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soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi t.

VIII, 2010-2011

humanitarul da socialur-politikur mecnierebaTa seria

zurab papasqiri, beJan xorava soCisa da misi Semogarenis istoriuli warsulidan saerTaSoriso olimpiuri komitetis gadawyvetilebiT 2014 wlis zamTris olimpiuri TamaSebi ruseTis federaciis qalaq soCaSi da mis SemogarenSi unda Catardes. es faqti araerTgvarovnad iqna aRqmuli CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi. ufro metic, adiRe-CerqezeTis rigma sazogadoebrivma organizaciebma da gaerTianebebma Riad daafiqsires TavianTi negatiuri damokidebuleba sok-is am gadawyvetilebisadmi. am protests Tavisi axsna aqvs im teritoriaze, sadac olimpiuri TamaSebi unda gaimarTos 1864 wlamde, ruseTkavkasiis omis dasasrulamde adiRuri (Cerqezuli) modgmis xalxebi jiqebi da ubixebi cxovrobdnen. sayovelTaod cnobilia, ruseT-kavkasiis omis (1763-1864) dros ruseTis imperiam CrdiloeT kavkasiis muslimur mosaxleobas, maT Soris, Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze uSualod soCa-adleris midamoebSi mcxovreb afxazur-adiRuri modgmis xalxebs: adiRe-Cerqezebs, ubixebs, afxazebs, namdvili genocidi mouwyo. omis damTavrebis Semdeg kavkasiaSi naTxvajebis, SafsuRebis, ubixebis, jiqebis, afxazebis mravalricxovani eTnosebidan da eTnografiuli jgufebidan mxolod SafsuRebi da afxazebi SemorCnen. sxvebi, ruseTis xelisuflebam dedabudianad ayara mSobliuri miwa-wylidan da TurqeTSi gadaasaxla, sadac adgilobriv mosaxleobas an CerqezTa sxva eTnografiul jgufebs Seerwynen da TandaTanobiT istoriis asparezidan gaqrnen. ruseTis imperiis memkvidre ruseTis federacia uars ambobs CerqezTa genocidis aRiarebaze. adiRes respublikuri sazogadoebrivi organizacia ,,CerqezTa kongresi~ (Tavmjdomare murat berzegovi) Tvlis, rom im miwaze, sadac
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genocidi moxda da dRemde es danaSauli aRiarebuli ar aris, xolo Cerqezuli eTnosis aRorZineba istoriul samSobloSi gadawyvetili ar aris, olimpiuri TamaSebis Catareba mkrexelobaa da ewinaaRmdegeba rogorc zogadsakacobrio, ise saerTaSoriso olimpiuri komitetis principebs.1 Savi zRvis Crdilo aRmosavleT sanapiroze antikur xanaSi da Sua saukuneebSi mravalricxovani adiRuri eTnografiuli jgufebi cxovrobdnen. qarTul saistorio wyaroebSi isini jiqebis, xolo maTi gansaxlebis teritoria jiqeTis saxeliT moixsenieba.2 Sua saukuneebSi Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi, kerZod, soWa-tuafses monakveTSi mosaxle adiRebis mniSvnelovani nawili qarTul politikur-saxelmwifoebriv kulturul sivrceSi iyo moqceuli. VIIIs. miwuruls dasavlurqarTuli saxelmwifos ,,afxazTa~ samefos Seqmnis droidan Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi sanapiro md. nikofsiamde mis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda.3 md. nikofsia Tanamedrove md. neCefsuxoa, romelic amJamindel q. tuafses Crdilo-dasavleTiT erTvis Sav zRvas. q. tuafses Crdilo-dasavleTiT, zRviT daaxloebiT 20 km-ze, dRemurat berzegovis gancxadebiT: - , : . 1864 2% , 100%. . , , . , , , , , , , . . ix. http://ewnc.org /node/953 (xazgasma Cvenia z.p. b.x.). 2 z. anCabaZe, m. cincaZe. saqarTvelo da CrdiloeT kavkasia XII saukunesa da XIII saukunis I naxevarSi. saqarTvelo rusTavelis xanaSi. Tb., 1966, gv. 151. 3 . . . (VI-XVII .). , 1959, gv. 110; . . . . , . II. ., 1973, gv. 283.
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vandel sofel novomixailovskisTan mdebareobda q. nikofsia, qveynis ukiduresi Crdilo-dasavleTi punqti.1 ~matiane qarTlisaOs~ saxeliT cnobili XIs. qarTuli qronikis cnobiT ~afxazTa~ mefe giorgi II-s (929-957) kaxeTis erT-erTi feodali xaxua arSis Ze Sepyrobili jiqeTs warugzavnia,2 rac imis dadasturebaa, rom im dros jiqeTi uSualod ~afxazTa~ samefos SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda. XIs. dasawyisSi, rodesac saqarTvelos erTiani monarqia Seiqmna, jiqeTi qarTuli politikur-saxelmwifoebrivi samyaros sazRvrispira regioni iyo. erTiani qarTuli samefos ukiduresi Crdilo-dasavleTi sazRvari q. nikofsiasTan, md. nikofsiaze gadioda da ase iyo saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi.3 qarTveli mematiane rodesac erTiani saqarTvelos pirveli mefis bagrat III bagrationis (978-1014) moRvaweobas exeba, aRniSnavs, rom man `daipyra yoveli kavkasia TviTmpyrobelobiTa jiqeTiTgan vidre gurgenadmde~4 (e.i. kaspiis zRvamde). giorgi mTawmindelis cxovrebaSi dokumenturadaa dafiqsirebuli, rom XIs. Sua xanebSi nikofsia uSualod saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sazRvrebSi Semodioda.5 daviT aR. . . .., gv. 110; . . . . ., 1982, gv. 168.Y 2 matiane qarTlisa. qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tb., 1955, gv. 268; . . . , gv. 111; . . . - , ., 1982, gv. 66. 3 . . . , gv. 110-111; m. lorTqifaniZe, feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri gaerTianeba. Tb., 1963, gv. 180-186; m. berZniSvili. saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sazRvrebi XIII saukunis damdegs. saqarTvelo rusTavelis xanaSi. Tb., 1966, gv. 293-294. 4 sumbat daviTis Ze. cxovreba da uwyeba bagratonianTa. qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tb., 1955, gv. 382. 5 giorgi mTawmindelis ganmartebiT: `erTi wmidaTa aTormetTa
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mociqulTagani, simons vity kananelsa, queyanasa Cuensa damarxul ars afxazeTs, romelsa nikofsi ewodebis~. ix.: giorgi xucesmonazoni. giorgi mTawmindelis cxovreba. Zveli qarTuli hagiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi. il. abulaZis redaqciiT, II. Tb.,
1967, gv. 154, xazgasma Cvenia z.p. b.x.

