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AULA POLITCNICA 96

A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

AULA POLITCNICA / CINCIA, CULTURA I SOCIETAT

Snia Oliver del Olmo Mnica Soler Lorente

A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

EDICIONS UPC

Primera edici (Ed. Virtuals): juny de 2003 Primera edici (Aula Politcnica): setembre de 2005 En collaboraci amb el Servei de Llenges i Terminologia de la UPC Disseny de la coberta: Jordi Calvet Els autors, 2003 Edicions UPC, 2003 Edicions de la Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, SL Jordi Girona Salgado 31, 08034 Barcelona Tel. 93 401 68 83 Fax 93 401 58 85 Edicions Virtuals: www.edicionsupc.es A/e: edicions.virtuals@upc.es Cargraphics Pedrosa B 29-31, 08908 LHospitalet de Llobregat

Producci:

ISBN: 84-8301-816-0 DL: B-26.011-2003


Sn rigorosament prohibides, sense lautoritzaci escrita dels titulars del copyright, sota les sancions establertes a la llei, la reproducci total o parcial daquesta obra per qualsevol procediment, inclosos la reprograa i el tractament informtic, i la distribuci dexemplars mitjanant lloguer o prstec pblics.

To Josep and Lasse

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PREFACE ................................................................................................................................. 7 GRAMMAR UNITS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Present simple ..................................................................................................................... 9 Present simple key............................................................................................................. 11 Present continuous ............................................................................................................ 12 Present continuous key...................................................................................................... 14 Simple past ........................................................................................................................ 15 Simple past key ................................................................................................................. 17 Present perfect and Past perfect ........................................................................................ 18 Present perfect and Past perfect key.................................................................................. 20 Past continuous.................................................................................................................. 21 Past continuous key........................................................................................................... 23 Gerunds in science ............................................................................................................ 24 Gerunds in science key...................................................................................................... 26 Imperatives ........................................................................................................................ 27 Imperatives key ................................................................................................................. 29 Making questions .............................................................................................................. 30 Making questions .............................................................................................................. 32 Question words.................................................................................................................. 33 Question words key........................................................................................................... 35 Modal verbs....................................................................................................................... 36 Modal verbs key................................................................................................................ 38 Future ................................................................................................................................ 39 Future key.......................................................................................................................... 41 Conditionals ...................................................................................................................... 42 Conditionals key................................................................................................................ 44 Relative clauses and pronouns .......................................................................................... 45 Relative clauses and pronouns key ................................................................................... 47 Question tags ..................................................................................................................... 48 Question tags key .............................................................................................................. 50 The passive........................................................................................................................ 51 The passive key ................................................................................................................. 53 The article.......................................................................................................................... 54 The article key................................................................................................................... 57 Pronouns............................................................................................................................ 58 Pronouns key..................................................................................................................... 60 Plurals................................................................................................................................ 61 Plurals key......................................................................................................................... 64 Prefixes and suffixes ......................................................................................................... 65 Prefixes and suffixes key .................................................................................................. 67 Compound nouns .............................................................................................................. 68 Compound nouns key........................................................................................................ 70

Els autors, 2005; Edicions UPC, 2005

A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

21. Quantifiers......................................................................................................................... 71 Quantifiers key .................................................................................................................. 75 22. Comparative and superlative............................................................................................. 76 Comparative and superlative key ...................................................................................... 79 23. Comparison and contrast................................................................................................... 80 Comparison and contrast key ............................................................................................ 82 24. Prepositions ....................................................................................................................... 83 Prepositions key ................................................................................................................ 87 25. Adverbs ............................................................................................................................. 88 Adverbs key ...................................................................................................................... 91 26. The English sentence order ............................................................................................... 92 The English sentence order key ........................................................................................ 94 27. Basic errors........................................................................................................................ 95 Basic errors key................................................................................................................. 97 28. Business headings ............................................................................................................. 98 29. Business letters.................................................................................................................. 99 30. Curriculum vitae.............................................................................................................. 104 31. The scientific report ......................................................................................................... 107

ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Accounting and banking ................................................................................................. 112 At work ........................................................................................................................... 116 Business and trade........................................................................................................... 119 Electrical appliances........................................................................................................ 123 Engineering specialities .................................................................................................. 125 Materials.......................................................................................................................... 127 The Media ....................................................................................................................... 129 Office Material ................................................................................................................ 131 Production and manufacturing ........................................................................................ 134 The car............................................................................................................................. 138 Tools................................................................................................................................ 140 Transports........................................................................................................................ 143 Construction .................................................................................................................... 145

EXTRA VOCABULARY UNITS 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. American -British English Glossary .............................................................................. 148 American- British English spelling differences ............................................................. 153 False Friends ................................................................................................................... 154 Friends............................................................................................................................. 156 Phrasal verbs ................................................................................................................... 158 Opposites......................................................................................................................... 162

Els autors, 2005; Edicions UPC, 2005

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APPENDICES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Conjunctions ................................................................................................................... 164 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................. 165 Calculating ...................................................................................................................... 167 Capitalization .................................................................................................................. 169 Irregular verbs ................................................................................................................. 170 Make and do .................................................................................................................... 173 Measures ......................................................................................................................... 176 Punctuation...................................................................................................................... 178 Timeline .......................................................................................................................... 181 Verb tenses in English..................................................................................................... 182 English word order .......................................................................................................... 183 Internet addresses ............................................................................................................ 184

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Els autors, 2005; Edicions UPC, 2005

Preface

PREFACE
A Self-Study Grammar book for Engineers s un projecte que sorgeix de la necessitat real de millorar el nivell dangls de lalumnat universitari actual i dadquirir un vocabulari bsic per especfic en cada camp, sobretot en les carreres tcniques. Vam veure que seria molt til recollir i sintetitzar tota la informaci que lalumne necessitava en una srie dunitats gramaticals puntuals, amb exercicis complementaris adients i les solucions respectives per tal de motivar lautoaprenentatge i lauto avaluaci tal com suggereix el European Portfolio per a laprenentage de llenges estrangeres. A ms, tenint en compte lobligatorietat del domini duna tercera llengua dins lmbit universitari catal i pensant tant en els alumnes autctons com en els estrangers dintercanvi (Erasmus, etc.), hem incls exemples tant en catal com en castell en les nostres explicacions per unitats. Els exercicis shan pensat per posar en prctica determinats aspectes de la llengua anglesa dins un context especfic, i el fet de disposar de les claus permet a lalumne prioritzar les unitats que ha destudiar segons la necessitat personal de cada moment. Daltra banda, el llibre proporciona un glossari especfic de temes relacionats amb els mbits de lenginyeria, el comer, la banca, etc., qu s molt til com a referncia i com a base slida de vocabulari per a fins especfics, i cont la traducci bilinge (catal-castell). Dins lappndix, hem incls taules de conversi, verbs irregulars, phrasal verbs, etc. Per ltim, al final del llibre sindiquen una srie de webs i enllaos recomanables per a laprenentage de langls com a llengua estrangera i sespecifica la bibliografia bsica utilitzada. Creiem que s un llibre compacte, sinttic, prctic i entenedor, molt til per a tots els estudiants universitaris i, duna manera especial, per als de cincies. Snia Oliver del Olmo i Mnica Soler Lorente Barcelona Mar 2003

Els autors, 2005; Edicions UPC, 2005

1. Present Simple

1. PRESENT SIMPLE
The English present simple tense is used in Science so as to describe regular actions and processes, general issues and factual statements including observations. It is not used while describing experiments. USE
1. REGULAR ACTIONS AND PROCESSES:

EXAMPLES

E. Our scientists work 40 hours a week. C. Els nostres cientfics treballen 40 hores per (Often with an adverb of frequency or a frequency setmana. S. Nuestros cientficos trabajan 40 horas a la expression) semana.

2. GENERAL STATEMENTS: (To express a fact which is always true)

E. Water boils at 100qC. C. Laigua bull a 100qC. S. El agua hierve a 100qC.

3. FACTUAL STATEMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS: (To describe facts and situations that we see as permanent)

E. The liquid in the test tube weights 9 g. C. El lquid que hi ha dins el tub dassaig pesa 9 g. S. El lquido que est dentro del tubo de ensayo pesa 9g.

E. The filter paper then collects the impurities. C. Aleshores, el paper de filtre recull les impureses. (Commonly used to describe present research and S. Entonces, el papel de filtro recoge las impurezas. discoveries) 4. DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTS:

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

PRESENT SIMPLE EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Give the correct present simple form of the verb in parentheses. 1.The UPC (hold) a seminar in Electronics once a year. 2.Many people (study) abroad thanks to Erasmus exchanges. 3.Mr. Walker (teach) Mathematics in the Engineering faculty. 4.Mandy (carry out) some research in Robotics regularly. 5.Some experiments (cost) a lot of money. 6.The sun always (rise) on the east. 7.When we heat metals they (melt). 8.Water and oil (not mix) when put together. 9.Some materials (be) very heavy to carry out. 10. This substance, when mixed with water, (cause) a chemical reaction. 11. The silicon rods used in the experiment (not weight) more than 10g. 12. The sparkplug then (make) the ignition possible. 13. Good scientific reports (provide) useful data for future research. 14. While heated glass (become) very brittle. 15. Gold and silver (be) precious metals. EXERCISE 2. Correct the mistakes in the following present simple sentences. 1. I studi English three times a week. 2. They always attends the annual meeting. 3. Good Engineering students has a great future in business. 4. Knowledge are as important as professional experience. 5. Doesnt touch that metal plate! You can hurt yourself. 6. Most managers dont likes working at the weekend. 7. Precious metals dont are always very expensive. 8. Heat cause steam. 9. A specific team place nuclear waste in safe containers. 10. Acid rain kill forests. EXERCISE 3. Put the following sentences in order. 1.The plane first at leaves 6 a.m. 2. Reinforced is useful very in cases many glass. 3. The is round earth. 4. Moon the goes around the earth. 5. An earthquake can damage provoke serious.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

1. Present Simple

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PRESENT SIMPLE KEY EXERCISE 1. Give the correct present simple form of the verb in parentheses. 1. The UPC holds a seminar in Electronics once a year. 2. Many people study abroad thanks to Erasmus exchanges. 3. Mr. Walker teaches Mathematics in the Engineering faculty. 4. Mandy carries out some research in Robotics regularly. 5. Some experiments cost a lot of money. 6. The sun always rises on the east. 7. When we heat metals they melt. 8. Water and oil dont mix when put together. 9. Some materials are very heavy to carry out. 10.This substance, when mixed with water, cause a chemical reaction. 11.The silicon rods used in the experiment dont weight more than 10g. 12.The sparkplug then makes the ignition possible. 13.Good scientific reports provide useful data for future research. 14.While heated glass becomes very brittle. 15.Gold and silver are precious metals. EXERCISE 2. Correct the mistakes in the following present simple sentences. 1. I study English three times a week. 2. They always attend the annual meeting. 3. Good Engineering students have a great future in business. 4. Knowledge is as important as professional experience. 5. Dont touch that metal plate! You can hurt yourself. 6. Most managers dont like working at the weekend. 7. Precious metals arent always very expensive. 8. Heat causes steam. 9. A specific team places nuclear waste in safe containers. 10. Acid rain kills forests. EXERCISE 3. Put the following sentences in order. 1.The first plane leaves at 6 a.m. 2. Reinforced glass is very useful in many cases. 3. The earth is round. 4. The moon goes around the earth. 5. An earthquake can provoke serious damage.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS
The present continuous tense in English is formed by adding a verb in gerund to the verb to be in the present simple tense. USE 1. For actions happening now. EXAMPLE E. What are you doing here? C. Qu ests fent aqu? S.Qu ests haciendo aqu?

