsikonebis Seqmna. azrobrivi eqsperimentis saxiT warmovidginoT, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis moRvaweoba mimdinareobda ufro adreul periodSi, magaliTad, renesansul epistemaSi. fukos miTiTebiT, am epoqaSi sityvebi da sagnebi warmoqmnidnen erTian `teqsts~, anu maTi urTierTmimarTeba kontinualuri xasiaTisa iyo. es niSnavs, rom obieqturi samyarosa da masSi mimdinare movlenebis asaxva xdeboda ara imdenad cnobier doneze, ramdenadac _ adamianis organizmis, rogorc mTlianobis fiziologiur procesebSi. adamianis mier obieqturi samyaros amgvari asaxvis Taviseburebebi Semdegnairia: `sxeulis organoebi ganewyoba imgvar cxovelmoqmedebaze, romelic asaxavs yofierebis sazrisebs da samyaros sayovelTao mniSvnelobis mqone maxasiaTeblebs. esaa yofierebis asaxvis pirveladi cnobierebamdeli done, sadac yalibdeba cnobierebis SesaZleblobis pirobebi: samyaros sivrcul-droiTi aRqmis unari, movlenaTa da saganTa (maTi logikis Sesabamisad) dakavSirebis unari, samyaroSi sakuTari myofobis gancda. magaliTad, SiSis emocia organoebis enaze gadmoicema oflianobis, xelebis kankalis, gulzidvis da a.S. saxiT. am enaze organoebi `hyvebian~ ara maTSi mimdinare neirofiziologiuri procesebis, aramed _ organizmis fiziologiur aqtebSi sazogadoebrivad Rirebuli sazrisebisa da sagnobrivi samyaros kanonzomierebaTa sxvadyofnis Sesaxeb. adamiani ganicdis ara Tavisi neirofiziologiuri procesebis mimdinareobas, aramed _ samyaroSi Tavisi myofobis sazrisebsa da mniSvnelobebs, romlebic an fiziologiur procesebSi da am procesebis meSveobiTaa warmodgenili~ (matiaSi 1988:24). ra Tqma unda renesansul epistemaSi samyaros amgvari aRqmis Tavdapirveli etapi ukve ganvlilia _ is emTxveva adamianis istoriis dasawyiss. magram adamianSi fiziologia yovelTvis `metyvelebs~ da, rogorc Cans, periodulad dominirebs kidec. gavixsenoT Tiundac rables `gargantua da pantagrueli~, romelSic fiziologiis ena Zalze `xmamaRla~ metyvelebs.

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Sesabamisad, Cven mier warmosaxul virtualur leqsikonSi mocemuli iqneboda SezRuduli raodenobis leqsikuri erTeulebi (vinaidan samyaro adamianis aRqmaSi kontinualuri iyo), xolo maTi ganmartebebi tolobiTi xasiaTisa iqneboda. magaliTad, SiSi = kankali, gugebis gafarToeba da a.S. e.i. garesamyaros fenomenis asaxsnelad gamiyenebuli iqneboda organizmis reaqciis erT-erTi saxeoba. amasTan, amgvari reaqciebis raodenobac SezRuduli gaxldaT. Sesabamisad, samyaros SezRuduli raodenobis movlenaTa gansamartavad gamoyenebuli iqneboda identuri mniSvnelobis mqone mcirericxovani sityvebi da gamoTqmebi. sulxan-sabasTan amgvari sityvebi ase ganimarteba: `xolo ganimartebis DSiSica eqvsad: mconarebad, kdemulebad, sircxvilad, gankvirvebad, gancvifrebad da uRonoebad. mconareba vidreme ars SiSi yofadisa moqmedebisa, xolo kdemuleba SiSi molodebiTa ZagebisaTa da keTil ars ese vneba; xolo sircxvili _ SiSi bilwebisa rasame saqmesa zeda da arca ese usaso ars cxorebisagan; da gankvirveba _ SiSi didisa ocnebisagan; egreTve gancvifreba _ SiSi uCvevlisa saocrisagan; xolo uRonoeba _ SiSi ganvrdomilebisa; rameTu SegveSinis ra, vebul yofasa uRonoebiTa. amas zeiTi ioane damaskelis wignSi ewera...~. davakvirdeT, rogoraa ganmartebuli SiSis, rogorc gvareobrivi cnebis, saxeobebi: mconareba ars SiSi momavlisa moqmedebisa, romel ars dazareba; kdema SiSi gmobis molodinsa zeda; sircxli SiSi ubadoTa saqmeTa zeda; gankrveba SiSi didi ocnebisagan; gancfreba... SiSi didisa saocarisa rasaganme... cxadia, TavisTavad SiSi, rogorc gvareobrivi cneba sulxan-sabasTan ganumartavia. ganmartebulia mxolod misi saxeobebi. es imas niSnavs, rom SiSi aq gagebulia, rogorc fiziologiuri reaqcia da ganumartav cnebaTa rigs miekuTvneba. SiSi, dRevandeli gagebiT, rogorc organizmis fiziologiuri reaqcia, gadmoicema sabasTan cnebiT Zrwola. Zrwola... Zrwola ars yo(v)elTa SeZrwunebulTa mier TrTola; xolo TrTola _ anu senisa anu siberiTa Zrwodes; kankali ars mSiSarisa mier Zrwola; ZagZagi _ sicivisagan

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Zrwola; krkola _ mogonebuli da cudi Zrwola; TaxTaxi _ xis idisa da cudis sarTulis qaneba; xolo ryeva _ miwis Zrva; xolo qaneba _ xis rtoTa da dakidebulTa rameTa midmodena~. analogiurad aqvs sabas ganmartebuli sicili, tirili da mwuxareba. aRsaniSnavia, rom yvela emociuri reaqcia rodia ganumartavi. magaliTad, cneba `guliswyromas~ saba amgvarad ganmartavs: `gulis-wyromai ars mduRareba gulis garemosisa sisxlis fofinebisagan, navRlisa anu aRmRvrevisa misisa qmnili...~ da a.S. xolo Semdeg CamoTvlilia guliswyromis saxeobebi: risxva, borga, darili. koncepts sixaruli saba negatiuri formiT ganmartavs, rogorc uaryofiTi emociebis arqonas: `sixaruliese ars yovlis Wmunvisagan Tavisufleba~. garkveul konceptTa ganmartebis formaluri msgavseba SemTxveviTi ar unda iuyos. saba ganmartavs zogierTi emociuri reaqciis saxels ise, rogorc is unda ganmartebuliyo Cvens azrobriv eqsperimentSi _ anu maTi fiziologiuri ekvivalentebis CamoTvlis meSveobiT: Zrwola= TrTola, an _ ar ganmartavs maT (mag., SiSi, sicili, tirili, mwuxareba...). es bunebrivicaa, radgan, rogorc vTqviT, adamianSi fiziologiis ena yovelTvis metyvelebs da es ena uTargmnelia. garda amisa, fiziologiuri reaqciebi da emociebi asaxavs adamianis kontinualur mimarTebas samyarosTan. ra Tqma unda, SeuZlebelia misi Targmna racios enaze. radgan isini cnobierebisTvis ucxo, araanalizirebad seros miekuTvnebian. SesaZlebelia mxolod maTi sivrcesa da droSi sxvadasxvagvarad gamovlenili nairsaxeobebis dasaxeleba, miTiTeba. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom arsebobs konceptebi, romelTa ganmarteba enis doneze SeuZlebelia. sayuradReboa, rom saba, ZiriTadad, ar mimarTavs zogadi cnebebis ganmartebas, aramed _ maT danawevrebas saxeobebad (magaliTad, myofi, Tqma da sxv.). Sesabamisad, is enobrivi koncefcia, romelsac emyareba `sityvis kona~, gulisxmobs zogadi cnebebis ganumartavobas (an ganmartebas _ zogadi cnebebis saxeobebad danawevrebis meSveobiT). amgvarad, zogadi ganimarteba misi saxeobebis ganmartebis meSveobiT, sintagmaturad: =a+b+c... es, gansakuTrebiT, Seexeba sxeulis enis damaxasiaTebel cnebebs anu im cnebebs, romlebic biologiuradaa ganpirobebuli.

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biologiurad ganpirobebuli Tandayolili ganumartavi cnebebis nusxa SeimuSava cnobili semantikuri Teoriis avtorma, polonuri warmoSobis Tanamedrove avstralielma mecnierma ana veJbickam, Tumca, es nusxa jerjerobiT ar Seicavs `sxeulis enis~ amsaxvel gamoTqmebs. unda vivaraudoT, rom Tu es nusxa marTlac universaluria, maSin,SesaZloa, garkveul epoqebSi mas emateba xolme sxva ganumartavi cnebebic (magaliTad, sxeulis enis Sesabamisi konceptebi), romlebic ganumartavia am epoqebis sazRvrebSi. vikiTxoT, ratom moxda enis gamoyofa kontinualuri samyarosgan klasicizmis epistemaSi? ratom moxda enis danawevreba _ gadanacvleba diskretulobis polusisken? TavisTavad, nebismieri konceptis ganmarteba niSnavs diskretulobis Setanas enis kontinualur stiqiaSi. rodesac sulxan-saba orbeliani amgvarad ganmartavs samyaros:L `ese cai ars uZravi da myari garegan sxvaTa caTa~, cxadia, aq mimdinareobs amgvari procesi: aRsaniSnTan kontinualurad dakavSirebuli koncepti samyaro, gadainacvlebs ra diskretulobis sferoSi, TviTonac nawevrdeba _ cxadia, is aRsaniSni, romelsac miemarTeba koncepti samyaro, mxolod nawilobriv ifareba ganmartebiT: `ese cai ars uZravi da myari garegan sxvaTa caTa~, Tundac imitom, rom erTi konceptis sazrisi arasodes udris sintagmis sazriss, romelic danawevrebulia, racionalizebu;lia, ramdenadme transformirebulia. esaa, rogorc fuko ityoda, mxolod qimera igiveobisa, da ara WeSmariti igiveoba, radgan pirvelsawyisi koncepti ganmartebaSi warmogvidgeba ara TavisTavad, aramed _ Tavisi sxvadyofnis saxiT. klasicisturi epistemis tendenciac xom aseTia: gamoyos gansxvavebebi, maT Soris _ gansxvaveba erTi da imave konceptis SigniT _ da am konceptis gansxvaveba sakuTari Tavisgan. esaa gza cnebis gaazrebisken _ gvaqvs ori aRsaniSni (bolo magaliTis mixedviT, erTi mxriv _ samyaro da, meore mxriv, cai uZravi da myari garegan sxvaTa caTa), radgan saleqsikono ganmartebis Semdeg samyaro Seesabameba ukve or aRsaniSns. erTi maTgani igulisxmeba TviT am konceptSi, meore ki _ mis sxvadyofnaSi (ganmartebaSi). swored esaa cnebiTi azrovnebis principi: ori aRsaniSnis urTierTSejereba iZleva maTi ganzogadebisa da cnebiTi gaazrebis SesaZleblobas. es principi kidev ufro mkveTrad vlindeba frangul

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enciklopediaSi, sadac ganmartebebi gacilebiT ufro vrcelia da, amdenad, kidev ufro metad Sordeba im Sinaarss, romelsac moicavda Tavdapirvelad enis uwyvet kontinualur stiqiaSi CarTuli koncepti (Tundac, renesansis spietemaSi). esaa sintagmaturobis polusis mier paradigmatulobis sruli daZleva, rac klasicizmis epistemisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. garda amisa, `sityvis konaSi~ xorcieldeba samyarios calkeuli (anbanis asoebiT markirebuli) fragmentebis CamoTvla. wesrigi, mowesrigebuloba, klasicizmis epistemaSi samyaros aRqmis formaa. rac Seexeba anbans, misi arsis SemecnebisTvis aseve aucilebelia misi wesrigis, mowesrigebulobis gamovlena. es imas niSnavs, rom anbanis elementebi unda SevadaroT erTmaneTs, magram es amocana sakuTriv anbanis farglebSi ganuxorcielebelia _ esaa garkveuli TviTkmari elementebis erToblioba (analogiurad, ricxvTa CamonaTvalSi TiToeuli ricxvi TviTkmaria. Sedareba sxva ricxvebTan SesaZlebelia mxolod ricxvebis Tvisebriobis Secvlisas _ maTi danawevrebisas; aseve, anbanis TiToeuli elementi anbanis farglebSi TviTkmaria, SeuZlebeli xdeba sxva elementebRan misi Sedareba _ aq, ra Tqma unda, ar vgulisxmobT grafikul msgavsebebsa da gansxvavebebs). es amocana SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mxolod maSin, rodesac moxmobil iqneba axali sistema, romelSic es elementebi urTierTSedarebadi iqneba. aseTia, magaliTad, anbanis wesze gawyobili nebismieri teqsti, maT Soris _P leqsikoni an enciklopedia), romelSic anbanis TiToeuli elementi axal Tvisebriobas SeiZens _ erTdroulad anbanis elementic iqneba da raRac sxva sistemis elementic (an am axali sistemis elementis niSani). sxvadyofnisas anbanis elementebis Sedareba ukve SesaZlebelia, radgan maTi gansxvavebuloba, romelic anbanis farglebSi ar vlindeboda, axla ukve funqciur gansxvavebulobad warmogvidgeba. rogorc ki amgvari elementi aRiWurveba damatebiTi _ niSnobrivi _ funqciiT, is ukve aRar emTxveva Tavis Tavs, rogorc anbanis sistemis elementi. `klasicizmis epoqaSi. _ wers fuko, _ niSnis daniSnulebaa... samyaros danawevreba, ganlageba usasrulod Ria zedapirze da dakvirveba (kvlav samyarodan gamomdinare) misi Semnacvlebeli niSnebis usasrulo rigze, romelTa meSveobiTac

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is gaiazreba. amis wyalobiT gza exsneba analizsac da kombinatorikasac, rac samyaros, mis mTlianobaSi, mowesrigebulobas aniWebs~(fuko 1977:111). marTalia, ar SeiZleba (masStabis mixedviT) franguli enciklopedoiis Sedareba sulxan-saba orbelianis `sityvis konasTan~, magram maTi daniSnuleba erTgvarovania _ samyaros danawevreba, `ganlageba usasrulod Ria zedapirze~ (miSel fuko) da dakvirveba misi Semnacvlebeli niSnebis im usasrulo rigze, romelTa meSveobiTac is gaiazreba. amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom miSel fukos koncefcia ganmartavs azrovnebis im ZiriTad tendenciaTa Tvisebriobas, romlebmac Tavi iCines ara marto dasavleT evropis arsebiT kulturul movlenebSi da, kerZod, frangi enciklopedistebis moRvaweobaSi, aramed _ XVI-XVIII saukuneebis qarTul kulturaSic da ganapirobes `leqsikoni qarTulis~ Seqmna.

literatura bolqvaZe 2005: bolqvaZe T. ideologizebuli Rirebulebani. Tb., 2006 matiaSi 1988: .. . . . 1988. focxiSvili 1995: focxiSvili al. qarTuli enaTmecnierebis istoria. Tb., 1995. fuko 1977: ., ( . ., 1977.)

cira barbaqaZe `vefxistyaosani` da fentezi


rogor warmogidgeniaT, vefxistyaosanze filmi rom gadaiRon, romeli Janri iqneba? vfiqrob, es iqneba fentezis Janri. sxva JanrSi warmoudgenelia aRwero is pasaJebi, rac poemaSi xdeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom fentezis Janri axalia da vefxistyaosansac calsaxad am Janrs ver mivakuTvnebT, masSi aucileblad aRmovaCenT im niSnebs, rac am Janris maxasiaTebelia; saerTodac mgonia, rom vefxistyaosani Janris mixedviT ekleqturia da romeli Janridanac ar unda SevxedoT, erTi romelime Zalian viwro iqneba am poemisTvis. fentezis Janris uamravi ganmartebis miuxedavad, gamoyofen 5 ZiriTad niSans, rac aucilebelia fentezis Janris nawarmoebSi iyos. es niSnebia:

sinaTlisa da sibnelis brZola; misia; fentezis personaJebi; jadoqroba; jadosnuri sagnebi

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vefxistyaosnidan am niSnebs SegviZlia SevusabamoT:

sinaTlisa da sibnelis brZola _ raindebisa (avTandili, tarieli, fridoni) da qajebis bZola; misia _ satrfos gamoxsna qajTagan; fentezis personaJebi _ devebi da qajebi; jadoqroba _ qajebis grZneulebani da sxva; jadosnuri sagnebi _ mosasxami, xmali, muzaradi... vefxistyaosnis samyro erTi mTliani da ganuyofeli samyaroa: samefoebiT, brZolebiT, devebiT, qajebiT... es samyaro Tanaarsebobs.. poemis personaJebma ician qajTa samyaros arseboba, amitom dilogSi xSirad aris apelireba maT Tvisebebze (grZneulebaze), rac niSnavs, rom maTTvis es samyaro ucxo ar aris, aramed kargad nacnobia:
kvali Zebnes da ukvirda ver-povna nakvalevisa, agre kval-wmindad warxdoma kacisa, viTa devisa; yovlni arsni caT qveSeTni erTob srulad momivlian, magra saqme mis kacisa verasada Semignian; uRoniod marTal iyvnes, romelTaca qajad Tqvian. aw tirili aras margebs, cudad cremlni rasa mdian? viTa qaji dagvemale, monebica davafeTeT, (avTandili tariels) ese wyroma mefisagan visca esma, vinca icis, man uambo davar qajsa, vin grZnebiTa caca icis

devebis ambavi rogorc poemidan iciT, tarieli cxovrobda devebis gamoqvabulSi, romelic brZoliT moipova. am brZolaSi,

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marTalia, devebma tariels monebi dauxoces, magram tarielmac didi ambavi daawia devebs, ise aawioka, rom maTi xma zecas swvdeboda.
ese qvabni ukacurni vpoven, devTa Seekafnes, Semovebi, amovwyviden, yola veras ver mexafnes, maT monani damixocnes, jaWvni avad moeqafnes. sawuTroman damaRrija, cqafni misni kvla mecqafnes. devTa yvirili, zaxili zecamdis aiweoda; maTisa laxtis cemiTa qveyana Seiryeoda; mze daabneles mtveriTa, alvis Sto Seirxeoda, asi erT kerZoT momixdes, davfriwe, daixeoda.

am ambavs tarieli avTandils uambobs, etyvis, rom mas aqeTia, cxovrobs devebis gamoqvabulSi, rom mas Tan axlavs asmaTi, romelic ar tovebs, radgan tarieli Tavad xan tiris, xan ibnideba da xanac gaxelebuli velad iWreba:
aha, Zmao, maSindliTgan aqa var da aqa vkvdebi; xeli mindors gaviWrebi, zogjer vtir da zogjer vbndebi, ese qali ar damagdebs, - ars misTvisve cecxl-nadebi, Cemad Roned sikvdilisa metsa aras ar vecdebi!

devebis saganZuri tarieli uambobs avTandils, rom rodesac devebi daxoca da maT gamoqvabulSi daiwyo cxovreba, im droidan icis, rom gamoqvabulSi ganZia, magram arasdros gasCenia survili tariels, rom es ganZi moenaxulebina, axla ki gadawyvita, rom avTandilTan erTad enaxa Zvirfaseuloba, romelic 40 darbazSi iyo ganTavsebuli, rac SigniT naxes, teqstis am nawilidan gaigebT:
tariel etyvis avTandils: ismine sityva asebi,

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giambob rasme ambavsa, moambed nu genasebi: me odes qvabni wavuxven, davxoce devTa dasebi, mas aqaT maTi aqa Zes saWurWle Zvir-nafasebi. me agre ara minaxavs, marT viTa ara mndomia; modi da gavxsnaT, SevigneT, saWurWle Tu ra zomia. eama, adgnes ornive, arca qve asmaT mjdomia, dalewes kari ormoci, maTgan ar zeda omia. poves saWurWle usaxo, kvla unaxavi Tvalisa, mun idva riye Tvalisa, xel-wmidad ganaTalisa, Cndis margaliti odeni burTisa saburTalisa; vinmca qmna ricxvi oqrosa, vervisgan danaTvalisa?! igi saxli ormocive Sigan iyo gatenili. poves erTi zaradxana, abjrisaTvis saxlad qmnili; mun abjari yovli-feri asre idva, viTa mwnili, Sigan erTi kidobani dabeWdili, ar-gaxsnili. zeda ewera: aqa Zevs abjari sakvirvelio, jaWv-muzaradi, almasi, xrmali basrisa, mWrelio; Tu qajni devTa Seebnen, dRe iyos igi Znelio!