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maSeneblis mmarTvelobis periodSi (1089-1125) SemuSavda formula, romlis mixedviT erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos teritoria gadaWimuli iyo ~nikofsiTgan darubandisa zRvamde da ovseTiTgan soerad aregawamde~.1 erTiani saqarTvelos samefos daSlis Semdeg, XVs. II naxevridan jiqeTi saqarTvelos CamoSorda, Tumca XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi Sedgenil (maT Soris ruseTSi) rukebze saqarTvelos sazRvari q. nikofsiasTan Tu md. yubanis SesarTavTan gadis.2 XVIs. Sua xanebidan mzardi ruseTis saxelmwifos eqspansionisturi politikis dRis wesrigSi kavkasiis sakiTxi dadga. am droidanve (1567-1588 ww.) Cndeba CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi, md. Tergsa da md. yoisuze rusebis pirveli simagreebi da samxedro dasaxlebebi. XVIIIs. II naxevarSi ruseTis interesebi kavkasiisadmi kidev ufro gaizarda. ruseTis mmarTvel wreebs kargad esmodaT qveynisaTvis am regionis mniSvneloba. garda imisa, rom ruseTs savaWro-ekonomikuri interesebi hqonda kavkasiaSi, misi mizani iyo Sav zRvaze gasvla, Sua aziasa da maxlobel aRmosavleTze gamavali savaWro gzebis xelSi Cagdeba da, saboloo angariSSi, axlo aRmosavleTSi ekonomikuri da politikuri gabatoneba.3 1763w. ruseTis jaris nawilebi yabardoSi SeiWrnen, md. Tergis marcxena napirze cixe-simagre mozdoki daaarses da iq kazakTa garnizoni Caayenes. am faqtma yabardoelebis aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia da maT cixe-simagris dangreva moiTxoves. ruseTma es moTxovna ar daakmayofila da yabardoSi damatebiT Seiyvana samxedro nawilebi. amis sapasuxod yabardoelebma didi ZalebiT Seuties mowinaaRmdeges. gaCaRda aswliani ruseT-kavkasiis omi (1763-1864), romelSic ruseTi miznad isaxavda CrdiloeT kavkasiis (centraluri, dasavleT da aRmosavleT kavkasiis) dapyrobas, xolo kavkasianderZi daviT mefisa (1125). qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi. teqstebi gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo i. doliZem, II. Tb., 1965, gv. 19. 2 . . ., 2009, # 6,7,11,14,19. 3 . . . XVI-XIX . ., 1958, gv. 26.
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el mTielTa mxridan oms antikoloniur, erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli xasiaTi hqonda.1 XIXs. dasawyisSi ruseTis imperiam saqarTvelo da samxreT kavkasiis sxva politikuri erTeulebi SeierTa. amis Semdeg carizmis gadaudebel strategiul da politikur amocanas warmoadgenda CrdiloeT kavkasiis dapyroba, rac gamowveuli iyo kavkasiaSi ruseTis politikuri mdgomareobis TaviseburebebiT: imperiasTan mierTebuli teritoriebi kavkasionis qedis samxreTiT mdebareobda; maTi dapyroba kavkasionis mTiani zolis dapyrobamde moxda. amdenad, imperiis kavkasiuri samflobeloebi metropoliidan gamijnuli aRmoCnda daumorCilebeli CrdiloeT kavkasiiT. amitom dRis wesrigSi CrdiloeT kavkasiis sakiTxi dadga. sanam ruseTi CrdiloeT kavkasias, maT Soris, yubanis mxares da aseve Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiros ar daipyrobda, misi batonoba samxreT kavkasiaSi mtkice ver iqneboda.2 amitom carizmi am sakiTxis gadawyvetisaTvis zrunvas Seudga. 1828-1829 wlebis ruseT-TurqeTis omSi gamarjvebis Semdeg sulTanma ruseTis mflobelobaSi cno Crdilo-dasavleT kavkasia da Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi sanapiro. marTalia, es mxare TurqeTis mflobelobaSi ar iyo, magram masze brwyinvale portas politikuri gavlena vrceldeboda.3 am omis dros, 1828w. 12 ivniss ruseTma daipyro Savi zRvis Crdilo aRmosavleT sanapiroze mniSvnelovani navsadguri anapa, romelic Semdeg am mxareSi ruseTis eqspansiis placdarmad iqca. rodesac nikoloz I (1825-1855) kavkasiis mTavarmarTebelsa da jarebis sardals i. paskeviCs (18271831) ruseT-TurqeTis omSi gamarjvebas ulocavda, werda: `... daamTavreT ra amrigad erTi didebuli saqme, Tqven mogeCrdilo kavkasiis xalxTa istoriis narkvevebi. red. z. anCabaZe. nakv. II, Tb., 1978, gv. 44; e. anTelava. kavkasia da ruseTi, t. I. Tb., 2007; . . . . , 2001, gv. 358; . . 21 , - 1763-1864. ix. eleqtronuli versia: http: //www. newcirca. com/ stat/ idar.ntm. 2 . . . XIX . ., 1960, gv. 282. 3 . . . XIX ., gv. 339.
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liT meore, Cemi azriT, iseTive didebuli, xolo pirdapiri sargeblis TvalsazrisiT ufro mniSvnelovani mTielTa sruli damorCileba an maTi ganadgureba~.1 imperatoris direqtiva ~mTielTa sruli damorCileba an maTi ganadgureba~, naTlad axasiaTebs carizmis koloniuri politikis arss da mizans kavkasiaSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom iseTi liberaluri da demokratiuli Zala am xanis ruseTSi, rogoric iyvnen dekabristebi, aseTsave poziciaze idgnen. dekabristTa `samxreTis sazogadoebis~ lideri p. pesteli saprogramo dokumentSi `ruskaia pravda~ kavkasiis xalxebs yofda mSfoTvare, daumorCilebel da mSvid, damyol tomebad. misi azriT, aucilebeli iyo pirvelTa gadasaxleba imperiis Sida guberniebSi, xolo meoreTa TandaTanobiTi asimilacia da sruli gaTqvefa kavkasiaSi Casaxlebul rusul mosaxleobaSi.2 SemdegSi carizmi swored ase moiqca. iranTan (1826-1828ww.) da TurqeTTan (1828-1829ww.) omebSi gamarjvebis Semdeg, XIXs. 30-iani wlebis dasawyisSi ruseTis jarebma gaaaqtiures moqmedeba CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi, maT Soris, Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze. nikoloz I-is direqtivis realizebis mizniT i. paskeviCma SeimuSava kavkasiis mTis xalxebis swrafi damorCilebis gegma, romelic imperatorma 1829w. oqtomberSi daamtkica.3 gegma iTvaliswinebda dasavleT kavkasiaSi Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze da yubanis mxareSi mcxovrebi adiRuri tomebis damorCilebas, risTvisac saWirod iyo miCneuli Savi zRvis sanapiroze arsebuli simagreebis redut-kale, soxumi, anapa garda axali simagreebis ageba, maTi erTmaneTTan mtkiced dakavSireba sanapiro gziT,
. . . - -, . III. ., 1891, gv. 229-230. 2 . . . . ., 1906, gv. 48. amis Sesaxeb dawvril. ix.: . (.) . . . saistorio Ziebani. eqvTime TayaiSvilis saxelobis saqarTvelos saistorio sazogadoebis afxazeTis organizaciis weliwdeuli. VIII-IX. Tb., 2006, gv. 324-329, eleqtronuli versia: http:// sites.google.com/ site/saistoriodziebani/dziebani2005-2006 3 . , . X. , 1889, gv. 123.
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agreTve CrdiloeTidan ramdenime eqspediciis mowyoba yubanis mxareSi. am gegmis realizebis mizniT Seiqmna `afxazeTis eqspedicia~, romlis mizans soxumidan anapamde sanapiro zolis dakaveba, gamagrebuli sanapiro xazis Seqmna da simagreebs Soris saxmeleTo mimosvlis uzrunvelyofa, saboloo jamSi ki dasavleT kavkasiis mTianeTSi rusuli samxedroadministraciuli mmarTvelobis damyareba warmoadgenda.1 1830w. ivlisSi ruseTis jaris nawilebma afxazeTis sanapiroze desantiT daikaves gagra, biWvinTa da bombora, sadac rusebma simagreebi aages da jaris nawilebi Caayenes. miuxedavad Tavdapirveli warmatebisa, gagris Crdilo-dasavleTiT ruseTis jaris winsvla Seferxda jiqebisa da ubixebis medgari winaaRmdegobis gamo.2 afxazeTis eqspediciis moqmedebis paralelurad i. paskeviCma md. yubani gadalaxa da SafsuRebis ramdenime auli gaanadgura, amasTan md. yubanze ramdenime simagre aago.3 amdenad, srulad ver iqna miRweuli is, rac eqspediciis mizans Seadgenda. Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze, md. bzifsa da md. xosTas (xamiSi) Soris jiqebis afxazur-adiRuri modgmis abazuri eTnografiuli jgufi cxovrobda. CrdiloeTiT maTi sazRvari kavkasionis mTavar wyalgamyof qedze gadioda. jiqebis gansaxlebis teritoria dayofili iyo mTis da sanapiro Temebad. jiqebis mTis Temebi iyo: fsxu md. bzifis zemo welSi; aibga md. fsous zemo welSi; wvija md. mzimTas Sua welze; ahWifsi md. mzimTas zemo
1 , gv. 123. amis Sesaxeb dawvril. ix.: b. xorava. 1830 wlis afxazeTis eqspedicia. saistorio Ziebani. eqvTime TayaiSvilis saxelobis saqarTvelos saistorio sazogadoebis afxazeTis organizaciis weliwdeuli. VI. Tb., 2003, gv. 92-114, eleqtronuli versia: http://sites.google.com/site/saistoriodziebani/dziebani2003 2 , gv. 143-147; . . . XIX ., gv. 340-341. 3 . . . , . 1885, gv. 120; . . -. . (), . XXIV, . I. , 1903, gv. 59; a. diaCkov-tarasovi. gagra da misi Semogareni. rusulidan Targmnes, Sesavali da komentarebi daurTes zurab papasqirma da beJan xoravam. Tb., 2003, gv. 110-111.