2. For activities happening around now, but E. Im working on a project at the moment. perhaps not at the moment of speaking. C. Estic treballant en un projecte en aquest moment. S. Estoy trabajando en un proyecto en este momento. 3. To express a temporary activity. E. Erik is a student, but hes working as a barman during the holidays. C. LErik s estudiant, per est treballant com a brman durant les vacances. S. Erik es estudiante pero est trabajando como barman durante las vacaciones. E. Im visiting a customer tomorrow. C. Dem visitar un client. S. Maana visitar un cliente.

4. To express planned future arrangements (usually together with time expressions, such as tonight, tomorrow...)

SPELLING OF ING FORMS most verbs: verbs ending in e: short verbs ending in one vowel + one consonant: verbs ending in -ie: Work- working, read-reading, Make-making, write-writing... Stop-stopping, sit-sitting, run-running... Lie-lying, die-dying, tie-tying...

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

2. Present Continuous

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PRESENT CONTINUOUS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Write in the ing form of the following verbs: INFINITIVE read swim come think wait rain wear shine smoke have take get stop run begin GERUND

EXERCISE 2. Write the negative form of the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Some Industrial Engineers are working hard for Forum 2003. My boss is giving a lecture now. Mandy is checking some balance sheets these days. Mr. Kennedy is inspecting the goods in the factory floor. Most employees are enjoying their holidays by now.

EXERCISE 3. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. David and Terry are studing very hard for the exam. The Sullivans is moving their stuff somewhere else. Mary is carring a box of tools. Peter and Rob are lieing on the sofa. When are your team plaing again? Most engineers are aplying for a scholarship to study abroad. Some workers is paking items in the packaging department. Our management are thinking about giving us a pay rise.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

PRESENT CONTINUOUS KEY EXERCISE 1. Write in the ing form of the following verbs: INFINITIVE read swim come think wait rain wear shine smoke have take get stop run begin GERUND Reading Swimming Comino Thinking Waiting Raining Wearing Shining Smoking Having Taking Getting Stopping Running Beginning

EXERCISE 2. Write the negative form of the following sentences. 1. Some Industrial Engineers are not working hard for Forum 2003. 2. My boss is not giving a lecture now. 3. Mandy is not checking some balance sheets these days. 4. Mr. Kennedy is not inspecting the goods in the factory floor. 5. Most employees are not enjoying their holidays by now. EXERCISE 3. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. David and Terry are studying very hard for the exam. The Sullivans are moving their stuff somewhere else. Mary is carrying a box of tools. Peter and Rob are lying on the sofa. When is your team playing again? Most engineers are applying for a scholarship to study abroad. Some workers are packing items in the packaging department. Our management is thinking about giving us

pay

rise.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

3. Simple Past

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3. SIMPLE PAST
The simple past tense in English is used to talk about activities that began and ended in the past. The past means anytime before right now (e.g. something that began and ended 5 minutes ago it should be expressed in the past tense). In Science, the simple past tense is commonly used to describe past research and discoveries and it is usually found in the background section of a research report.
TO BE REGULAR VERBS IRREGULAR VERBS

I was You were He was She was It was We were You were They were Sue was in China in 1996. Sue wasnt in China ... Was Sue in China ... ? Was not = wasnt Were not = werent

Most verbs just add ed: Work worked But after e, we add d: Like liked Vowel (a,e,o)+y = -yed: Play placed Consonant +y = -ied: Reply replied 1 vowel +1 consonant = 2 (only in stressed syllables!): See: stop stopped But: wonder - wondered EXAMPLES:

2nd column is used: Break - broke - broken Tom broke a glass. Tom didnt break it. Did Tom break it?

Did not = didnt

VERB TYPE TO BE:

ENGLISH They were tired.

CATALAN Estaven cansats.

SPANISH Estaban cansados.

REGULAR:

Tim played golf yesterday. John ran a mile on Friday.

En Tim va jugar a golf ahir. En Joan va crrer una milla el divendres.

Tim jug a golf ayer.

IRREGULAR:

Juan corri una milla el viernes.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

SIMPLE PAST EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Write the simple past tense of the following verbs: INFINITIVE arrive rain watch carry pass live study rob fit slip develop regret annoy shop stay shave turn leave hold think answer stand EXERCISE 2. Underline the correct form. 1. I break / broke a cup last night. 2. Ann did not play / played hockey on Saturday. 3. I didnt feel / felt very well a week ago. 4. The train didnt arrive / arrived on time. 5. Mary didnt like / likes her last job. EXERCISE 3. Make the following sentences interrogative. 1. My boss went to Berlin last week. 2. Our prototypes were sold within a month. 3. Some of the old tests were too difficult. 4. My lawyer wrote a long report about the matter. 5. Mr. Collins was a famous scientist. SIMPLE PAST

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

3. Simple Past

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SIMPLE PAST KEY EXERCISE 1. Write the simple past tense of the following verbs: INFINITIVE arrive rain watch carry pass live study rob fit slip develop regret annoy shop stay shave turn leave hold think answer stand SIMPLE PAST arrived rained watched carried passed lived studied robbed fitted slipped developed regretted annoyed shopped stayed shaved turned left held thought answered stood

EXERCISE 2. Underline the correct form.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I break / broke a cup last night. Ann did not play / played hockey on Saturday. I didnt feel / felt very well a week ago. The train didnt arrive / arrived on time. Mary didnt like / likes her last job.

EXERCISE 3. Make the following sentences interrogative. 1. Did my boss go to Berlin last week? 2. Were our prototypes sold within a month? 3. Were some of the old tests too difficult? 4. Did my lawyer write a long report about the matter? 5. Was Mr. Collins a famous scientist?

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

4. THE PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST PERFECT


THE PRESENT PERFECT The present perfect simple is formed with the auxiliary verb have in the corresponding form for the subject of the sentence, followed by the participle of the main verb. Example sentences: E. Affirmative: I've broken my pencil. C. Afirmativa: He trencat el llapis. S. Afirmativa: He roto el lpiz. E. Negative: I haven't done my homework. C. Negativa: No he fet els deures. S. Negativa: No he hecho los deberes. E. Question: Have you been at the university today? C. Pregunta: Has estat a la universitat avui? S. Pregunta: Has estado en la universidad hoy? The most important thing to remember about the present perfect is that it can never be used with adverbs which describe finished time periods, such as yesterday, five minutes ago and at three o'clock. If a time adverb is used with the present perfect, it should describe a time period which is unfinished.

THE PAST PERFECT The Past Perfect tense is formed of two parts: the past tense of the verb to have (had) + the past participle of the main verb. The past perfect is refered to a time earlier than before now. It is used to show that one event happened before another in the past. Example sentences: E. I had worked a lot before my grandmother arrived. S. Havia treballat molt abans que arribs la meva via. C. Haba trabajado mucho antes de que llegara mi abuela.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

4. The Present Perfect And Past Perfect

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THE PRESENT PERFECT VERSUS PAST PERFECT

EXERCISE 1. Write the present perfect in the following blanks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They...........................(not fished) building the new social centre yet. She.............................(drive) her new car twice. Our friends........................ (work) with chromium for two days. We...........................(move) into our new house. They............................( not seen) the new computer tools yet.

EXERCISE 2. Fill in the blanks with for and since: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Weve been at Baker Street .........three times. John has studied English..............1975. It has snowed ...........Monday. We havent had any exams..................a month. Sarah and Joe have lived in Toronto...........many years.

EXERCISE 3. Write yet, already, just or still. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Have you studied for your Maths exam..........? We have...............had a call from Philip. Josh hasnt arrived.................I am........... waiting for him. The new aerial has.............worked. My friends have.............finished their final project.

EXERCISE 4. Write the present perfect or the past perfect in the following sentences: 1. Joan and Carl decided to visit the Blue Mountain after they......................(discuss) a lot about it. 2. The third day of our tour, it began to rain after the weather...........................(change) a lot. 3. We .....................(study) English for many years. 4. The boys..................(travel) around the world before they married. 5. We.....................(think) we should use gold and diamond for finishing the jewel.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

THE PRESENT PERFECT VERSUS PAST PERFECT KEY EXERCISE 1. Write the present perfect in the following blanks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They have not finished (not fished) building the new social centre yet. She has driven (drive) her new car twice. Our friends have worked (work) with chromium for two days. We have moved (move) into our new house. They have not seen ( not seen) the new computer tools yet.

EXERCISE 2. Fill in the blanks with for and since: 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. Weve been at Baker Street for three times. John has studied English since1975. It has snowed since Monday. We havent had any exams for a month. Sarah and Joe have lived in Toronto for many years.

EXERCISE 3. Write yet, already, just or still. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Have you studied for your Maths exam yet ? We have just had a call from Philip. Josh hasnt arrived yet. I am just waiting for him. The new aerial has already worked. My friends have just finished their final project.

EXERCISE 4. Write the present perfect or the past perfect in the following sentences: 1. Joan and Carl decided to visit the Blue Mountain after they had discussed (discuss) a lot about it. 2. The third day of our tour, it began to rain after the weather had changed (change) a lot. 3. We have studied (study) English for many years. 4. The boys had travelled (travel) around the world before they married. 5. We have thought (think) we should use gold and diamond for finishing the jewel.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

5. Past Continuous

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5. PAST CONTINUOUS
The past continuous is used to "set the scene", or provide (longer) background information. E. The young couple was walking home after the party. C. La jove parella anava caminant cap a casa desprs de la festa. S. La joven pareja iba caminando hacia su casa despus de la fiesta. E. They were speaking excitedly about their plans. C. Estaven parlant emocionadament dels seus plans. S. Estaban hablando emocionadamente sobre sus planes. We tend to use the past continuous tense to speak about more temporary situations and actions: E. I was working in that bookshop for a few days last summer. C. Vaig estar treballant en aquella llibreria uns quants dies lestiu passat. S. Estuve trabajando en aquella librera unos das el verano pasado.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

PAST CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Write the past continuous of the following verbs: WORK DREAM STUDY RECOVER

EXERCISE 2. Complete the following blanks with the appropriated tense: Last night, while I was doing my homework, Jason (call).............She said she (call)..............me on her cell phone from her biology classroom. I asked her if she (wait)................for class, but she said that the professor was at the front of the hall lecturing while she (talk).......................to me. I couldnt believe she (make)..................a phone call during the lecture. I asked what was going on.

