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Formulas from Trigonometry:

sin
2
A + cos
2
A = 1 sin(A B) = sin Acos B cos Asin B
cos(A B) = cos Acos B sin Asin B tan(A B) =
tan Atan B
1tan Atan B
sin 2A = 2 sin Acos A cos 2A = cos
2
A sin
2
A
tan 2A =
2 tan A
1tan
2
A
sin
A
2
=
_
1cos A
2
cos
A
2
=
_
1+cos A
2
tan
A
2
=
sin A
1+cos A
sin
2
A =
1
2

1
2
cos 2A cos
2
A =
1
2
+
1
2
cos 2A
sin A + sin B = 2 sin
1
2
(A +B) cos
1
2
(A B) sin A sin B = 2 cos
1
2
(A +B) sin
1
2
(A B)
cos A + cos B = 2 cos
1
2
(A +B) cos
1
2
(A B) cos A cos B = 2 sin
1
2
(A +B) sin
1
2
(B A)
sin Asin B =
1
2
{cos(A B) cos(A +B)} cos Acos B =
1
2
{cos(A B) + cos(A +B)}
sin Acos B =
1
2
{sin(A B) + sin(A +B)} cos() = sin( +/2)
Dierentiation Formulas:
d
dx
(uv) = u
dv
dx
+
du
dx
v
d
dx
_
u
v
_
=
v(du/dx)u(dv/dx)
v
2
Chain rule:
dy
dx
=
dy
du
du
dx
d
dx
sin u = cos u
du
dx
d
dx
cos u = sin u
du
dx
d
dx
tan u = sec
2
u
du
dx
d
dx
sin
1
u =
1

1u
2
du
dx
,
_

2
< sin
1
u <

2
_
d
dx
cos
1
u =
1

1u
2
du
dx
, (0 < cos
1
u < )
d
dx
tan
1
u =
1
1+u
2
du
dx
,
_

2
< tan
1
u <

2
_
d
dx
e
u
= e
u du
dx
d
dx
ln u =
1
u
du
dx
d
dx
log
a
u =
log
a
e
u
du
dx
, a = 0, 1
Integration Formulas:
Integration by parts:
_
udv = uv
_
v du
_
du
u
= ln|u|
_
e
u
du = e
u
_
a
u
du =
a
u
lna
, a > 0, a = 1
_
sinudu = cos u
_
cos udu = sinu
_
tanudu = lncos u
_
sin
2
udu =
u
2

sin 2u
4
=
1
2
(u sinucos u)
_
tan
2
udu = tanu u
_
cos
2
udu =
u
2
+
sin 2u
4
=
1
2
(u + sinucos u)
_
du
u
2
+ a
2
=
1
a
tan
1 u
a
_
du
u
2
a
2
=
1
2a
ln
_
ua
u+a
_
_
du

a
2
u
2
= sin
1 u
a
_
du

u
2
+ a
2
= ln(u +

u
2
+ a
2
)
_
du

u
2
a
2
= ln(u +

u
2
a
2
)
_
e
ax
sinbxdx =
e
ax
(a sin bxb cos bx)
a
2
+b
2
_
e
ax
cos bxdx =
e
ax
(a cos bx+b sin bx)
a
2
+b
2
_
xsinaxdx =
sin ax
a
2

xcos ax
a
_
x
2
sinaxdx =
2x
a
2
sinax +
_
2
a
3

x
2
a
_
cos ax
_
sin
2
axdx =
x
2

sin 2ax
4a
_
xcos axdx =
cos ax
a
2
+
xsin ax
a
_
x
2
cos axdx =
2x
a
2
cos ax +
_
x
2
a