cira barbaqaZe

umisJamisod vinc gaxsnas, aris mefeTa mklvelio. yvelaze mniSvnelovani ganZi kidobanSi aRmoaCines: sami tani abjari ubralo ar yofila, saswaulmoqmedi iyo, xrmali rkinas ise sWrida, rogorc bambas; gmirebma jaqebTan brZolis win am ganZis aRmoCena kargi bedis niSnad miiCnies:
kidobani gaxsnes, poves mun abjari sami tani, rasaca viT Seimosen meomarni samni ymani:

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jaWvi, xrmali, muzaradi, sabarkuli maTi gvani, zurmuxtisa budebiTa iyvnes viTa luskumani. TviToman TviTo Caicves, Tavis Tavs gamoscdidian, jaWv-muzaradsa, abjarsa marT vera ver mohkidian; xrmali rkinasa mohkrian, viT bambis mkedsa sWridian, maT uRirs yovlad qveyanad, Sevatyev, ar gahyidian. Tqves: ese niSnad gveyofis, varTo kargiTa bediTa; RmerTman mogvxedna TvaliTa, zegardmoT monaxediTa. aiRes igi abjari Tavis-Tavisa qediTa, TviTo maT, erTi fridonis saZRvnoblad Sekres RvediTa.

vin arian qajebi? qaji qarTul miTologiaSi sulebi; usiamovno garegnobis anTropomorfuli arsebebi. qajebis mudmiv sacxovrebel adgils qajeTi ewodeba. qajebs SeuZliaT dRis Ramed, Ramis ki - dRed qceva, zRvaze qariSxlis gamowveva, isini Ziraven xomaldebs, Tavisuflad gadaadgildebian wylis zedapirze, gadaqcevis da gauCinarebis unari aqvT. ganarCeven miwier da wylis qajebs. miwieri qajebi tyeebSi da miuval kldeebSi cxovroben, mtroben adamianebs, sasikvdilod scemen an agiJeben maT. wylis qajebi mdinareebsa da tbebSi cxovroben. isini nakleb borotebi arian da xSirad exmarebian meTevzeebs. qali-qajebi silamziT gamoirCevian, adamianebTan sasiyvarulo urTierTobebs amyareben, xSirad ubedurebisagan ixsnian maT, mihyvebian colad gmirebs. Tanamedrove qarTul enaSi qaji ixmareba adamianis misamarTiT, romelmac ar icis an xSirad arRvevs miRebuli qcevis normebs.

leqsikonebidan

196

cira barbaqaZe

ar kacnia, qajniao, mindobian kdesa salsa... _ poemaSi qajebi Cveulebriv adamianebad ar moixsenebian, maTi brZolis wesebic gansxvavebulia, iseTi ar aris, rogorc Cveulebrivi adamianebi, Tundac gmirebi, ibrZvian, amitom aris rom qajebisgan Sepyrobili nestani wers satrfos: nuTu eseni gegonen sxvaTa mebrZolTa wesiTa...? da ar urCevs aqamde ubrZolvel qajeTan Sebmas: qajTa qalaqi aqamdis mterTagan ubrZolvelia: qalaqsa Sigan magari klde maRali da grZelia... grZneulebiT ganTqmuli qajebisTvis araferia miuRweveli. maT SeuZliaT saSineli qarebis gamowveva, wyalze ise siaruli, rogorc xmeleTze, dRis Ramed gadaqceva da Ramis ganaTeba da sxva:
iqmen rasme sakvirvelsa, mtersa Tvalsa daubrmoben, qarTa aRZrven saSinelTa, navsa zRva-zRva daamxoben, viTa xmelsa gairbenen, wyalsa wmidad daaSroben, swaddes - dResa bnelad iqmen, swaddes - bnelsa anaToben.

qajTa grZneulebani poemaSi fatman-xaTuni Tavis grZneul monas (qajs) agzavnis qajeTSi nestanis ambis gasagebad: mohgvara mona grZneuli, Savi, marT viTa yorani; ubrZana: qajeTs gagzavni, wa, gzani gisxen Sorani! fatmani eubneba mona-qajs, rom: axla gamoCndeba, Seni grZneulebiTo: aw gamoCndebis saxmroba CemTvis Senisa grZnebisa,.... ra SegiZlia

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imis miuxedavad, rom gza iyo Zalian Sori, qaji pasuxobs: man uTxra: xvale mogarTva yovli ambavi nebisa. (qajebi gadaadgildebian arabunebrivad swarfad) mas Semdeg, rac fatmani werils gadascems qaj-monas, igi (qaji) wamoisxams jadosnur mosasxams da gafrindeba:
fatman misca dawerili mas grZneulsa xelovansa. ese wigni miarTvio qalsa, mzisa dasagvansa! man grZeulman moli rame wamoisxa zeda tansa, masve wamsa daikarga, gardafrinda banis-bansa. ra qajeTs Sexda, qmnil iyo oden bind-bandi bnelisa. uCinod Sevlo simravle moymisa, karTa mcvelisa, mas mzesa hkadra ambavi misisa sasurvelisa. cixisa karni daxSulni Sevlna marT viTa Riani, Sevida zangi pir-Savi, Tma-grZeli,

mravali dRis mogzaurobis nacvlad mona-qaji wam-erT mixda fatmanisas: igi mona wamovida, gulanSaros momavali, wam-erT mixda fatmanisas, dRe iara ar-mravali... misia Sesrulebulia: raindebma gamoixsnes nestani (amiT gaaTavisufles siyvaruli)da ixiles saswaulebrivi suraTi: naxes, mzisa Sesayrelad gamoeSva mTvare metaforiT yvelaze ukeT ixsneba idea. gvelsa... _ am

poemaSi es da sxva adgilebi namdvilad aniWebs vefxistyaosans fentezis xibls da am kuTxidan personaJebis danaxva kidev ufro sainteresos xdis teqsts.

rozeta gujejiani qarTuli xalxuri dResaswaulebi TurqeTis teritoriis eTnikur qarTvelebs Soris
(ZveliT axali weli)

TurqeTis respublikis eTnikur qarTvelTa Soris Semonaxulia qarTul xalxur dReobaTa mcire nawili. dReobebi arsebobs transformirebuli an fragmentuli saxiT. amJamad moqmedia `SuamTobis~, `mariobis~, `buRebis Wedobis~ dResaswaulebi; ukve aRar sruldeba, magarm Suaxnis adamianTa mexsierebas SemorCa ZveliT axali wlis aRniSvis, `gargnobis~ da `ziareTobis~ tradiciebi. dReobaTa gavrcelebis ruka Tanxvdeba eTnikur qarTvelTa istoriul sacxovriss, xolo dReobaTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli transformaciuli procesebi da maTi sinkretuli xasiaTi yvela regionSi msgavsia. kvleva eyrdnoba 2006-2013 wlebSi TurqeTis eTniur qarTvelTa Soris Catarebuli eTnografiuli

qarTuli xalxuri dResaswaulebi...

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eqspediciebis 1 mier moZiebul saveele-eTnografiul masalas da saistorio wyaroebs. naSromSi warmodgenilia informacia da analizi ZveliT axali wlis aRniSvnis wesisa. ZveliT axali wlis sazeimod aRniSvnis tradicia dafiqsirda istoriul nigalSi axaldabis TemSi, adagulis TemSi, ebrikis TemSi, qarTlis TemSi, TxilaZis TemSi, omanis TemSi, orjis TemSi; murRulis xeobaSi, agreTve, imerxevsa da zemo maWaxelSi. dReobis fragmentebi Caweril iqna istoriul taoSic, parxliswylis xeobis eTnikurad qarTul soflebSi (qobais Temi, balxis Temi, xevais Temi (arTvinis regioni). Cveni droisaTvis ZveliT axali wlis Sexvedris aRniSvnis tradicia axsovT Suaxnis asakisa da xandazmul adamianebs. dReoba daaxloebiT 20-25 wlis win wyvets arseobobas. cnobilia, rom axali wlis dResaswaulis arssa da msvlelobas yvelgan universaluri xasiaTi aqvs. istoriul-taoklarjeTSi arsebuli wesic zogadqarTuli tradiciis nawilia, magram, aRsaniSnavia, rom murRuliswylis xeobasa da ebrikis TemSi dafiqsirebul iqna dReobis metad saintereso da unikaluri elementebi, romlis mixedviTac am mxareebis saaxalwlo ritualSi alilosa da berikaobis fragmentebi ikveTeba, Tanmxlebi musikaluri foniTa (sagalobeli `guriela~//`gvirela~) da sakarnavalo motivebiT. arTvinis regionis yvela mxaris qarTvelebi axal wels Zveli stiliT, 14 ianvars zeimobdnen. isini mkveTrad asxvaveben ZveliT axal wels Tanamedrove kalendris 1 ianvris axali wlisagan. 1 ianvars Turqulad `ilbaS~-s (`weliwadis Tavs~)

eTnografiul eqspediciaTa areali moicavda rogorc avtoqton qarTvelTa gansaxlebebs (arTvinis, artaanis, arzrumis regionebi), aseve istoriis sxvadasxva etapze TurqeTis centralur da SavizRvispireTis regionebSi kompaqturad Casaxlebul eTnikur qarTvelTa kompaqtur dasaxlebebs.

200

rozeta gujejiani

uwodeben da komentarsac urTaven, `es Cveneburai ar aris, Turqulia~. akonkreteben, rom pirveli ianvari ilbaSia, Turqulia, Cveni axali weli en win iyo, axla 14 ianvars aris. es saerTo niSania yvela mxarisaTvis. arsebobs meore serTo maxasiaTebelic: axali wlisaTvis saguldagulod emzadebodnen. mzadeba gamoixateboda Sesabamisi sadResswaulo-saritualo sakvebis momzadebasa da mekvlis moZiebaSi. gamoikveTa mesame saerTo niSanic: sadResaswaulo cikli iwyeboda 13 ianvris saRamos da 2-3 dRe grZeldeboda. zemo maWaxleli mTxrobelebis gadmocemiT, `13 ianvris RamiT TeTr xap SevwvavdiT, simind movxarSevdiT, RamiT karg dacdil mezobels duuZaxebdiT. imis ukanisve aSurai gavakeTebdiT. aSura 7 Tanea: simindi, qeri, loxoti, Wendime, puri, lobio, fetvi, CavyridiT, Saqar duumatebdiT, wyal davasxamT, movxarSavT, vanelias CavyriT, gemriel sun mivcemT. diliT biWi, umzraxad, duulaparakeblad, axors samjer gars Semouvlida, axorSi Sevdoda, saqonel, xarebs miulocevda. mere TeTr xaps weviRebdiT, Zroxas guugorebdiT, rome ar gagordes. dilas kargi mlocavi kac moviyvanT, ar daiZaxebda, marjvena fex Semoadgamda, RmerTma lamazad gamyofaT-o ityoda. is kai fexis gamogvidgeboda, ima Seqers mivcemdiT, Tafl, kakals mivarTmevdiT. axors Semouvlida, dalocvida~. mekvled mamakacs, bolo dros, biWsac iwvevdnen. qalis misvla mekvled usiamovno faqtad iTvleboda. maWaxlur masalaSi gamokveTa zogdqarTuli saaxalwlo ritualis mTavari Taviseburebebi: sadResaswaulo sakvebi, saSinao mekvlis arseboba, locvis rituali (adgilze, bunebrivia, muslimuri arsiT; saSinao mekvlis mier axaliwlis milocva sameurneo nagebobebisa da ezo-karmidamosaTvis, maT Soris Sinauri saqonlisa da pirutyvisaTvis; winaswar SerCeuli sagareo mekvlis mowveva sisxam diliT; mekvlis SerCevisas mamakacis upiratesoba. cnobilia, msgavsi pasaJebi axasiaTebs saqarTvelos yvela mxaris saaxalwlo ritualebs. tao-klarjeTSi moZiebuli masala avlens dReobis saxalxo xasiaTsac.saSinao mekvlis mier ojaxisTvis keTili fexis dabedebisa da sagareo mekvlis mobrZanebis Semdeg, soflis mosaxleoba iwyebda mezoblebTan gadasvalas, saRamo xans

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ikribebodnen romelime ojaxSi. anu ikveTeba kidev erTi zogadqarTuli motivi: dReoba mxolod saojaxo ar iyo, mas mTeli sofeli da xSirad mezobel sofelTa jgufebic erTad aRniSnavdnen. istoriuli taos parxliswylis xeobis qarTvelTa saaxalwlo rituali Semdegi saxisa iyo: axal wels movidodnen, erTad mevyrebodiT, ferxuli vicodiT. Cveni axali weli aT da xuT dRiT mere modioda, axla daikarqa. axla ilbaSia, arafers ar vakeTebT. Zuelad kargi iyo. gaRma-gamoRma qobai erTad viyaviT, me moveswari, yvela erTad iyo assamoci kvamli. Cemze uwin Zaan bevri iyvnes - dananebiT aRniSnavdenen mTxrobelebi. dReisaTvis aseTi ritualebi aRar sruldeba, vinaidan qobaiswylis xeobis sofelTa didi nawili zamTrobiT icleba mosaxleobisagan. darCenil nawilSi ki es tradicia ukve dakargulia. yvela mxaris qarTvelebi aRniSnaven, rom ZveliT axali wlis dResaswaulze sruldeboda simRerebi, ferxulebi. es elementic zogadqarTulia, yvela mxareSi saaxalwlod sxvadasxva simRera, cekva da sagalobeli sruldeboda. cnobilia, istoriuli tao-klarjeTis qarTvel mosaxleobaSi mdidari eTnomusikaluri masala arsebobs. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania zemo maWaxluri musikaluri folklori, sadac qarTuli polifoniac avTenturi saxiT cocoxlobs, sxavagan ki, ZiriTadad, erTxmiani simRerebia Semonaxuli. mdidari foni axlavs istoriuli nigalis mosaxleobis saaxalwlo rituals. am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa mdinare Worixis marjvena da marcxena napirze gaSenebuli qarTuli soflebis masla: devsqeliswylis, baginiswylis xeobebi, axaldabis Temi, adagulis Temi, ebrikas Temi, qarTlas Temi, TxilaZis Temi, orjis Temi, omanas Temi, trapenis Temi. am dasaxlebul punqtebSi saaxalwlod, tradiciulad, sxvadasxva simRerebi da ferxulebi sruldeboda da sadResaswaulo cikli sakarnavalo elementebiTac iyo gajerebuli. axalwel ferxuli vicodiT. Cveni axali weli en win iyo, axla daikarqa. axla ilbaSia, arafers ar vakeTebT. Zuelad bevrs

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rozeta gujejiani

visamebdiT, gaRma-gamoRma soflebi erTad viyaviT, devsqel gevdodiT, isinic mevdodnen, erTad mevyrebodiT, vimRerebdiT (sofeli petruli, ebrikas Temi). `axalwelsa vsaamobdiT, vmRerodiT, delixoromi, duzxoromi, rgvalad saamobdnen. deli xoroms axlagazrdebi isamebdnen, Cven kacebi - duzxoroms. axali wel kacebi moiardnen saxlebs, gurielas iqmodnen. mur wiisvamen, Txis tyavidan quds geixdis, qalebis windidan Tvalebs amoWravs, ar micnano. erT Tanec qali eaxlosa. qurTebis qalia is. Sen waxval axla, im qals staceb xels, kacebi movlen, xeli ratom modeo. gaiqceva, gamoekidebian ukan. bambiT ZuZuebs ukeTeben qals. kaba muxlebamde ecva da naskebi ecva. vmRerodiT; oo, guriela, gamodeqi karSi. Tu ar gamoxval, guufisav (mogijvav) karze.

ase aSinebdnen, vinc kari ar gaaRos, Tu Seqeri mieci, maSin ara. dalocebdnen im kacsa. RmerTma kargad mogaswrias axali welio. ase Camoiardnen yvela saxls. aqedan petrulSi gavidodnen, devsqelSic gavdodnen, ori saaTia fexiT. naxevari beri eaxlebodnen biWebs. guriela xeber miscemdnen, movalTo. simReraa guriela. am jgufs gedeexveodnen, es iyo saRamos. iarebodnen Rame dilamde 13-Si rame. rasac miscemen, imas moyrian. mere yvela erTad moiyreboda isaamebdnen da SeWamdnen (sofeli ebrika, ebrikas Temi). zemoT moyvanil maslaSi umaravi saintereso Tema ikveTeba: 1. mdidari musikaluri kultura; 2. sakarnavalo elementebi; 3. `alilos~ tradiciidan momdinare fragmentebi, sagalobeli `guriela~; 4. adresagazafxulo skarnavalo sadResaswaulo ciklisaTvis niSneuli motivebi (berikaobis loklauri variacia, Teatralizebuli sanaxaobiTa da niRbebiT). kidev ufro mravalferovania murRulis xeobis masala (murRuliswyis marjvena sanapiroze mdebareobs Semdegi Temebi: arxva, gevli, bujuri,ozmali, korideTi, durCa, qalaqi murRuli, damari; xolo marcxena snaapiroze _ ereguna, qura,

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baSqoi,gurbini, kabarjeTi. TiToeuli Temi ramdenime soflisagan Sedgeba). saerTod, murRulis xeobaSi bevri sxvadasxva qarTuli dReobis fragmentia dafiqsirebuli; Semonaxulia qarTuli xalxuri dReobebis iseTi saintereso elementebi, romlebic sxvagan veRar iZebneba. gvxvdeba iseTi dReobebic, romlebic transformirebulia an ramdenime dResaswaulis fragmentebis nazavs warmoadgens. momyavs ZveliT axali wlis aRniSvnis wesi: 13-s saRamo movidoda axali weli, qaTmeb vipardiT tyuilad, axali rzali, axali size. racxa tuCebze vikeTebdiT. murs wevismevdiT saxeze mozrdilebi, biWebi, amas yvela izamda. erT Tane biWs gogos tansacmels Caacmevdnen, gargnebs gavakeTebdiT Slangebisgan, 4 biWi gargnebs daiWiravda, murs waismevda, im gogos damcvelebi arian. vincxa gogos gaaqcevda, imas vcemdiT. gogos vinc gaityuebda, ZaliT mihyavda, im biWs mivdevdiT sacemnelad. saRamos davifantodiT. saRamos mklavebi daviWirebdiT yvela erTad da mivdiodiT simReriT kardakar. saxlebSi CamovivlidiT, vimReravdiT, mogvcemdnen erbos: - ele-melei, gamoixedei karSi, - ar gamoixedav, wavalT sxva karSi... racxas mogvcemdnen: kvercxi, kakali, Txili, erbo, yveli. movkrebdiT. Rame 11-is mere gazis naTurebiT vanaTebdiT, kvarsac deiWirebdnen. deileoda saxlebi, erT saxlSi meviyrebodiT, imas vWamdiT. murRulis xeobis bujuris Temis masaliT: axal wels rezamde Zroxis kudebi iyo, imas urtyamdnen. niRbebi iyo, Zroxis tyavidan gamoWrili. simindis galebs geityepdnen, 4-5 yadi iqneboda, Zroxis eJvans Camoikidebdnen yadebis, xma iyoso. Cameiradnen kardagar. saWmels miscemdnen. ramdenime dRis mere SeWamdnen, fuli ro Segrovdeboda, imas gainawilebdnen yadi~ da gogod Cacmuli. murRulis xeobis TvalsaCinoa saaxalwlo eTnografiuli masalaSi sruliad ritualSi Tavmoyrili berikaobis,

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`berobanas~ da `fadikos~ elementebi. sainteresoa isic, rom aq adgilobrivi obieqturi mocemulobis gamo figurirebs `yadis~ personaJi. aRsaniSnavia, rom istoriiul tao-klarjeTSi arsebuli saaxalwlo rituali did msgavsebas avlens saqarTvelos yvela istoriul-eTnografiuli mxaris lokalur tradiciebTan, gansakuTrebiT _ svanur masalasTan (tao-klarjuli `guriela~ da svanuri `kviriola~, `likuriel~), svaneTis saSobaosaaxalwlo ciklis ritualebTan. gTavazobT dawvrlebiT aRwerilobebs svanuri sadReobo ciklisa. danarCen mxareebTan paralelebis gavlena did adgils daikavebs, ris gamoc, dainteresebul mkiTxvels vawvdi mcired bibliografias2. svaneTSi saSobao-saaxalwlo sadResaswaulo cikli mraval sxvadasxva rituals micavda. axalgazrdaTa jgufis mier soflis garSemovla Sesabamisi eTnomusikaluri foniTa da sakarnavalo elementebiT ramdenime dReobaze sruldeboda. pirveli rituali saSobao iyo, aliloze Camovlis dros axalgazrdebi kirieleisonis svanur variants _kUirias galobdnen, riTac locavdnen maspinZel ojaxebs. meored es sagalobeli ZveliT axalwels sruldeboda. axali wlis wina saRamos soflis axalgazrda mamakacebi Tav-TavianT soflebs galobiT Semouvlidnen da Sewirul produqtebs axali wlis dRisaTvis Sekrebdnen. axali wlis dilidan, sakuTar ojaxebSi Sesrulebuli sazeimo ritualis dasrulebis Semdeg (romelic

axali weli fSavSi _ Txzulebani, Tb., 1986. v., 463-467. kviciani1991: i. kviciani, axali wlis zogierTi Taviseburebebi svaneTSi, - kr. aia, Tsu, Tb., 1990. oCiauri 1991: al. oCiauri, qarTuli xalxuri dReobebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi (fSavi), Tb., 1991. oCiauri 2005: al. oCiauri, qarTuli xalxuri dReobebis kalendari, xevsureTi II (bude-xevsureTi, SatilmiRmaxevi), Tb., 2005. cocaniZe 1990: g. cocoaniZe, giorgobidan giorgobamde, Tb., 1990 da sxv.