EXERCISE 3. Complete the following sentences with simple past or past continuous: 1. I worked (work) very hard last night. 2. I was working (work) hard when the earthquake started. 3. The sun..............(rise) when he arrived in Bombay. 4.They ...................(have) coffee when the mail came. 5. I.....................(study) at the University of California. 6. She..................(watch) the game while feeding the baby. 7. The company .....................(rent) office space in that tall building. 8. When the police arrived, they................(shout) at each other. 9. The secretary...............(type) a letter for her boss. 10.They ..............(dance) as the music..............(play). 11. They ..............(buy) a house in the suburbs last year. 12. While I..................(write) a letter she was cooking.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

5. Past Continuous

23

PAST CONTINUOUS KEY

EXERCISE 1. Write the past continuous of the following verbs: WORK I was working You were working He/She/ It was working We were working You were working They were working DREAM I was dreaming You were dreaming He/she/it was dreaming We were dreaming You were dreaming They were dreaming STUDY I was studying You were studying He was studying We were studying You were studying They were studying

EXERCISE 2. Complete the following blanks with the appropriated tense: Last night, while I was doing my homework, Jason (call) called. She said she (call)was calling me on her cell phone from her biology classroom. I asked her if she (wait)was waiting for class, but she said that the professor was at the front of the hall lecturing while she (talk)was talking to me. I couldnt believe she (make) was making a phone call during the lecture. I asked what was going on.

EXERCISE 3. Complete the following sentences with simple past or past continuous: 1. I worked (work) very hard last night. 2. I was working (work) hard when the earthquake started. 3. The sun was rising (rise) when he arrived in Bombay. 4. They were having (have) coffee when the mail came. 5. I studied (study) at the University of California. 6. She was watching (watch) the game while feeding the baby. 7. The company rent (rent) office space in that tall building. 8. When the police arrived, they were shouting (shout) at each other. 9. The secretary was typing(type) a letter for her boss. 10. They were dancing(dance) as the music played (play). 11. They bought (buy) a house in the suburbs last year. 12. While I was writting (write) a letter she was cooking.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

6. GERUNDS IN SCIENCE
There are three main types of gerund phrases that can be used in Science. 1. GERUND PHRASES AS SUBJECTS: Example: E. Developing new prototypes is an interesting task. C. Desenvolupar nous prototipus s una tasca interessant. S. Desarrollar nuevos prototipos es una tarea interesante. 2. GERUND PHRASES AFTER PREPOSITIONS: Examples: a) Before + gerund E. An engineer must write a project before ending his studies. C. Un enginyer ha descriure un projecte abans dacabar la carrera. S. Un ingeniero debe escribir un proyecto antes de acabar la carrera. b) After + gerund E. After pushing the button, the machine is turned off. C. Desprs De prmer el bot, sapaga la mquina. S. Despus de apretar el botn, se apaga la mquina. c) without + gerund E. Without using pliers, some experiments might be dangerous. C. Si no sutilitzen les pinces, alguns experiments poden ser perillosos. S. Sin utilizar pinzas, algunos experimentos podran resultar peligrosos. 3. BY + GERUND PHRASES TO DESCRIBE MANNER OR METHOD: Like in Catalan or Spanish, a gerund can be used in English to describe the way something is done. Unlike Catalan or Spanish, however, English requires the use of the preposition by before the gerund. Example: E. An engine produces power by burning air and fuel. C. Un motor produeix energia cremant aire i combustible. S. Un motor produce energa quemando aire y combustible.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

6. Gerunds In Science

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GERUNDS IN SCIENCE EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Fill in the gaps using the suitable gerund : introducing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. mixing insulating bending deleting achieving

Before -------------- any document, think twice. Without ------------- many rooms lack good acoustics. --------------- a sheet of plastic it may break. By -------------- new techniques, technology has developed dramatically. After------------ some music, the sound engineer was exhausted. -------------- marketing goals is not always easy.

EXERCISE 2. Choose the correct gerund in each case: speeding 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. designing manufacturing supplying inventing allowing

------------- new car models some companies get very rich. ------------- causes many accidents on the road. After ---------- the goods, they are dispatched within some hours. Before ------------- the telegraph, people used to communicate differently. Without ------------ enough water land becomes dry. By -------------- electricity to flow through some filaments, lightbulbs shine.

EXERCISE 3. Indicate whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE. 1. Before producing power, the fuel and air are drawn into the engine. 2. An engine produces power by burning air and fuel. 3. Unscrewing nuts, they get more tight. 4. Using ADSL internet connections are usually faster. 5. Hand drills are used for drilling holes in wood and metal. 6. Keeping a workshop tidy causes many accidents at the workplace. 7. By changing gears properly, a car engine gets damaged. 8. After studying for hours, engineering students arent tired. 9. Without practising, a student can learn a foreign language. 10. Before changing a fuse, make sure that the electricity is off. EXERCISE 4. Put each sentence in the correct order: 1. A used is 2. Calculations balance for very small objects weighing. is making sometimes bit a difficult.

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GERUNDS IN SCIENCE KEY EXERCISE 1. Fill in the gaps using the suitable gerund : introducing mixing insulating bending deleting achieving

1.Before deleting any document, think twice. 2. Without insulating, many rooms lack good acoustics. 3. Bending a sheet of plastic, it may break. 4. By introducing new techniques, technology has developed dramatically. 5. After mixing some music, the sound engineer was exhausted. 6.Achieving marketing goals is not always easy. EXERCISE 2. Choose the correct gerund in each case: speeding 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. designing manufacturing supplying inventing allowing

Designing new car models, some companies get very rich. Speeding causes many accidents on the road. After manufacturing the goods, they are dispatched within some hours. Before inventing the telegraph, people used to communicate differently. Without supplying enough water, land becomes dry. By allowing electricity to flow through some filaments, lightbulbs shine.

EXERCISE 3. Indicate whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE. 1. Before producing power, the fuel and air are drawn into the engine.T 2. An engine produces power by burning air and fuel.T 3. Unscrewing nuts, they get more tight. F 4. Using ADSL internet connections are usually faster.F 5. Hand drills are used for drilling holes in wood and metal. T 6. Keeping a workshop tidy causes many accidents at the workplace. F 7. By changing gears properly, a car engine gets damaged. F 8. After studying for hours, engineering students arent tired. F 9. Without practising, a student can learn a foreign language. F 10. Before changing a fuse, make sure that the electricity is off. T EXERCISE 4. Put each sentence in the correct order: 1. A balance is used for weighing very small objects. 2. Making calculations is sometimes a bit difficult.

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7. IMPERATIVES
Imperatives are used for giving advice and instructions in general. These forms are particularly found in Science when describing how to operate machinery and devices. Study the following chart:

POSITIVE FORM: NEGATIVE FORM: WITH PROPER NOUNS: WITH EMPHATIC PURPOSE: WITH OTHER PEOPLE INVOLVED: WITH POLITENESS: WITH ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY:

Stop! , Wait!, Come back! Dont smoke!, Dont press that button! Come here, Simon! Talk to me, Phil! Do be quiet!, Do sign these contracts! Lets finish the meeting!, Lets go! Come back tomorrow, please! Never drive drunk!, Always respect the speed limit!

TRANSLATION ENGLISH Bring those boxes! Dont smoke in here! Turn back, Louise! Do calm down! Lets finish this! Call back please! Always wear gloves! Never arrive late! CATALAN Porta aquelles caixes! No fumis/fumeu aqu! Girat Llusa! Calmat! Acabem aix! Torna/torneu a telefonar si us plau! Porta sempre guants! No arribis mai tard! SPANISH Trae esas cajas! No fumes/fumis aqu! Grate, Luisa! Clmate! Acabemos esto! Vuelve a llamar, por favor! Lleva siempre guantes! No llegues nunca tarde!

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IMPERATIVES EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Translate the following imperatives into Catalan / Spanish. 1. Come here! 2. Go there! 3. Open the door! 4. Leave me alone! 5. Turn on the TV! 6. Turn off the radio! 7. Be careful! 8. Call me up! 9. Sit down! 10. Stand up! 11. Dont say that! 12. Dont drive so fast! 13. Dont make noise! 14. Dont be late! 15. Dont panic! EXERCISE 2. Write the imperatives for the following cues: 1. not/smoke/lab 2. always/wear/helmet/ride/motorbike 3. not/make/noise/late /night 4. do/respect/visiting hours/hospital 5. not/leave/open/containers/workshop 6. always/wear/goggles/welding 7. always/wear/ gloves/handling/sheets/metal 8. not/cross/street/without/looking/first/both sides 9. not/exceed/speed limit/motorway 10. never/leave/medicines/at childrens reach 11. not disturb/boss/working 12. wear/warm clothing/ski slopes 13. not drink alcohol/taking medicine 14. always/do/English/homework 15. always/arrive/punctual/class EXERCISE 3. Correct the following imperatives: 1. Brings the books to class! 2. Doesnt throw papers on the floor, Sheila! 3. Always touch electrical appliances with wet hands

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IMPERATIVES KEY EXERCISE 1. Translate the following imperatives into Catalan / Spanish. 1. Vine aqu!/ Ven aqu! 2. Vs all!/ Ves all! 3. Obre la porta! / Abre la puerta! 4. Deixam sol! / Djame solo! 5. Encn el televisor! / Enciende el televisor! 6. Apaga la rdio! / Apaga la radio! 7. Vs amb compte! / Ves con cuidado! 8. Trucam! / Llmame! 9. Seu! / Sientte! 10. Aixecat! / Levntate 11. No diguis aix! / No digas eso! 12. No condueixis tan de pressa! / No conduzcas tan deprisa! 13. No facis soroll! / No hagas ruido! 14. No arribis tard! / No llegues tarde! 15. Estigues tranquil! 16. Clmate! EXERCISE 2. Write the imperatives for the following cues: 1. Dont smoke in the lab! 2. Always wear a helmet when you ride a motorbike! 4. Dont make noise late at night! 5. Do respect the visiting hours in the hospital! 6. Dont leave open containers in the workshop! 7. Always wear goggles when welding! 8. Always wear gloves when handling sheets of metal. 9. Dont cross the street without looking first at both sides! 10. Dont exceed the speed limit in a motorway! 11. Never leave medicines at childrens reach! 12. Dont disturb the boss when he /she is working! 13. Wear warm clothing when you go to the ski slopes! 14. Dont drink alcohol when you are taking medicines! 15. Always do the English homework! 16. Always arrive punctual to class! EXERCISE 3. Correct the following imperatives: 1. Bring the books to class! 2. Dont throw papers on the floor, Sheila! 3. Never touch electrical appliances

with

wet

hands!