2
a
3
_
sinax
_
cos
2
axdx =
x
2
+
sin 2ax
4a
_
tan
2
axdx =
tan ax
a
x
_
xe
ax
dx =
e
ax
a
_
x
1
a
_
_
lnxdx = xlnx x
_
xlnxdx =
x
2
2
_
lnx
1
2
_
1
Summation Formulas:
N
2

k=N
1

k
=

N
1

N
2
+1
1
, = 1

k=0
a
k
=
1
1 a
, |a| < 1

k=0
ka
k
=
a
(1 a)
2
, |a| < 1
n

k=0
a
k
=
1 a
n+1
1 a
, a = 1
n

k=0
ka
k
=
a{1 (n + 1)a
n
+na
n+1
}
(1 a)
2
Signals:
(t) =
d
dt
u(t) [n] = u[n] u[n 1]
x
1
(t), x
2
(t) =
_

x
1
(t)x

2
(t) dt x
1
[n], x
2
[n] =

n=
x
1
[n]x

2
[n]
Ev{x(t)} =
1
2
{x(t) +x(t)} Od{x(t)} =
1
2
{x(t) x(t)}
Complex Exponential Signals:
e
j
0
t
e
j
0
n
Distinct signals for distinct w
0
Identical signals for values of w
0
separated by multiples of 2
Periodic for any choice of w
0
Periodic only if w
0
/(2) = m/N Q
Fundamental frequency w
0
Fundamental frequency w
0
/m
Fundamental period: Fundamental period:
w
0
= 0: undened w
0
= 0: one
w
0
= 0: 2/w
0
w
0
= 0: 2m/w
0
Systems:
System H is linear if H{ax
1
(t) +bx
2
(t)} = aH{x
1
(t)} +bH{x
2
(t)}.
System H is time invariant if H{x(t t
0
)} = y(t t
0
).
System H is memoryless if the current output does not depend on future or past inputs.
System H is invertible if distinct inputs produce distinct outputs.
System H is invertible if an inverse system G exists which undoes the action of H.
System H is causal if the current output does not depend on future inputs.
LTI system H is causal i h(t) = 0 t < 0.
Bounded: x(t) is bounded if B R, B > 0, such that |x(t)| B t R.
System H is BIBO stable if every bounded input produces a bounded output.
LTI system H is BIBO stable i
_

|h(t)| dt < .
y(t) = x(t) h(t) =
_

x()h(t ) d =
_

x(t )h() d
y[n] = x[n] h[n] =

k=
x[k]h[n k] =

k=
x[n k]h[k]
s(t) =
_
t

h() d h(t) =
d
dt
s(t)
s[n] =
n

k=
h[k] h[n] = s[n] s[n 1]
2
Fourier Series Representation for a Periodic x(t) with Period T:
x(t) =

k=
a
k
e
jkst
X(j) = 2

k=
a
k
( k
s
)
a
k
=
1
T
_ T
2

T
2
x(t)e
jkst
dt
s
=
2
T
Sampling:
sampling interval: T sampling frequency:
s
=
2
T
p(t) =

n=
(t +nT) P(j) =
2
T

n=
( n)
x
p
(t) =

n=
x(nT)(t nT) X
p
(j) =
1
T

k=
X( k)

s
> 2
max
Discrete-Time Processing of Continuous-Time Signals:
continuous-time frequency: =

T
discrete-time frequency: = T
sampling interval: T sampling frequency:
s
=
2
T
H
a
(j) =
_
H
d
_
e
jT
_
, || <
s
2
0, || >
s
2
H
d
_
e
j
_
= H
a
_

T
_
(fundamental period)
H
d
_
e
j
_
=

k=
H
a
_
2k
T
_
3
Properties of the Fourier Transform:
X(j) =
_

x(t)e
jt
dt x(t) =
1
2
_

X(j)e
jt
d
Property Aperiodic signal Fourier transform
Linearity ax(t) +by(t) aX(j) +bY (j)
Time Shifting x(t t
0
) e
jt
0
X(j)
Frequency Shifting e
j
0
t
x(t) X(j(
0
))
Conjugation x

(t) X

(j)
Time Reversal x(t) X(j)
Time and Frequency
Scaling
x(at)
1
|a|
X
_
j
a
_
Convolution x(t) y(t) X(j)Y (j)
Multiplication x(t)y(t)
1
2
X(j) Y (j)
Dierentiation in Time
d
dt
x(t) jX(j)
Integration
_
t

x() d
1
j
X(j) +X(0)()
Dierentiation in
Frequency
tx(t) j
d
d
X(j)
Duality X(t) 2x()
Conjugate Symmetry
for Real Signals
x(t) real
_

