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Definisi Flow Assurance

The term was coined by Petrobras in the early 1990s in Portuguese as Garantia do Escoamento (pt::Garantia do Escoamento), meaning literally Guarantee of Flow, or Flow Assurance. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_assurance) Flow assurance is another term for multiphase transport, which covers the transmission of oil, gas and water in the same pipeline from the reservoir to the processing plant. (http://www.statoil.com/en/TechnologyInnovation/FieldDevelopment/FlowAssuran ce/Pages/default.aspx) Flow assurance studies are carried out to permit reliable and safe fluid transport from wells to processing facilities. Such studies entail analysis of thermal, hydraulic and production issues arising from design, operation and maintenance of the total systems over the lifecycle of the field. (http://www.akersolutions.com/en/Global-menu/Products-andServices/technology-segment/Maintenance-modifications-andoperations/Technology-services/Flow-assurance/) Flow Assurance is the engineering and science of predicting and managing production behavior as it moves from a reservoir to market through the changing environment of the production system. (Tulsa University & RPSEA Flow Assurance Workshop)

Definisi Flow Assurance

Figure 1. Aspects of Flow Assurance (Taken from http://www.oslconsulting.com/pages/6)

Definisi Pigging

Pigging in the context of pipelines refers to the practice of using Pipeline Inspection Gauges (PIG) or 'pigs' to perform various maintenance operations on a pipeline. This is done without stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pigging) A pig is defined as "A device that moves through the inside of a pipeline for the purpose of cleaning, dimensioning, or inspecting (http://www.girardind.com/technical.cfm?cat=1)

Fungsi Pigging
Pada dasarnya terdapat 4 macam fungsi PIG Physical separation between different liquids being transported in pipelines; Internal cleaning of pipelines; Inspection of the condition of pipeline walls (also known as an Inline Inspection (ILI) tool); Capturing and recording geometric information relating to pipelines (e.g. size, position).

Types of Pigging

Figure 2. Types of Pigs (Taken from Girard Industry Product Lines)

Types of Pigging

Are used during hydrostatic testing of pipelines to fill the line with water and then de-water the line. Removing condensate and water in wet gas systems, water from product pipelines or separating dissimilar products in a products pipeline, are other applications

Types of Pigging

have a metal body (steel or aluminum) and are equipped with seals (scraper cups or discs) to provide the differential pressure to propel the pig in the pipeline. For cleaning the line the pig is equipped with wire brushes or polyurethane blades.

Types of Pigging

solid and inflatable polyurethane spheres, commonly used for Liquid Batch Separation, Line Testing, Line Maintenance, Meter Prover Spheres

Types of Pigging

The unique cup design allows smooth transition with full wall seal through tees, check valves and full opening valves. The hollow core allows expansion while under pressure for maximum performance at all times

Types of Pigging

Inline Inspection Tools; Data sets for conducting metal loss, deformation, and inertial surveys, along with internal/external discrimination and residual field data are taken in a single pass of the inspection tool.

Advanced ILI, offers both radius point readings and diametrical cross-sectional analysis

Pig Detecting

is a bi-directional intrusive devices attached to the pipeline via a Weld-on Base. A trigger protrudes slightly into the line enough to come into contact with a pig or sphere, but have little to no effect on flow

Pig Tracking

Pig Tracking is a method of verifying either the pigs location or movement through the line. Tracking the movement reduces the search area in the event a pig does become lost or stuck in the line

How Pig Works (Launcher)

1. Make sure that the isolation valve and the kicker valve are closed. 2. In liquid systems, open the drain valve and allow air to displace the liquid by opening the vent valve. In natural gas systems, open the vent and vent the launcher to atmospheric pressure. 3. When the pig launcher is completely drained (0 psi), with the vent and drain valves still open, open the trap (closure) door. 4. Install the pig with the nose firmly in contact with the reducer between the barrel and the nominal bore section of the launcher. 5. Clean the closure seal and other sealing surfaces, lubricate if necessary, and close and secure the closure door.

How Pig Works (Launcher)

6. Close the drain valve. Slowly fill the trap by gradually opening the kicker valve and venting through the vent valve. 7. When filling is complete, close the vent valve to allow pressure to equalize across the isolation valve. 8. Open the isolation valve. The pig is ready for launching. 9. Partially close the main line valve. This will increase the flow through the kicker valve and behind the pig. Continue to close the main line valve until the pig leaves the trap into the main line as indicated by the pig signaler. 10. After the pig leaves the trap and enters the main line, fully open the main line valve. Close the isolation valve and the kicker valve. 11. The pig launching is complete.

How Pig Works (Receiver)

1. Make sure the receiver is pressurized. 2. Fully open the bypass valve. 3. Fully open the isolation valve and partially close the main line valve. 4. Monitor the pig signaler for pig arrival. 5. Close the isolation valve and bypass valve. 6. Open the drain valve and the vent valve. 7. Check the pressure gauge on the receiver to assure the trap is depressurized (0 psi). 8. Open the trap closure and remove the pig from the receiver. 9. Clean the closure seal and other sealing surfaces, lubricate if necessary, and close and secure the trap (closure) door. 10. Return the receiver to the original condition.

How Smart Pig Works

Pigging Frequency

Pigging as a Flow Assurance Solution Estimating Pigging Frequency for Dewaxing Aidan O'Donoghue, Pipeline Research Limited, Glasgow, UK

Pigging Frequency

Pigging as a Flow Assurance Solution Estimating Pigging Frequency for Dewaxing Aidan O'Donoghue, Pipeline Research Limited, Glasgow, UK

Pigging Frequency