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8. MAKING QUESTIONS
Making a question in English is sometimes hard for foreign language learners. Thus, the main basic rules are summarised in the following table: RULE: 1. 2. EXAMPLES:

The auxiliary verb is placed before Have you received my letter? the subject. Why are you so busy? How much does this PC cost? Do works as the auxiliary verb if Do you like learning foreign languages? there is no other auxiliary verb in What does drum brake mean? the sentence. Did you like the exhibition? Do is not used with other auxiliaries. Infinitives without to after Do. Only the auxiliary verb goes before the subject. Question words (if subject or a part of it) come before the verb and do cannot normally be used. Do is then used for emphasis or when the question word is the object. In indirect questions the auxiliary is not placed before the subject and there is no question mark (?) Can you tell me the time? Have you found that file? Are you ready to go? What does the boss want? Did he like the present? Is Mr. Lewis coming tomorrow? When was your car serviced? Where are the workers going? Who left the tools on the floor? What happened last night? How many people work in your office? Which type of battery lasts longest? What did happen when he found out? Who do you want to speak to? What do you think? Tell me when you are coming. Explain them what you think. Remind me where you live. Show me who she is. RIGHT QUESTION: Why is the technician so late? What does bar graph mean? Have you seen Peter? Did you go shopping? Where is your boss staying? Which costs more a or b? Tell me why you are here.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

COMMON MISTAKES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. * Why the technician is so late? * What means bar graph? * Do you have seen Peter? * Did you to go shopping? * Where is staying your boss? * Which does cost more a or b? * Tell me why are you here?

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MAKING QUESTIONS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Correct the mistakes in the following questions: 1. Can do you speak English? 2. Why your manager is so angry? 3. Where did the secretary goes yesterday? 4. How much it is? 5. Do you can revise this report for me? 6. What all those people are looking at? 7. You have bought that expensive device? 8. Like you attending to congresses? 9. Did Mr. Stevenson went to the meeting? 10. What does the accountant wants from me? 11. When your assistant is leaving for Copenhagen? 12. How many people do work in the factory floor? 13. Is coming your interpreter tomorrow? 14. Where do you have put all my tools? 15. Did you to receive our sales representatives visit yesterday? EXERCISE 2. Make questions for the following statements: 1. My boss comes from Sweden. 2. Our headquarters are in New Hampshire. 3. I speak English well. 4. Ms. Spencer issued some invoices yesterday morning. 5. It started to rain at 8.00. 6. Everybody wants to go home after the meeting. 7. Mr. OConnor is an excellent industrial engineer. 8. Nick didnt feel very well last night. 9. David earns more than 3.000 Euros per month. 10. Our marketing manager is thinking about a new strategy. EXERCISE 3. Put the words in the right order to ask a question: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. buy you the did at what shops? is who your boss? employees moment where your the at are? Mr. Williams you see when did last? Stockholm go you why to did? Ms. Foster how to come work does? that new is lap-top computer whose?

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A Self-study Grammar Book for Engineers

MAKING QUESTIONS KEY EXERCISE 1. Correct the mistakes in the following questions: 1. Can you speak English? / Do you speak English? 2. Why is your manager so angry? 3. Where did the secretary go yesterday? 4. How much is it? 5. Can your revise this report for me? 6. What are all those people looking at? 7. Have you bought that expensive device? 8. Do you like attending to congresses? 9. Did Mr. Stevenson go to the meeting? 10. What does the accountant want from me? 11. When is your assistant leaving for Copenhagen? 12. How many people work in the factory floor? 13. Is your interpreter coming tomorrow? 14. Where have you put all my tools? 15. Did you receive our sales representatives visit yesterday? EXERCISE 2. Make questions for the following statements: 1. Where does your boss come from? 2. Where are your headquarters? 3. Do you speak any foreign language? 4. What did Ms. Spencer issue/ do yesterday morning? 5. What time did it start to rain? 6. What does everybody want to do? 7. Whats Mr. OConnor job/profession? / What does Mr. OConnor do? 8. How did Nick feel last night?/ How was Nick last night? 9. How much money does David earn per month? / What is Davids salary? 10. What is your marketing manager doing/ thinking about? EXERCISE 3. Put the words in the right order to ask a question: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What did you buy at the shops? Who is your boss? Where are your employees at the moment? When did you last see Mr. Williams? Why did you go to Stockholm? How does Ms. Foster come to work? Whose is that new lap-top computer?

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9. Question words

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9. QUESTION WORDS
Question words are particles that we place at the beginning of a sentence (just before the verb) and help us to make different questions. QUESTION WORD 1. what 2. whatslike 3. which 4. whose 5. who 6. when 7. where 8. how 9. how old 10. how long 11. how much 12. how many 13. how far 14. why EXAMPLES: 1. E. What time is it? C. Quina hora s? S. Qu hora es? 2. E. Whats the car like? C. Com s el cotxe? S. Cmo es el coche? 3. E. Which screwdriver is yours? C. Quin s el teu tornavs? S. Cul es tu destornillador? 4. E. Whose is this tool? C. De qui s aquesta eina? S. De quin es esta herramienta? 5. E. Who is the marketing manager? C. Qui s el director de mrqueting? S. Quin es el director de marketing ? 6. E. When does the technician come? C. Quan arriba el tcnic? S. Cando llega el tcnico? CATALAN qu; quin/a, quins/es com quin/a, quins/es de qui qui quan on com quants anys quant temps quant quants/ quantes a quina distncia per qu SPANISH qu cmo cul, cules de quin quin cundo dnde cmo cuantos aos cunto tiempo cunto cuntos, as a qu distancia por qu

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7. E. Where is the workshop? C. On s el taller? S. Dnde es el taller? 8. E. How does a photocopier work? C. Com funciona una fotocopiadora? S. Cmo funciona una fotocopiadora? 9. E. How old is your friend? C. Quants anys t el teu amic? S. Cuntos aos tiene tu amigo? 10. E. How long have you been working here? C. Quant temps has estat treballant aqu? S. Cunto tiempo has estado trabajando aqu? 11. E. How much electricity do we need? C. Quanta electricitat necessitem? S. Cunta electricidad necesitamos? 12. E. How many spurkplugs are there in the storage room? C. Quantes bugies hi ha al magatzem? S. Cuntas bujas hay en el almacn? 13. E. How far can this rocket fly? C. A quina distncia pot volar aquest coet? S. A qu distancia puede volar este cohete? 14. E. Why do factories pollute our rivers? C. Per qu les fbriques contaminen els nostres rius? S. Por qu las fbricas contaminan nuestros ros?

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QUESTION WORDS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Use the correct question word in the following : 1. ---------------- is your name? My name is Simon Morrison. 2. ---------------- do you live? I live in Manhattan. 3. ---------------- are you? Im 26 years old. 4. ---------------- do you do? Im an industrial engineer. 5. ---------------- is your favourite subject? Maths. 6. ----------------workers are there in the factory floor? 34. 7. ----------------petrol do you need to fill in the tank? 47 litres. 8. ----------------are you so busy? Because we have plenty of meetings now. 9. ----------------your secretary like? Shes very efficient and punctual. 10. ---------------- is your boss? Mr. Olsen. 11. ---------------- have you been studying in this faculty? 5 years. 12. ---------------- does this machine stop? By pressing the red button. 13. ---------------- can you run without stopping? 2km. 14. ---------------- is this? Its a scientific calculator. 15. ---------------- did your last order arrive? EXERCISE 2. Choose the correct question word in each sentence: what where when how how old how much how many 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. --------------- is your birthday? --------------- money have you got? --------------- euros do you earn per month? --------------- wallet is this? --------------- are you doing here? --------------- do you keep all those files? --------------- is your English teacher? --------------- do you start an engine? --------------- are you? whose who

EXERCISE 3. Match a question word in A and an answer in B: A. What? Who? Where? When? Why? B. Mr. Olsen. In Denmark. On 5th February 1975. Because he is my boss. A lap-top computer.

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QUESTION WORDS KEY EXERCISE 1. Use the correct question word in the following : 1. What is your name? My name is Simon Morrison. 2. Where do you live? I live in Manhattan. 3. How old are you? Im 26 years old. 4. What do you do? Im an industrial engineer. 5. What is your favourite subject? Maths. 6. How many workers are there in the factory floor? 34. 7. How much petrol do you need to fill in the tank? 47 litres. 8. Why are you so busy? Because we have plenty of meetings now. 9. Whats your secretary like? Shes very efficient and punctual. 10. Who is your boss? Mr. Oliver. 11. How long have you been studying in this faculty? 5 years. 12. How does this machine stop? By pressing the red button. 13. How far can you run without stopping? 2km. 14. What is this? Its a scientific calculator. 15. When did your last order arrive? EXERCISE 2. Choose the correct question word in each sentence: what where when how how old how much how many 1. When is your birthday? 2. How much money have you got? 3. How many euros do you earn per month? 4. Whose wallet is this? 5. What are you doing here? 6. Where do you keep all those files? 7. Who is your English teacher? 8. How do you start an engine? 9. Who are you? EXERCISE 3. Match a question word in A and an answer in B: A. What? Who? Where? When? Why? B. A lap-top computer. Mr. Olsen. In Denmark. On 5th February 1975. Because he is my boss. whose who

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10. Modals verbs

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10. MODAL VERBS


Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs Here is a list of modals: can/cant could/couldnt may/may not shall/shall not will/wont have to/dont have to must/must not should/shouldnt ought to/ought not to might/might not used to/didnt use to would/wouldnt ability, permission, possibility, certainty ability, possibility permission, possibility personal intention, willingness personal intention, willingness obligation, requirement certainty, obligation desirability, probability desirability, probabillty possibility habit in past unreality, hypothesis

How to write sentences Using Modals:

Subject + modal + second verb. (Never add -s, -es, -ed, or -ing to the second verb.)
x x

I + can + working six hours tonight. I + couldn't + studyed last night.

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MODAL VERBS EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Use one of the modal verbs in brackets to fill each gap. 1.They (can/might)________________ be at home next Friday but I'm not sure. 2.You (may/might)________________ start doing your homework if you wish. 3. (Could/May)________________ you open the door, please? 4. He (can/could)________________ be Spanish, judging by his accent. 5. (May/Can)________________ you play the guitar? 6. Be careful, please. You (may not/might not)________________ speak during the exam. 7. They (can't/may not)________________ still be in the beach! 8.You (couldn't/might not)________________ smoke on the bus. 9. Tomorrow (can/could)________________ be a sunny day. 10. You (can/might)________________ be right but I'm going back to check anyway.

EXERCISE 2. Would/should or ought to/might + have + past participle Exercise 1 If I had gone to the sales, I'm sure I ___________________ something. (to buy) 2 Jane was very upset John didnt go to her party. He ___________________ . (to go) 3 No-one's answering the phone.They ___________________ out. (to go) 4 The lights are out. They ___________________ to sleep. (to go) 5 We ___________________ Dave to the party if we had known he was in town. (to invite) 6 You ___________________ at Mary. She'll never forgive you. (to shout-NEGATIVE) 7 I ___________________ to have done some acting when I was younger. (to love) 8 You ___________________ to the pub on Saturday. We had a great time. (to come) 9 She ___________________ her mind. I'm not sure. (to change)

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MODAL VERBS KEY

EXERCISE 1. Use one of the modal verbs in brackets to fill each gap. 1. They might be at home next Friday but I'm not sure. 2.You may start doing your homework if you wish. 3. Could you open the door, please? 4. He could be Spanish, judging by his accent. 5. Can you play the guitar? 6. Be careful, please. You might not speak during the exam. 7. They can't still be in the beach! 8.You might not smoke on the bus. 9. Tomorrow can be a sunny day. 10. You might be right but I'm going back to check anyway.