_
X(j) = X

(j)
Re{X(j)} = Re{X(j)}
Im{X(j)} = Im{X(j)}
|X(j)| = |X(j)|

X(j) =

X(j)
Symmetry for Real and
Even Signals
x(t) real and even X(j) real and even
Symmetry for Real and
Odd Signals
x(t) real and odd X(j) purely imaginary and odd
Even-Odd Decomposi- x
e
(t) = Ev{x(t)} [x(t) real] Re{X(j)}
tion for Real Signals x
o
(t) = Od{x(t)} [x(t) real] jIm{X(j)}
Parsevals Relation for Aperiodic Signals
_

|x(t)|
2
dt =
1
2
_

|X(j)|
2
d
4
Basic Fourier Transform Pairs:
Signal Fourier transform

k=
a
k
e
jk
0
t
2

k=
a
k
(
0
)
e
j
0
t
2(
0
)
cos
0
t [(
0
) +( +
0
)]
sin
0
t

j
[(
0
) ( +
0
)]
x(t) = 1 2()
Periodic square wave
x(t) =
_
1, |t| < T
1
0, T
1
< |t|
T
2

k=
2 sin k
0
T
1
k
( k
0
)
and
x(t +T) = x(t)

n=
(t nT)
2
T

k=

_

2k
T
_
x(t) =
_
1, |t| < T
1
0, |t| > T
1
2 sin T
1

sin Wt
t
X(j) =
_
1, || < W
0, || > W
(t) 1
u(t)
1
j
+()
(t t
0
) e
jt
0
e
at
u(t), Re{a} > 0
1
a +j
te
at
u(t), Re{a} > 0
1
(a +j)
2
t
n1
(n1)!
e
at
u(t), Re{a} > 0
1
(a +j)
n
5
Properties of the Discrete-Time Fourier Transform:
X(e
j
) =

n=
x[n]e
jn
x[n] =
1
2
_
2
X(e
j
)e
jn
d
Property Aperiodic signal Fourier transform
Linearity ax[n] + by[n] aX(e
j
) + bY (e
j
)
Time Shifting x[n n
0
] e
jn
0
X(e
j
)
Frequency Shifting e
j
0
n
x[n] X(e
j(
0
)
)
Conjugation x

[n] X

(e
j
)
Time Reversal x[n] X(e
j
)
Time Expansion x
(k)
[n] =
_
x[n/k], if n = multiple of k
0, if n = multiple of k
X(e
jk
)
Convolution x[n] y[n] X(e
j
)Y (e
j
)
Multiplication x[n]y[n]
1
2
_
2
X(e
j
)Y (e
j()
) d
Dierencing in Time x[n] x[n 1] (1 e
j
)X(e
j
)
Accumulation
n

k=
x[k]
1
1 e
j
X(e
j
)
Dierentiation in
Frequency
nx[n] j
d
d
X(e
j
)
Conjugate Symmetry
for Real Signals
x[n] real
_

_
X(e
j
) = X

(e
j
)
Re{X(e
j
)} = Re{X(e
j
)}
Im{X(e
j
)} = Im{X(e
j
)}
|X(e
j
)| = |X(e
j
)|

X(e
j
) =

X(e
j
)
Symmetry for Real and
Even Signals
x[n] real and even X(e
j
) real and even
Symmetry for Real and
Odd Signals
x[n] real and odd X(e
j
) purely imaginary and odd
Even-Odd Decomposi- x
e
[n] = Ev{x[n]} [x[n] real] Re{X(e
j
)}
tion for Real Signals x
o
[n] = Od{x[n]} [x[n] real] jIm{X(e
j
)}
Parsevals Relation for Aperiodic Signals

n=
|x[n]|
2
=
1
2
_
2
|X(e
j
)|
2
d
6
Basic Discrete-Time Fourier Transform Pairs:
Signal Fourier transform