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welSi. jiqebis sanapiro Temebi, romlebic TavadTa sagvareulo saxelebis mixedviT iwodebodnen, cxovrobdnen: can md. bzifsa da md. xaSufses (candrifSi) Soris; geC md. xaSufsesa da md. mzimTas Soris; ard (ared) md. mzimTasa da md. xosTas Soris. md. xosTasa da md. Saxes Soris ubixebi cxovrobdnen; md. Saxesa da md. fSadas Soris SafsuRebi (mcire SafsuRebi); md. fSadasa da yubanis qvemo wels Soris naTxvajebi.1 md. yubanis auzSi cxovrobdnen mravalricxovani adiRuri (Cerqezuli) eTnografiuli jgufebi da abazuri Temebi. XIXs. Sua xanebisaTvis mniSvnelovani adiRuri eTnografiuli jgufebi iyo: yabardoelebi, baslenelebi, Temirgoi, bJeduRebi, xatukai, maxvaSebi, mamxeRebi, egeruyvebi, abaZexebi, SafsuRebi, naTxvajebi; md. yubanis marcxena napirze, md. labis SesarTavsa da yubans Soris cxovrobdnen Turquli modgmis yubanispireli noRaelebi, xolo dasavleT kavkasiis maRalmTian zolSi md. kumas, yubanis marcxena napirsa da md. labis saTaveebs Soris cxovrobdnen abazuri Temebi: Tam, yizilbeki, Saxgirei, baSilbai, baR, barayai, basxogi. mxolod adiRebis raodenoba yabardoelebTan erTad, XIXs. I naxevarSi (30-40-iani wlebi) TiTqmis milions aRwevda. maTgan yvelaze mravalricxovanni iyvnen: SafsuRebi (daaxl. 200 aTasi), abaZexebi (daaxl. 160 aTasi), naTxvajebi (daaxl. 60 aTasi).2 aRsaniSnavia, rom rusebi mTeli XIX saukunis ganmavlobaSi maT dacinviT tomebs eZaxdnen. amdenad, ruseTs didi dro, Zala, adamianuri da materialuri resursebi sWirdeboda kavkasiel mTielTa dasamorCileblad. ruseT-iranisa da ruseT-TurqeTis omebis Semdeg, rodesac ruseTis poziciebi kavkasiaSi kidev ufro ganmtkicda, carizmma uradReba kavkasiis mTianeTs miapyro. kavkasiis mtkiced dauflebisaTvis aucilebeli iyo Tavisu. . . , . XXXIII, 1882, , gv. 163; . . . . wgn.: . . . . , 1982, gv. 8-9; . . . (XVIII XIX .). ., 1967, gv. 24. 2 . . . .., gv. 42-44.
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fali mTielebis damorCileba. XIXs. 30-iani wlebis dasawyisSi ruseTis sardloba Tavs ikavebda dasavleT kavkasiaSi farTo SeteviTi operaciebisagan da anapisa da gagris cixeebis dacvas sjerdeboda. am periodSi carizmis yuradReba ZiriTadad Crdilo-aRmosavleT kavkasiisaken iyo mipyrobili, Tumca CeCneT-daRestanSi saomari moqmedebebis paralelurad, ruseTis jaris samxedro eqspediciebi moqmedebdnen dasavleT kavkasiaSi. kavkasiis mTavarmarTeblisa da kavkasiis korpusis mTavarsardlis baron gr. rozenis (1831-1837) mmarTvelobis xanaSi safuZveli Caeyara yubanispireTis vakisa da kavkasionis mTiswineTis dakavebas, md. yubansa da md. labas Soris teritoriaze kazakTa dasaxlebebis Seqmnas. kavkasiis sardloba Savi zRvis sanapiroze agebda simagreebs, gahyavda gzebi, rac am mxareSi carizmis batonobis ganmtkicebas uwyobda xels. 1831w. rozenma Savi zRvis sanapiroze gelenjiki daikava da iq simagre aago. kavkasiis mTavarmarTeblisa da kavkasiis jarebis mTavarsardlis e. golovinis (1837-1842) dros ruseTis sardlobam, kavkasiel mTielTa winaaRmdeg efeqturi brZolis mizniT, meti yuradReba miaqcia Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiros mniSvnelovan punqtebSi simagreebis agebas da dapyrobil teritoriebze gzebis gayvanas. rogorc wesi, simagreebi da fortebi igeboda mdinareebis SesarTavTan, adgilobriv mkvidrTaTvis warTmeul teritoriebze. simagreebis aSenebiT rusebi kavkasiel mTielebs uspobdnen gare samyarosTan, pirvel rigSi TurqeTTan da inglisTan urTierTobis saSualebas, amasTan rusebi magrdebodnen Savi zRvis sanapiroze, ruseTis flots xelsayreli pirobebi eqmneboda Sav zRvaze batonobisaTvis. 1837w. nikoloz I piradad Camovida kavkasiaSi. anapaSi yofnisas man brZana daeCqarebinaT fortebis mSenebloba da da jars dausaxa amocana CerqezTa mTeli sanapiros dakaveba.1 1837w. Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze aigo simagreebi: sviatogo duxa (adleri)
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md. mzimTas SesarTavTan, adleris koncxze; novo-troickoe md. fSadis SesarTavTan; mixailovskoe md. vulanis SesarTavTan; 1838 wels aleqsandriis forti, romelsac momdevno wels navaginski ewoda (md. soCas SesarTavTan); veliaminovskoe md. tuafses SesarTavTan; Tenginskoe md. Safsuxos SesarTavTan; novorosiiski cemesis yureSi; 1839w. forti golovinski (md. subaSis/Saxe SesarTavTan, forti lazarevskoe md. fsezuafses SesarTavTan.1 1839 wels Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiros yvela rusuli simagre erTmaneTTan saxmeleTo gziT daakavSires. yvela es simagre iq ganlagebul jarebTan erTad Savi zRvis sanapiro xazis sistemaSi Sevida. Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze mcxovrebi jiqebi, ubixebi, SafsuRebi, naTxvajebi Tavs esxmodnen rusul simagreebs, rusul jaris nawilebs da mudmivi SiSSi hyavdaT rusuli garnizonebi. 1840w. dasawyisSi maT gaaaqtiures moqmedeba ruseTis jarebis winaaRmdeg. maTTvis cnobili iyo, rom simagreebi saTanadod ar iyo daculi, mcirericxovani iyo simagreTa garnizoni, jariskacebs mravali problema hqondaT, maT Soris SeiaraRebis mxriv da sxv. amiT Segulianebulma mTielebma Seuties rusul simagreebs da Teberval-martSi lazarevskoe, veliaminovskoe da mixailovskoe daikaves.2 ruseTis sardloba Tvlida, rom Savi zRvis sanapiroze simSvide manam ar daisadgurebda, sanam ubixebs ar daimorCilebdnen. 1841w. dasawyisSi ruseTis jaris nawilebi jiqeTidan, md. mzimTadan ubixeTSi SeiWrnen, ramdenime auli gaanadgures da navaginskis simagremde miaRwies, magram qveynis siRrmeSi, mTebSi ver SeaRwies. ubixebma medgari winaaRmdegoba gauwies mters. ubixebis winamZRolis, 70 wlis haji ismail dagumoyva barzegis 9 vaJiSvilidan 4 brZolaSi daiRupa, sxvebi ki daiWrnen. noembris dasawyisSi eqspedicia adlerSi dabrunda.3 amdenad, ubixeTSi samxedro eqspedicias
1 . . . 1835 1842 . , . III. , 1879, gv. 125-169. 2 . . . 1835 1842 , gv. 185-187. 3 . . . 1835 1842 , gv. 185-187;

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raime realuri Sedegi ar mohyolia. yirimis omis (1853-1856ww.) dros ruseTis xelisufleba iZulebuli gaxda Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiros simagreebi daecala da aefeTqebina. omis damTavrebis Semdeg ruseTis xelisuflebam didi ZalebiT Seutia kavkasiel mTielebs, romlebic didi xnis ganmavlobaSi eweodnen uTanasworo brZolas. carizmma kavkasiaSi Tavi mouyara mniSvnelovan Zalebs, kavkasiis korpusi armiad gardaiqmna. kavkasiis armiis mTavarsardlisa da kavkasiis mefisnacvlis a. bariatinskis (1856-1862) yuradReba ZiriTadad CeCneT-daRestnisaken iyo mipyrobili, magram igi fiqrobda, rom Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze ganmtkicebis gareSe dasavleT kavkasiis dapyroba SeuZlebeli iyo. 1858w. ianvarSi ruseTis jaris nawilebma gaanadgures abaZexebis aulebi md. qurjifsze da md. fSexaze, Saxgireebis aulebi md. xoZis zemo welSi, naTxvajebis 23 auli; imavdroulad 6 stanica daafuZnes mdinareebze urupi, Tegeni, didi zelenCuki.1 1859w. ianvar-TebervalSi ruseTis jaris nawilebma Seuties md. labasa da md. belaias Soris mcxovreb mTielebs da cecxliTa da maxviliT gaanadgures maTi aulebi, mouspes maT sarCo-sabadebeli, amitomac moewyo eqspedicia zamTarSi. ivnis-agvistoSi winaaRmdegoba Sewyvites da rusebs damorCildnen bJeduRebi, baslenelebi, maxvaSebi, yubanispireli noRaelebi, Temirgoi, egeruyvebi, Saxgireebi.2 1859w. 25 agvistos ruseTis sardlobas danebda kavkasiel mTielTa erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis meTauri mTeli meoTxedi saukunis manZilze Samili. kavkasiis omis erTi mniSvnelovani etapi damTavrda, ruseTma CrdiloaRmosavleT kavkasia CeCneT-daRestani daipyro. CrdiloaRmosavleT kavkasiaSi omis damTavrebisTanave mTielebi darwmundnen, rom ruseTTan brZolis ganaxleba uazroba
. . -, . 1. . 1891, gv. 104-109. 1 . . , III, gaz. ,,~, #31, 1862. 2 . . , III, gaz. ,,~, #31, 1862; . . . , 1815-1879, . I. ., 1888, gv. 316-318.

397

iyo da gadawyvites gaclodnen maTTvis miuRebel axladdamyarebul koloniur reJims. kavkasielma mTielebma TurqeTSi gadasaxleba gadawyvites. amas arc ruseTi SewinaaRmdegebia, piriqiT, aqezebda kidec, radgan xelisufleba imedovnebda, rom daumorCilebeli mTielebis gadasaxlebis Semdeg am mxareSi myari mSvidoba daisadgurebda. amasTan, gaTavisufldeboda miwis uzarmazari fondi, romelsac carizmi kolonizaciisaTvis gamoiyenebda, am miwebze Camosaxlebulebi ki carizmis myar dasayrdens Seqmnidnen. amis Sedegad TurqeTSi gadasaxldnen daRestnelebi, CeCnebi, osebi, sul asi aTasamde kaci. rogorc carizmis erTguli moxele e. veidenbaumi aRniSnavda, ~kavkasieli mTielebi, romlebic araCveulebrivi gaafTrebiT ebrZodnen rusebs, damarcxebulebi, magram ara damorCilebulebi, TurqeTisaken gaemarTnen~.1 ruseTis mier Crdilo-aRmosavleT kavkasiis dapyrobis Semdeg, imperiis winaaRmdeg brZolas ganagrZobdnen dasavleT kavkasiis mTielebi mravalricxovani adiRebi da abazebi. amitom ruseTis sardlobam aqeTken gadmoisrola 200 aTasiani kavkasiis armiis ZiriTadi nawilebi. aleqsandre II (1855-1881) sardlobisagan moiTxovda, rom kavkasiis omi, romelic ase didxans gaiwela da uzarmazar saxsrebs nTqavda, male daemTavrebinaT. omSi swrafi gamarjveba ruseTs sWirdeboda agreTve evropis TvalSi yirimis omSi (1853-1856) damarcxebiT Seryeuli avtoritetis aRsadgenad.2 1860w. seqtemberSi kavkasiis mefisnacvalma da kavkasiis armiis mTavarsardalma a. bariatinskim omis swrafad damTavrebisaTvis RonisZiebebis dasaxvis mizniT, vladikavkazSi samxedro TaTbiri moiwvia. TaTbirze gadawyda, rom dasavleT kavkasiis dasamorCileblad Seteva daewyoT md. labisa da md. belaias zemo welidan da mTebidan Savi zRvisaken gamoedevnaT abaZexebi, SafsuRebi, ubixebi. maT mier stavropolis guberniis stepebSi gadasaxlebaze uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi, isini TurqeTSi gadaesaxlebinaT, xolo maT miwa-wyalze rusebi CaesaxlebinaT, umTavresad kazakebi.
1 2

Crdilo kavkasiis xalxTa istoriis narkvevebi.., nakv. II.., gv. 139.