EXERCISE 2. Would/should or ought to/might + have + past participle 1 If I had gone to the sales, I'm sure I would had bought something. (to buy) 2 Jane was very upset John didnt go to her party. He should have gone. (to go) 3 No-one's answering the phone.They might have gone out. (to go) 4 The lights are out. They might have gone to sleep. (to go) 5 We would have invited Bill to the party if we had known he was in town. (to invite) 6 You shouldnt have shouted at Mary. She'll never forgive you. (to shout-NEGATIVE) 7 I would have loved to have done some acting when I was younger. (to love) 8 You should have come to the pub on Saturday. We had a great time. (to come) 9 She might have changed her mind. I'm not sure. (to change)

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11. FUTURE WITH WILL AND GOING TO


Future Simple is used in the following cases: x To express a future action or intention E. We will leave tomorrow at 9 p.m. C. Marxarem dem a les 9. S. Nos iremos maana a las 9. To make a spontaneous decision at the time of speaking E. The telephone is ringing. Ill get it. C. Sona el telfon. Ja lagafo. S. Suena el telfono. Ya lo cojo. To express willingness or refusal E. Ill help to do your homework if I have time. C. Tajudar a fer els deures si tinc temps. S. Te ayudar a hacer los deberes si tengo tiempo. To express a prediction based on certain conditions or to give a warning E. Dont take matches. Youll burn! C. No agafis els llumins. Et cremars! S. No cojas las cerillas. Te quemars! We use going to + verb to talk about future plans or intentions: E. I am going to work in Ireland next summer. C. Anir a treballar a Irlanda lestiu que ve. S. Ir a trabajar a Irlanda el prximo verano. We also say that something is going to happen when something makes us believe so at the present: E. Its very cloudy. Its going to rain. C. Hi ha molts nvols. Plour. S. Est muy nublado. Va a llover. We can also use the Present Simple and Present Continuous to talk about the future: E.The bus leaves tomorrow at 10.00. C. Lautobs surt dem a les 10.00. S. El autobs sale maana a las 10.00. E. Im meeting John tomorrow night. C. Ens veurem amb el John dem al vespre. S. Nos veremos con John maana por la noche.

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11. Future With Will And Going To

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FUTURE WITH WILL AND GOING TO EXERCISES Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of will or be going to . 1. When can we meet? I........................meet you at 2.00 p.m. tomorrow. 2. He............................(not be) at university next week. He ...................to have an operation. 3. Martha and John..................be technical engineers next year. 4. We..................(go) to study hard for the exams. They...............be difficult. 5. Tomorrow it.................. be a nice day. We .....................celebrate our birthay. 6. My father works in Germany but next week he.......................stay at home. 7. When Jane and Joan finish their project, they.................look for a job. 8. Somebody is calling. I..........get it. 9. My grandmother .................help me to wash the dishes. 10. Your assistant ...................arrive tomorrow at 9 p.m. EXERCISE 2. Look at the itinerary below. Ask and anwer questions about Mr. Murray visit. 9.00 9.05-10.45 10.45-11.45 11.45-12.45 12.45-2.45 2.45 5.00 Arrival Meeting with the R+D Department Meeting with the Managing Director Demonstration of the M3 Prototype Lunch with other engineers in the enterprise Car to Terminal 2, Heathrow Airport Flight to Oslo, LH 2411

EXAMPLE A: When is he arriving? B: He is arriving at nine oclock ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... EXERCISE 3. Imagine you are a fortune teller. Predict your own future.

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FUTURE WITH WILL AND GOING TO KEY Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of will or be going to . 1. When can we meet? I will meet you at 2.00 p.m. tomorrow. 2. He is not going to be(not be) at university next week. He is going to have an operation. 3. Martha and John will be technical engineers next year. 4. We are going (go) to study hard for the exams. They will be difficult. 5. Tomorrow it will be a nice day. We are going to celebrate our birthay. 6. My father works in Germany but next week he is going to stay at home. 7. When Jane and Joan finish their project, they will look for a job. 8. Somebody is calling. Ill get it. 9. My grandmother is going to help me to wash the dishes tomorrow. 10. Your assistant will arrive tomorrow at 9 p.m. EXERCISE 2. Look at the itinerary below. Ask and anwer questions about Mr. Murray visit. 9.00 9.05-10.45 10.45-11.45 11.45-12.45 12.45-2.45 2.45 5.00 Arrival Meeting with the R+D Department Meeting with the Managing Director Demonstration of the M3 Prototype Lunch with other engineers in the enterprise Car to Terminal 2, Heathrow Airport Flight to Oslo, LH 2411

A: When is he arriving?B: He is arriving at nine oclock A: When is he meeting at the R+D Department? B: He is meeting at the R+D Department at 9.05. A: When is he meeting with the Managing Director? B:He is meeting with the Managing Director at 10.45. A: When is he having the demonstration of the M3 Prototype? B: He is having the demonstration of the M3 Prototype at 11.45 A: When is he having lunch with other engineers? B: He is having lunch at 12.45 A:When is he taking a car to Heathrow Airport?B: He is taking a car to Heathrow Airport at 2.45. A: When is he taking a flight to Oslo?B: He is taking a flight to Oslo at 5.00

EXERCISE 3. Imagine you are a fortune teller. Predict your own future. This exercise has to be done with the future construction to express predictionswill.

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12. CONDITIONALS
The proper use of the conditional pattern in English has been summarized in the following chart. In science conditional sentences are used to show cause-effect sequences in a process and state hypotheses in research. TYPES PATTERN USED FOR GENERAL TRUTHS CAUSE-EFFECT HYPOTHESIS (UNREAL) PAST EVENTS (IMPOSSIBLE)

TYPE 0 If+ Present / Present TYPE 1 If+Present / Future TYPE 2 If+Past / would or could...+ Infinitive TYPE 3 If+ Past Perfect / would...+ Present Perfect

EXAMPLES TYPE: ENGLISH CATALAN Si escalfes ( l) aigua, bull. Si (ell) estudia fora, aprovar lexamen final SPANISH Si calientas (el) agua, hierve. Si (l) estudia mucho, aprobar el examen final.

TYPE 0 If you heat water it boils.

TYPE 1 If he studies hard, he will pass the final exam.

Si (ella) fos la Dra. TYPE 2 If she were Dr. Johnson, she would be a very famous Johnson, seria una scientist. cientfica molt famosa. TYPE 3 If this machine had not been so expensive, we could have bought some more equipment. Si aquesta mquina no hagus estat tan cara, haurem pogut comprar quelcom ms de material.

Si (ella) fuese/fuera la Dra. Johnson, sera una cientfica muy famosa. Si esta mquina no hubiese /hubiera sido tan cara, habramos podido comprar algo ms de material.

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CONDITIONALS EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Link the following clauses to form conditional sentences. 1. If she passed her driving test, 2. They will go home as soon as 3. Our staff wont work, 4. My brother will clean the car, 5. We wont go cycling 6. If I missed the last bus, 7. If we had known that before, 8. We will travel to New York soon, 9. If I were Bill Gates, 10. If she were a surgeon, 11. Everybody would be happy, 12. If Mr.Lyons were alive, 13. You wont get a scholarship, 14. If I finish the report on time, 15. Unless (if not) she calls, a. unless (if not) the weather is good. b. if the enviroment werent polluted. c. If you dont apply for it. d. Ill take you to the cinema tonight. e. he would give beautiful lectures. f. I wont tell her about the news. g. if our father pays him to do it. h. she would operate on patients. i. she would be really happy. j. we would have avoided such error. k. if we save money enough for it. l. if working conditions arent good. m. I would be quite famous by now. n. I would be in trouble to go home. o. they receive their salary.

EXERCISE 2. Finish the following sentences with your own words. 1. If I were a famous scientist... 2. If I had studied Chemistry... 3. If I save enough money ... 4. If I hit a ball... 5. If I hadnt written that e-mail to her... 6. If I were studying in London... 7. If Mr.Brown had bought that company... 8. If Ms.Stevens improved her German... 9. If our staff stops working... 10. If my boss travelled to Scandinavia... EXERCISE 3. Correct the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. If I was younger, I would study Industrial Engineering. If Mary were a teacher, I will attend to her classes. If Mr.Olsen had bought a better car, he would have been in trouble now. If Mr. and Mrs. Morrison doesnt live so far, Id visit them more often. If you study this unit properly, you wouldnt have any doubt about it. If Matthias goes back to Sweden, we miss him for sure. If my PC stops working now, I will gets into real trouble. If you skip more classes, you would not pass this course.

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CONDITIONALS KEY EXERCISE 1. Link the following clauses to form conditional sentences. 1. If she passed her driving test, I 2. They will go home as soon as O 3. Our staff wont work, L 4. My brother will wash the car, G 5. We wont go cycling A 6. If I missed the last bus, N 7. If we had known that before, J 8. We will travel to New York soon, K 9. If I were Bill Gates, M 10. If she were a surgeon, H 11. Everybody would be happy, B 12. If Mr.Lyons were alive, E 13. You wont get a scholarship, C 14. If I finish the report on time, D 15. Unless (if not) she calls, F a. unless (if not) the weather is good. b. if the enviroment werent polluted. c. If you dont apply for it. d. Ill take you to the cinema tonight. e. he would give beautiful lectures. f. I wont tell her about the news. g. if our father pays him to do it. h. she would operate on patients. i. she would be really happy. j. we would have avoided such error. k. if we save money enough for it. l. if working conditions arent good. m. I would be quite famous by now. n. I would be in trouble to go home. o. they receive their salary.

EXERCISE 2. Finish the following sentences with your own words. 11. If I were a famous scientist, Id devote time to research on new vaccines. 12. If I had studied Chemistry, I would have got a better paid job. 13. If I save enough money, Ill make a nice trip next summer. 14. If I hit a ball, it moves. 15. If I hadnt written that e-mail to her, she would have missed the lecture. 16. If I were studying in London, I would practise English every day. 17. If Mr.Brown had bought that company, he would have had a great success. 18. If Ms.Stevens improved her German, she could easily work in Berlin. 19. If our staff stops working, this will be a real mess. 20. If my boss travelled to Scandinavia, he would need an interpreter. EXERCISE 3. Correct the following sentences. 9. If I were younger, I would study Industrial Engineering. 10. If Mary were a teacher, I would attend to her classes. 11. If Mr.Olsen had bought a better car, he wouldnt have been in trouble now. 12. If Mr. and Mrs. Morrison didnt live so far, Id visit them more often. 13. If you study this unit properly, you wont have any doubt about it. 14. If Matthias goes back to Sweden, we will miss him for sure. 15. If my PC stops working now, I will get into real trouble. 16. If you skip more classes, you will not pass this course.

