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INTRODUCTION (Chap. 1)
Nursing Research
NPP 105
Mr. CAF Reballos
Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
• Introduction
• Theoretical Framework
• Conceptual Framework
• Statement of the Problem
• Hypothesis
• Scope and Delimitation of the Study
• Significance of the Study
• Definition of Terms
Introduction
• Background of the study
– Origin of the study
– Rationale
• General to specific propositions
– global scene  national  local setting
– Specific and orderly
Introduction
• Reminders:
– Use statistical data
World Health Organization (WHO, 2007) reported that the leading
cause of death worldwide is cancer. It accounted for 13% of all deaths
worldwide or approximately 7.9 million deaths. Overall, the leading cancer
mortality each year are as follows: lung (1.4 million deaths/year), stomach
(866,000 deaths), liver (653,000 deaths), colon (677,000 deaths) and breast
(548,000 deaths). About 72% of all cancer deaths in 2007 occurred in low-
and middle-income countries including the Philippines.
In the Philippines, cancer ranks third in the leading causes of morbidity
and mortality after communicable and cardiovascular diseases. Seventy five
percent (75%) of all types of cancer occur after 50 years of age, and only
about 3% occur at the age 14 and below. The ten leading types of cancer
are lung, breast, cervix, liver, colon and rectum, prostate, stomach, oral
cavity, ovary and leukemia.
Introduction
• Reminders:
– Don’t lengthen your introduction
– Use specific language
– Use in-text citation properly
– End the paragraph with the purpose of your
study
– Don’t:
• Start the paragraph with a question
• Quotation
CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
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Introduction (left justified, bold)
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Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework
• Presents a broad, general explanation of
the relationships the concepts of interest
in a research study based on ONE
existing theory
• Based on a nursing theory
• Organize their body of knowledge and to
establish what is known about a
phenomenon
Theoretical Framework
• Abstract
• Guide Nursing Practice
• Reminders:
– Origin of theories and models
– Tentative nature of theories and models
– Purposes of theories and conceptual models
– Relationship between theory and research
CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Theoretical Framework
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The study on the competencies of staff nurses is based on Benner
and Wrubel’s Model of Primary Caring (Kozier et al., 2004). Developed in
1989, the model presents the central concern on caring. Chinn and Kramer
(2004) noted that the focus of attention of the theory is the client’s need for
caring. Caring based on this theory refers to the persons, events, projects
and things matter to the people (Kozier et al., 2004). Central to the essence
of nursing is caring. The nurse matters to the patients with cancer. It needs
to define the risks of patients with cancer. Once established, it is the
responsibility of the nurse to implement a nursing care plan that identifies
the boundary of the medical care regiment of the cancer patients (Smeltzer
et al, 2008).
The theory believes that the need for caring is a means of coping with
stressors of illness (Kozier et al., 2008). The caring model is presented with
connections. The possibility for coping enables possibilities for connecting
with and concerns for others. Thus, it allows for the giving and receiving of
CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
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Theoretical Framework (Cont.)
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help to patients. The nurse who handles patients with cancer requires
assisting the patients in identifying strengths and limitation. Through
assisting the cancer patient in identifying his/her strength and limitation, the
nurse as an educator, help in identifying the coping mechanism that may be
use in adopting and performing his/her daily activities as functional and
efficient as possible. If the patient applies the coping mechanism identified
and he/she had performed daily activities functionally and effectively,
satisfaction will take place if he/she will see progress on his/her
performance.
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Conceptual Framework
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Conceptual Framework
• Conceptual models of nursing
• Strategy uses a conceptual map that
graphically shows the interrelationships of
the concepts and statements
– Conceptual map includes all of the major
concepts in a theory
– Linked by arrows expressing the proposed
linkages between concepts
Conceptual Framework
Variables
– concepts to be examined in a study
– qualities, properties or charac. Of persons,
things or situations that change or vary
d.Independent and Dependent Variables
e.Research Variables
f. Extraneous Variables
g.Demographic Variables
CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
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Conceptual Framework
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
VARIABLES VARIABLES VARIABLES
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THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
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Conceptual Framework

Figure 1. Clinical Nursing: The relationship between its focus and its constituents.
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Conceptual Framework
CHAPTER 1
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Conceptual Framework

Figure

Figure #. Title (Author, year) this is applicable if adapted


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Paragraph to describe and explain the variables above (indent)