. . . ., 1865, gv. 58.

398

amis gareSe, rogorc ruseTis sardloba Tvlida, kavkasiis dapyroba sruli da saboloo ver iqneboda.1 kavkasiis sardlobis gegmiT, dasavleT kavkasiis mTielebi unda aeyaraT TavianTi sacxovrebeli adgilebidan da iq rusebi CaesaxlebinaT. rusul kolonizacias ara mxolod unda dagvirgvinebina qveynis dapyroba, aramed is TviTon unda yofiliyo dapyrobis erT-erTi mTavari saSualeba.2 maSin, cxel kvalze, r. fadeevi werda: ` , ~.3 amrigad, kavkasiis damorCilebis mTavar saSualebad miCneul iqna samxedro kolonizacia. aqamde kavkasieli mTielebis winaaRmdeg ewyoboda eqspediciebi, amarcxebdnen maT, imorCilebdnen, magram Semdeg isini kvlav ibrZodnen rusebis winaaRmdeg. es iwvevda jariskacTa did msxverpls, qveyana ki daumorCilebeli rCeboda. amieridan, gadawyda, SeewyvitaT uSedego samxedro eqspediciebi da Sedgomodnen mTis sistemur dasaxlebas kazakTa stanicebiT, xolo kavkasieli mTielebi gadaesaxlebinaT dablobze an gaesaxlebinaT TurqeTSi. ruseTis xelisufleba am gziT cdilobda, kavkasieli mTielebisaTvis moespo bunebrivi TavSesafari mTebis saxiT da dablobze CamosaxlebiT Tavisi administraciis kontrolisaTvis daeqvemdebarebina an TurqeTSi gadasaxlebiT Seemcirebina maTi xvedriTi wili qveyanaSi da daesustebina isini. mogvianebiT, 1861w. oqtomberSi a. bariatinski gulaxdilad aRniSnavda, rom dasavleT kavkasiis mTielTa gadasaxlebis mizani iyo ` ... ... ~.4
. . . . , . 50, 1886, gv. 589-591. 2 . . , gv. 76. 3 . . . , . I. ., 1889, gv. 89, xazgasma Cvenia z.p. b.x. r. fadeevis damokidebulebaze ruseTis kavkasiuri politikisadmi ix. agreTve: . (.) . . , gv. 342-345. 4 . . . XIX , 21

399

1861w. ianvar-TebervalSi rusebma saomari moqmedebebi daiwyes kavkasionis qedis CrdiloeT kalTebze SafsuRebis winaaRmdeg. isini kafavdnen tyeebs, gahyavdaT gzebi, agebdnen simagreebs. male, ruseTis sardlobam abaZexebs ultimatumi wauyena _ gadasaxlebuliyvnen yubanze. magram abaZexebi damorCilebas ar apirebdnen. maSin, aprilSi, rusebi Setevaze gadavidnen da 20 dRis ganmavlobaSi cecxliTa da maxviliT gaiares md. labas Senakad xoZsa da md. belaias Soris teritoria. abaZexebi, maxvaSebi, egeruyvebi mTebSi eZebdnen TavSesafars. ivnisSi md. belaias mTel sigrZeze misi orive napiri rusebis xelSi iyo, Tumca abaZexebi winaaRmdegobas ar wyvetdnen.1 dasavleT kavkasiis mTielebma dainaxes, Tu ra saSiSroebac emuqrebodaT da ufro mtkiced SekavSireba gadawyvites. 1861w. ivnisSi md. soCas xeobaSi ubixebis iniciativiT dasavleT kavkasiis mTiel xalxTa warmomadgenlebi Seikribnen. maT gadawyvites SeeqmnaT mtkice kavSiri, xolo misi marTvisaTvis airCies 15 pirisagan Semdgari sabWo, romelsac mejlisi ewoda. masze daqvemdebarebuli teritoria 12 olqad daiyo. TiToeul olqSi iyo mufti, yadi da mamasaxlisi. garegnulad es organizacia imamatis sistemas hgavda, magram mas ar hqonda mkveTrad gamoxatuli Teokratiuli xasiaTi. mTielebi ar dakmayofildnen Sinagani organizaciis mowyobiT. isini eZiebdnen TurqeTisa da inglisis daxmarebas. agvistoSi mejlisis wevrebma, ubixebis erT-erTma winamZRolma kerentux barzegma da izmail barayai-ifa ZiaSma weriliT mimarTes inglisis konsuls soxumSi diksons. mas sTxoves Tavisi mTavarobisaTvis ecnobebina ruseTis jaris mier CerqezTa winaaRmdeg mimarTuli agresiis Sesaxeb da gamosarCleba iTxoves.2 1861w. seqtemberSi kavkasiaSi, saomari moqmedebebis zo . , 1982, gv. 198. 1 . . , gv. 97-100; . . . , 1815-1879, . II. ., 1890, gv. 395-396. 2 . . , . I. , 1907, gv. 49.