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13. RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND RELATIVE CLAUSES


Who, that, which, where, whose and when are relative pronouns. They are used to link clauses and they are more common in English written texts than in spoken language. They are very often found in scientific texts, thereby an explanation of the main types of relative clauses and pronouns together with bilingual examples has been included in this unit as a reference for English learners. RELATIVE PRONOUNS FOR PEOPLE: FOR THINGS: FOR POSSESSION: FOR PLACES: FOR TIME: that, who, whom, zero that, which, zero whose, of which (things) where, in which, at which When RELATIVE CLAUSES ENGLISH CATALAN SPANISH La cafetera est estropeada. Esta cafetera hace el mejor caf.

The coffee machine is La cafetera est espatllada. broken. This machine makes the best Aquesta cafetera fa el millor coffee. caf. RELATIVE CLAUSE: The machine that makes the best coffee is broken. TYPES DEFINING OR RESTRICTIVE (Essential to the meaning of the sentence)

La cafetera que fa el millor La cafetera que hace el caf est espatllada mejor caf est estropeada.

E. The woman who came to the meeting is our interpreter. C. La dona que va venir a la reuni s la nostra intrpret. S. La mujer que vino a la reunin es nuestra intrprete.

E. They dont know the people for whom I work. C. No coneixen la gent per a qui treballo. S. No conocen a la gente para quin trabajo. NON-DEFINING OR E. London, where I live, is a big city. NON-RESTRICTIVE C. Londres, on visc, s una ciutat gran. S. Londres, dnde vivo, es una ciudad grande. (Extra information) E. John, whose son is a doctor, is my neighbour. C. En Joan, el fill del qual s metge, s el meu ve. (BETWEEN S. Juan, cuyo hijo es doctor, es mi vecino. COMMAS!)

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND CLAUSES EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Make the following sentences relative. 1. The lift is out of order. The lift is the fastest. 2. Susan is an engineer. Susan works at ETSEIT. 3. The machine is very useful. The machine is quite expensive. 4. The new lab was painted recently. I work in the new lab. 5. Michael is a very successful lawyer. Michaels niece is a surgeon. 6. The man came to visit us yesterday. The man is our new boss. 7. Our teacher lives in Barcelona. Our teacher is 33 years old. 8. The woman is sitting next to me. The woman is blind. 9. Engineers work hard. Engineers get good jobs. 10. Some technicians are good. Some technicians are very expensive. EXERCISE 2. Indicate whether the following sentences are defining or non-defining relative clauses. 1. Bruce Sprinsteen, who is my favourite singer, will play in Barcelona next year. 2. ETSEIT, where I work, is an old but nice building in Terrassa. 3. The man who is calling me now is my boss. 4. The girl whom I talked to you about is that one. 5. Mr. Armstrong, who stepped on the moon for the first time, is now very old. 6. The dam which was built a year ago is already broken. 7. 1st October, when I celebrate my birthday, is an important date for me. 8. The device that is faulty must be returned immediately. 9. I met the surgeon who operated on my brother. 10. The university where I am getting my doctor degree is called Pompeu Fabra. EXERCISE 3. Correct the mistakes in the following relative clauses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. It is a branch of Engineering that I have always been interested in it. Many people who dont study properly they dont sit for the exam. The teacher is called Mrs.Pantling is a nice person. The lecture that he gave us it was about Hydraulics. There are a lot of words that their pronunciation is very similar. David is taking a special course that it explains welding techniques. Young people, whose parents are good drivers, probably will be good drivers, too. During my specific training I learned about working in a team, what is very important. Im studying Biochemistry, that is very interesting.

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS& CLAUSES KEY


EXERCISE 1. Make the following sentences relative. 1. The lift that is the fastest is out of order. 2. Susan, who is an engineer, works at ETSEIT, 3. The machine that is very useful is quite expensive. 4. The new lab, where I work, was painted recently. 5. Michael, whose niece is a surgeon, is a very successful lawyer. 6. The man who came to visit us yesterday is our new boss. 7. Our teacher, who lives in Barcelona, is 33 years old. 8. The woman who is sitting next to me is blind. 9. Engineers who work hard get good jobs. 10. Some technicians who are good are very expensive. EXERCISE 2. Indicate whether the following sentences are defining or non-defining relative clauses. 1. Bruce Sprinsteen, who is my favourite singer, will play in Barcelona next year. NONDEFINING 2. ETSEIT, where I work, is an old but nice building in Terrassa. NON-D. 3. The man who is calling me now is my boss. DEFINING 4. The girl whom I talked to you about is that one. DEFINING. 5. Mr. Armstrong, who stepped on the moon for the first time... (NON-D) 6. The dam which was built a year ago is already broken. DEFINING 7. 1st October, when I celebrate my birthday, is an important... (NON-D) 8. The device that is faulty must be returned immediately. DEFINING 9. I met the surgeon who operated on my brother. DEFINING 10. The university where I am getting my doctor degree is called Pompeu Fabra. DEFINING EXERCISE 3. Correct the mistakes in the following relative clauses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. It is a branch of Engineering that I have always been interested in. Many people who dont study properly dont sit for the exam. The teacher, who is called Mrs.Pantling, is a nice person. The lecture that he gave us it about Hydraulics. There are a lot of words whose pronunciation is very similar. David is taking a special course that explains welding techniques. Young people whose parents are good drivers probably will be good drivers, too. During my specific training I learned about working in a team, which is very important. 9. Im studying Biochemistry, which is very interesting.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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14. QUESTION TAGS


Question tags are the short questions that we put at the end of the sentence, specially in spoken English. Forpositive statements we use the negative particle not: {statement} + {auxiliary/modal} + [not] + {subject} If there is no auxiliary or modal, we use do: {statement} + {do} + [not] + {subject} Examples: E. Elisabeth was not at her home, was she? C. LElisabet no era a casa seva, oi? S. Elisabet no estaba en su casa, verdad? E. You won the match, didnt you? C. Vreu guanyar el partit, oi? S. Ganasteis el partido, no? We use question tags in three ways: 1. To verify information; when we are fairly certain of a fact and want merely to check it, we can use a question tag: x Your brother isnt married, is he?

2. To ask someone to do something; often this is used when we want someone to agree with what we say: x x He's not a good worker, is he? You're very intelligent, aren't you? Can you help me with my project?

3. To show surprise in a negative way when we cannot really believe something is true we use this only in negative sentences: x She isn't studying yet, is she?

After let's... and offers & suggestions we use shall: x Let's go, shall we?

After imperatives we use will/would/can/could: x Go to the doctor, wont you?

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QUESTION TAGS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Match the letters with the numbers to make a question tag sentence. 1. You didnt want to sell the car, 2. They arrived last night, 3. She hasnt seen the film, 4. We have to leave now, 5. You are going to London next month, 6. He never arrives on time, 7. I am no good at swiming, 8. They could have studied, 9. The engineers want to study, 10. There isnt much time left, a. arent you? b. couldnt they? c. am I? d. did you? e. dont they? f. didnt they? g. is there? h. dont we? i. does he? j. has she?

EXERCISE 2. Add question tags to the following sentences: 1. Let me help you. 2. You study English. 3. Your husband is from Italy. 4. John used to live in Paris. 5. Have another cup of coffee. 6. You will be technician next year. 7. We can all go together. 8. I am meeting you again next week. 9. She has been in England for a long time. 10. I cant study more. 11. You wont be able to go to the meeting. 12. My doctor is ill. 13. Wash your hands! 14. Dont let anything over the table. 15. His husband is working. 16. You shouldnt have payed the jeans. 17. I would like to be with my family next week. 18. My brother is on the phone. 19. They have worked a lot during all their lives. 20. Jenny will go to Rome next holiday.

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QUESTION TAGS KEY EXERCISE 1. Match the letters with the numbers to make a question tag sentence. 1. You didnt want to sell the car, did you? 2. They arrived last night , didnt they? 3. She hasnt seen the film, has she? 4. We have to leave now , have we? 5. You are going to London next month, arent you? 6. He never arrives on time, doesnt he? 7. I am no good at swiming, am I? 8. They could have studied, couldn t they? 9. Engineers want to work, dont they? 10. There isnt much time left, is it? EXERCISE 2. Add question tags to the following sentences: 1. Let me help you, wont you? 2. You study English, dont you? 3. Your husband is from Italy, isnt he? 4. John used to live in Paris, didnt he? 5. Have another cup of coffee, wont you? 6. You will be technician next year, wont you? 7. We can all go together, cant we? 8. I am meeting you again next week, arent I? 9. She has been in England for a long time, hasnt she? 10. I cant study more, can I? 11. You wont be able to go to the meeting, will you? 12. My doctor is ill, isnt he? 13. Wash your hands, wont you? 14. Dont let anything over the table, will you? 15. His husband is working, isnt he? 16. You shouldnt have payed the jeans, shouldnt you? 17. I would like to be with my family next week, wouldnt I? 18. My brother is on the phone, isnt he? 19. They have worked a lot during all their lives, havent they? 20. Jenny will go to Rome next holiday, wont she?

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15. THE PASSIVE VOICE


In English, we use the passive voice much more than in Catalan or Spanish. Besides, by using this impersonal style we focus on the facts rather than on the person performing the action, which is essential in a good technical description. A. How to move from Active into Passive voice: 1. ACTIVE: The technician did p a good job. S

2. PASSIVE: A good job was done by the technician. S V O

B. How to transform verbs from Active into Passive voice: PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE: is/are + participle PRESENT CONTINUOUS PASSIVE: is/are + being+ participle PRESENT PERFECT PASSIVE: have/has (3ps)+been+ p. PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE: FUTURE SIMPLE:

was/were + participle will +be + participle PAST CONTINUOUS FUTURE PERFECT PASSIVE: PASSIVE: was/were+ being+ partic. will+ have been+ partic. PAST PERFECT PASSIVE: MODAL VERBS Had +been + participle (PASSIVE) : Modal + be + participle

C. How participles are formed: VERB TYPE: a) Regular verb b) Irregular verb INFINITIVE: discover write PARTICIPLE: discovered write wrote - written

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THE PASSIVE VOICE EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Transform the following sentences from active into passive: 1. Dr. Johnson created a new robot. 2. The secretary has made several phone calls. 3. Scientists are doing research all the time. 4. We rarely invest money in the stock market. 5. The technician fixed our machine in two days. 6. Many customers can buy our new goods. 7. A miscalculation caused many problems. 8. Ms. Sullivan will arrange a meeting with the Board. 9. Good filters eliminate impurities. 10. The switchboard operator is connecting some people at the moment. 11. The Engineer used a conversion chart to calculate the distance. 12. One must check the water and oil levels before making a long trip by car. 13. Doctors prescribe medicines only when necessary. 14. That multinational company had employed new staff in 1992. 15. A combination of digits from 0 to 9 form whole numbers. EXERCISE 2. Match A and B columns to complete the following passive sentences: A A broken calliper Some good rest Many car engines Noise Most loudspeakers Silence That recording studio Flammable liquids Electricity B have been repaired by Mr. Robinson. can be damaged easily. had been sold to an American company. must be respected in hospitals. has been fixed by a technician. is supplied to most houses nowadays. must be kept away from children. can be reduced by using an insulator. is guaranteed in this spa.