2 vaJa-fSavela 1986:

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srulad emTxveva istoriuli tao-klarjeTis masalas: im gansxvavebiT, rom svaneTSi salocav sarkmelTan, aRmosavleTis mxares, qristianuli locva sruldeboda Sindamzadebuli sefiskverebiT (lemzir) da sanTlebiT), erTad iyridnen Tavs da ilxendnen. mesamed `kuirielas~ rituali sruldeboda gamocxadebis (`gancxdab~) saekelesio dResaswaulTan dakavSirebuli xalxuri ritualis `lifanalis~ ciklis dasasrulsac. lifanalis saweso cikli micvalebulTa mosagonari dReebia, adglobrivTa rwmeniT, am dReebSi ojaxebs winaparTa sulebi estumrebodnen miRmieri samyarodan. vera bardaveliZis masaliT, sulebis gacilebis Semdeg soflis axalgazrdoba ikribeboda da likuriel-is rituals asrulebda. axalgazrdebi saeklesio droSas (durSai) an did jvars gamoitandnen eklesiidan, meTaurs anTebul sanTels da zars daaWerinebdnen xelSi da kvirias galobiT Semouvlidnen mTel sofels. yoveli mosaxlis karTan jer zars aaxmianebdnen, Semdeg sagalobels igalobebdnen. jer gundis meTauri mTel sagalobels igalobebda da Semdeg danarCeni bavSvebi kUirias garkveul nawils galobdnen. galobis Semdeg gundis monawileebs xiliTa da sxvadasxva saWmel-sasmeliT, puriT, xorciT asaCuqrebdnen. bavSvebi ojaxs dalocavdnen: adamiani da saqoneli gamravlebuliyaviT.... bolos eklesiasTan Seikribebodnen, sadac locvis dasasruls sazeimo trapezi imarTeboda (bardaveliZe 1953: 289). `kuirielas~ garSemovla sagalobliTurT sruldeboda dar-avdris savedrebeli ritualebis drosac (WanturiSvili 1969) 3. kvirias 4 erTi varianti kviriolas saxeliTaa

eceris Temis (zemo savneTi) 2003 wlis masaliT, `kviriolas~ ritualis Sesrulebas win mosamzadebeli procedurebi uZRoda. ritualis Catarebis aucilebloba uamindobam ganapiroba _ mTeli ivlisis ganmavlobaSi wvimda. mosaxleoba wuxda, naTesebsa da naTibs waxdenis safrTxe emuqreboda. sofelma daxmarebisTvis mimarTa cnobil momRerals muSni gurCians. muSnim Camoiara eceris Temi, Sekriba xalxuri simRerebis mcodne pirebi da gadasca soflis saTxovari. amis Semdeg is Svidi mamakaci, visac am ritualSi unda mieRo monawileoba, sami dRe marxulobda. es sami dRec gadabmulad wvimda. kviras, adre

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cnobili 5. `arsebobs svaneTSi sagalobeli, romelsac kviriolas eZaxian (ecerSi). mas umTavresad xSiri wvimebis dros asruleben. am simReriT samjer Semouvlidnen eklesias, Sewiruls miarTmevdnen. maT sjerodaT, rom amis Semdeg gamoidarebda~ (mamalaZe 1972: 198). vfiqrobT, rom nigalis xeobaSi dafiqsirebuli simRera `guriela~//`gviriela~ saeklesio `kirileisonis~ adgilobivi xlxuri nairsaxeobaa, romlis msgavsi ramdenime sagalobeli amJamadac cocxalia svaneTis, samegrelosa da guriis yofaSi 6.

diliT, mgaloblebi Seikribnen eceris Temis sofel barSis wmida barbares naeklesiarTan da daiwyes kviriolas rituali. maT samjer igalobes kviriola da aseve, samjer Seevedrnen kviria-macxvars gamodarebas: pirvelad wmida barbares naeklesiarTan, Semdeg wmida giorgisa da RvTismSoblis eklesiebis nangrevebTan da bolos eceris Temis mTavar taZarTan _ fxutreris mTavarangelozebis eklesiasTan. naSuadRevs mgaloblebi barSSi amobrundnen. maT sofelma sazeimo trapezi daaxvedra. meore dRes gamoidara (r. gujejiani, saveleeTnografiuli masala, svaneTi 2003). safiqrebelia, rom `kviriac~ sxva araferia, Tu ara berZnuli Teonimis (berZ. kirie RmerTi) gaqarTulebuli varianti, Semonaxuli svaneTsa da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi. `kviria~ svaneTis tradiciul yofaSi mxolod da mxolod sagaloblis aRmniSvneli terminia da igi ramdenime variantiTaa Semonaxuli kuiria, kiria, kirie, kviriola, kuiriela. SesaZloa berZnuli sityvidan momdinare termini _ uflis dRis aRmniSvneli kvira daukavSirdes qristianul `kirieleisons~. gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom berZnulma terminma (kvirileisoni) fonologiurad odnavi cvlileba ganicada. misi saxecvlili variantebia kirileisoni, kiria, kviriola, ui difTongi Secvala palatalurma xmovanma i, moxda kv kompleqsis delabializacia (kv_k) da Sesabamisad, svanurma Semogvinaxa arqauli varianti, xolo sityvis berZnuli daboloeba Seicvala kninobiT-alersobiTimawarmoeblebiT: -ol, -ia., Tumca Tanxmovnis sawyisi pozicia ar Secvlila (Wkuaseli 2011: 265).
6 5 4

konsultaciisaTvis madlierebas gamovxatav eTnomusikolog qalbton nana valiSvilis mimarT.

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cnobilia, dasavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi vxvdebiT simRerebs: `kirialesa~, `krialeso~, rac, bunebrivia, kirieleisonis xalxur saxesxvaobas warmoadgens. samegrelos yofaSi :kirialesas sagalobeli axali wlis ritualis aucilebeli atributi iyo, aseve, guriaSic. nigalis mxareSi arsebuli `guriela~//`gviriela~ srulad esadageba dasavleT saqarTveloSi arsebul tradicias, saSobao-saaxalwlo dReobaTa cikls, romlis drosac `kirieleisonis~ xalxuri variaciebi sruldeboda yofaSi. sagulisxmoa zaqaria WiWinaZis masala, romelSic gadmocemulia murRulis xeobel qarTvelTa tragikuli istoriis erTi siuJeti: 1840 wels osmalT didis mecadineobiT Seityves, rom murRulSi ... qarTvelebi qristianobdnen... qristianebis ricxvi aRmoCnda sofels gevleSi, TxilazorSi, Zanculas, Tasmalos da ramdenimec sxva sofelSi... qristianobas eseni asrulebdnen Rame: maT erTi oTaxi hqondaT amorCeuli, es oTaxi erTi mosaxlis qveS iyo gakeTebuli, sardafiviT, daniSnuls dros, am oTaxSi grovdebodnen da aq loculobdnen qristianulad. amaT hyavdaT mRvdeli; es mRvdeli trapizonSi iyo nakurTxi, berZnis episkopozisagan. es mRvdeli dRisiT namdvili muslimani iyo da Rame qristiani, eris kacis tanTsacmliT iareboda xalxSi, salocavs oTaxSi ki igi filoniT Seimoseboda... mRvdeli saeklesio nivTebsac inaxavda, barZim feSxums; samTlebsac akeTebdnen, samTlebs SiSis gamo ver anTebdnen... sxva ram saeklesio nivTebic hqoniaT, nametur Zveli xatebi, magram yvela eseni maT swyobiaT salocav oTaxis erTs dolabSi, romlis karebic kedelSi ise ostaturad yofila Catanebuli, rom ...ucxo kaci imas veras Seatyobda. saidumlo qristian-qarTvelebi saidumlo locvas garda mcired karSiac qristianobdnen. magaliTebr, Soba Rames amaT icodnen alilos Tqma: patara biWebi erTad Seikribebodnen da aqa-iq qarTvelebTan alilos ZaxiliT wavidodnen; osmalTa mola-xojebi ki ase hfiqrobdnen, rom viTomc bavSvebi mReriano. qarTvelni yvela qristianT dResaswaulebsac igonebdnen xolme da nametur uqmobdnen Sobas, aRdgomas, wyalkurTxevas, axal weliwads da eliaobas, qristianul marxvasac inaxavdnen. saidumlo qristian qarTvelebs erTi Waneli xoja da erTi mola gadaekida: eseni didis ostatobiT adevnebdnen maT Tvalyurs da ukanasknel

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darwmundnen qarTvelTa qistianobaze, amitom maT saCqarod daabezRes qarTvelni. osmalos sasuliero mTavrobam male kacebi gamogzavna... saidumlo qristiane qarTvelebi sikvdiliT iqnen gankiTxulni... osmalT mosZebnes samlocvelo oTaxic... wignebs cecxli misces da daswves, oqro-vercxlis xatebi TviT waiRes da dahyides.. ase da am gvarad mospes osmalebma murRulSi qristianoba... alilos Tqma murRulSi ... 1870 wlebamdis scodniaT. Soba Rames Turme eseni am locviT daivlidnen da miulocavdnen im qarTvelT ojaxebs, sadac aseTi milocva moswondaT. CveulebaT SerCaT kidev saRvTos dakvla da wiTeli kvercxebis SeRebva (WiWinaZe 2004: 22-27). TurqeTis eTnikur qarTvelTa Soris Semonaxuli `guriela~, savaraudod, qarTul (qarTvel mTielTa) yofaSi Semonaxul kviriolas//kvirielas unda ukavSirdebodes. ukanaenismier xSul mJRer(g-) da yelxSul(k-) Tanxmovnebs Soris monacvleoba sityvis Tavkidur poziciaSi dadasturebuli faqtia Zvel qarulSi: gurka/kurka (xilis kakali) (sorbeliani1991: 179), grwyili/ krwyili (orbeliani 1991:171; 391), grkali/krkali(modrekiT gadabmuli) (orbeliani 1991: 170); aqve SegviZlia gavixsenoT svanurSi daculi termini `kvirikoba~ , romelmac Semdegi fonetikuri cvlileba ganicada: lagurka, lagurka, laguirka. laguirka. zogma mkvlevarma sityva daukavSira ivlisis Tves: `guirka~ (saRliani 2005: 97) (termini iSleba li-e, laa/la-a mawarmoeblebad da fuZed `guirka~(saRliani 2005:197). qarTuli enis sxva kiloebSi mocemuli `k~ _ukanaenisemieri abruptivis mJRer g-d qceva, aRdgenil ZirTa mixedviT, iSviaTad, magram dasturdeba: magaliTad, g. klimovi kakal- Zirs saerTo qarTvelur doneze aRadgens da svanurSi mis paralelur Zirad kak-/gak- Zirs warmoadgens ( 1964: 105). kuir- qarTuli Ziria Semdegi fonemuri mocemulobiT: kuir-|| guir-. momdevno u- xmovans rac Seexeba, ua-/Uue-/ui difTongis uxmovnad qcevac dadasturebuli faqtia saerTo qarTulisaTvis: magaliTad, svanuri kuad- Ziri qarTulSi kud-iT aris warmodgenili, kuam(`bolavs~) svanur Zirs qarTulSi `kumeva~ Seesatyviseba; (sarjvelaZe, fenrixi 1990, gv178-179); qarTuel- formas megrulsa da lazurSi forma qorTu ( 1964: 196), xolo kuircx-(mkvircxli) formas megrulsa da lazurSi

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kurcx-kucx-(mRviZare, RviZili) ( 1964: 111) fuZeebi Seesatyviseba. qarTuli Ziris struqturul-tipologiuri monacemisa da zemoT Tqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, Cveni azriT, guriela swored kuirielas funetikurad saxecvlili varianti unda iyos (Wkuaseli 2013). rasakvirvelia, XX saukunis miwurulamde arsebuli ZveliT axali wlis aRniSvnis wesi `gvirielas~//`gurielas~ elementebiTurT, tradiciis gamoZaxilia. mosaxleobaSi `kirieleisonTan~ da qristes sjulTan makavSirebeli codna, cxadia, dakargulia, magram dReoba da rituali sruldeboda, radganac igi tradiciuli yofis ganuyofeli nawili iyo. sadReobo ciklSi ikveTeba qarTuli sakarnavalo Tematikidan momdinare mravali elementi, rac damxasiaTebelis danarCen saqarTveloSi arsebuli `muryvamobis~, `keisarobis~, `aRbliRralis~, `melia-tulefias~, yeenobis~, `berikaobis~, `fadikos~ ritulebisaTvis. dReisaTvis ZveliT axali weli `gvirielas~//`gurielas~ TanxlebiT aRar sruldeba, vinaidan istoriuli nigalis, qalaq arTvinsa da mis mimdebare eTnikuri qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli teritoriis sofelTa didi nawili zamTrobiT TiTqmis icleba mosaxleobisagan. zamTrobiT soflebSi darCenil nawilSi ki es tradicia ukve dakargulia. xolo is sakarnavalo elementebi, romlebic saaxalwlo ciklSi iyo CarTuli, dReisTvis Semonaxulia `berobanas~ da `fadikos~ TamaSobebSi, romelTac, ZiriTadad, imerxevelebi asruleben. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania saerTo qarTuli sulieri kulturis motivebis arseboba TurqeTis qarTvelTa tradiciul yofaSi da maTi msgavseba ara mxolod aWarisa damesxeTis eTnografiul masalasTan, aramed misgan teritoriulad skmaod daCilebul svaneTis, fSavisa da xevsureTis tradiciul yofasTanac.

Mmariam marjaniSvili emigrantulepistolaruli memkvidreobis semiotika


(leo WeiSvilis, mariam kereseliZis, levan da givi jafariZeebis magaliTebze).
jer kidev gasuli saukunis 20-ian wlebSi epistolaruli memkvidreobis raobasa da did mniSvnelobaze amaxvilebda yuradRebas, ukve emigraciaSi myofi Tamar gogolaSvili-papavasi, romelic hamburgidan gamogzavnil esseSi aRniSnavda: ,,werilebSi Cemi Zveli sisxli metyvelebs, Cems pirad winamorbedT vxedav da vexebi, maT zraxvebs vecnobi" (,,Teatri da cxovreba" 1926:5). esseist Tamar papavas imdenad hqonda gacnobierebuli da gaTavisebuli epistoles mTavari arsi, rom igi maT avtorTa gulwrfelad, sadad daweril striqonebSi aSkarad grZnobda pirovnebis gulisTqmas, miswrafebebs, uSualobasa da TavisTavadobis momentebs: ,,mosawyenia da xSirad gaugebaric akademiuri da wminda istoriuli msjeloba warsul sazogadoebaze, _ miuTiTebda Tamar papava, _ aq xSirad yvelaferi erTmaneTs ar udgeba, ar exameba... magram TqvenTvis

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sakmaoa am mSral msjelobas moscildeT... gaSaloT es Zveli werilebi da warsuli mkvdreTiT aRsdges" (,,Teatri da cxovreba" 1926:5). Tamar papavas am koncefciidan gamomdinare, Cveni sazogadoebis samsjavros winaSe, pirvelad gamogvaqvs pirad arqivebSi daculi is epistolaruli memkvidreoba, romelTa avtorebi XX saukunis 50-iani wlebidan ukve samxreT amerikaSi cxovrobdnen da moRvaweobdnen. cnobilia, rom meore msoflio omis damTavrebis Semdeg, samxreT amerikas evropaSi Seqmnili mZime politikuri da ekonomiuri mdgomareobis gamo, bevri qarTveli politikuri emigranti da repatriaciis SiSiT tyved Cavardnili sabWoTa meomari miawyda. maT Soris gaxldaT mecnieri, poeti da mxatvari leonide (leo) WeiSvili, romelic didxans idga argentinaSi moRvawe iseTi kolorituli emigranti mwerlebisa da mecnierTa CrdilqveS, romlebic gaxldnen viktor nozaZe, Tamar da akaki papavebi. globusis meore mxridan, 60-iani wlebidan, gamogzavnili leo WeiSvilis werilebi, marTalia, piradia, magram dRes maT ukve sazogado mniSvneloba aqvT da bevr axal informacias Seicaven qarTuli emigraciis, zogadad qarTuli kulturisa da werilebis avtoris cxovreba-Semoqmedebis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT. l. WeiSvilis epistoleebis ZiriTadi adresatebi gaxldnen TbilisSi mcxovrebi da da disSvili eTer WeiSvili da nana yifiani, romlebic ager TiTqmis mTeli naxevari saukunea, rac mis werilebs esaTuTebian. ,,eTer, sayvarelo! _ werda das, _ rac dro gadis, rogorc Zveli Wriloba, ise ixsneba Cemi guli da tiris samSoblosa da TqvenTvis. ra bednieri viyavi, rodesac lurji feris pasporti meWira xelT da saswavleblad wamovedi germaniisaken. ra ubeduri var axla, rodesac yvelaferma Caiara da mis uazrobas vxedav, samSoblos gareSe ar arsebobs araferi..." (eTer WeiSvilis piradi arqivi, lomas-de-samora 1974.13.11.).