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naSi aleqsandre II (1855-1881) Cavida. 18 seqtembers imperators Sexvdnen dasavleT kavkasiis mTielTa _ abaZexebis, SafsuRebis, ubixebis da sxvaTa warmomadgenlebi. maT imperators sTxoves mieRo isini Tavis qveSevrdomad da TavianT miwawyalze daetovebina. magram imperatorma maT kategoriulad ganucxada, rom erT Tves aZlevda mosafiqreblad: gadasaxlebuliyvnen yubanispira dablobze an wasuliyvnen TurqeTSi.1 mTielebisTvis naTeli iyo, rom yubansa da labaze gadasaxlebiT isini dakargavdnen damoukideblobas da Tavisuflebas, romliTac miuval mTebSi sargeblobdnen. maT did nawils arc TurqeTSi gadasaxlebis gagoneba surda, amitom imperatoris winadadeba ar miiRes da noembridan omi kvlav ganaxlda. ruseTis sardloba yubanis qvemo welze, naTxvajebisa da SafsuRebis miwa-wyalze, intensiurad asaxlebda kazakebs, xolo naTxvajebs sacxovreblad ganesazRvraT miwebi yubanis gayolebaze. 1861w. gazafxulidan 1862w. gazafxulamde yubanis olqSi kazakTa 35 stanica gaCnda.2 1862w. damdegs ruseTis jaris nawilebi ukve kavkasionis qedis ZirSi gamoCndnen, ubixebis miwa-wyalTan sul axlos. es faqti 1862w. ivnisSi mejlisis sagangebo Sekrebis mizezi gaxda. mejlisma daadgina stambolSi, parizsa da londonSi elCobis gagzavna daxmarebis TxovniT.3 1862w. ivnisSi abaZaxebma da SafsuRebma erTxel kidev scades ruseTis jarebis SeCereba. maT dasaxmareblad 5 aTasi ubixic movida. ivnis-ivlisSi sastiki brZolebi gaimarTa, magram mTielebi kvlav damarcxdnen, Tumca isini amis Semdegac ar wyvetdnen winaaRmdegobas.4 imavdroulad, mejlisis deputacia izmail barayai-ifa ZiaSis meTaurobiT stambols da evropis rig saxelmwifo . . . 1854 1866 . , 1895, . 84, # 10, gv. 141. 2 . . , gv. 144-145; . . , gv. 9293, 96. 3 . . , gv. 50. 4 . . . , 18151879, . II, gv. 397.
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ebs ewvia daxmarebis TxovniT, magram uSedegod. 1862w. miwuruls mTielTa deputacia polonel revolucionerTan, dasavleT kavkasiis mTielebis gverdiT mebrZol Teofil lapinskisTan erTad londonSi warudga inglisis premierministrs lord palmerstons da ruseTis agresiis winaaRmdeg daxmareba sTxova. T. lapinskim mgznebare sityviT mimarTa premier ministrs. misi azriT, evropa gulgrili mayurebeli ar unda darCeniliyo im tragediis, rac kavkasiaSi xdeboda; saWiro iyo energiuli zomebis miReba da ruseTis Zalebis paralizeba; evropas rame unda eRona, rom ruseTis Zalebi daeqsaqsa samxreTSi da amiT kavkasieli mTielebi ganadgurebisagan exsna. am saqmeSi T. lapinski did imedebs amyarebda inglisze, romelic ~aRmosavleTis sakiTxSi~ ruseTis moqiSpe iyo. palmerstonma yuradRebiT moismina mgznebare sityvebi, magram igi kargad xedavda, rom kavkasiaSi ruseTis winsvlis SeCereba SeuZlebeli iyo, amitom deputacias daxmarebaze uari uTxra.1 1863w. dasawyisSi ruseTis jarebma sabolood moaqcies blokadaSi abaZexebi. mZime mdgomareobaSi Cavardnili abaZexebi Seecadnen molaparakebodnen rusebs, magram sardlobam maT ultimatumi wauyena gadasaxlebuliyvnen yubanze an TurqeTSi wasuliyvnen. abaZexebs samSoblos datoveba ar surdaT. aprilSi ruseTis jaris nawilebi maT miwawyalze SeiWrnen. rodesac abaZexebma naxes, rom ruseTis jars ukan moyveboda rus moaxalSeneTa uricxvi transporti da isini ikavebdnen maT sacxovrebels, srulebiT daecnen sulierad, radgan mixvdnen, rom erTaderTi gza darCenodaT _ TurqeTSi wasvla. abaZexebma general n. evdokimovs sTxoves, xeli ar SeeSala maTTvis TurqeTSi wasvlaSi, razec am ukanasknelma, piriqiT, daxmarebac aRuTqva.2 amave dros, rusebi Setevas awarmoebdnen Savi zRvis sanapiro zolSi SafsuRebis winaaRmdeg. 1863 w. zafxulSi ruseTis jaris nawilebi ag. . . . gaz.: ,,~, # 89, 23 1910. 2 . . . . , . 51, 1886, gv. 121.
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rZelebdnen saomar moqmedebebs SafsuRebis, naTxvajebis, abaZaxebis winaaRmdeg, gahyavdaT gzebi, ganagrZobdnen stanciebis mowyobas. rogorc dagegmili iyo, zafxulis ganmavlobaSi yubanis mxareSi 20 axali stanica Seiqmna, ris Semdegadac kazakTa 2 polki Camoyalibda. sul, 1860 wlidan 1863 wlis CaTvliT, yubanis olqSi 58 stanica dafuZnda aranakleb 10 aTasi ojaxiT.1 oqtomber-noemberSi rusebma sabolood daimorCiles SafsuRebi da dekemberSi md. Safsuxos SesarTavamde miaRwies. amrigad, 1863w. miwuruls rusebs Crdilo-dasavleTi kavkasia dapyrobili hqondaT, rCeboda mxolod kavkasionis samxreT kalTebisa da Savi zRvis sanapiro zolis dapyroba, sadac SafsuRebis nawili, ubixebi da jiqebi cxovrobdnen. 1863w. 10 dekembers kavkasiis axali mefisnacvali da kavkasiis armiis mTavarsardali, didi mTavari mixeil nikolozis Ze romanovi (1862-1881) werda: ~dasavleT kavkasiis saboloo dawynareba unda moxdes Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze rusuli mosaxleobis CamosaxlebiT. am mniSvnelovani saxelmwifoebrivi RonisZiebis ganxorcieleba navaraudevia uaxloes momavalSi. kazakTa stanicebiT dakavebulia teritoria yubanis SesarTavidan cemesis yuremde, sanapiro zoli ukve gawmendilia md. jubis SesarTavamde. gazafxulisTvis, danarCen teritoriazec, romelic gansazRvrulia kazakTa CasaxlebisaTvis imperatoris mier damtkicebuli dasavleT kavkasiis dasaxlebis Sesaxeb debulebiT, ar unda darCes mTieli mosaxleoba. Tu sagareo movlenebma xeli ar SegviSala, maSin momavali zafxulis ganmavlobaSi vimedovneb sanapiros gawmendas md. bzifamdec ki, rogorc debulebiTaa gansazRvruli~.2 amrigad, xelisuflebas gadawyvetili hqonda Savi zRvis
1 . gaz. ,,~, #61, 8 , 1863.; gaz. ,,~, #78, 6 1863; . . . . 18631864. . . . ., 2003, gv. 354. 2 , . saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi (scssa), f. 416, aRw. 3, s. 216, furc. 1.

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sanapiro zolis md. bzifamde kazakebiT dasaxleba. kavkasiis mefisnacvali didi mTavari mixeil nikolozis Ze romanovi fiqrobda aq xutoruli meurneobis ganviTarebas sazRvao saqmisa da TevzWeris mimarTulebiT. 1864w. TebervalSi abaZaxebis nawili TurqeTSi gadasaxlda, xolo nawili md. belaias qvemo welze. carizmi, romelic kavkasiaSi Tavisi dampyrobluri gegmebis ganxorcielebisas adgilobriv mkvidrTa gmirul winaaRmdegobas Sexvda, dacarielebuli adgilebis SeerTebas amjobinebda. amitom xelisufleba ki ar ewinaaRmdegeboda, aramed xelsac uwyobda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis TurqeTSi gadasaxlebas, riTac kavkasiis saboloo dapyroba daCqardeboda. ruseTis sardloba fiqrobda, rom Tu omi gazafxulamde ar damTavrdeboda, Semdeg SeiZleboda gaWianurebuliyo, radgan `tye gaifoTleboda, balaxi amovidoda, xorbali amoiwvereboda, irgvliv yvelaferi gamococxldeboda da mTielTa saSualebebic gaaTkecdeboda. tyeebi iqneboda maTi TavSesafari, sakvebi eqneboda adamiansa da pirutyvs, xolo zamTarSi sursaTis maragisa da soflebis ganadgureba maTze damRupvelad imoqmedebda~.1 1864w. TebervalSi ruseTis jaris nawilebma daiwyes kavkasionis qedis gadalaxva. isini Setevas awarmoebdnen Savi zRvis sanapiro zolSic. imavdroulad, ubixeTisa da jiqeTis sanapiros ruseTis samxedro-sazRvao Zalebis xomaldebic miadgnen. martis dasawyisSi daxos razmma general v. geimanis sardlobiT kavkasionis qedi gadalaxa, md. tuafses xeobaSi gadavida da Savi zRvis sanapiro zolis gawmendas Seudga. 18 marts v. geimanma md. godlikxTan daamarcxa SafsuRebi da ubixebi da 25 marts md. soCs miaRwia. 26 marts v. geimanTan gamocxadda jiqebis erT-erTi winamZRoli reSid geCi da morCileba gamoucxada mas.2 1864w. martSi kavkasiis mefisnacvali da kavkasiis armiis mTavarsardali mi. . . gaz. ,,~, #19, 1867. 2 . . , gv. 144-145; . . . gaz. ,,~, , #240, 11 , 1902.
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xeil romanovi aleqsandre II-s werda: ` , , . , , . ~.1 2 aprils mixeil romanovi piradad Cavida saomari moqmedebebis zonaSi. igi Sexvda jiqebisa da ubixebis warmomadgenlebs, romelTac ultimatumi wauyena gadasaxlebuliyvnen yubanze an TurqeTSi wasuliyvnen, maTi miwebi ki gansazRvruli iyo rusebis dasasaxleblad. didma mTavarma mTielebs erTi Tve misca mosafiqreblad, magram 19 aprils mTebSi asul rusebs aRar daxvdaT ubixebi. isini erTianad daZruliyvnen Savi zRvis sanapirosaken. am mamacma xalxma Tavisuflebis dakargvas samSoblos datoveba da ucxoeTSi gadaxvewa arCia. aprilSi ubixebi erTianad gadasaxldnen TurqeTSi.2 imavdroulad, adriani gazafxulis rTul pirobebSi, fSexas razmma general-maior p. grabes meTaurobiT, md. fSexasa da misi Senakadebis zemo weli ubixeTSi gadasasvlel uReltexilamde gawminda mTielebisagan, romlebic Znelad misadgom qvabulebs afarebdnen Tavs. maTi erTi nawili labaze wavida, nawili ki Savi zRvis sanapirosaken gaemarTa TurqeTSi wasasvlelad.3 1864w. gazafxulze Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi sanapiro adleramde savse iyo kavkasieli mTielebiT, romlebic gemebs elodnen TurqeTSi wasasvlelad. rogorc a. bariatinskis biografi, rusi oficeri a. zisermani aRniSnavda: ` ... , , , ,
. . . .., gv. 283. . . . gaz. ,,~, #19, 1867; . . . . , 4. .-., 1935, gv. 180. 3 . , 8 , 1864, 17/29 , #37.
1 2