EXERCISE 3. Transform the following passive sentences into the active voice: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. That window was broken by an explosion. Some minerals are found in nature. Excellent prototypes can be created by Engineering students. Measuring devices are used in most factories. Some accidents may be caused by careless welding. Most programmes are being configurated by computer experts. An U.F.O. has been seen near the Pyrenees.

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THE PASSIVE VOICE KEY EXERCISE 1. Transform the following sentences from active into passive: 1. A new robot was created by Dr. Johnson. 2. Several phone calls have been made by the secretary. 3. Research is being done by scientists all the time. 4. Money is rarely invested in the stock market (by us). 5. Our machine was fixed by the technician in two days. 6. Our new goods can be bought by many customers. 7. Many problems were caused by a miscalculation. 8. A meeting with the Board will be arranged by Ms. Sullivan. 9. Impurities are eliminated by good filters. 10. Some people are being connected by the switchboard operator at the moment. 11. A conversion chart was used by the engineer to calculate the distance. 12. The water and oil levels must be checked before making a long trip by car. 13. Medicines are prescribed by doctors only when necessary. 14. New staff had been employed by that multinational in 1992. 15. Whole numbers are formed by a combination of digits from 0 to 9. EXERCISE 2. Match A and B columns to complete the following passive sentences: A A broken calliper Some good rest Many car engines Noise Most loudspeakers Silence That recording studio Flammable liquids Electricity B has been fixed by a technician. is guaranteed in this spa. have been repaired by Mr. Robinson. can be reduced by using an insulator. can be damaged easily. must be respected in hospitals. had been sold to an American company. must be kept away from children. is supplied to most houses nowadays.

EXERCISE 3. Transform the following passive sentences into the active voice: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8. 9. An explosion broke that window (We) find some minerals in nature. Engineering students can create excellent prototypes. (People) use measuring devices in most factories. Careless welding may cause some accidents. Computer experts are configurating most programmes. (Some people) have seen an U.F.O. near the Pyrenees.

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16. The Article

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16. THE ARTICLE


The use of the definite and indefinite article in English follow a series of rules, which have been compiled in this unit so that foreign language learners can study, revise and practise them easily. DEFINITE ARTICLE INDEFINITE ARTICLE The is used when the listener knows which one we are talking about: Can you open the window? Whos the man in the black suit? Weve got a cat. The cats name is Phoebe. NO ARTICLE

An is used before vowels: An artist, an engineer, an iglu, an hour, an underground

A is used before consonants:

A doctor, a university, a degree, a bachelor, In certain expressions: at home, go home, a qualification, a car, a tool... at school, at work, in bed. A/ an is used when we mean `any one (it doesnt matter which one) or when the listener doesnt know which one we are refering to: Id like to hava a CD player. Sally lives in a small flat near London. In generalisations uncountable nouns): ( plurals or

Cars used to be cheaper a decade ago. I like rock music. Oil is produced in Texas. Students are usually motivated.

A/an is also used when we give the class or With proper nouns and titles: group that somebody / something is in: Mr. Spielberg, King Arthur, Lord Byron, Whats that? Its an insect. England, Sesame Street, New York... What is your job? Im a designer. With materials, colours & languages: Iron, blue, Swedish. A/ an is also used to mean every in With months, seasons & nationalities: In July, next summer, Australian. prices and measurements: Three Pounds a kilo. Seventy kilometres an hour. With activities, jobs and games: Fishing, Engineering, Chess.

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THE ARTICLE EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Choose the correct form, with or without THE. 1. Most people /The most people like travelling. 2. Family life / The family life is the basis of our society. 3. That journalist wrote an article about life /the life of Bill Gates. 4. Skiing/ The skiing is my favourite sport in winter. 5. I hate violence / the violence. 6. In Britain coffee / the coffee is more expensive than tea / the tea. 7. Engineers / The engineers are usually creative people. 8. The English teacher/ English teacher tries to motivate her students to learn. 9. Unemployment /the unemployment is a big problem in Spain. 10. Examinations / The examinations should take place in two weeks time. EXERCISE 2. Complete using a/an in each case. 1. It is .... lovely day today. 2. ETSEIT is .... old university. 3. Mr.Richmond is ... unusual man. 4. This is .... exception to the rule. 5. It is ... long business trip, but it is ... easy trip. 6. In Terrassa we have ... large library. 7. It is ... hour till lunch. 8. Yesterday was ... very windy day. 9. This is ... excellent idea, Anthony! 10. This is --- old device we used to measure temperature. EXERCISE 3. Complete the following sentences with the proper article. 1. ... chair on which you are sitting is not comfortable. 2. There is ....pencil on the desk. 3. There is ... customer who wants to see you. 4. I want to find ... good book to read tonight. 5. ...magazine I am reading now belongs to Martha. 6. I must buy ... new briefcase soon, this one is too old. 7. ....Architects are used to visiting building sites. 8. ....Tom Clanceys books sell very well these days. 9. ...Chicago city is very big. 10. ...gold in this ring is very old. 11. ...Honesty is the best policy. 12. ...Broadway merchants held a meeting.

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THE ARTICLE KEY EXERCISE 1. Choose the correct form, with or without THE. 1. Most people /The most people like travelling. 2. Family life / The family life is the basis of our society. 3. That journalist wrote an article about life /the life of Bill Gates. 4. Skiing/ The skiing is my favourite sport in winter. 5. I hate violence / the violence. 6. In Britain coffee / the coffee is more expensive than tea / the tea. 7. Engineers / The engineers are usually creative people. 8. The English teacher/ English teacher tries to motivate her students. 9. Unemployment /the unemployment is a big problem in Spain. 10. Examinations / The examinations should take place in two weeks time. EXERCISE 2. Complete using a/an in each case. 1. It is a lovely day today. 2. ETSEIT is an old university. 3. Mr.Richmond is an unusual man. 4. This is an exception to the rule. 5. It is a long business trip, but it is an easy trip. 6. In Terrassa we have a large library. 7. It is an hour till lunch. 8. Yesterday was a very windy day. 9. This is an excellent idea, Anthony! 10. This is an old device we used to measure temperature. EXERCISE 3. Complete the following sentences with the proper article. 1. The chair on which you are sitting is not comfortable. 2. There is a pencil on the desk. 3. There is a customer who wants to see you. 4. I want to find a good book to read tonight. 5. The magazine I am reading now belongs to Martha. 6. I must buy a new briefcase soon, this one is too old. 7. X Architects are used to visiting building sites. 8. X Tom Clanceys books sell very well these days. 9. X Chicago city is very big. 10. The gold in this ring is very old. 11. X Honesty is the best policy. 12. The Broadway merchants held a meeting.

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17. PRONOUNS
PERSONAL PRONOUNS SUBJECT I You He She It We You They PERSONAL PRONOUNS OBJECT Me You Him Her It Us You Them POSSESSIVE DETERMINER My Your His Her Its Our Your Their POSSESIVE PRONOUNS Mine Yours His Hers Ours Yours Theirs REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves

1. Personal Pronouns (Subject): E. She is an expert in Ergonomics. C. Ella s una experta en ergonomia. S. Ella es una experta en ergonoma. 2. Personal Pronouns (Object): E. I asked him to call me back in 10 minutes. C. Li vaig demanar (a ell) que em torns a telefonar al cap de deu minuts. S. Le ped (a l) que me volviera a llamar en diez minutos. 3. Possessive Determiner: E. This is our project planning. C. Aquesta s la nostra programaci del projecte. S. sta es nuestra programacin del proyecto. 4. Possessive Pronouns: E. That calculator is mine. C. Aquella calculadora s meva. S. Aquella calculadora es ma. 5. Reflexive Pronouns: E. Sometimes I look at myself in the mirror. C. De vegades em miro al mirall. S. A veces me miro al espejo.

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PRONOUNS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Complete the following sentences using the suitable personal pronoun, possessive determiner or pronoun and reflexive pronoun in each case: 1. Tell --------- what you think about this budget before the meeting. 2. --------- sister is a project engineer and works in Berlin. 3. Mr. Murphy and -------- partners will visit us soon. 4. Sorry but this spanner is ---------! 5. I always tell -------- how lucky I am to be working in Spain. 6. The storage and -------- problems is our major concern. 7. Technological innovation implies a higher quality of life for ---------. 8. Dont ask me anything else, its not ---------- business anymore! 9. We must consider ---------- fortunate to have such a great management. 10. Many scientists are worried about the ozone layer and -------- environmental impact. 11. Sally forgot -------- lap-top computer at home yesterday. 12. If you see Mr. Collins give ------- my regards, please. 13. The idea ---------- sounds attractive to me. Go for it! 14. David and Jeremy are traveling soon, maybe I should -------- . 15. Most employees enjoy ----------- a lot during holidays.

EXERCISE 2. Complete each sentence matching A and B columns: A Denis went to America with My boss didnt forget that Elisabeth and Mr. OConnell thought that Dont tell Decision making is a very careful task Most competitors think that Our economic feasibility is better I sometimes ask If you feel like Please ask Michael is nice but All my plans coincide These projects have B my estimate was quite accurate. for me. his girlfriend Tina. than theirs. just come to my party on Saturday. your brother to come along. mistake of mine for a long time. I dont like his hairstyle. her colleagues went on a business trip. me that you got angry for that! with hers. myself if I was right taking that decision. they are the best themselves. Its advantages and disadvantages.

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PRONOUNS KEY EXERCISE 1. Complete the following sentences using the suitable personal pronoun, possessive adjective or pronoun and reflexive pronoun in each case: 1.Tell me what you think about this budget before the meeting. 2. My sister is a project engineer and works in Berlin. 3.Mr. Murphy and his partners will visit us soon. 4.Sorry but this spanner is mine! 5.I always tell myself how lucky I am to be working here. 6.The storage and its problems is our major concern. 7.Technological innovation implies a higher quality of life for us. 8. Dont ask me anything else, its not your business anymore! 9.We must consider ourselves fortunate to have such a great management. 10. Many scientists are worried about the ozone layer and its environmental impact. 11. Sally forgot her lap-top computer at home yesterday. 12. If you see Mr. Collins give him my regards, please. 13. The idea itself sounds attractive to me. Go for it! 14. David and Jeremy are travelling soon, maybe I should call them. 15. Most employees enjoy themselves a lot during holidays.

EXERCISE 2. Complete each sentence matching A and B columns: A Denis went to America with My boss didnt forget that Elisabeth and Mr. OConnell thought that Dont tell Decision making is a very careful task Most competitors think that Our economic feasibility is better I sometimes ask If you feel like Please ask Michael is nice but All my plans coincide These projects have B his girlfriend Tina. mistake of mine for a long time. her colleagues went on a business trip. my estimate was quite accurate. me that you got angry for that! for me! they are the best themselves. than theirs. myself if I was right taking that decision. just come to my party on Saturday! your brother to come along. I dont like his hairstyle. with hers. its advantages and disadvantages.