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,,RmerT da samSoblo dakarguli, suliT oboli adamiani mudmivi tanjvisa da wamebisTvisaa ganwiruli, igi xsnas ar elodeba. _ aseTi iyo is mkacri realoba, romelmac leo WeiSvili ojaxsa da samSoblos samudamod moswyvita da qarTul politikur emigrantTa did nakads SeuerTa. ase rom, bolSevikur samSobloSi dabrunebas, man isev emigrantoba arCia. igi dauaxlovda akaki papavas ojaxs, sadac didi siTbo da siyvaruli ipova. male, 1938 wels, parizSi turfa papavaze jvari daiwera da am ojaxis wevric gaxda. ,,...yvela Cems mdgomareobaSi bednierad CaTvlida Tavs, _ isev Tavis gulistkivilze werda das, _ qarTveli meuRle, xuTi janmrTeli Svili, ori usayvarlesi SviliSvili. yovelTvis maRali ,,postebi qarxnebSi, universitetSi Tu samecniero institutebSi, magram merwmune Cemo gulis nawilo dao, rom ara var bednieri, var wamebuli da es miTumetes, autanelia, radgan veravisTvis miTqvams, raTa ar minda vinme davtvirTo Cemis grZnobebiT da masac gaumwaro es xanmokle yofna _ amqveyniuri. amitom var marto. davrCi marto da maqvs ufro mZime jvari, vidre qriste nazarevels. amitom aris,rom Cemi baraTebi Tqvendami savsea mwuxriT da sevdiT. mtkiva guli, ase mZime Sinaarsis baraTebs, rom gwerT, magram amiT cotaTi Tavisufldeba suli" (eTer WeiSvilis piradi arqivi, lomas-desamora 12.7.71). samSoblodan daSorebis wlebi sul ufro da ufro awyvetda nervebs leo WeiSvils, suls ufleTda da aforiaqebda. ,,dao eTer! Sen icode, Sen icode marto Tu rogor var jvarcmuli vcocxlob da ar vkvdebi... guli tiris sayvarelo Cemi miwisaTvis. yvela Cemi warmateba kulaSis quCis mtverSi da iqauri Zma-biWebis, megobrebis JriamulSi niavdeba.. ra vqna Cemi bedi aseTi yofila _ cremli, mwuxri, tanjva da wameba. Cemi erTi leqsi ase mTavrdeba:

,,bevri viare mwuxriT daRlilma mtiral tirifTan Camovjeq qvaze,

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TvaldaxuWulma niavs SevCivle: var wamebuli gakruli jvarze~. rodesac Camoxval gagatan Cems leqsebs. kargia Tu cudia, erTi ram axasiaTebs: gadakargulis dausrulebeli gulis tkivili Tavisi miwis mimarT da gauTavebeli cremlebis Rvra, TavianTi sisxlisa da xorcis daSorebiT gamowveuli. vin icis iqneb, erTxel daibeWdos, raTa yvelam icodes, rom miwis Ralati, mas sikvdilamde jvarcmulad gaxdis. veraviTari ram ver Secvlis dakargul miwas. icocxlebs damJRnari, sanam sabolood ar gaxmeba da waiqceva fesvebdaWrili, romelic sayvarel miwaSi datova~ (eTer WeiSvilis piradi arqivi, lomasde-samora 26. 2.73.). ,,mirbian aTeuli wlebi da midis cxovreba. 1910 da 1920-Si mand viyavi, 1930-40-Si germaniaSi, 1950-Si aq (argentina), 1960 Crdilo amerikaSi, 1970 da 1980 isev aq. sad viqnebi 1990-Si? maSin me viqnebi oTxmocdaxuTi wlis da SesaZloa Cvens saxlSi samtrediaSi mixiloT.. ra mogaxsenoT, ver Sevasrule Cemi mSoblebis mier arCeuli saxelis ,,leonide didis aCrdilis natamalic ki. albaT jer ar davmdgarvar `Termofiles win, rom gaviTqva saxeli. saerTod, me sul ukanukan viyurebi, davtiri ganvlil da gancdil gzas da amiT ,,Termofiles aba, rogor wavawydebi?! (eTer WeiSvilis piradi arqivi, lomas-de-samora 6. 1.75.). emigrantebi ara marto cxadSi, sizmarSic mwvaved ganicdidnen samSoblosTan daSorebas, rac Cvens TanamemamuleTa sulier tragizmsa da erovnul-patriotul TvalTaxedvas warmoadgenda. aSkaraa, rom leo WeiSvils epoqis dramatizmi sakuTar tragediad hqonda aRqmuli, radgan igi samyaros Wvretda ara TavisTavad arsebuls,aramed, rogorc sulis siRrmeSi moqceuls. epistolaruli memkvidreoba SemoqmedebiTi procesis gansakuTrebuli sferoa. mas emigrantuli memkvidreobis kvlevisas, gansakuTrebuli roli ekisreba, radgan yoveli piradi

214

mariam marjaniSvili

baraTi Tu sul mcire naweric ki mkiTxveelsac izidavs da TavisTavadac unikalur dokumentur masalasac warmoadgens. am azris konstataciaa mariam kereseliZis is piradi werilebi, romlebic TbilisSi mcxovreb mamidis elene kereseliZe-glurjiZisa da profesor levan glurjiZis pirad arqivebSi aRmovaCineT da dRes pirvelad gamogvaqvs mzis sinaTleze. qarTuli jiSisa da genis, eris Tavisuflebisaken swrafvis dauokebeli survili da udidesi movaleoba Caunerga mariam kereseliZes mamam, generalma leo kereseliZem, romelic gaxldaT cnobili politikuri emigranti, erovnul-patriotuli moZraobis TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli, JenevaSi saqarTvelos damoukideblobis komitetis, osmaleTSi qarTuli legionis, evropaSi organizacia ,,TeTri giorgis" erT-erTi damaarsebeli da winamZRoli. igi Tavis erTaderT qaliSvils ,,mamakacurad zrdida, cdilobda, misTvis gamoemuSavebina iseTi Tvisebebi, romlebic rTul viTarebaSi gamoadgeboda. mamis surviliT, is unda yofiliyo misi politikuri kursis gamgrZelebeli da ,,Tamar mefe" Tu ara qarTveli ,,Jana darki" mainc" (sulaZe 2012:391). ,,omis bolos partizani viyavi italiis mTebSi, wamiyvania 600 qarTveli biWebi. germanelma ,,esesebma" kinaRam damxvrites, magram, rogorc iyo gadavrCi. dedam saSineli dro gaatara, sul moeloda ambavs, rom mkvdari viyo. mis Semdeg raRac jildo undodaT moecaT, magram me es ar mainteresebs. mand, italiis mTebSi qarTvelebs aRmerTeben da oficialurad gamoacxades, rom ,,qarTvelebis wyalobiT da mariamis wyalobiT Cven gadavrCiTo. Torem, italieli partizanebis imediT yofiliyvnen, bevri xalxi daiRupeboda, vinaidan italieli partizanebma kurdRelebiviT irbines saSiS dros". omis dros fridon wulukiZem Camabara Tavisi xeliT germanel ,,s.s" rom damxvriton! rogorRac gadavrCi. italiaSi, omis Semdeg italiurma mTavrobam mTxova Tu SeiZleboda sakoncentracio banakidan fridonis gaSveba da me veTanxmebi" (elene kereseliZe-glurjiZis piradi arqivi, 01.10. 1958). (epistoleebSi daculia avtoris stili da orTografia).

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mariam kereseliZe 1921 wels SveicariaSi daibada. misi deda marTa eCoultre iyo, cnobili Sveicariuli saaTebis ganTqmuli da dResac msoflioSi metad warmatebuli firmis (,,Jaeger-eCoultre") damaarseblisa da mflobelis Jacques-avid eCoultres (1875-1948) qaliSvili. berlinis dabombvisas leo kereseliZe daiRupa. amasTan dakavSirebiT mariami axloblebs werda: ,,22 noembers 1943 wels mamilom gviTxra, rom sizmarSi naxa Tavisi Tavi TeTrad Cacmuli da mTeli naTesavebi, ded-mama, romlebic mokvdnen - Savi tanisamosiT da gviTxra: ,,cudia, male movkvdebi" da 23-Si daiRupa, rogorc bebia mariami" (elene kereseliZe-glurjiZis piradi arqivi, 30.08. 1956). omis damTavrebis Semdeg mariam kereseliZem dedasTan erTad samxreT amerikas miaSura. igi damkvidrda peruSi, kiTxulobda leqcias limas universitetSi: ,,seqtembris TveSi aq pirvel TeatrSi dgamen Cems pirvel piesas-dramas espanurad dawerils. gigzavni gazeTs, sadac iwereba, rom qarTveli var. Cemi fsevdonimia leo kereli! imedia meore drama Cemi daidgmeba 1960 da Tu ki kargia, vin icis, iqneb evropaSi miiRon da ... vin icis Tu ki sabWoTa kavSirSi ar miiRon? imitom rom es drama perus cxovrebidan aris aRebuli. me didi imedi maqvs, rom Cemi piesa ,,maita" miiReben TbilisSic da moskovSic da es iqneba didi saSualeba Cveni Sexvedrisa" (elene kereseliZeglurjiZis piradi arqivi, 03.07.1960). mariam kereseliZe Tavis epistoleebs adresats 1956-60 wlebSi ugzavnida perudan. am epistolaruli memkvidreobidan Cveni azriT metad mniSvnelovania qarTveli qalis is sulieri aRsareba da tkivili, romelic am wlebSi Seqmnil erT-erT werilSia gadmocemuli: ,,Cemi aq cxovreba, e.i sazRvargareT, sul umiznoT da uinteresod mimaCnia. sxva CemsaviT emigraciaSi dabadebuli adamiani SeeCvia sxva qveyanas. me arc erT ers ver veguebi, arc sulierad da arc azrovnulad. me mizidavs da mainteresebs mxolod saqarTvelo, is xalxi romelic mand cxovrobs. me ar mainteresebs fuli, simdidre, dros gatareba da saerTod bedniereba, romelic udides miznad daudgeba Tvalwin bevr xalxs. me minda Sinaarsiani cxovreba, mainc uSinaarsod darCeba vinaidan, eg Cemi xalxi ar aris da me

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magaTvis mudam ucxo viqnebi. Tu ki saqarTveloSi viqnebodi, rac unda ubralo muSaoba rom meqnes, magaliTad gzis gakeTeba, es mainc raRaca Sroma iqneba saqarTvelosTvis da is patara qva Cemi xeliT dawyobili darCeba" (elene kereseliZe-glurjiZis piradi arqivi, 26.09.1956). pirdapir gancvifrebas iwvevs am epistoleSi gamoxatuli mariam kereseliZis samSoblosadmi usazRvro siyvaruli da Tavdadeba, romelsac saqarTvelo arasodes enaxa da Tavisi qveynis siyvaruli mis gulSi mxolod mamis gadmocemiT iyo gaRvivebuli. pirovnuli miusafrobaa gamoxatuli aseve levan jafariZis argentinidan gamogzavnil mimoweraSi, romelic misi ZmiSvilis fizikamaTematikis doqtoris, profesor grigol jafariZis pirad arqivSi moviZieT. levan jafariZis epistolaruli memkvidreobac zemoxsenebul avtorTa msgavsad xasiaTdeba emigrantuli mimoweris zogadi TaviseburebebiT: sevdiT, monatrebiT, wuxiliT, mSobliur fesvebs iZulebiT mowyvetili da ucxo qveynis xiznad qceuli adamianis sulieri oblobiT. ,,am dReebSi davbrundi buenosairesSi. droebiT Camomyvnen ciala Tavis qmriT da oTxi biWiT. iseTi ambavia am patara saxlSi gegoneba hunebis Semoseva ariso. mapatie droze ver mogiloce Seni 82 weli. albaT, rogorc SarSan ZeglevSi xarT. miviRe Zeglevis da Cveni saxlis suraTi, sadac gadaRebulni xarT yvela erTad. ubiT vatareb da xSirad vtkbebi misi yurebiT. aRelvebuli da Tvalcremliani vigoneb Cems siyrmes. erT wuTs Cemi Tavi warmovidgine Robenaurze rom patara mindori iyo iq. Cems tolbiWebSi kvira dRes TavSeyrili Cveni soflis axalgazrdoba ,,buzikiT da dairiT". maT Soris istua, Tu Sen ar gaxsovs alikos hkiTxe, cota suleli iyo da yvelas arTobda. Sura da kotika rogor arian? me kido ZveleburaT Semoklebuli saxeliT vaxseneb magaT. CemTvis, rac saxlidan wamovedi yvelas hasaki im dRes SeCerda, yvela jer kido axalgazrda da norCi mgonia. rac Tqveni pirveli werilebi

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miviReT mTeli ojaxi im dRidgan sul Tqveni ambebiT vcocxlobT" (grigol jafariZis pirad arqivi, buenosairesi 10.8.60). werilis avtori levan jafariZe onis raionis sofel ZeglevSi 1902 wels daibada. igi gaxldaT qaquca ColoyaSvilis ajanyebis erTerTi Tanamdgomi, romlis Tvalwin gaiara ajanyebis damarcxebis mZime wuTebma. amasTan dakavSirebiT buenosairesSi gamomavali Jurnali ,,mamuli" werda: ,,Tavisi mogonebis Sesaxeb sityva warmosTqva Tavmjdomaris amxanagma b-n levan jafariZem; man zedmiwevniTi sinamdviliT dauxasiaTa damswreT agvistos dReebi TbilisSi, sadac momxsenebeli im xanad imyofeboda... ajanyeba jer ar dawyebuliyo, magram misi suli ukve trialebda TbilisSi, misi molodini aCrdiliviT Tan dasdevda yovels da eleqtronis ZaliT avsebda TviTeulis energias... yvelgan ucnauri daZabva mefobda, mexi unda gavardniliyo... momxsenebelma agviwera gansakuTrebiT maSindeli axalgazrdobis gamosvlebi, ros qarTveli Wabukni mkerds uSverdnen Tavgasul CekistTa tyvias" (,,mamuli" 1953:196). l. jafariZem samSoblo 1924 wlis 29 agvistos ajanyebis damarcxebis Semdeg datova. emigraciaSi igi jer safrangeTSi cxovrobda da mawvnis warmoebiT irCenda Tavs. meore msoflio omis Semdeg ojaxTan erTad okeanis gaRma aRmoCnda. misi qaliSvili Teo jafariZe gaxldaT radiosadgur ,,amerikis xmis" qarTuli gadacemis erTerTi wamyvani, romelic Ria eTerSi Canaweris gareSe gamodioda. argentinis qarTuli diasporis erTerTi aqtiuri warmomadgenlis levan jafariZis mogonebebi da korespondenciebi xSirad ibeWdeboda samxreT amerikaSi gamomaval pirvel qarTul Jurnal ,,mamulSi". samSobloSi Tavis axloblebTan gamogzavnili misi werilebi 60iani wlebiT TariRdeba: ,,imitom vcocxlob imediT kidev, iqneb veRirso Cemi qveynisa da Tqvens naxvas. vnatrob vicocxlo imden xans, rom vnaxo kido Cemi mze, Cemi mTvare da yvela Tqvengani. mSobliuri literaturiT da JurnalebiT vgebulobT saqarTvelos ambebs" (grigol jafariZis pirad arqivi, buenos airesi 4.10.61).

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mariam kereseliZis msgavsad ucxoeTis cis qveS saqarTveloTi cxovrobda da saqarTveloTi cocxlobda aseve emigraciaSi dabadebuli levan jafariZis vaJiSvili givi jafariZec. maT ojaxSi yvela nabiji ganisazRvreboda nacionaluri suliskveTebiT. am mrwamsiTa da sulierebiT aRzrdil STamomavlebSi saqarTvelos siyvaruli bavSvobidanve ZvalrbilSi iyo gamjdari, romlis dasturia givi jafariZis erTi werili: ,,am dReebSi mama brundeba buenosairesSi, 6 agvistos CvenTan iqneba da erTad gadavixdiT Sen dabadebis dRes viTom CvenTan erTad iyo. kargi iqneba es survili xolid ocneba ar iyos, aramed sinamdvileT gadaiqces da male suyvela erTad viyoT. mapatie Cemo sayvarelo biZia, rom ukeTesad ar SemiZlia gamovTqva qarTulaT Cemi fiqrebi. magram minda icode, mTeli Cemi guliT miyvars Cemi samSoblo, rogorc suyvelas saqarTveloSi dabadebuls" (grigol jafariZis piradi arqivi, buenosairesi 25.7.61). (epistoleSi daculia avtoris stili da orTografia). amrigad, rogorc qarTveli fsiqologi dimitri uznaZe aRniSnavda: ,,emocia subieqturi mdgomareobis gancdaa, romelic amave dros obieqturi viTarebis, rogorc Tavisi mizezis an sagnis gancdasac gulisxmobs". aqedan gamomdinare auRelveblad ver SeZleb leo WeiSvilis, mariam kereseliZis, levan da givi jafariZeebis werilebis kiTxvas, radgan msgavs garemoSi moqceulTa, ara mxolod emociebi emTxvevian erTmaneTs, aramed is sityvieri leqsikonic, romlis meSveobiTac isini zustad erTsa da imave azrs gadmoscemen, rac bunebrivad gamoxatavs semiotikis momentebs.

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literatura

1. kereseliZe-glurjiZe piradi arqivi, Tbilisi. 1956-1960. 2. papava 28 103/ 15: saxelobis saxelmwifo

1956-1960:

kereseliZe-glurjiZe

e.

papava

T.

saqarTvelos

g.

leoniZis

literaturuli muzeumi, fondi 28 103/ 15. 3. Jurnali ,,Teatri da cxovreba" 1926: gogolaSvili T. ,,Zveli werilebi", #15(3) (371), Tbilisi, 1926. 4. Jurnali ,,mamuli" 1953: ,,argentinis axalSenis cxovreba", #6, buenos-airesi. 1953. 5. sulaZe 2012: sulaZe g. ,,qarTuli antisabWoTa emigracia da specsamsaxurebi", Tbilisi. 2012. 6. WeiSvili 12.7.71, 26. 2.73, 13.11.74, piradi arqivi, lomas-desamora - 12.7.71, 26. 2.73, 13.11.74, 7. jafariZe 10.8.60, airesi 10.8.60, 4.10.61, 6. 1.75: WeiSvili e.

6. 1.75.

4.10.61: jafariZe g. piradi arqivi, buenos

Nnana mrevliSvili drois kategoriis gageba ioane damaskelis `gardamocemaSi`


dro is filosofiuri kategoriaa, romlis arsSi wvdomasa da romlis definicirebas cdilobdnen rogorc antikuri periodis filosofosebi, ise qristianuli Teologiis warmomadgenlebi. erT-erTi amgvari avtori gaxlavT ioane damaskeli, romelic erTgvarad ajamebs da am kategoriebis Sesaxeb kacobriobis codnisa da gamocdilebis sistematizacias axdens Tavis enciklopediur naSromSi `wyaro codnisa~ (Ph,gh gnw,sewj). es Zegli kompoziciuri TvalsazrisiT warmoadgens trilogias da Sedgeba Semdegi nawilebisagan: 1. `filosofiuri Tavebi~ (Kefa,laia filosofika,); 2. `wvalebaTaTs~ (Peri. ai,resewn); 3. `gardamocema ucilobeli marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebisa~ ( ;Ekdosij akribh/j th/j ovrqodo,xou pi,stewj). msjeloba drois kategoriis Sesaxeb mocemulia Zeglis pirvel nawilSi, `filosofiur TavebSi,~ romelsac mogvianebiT `dialeqtika~ ewoda. ioane damaskelis mixedviT, saukune Seqmna maradiulma, maradmyofma

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RmerTma qveynierebis Semtkicebamde, `uwinares soflisa Sesaqmisa~ ( ) 1, anu jer kidev manam, sanam ar arsebobda mze dRisa da Ramis gamyofad da ar arsebobda gazomvadi (`ganzomili~- ) saukune, aramed arsebobda mxolod `Jamieri rame Zrva da ganfena~ (damaskeli 2000: A74), sxvagvarad - saukune `uJamoTa maT Tana gangrZeldeboda, viTarca Zrva da sivrce weliwdeuli~ (damaskeli 2000: E74)- , , anu moZraobisa da grZliobis garkveuli forma, is, rac maradiulTan, RmerTTan TanagangrZobadia, `romlisaebr iTqumis `RmerTi saukune~ (damaskeli 2000: A74) - , magram, amavdroulad, RmerTi winaresaukunocaa, `pirvel saukuneTaca~ - , `rameTu TT igi saukuneca mas Seuqmnies (),~ radgan dausabamoba mxolod RmerTis Tvisebaa, xolo yvela arsi da yvela saukune Seqmnilia da maTi Semqmnelia RmerTi. arsebobs, agreTve saukuneTa saukuneebi ( ), amgvaria qveynierebis Svidi saukune, romlebic Tavis mxriv kidev mraval saukunesa da mravali adamianis sicocxles moicavs - `SdTa saukuneTa amis sawTrosa mravalni saukuneni hqonan, ese igi arian TiToeulisa kacisa dReni cxorebisani~ (damaskeli 2000: E74) ` , .~ arsebobs kidev erTi saukune, romelic gamaerTianebelia, `gareSemwerelia~ yvela saukunisa - ` .~ saukunis saukuned iTqmis, agreTve, awmyo da momavali. arsebobs kidev dausrulebeli dRe (marTalTaTvis) da dausrulebeli Rame (codvilTaTvis). es aris
berZnuli teqstis citirebisas vsargeblobT Migne-s gamocemiT (ix. damowmebuli literaturis nusxa), xolo qarTuli teqstebis citirebisas veyrdnobiT Tbilisis sasuliero akademiis mier marTlmadidebel mamaTa Sromebis seriiT gamocemul ioane damaskelis `marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis zedmiwevniTi gardamocemis~ qarTul arsen iyalToelisa da efrem mciris redaqciebs. arseniseuli redaqciis damowmebis aRsaniSnavad viSveliebT laTinur A niSans, xolo efremiseuli redaqciis damowmebisTvis E niSans.