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~.1 Crdilo-dasavleT kavkasiisa da Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiros dapyrobis Semdeg rCeboda winaaRmdegobis ukanaskneli kerebis likvidacia, jiqebis mTis Temebis aibga, ahWifsi, fsxu, mdinareebis mzimTas, fsous da bzifis zemo welSi, damorCileba. am mizniT oTxi samxedro kolona gaigzavna generlebis: p. Satilovis, d. sviatopolkmirskis, v. geimanis da p. grabes meTaurobiT. afxazeTis jarebis sardali p. Satilovi pirveli koloniT 25 aprils gagridan fsous xeobisken gaemarTa. aibgelebma, romlebic fsous zemo welis qvabulSi cxovrobdnen, viwro xeoba xergilebiT Caketes da sami dRis ganmavlobaSi medgar winaaRmdegobas uwevdnen p. Satilovs. meore kolona d. sviatopolk-mirskis meTaurobiT 28 aprils soxumidan gavida gemebiT adleris mimarTulebiT. meore dRes eskadra adleris koncxs miadga da razmi md. mzimTas marjvena napirze dabanakda. jiqebi rusebs loialurad Sexvdnen da ganucxades, rom TurqeTSi gadasaxleba surdaT. maisis dasawyisSi razmi md. mzimTas marjvena napirs auyva mTebisken, Tan gza gahyavda. 10 maiss, p. Satilovis dasaxmareblad gagzavnilma razmma general batezatulis meTaurobiT zurgidan Seutia aibgelebs. mTielebi or cecxls Sua aRmoCndnen da darwmundnen, rom winaaRmdegobis gaweva uazro iyo. maT morCileba gamoucxades rusebs da xergilebis gawmenda aRuTqves, amasTan dro iTxoves, rom puri moemkaT da TurqeTSi wasasvlelad momzaddebuliyvnen. ruseTis jaris nawilebma gaagrZeles winsvla aibgas siRrmeSi, raTa mTielebi aeZulebinaT, usityvo morCileba gamoecxadebinaT. 12 maiss aibgam sruli morCileba gamoacxada da Temis mosaxleoba zRvis sanapirosaken gaemarTa TurqeTSi wasasvlelad.2 amis Semdeg ahWifsisa da fsxus winaaRmdegoba uimedo gaxda.
. . . , 18151879, . II, gv. 397. 2 . gaz. ,,~, #44 11/25 , 1864; . . . . gv. 444-450.
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maisis dasawyisSi Setevaze gadavida mesame kolonac v. geimanis meTaurobiT. igi md. soCis zemo welisaken miemarTeboda, Semdeg kavkasionis mTavari qedis paralelurad ahWifsisken gaemarTa. meoTxe kolonam p. grabes meTaurobiT md. patara labis saTaveebTan gadalaxa kavkasionis mTavari qedi, md. mzimTas xeobaSi gadavida da 12 maiss ukve ahWifsSi Sevida. ahWifselebi iZulebuli gaxdnen, SeesrulebinaT adre micemuli piroba. maT datoves TavianTi sacxovreblebi da erTianad zRvis sanapirosaken gaemarTnen. imavdroulad, fsxuelebma deputacia gamogzavnes ruseTis sardlobasTan. maTi erTi nawili Tanaxma iyo CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi gadasaxlebuliyo, xolo nawils TurqeTSi wasvla surda.1 1864w. 20 maiss ruseTis jaris oTxive kolona SeerTda md. mzimTas zemo welSi, ahWifsis centrSi, aul gubaadvSi (rus. kbaada, amJ. krasnaia poliana) da mTielTa winaaRmdegobis ukanaskneli kera daikava. 21 maiss, gubaadvis velobze kolonebad gamwkrivebul ruseTis jaris nawilebs mefisnacvalma da kavkasiis armiis mTavarsardalma mixeil romanovma miuloca kavkasiis omis damTavreba. Semdeg sazeimo aRlumi gaimarTa da didi nadimi gadaixades.2 miuxedavad imisa, rom kavkasiis mravalwliani omi damTavrebulad gamocxadda, dasavleT kavkasiis mTis xeobebSi, saxeldobr, md. fsezuafses saTaveebSi jer kidev iyvnen darCenili mTielTa mcire jgufebi, romlebic winaaRmdegobas ar wyvetdnen. maT gasanadgureblad Seiqmna ,,mfrinavi razmebi~, xolo Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze da mdinareTa xeobebSi kavkasiis armiis saxazo batalionebi ganlagda.3 1864w. ivlisSi ruseTis jarebi fsxuSi SeiWrnen. fsxuelebi TavganwirviT ibrZodnen, magram damarcxdnen. ruseTis jarebma fsxu daikaves. fsxuelTa nawili, 105 ojaxi (862
. gaz. ,,~, #44 11/25 , 1864. 2 . gaz. ,,~, #44 11/25 , 1864; gaz. ,,~, #49, 1864. 3 . . . gaz. ,,~, #19, 1867.
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suli) CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi, md. kumas xeobaSi gadasaxlda, xolo didi nawili TurqeTSi wavida. 1864w. zafxulSi TurqeTSi gadasaxlda 20 aTasi jiqi da 5 aTasi fsxueli.1 amis Sedegad md. mzimTas xeoba da md. bzifis xeobis zemo weli TiTqmis mTlianad gaukacurda. omis damTavrebis Semdeg ,,axladdapyrobili mxare araCveulebriv sanaxaobas warmoadgenda, aRniSnavda generali s. duxovski, maisis bolos, ivnisSi da Semdeg, gadaixedavdi maRali mTidan da dainaxavdi SesaniSnav xeobebs, qedebs, mTebs, mdinareebsa da nakadulebs; baRebs Soris aqa-iq Canda nasaxlarebis kvali, magram yovelive es usicocxlo iyo, arsad sulieris WaWaneba ar iyo. zogan axalamowverili xorbali jer kidev mowmobda arcTu didi xnis win aq mosaxleobis arsebobas, magram saxnavi mindvrebi metwilad migdebuli da miyruebuli iyo da mxolod SarSandeli simindis gadaWrili Reroebi mowmobda, rom aq odesRac cxovrobdnen da Sromobdnen adamianebi. ar gindoda dagejerebina, rom am uzarmazar sivrceSi, rasac maRali mTis Txemidan Tvali wvdeboda, sulieri ar WaWanebda. miuxedavad amisa, es ase iyo. mTeli es SesaniSnavi xedebi, bunebis es SesaniSnavi qmnileba usicocxlo iyo da mnaxvelze ufro mZime da sevdian STabeWdilebas axdenda, vidre sasiamovnos~.2 amrigad, Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze da Crdilo-dasavleT kavkasiaSi mcxovrebi adiReebisa da abazebis mniSvnelovani nawili 1858-1864 wlebSi TurqeTSi gadasaxlda, zogierTi xalxi ki, magaliTad, ubixebi mTlianad. Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze TiTqmis ar darCnen adiReebi da abazebi, maTi mcire nawili aulebad Caasaxles yubanze. sul, oficialuri monacemebiT, dasavleT kavkasiidan TurqeTSi TiTqos 470 aTasi adamiani gadasaxlda, xolo yubansa da labaze daaxl. 90 aTasi.3 Tumca, sa. . . , 1934, gv. 31; . . . XIX , gv. 194-195. 2 . . . gaz. ,,~, #19, 1867. 3 . . , gv. 165-167; . .
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fiqrebelia, rom es cifri garkveulwilad Semcirebulia. kavkasieli mTielebiT datvirTuli xomaldebi gadiodnen tamanidan, anapidan, novorosiiskidan, tuafsedan, jubgadan, xostadan, soCidan, adleridan, candrifSidan, mdinareebis: tu, neCefsuxo, fSada, makofse SesarTavebidan.1 gadasaxlebis procesi sastiki iyo, rasac TviTmxilvelebi gadmogvcemen: ` , , . , , . . . - , , , . , . , ; , , ..~.2 kavkasiel mTielTa TurqeTSi ZaldatanebiT gadasaxlebis gamo evropaSi didi xmauri atyda. ruseTis xelisufleba Tavs imarTlebda, rom mTielTa TurqeTSi gadasaxleba maTi neba-surviliT ar momxdara da yovelive maTi Carevis gareSe moxda. rogorc cnobili publicisti, generali r. fadeevi aRniSnavda, kavkasiis omSi ruseTis xelisuflebis mizans warmoadgenda: ` . ~. magram, rogorc igi aRniSnavda cinizmiT, araviTar aucileblobas ar warmoadgenda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis TurqeTSi gandevna. ruseTs sakmarisad hqonda miwebi md. yubanis marcxena napirze maT dasasaxleblad, magram aseve araviTari mizezi ar arse.., gv. 52. 1 . . , gv. 166. 2 . . . , 1927, gv. 7.

409

bobda, daekavebinaT isini maTi survilis winaaRmdeg.1 r. fadeevi, romelic oficialur azrs gamoxatavda, gulaxdilad aRniSnavda, rom ruseTis saxelmwifo interesi moiTxovda ` : , , ~.2 r. fadeevi ufro met gulaxdilobasac iCens da aRniSnavs, rom ` ~, xolo rac Seexeba adgilobriv mosaxleobas, misi TqmiT, ` ~.3 ruseT-kavkasiis omis damTavrebis Semdeg carizmma vrceli teritoria miiRo sakolonizaciod. 1861-1864wlebSi dasavleT kavkasiaSi kazakTa 111 stanica (14239 ojaxi, 85 aTasi suli) Caasaxles.4 imavdroulad am mxareSi asaxlebdnen ruseTis Sida guberniebidan gadmosaxlebul rusebs, ukrainelebs, osmaleTidan gadmosaxlebul berZnebsa da somxebs.5 dasavleT kavkasiis dapyrobiT damTavrda aswliani ruseT-kavkasiis omi, riTac ruseTis imperiasTan kavkasiis SeerTebis xangrZlivi procesi dasrulda. omis damTavrebis Semdeg carizmma kavkasiaSi Tavi myarad igrZno da dapyrobili mxaris samxedro-administraciuli mowyobisa da kolonizaciisaTvis zrunvas Seudga. omis damTavrebis Semdeg ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi sanapiro sruliad dacarielebuli iyo. adgilobriv mkvidrTa samSoblodan gadasaxlebis Semdeg ruseTis xelisuflebis winaSe idga amocana kvlav daesaxlebina bunebiT uxvad dajildoebuli, magram gaukacrielebuli mxare; es mxare yaCaRebisa da kontrabandistebis TavSesafari ar unda gamxdariyo, amasTan, misi bunebrivi simdidre vrceli tyeebi da nayofieri miwebi aeTvisebina, ganeviTarebina meRvineoba, meabreSumeoba, meTambaqoeba, meba1 2 3 4 5

. . , gv. 146-147. . . , gv. 147. . . , gv. 147. . . . .., gv. 208. . . . , #12, 1875, gv. 222.