k=(N)
a
k
e
jk(2/N)n
2

k=
a
k

_

2k
N
_
e
j
0
n
2

l=
(
0
2l)
cos
0
n

l=
{(
0
2l) +( +
0
2l)}
sin
0
n

j

l=
{(
0
2l) ( +
0
2l)}
x[n] = 1 2

l=
( 2l)
Periodic square wave
x[n] =
_
1, |n| < N
1
0, N
1
< |n| N/2
2

k=
a
k

_

2k
N
_
and x[n +N] = x[n]

k=
[n kN]
2
N

k=

_

2k
N
_
a
n
u[n], |a| < 1
1
1 ae
j
x[n] =
_
1, |n| N
1
0, |n| > N
1
sin[(N
1
+
1
2
)]
sin(/2)
sin Wn
n
, 0 < W < X(e
j
) =
_
1, 0 || W
0, W < ||
X(e
j
) is 2-periodic
[n] 1
u[n]
1
1 e
j
+

k=
( 2k)
[n n
0
] e
jn
0
(n + 1)a
n
u[n], |a| < 1
1
(1 ae
j
)
2
(n+r1)!
n!(r1)!
a
n
u[n], |a| < 1
1
(1 ae
j
)
r
7
Properties of the Laplace Transform:
X(s) =
_

x(t)e
st
dt x(t) =
1
2j
_
+j
j
X(s)e
st
ds
Laplace
Property Signal Transform ROC
x(t) X(s) R
x
1
(t) X
1
(s) R
1
x
2
(t) X
2
(s) R
2
Linearity ax
1
(t) +bx
2
(t) aX
1
(s) +bX
2
(s) At least R
1
R
2
Time Shifting x(t t
0
) e
st
0
X(s) R
s-Domain Shifting e
s
0
t
x(t) X(s s
0
) R +s
0
Time Scaling x(at)
1
|a|
X
_
s
a
_
aR
Conjugation x

(t) X

(s

) R
Convolution x
1
(t) x
2
(t) X
1
(s)X
2
(s) At least R
1
R
2
Time Dierentiation
d
dt
x(t) sX(s) At least R
s-Domain
Dierentiation
tx(t)
d
ds
X(s) R
Time Integration
_
t

x() d
1
s
X(s) At least R {Re{s} > 0}
8
Laplace Transforms of Elementary Functions:
Signal Transform ROC
(t) 1 All s
u(t)
1
s
Re{s} > 0
u(t)
1
s
Re{s} < 0
t
n1
(n 1)!
u(t)
1
s
n
Re{s} > 0

t
n1
(n 1)!
u(t)
1
s
n
Re{s} < 0
e
t
u(t)
1
s +
Re{s} >
e
t
u(t)
1
s +
Re{s} <
t
n1
(n 1)!
e
t
u(t)
1
(s +)
n
Re{s} >

t
n1
(n 1)!
e
t
u(t)
1
(s +)
n
Re{s} <
(t T) e
sT
All s
[cos
0
t]u(t)
s
s
2
+
2
0
Re{s} > 0
[sin
0
t]u(t)

0
s
2
+
2
0
Re{s} > 0
[e
t
cos
0
t]u(t)
s +
(s +)
2
+
2
0
Re{s} >
[e
t
sin
0
t]u(t)

0
(s +)
2
+
2
0
Re{s} >
u
n
(t) =
d
n
dt
n
(t) s
n
All s
u
n
(t) = u(t) u(t)
. .
n times
1
s
n
Re{s} > 0
9
Properties of the Unilateral Laplace Transform:
X(s) =
_

0

x(t)e
st
dt x(t) =
1
2j
_
+j
j
X(s)e
st
ds
Unilateral Laplace
Property Signal Transform
x(t) X(s)
x
1
(t) X
1
(s)
x
2
(t) X
2
(s)
Linearity ax
1
(t) + bx
2
(t) aX
1
(s) +bX
2
(s)
s-Domain Shifting e
s
0
t
x(t) X(s s
0
)
Time Scaling x(at), a > 0
1
a
X
_
s
a
_
Conjugation x