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aRdgomis Semdgomi maradiuli saukune, rodesac Jami aRar ganizomeba dReebiTa da RameebiT. amdenad, drois kategoriis damaskeliseul diferencirebas Semdegi saxe aqvs: 1. RmerTis mimarT TanagangrZobadi saukune, romelic samyaros Seqmnamde arsebobda, rogorc Jameuli ram moZraoba da grZlioba; 2. saukune, romelic Seiqmna qveynierebis Semtkicebamde anu samyaros gaCenamde - saukuneTa saukuneebi Svidi saukune, samyaros arsebobis asaki, romelic gazomvadia da danawevrebulia drois sxvadasxva segmentad da moicavs adamiani gardacvalebasac da periodsac aRdgomamde; 3. saukuneebis saukune `saukune saukuneTa,~ romelSic avtori awmyosa da momavals, yofads moiazrebs; 4. aRdgomis Semdgomi maradiuli saukune; 5. saukune, `gareSemwereli~ da gamaerTianebeli yvela saukunisa; msjelobis Sedegad amgvari azri ikveTeba: Tumca RmerTi winaresaukunoa da man Tavad Seqmna dro, magram garkveuli Jameuli TanagangrZobadoba, gazomvadi drois Seqmnamde, mainc arsebobda. anu arseboda is sivrce da mdinareba, romelSic RmerTis sufeva moiazeba (amgvari daSveba ewinaaRmdegeba adreuli egzegetikosis, netari avgustines azrs, romlis mixedviTac ar SeiZleba raime kategoriis droze saubari RmerTis mier droiTi ganzomilebis Seqmnamde). uSualod samyaros Seqmnamde, qveynierebis Semtkicebamde iqmneba danawevrebuli, Tvladi dro, romelic moZraobiT izomeba. es dro samyaros Seqmnidan moedineba, Tavis TavSi moicavs drois danawevrebul sistemasac da adamianTa Taobebis cvlasac. drois am kategoriaSi ioane damaskeli gulisxmobs periods samyaros Seqmnidan `vidre zogadisa aRsasrulisa kacTasa da aRdgomamde~ (damaskeli 2000: A73) da uwodebs mas (saukuneni saukuneTani), Tumca es saxeli azrobrivi aspeqtis sizustes ver warmoaCens. drois am fazas mosdevs awmyo da momavali, romlebic erTiandebian erTi kategoriis -`saukune saukuneTa~ qveS.

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adamianur yofierebasTan mimarTebaSi damaskeliseuli awmyo/myofadis gageba gulisxmobs adamianis fizikuri arseboba/ararsebobis azrobriv konteqstsa. Tumca fizikuri ararseboba (sulis gayra sxeulsa da samSvinvelTan), maradisobaSi saboloo gadasvlas ar niSnavs, es gaiazreba, rogorc erTgvari etapobrivi safexuri sayovelTao aRdgomamde. xolo maradiulobas gulisxmobs ukve Semdegi faza, romelic aRdgomidan ganefineba ukunisamde, `rameTu Semdgomad mermissa mis aRdgomisa arRara dRiTa da RamiTa aRiricxuvodin Jamni, aramed iyos erTi dRe Seumwuxrebeli, raJams brwyinvides mze igi simarTlisa da gananaTlebdes, xolo codvilTaTs iyos Rame ganunaTlebeli da tanjva dausrulebeli, vinaca viTar-Ra aRiracxos aTasi igi weli msgavsad orogines 2 siCqurisa~ (damaskeli 2000: E74). amdenad, dro, romliTac adamianis arseboba ganisazRvreba, samwverovania, samfaziania, magram ara tradiciuli (warsuli, awmyo, momavali) gagebiT. pirveli faza gulisxmobs adamianis amqveyniuri, fizikuri arsebobis periods, romelic sruldeba gardacvalebiT, arsebobis formis SecvliT. gardacvaleba es ar aris saboloo aRsasruli, amgvar mdgomareobas kerZoobiTi aRsasruli ewodeba da adamianuri arsebobis meore fazas gulisxmobs, anu periods gardacvalebidan vidre aRdgomamde. mesame faza saxeldebulia, rogorc sazogado, yovliTurTiT aRsasruli da iwyeba aRdgomis Semdgom da gadadis maradiulobaSi. 3

igulisxmeba meore saukunis aleqsandrieli moRvawe origene, romelic

aviTarebda apokatastasisis (berZn. - aRdgena, dabruneba, dasruleba) iwodeba swavleba codvilTa (adamianTa da demonTa) sayovelTao cxonebis (bukv. aRdgenis) Sesaxeb, romelic eklesiis mier uaryofilia. es swavleba warmoiSva ori cnebis: ("aRdgena") da ("yovelives aRdgena"), urTierTaRrevis Sedegad. swored am ukanasknels ukavSirdeba mcdari swavlebac (wyaro: m. s. ivanovi, apokatastasisihttp://www.apocalypse.ge/mm_m_s_ivanovi_apokatastasisis_teori a.html) damaskelis amgvari msjeloba winaaRmdegobrivia, radgan yoveli qmnili, maT Soris - angelozTa dasic, rakiRa qmnilia, TavisTavad
3

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da bolos saukune, romelic drois zogadi kategoriis gamoxatvis funqcias itvirTavs, aris gamamTlianebeli, drois yvela sxva aspeqtis Semomkrebeli da `gareSemwereli.~ savaraudod, am kategoriaSi, sxva danarCenTan erTad, Semodis RmerTis mimarT TanagangrZobadi saukunec, romelic samyaros Seqmnamde arsebobda, rogorc Jameuli ram moZraoba da xangrZlivoba. rogorc vxedavT, avtori drois kategoriebad diferencirebis sakmaod rTul sistemas gvTavazobs. viTarebas kidev metad arTulebs polisemiis problema, mwiri terminologiuri aparati. uSualod drois kategoriaze msjelobis dawyebamde avtori azustebs saukunis ai;wn terminologiur mniSvnelobas da miuTiTebs am terminis polisemiurobaze: ` , ~ - `samar vidreme ars cnobad, viTarmed mravlisa damniSnvel ars saukunisa saxeli, rameTu mravalsa ras Seiswavebs...~ (damaskeli 2000: A 73). avtori dagvanaxebs ramdenad vrcelia am terminis semantikuri veli da CamoTvlis TiTqmis yvela im mniSvnelobas, romlebsac es termini gamoxatavs: adamianis sicocxlis dro saukunod iTqumis TiToeulisa myofTaganisa (igulisxmeba adamiani) cxoreba. aTaswleuli Jami - iTqumis saukuned aTaseulTa weliwadTa Jami. arsebuli yofa, yofiereba - - saukunod iTqumis yoveli ese awindeli cxoreba. aRdgomis Semdgomi maradiuli dro ,
sasrulia, usasruloba da maradiuloba mxolod RmerTis Tvisebaa. Tuki yoveli qmnili sasrulia, maSin aRdgomis Semdgomi maradiuloba adamianis arsebobasTan mimarTebaSi usasrulo kategoriad veRar ganixileba.

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, - Semdgomad aRdgomisa yofadi igi dausrulebeli. saukune iTavsebs maradiuli, daunawevrebeli drois kategoriis gamoxatvis funqcias, droisa, romelic mudmivad iyo da iqneba, romlis gazomva moZraobiTa Tu dRe-Ramis monacvleobiT ar aris SesaZlebeli , , , - `iTqumis kualad saukuned ara Jami, arca kerZo rame amisa, moqceviTa da srbiTa mzisaTa ganzomili, romel ars dReTa da RameTagan Semokrebuli, aramed Tanagavrcomili samaradisoTa, viTarca Jamieri rame Zrva da ganfena, rameTu raigi ars JamisqueSeTaTs Jami, igive samaradisoTaTs ars saukune~ (damaskeli 2000: A73). damaskeli detalurad ganixilavs im periodisTvis dadgenili kalendaruli sistemis metafizikur da fizikurastronomiul saxes. dRe da Rame damaskelisaTvis, drois sazomTan erTad, aris sinaTlisa da sibnelis sazomi, ufro zustad, sinaTlisa, radgan, Tavis mxriv, sibnelec sinaTliT izomeba. sinaTle ( ), romelic RmerTma dasawyisSive, anu pirvelsave Jams, dRes ( ) Seqmna, aris mTeli xiluli samyaros samkauli da mSveneba, radgan xiluli samyaro swored misi meSveobiTaa xiluli da sxva mSvenierebaTa aRqmac misiT xdeba. sibnele TavisTavadi bunebiT ar arsebobs ( ), igi sinaTlis klebazea damokidebuli. igi aris ara arsobrivi, aramed - SemTxveviToba (Sdr. sikeTisa da borotebis opozicia): `ara haerisa arseba ars bnel, aramed mokleba naTlisa, romeli SemTxueviTsa () ufros, vidre arsebasa, cxad-hyofs~ (damaskeli 2000: A 86). haers sakuTar bunebaSi ar aqvs sinaTle ( ), igi xan iRebs sinaTles garedan, xan ara. amitom RmerTi Rames uwodebs haeris im mdgomareobas, rodesac is sinaTles ar iRebs garedan. mzis Seqmnamde, anu meoTxe dRemde, RvTis nebiTa da brZanebiT sinaTle ikumSeboda da iSleboda da am formiT xdeboda dRe-Ramis monacvleoba - `samTa ukue dReTa Sina ganfeniTa da SekrebiTa naTlisaTa (

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)saRmrTosa brZanebisa mier ( ) dRe da Rame Seiqmnebodes ()~ (A 87), xolo mzis Seqmnis Semdeg mze `dRis mTavrobad da elmwifebad~ Seqmnili ( ), gaxda dRis `Semamtkicebeli~ (). dRis grZliobis (`sazRvar dRisa gangrZelebisa~-E/`sivrce dRisa~-A) sazomi aris mzis moZraoba cargvalze amosvlidan Casvlamde, aRmosavleTidan dasavleTamde (magram is pirvelqmnili sinaTle, romelic mzis Seqmnamde arsebobda, fuWad rom ar gabneuliyo, daaunja sxva mnaTobebSi, romlebsac bunebiT manaToblobis funqcia ar aqvT miniWebuli, aramed arian `WurWel, Semwynarebel~ (damaskeli 2000: E 87), `savane naTlisa~ (damaskeli 2000: A 87). amdenad, mze Tavisi arsiT aris manaTobeli, es Tviseba mas RmerTisgan aqvs miniWebuli, xolo varskvlavebis bunebiTi Tviseba naTeba ar aris, isini mxolod sinaTlis mimReblebad SeiZleba warmovidginoT. da raki dRe naTels ukavSirdeba, xolo naTeli pirvelqmnilia ( ), amitom dRe upiratesia, dRe aris pirveli da Rame - meore, Rame mosdevs dRes da ara piriqiT. dRe mziT aris Semtkicebuli, mis naTels mze qmnis, xolo Ramis `mTavroba da elmwifeba~ mTvaresa da varskvlavebs akisria. Ramis moZraoba sawinaaRmdegoa dRis moZraobisa, mimarTulia dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisaken da misi gangrZobadoba droSi (`sivrce Ramisa~) ganizomeba isev mzis moZraobiT, oRond amjerad imgvarad, roca mze aris `queSeTkerZo~ queyanisa ( ). aqve damaskeli SeniSnavs, rom Tumca dRe arc mTvare Cans da arc varskvlavebi, magram es ar niSnavs, rom isini am dros miwaSi Cadian, `varskulavni dRisica zeda queyanisa caTa Sina~ arian, Tumca maT naTebas mzis naTeba gadafaravs `gardamatebulebiTa naTlisa TsisaTa~ da es xdeba maTi uCinoyofis mizezi. damaskeli dros mnaTobTa moZraobas ukavSirebs, Tumca iqve dasZens, rom moZraoben ara mxolod mnaTobebi (cTomilebi), aramed moZraobs cac! magram ca aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisken moZraobs, cTomilebis, anu planetebis moZraoba ki cis sawinaaRmdegoa dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisken. am Svidi cdomilis (mTvare, merkuri, venera, mze, marsi, iupiteri, saturni , , , , , , ) mudmivi moZraoba qmnis Jams, romelic aq drois zogadi

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cnebis gamomxatvelia. weliwadis droTa cvlileba mzis oTx Semoqcevas ukavSirdeba. sawyisad gazafxulia miCneuli. am periodis bunebiTi Tviseba sicocxlis dawyebaa, ramdenadac am periodSi Seqmna RmerTma yovliereba ( ). es periodi 24 martidan 24 ivnisamde grZeldeba. 24 ivnisidan 25 seqtembramde periods sazafxulo Semoqceva ewodeba da ukavSirdeba mzis SemaRlebas aRmosavleTidan ufro CrdiloeTis mxares. saSemodgomo Semoqcevas mzis samxreT-aRmosavleTisken daSveba ganapirobebs da misi periodi 25 seqtembridan 25 dekembramde grZeldeba. damaskeli yuradRebas amaxvilebs dRisa da Ramis grZliobis urTierTmimarTebaze da SeniSnavs, rom dReRamsworebiTi Semoqceva sagazafxulo periodSia, rodesac dRe da Rame erTmaneTs utoldeba da orives xangrZlivoba 12 saaTia. yvelaze didi dRe sazafxulo Semoqcevis periodSia da TxuTmet saaTs grZeldeba, Sesabamisad Ramea xanmokle 9 saaTiani, xolo saSemodgomo moqcevis dros gvaqvs yvelaze xanmokle dRe 9 saaTi da udidesi Rame 15 saaTi. damaskeli aqve saubrobs warmarTTa elinTa (elinTa) astrologiur warmodgenebze da kritikulad ganixilavs ra maT, SeniSnavs, rom mnaTobebi ar SeiZleba ganagebdnen adamianTa beds, es nebis Tavisuflebas ewinaaRmdegeba da eWvqveS ayenebs RmerTis samarTlianobasac: ` rameTu Cven, kacni, TTelmwifed Seqmnul varT Semoqmedisa mier (E92)\Cven, TviTmflobelad Seqmnilni dambadeblisagan, TT varT ufal saqmeTa CuenTa (damaskeli 2000: A92).~ rogorc samarTlianadaa SeniSnuli, ioane damaskelis es naSromi Tavs uyris da sistemurad da Tanmimdevrulad gadmoscems rogorc Teologiur-saRvTismetyvelo, ise mecnierebis sxvadasxva sferoTa sakiTxebs. maia rafavas miTiTebiT, `es naSromi warmoadgens saRvTismtyvelo moZRvrebis klasikur saxelmZRvanelos, romelSic definiciebis saxiT RvTismetyvelebis gverdiT mocemulia mTeli Suasaukuneobrivi saganmanaTleblo sistemiT nagulisxmevi codna, rac TavisTavad emyareba qristianuli azrovnebis mier antikur-warmarTuli filosofiis gamoyenebas~ (damaskeli 2000:5).

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literatura 1. damaskeli 2000: wm. ioane damaskeli, marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis zedmiwevniTi gardamocema // marTlmadidebel mamaTa Sromebi, Tbilisis sasuliero akademiis gamomcemloba, 2000. 2. Migne 1864: Jacques Paul Migne. Patrologiae Cursus Completus. Series Graeca. t. 94, 1864 3. internetsaiti: : m. s. ivanovi, apokatastasisihttp://www.apocalypse

Eekaterine gaCeCilaZe enobrivi niSnis aimetria, rogorc enis funqcionirebis fundamenturi kategoria
niSanTa sistemis funqcionirebiT ZiriTadad semiotikaa dainteresebuli. semiotika cdilobs moicvas niSanTa sistemebis, individualuri niSnebis, niSanTa simravleebis arsebobisa da saxecvlilebis ZiriTadi sivrce, xolo niSanTa denotacia upiratesad semiologiis saqmea. Tanamedrove semiotikuri analizi adamianis saqmianobis yvela sferos ukavSirdeba, rac Sesabamisi dainteresebulobis mimarTulebiT warimarTeba. semiotikuri analizi aucileblad moicavs vizualurSemoqmedebiT, verbalur-azrovnebiT da konkretuli moqmedebebis sferoebs. mas Semdeg, rac semiotika da niSani semeion xmarebaSi Semovida, igi sul sxvadasxvanairad ganisazRvreboda, vinaidan niSani, rogorc aseTi, SeiZleba yvelaferi yofiliyo: mag. Jesti, diagrama, emblema, mizani, naxati, simbolo, enobrivi niSani da a.S. mis ZiriTad Tvisebebad aRiniSneboda is, rom igi ixmareboda raRacis nacvlad, hqonda mniSvneloba, gamoxatulebis forma. enaTmecnierebs, ra Tqma unda, pirvel rigSi enobrivi niSani ainteresebdaT da yovel saenaTmecniero

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skolas da Sesabamisad, enaTmecnierul koncefcias niSnis Taviseburi ganmarteba hqonda. enobrivi niSnis Taviseburi xasiaTi kargad esmodaT rogorc antikuri xanis, aseve Sua saukuneebisa da Tanamedrove mkvlevarebs. saxeldobr, isini aRniSnavdnen asimetrias niSnis mniSvnelobasa da gamoxatulebas Soris; aRniSnavdnen niSnis sakomunikacio xasiaTs; misi mniSvnelobis dadgenis kriteriums mxolod opoziciebze e.i. gansxvavebebze dayrdnobiT da a.S. yvela es parametri dResac ZalaSia niSnis raobis dadgenisas, magram arc erTi maTgani ar miiCneva ZiriTadad da gadamwyvetad Tanamedrove koncefciebis mixedviT. enobrivi analizi, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs enobriv niSanTa sistemisa da mis komponentTa Soris mimarTebis sazRvrebis dadgenas. niSans rom ori mxare aqvs _ gamoxatuleba, misi fonetikuri saxe da mniSvneloba, cneba, romelsac igi gamoxatavs am fonetikuri saxiT _ eWvs ar iwvevs. magram mniSvnelobisa da formis (fonetikuri gamoxatulebis) urTierTSesabamisobaSi moyvana, maTi urTierTkorelireba rTuli procesia da damokidebulia niSanTwarmoqmnis mravalsaxeobasTan. enaTmecnierebaSi enis sistemur-struqturul Seswavlas Tan axlda simetriisa da asimetriis kategoriebis aRmoCena da kvalifikacia. sistemur-struqturuli midgoma aRniSnavs enis, rogorc sistemaTa sistemis ganxilvas, xolo Tavad sistemis cneba varaudobs simetriis cnebas. organizebuli sistema elementTa ubralo SeerTebisagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom igi xasiaTdeba mis Semadgenel nawilTa urTierTdamokidebulebis regularobiTa da kanonzomierebiT, anu simetriiT. XX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi es kategoriebi damkvidrda ra lingvistikaSi, aRmoCnda, rom simetria da asimetria sxvadasxvagvarad vlindeba enis zogad sistemasa da mis sxvadasxva qvesistemaSi. asimetria mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs enis ganviTarebaSi. enobriv erTeulTa asimetriuli dualizmis cneba Semotanil iqna s.karcevskis mier. enis mkvlevarTa Soris, man pirvelma Tavis statiaSi enobrivi niSnis asimetriuli dualizmis Sesaxeb (1929) gamoiyena terminebi simetria da asimetria enobriv movlenebTan dakavSirebiT. mkvlevarma yuradReba gaamaxvila enobriv movlenaTa mravalmniSvnelianobasa da sinonimiaze, rac warmoiqmneba