410

Reoba, mefutkreoba, risTvisac aq SesaniSnavi bunebriv-klimaturi pirobebi arsebobda. magram umTavresi iyo am mxaris mosaxleobis sakiTxi. xelisuflebas surda, ` aab ~.1 am amocanis realizaciis mizniT Semu-

Savda ~debuleba Savi zRvis okrugis dasaxlebisa da misi marTvis Sesaxeb~, romelic imperatorma 1866w. 10 marts
daamtkica. debulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis mizniT carizmma dasavleT kavkasiis administraciuli mowyobis reforma ganaxorciela. Seiqmna Savi zRvis okrugi, romelic moicavda Savi zRvis sanapiro teritorias md. tuafsedan md. begerefsTamde.2 es ukanaskneli yubanis olqis ufross eqvemdebareboda.3 Tavdapirvelad gadawyda mxare daesaxlebinaT ara samoqalaqo mosaxleobiT, aramed samxedro mosamsaxureebiT. yofili kazakTa SavizRvispireTis jarisagan Seiqmna SafsuReTis kazakTa sanapiro batalioni, romlis calkeuli nawilebi stanicebad gaanawiles yofili samxedro simagreebis teritoriebze. gelenjikis simagris adgilas warmoiqmna gelenjikis stanica; md. fSadis SesarTavTan stanica beregovaia; md. vulanze vulanskaia (amJ. arxipo-osipovka) da a.S. kazakebs eZleodaT jamagiri da sursaTi, marili, spirti, Tambaqo mTeli ojaxisTvis.4 amrigad, kazakebi Caasaxles ojaxebiT da mTlianad saxelmwifo kmayofaze aiyvanes. magram isini Znelad eguebodnen adgilobriv pirobebs mTiani adgilebi, tyeebi maTTvis miuCveveli iyo. ar iyo meurneobis gaZRolis memkvidreobiTi formebi, radgan Cerqezebi mTlianad wavidnen TurqeTSi
. . . . ., 1878, gv. 7-16. 2 . . . .., gv. 7-11; . . . . ., 1874, gv. 24. 3 . . . . , 1904, gv. 83. 4 . . . . . I. ., 1913, gv. 3.
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da waiRes istoriuli gamocdileba, adgilobrivi pirobebis codna da sameurneo Cvevebi. adgilobrivi pirobebis ucodinarobis gamo, kazakebi sanapiroze damkvidrdnen, ramac maTSi malariis gavrceleba da didi msxverpli gamoiwvia, iRupeboda saqonelic. kolonizaciaze uaryofiTad moqmedebda ugzoobac.1 omis damTavrebis Semdeg 12 stanica Seiqmna, romelic yubanis kazakTa jaris SafsuRTa qveiTTa batalionisagan Sedga. es stanicebi dafuZnda gelenjiksa da tuafses Soris. batalionis SemadgenlobaSi Sevida 629 ojaxi 4 aTasi suliT. imavdroulad aq Seiqmna ori daba: erTi somxuri md. Safsuxoze da erTi berZnuli kabardinskis koncxTan. mTel danarCen sanapiroze md. tuafsedan afxazeTis sazRvramde dasaxlebebi ar iyo, iyo mxolod jariskacTa saguSagoebi saxazo batalionebisa da yubanis kazakTa Semadgenlobidan.2 am sivrcis dasaxlebis mizniT gadawyda saxazo batalionebis ganlagebis adgilas SeeqmnaT samxedro dasaxlebebi daojaxebuli dabali wodebis samxedroebisagan, romelTac unda gadascemoda 30 desetina miwis nakveTi ojaxze. ase aRmocenda patara dasaxlebebi, Tumca rodesac mTebSi TavSefarebuli Cerqezebis narCenebi gadaasaxles yubanispira vakeze, es batalionebic gadaiyvanes ufro moxerxebul adgilebSi veliaminovsksa da daxovskSi.3 1866w. 10 martis debulebis Tanaxmad, Savi zRvis sanapiro zoli md. tuafsesa da md. bzifs Soris, Savi zRvidan kavkasionis mTavar wyalgamyof qedamde gansazRvruli iyo rus moaxalSeneTa `sanapiro sasoflo dasaxlebebis~ Sesaqmnelad. gadmosaxlebulTaTvis gansazRvruli iyo mTeli rigi SeRavaTebi: nadelebi ojaxze 30 desetina; erTdrouli fuladi daxmareba (50 man.), gadasaxadebisagan ga. . .., gv. 4. . . . . wgn.: . , . . . ., 1988, gv. 241. 3 . . . .., gv. 242.
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Tavisufleba 15 wliT, sarekruto valdebulebisagan gaTavisufleba da sxv. magram, pirvel xanebSi, Savi zRvis okrugSi gadmosaxlebuli rusebis ricxvi mainc mcire iyo. ruseTis Sida guberniebis mkvidrT uWirdaT adgilidan daZvra, aSinebdaT gadasaxlebis sirTule, havis sakiTxi. amasTan, maT ZiriTadad ainteresebdaT puri, xolo Savi zRvis okrugSi saxnavi miwebi mcire iyo da purs aq meorexarisxovani roli hqonda. amitom xelisuflebam gadawyvita gadmosaxlebaze uari ar eTqva qristianebisaTvis samxreT kavkasiidan da anatoliidan, zogadad slavebisaTvis, moldavelebisaTvis da sxv. aseTi politikis wyalobiT, anapasa da novorosiisks Soris rusebis garda dasaxldnen Cexebi, bulgarelebi, berZnebi.1 Savi zRvis okrugis saukeTeso miwebi daisakuTres imperatorma da misma naTesavebma, kavkasiis mefisnacvalma, didma samxedro da samoqalaqo Cinovnikebma. imperators ekuTvnoda mamuli Savi zRvis sanapiroze, md. fsaxasa da md. dagomiss Soris. es iyo SesaniSnavi adgili bunebriv-klimaturi pirobebiT, amasTan kultivirebuli, sadac didi yuradReba mieqca mebaReobisa da meRvineobis ganviTarebas. aq moewyo vazis sanaSene, sadac vazis 26 saxeoba gamohyavdaT. imperatoris mamuls uSualod emijneboda kavkasiis mefisnacvlis, didi mTavris mixeil romanovis mamuli vardane, romelic gadaWimuli iyo md. dagomissa da md. xoJiefss Soris, zRvidan mTamde 8 aTas desetinaze. aqve hqonda mamuli general-adiutant mixeil tarielis Ze loris-meliqovs; Savi zRvis okrugis ufross d. pilenkos, soxumis samxedro ganyofilebis ufross general v. geimans. jiqebis yofil sofel miqelrifSSi, md. fsous marcxena napirze, samxedro dasaxleba moewyo; md. candrifSidan or versze moldavelebis dasaxleba moewyo, romelsac Savi zRvis okrugis ufrosis d. pilenkos pativsacemad 1870 wels pilenkovo ewoda; jiqebis im aulSi, sadac adre reSid geCi cxovrobda md. fsous marjvena napirze, rusebi Casaxldnen da mas vesioloe ewoda. md. fsezuafseze da md. kudefsTaze adi1

. . . .., gv. 16-17.

413

Reebis ori auli moewyo. es adiReebi muhajirobis dros mTebs Seefarnen da gadarCnen. Semdeg isini mTebidan Camoiyvanes da rusuli samxedro nawilebis StabebTan Caasaxles.1 amis Sedegad moxerxda ramdenime aTasi, sxvadasxva erovnebis adamianis mozidva, Tumca xelisuflebas es ar akmayofilebda, radgan mTavrobis mier am saqmeSi Cadebul danaxarjebs ar pasuxobda. es dasaxlebebi ZiriTadad orientirebuli iyo xorblis moyvanaze da ar fiqrobdnen am mxarisaTvis ufro xelsayreli soflis meurneobis dargebisaTvis, romlisaTvisac es mxare uaRresad karg pirobebs qmnida. 1870w. oqtomberSi Savi zRvis okrugSi Caasaxles SafsuRTa 90 ojaxi, radgan miiCnies, rom isini ukve safrTxes ver Seqmnidnen. rusuli simagris veliaminovskis garSemo Seqmnili dasaxlebis bazaze 1871 wels aRmocenda posad (winaqalaqi) veliaminovski, xolo daxovskis simagris garSemo arsebuli dasaxlebis bazaze 1874 wels posad daxovski. 1874w. bolosTvis Tanamedrove soCis raionSi mxolod 15 samoqalaqo piris ojaxi cxovrobda.2 rac Seexeba aul gubaadvs, mas Semdeg, rac is 1864 wels ruseTis jaris nawilebma datoves, sruliad dacarielebuli iyo. 1878w. Semodgomaze aq stavropolis guberniidan Camovidnen berZnebi, romlebic samosaxlo adgilebs eZebdnen. isini moxibla gubaadvis velobma, romelic gamxmari gvimris, buCqnarisa da nekerCxlebis foTlebiT mewamul-mowiTalo ferad iyo Seferili. amitom am adgils krasnaia poliana uwodes. male aq berZenTa 36 ojaxi gadmosaxlda. maT gawmindes velobi, aages saxlebi, gaaSenes baR-bostnebi da meurneobas mihyves xeli. male aq estonelebic gamoCndnen, romlebic 4 kilometriT zemoT dasaxldnen.3 15 wlis ganmavlobaSi, 1881 wlamde, Savi zRvis okrugSi garda qalaqebisa novorosiiski, anapa da posadebisa soCi da tuafse, 37 dasaxlebuli punqti aRmocenda. am dasaxlebebSi, 1866 wlamde Seqmnili 12 stanicisa da TurqeTidan
1 2 3

. . . , gv. 70-95. . , . . . . 1955, gv. 12. . , . . , gv. 56.