(t) X

(s

)
Convolution (assumes x
1
(t)
and x
2
(t) are zero t < 0).
x
1
(t) x
2
(t) X
1
(s)X
2
(s)
Time Dierentiation
d
dt
x(t) sX(s) x(0

)
d
n
dt
n
x(t) s
n
X(s) s
n1
x(0

) x
(n1)
(0

)
s-Domain
Dierentiation
tx(t)
d
ds
X(s)
Time Integration
_
t
0

x() d
1
s
X(s)
10
Properties of the z-Transform:
X(z) =

n=
x[n]z
n
x[n] =
1
2j
_
C
X(z)z
n1
dz
Property Signal z-Transform ROC
x[n] X(z) R
x
1
[n] X
1
(z) R
1
x
2
[n] X
2
(z) R
2
Linearity ax
1
[n] +bx
2
[n] aX
1
(z) +bX
2
(z) At least R
1
R
2
Time Shifting x[n n
0
] z
n
0
X(z) R, except possibly z = 0
z-Domain Scaling e
j
0
n
x[n] X(e
j
0
z) R
z
n
0
x[n] X
_
z
z
0
_
z
0
R
a
n
x[n] X
_
z
a
_
|a|R
Time Reversal x[n] X(z
1
) R
1
Time Expansion x
(k)
[n] =
_
x[r], n = rk
0, n = rk
r Z X(z
k
) R
1
k
Conjugation x

[n] X

(z

) R
Convolution x
1
[n] x
2
[n] X
1
(z)X
2
(z) At least R
1
R
2
First Dierence x[n] x[n 1] (1 z
1
)X(z) At least R {|z| > 0}
Accumulation
n

k=
x[k]
1
1 z
1
X(z) At least R {|z| > 1}
z-Domain
Dierentiation
nx[n] z
d
dz
X(z) R
11
Common z-Transform Pairs:
Signal Transform ROC
[n] 1 All z
u[n]
1
1 z
1
|z| > 1
u[n 1]
1
1 z
1
|z| < 1
[n m] z
m
All z, except
0 (if m > 0) or
(if m < 0)

n
u[n]
1
1 z
1
|z| > ||

n
u[n 1]
1
1 z
1
|z| < ||
n
n
u[n]
z
1
(1 z
1
)
2
|z| > ||
n
n
u[n 1]
z
1
(1 z
1
)
2
|z| < ||
[cos
0
n]u[n]
1 [cos
0
]z
1
1 [2 cos
0
]z
1
+z
2
|z| > 1
[sin
0
n]u[n]
[sin
0
]z
1
1 [2 cos
0
]z
1
+z
2
|z| > 1
[r
n
cos
0
n]u[n]
1 [r cos
0
]z
1
1 [2r cos
0
]z
1
+r
2
z
2
|z| > r
[r
n
sin
0
n]u[n]
[r sin
0
]z
1
1 [2r cos
0
]z
1
+r
2
z
2
|z| > r
12
Properties of the Unilateral z-Transform:
X(z) =

n=0
x[n]z
n
x[n] =
1
2j
_
C
X(z)z
n1
dz
Unilateral
Property Signal z-Transform
x[n] X(z)
x
1
[n] X
1
(z)
x
2
[n] X
2
(z)
Linearity ax
1
[n] + bx
2
[n] aX
1
(z) +bX
2
(z)
Time Delay x[n 1] z
1
X(z) +x[1]
Time Advance x[n + 1] zX(z) zx[0]
z-Domain Scaling e
j
0
n
x[n] X(e
j
0
z)
z
n
0
x[n] X(z/z
0
)
a
n
x[n] X(z/a)
Time Expansion x
(k)
[n] =
_
x[m], n = mk
0, n = mk
m Z X(z
k
)
Conjugation x

[n] X

(z

)
Convolution (assumes x
1
[n]
and x
2
[n] are zero n < 0).
x
1
[n] x
2
[n] X
1
(z)X
2
(z)
First Dierence x[n] x[n 1] (1 z
1
)X(z) x[1]
Accumulation
n

k=0
x[k]
1
1 z
1
X(z)
z-Domain
Dierentiation
nx[n] z
d
dz
X(z)
13