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Sinaarsisa da gamoxatulebis planis SeuTavseblobis Sedegad. s. karcevski aRniSnavs: niSnis asimetriuli bunebis ilustrirebisaTvis SegviZlia mivmarToT Semdeg sqemas: aRmniSvneli (JReradoba) da aRsaniSni (funqcia) yovelTvis dacuravs realobis daqanebul sibrtyeze. TiToeuli gamodis im CarCodan, romelic misTvis partniorma gansazRvra, daadgina; aRmniSvneli cdilobs hqondes sxva funqciebi, sakuTari funqciisagan gansxvavebuli; aRsaniSni cdilobs sakuTari Tavi gamoxatos sxva saSualebebiT da ara sakuTari niSniT. isini asimetriulni arian; arian ra Sewyvilebulni, aRsaniSni da aRmniSvneli imyofebian aramyari wonasworobis mdgomareobaSi. swored niSanTa struqturis am asimetriuli dualizmis Sedegad, lingvisturi sistema SeiZleba Seicvalos; niSnis adekvaturi pozicia ki yovelTvis aireva konkretuli situaciebis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad. (karcevski 1929 [1956]: 24) XX saukunis filologiur mecnierebaSi es terminologiuri wyvili simetria/asimetria aramarto farTod gamoiyeneba, aramed moiazreba, rogorc enis agebisa da funqcionirebis fundamenturi kategoria. asimetriis cneba xdeba mecnieruli Teoriis agebis principebisa da kvlevis erTerTi umniSvnelovanesi meTodologiuri elementi. lingvistebi, romlebic ikvleven enobriv arqiteqtonikaSi simetriisa da asimetriis gamovlenis calkeul formebs, adastureben, rom asimetria, romelic arsebobs rogorc gamoxatulebis, aseve Sinaarsis planSi, ganapirobebs enobrivi sistemebis kompaqturobasa da ekonomias. s.karcevski SesaniSnavad axdens niSansa da mniSvnelobas Soris arsebuli SeuTavseblobis demonstrirebas: niSani da mniSvneloba mTlianad ar faravs erTmaneTs. maTi sazRvrebi erTmaneTs ar emTxveva yvela wertilSi: erTsa da imave niSans aqvs ramdenime funqcia, aseve erTi da igive mniSvneloba gamoixateba sxvadasxva niSniT. yoveli niSani erTdroulad gvevlineba potenciur omonimadac da sinonimadac, anu igi iwarmoeba am ori rigis azrobrivi movlenis urTierTgadakveTiT. (karcevski 1929 [1956]: 18) enobrivi niSani rom uZravi iyos da mxolod erT funqcias asrulebdes, ena iqneboda etiketebis ubralo krebuli. aseve SeuZlebelia warmovidginoT iseTi ena, romlis niSnebi imdenad

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moZravi iyos, rom arafers aRniSnavdes konkretuli situaciebis gareSe. amgvarad, lingvisturi niSnis buneba erTdroulad ucvlelic unda iyos da moZravic. SeuZlia ra Seewyos konkretul situacias, niSani mxolod nawilobriv SeiZleba Seicvalos da aucilebelia, rom meore nawilis uZraobis wyalobiT, niSani darCes Tavisi Tavis msgavsi. erTi da igive bgeriTi niSani sxvadasxva rigSi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT sxvadasxva mniSvnelobis gadmosacemad da piriqiT: erTi da igive mniSvneloba sxvadasxva rigebs SigniT SesaZloa warmodgenili iqnes sxvadasxva niSniT. yvela lingvisturi erTeuli potenciurad gvevlineba omonimadac da sinonimadac. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, igi erTdroulad ganekuTvneba rogorc erTi da igive niSnis gadataniTi, transponirebuli mniSvnelobebis rigs, aseve msgavsi mniSvnelobebis rigs, romlebic gamoxatulia sxvadasxva niSniT. es logikuri Sedegi niSnis diferencialuri xasiaTidan gamomdinareobs; yvela lingvisturi niSani aucileblad unda iyos diferencialuri, sxvagvarad igi arafriT ar iqneba gansxvavebuli Cveulebrivi signalisagan. (karcevski 1929 [1956]: 20) aRsaniSnavia, rom s. karcevskis mier damuSavebuli enobrivi niSnis asimetriis Teoria moicavda asimetrias mxolod paradigmatul RerZze, romelic ori saxiT vlindeba: aRsaniSnis variatuloba ucvlel aRmniSvnelTan (polisemia) da aRmniSvnelis variatuloba ucvlel aRsaniSnTan (alomorfia). v. gakma ki SemogvTavaza niSnis asimetriis axali, gafarToebuli ganmarteba, romelic ar aris Semofargluli mxolod paradigmatuli aspeqtiT. asimetria vlindeba sintagmatur da semiotikur aspeqtSic. asimetriis sintagmaturi aspeqti moicavs: a) erTi azrobrivi erTeulis gamoxatvas ori an meti formaluri erTeulis kombinaciiT (farTo mniSvneloba, analitikuri konstruqciebi, frazeologizmebi) da b) erTi formaluri erTeulis gamoxatvas ori an meti azrobrivi erTeulis kombinaciiT (kondensacia, Semcirebuli mniSvneloba, amalgamireba, kumulacia da a.S). asimetria semiotikur planSi moicavs iseT movlenebs, rogoricaa: a) mosalodneli formaluri erTeulis ararseboba Sesabamisi azrobrivi erTeulis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi (gamartivebuli mniSvneloba, nulovani niSani, elipsisi) da b) mosalodneli azrobrivi erTeulis ararseboba Sesabamisi formaluri erTeulis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi

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(desemantizacia, carieli da gamocarielebuli niSnebis gamoyeneba, niSnis semiotikuri siWarbe). asimetriuli da simetriuli movlenebi arsebobs enis sxvadasxva doneze: fonologiur, sintaqsur Tu morfologiur doneebze. morfologiur doneze simetriisa da asimetriis sakiTxi ZiriTadad enis gramatikuli wyobis dadgenisas binaruli opoziciebis arsebobasa da maT uaryofas ukavSirdeba. simetria morfologiur doneze ganixileba, rogorc enis sistemis agebis gansazRvruli regularoba, am agebis zogadi principebis ganmeorebiToba mis calkeul nawilebsa da qvesistemebSi. asimetria warmoadgens enobrivi sistemis zomierebis, wonasworobis rRvevas, rac ganpirobebulia enisTvis damaxasiaTebeli cvlilebebiTa da ganviTarebiT da romelic, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs mTeli sistemis gardaqmnas. (bgaSevi 1990: 23) asimetriuli movlenebi xorcieldeba enis konstruqciuli maxasiaTeblebis wreSi da semantikis sferoSi, e. i. rogorc gamoxatulebis, ise Sinaarsis planSi. simetriuli enobrivi struqtura aseve moicavs asimetriis ama Tu im niSnebs. amiT SeiZleba aixsnas enobrivi sistemis dinamikuri mdgradoba. struqturis asimetria warmoiqmneba axali Tvisebebis mqone elementebis warmoqmnisa da Zveli Tvisebebis mqone elementebis gaqrobisas. maTi Sejaxebisa da urTierTzemoqmedebis Sedegad irRveva sistemis simetriuloba da amavdroulad izrdeba misi asimetriuloba. simetriisa da asimetriis brZolas mivyavarT sistemis cvlilebebTan da mis gardaqmnasTan, rac ganapirobebs axali asistemuri movlenebis warmoqmnas.amgvarad, enaSi sistemis asimetriis cneba emTxveva sistemaSi asistemuri movlenebis arsebobis cnebas. enobrivi niSnis mxareebs _ aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels _ Soris, yvelaze idealur SemTxvevaSic ki, ar arsebobs aranairi simetria. enobrivi niSani warmoadgens konvenciur gaerTianebas, materialuri erTeulebisa (JReradoba) da gonebrivi moqmedebis erTeulebis (gageba, gansja) erTianobas. f. mauleri Tavis statiaSi asimetriis saxeebi enobrivi niSnis mxareebs Soris aRniSnavs, rom zedsarTavi saxelis _ asimetriuli _

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gamoyeneba gulisxmobs, rom niSnis erTi nawili aris simetriuli, harmoniuli, xolo misi meore nawili aris defeqturi, anu simetrias, wonasworobas moklebuli. (mauleri 1987: 13). f. mauleri gamoyofs Tvisobriv da raodenobriv asimetrias. Tvisobriv asimetriaSi igi gulisxmobs yvela im Seusabamobas, romelic aRiniSneba enobrivi niSnis mxareebs Soris maTi urRvevi erTianobis miuxedavad: 1. gamoxatvis planis sworxazovneba ver poulobs Sesabamisobas Sinaarsis planSi, romelic globalur xasiaTs atarebs. 2. SeuTanxmebloba Sinaarsisa da formis erTeulTa Soris. 3. winaaRmdegobaTa mTeli kompleqsi enobriv erTeulTa formasa da Sinaarss Soris. (mauleri 1987: 14) Seusabamoba da winaaRmdegoba enobrivi niSnis mxareebs Soris mTlianobaSi qmnis Tvisobriv asimetrias, romelic, f.mauleris mixedviT, ganisazRvreba Tavad enis bunebiT da igi aucilebelia. movlenaTa meore kompleqsi qmnis raodenobriv asimetrias, romelic xorcieldeba mxolod Tvisobrivi asimetriis wyalobiT. raodenobrivi asimetria, rogorc wesi, ganisazRvreba garegani faqtorebiT enasTan mimarTebaSi da igi ar aris aucilebeli. asimetriis es tipi iyofa or erTmaneTis sapirispiro movlenad, romlebic cnobilia, rogorc mravalmniSvnelianoba da sinonimia. asimetria, romelic warmoadgens enis ganviTarebis mamoZravebel Zalas, upirveles yovlisa, eyrdnoba adamianis fsiqologiisa da azrovnebis Taviseburebas. simetria da asimetria enaSi arsebobs aramyari wonasworobis mdgomareobaSi. mudmivad adgili aqvs moZraobas erTi movlenidan meorisaken da piriqiT. simetria mosaxerxebelia Tavisi erTgvarovnebiT, rasac xels uwyobs gaTanabreba analogiebis mixedviT da rasac mivyavarT asimetriul formaTa uaryofasTan. rogorc wesi, simetriuli formebi ufro motivirebulia, isini iolad aRiqmeba da gamoiyeneba, gamodevnis ra aramotivirebul asimetriul formebs, romlebic atarebs ara kvalificiur, aramed individualizebul xasiaTs. miuxedavad amisa, simetriam SesaZloa mainc dauTmos adgili asimetrias.

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yovel cocxal enaSi arsebobs simetriul formaTa ararsebobis kompensaciis garkveuli saSualeba. swored asimetriulobis ukugdebis tendenciebSi mJRavndeba simetriulobis anu enis sistemurobis SenarCunebis survili. ena moZraobs aramarto simetriis dadgenis mimarTulebiT, aramed asimetriis mimarTulebiTac. mag. enaSi mudmivad SeimCneva omonimebis gaqroba, mravalmniSvnelianobis reduqcia da sxva msgavsi movlenebi, romlebic qmnis simetrias. Tumca aqve fiqsirdeba gamoxatvis saSualebaTa farTo varireba, axali omonimebis, analitikuri konstruqciebisa da gamoxatvis saSualebaTa warmoqmna da enobrivi sistemis asimetriis danarCeni faqtebi. xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebas, rom simetria/asimetriis erTianobaSi wamyvani adgili ukavia simetrias, imdenad, ramdenadac enis sistemis nebismieri cvlilebisas mis struqturaSi ucvlelia elementTa garkveuli erTianoba, rac xels uwyobs memkvidreobiTobas enobrivi sistemis ganviTarebaSi. meores mxriv, enis struqturis dinamikuroba da cvalebadoba warmoadgens struqturis winaaRmdegobriobis Sinagan markers da miuTiTebs mis asimetriaze. asimetria mudmivi da amavdroulad universaluri movlenaa. igi unda ganvixiloT ara rogorc enis avadmyofoba, enis ukmarisoba, aramed rogorc enobrivi sistemis umniSvnelovanesi komponenti, romelic dakavSirebulia enis agebulebasa da funqcionirebasTan. amitomac gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsia simetria Tavad asimetriaSi. amrigad, simetriisa da asimetriis kategoriebi enaTmecnierebaSi urTierTkavSirSi Seiswavleba. enobrivi arqiteqtonikis am ori movlenis ganxilvisadmi amgvari midgoma xels uwyobs enis struqturis SedarebiT Rrma Secnobas da saSualebas iZleva avxsnaT mocemuli struqturis dinamikuri stabiluroba Tu misi mzadyofna nebismieri cvlilebisaTvis.

literatura 1. bgaSevi 1990: . .

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( - ), , 1990. 2. gaki 1980 : Gak V. G., A propos de lutilisation de la notion de symtrie dans la linguistique, Kalinine 1980. 3. karcevski 1956 : Karcevski S., Du dualisme asymtrique du signe linguistique, Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure # 14, 1929 [1956], pp. 18-24. 4. mauleri 1987: .. . . , 1987.

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Sorena barbaqaZe esoposis igavebi _ Cafiqreba sindisierebaze


esoposis (Zv. w. 620560) igavebi, miuxedavad aTaswleulebis gasvlisa, aqtualurobas arc dRes kargavs da msoflios uamrav enazea Targmnili (mimoxilvisaTvis ix. gordeziani 2003: 180; 538). marTalia, sxvadasxva igavi esoposamdec gvxvdeba (hesiodesTan, arqiloqosTan), magram rogorc damoukidebeli literaturuli Janri, igi, unda vivaraudoT, pirvelad esoposma Camoayaliba da esoden popularuli gaxada mTels antikur samyaroSi. esoposi Tavis igavebs prozauli formiT qmnida. amdenad, igi berZnuli prozis fuZemdebladac SeiZleba miviCnioT. marTalia, bevri igavi esoposis Semdegaa dawerili, kerZod, Sua saukunebSi, magram yvela maTgani samarTlianad sargeblobs esoposis saxeliT, radgan man Seqmna uzarmazari korpusi igavebisa, erT yaidaze, erT qargaze, erTi stiliT da yvela Semdgomdroindeli Tu manamdeli igavi misi inovaciis wyalobaa. ase rom, Cveni avtori samarTlianad iTvleba ar mxolod igavarakebis mamad, aramed

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yvelaze did moralistadac (Sdr. edmundsi 1990: 237243). igavi hgavs zRapars (eyrdnoba gamogonil ambavs), gavs qaragmasac (atarebs Tavis TavSi dafarul azrs), magram gansxvavdeba orivesagan imiT, rom misi ZiriTadi mizania adamianebisTvis moraluri normebis, socialuri movaleobebis, Tu politikuri simarTlis STagoneba da Canergva (osborni 1996: 4346). namdvili meigave arc naratoria da arc alegoristi. is maswavlebelia, moralis damdgeneli, naklis cenzori da RirsebasaTnoebis Semqebi. swored amaSi mdgomareobs igavis zRaparTan da qaragmasTan upiratesoba. igavisti qmnis mxiaruli ferebiT, magram aucileblad igavSi gatarebulia swori cxovrebis miTiTebainstruqcia. namdvili igavistis am or ZiriTad daniSnulebaze mianiSnebs esoposis mTavari mimbaZvelis, fedrusis sityvebi: Duplex libelli dos est: quod risum movet, Et quod prudenti vitam consilio monet. swored am ori niuansis erToba ganapirobebs esoposis igavebis momxibvlelobas. edkinsis azriT, igavi Seiqmna saberZneTSi, adamianebis saqmeebis parodirebiT. ainos, rogorc igavs moixseniebednen, niSnavs SeniSvnas, SemCnevas, an ufro, miCqmalul Sefarul sayvedurs; an simxiarules Tu oxunjobas, mwerlobaSi gamoxatuls, upiratesad, cxovelTa meSveobiT. da sadac ki gvaqvs esoposis, an mis mimbaZvelTa igavebi, es yovelTvis asea (edkinsi 2003:45). esoposis igavis konstruqcia ipyrobs erT, an ramdenime wuTian yuradRebas ambis Txrobaze, moralis deduqciaze, personaJis daxasiaTebaze. Txroba moicavs mxolod erT martiv moqmedebas da ar Seicavs bevr detals, bevri movleniT ganpirobebuls. masSi Cadebuli morali Tu gakveTili imdenad martivia, rom yvela mkiTxvelisaTvis erTnairad gasagebia da ar iZleva igi sxvadasxva interpretaciis saSualebas. cxovelebi Tu gamogonili personaJebi atareben mxolod maTTvis damaxasiaTebel, yvelasaTvis cnobil Tvisebas. magaliTad, mela yovelTvis eSmakia, kurdReli mSiSara, lomi Zlevamosili, mgeli boroti, xari Zlieri, cxeni amayi, viri

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momTmeni. am mokle teqstSi, rogorc wesi, yovelTvis bunebrivad gamosWvivis morali. esoposis TxrobaSi swored morali dominirebs, rac ganasxvavebs mas sxva miTologistebisagan. masTan ar aris raimes zedmeti axsna, an siRrmeebis Cveneba, rogorc sxva JanrebSi xdeba xolme. avtori moralze migvaniSnebs, ise, sadad, laRad, magram mravlismTqmelad. cnobilia, rom tragediasa da komedias SeuZlia Seasrulos kaTarsisis, anu ganwmendis funqcia. magram ara Wkuis swavlebiT, fexebis bakuniT da moralze leqciebis CatarebiT. Tu adamianebs ecodinebaT, rom TeatrSi misulebs amdagvar rames SesTavazeben, naklebi enTuziazmiT, an saerTodac ar wavlen iq. didaqtika aq Tavidanve unda gamovricxoT. rasac ver vityviT igavis Janrze zogadad da esoposis igavebze konkretulad. misi pirdapiri daniSnuleba garkveul Segonebamde adamianis miyvana, swored Wkuis swavleba da moralis dadgena, anu imis miniSnebaa, rogor unda vicxovroT sworad. amboben, rom garegnulad esoposi imdenad uformo iyo (grZeli TaviT, brtyeli cxviriT, sqeli, uformo tuCebiT, dagrexili fexebiT, kuziani zurgiT), rom homerosis Tersitosi masTan SedarebiT ulamazesi gegonebodaT. magram am yvelafris sawinaaRmdegod, mis igavarakebSi Cadebulia swori cxovrebis iseTi wesi, rom SeiZleba Tamamad vTqvaT esoposis igavebi aris eTikis norma, sivrce, sadac moraluri cnebebia Tavmoyrili. igi gvaZlevs samagaliTo da popularul mesijs praqtikuli eTikis Sesaxeb; Cveulebriv, gamafrTxilebeli, Sefaruli formiT, gveubneba, unda mivyveT, Tu ar mivyveT ama Tu im moqmedebas ama Tu im konkretul situaciaSi. Zv. w. me2 saukunis ritori Teonosi Tavis ProgymnasmataSi aRniSnavs: esoposis igavi aris gamogonili ambavi, romelic xatavs (baZavs) realobas da romlisganac aucileblad unda riame viswavloT, miviRoT kargi gakveTili . amasTan, esoposis igavis ena aris martivi, ritorikul gadaxvevebis gareSe. azri mkiTxvelisaTvis advilad gasageb enazea formulirebuli. Sedgeba mxolod ramdenime

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winadadebisagan zustad imdenisagan, rom mTavari gzavnili (morali) gasagebi gaxdes. aris Tu ara sindisis adgili esoposis igavebSi, mis moralSi? esoposis igavebi aris megobrobaze, samarTlianobaze, erTgulebaze da a. S. magram rogorc mosalodneli iyo, gansakuTrebulad gamokveTilad ar Semxvedria igavebi sindisis qonaarqonaze da striqonTa Soris daviwye Zieba. Sedegma molodins gadaaWarba. roca esoposis igavebze vmsjelobT, unda gaviTvaliswinoT ori ram: a) fabula, cocxali magaliTi; b)daskvna, SegonebiTi nawili, Tumca, erTi meorisagan gamomdinareobs. TiTqmis 350mde igavis Seswavlis Semdeg aRmoCnda, rom naxevarze meti iZleva masalas sindisierebaze sasaubrod. TvalsaCinoebisaTvis moviyvan ramdenime magaliTs: arwivi da mela. igavi dasawyisSive badebs eWvs arwivisa da melas ucnaur megobrobasa da keTil mezoblobasTan dakavSirebiT. maleve amJRavnebs arwivi Tavis namdvil bunebas, sityvier SeTanxmebas arRvevs da melas lekvebs Tavis marTveebs miutans SesaWmelad. cota xanSi mela amJRavnebs Tavs imiT, rom dardobs ara sakuTar Svilebze, aramed imaze, rom maRlamaRla mfrinavi arwivisaTvis samagieros gadaxda gaWirdeboda. erTaderTi misTvis xelmisawvdomi wyevlakrulva aRmoCnda, ramac maleve uwia arwivsa da mis qvemoT Camocvenil marTveebs, romlebic melam gadasansla. araki gvaswavlis, ficis gamtexi moZmis ganaCens rom gaeqces, RvTis ganaCens versad daemalebao. Tu ase davsvamT sakiTxs (rogorc, Cveulebriv, kiTxuloben xolme igavebis axsnisas) rogor adamianebs mogvagonebs am igavis personaJebi, pasuxi ramdenime SeiZleba iyos, maT Soris aseTic usindisos. aq irRveva dauwereli eTikis ramdenime kanoni: ar unda uRalato megobars; ar unda gatexo dadebuli fici; ar unda gamoiyeno Seni avi zraxvebisaTvis aravin, miT umetes, Senze sustebi. marTalia, morali ficis gamtexzea, magram CemTvis sainteresoa is nawili, roca meigave RvTisagan movlenil sasjelze saubrobs. es sasjeli ki SeiZleba iyos ara qmedebaSi gamovlenili, aramed Sinagan (RvTaebriv) xmaSic gamJRavnebuli, romelic ar gaZlevs mSvidad cxovrebis gagrZelebas saSualebas. Tu yvela erTad didi xania ukve