The research paradigm (Fig. 1) is presented in the above


figure. The paradigm shows that competency should be assessed in
order to evaluate staff nurses. On the other hand, the cancer
patients who received care from the staff nurses (presented in dash
arrow) would be the one who will evaluate the competencies of the
staff nurses through their satisfaction to the care rendered. The
relationship of the competency of the staff nurses and level of
satisfaction of the cancer patients would determine quality care.
Statement of the Problem
• Enigmatic, perplexing or troubling
condition
• Articulates the problem to be addressed
and indicates the need for a study through
the development of the argument
• Statements should be simple and direct
• General – declarative form
• Specific – interrogative form
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Statement of the Problem
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General and Specific statement of the study

The study will seek to determine the classroom management


profile of the clinical instructor in Nursing Care Management (NCM)
101; and level of stress in classroom environment and academic
performance of Level III BSN students of San Juan de Dios
Educational Foundation Inc. (College). Specifically, the aims to
answer the following questions:
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Enumerate specific statement of the study
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Statement of the Problem
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1. What are the perceptions of the BSN III students and the clinical
instructors’ self evaluation of their classroom management in NCM
101?
2. What is the level of stress experience by BSN Level III students in
the different classroom management profiles in NCM 101?
3. What are the scores obtained by the Level III Nursing students in the
summative test?
4. How do the Clinical Instructor and the Level III BSN students differ in
the perception of the classroom management in NCM 101?
5. Is there a significant relationship between stress level, classroom
management and students’ achievement in the summative test?
Hypothesis
• Hypotheses are tentative statements
about the given population
– Null Hypothesis (statistical hypothesis, Ho) =
states that there is no relationship between
the independent and dependent variables
– Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)= shows the
relationship between independent and
dependent variables
CHAPTER 1
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Statement of the Problem
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Hypothesis
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1. There is no significant difference in the classroom management
employed in NCM 101 as perceived by the Clinical Instructor and
Level III BSN students.
2. There is no significant relationship among stress level, classroom
management and academic performance of students in NCM 101.
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Scope and Delimitation
Scope and Delimitation
• This portion should be able to identify the
breadth and intensiveness of the study
• This is achieved by putting a limit to the
number of factors or conditions being
considered in the study
Scope and Delimitation
• Answer the following questions which
should be included in this part:
– Population size
– Target population
– Inclusion and Exclusion criteria in selecting
population
– Duration of the study
– Variables of the study
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Scope and Delimitation
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The study will be done in the campus of San Juan De Dios Educational
Foundation Incorporated (College). This will include three level III clinical
instructors teaching Nursing Care Management (NCM) 101 (Communicable
Disease/Stress) and level III BSN students, who are currently enrolled in NCM
101. For the clinical instructors they are asked to accomplish a survey
questionnaire (Classroom Management Style Survey) that will rate if their
teaching style is authoritative, democratic, laissez-faire, or indifferent. And for
the students they are asked to accomplish 3 parts of survey questionnaire
(Classroom Management: Style Survey & Stress Test) composed of the
following: first is their demographic data, second is their perceived level of stress
in the classroom environment (access to instructional materials, classroom
Behavior and environmental factors); and third is their perceived teaching style
of their respective Clinical Instructor that is adopted and modified from the
survey questionnaire used for the Clinical Instructor. The academic performance
of the students in the subject NCM 101 is evaluated through a summative test
that will be given by level III BSN Clinical Instructor.
Significance of the Study
• Importance of the study
• Statement on the potential contribution of
the research to nursing administration,
nursing service, nursing education,
nursing students and patients
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Significance of the Study
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The conduction of the study will benefit the following person:
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Level III Nursing Students:
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Students will benefit to this by being able to develop stress-
coping skills in different teaching styles to achieve good academic
standing. Result of this study will aid the student in identifying which
approach will be more effective in developing and enhancing their
knowledge which are essential in providing quality nursing care
Definition of Terms
• Conceptual definition is identifying
something in terms of hypothetical criteria
rather than observable ones.
– Definitions can be taken from books,
dictionary and encyclopedia
• Operational definition can be constructed
in terms of the operations that must be
performed to cause the phenomenon or
state being defined to occur.
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Definition of Terms
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For better understanding of the study, the following terms are defined
according to the context in which they are used.
• CANCER- Malignant tumor tending to spread immediately
• CANCER PATIENT- Individuals diagnosed of having breast, rectal, colon,
gastric and thyroid cancer but not in stage IV, presently admitted in the
institutions involved in the study and hospitalized for at least three days.
• QUALITY CARE- It is the kind of care rendered by the staff nurses to the
cancer patients based on the level of knowledge, skills and attitude they
have.
• SATISFACTION LEVEL- refers to the degree of fulfillment on the quality of
care rendered by staff nurses as perceived by the cancer patients.
• STAFF NURSES- Registered nurses who passed the licensure examination
of the Philippines, had handled cancer patients for the last 6 months and
currently working in the hospitals involved in the study.
Writing the Draft
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