414

gadmosaxlebulTa dasaxlebebTan erTad, daaxloebiT 10 aTasamde kaci cxovrobda, xolo qalaqebTan erTad mosaxleoba 22 aTass aRwevda da erovnuli SemadgenlobiT sakmaod Wreli iyo. aq cxovrobdnen rusebi, germanelebi, Cexebi, estonelebi, moldavelebi, berZnebi, somxebi da Cerqezebic.1 Savi zRvis sanapiros kolonizaciis ideologi a. vereSCagini 1878w. 19 ianvars peterburgSi, ekonomikuri sazogadoebis saerTo sxdomaze, Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiros kolonizaciis saqmeSi xelisuflebis amocanebis Sesaxeb aRniSnavda: , , , , , . , .. ~.2 sanapiros dasaxlebis saqme nela miiwevda win. 1894 wels Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiros ewvia eqspedicia ruseTis miwaTmoqmedebisa da qonebis ministris a. ermolovis meTaurobiT. qspediciis wevrebs soxumSi sadili gaumarTa soxumis olqis ufrosma polkovnikma v. brakerma. banketze sityviT gamovida eqspediciis wevri s. Sarapovi, romelmac gulaxdilad ilaparaka ruseTis zraxvebze am mxareSi. kerZod, man Tqva: `mTeli Tavisi xangrZlivi istoriuli brZolisas, miiswrafvis ra samxreTisaken, Tbili cisa da Tbili zRvisaken, rusi xalxi iRebs msxverpls da, ai, bolos mas aqvs es cac da es zRvac. aq frialebs rusuli droSa, dalivlivebs rusuli arwivi. magram ratomaa, rom rusi kaci aq laRad ver grZnobs Tavs, ratomaa rom is aq Seviwroebulia, sulSexuTulia? ratomaa ucxo is am Tbil napirze, am kaSkaSa mzis qveS? vfiqrob imitom, rom rusuli sikeTis wyalobiT aq, am miwaze, romelic rusuli sisxliTaa mopovebuli, mokalaTda yovelgvari ucxotomeli, gansaxlda saukeTeso adgilebze da ara marto aviwroebs rus adamians, aramed dascinis mas. magram es didxans ar gagrZeldeba. Cveni saxel1 2

. . . .., gv. 242. . . . , gv. 22.

415

mwifoebrivi amocanebi moiTxoven, rom es mxare ara marto saxeliT mxolod, aramed marTlac iqces male rusul mxared, rom aq mxardaWerili, gaZlierebuli da daimedebuli iyos rusi kaci. visurvoT batonebo, rom es moxdes Cqara, rom mZlavr rusul mucelSi male moixarSos mTeli aqauri sxvadasxvatomobrivi da sxvadasxvaerovani narevi da rom es cac da es zRva namdvilad rusuli iyos~.1 peterburgSi dabrunebisas a. ermolovma didi reklamireba gauwia araCveulebrivi silamazis sanapiros, romelsac rusuli riviera uwoda.2 am droidan daiwyo miwis nakveTebis gayidva soCis midamoebSi. maTze fasi TandaTan izrdeboda. soCis raionis Cqari tempiT dasaxlebas xeli Seuwyo 1891-1892ww. novorosiiski-soxumis gzatkecilis gayvanam, romelic ruseTs Zalian Zviri daujda. aTasobiT gaubedurebuli, ruseTis Sida guberniebSi 1891-1892ww. SimSilobiT devnilma adamianma Tavi moiyara aq im imediT, rom puris natexi eSova da SimSiliT sikvdilisagan Tavi gadaerCina. magram daZabulma Sromam, uCveulo, TiTqmis tropikulma sicxem da momakvdinebelma malariam maTze damRupvelad imoqmeda. avadmyofobebis gavrcelebas xels uwyobda mZime sayofacxovrebo pirobebi: cxovreba muSaTa fardulebSi, daWaobebuli adgilebis maxloblad. am gzis gayvanis mZime furclebs Seexo maqsim gorki moTxrobaSi ,,adamianis dabadeba~, romelic 1892w. kavkasiaSi mogzaurobisas TviTmxilveli gaxda yvela im ubedurebisa, rac im gzis gayvanas ukavSirdeboda da romelic moSimSile adamianebis Zvlebze amoizarda. amis Semdeg, Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiros kolonizacia Cqari tempiT warimarTa. 1896w. Savi zRvis okrugi yubanis olqs gamoeyo da Savi zRvis guberniad gardaiqmna. imave wels veliaminovsks tuafse ewoda imave saxelwodebis mdinaris saxelis mixedviT, xolo daxovskis soCi aseve mdinaris saxelis mixedviT da samazro qalaqi gaxda.3
. . . 1894 . ., 1896, gv. 48, xazgasma Cvenia z.p. b.x. 2 . , . . , gv. 12. 3 . , . . , gv. 12.
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amrigad, im teritoriaze, sadac soCis olimpiuri TamaSebi unda gaimarTos ruseTis imperiam adgilobrivi mosaxleobis genocidi da eTnowmenda moawyo. es mxare morwyulia TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli abaza-Cerqezebis sisxliT da mofenilia maTi ZvlebiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom am umZimesi danaSaulis Cadenis Semdeg didi dro gavida, masze xandazmulobis vada ar vrceldeba. 1946w. 11 dekembers gaeros generalurma asambleam miiRo rezolucia, sadac genocidi saerTaSoriso normebis darRvevad da kacobriobis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSauladaa gamocxadebuli. 1948w. 9 dekembers gaerom miiRo konvencia genocidis danaSaulis acdenisa da genocidis dasjis Sesaxeb. am konvenciis pirveli muxlis mixedviT, `genocidi miuxedavad imisa, mSvidobis dros xdeba Tu omis dros, aris danaSauli, romelic saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebs arRvevs~.1 meore muxli genocids Tvlis iseT qmedebad, romelic Cadenilia romelime eTnikuri, rasobrivi Tu religiuri jgufis mTlianad an nawilobrivi mospobis ganzraxviT, maT Soris maTi daxocvis, winaswarganzraxviT cxovrebis iseTi pirobebis SeqmniT, romelic gamiznulia misi mTliani Tu nawilobrivi fizikuri mospobisaTvis.2 aRsaniSnavia, rom adiRTa sazogadoebrivma moZraobam `CerqezTa kongresma~ 2005 da 2006 wlebSi ruseTis federaciis prezidents mimarTa ruseTis mier CerqezTa genocidis aRiarebis moTxovniT. Tumca maT pasuxi ar mohyolia. `CerqezTa kongresma~ evroparlamentsac mimarTa, raTa man ruseTis imperiis qmedeba XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi cnos rogorc Cerqezi (adiRe) xalxis genocidi. am faqtma ruseTis xelisufleba gaaRiziana. moskovma cinikurad ganacxada, rom `genocidis cnobisaTvis realuri safuZveli ar arsebobs~.3
1 , 260 (III). ix.: http://www.un. org/russian/documen/convents/ genocide.htm 2 , 260 (III). 3 . ix.: veb-gverdi: http://adjaria.kavkaz-uzel.ru/articles/101702/

27. soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi

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aseT fonze, miuxedavad realuri sagareo safrTxeebisa, uaRresad mniSvnelovania saqarTvelos saxelmwifos zneobrivi, Rirseuli nabiji. 2011wlis 20 maiss saqarTvelos parlamentma ruseTis imperiis qmedebas Cerqezi (adiRe) xalxis mimarT XIX saukuneSi genocidisa da eTnikuri wmendis Sefaseba misca. am faqtma mTel msoflioSi gafantuli Cerqezebis dadebiTi emociebi da, rasakvirvelia, ruseTis gaRizianeba gamoiwvia. saqarTvelos parlamentis samarTlebriv-politikuri Sefaseba am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT pirvelia saerTaSoriso samarTlebriv da politikur sivrceSi, Tumca, imedia, erTaderTi ar iqneba.

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ZURAB PAPASKIRI, BEZHAN KHORAVA FROM THE HISTORICAL PAST OF SOCHI AND ITS VICINITY The article deals with the historical past of Sochi and its environs. During centuries the north-east coast of the Black Sea was part of the Georgian ethnopolitical and cultural world which later was settled by the peoples of the Abkhazian-Adygei Circassian race, though this region still remained in the Georgian cultural and political expanse for a long time. In 1864 the given region was conquered by Russia and the native population were forcefully deported to the Ottoman Turkey Empire. As a result of the Russian-Caucasian war (1763-1864) and the deportation of the native population the inhabitants of Sochi and its environs the Ubykhs and the Jiks vanished from the history arena. At the end of XIX and at the beginning of XX centuries the Russian government settled Russians, Greeks and Armenians in their native land. In winter 2014 there are going to take place Winter Olympic Games in Sochi and its vicinity. But in the territory where genocide and an ethnic cleansing of the native population have been carried no Olympic Games should be held because it is at variance with the Olympic Charter.

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