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Tanxmdeba, rom igavebSi alegoriulad aris bevri ram naTqvami, arc is unda gamovricxoT, rom es Sinagani xma swored sindisi iyo. Txa da mela. am igavSi esoposi gviyveba, rogor gamoiyena wylis dasalevad WaSi Casuli, wyrvilis mokvlis Semdeg, Txa Widan amosasvlelad melam, roca gza veRar ipoves. aq morali ki gvaswavlis, Wkvianma kacma saqme jer kargad unda awondawonos da mere Seudges mis aRsrulebaso, magram avtorze raime, mis mier ar ganzraxulis Tavze Zalad moxvevis gareSec aSkaraa, aseTive warmatebiT SeiZleba davayenoT mTavari personaJis sindisierebis sakiTxi Semdegi mizezebis gamo: saqmeze Cavidnen erTad; rogorc ki gauWirda, melas tyavSi gaxveulma, savaraudod, kargi saxis mqone adamianma, maSinve xeli aiRo sindisze da mSvidad, sindisis qenjnis gareSe miatova megobari gaWirvebaSi. ufro metic, gamoiyena da rogorc ki Tavi samSvidobos igrZno, Txa viRas axsovda! iqiT mougo niSni. savaraudod, roca am igavarakis arsze davfiqrdebiT, wamyvani swored es morali unda iyos da ara saqmis winaswar awon dawona. meliebi. igavi im meliaze mogviTxrobs, kudi rom SemTxveviT moZvra da sakuTari nakli rom daefara, TanamoZmeebs urCia, kudebi daeZroT saerTo Wirma iqneba sakuTari Semimsubuqoso. aSkarad im adamianzea igavi, romelic sindisze xelaRebuli yvelaferze midis sakuTari keTildReobisaTvis. Tan amas ise akeTebs, viTom sxvaze Sestkiodes guli. aq moqmedeba aseT etapebs gadis: gauWirda, daWirda, ityvileba, ubedurebaSi xvevs sxvas, ara erTs, aramed mTel samelieTs. mela da qacvi. araki ambobs: mela Robeze miZvreboda, rom ar Camovardniliyo, qacvs moeWida, ekali SeerWo da roca ganawyeneba gamoxata, qacvis pasuxi iyo: gana ar ici, me TviTon sxvebs vebRauWebi da veZiZgilavebio? da aqvea moralic: zneboroti kacisagan sikeTes nu moelio. Tu zneborotebaSi sindisis arqonasac vigulisxmebT (da ra Tqma unda, vigulisxmebT), gamodis, esoposis mixedviT, am tipis adamiani gamosworebas ar eqvemdebareba da misgan, garda usindisobisa, sxvas arafers ar unda velodeT.

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dedaberi da mkurnali. igavi yveba, rogor gaZarcva dedaberi, romelsac Tvalebi tkioda da ver xedavda, mkurnalma eqimma, xolo roca moxucs Tvali auxila, mowmeebi moiyvana da dedabers safasuri mosTxova. araki gvaswavlis: boroti kacis znea yvelas Tvali auxvioso. aq protagonistis sindisierebis sakiTxi ramdenime TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba dadges. igi usindisod iqceva 1. rogorc adamiani adamianis mimarT; 2. rogorc adamiani moxucis, miT umetes, qalis mimarT; 3. da rac mTavaria, rogorc eqimi sakuTari pacientis mimarT, romelsac erTi xeliT kurnavs da meore xeliT Zarcvavs; 4. erT Cadenil danaSauls meores amatebs sasamarTlos Sekrebs da miuxedavad imisa, rom kuTvnil gasamrjeloze bevrad meti saxlidan uCumrad mkurnalobisas xels gaatana, mkurnalobis safasurs iTxovs. ZaRlebi da maTi patroni. igavis protagonistia kaci, romelic uavdrobis gamo sakuTar mamulSi Caketili, Sinaur cxovelebs daeria da jer cxvrebi dakla, mere Txebi, bolos xarebi. SeSinebuli ZaRlebi ki garbian marCenali xarebi ar daindo da Cven dagvindobso?! igavis morali ase JRers: yvelaze metad imas unda eridos kaci, vinc Tavisianebs ar indobso. aq ramdenime pasaJi ipyrobs Cvens yuradRebas: adamiani gaWirvebis Jams daereva xarebs; arada, es gaWirvebis Jami ubralod uamindobaa; daereva xarebs, romelsac rogorc wminda cxovels, ise uyurebdnen Zveli berZnebi da mxolod msxverplSewirvisas klavdnen; dakla muSa xarebi, romlebiTac Tavs irCenda da romelTac, albaT, bevri sikeTe hqondaT patronisaTvis gakeTebuli. Citebze monadire da gveli. Citebs dadarajebuli kaci gvelisgan daikbineba da sinanuliT ityvis: sxvisi maxeSi gabma msurda da TviTonve gavebio . araki gveubneba vinc sxvas umzadebs sasjels, imave sasjelis msxverpli Tavadve gaxdebao. rogorc Cans, esopes am igaviT surda samagaliTod gaexada is, rom usindiso saqcieli sxvisTvis borotebis momzadeba dausjeli ar darCeboda. igavi winaswarmetyveli rCeviT, aTasi tyuil marTliT qenjnis gareSe inaxaven da uwinaswarmetyvelebiaT. im qurumebzea, sxvisi bedis rom Tavs yovelgvari sindisis sakuTari bedi ki ver

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esoposis igavebSi morali SeiZleba iyos erTi, magram safuZveli daiZieba bevri moraluri gakveTilisaTvis. erT moralur Segonebamde maTi dayvana, vfiqrob, sakmarisi ar unda iyos. magaliTad, igavi lomi, viri da mela gviyveba, rogor daglija lomma viri erToblivad mopovebuli nanadirevis sam tol nawilad gayofis gamo, xolo Wkuanaswavlma melam mTeli nanadirevi loms daudo, TavisTvis mxolod mciredi iwilada da SekiTxvaze vin gaswavla egre gayofao? viris bedmao, upasuxa. marTalia. am igavis Segonebaa: wina kaci ukanas xidiao, magram aseve SeiZleba aqedan viswavloT, rom 1. ufro Zlierebi xSirad mSvidad axdenen sakuTari Zalis demonstrirebas masze sustebis mimarT; 2. usindiso saqcielsac ki maT miuteveben da SiSiT Tu kidev sxva mizezebisa gamo angariSs uweven; 3. Sesabamisad, SeiZleba araswori saqcielisaTvis maTgan qebac ki daimsaxuroT (lomi, melas saqcieliT kmayofili, ase mimarTavs mas nadirTa Soris ukeTilSobileso!); 4. usindisobas Tu Zalauflebac daerTvis, yvelaze cudi Sedegic maSin dgeba. Citebze monadire da torola. monadiris mier dagebul maxeSi gaeba torola, radgan egona, monadire marTla qalaqs aSenebda im maxiT, rogorc monadirem uTxra. da ase mimarTa maxeSi gabmulma mobrunebul monadires: Sen Tu aseT qalaqs aSeneb, ara mgonia, aq cxovrebis erTi msurveli mainc gamoCndeso. Segoneba ambobs: yvelaze cudi qalaqis Tavi is aris, vinc Tavissave qalaqs anadgurebso . es igavi Zalze karg masalas iZleva CemTvis saintereso problematikaze msjelobis TvalsazrisiT. daviwyeb imis aRniSvniT, rom aq usindisobis masStabi farTovdeba da ukve saqme erTi adamianis ki ara, mTeli qalaqis mimarT Cadenil araswor saqciels exeba. Zalian nacnobia qalaqis Tavebis mier sakuTari qalaqebisadmi usindiso damokidebuleba, araswori marTvis Sedegad ganadgurebuli qalaqebi, daCagruli da umizezod gisosebSi gamoketili adamianebi, romelTac usasoobis da ususurobis gancda aqvT. movale. erTi Rataki aTeneli , romelic dedaRoris gayidvas cdilobda, muStars ase uxasiaTebda cxovels: misteriis dResaswaulze nezvebs moigebs, xolo panaTenauris dResaswaulebze ki taxebso. iqve SeaSveles: jer sada xar, male baxusis dReebi dadgeba da naxav, eg Rori Tiknebsac moigebso.

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arakis Segoneba aseTia: zogierTebi gamorCenisaTvis tyuilsac ar eridebian. aq ramdenime niuansi iqcevs Cvens yuradRebas: protagonisti aSkarad cruobs; cruobs gamorCenis mizniT; cruobs sxvebis SecdomaSi Sesayvanad da TavisTvis maT xarjze sikeTis mopovebis mizniT. amasTan, cruobs yovelgvari tanjvis, gancdis, anu sindisis qenjnis gareSe. paraleluri Segonebac da gakveTili, romelic am arakidan unda miviRoT, albaT, SeiZleba aseTic iyos: kacma Tu sindisze xeli aiRo, Rorma SeiZleba Tikanic ki Svaso. amgvarad, Cven mimovixileT esoposis aseuli igavidan mxolod ramdenime, Tumca, vfiqrob, daskvnisaTvis maTi analizi sakmao masala iZleva: im mraval saWirboroto Temebs Soris, romelic esoposis igavebSi muSavdeba, sindisierebis sakiTxic SeiZleba moviazroT. marTalia, ver vipove moralSi gamotanili vercerTi pirdapiri miniSneba, Tu teqstSi dafiqsirebuli verc erTi sindisTan dakavSirebuli sityva, magram Tavad es mcire, xSirad ramdenime winadadebisagan Sedgenili teqsti xSirad iZleva masalas zogadad sindisierebaze CafiqrebisaTvis. igavarakebis Janri, Tavisi formis specifikurobis, simoklesimartivis gamo ar saWiroebs CaRrmavebas, fsiqologiuri gancdebis Cvenebas, magram sityvaTa da winadadebaTa Soris bevr sxva eTikur sakiTxTan erTad esoposi gvaZlevs mSvenier literaturulmoralur gakveTilebs sindisierebasTan dakavSirebiT, rac, udaod, zrdis am saintereso avtoris mniSvnelobas da damsaxurebas ara mxolod msoflio mwerlobaSi Setanili wvlilis gamo, aramed misi, rogorc maswavleblisa da moralistis mniSvnelobas adamianebis sworad aRzrdis TvalsazrisiT. amitomac rCeba igi dRemde wignebis im pirvel aTeulSi, romlebic bavSvebma unda waikiTxon, SemdgomSi rom kargad esmodeT, rogor unda icxovron sworad. da bolos, is, rom esoposi ar amaxvilebs yuradRebas sindisis cnebaze, SeiZleba imiTi aixsnas, rom sindisi jer kidev ar iyo cnobierebis doneze momwifebuli, Tumca es sruliadac ar niSnavs, rom cxovrebaSic ar arsebobda es

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fenomeni. amgvarad, SeiZleba Tamamad vamtkicoT, rom esoposis igavebi aris sivrce sindisierebaze Casafiqreblad.

literatura gordeziani 2003: gordeziani r., berZnuli gamomcemloba logosi, Tbilisi 2002. literatura,

edkinsi 2003: Adkins, A. W. H. From the Many to the One: A Study of Personality and Views of Human Nature in the Context of Ancient Greek Society, Values, and Beliefs. Ed. by Max Black. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970. edmundsi 1990: Edmunds, Lowell, Ed. and Intro. Approaches to Greek Myth. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. osborni 1996: Osborne, Robin. Greece in the Making, 1200-479 BC. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. taunsendi 2003: George Fyler Townsend . Three Hundred and Fifty Aesop's Fables ; Harrison Weir; Aesop. Belford, Clarke 2003.

Qqristine adeiSvili avtoritrtis argumenti politikur diskursSi


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Aprs mai 68, Georges Pompidou avait dit : "le monde a besoin d'une nouvelle Renaissance.

Face au drame algrien, Camus avait dit : "Les grandes tragdies de l'histoire fascinent souvent les hommes par leurs visages horribles. Ils restent alors immobiles devant elles sans pouvoir se dcider rien qu' attendre." Attendre quoi ? Sinon le pire ? Il avait ajout : "La force du coeur, l'intelligence, le courage suffisent pourtant pour faire chec au destin. Gaulle n'a pas dit la jeunesse allemande: "vous tes coupables des crimes de vos pres". Il lui a dit : "je vous flicite d'tre les enfants d'un grand peuple, qui parfois au cours de son histoire a commis de grandes fautes".

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Je veux rendre hommage Jacques Chaban-Delmas, gnral de la rsistance 29 ans, au rve si beau, si prmonitoire, de la Nouvelle Socit. Son dernier grand combat politique fut pour moi le premier. J'avais 17 ans et l'impression de partir la guerre. C'tait la fin d'une poque, celle o le gaullisme ne pouvait plus appartenir un parti. C'est la France de Saint-Louis et celle de Carnot, celle des croisades et de Valmy. Celle de Pascal et de Voltaire. Celles des cathdrales et de l'Encyclopdie. Celle d'Henri IV et de l'Edit de Nantes. Celle des droits de l'homme et de la libert de conscience. Elle a 50 ans et la voix du Gnral de Gaulle le 18 juin 1940. Elle a 60 ans, le visage d'un proscrit qui s'appelle Victor Hugo.
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Lidentit de notre pays. Mais si nous ne savons pas do nous venons Nous sommes le pays de VOLTAIRE, nous sommes le pays de Victor HUGO, nous sommes le pays de MAUPASSANT, nous sommes le pays de Jeanne dArc, nous sommes le pays du Gnral De GAULLE! Nous venons de loin. BONAPARTE, cest chez nous, hein ! Ce pays sest construit parce que des gnrations successives lont voulu, lont dfendu, se sont battues pour lui! Moi, quand jai eu lhonneur de parler, Place de la Concorde, devant 120.000 personnes, cest peut-tre le seul pays, la France, o on peut parler devant 100.000 personnes et citer PEGUY, et citer Victor HUGO, et citer les grands auteurs!

Et ils nous ont dit des choses importantes, ils nous ont dit : nous ne voulons pas que la nation franaise disparaisse, nous croyons dans lEurope cher Louis, je sais ce que je dois ton pre, le prsident Valry GISCARD dESTAING, et tu sais combien son soutien mest prcieux.

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Voil mon projet, et il me plat de le dfendre, de le dfendre devant mes amis qui sont ici, au premier rang desquels je veux saluer Jean-Pierre RAFFARIN. Je nai pas un discours pour les uns, un discours pour les autres, cher Laurent WAUQUIEZ, tu le sais bien. Tu es mon ami, et tu le sais. Je revendique ces ides. Pensez aux chefs dentreprises de votre rgion pas simplement MICHELIN, que jadmire depuis bien longtemps et que je connais trs bien, et dont je salue ceux qui y travaillent, entreprise monde qui a gard ses racines Clermont-Ferrand ; je parle toutes ces entreprises qui irriguent votre rgion. Cest peut-tre le plus grand intellectuel du 20e sicle, Claude LEVISTRAUSS, qui lavait dit, en clturant le dbat : Lidentit nest pas une pathologie.
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Le Prsident de la Banque centrale europenne je ne veux pas lutiliser, le rcuprer, il prendrait peur Je vois des chefs de gouvernement qui, sinquitant de cette austrit qui les empche de rduire leurs dettes et de matriser leurs finances, commencent regarder vers nos propositions. Jai mme compris que le Prsident du Conseil europen, Monsieur Von Rompuy, un homme estimable, avait dj anticip la runion du Conseil europen. Tiens, ctait prvu au mois de juin, a viendrait plus tt Je vous le dis, on nous attend, on nous attend! Depuis des mois, les peuples europens regardent vers la France et mesure que le scrutin donne une certaine direction, je sens les positions, y compris des chefs de gouvernement conservateurs, voluer en fonction des pronostics. Tant mieux ! Trs bien. Quils nous attendent, nous arrivons, nous venons, nous serons l, au rendez-vous !

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tariel daTiaSvili arsebuli da ararsebuli sivrceebi


ilias universitetis semiotikis kvleviTi centris mier SemoTavazebuli saiubileo konferenciis Tema (sivrcis semiotika) sixaruliT miviRe. karga xania, vutrialeb am sakiTxs da rogorc iqna, motivaciac gamiCnda. unda vaRiaro, rom Tavdapirveli sivrce CemTvis carieli furcelia, romlis gavsebasac zustad ise veswrafvi, rogorc fizikuri sivrcis sakuTari yofierebiT gadafarvas (weris dawyebamde xilulia, magram pirvelive sityvis miRma is qreba, aRar arsebobs, rogorc carieli furceli, misi yofieri forma xdeba ararsebuloba, romliTac is iwyebs winaaRmdegobaSi CarTvas. winaaRmdegobaSi ki, romelic daurRvevelia, mniSvneloba aRar aqvs, arsebulia Tu ararsebuli, is isev carieli furcelia, sxvanairad xom ganfenilobac aRar iarsebebda). amitom sulmouTqmelad davewafe weras, vrceli traqtati davwere, zustad iseTi, Cveni brZeni winaprebi rom iamayebdnen. sivrcis yvela saxeoba, arsebobis wesi da forma mimovixile. paralelurad is koncefciac ganvaviTare, romliTac erT dros samyaros afeTqebas vapirebdi. maxsovs, erTxel repeticiac ki gaviare warmosaxvaSi, Cems Sinagan sivrceSi

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mTeli scena movawyve namdvili didi afeTqebisTvis. Cemi usasrulo ararsebobidan gamotyorcnil xmas jerac ar mouRwevia Cemamde, radgan is ar hgavda yuriT moTreul im afeTqebas, fizika rom mTels adamianur cnobierebaze mentoris taxtis SesanarCuneblad iyenebs... marTlac sakuTar sisusteze Tvalis daxuWva da adamianur SesaZleblobebze ganxorcielebuli mizanmimarTuli agresiaa, rom oriaTaswlovani metafizikuri gulubryvilobiT is gamoricxavs pirveli afeTqebis momentSi sivrcis arsebobas maSin, roca es ukanaskneli upirobo (obieqtur) mocemulobad aqvs gagebuli, rogorc magaliTad platonis timaiosSiusagnod ganfenili carieli furceli (qarTul TargmanSi mas mimrqmeli hqvia), romelzec mTeli samyaro aRisaxeba. samyaros erT sxeulad arseboba, sasacilos xdis sivrcis obiqtur xasiaTs. Cemi koncefciis centraluruli cneba ki sinamdvilea; ara samyaro, ara materia, ara obieqturi Tu subieqturi realoba, aramed sinamdvile - arsebulisa da ararsebulis daurRveveli mimarTeba. sivrce ar arsebobs, da Cvenc am ararsebulSi ara mxolod varsebobT, Tqven warmoidgineT, vcxovrobT kidec... mokled, STagonebuli viyavi, vborgavdi konferenciis molodinSi. magram bolo momentSi, konferenciis gaxsnamde sul raRac erTi kviriT adre, quTaisidan Tbilisisken momaval gzaze, moxsenebis morigi kiTxvisas, zustad is damemarTa, razec ityvian: sivrce aravis miscems martoobis saSualebas; Tvalwin batoni zurabis sandomiani, gaRimebuli saxe damidga, mere im xelfexdaWril biWebs gadavxede, romlebTan erTad fexburTis saTamaSod mivemgzavrebodi da ucbad, marTlac ifeTqa raRacam CemSi, xmauriani mecnieruli TezisebiT savse furclebi davyare, bloknoti gadavSale da davwere axali saTauri: literaturuli sivrce. sityva literaturis xsenebam CemSi Soreul warsulTan dakavSirebuli mogonebebi aRZra, an TviTon Cems zurgsukan moCurCule drom dabada wminda literaturuli emocia da TviTon cnebac. es bunebrivia, sivrce, romelic yovel wamierad maxvevs xolme Tavs sakuTar ararsebobas, Cemi warsulia, Cemi cxovrebis sivrce, romelic sakuTar Tavs yvelaze xSirad, yvelaze iolad literaturaSi poulobs. cariel furcelze Tvali gamiSterda da Cemi cxovrebis is

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Rimismomgvreli momenti gamaxsenda, pirvelad rom aviRe xelSi kalami... Teqvsmeti wlis viyavi, weris cxoveli interesi rom gamiCnda. poeziiT daviwye da ra Tqma unda, kalmis xelSi aRebisTanave Sevutie galaktions. ramdenime Tviani Ramis Tevebi filtvebis anTebiT, halucinaciebiT da zaliko ebanoiZis mamaSviluri darigebiT dasrulda, romelmac leqsebiT savse Cems asfurclian rveulSi erTaderTi imedismomcemi fraza aRmoaCina: imravleT Cemo nangrevebo! poezias Tavi mivanebe da gadavedi prozaze. ukve jarSi viyavi. mwerali rom CemSi isev cocxali iyo, megobar gogonasTan sentimentaluri mimowerisas SevamCnie. siSorem, udabnom da martoobam isev gaacxovela CemSi literaturuli sivrcis sruli aneqsirebis wyurvili. amjerad dostoevski myavda mizanSi amoRebuli. erT dResac Cemi nawerebi megobars wavakiTxe. rogoria-meTqi? kargiao, - dafiqrda, - magram raze wer, ver gavigeo... es zustad is momentia, roca jer kidev ar arsebobs sivrce da Sesabamisad, arc arsad araferi xdeba. ar aris dro, ar aris adgili, sadac SeiZleba raime moxdes, yvelaferi wyalia, rogorc dabadebis wignSi weria. sabolood aRmovaCine, rom rasac me TeTr, sufTa furcelTan vakeTebdi, wera ki ara, erTgvari weris gadadeba iyo, werisaTvis gverdis avla, ar Sexeba. sityvebi modiodnen, cviodnen, ver avudiodi, magram yvelaferi iyo wyali. yvelaferi xdeboda Cems gareSe, ar viRlebodi, xelebi ar mesvreboda. Cemi pirovnuli, sasicocxlo Zalisxmeva ar ixarjeboda qmnis procesSi, arada Semoqmedeba zustad am Zalisxmevis xarjvis ritualia. didi olimpieli hefesto gamaxsenda, xelovnebis RmerTi, erTerTi TormetTagani, romelsac ubralod nebis gamovleniT (sityviT) cocxali arsebebis Seqmna SeeZlo, magram is erTaderTi xelebdakoJrili RmerTia, visac ki rodesme adamianis iluzia Sexebia, sakuTari SromiT rom qmnis xelovnebis nimuSebs, etnis ZirSi mWvartlSi amogvargnili dauRalavad muSaobs (misi simaxinjec swored am Sromis simZimis gamomxatvelia). imis Tqma minda, rom SesaZloa sityviT caze gafino varskvlavebi, zRvas sazRvrebi daudgino, magram xelovnebis nimuSi mxolod sityviT ar iqmneba, is ar

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Sen ase gsurs, mas xeli

daibadeba mxolod imitom, rom sWirdeba, qmnaSi daRlas iTxovs...

zustad am Zalisxmevas ver vdebdi weraSi. Zala ar menaneboda, arc Sromas gavurbodi, ubralod ar mqonda gaxelili Tvali, ar mqonda sivrcis aRqmisa da saganTan misvlis Zala. rodesac sivrces iazreb, sakuTar myofobas afiqsireb, sivrce Cndeba SenSic, manamde ki xar qva, Seuvali klde, sityvebis uZravi sveti. mec vwerdi, magram sakuTar TavSi ver Sevdiodi, im sityvebis gamosatanad, romelsac SeeZlo suraTad eqcia, risi danaxvac ase mwyuroda. raRac ar maZlevda saSualebas, wera sakuTari Tavis am kldidan gamomkveT Zalad, Tavisuflebis araRad meqcia... da es raRac iyo - codna, ufro zustad, arcodna, codnis ararseboba; da kidev ufro zustad, samyaroSi am codnis Cems gareSe arseboba. is TiTqos cxvirwin medo, magram ver vxedavdi... arada rogori miamituri wyurviliT mwyuroda, melaparaka adamianebTan, meTqva maTTvis rame sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani, Semecvala maTi cxovreba. maSin weras zustad im misias vakisrebdi, uCemodac rom hqonda mas istoriulad miniWebuli. Cemi emociebis Targmanic aqedan modioda da is sulac ar iyo Cemi sakuTari, Tumca, es jer ar vicodi, ar vicodi, Targmani da emocia Tu erTi da igive ar iyo. vwerdi, magram furcelze araferi ewera, lakmusis qaRaldiviT iyo. Cemi sityvebi arafers ambobdnen, arafers aCvenebdnen, araferze miuTiTebdnen. aRar miyoymania, davde kalami da mivakiTxe Cveni nawilis biblioTekas, romelic mxolod rusuli wignebiT iyo gamotenili. ase aRmovCndi azrovnebis usasrulo sivrceSi. es raRac dialeqtikur qmnadobas hgavs. SeiZleba mTeli cxovreba wero, magram literaturul sivrceSi ver moxvde. vidre masSi fexs gadadgamde, bunebrivia, jer is unda SeamCnio, aucilebelia misi danaxva garedan, masSi sagnebis Setana da ganfena. rodesac pirvelad aRmovCndi azrovnebis wiaRSi, gavifiqre: me aq odesRac vyofilvar da es yofna zustad sivrcis gancdas, ganfenilobis problemas ukavSirdeboda. pirvelad me zustad sivrce Sevicani, SecnobaSi vgulisxmob fiqris dawyebas. pirvelad zustad sivrceSi sakuTarma yofnam damafiqra. nebismier moZraobas sWirdeba sicariele, azrovnebisTvis sivrce

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aris kiTxva an kiTxvaTa sistema, romlis sazRvrebSic man unda imoZraos da ganfena moaxerxos. es kiTxvebi iyo: vin var?, ratom var aq, risTvis movedi?, ratom var me maincdamainc me da ar var sxva? da a. S. mokled Tavi ise vigrZeni, rogorc sakuTar saxlSi, sakuTar TavSi. aqedan daiwyo samyaros qmna, svla arafridan sakuTari Seqmnilis mowonebamde. Tu Tqven odesme Tvals mokravT sivrces, Tu rodesme sivrcis danaxvas SeZlebT, icodeT, es sikvdilia. sivrcis danaxva iseve SeuZlebelia, rogorc semiotikis gandevna Cveni cxovrebidan. ubralod, is ar arsebobs, is Cveni sinamdvilis marTalia ganuyofeli, magram sruliad ararsebuli nawilia. Cveni codna moZraobs im sivrceSi, romelsac TviTon qmnis da afarTovebs, Sesabamisad, literaturis garedan danaxvis SesaZleblobac mTlianad sakuTari codnis sazRvrebSi yofnamoqmedebaa (yofna sakuTar moqmedebaSi odesme gadaiqceva gancdad, romelsac araviTari codna ar axasiaTebs da aranairi sivrce ar gaaCnia). mokled rom vTqvaT, sivrce mTlianad codnis sivrcea. magram codnas mudam Tan sdevs arcodna. ramdenadac arcodna codnisaken miswrafebis inspiratori, amdenad rogorc ararsebuli sivrcea Cveni sinamdvilis ganuyofeli, aseve arcodnaa codnis ganuyofeli. amitom ramdenadac izrdeboda codna, imdenad izrdeboda arcodnac. azrovnebaSi Cven herakles msgavs gmirs vxedavT xolme, mas yovelTvis iseT davalebebze vgzavniT, romlis SesrulebisTvisac normaluri adamianuri Zala sakmarisi ar aris. arcodnis sivrceSi gadasvlac, raRac azriT, zebunebriv movlenasTan gvaziarebs, ufro meti xar, vidre adamiani. amitom misi enac uaxlovdeba RmerTis enas da rodesac sivrce mTlianad SeniT ivseba, rodesac sakuTari Zalisxmeva samyaros im formas Seicnobs, romelSic raRac SeiZleba aRmoCndes SeuZlebeli, saxeze gvaqvs SemoqmedebiTi qmnadoba. qmnadoba ar aris procesi, klasikuri gagebiT, yvelaferi erT wamSi xdeba. me swored es wami Seviyvare yvelaze metad, romelic sul ramdenimejer ganmeorda Cems cxovrebaSi. ukanasknelad am sami wlis win, rodesac wami TiTqmis weliwadi gagrZelda da sabolood mivxvdi, rom azrovnebis wiaRidan gamovedi.

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azrovnebis sivrce davtove, aRar mWirdeboda literaturis garedan yureba, rac TavisTavad, niSnavda, rom literaturis sivrceSi viyavi. literaturas xSirad, im samyaros daviwyebas veZaxi, romelic codniTa gaqvs SeZenili, Seqmnili Tu agebuli. ra Tqma unda, aqac aris svla, svla sibnelidan sinaTlisken, magram es yovelive mainc yovelgvari dialeqtikuri modelis miRma iZens Tavs da masSi xdomilebac ki arasodes aris bolomde miyvanili. Tu azrovnebas RvTaebrivi Zlevamosileba sWirdeba, Tu mas SeuZlia gaidos mxarze kombali da samyaros kideebi moiaros, pirdapir dalaSqros hadesi, literatura mudam adamianur sivrceSi rCeba. is arasodes ar aris saSualebis mopoveba, aramed yofnis SesaZleblobaa, masSi samyaros kides verasodes miaRwev, radgan usazRvroba sakuTari arsebobiT gaqvs mocemuli. es wyvdiadSi Sesvla da iqedan imis gamoyvanaa, visTan erTadac mTeli cxovreba ginda yofna, Tumca, ufro adamianuri viqnebodi, Tu vityodi: gamoyvana kiara, ver gamoyvana, sibneleSi misi samudamod datovebaa. vidre azrovnebas mivatovebdi, vfiqrobdi, rom orfevsi Secda. mimaCnda, rom Seucnobeli siRrmidan sityvis amotanas sWirdeba uryevi neba. Sedixar hadesSi, gareT toveb yovelgvar imeds... mere moabijeb ukuneT bnelSi, mouZRvebi usagno sityvebs. ar ici, mogyvebian Tu ara isini, ar gesmis maTi nabijebis xma, maT sunTqvas ver grZnob, magram ukan ar unda moixedo, bolomde unda iaro, brmad, yovelgvari rwmenis gareSe, eWvebiT damZimebulma gamoiaro didi karibWe da a. S. magram axla ase ar vfiqrob, realur movlenaTa metafizikuri mwkrividan gamosvla mniSvnelobaTa gaaTasebisgan Tavis daRweva aRmoCnda. axla aRara aqvs mniSvneloba, is Secda Tu ara, orfevsma ubralod moixeda, wminda adamianuri mgrZnobeloba, sentimentaloba da mouTmenloba gamoiCina. sxvanairi arc SeiZleba iyos poeti, SeuZlebelia am RiaobaSi iqce qvad, gaxde uryevi, pragmatuli da mizanmimarTuli. mec TiTqos evridikesaviT davkarge azrovnebis SesaZlebloba, daviwye yvelafris daviwyeba, sakuTari codnis Tavidan mocileba, rom davbrunebuliyavi literaturasTan da isev adamianuri eniT melaparaka Cems gverdiT myofebTan. zustad ori dRis win mivxvdi, rom es ukve momxdaria, an TiTqmis momxdaria. ra Tqma unda, ioli ar aris, miatovo samyaro, romelSic Tvali gaaxile,

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aRizarde, Camoyalibdi... albaT, momenatreba, magram namdvilad ar gamWirvebia uari meTqva sivrcis fenomenis yovlad mecnierul axsnaze da uyoymanod gadamexaza msgavsi xmauriani sityvebi, rogoric aris magaliTad: iseve rogorc drois arsebobis Sesaxeb vaskvniT moZraobis mixedviT, sivrcis Sesaxeb mxolod yofierebis mixedviT davaskvniT. dro laparakobs mxolod sakuTar Tavze, sivrce ki - saganze. religia sivrculi fenomenia! dro Tu azrovnebis procesia, sivrce mxolod suraTia. nebismieri kulturuli sivrce drois garkveuli wesiT mdinarebaa, romelSic gamoiyofa mimarTebis formebi: dapirispireba da winaaRmdegoba. wminda semiotikur enaze literaturuli sivrcis nebismieri aRniSvna, rogorc viciT, drois moqmedebis fiqsirebaa. laparakobs mxolod dro. laparaki ukve aris dro, da amdenad, es aris laparaki mxolod sakuTar Tavze. sivrceze miTiTebiT dro aCvenebs mxolod sakuTar Tavs. amitom sivrce mxolod masSi ikiTxeba, rac procesis miRmaa urTierTobis wesebSi, principebSi, formebSi... da a. S. da a. S. aseT laparaks arsodes aqvs dasasruli, radgan is maradisobas, mudmiv mdinarebas gamoxatavs. mec amosunTqvis gareSe SemeZlo es mekeTebina, magram axla ara, axla aRar SemiZlia. razec ar unda vlaparakobde, mTavari yovelTvis adamianTan Sexebaa da rodesac amas vaRwev xolme, rodesac vaxerxeb mis yurebSi budis gakeTebas, maSinve sadRac ikargeba sagani da sityvebi peplebiviT iwyeben farfats Tixis yvavilebs Soris. ubralod vlaparakob da es aris laparaki araferze. zustad amitom literaturas yvelafris daviwyebas veZaxi. ra Tqma unda, es imasTan dabrunebas hgavs, saidanac daviwye. me xom literaturidan movdivar, iseve rogorc dasavluri kultura. keTili iyos Tqveni mobrZaneba literaturul sivrceSi! ase SesaZloa minosi misalmeboda Tezevss, labirinTis karTan. marTlac, dasavluri istoriuli angloba aTeneli Tezevsis mier labirinTSi Zafis SetaniT iwyeba; iqedan, saidanac labirinTuli kulturidan (literaturuli sivrcidan) azris gamotanis, logikuri, eSmakuri gamosavlis manamde ucxo moTxovnileba Cndeba. manamde adamianebi Sediodnen labirinTSi da rCebodnen, cdilobdnen gamosvlas, magram es TviTon labirinTis Tviseba iyo da ara labirinTis gareT arsebuli samyaros zemoqmedebis Sedegi.

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sivrcis arsebobis Sesaxeb iluzias qmnis moZraoba, romelic saganTa urTierTmimarTebebiT ganisazRvreba. azrovnebaSi es mimarTebebi, rogorc ukve vTqvi, warmodgenilia urTierTobis wesebis: dapirispirebisa da winaaRmdegobis saxiT. istoriulad am wesebzea damyarebuli yvela fundamenturi msoflmxedvelobrivi struqtura. dasavlur kulturaSi gamoiyofa saganTa fundamenturi mimarTebis (urTierTobis) ori pirobiTi forma: e. w. platonuri da hegelianuri. samyaros platonuri gaxleCa, magaliTad, aisaxa RmerTisa da eSmakis dapirispirebaSi, romelmac qristedan klasikuri iracionalisturi msoflxedvelobis ukanasknel etapamde, yvela saxis urTierToba marTa, yvela saxis mimarTeba mis wiaRSi Caisaxa da ganadgurda. mimarTebaTa tradiciuli wesis cvlis niSnebi Cndeba hegelis dialeqtikaSi (dapirispirebulTa erTianobaSi), sadac msoflmxedvelobrivi sxeulis RerZia ara RmerTisa da eSmakis dapirispireba, aramed mamasa da Zes Soris winaaRmdegoba (Tumca misi gaazrebis dasawyisad meore msoflio omis dasasruli unda CavTvaloT). es zustad is wesia, rasac literaturis garedan danaxvis aucilebloba davarqvi. aq winaaRmdegoba ar aris samyaros ganuyofeli mTlianobisaken mimavali gonieri procesi, igive dapirispireba, aramed urTierTqmnis ganuvrcobeli yofiereba, igive literaturuli labirinTi... mokled, Zalian xSirad me ar vici xolme (da albaT, arc arasodes mcodnia), ras vgulisxmob literaturaSi. rodesac vambob: literatura xan mTeli samyaros warmomidgeba, xan erTi adamiani, romelmac verafriT adgili ver ipova am samyaroSi, an ipova, dabadebiT, magram sikvdilamde mas amis Sesaxeb ar gaagebines; xan raRac istoriuli procesi, xan qalis surneleba da ase dausruleblad. mokled rom vTqva, nebismieri sityvis magivrad, romelsac ubralod saubris dros ver gavixseneb, SemiZlia gamoviyeno sityva: literatura. magaliTad, Tu minda vTqva: ukve, nelnela, vuaxlovdebi siberes da damaviwyda sityva: sibere, me vityvi: vuaxlovdebi literaturas. ase moviqcevi, radgan vici, is araferSi ar aris, literaturas aranairi konkretuli saxe, aranairi sityvieri gamoxatuleba ar gaaCnia da amave dros is yvelaferSi, yvela sityvaSia.

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tariel daTiaSvili

SesaZloa, es wminda Teologiur gansazRvrebas hgavs da vinmes axla fsevdodionise areopagelic gaaxsenda, magram sxvagvarad jer arc me vici, rogor gavaTavisuflo literatura istoriuli daniSnulebebisgan. SesaZloa, es ubralod laparakiT, ubralod weriT, araferze weriT SeiZleba, magram weras Tu aseT mZime istoriul misias daakisreb, is xom ubralod wera, ubralod laparaki aRar iqneba? ra Tqma unda, laparaki da arafris Tqma, ubralod laparaki, laparaki adamianTan ioli ar aris. volteri ambobda: isini uZRvnian RmerTs vrcel monologebs, radgan ar ician adamianTan laparaki. didi xani icxovra adamianma am monologebiT, tradicia racionalizmma gaagrZela, romelmac TiTqos Seiyvara es didebuli arseba, magram zustad am didebulebam, mgrZnobelobis adamianuri gonebis mwvervalze atanam isev miuwvdomeli datova is Tbili, usagno sityvebisTvis. is misawvdomi Seiqna TviTmfrinavebis da xelovnuri TanamgzavrebisTvis, xalxisTvis, kacobriobisTvis, magram ara adamianisTvis... Cven dResac vsaubrobT sistematizebulad, logikurad, konceptualurad, vsaubrobT terminebiT da yovlad gaugebari frazeologiiT, rac TiTqos samyaros formebis codnaze miuTiTebs, da es laparaki iseTi adamianuri xdeba, rom terminebis gareSe siyvarulis axsnac warmoudgenelia TiTqos. racionalizmma yvela sityva gaxada termini, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi cneba da Cvenc xSirad gvrcxvenia kidec adamianuri eniT laparaki. literaturis sivrceSi arasdros araferi ar xdeba da iq gaCereba, adgilis povna, metafizikuri miswrafebebiT damZimebuli civilizaciis SvilebisTvis Zalian Znelia. SesaZloa, araferze laparakiT literaturis gaTavisufleba marTlac Cveulebrivi morigi istoriuli misiaa, SesaZloa is TavisTavad poulobs Cvens enaSi sakuTar Tavs da misiac am yofierebis gamoxatulebaa, SesaZloa, labirinTSi dabruneba garduvalobaa da kulturam ukve gardagvqmna predasavlur arsebebad, an SesaZloa, marTlac vberdebi da naklebad mindeba TandaTan raimes axsna, raimes Tqma, ubralod adamianTan laparaki mwyuria, baRSi skamze Camojdoma, TuTunis gaboleba da laparaki.