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18. PLURALS
Spelling rules for English plurals do sometimes contain too many exceptions. Therefore, a compilation of all its cases has been included in the following chart: NOUN PLURALS CASES Ending -s,-ss,-ch, -sh, -x SINGULAR Examples bus, loss, brush, box PLURAL Examples RULES

church, buses, losses, churches, brushes, boxes

Add -es Exception: loch-lochs Add -s if -y follows consonant Drop -y and add -ies if -y follows consonant Exception: proper nouns

Ending -y

toy, donkey, valley

tray, toys, donkeys, trays, valleys flies, ladies, bodies, lorries Kennedys, Marys

fly, lady, body, lorry

Kennedy, Mary

Ending -f, -fe

knife, loaf, shelf, self, Knives, loaves, Certain nouns drop half, thief, life, leaf, shelves, selves, f, -fe and add -ves wolf, calf, wife halves, thieves, lives, leaves, wolves, calves, wives roof, chief, reef, safe, roofs, chiefs, reefs, cliff, handkerchief safes, cliffs, handkerchiefs, Others add -es hoof, wharf, scarf hoofs/hooves, wharfs/wharves, scarfs/scarves Photos, memos, kilos, pianos, radios, videos, zoos Some have alternative endings

Ending -o

photo, memo, kilo, piano, radio, video, zoo

Most nouns add-s

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CASES Ending -o

SINGULAR Examples tomato, cargo echo, hero, volcano

PLURAL Examples tomatoes,cargoes, echoes, heroes, volcanoes

RULES But some very common nouns add es

banjo, zero, mosquito banjos/ banjoes, Some have zeros/ zeroes, alternative endings mosquitos/ mosquitoes Irregular Child, tooth, goose, foot, man, woman, mouse Criterion, medium, crisis, bureau, chateau aquarium, stadium, gymnasium fungus, formula, curriculum Children, teeth, geese, feet, men, women, mice Criteria, crises, chateaux media, Some keep original bureaux, plural ending

Nouns of foreign origin

aquariums, stadiums, Some have become gymnasiums anglicized Fungi/funguses, formulae/formulas, curriculi/ curriculums Some have alternative endings

No change

aircraft, deer, fish, sheep

aircraft, deer, fish*, No change (but these sheep are not uncountable * the plural fishes is nouns) sometimes used! tooth-brushes, city centres, concert-halls True noun usually becomes plural, the noun used as adjective does not change

Compound nouns

tooth-brush, city centre, concert-hall Commander-in-chief, passer-by, brother-inlaw Court-martial

Commanders-inchief, passers-by, Other examples brothers-in-law Courts-martial, court- Alternative endings marshals

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PLURALS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Change the following sentences from singular to plural. 1. My child plays in the park every morning. 2. Your knife is next to the plate. 3. The dish is on the table. 4. Susans new dress is very smart. 5. That plane leaves from Barcelona airport. 6. This bus stops at this corner. 7. The box is full. 8. There is a church near here. 9. Our English class begins at nine oclock. 10. That man is a good Industrial Engineer. 11. Your dog seems a bit sick. 12. I enjoy studying this subject. 13. This new device works very well. 14. That woman is our controller. 15. The windows glass is broken. 16. My old watch does not run well. 17. Bosch salesman is very polite. 18. The English Labs key is on the table. 19. A leaf reminds me of autumn. 20. Everyone loves this city. EXERCISE 2. Complete this chart with the plural form of the following singular nouns. SINGULAR NOUN bolt drill engineer hammer paint brush pliers ruler spanner tool box trolley wire workbench PLURAL FORM

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PLURALS KEY EXERCISE 1. Change the following sentences from singular to plural. 1. My children play in the parks every morning. 2. Your knives are next to the plates. 3. The dishes are on the tables. 4. Susans new dresses are very smart. 5. Those planes leave from Barcelona airport. 6. These buses stop at these corners. 7. The boxes are full. 8. There are some churches near here. 9. Our English classes begin at nine oclock. 10. Those men are good Industrial Engineers. 11. Your dogs seem a bit sick. 12. I enjoy studying these subjects. 13. This new devices work very well. 14. That women are our controllers. 15. The windows glasses are broken. 16. My old watches do not run well. 17. Bosch salesmen are very polite. 18. The English Labs keys are on the tables. 19. Leaves remind me of autumn. 20. Everyone loves these cities. EXERCISE 2. Complete this chart with the plural form of the following singular nouns. SINGULAR NOUN bolt drill engineer hammer paint brush pliers ruler spanner tool box trolley wire workbench PLURAL FORM bolts drills engineers hammers paint brushes pliers rulers spanners tool boxes trolleys wires workbenches

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19. SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES

Suffixes An adjective can be recognised by its ending: Pleased Interesting Relevant Moral Active Lucky Atomic Political Urban Wooden

Some adjective suffixes give a clue to the adjectives meaning: comprehensible/workable (can/able) childish (in the manner) dangerous/beautiful (having quality of) Adjectives Ending in ed / ing The film was boring. (ing/Present Participle) I was bored with the film (ed/V3) Adjectives that end with ing usually tell us what the noun does. Adjectives that end with ed usually tell us the effect on the person or what the person feels. Prefixes Some prefixes mean not. If added to the beginning of an adjective, they give it the opposite meaning. Amoral Antisocial Discontented Imperfect Irresponsible Unfair Illegal Insane Non-conductor careful (with) careless (without) childlike (similar to)

Many other prefixes also give a clue to meaning: Automatic (by itself) Hypersensitive (too) Multifocal (many) Biannual (twice) Intercontinental(between) Superhuman (above) Extraordinary (outside of) Monotonous (one) Ultra-modern (very)

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SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate adjective from the word blank. Childish Homeless Irrelevant 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Autobiographical Disillusioned Generous Fatally Wooden Popular International

........................comunication is fast and easy with Internet. Johns book is.............................It relates to his childhood. The Canadians practise baseball. It is a.................sport in Canada. The man was....................injured in a car accident. Thank you. You are very..................with me. There are many.................. people in the Third World. My friend lives in a........................cabin in the country. Marthas.................. behaviour always gets her into trouble. I was very.........................with the results of the election. Your opinion has nothing to do with the discussion. It is completely...............

EXERCISE 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the word in brackets (either ed or -ing ). 1. I have never been.................. in mechanics, although I am sure it is an.....................job. (interest) 2. Watching the sunrise at the beach is an.....................sight. I am.....................at the number of people who go to the beach just to see the sunrise. (amaze) 3. The salesperson was so.......................that she........................me to buy the expensive shoes. (convince) 4. The lecture was long and.................. . Many students were..................by the end. (bore) 5. Lilian doesnt think soap operas are..................... . She is more......................by other programmes. 6. Many people find the Africa situation............................ . The conflicting News reports leave people.......................as to what is really going on. (confuse) 7. Some people think the film The fly was....................... . I was more.................. by Halloween. (terrify) EXERCISE 3. Choose the correct answer: 1. 2. 3. 4. Kate was (please/pleased/pleasing)when she finished Maths. I think it was very (kind/kindly/kindless) of you to call me when I was ill. The boat tour was very (interested/interest/interesting). Bill moved into his own flat. Now he is (independent/ dependable/ independence)

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SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES KEY EXERCISE 1. Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate adjective from the word blank. Childish Homeless Autobiographical Disillusioned Generous International Irrelevant Injured Wooden Popular 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. International comunication is fast and easy with Internet. Johns book is autobiographical. It relates to his childhood. The Canadians practise baseball. It is a popular sport in Canada. The man was fatally injured in a car accident. Thank you. You are very generous with me. There are many homeless people in the Third World. My friend lives in wooden a cabin in the country. Marthas childish behaviour always gets her into trouble. I was very desillusioned with the results of the election. Your opinion has nothing to do with the discussion. It is completely irrelevant.

EXERCISE 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the word in brackets (either ed or -ing ) 1. I have never been interested in swimming, although I am sure it is an interesting sport. (interest) 2. Watching the sunrise at the beach is an amazing sight. I am amazed at the number of people who go to the beach just to see the sunrise. (amaze) 3. The salesperson was so convincing that she convinced me to buy the expensive car. (convince) 4. The lecture was long and boring. Many students were bored by the end. (bore) 5. Lilian doesnt think soap operas are interesting. She is more interested by other programmes.(interest) 6. Many people find the Africa situation confused. The conflicting News reports leave people confusing as to what is really going on. (confuse) 7. Some people think the film The fly was terrifying . I was more terrified by Halloween. (terrify) EXERCISE 3. Choose the correct answer: 1. 2. 3. 4. Kate was pleased when she finished Maths. I think it was very kind of you to call me when I was ill. The boat tour was very interesting. Bill moved into his own flat. Now he is independent.

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20. COMPOUND NOUNS


In technical English, nouns are combined into compound structures in a variety of ways. They are placed together to represent specific items. There are three forms of compound nouns: 1. The closed form, such as Secondhand, notebook, makeup, crosstown 2. The hyphenated form, such as Radio-operator, air-heater, factory-worker, computer-designer 3. The open form, such as Cylinder head, metal spring, test data, gas turbine There are no clear rules about this - so write the common compounds that you know well as one word, and the others as two words. The two parts may be: noun + noun noun + verb noun + adverb verb + noun verb + adverb adjective + noun adjective + verb adverb + noun adverb + verb Examples: water tank motorcycle rainfall train-spotting hanger-on passer-by washing machine driving licence lookout take-off greenhouse software dry-cleaning public speaking onlooker bystander output upturn

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COMPOUND NOUNS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Look at the list below. Form compound nouns by matching the words from each list: A 1. steering 2. tape 3. lost 4. death 5. room 6. water 7. one-parent 8. folk 9. fire 10. alarm EXERCISE 2. Circle all the compound nouns: Running Snowshoe Cabbage Barnyard Paintbrush Woman Birthday Seashell Banana Policeman B a. brigade b. song c. skiing d. penalty e. families f. mate g. property h. clock i. wheel j. recorder

EXERSICE 3. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words in capital letters. Use a hyphen if it is necessary. (RANGE) 1. The changes to the government will have ......... implications for ordinary people. (POWER) 2. My friend has a job in the city selling stocks and shares but I dont envy his fast car or his ........ lifestyle. (SEE) 3. Im sorry to have to tell you this but your blouse is completely ........ when you stand next to the window! (CAST) 4. When I was a student I didnt have much money to spend on clothes but I didnt mind wearing other peoples ......... (GET) 5. My friends are organising a ........ next week to celebrate my birthday so I hope youll be able to come to it.

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COMPOUND NOUNS KEY EXERCISE 1. Look at the list below. Form compound nouns by matching the words from each list: A 1. steering 2. tape 3. lost 4. death 5. room 6. water 7. one-parent 8. folk 9. fire 10. alarm EXERCISE 2. Circle all the compound nouns: Running Cabbage Barnyard Paintbrush Woman Snowshoe Birthday Seashell Banana Policeman EXERCISE 3. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words in capital letters. Use a hyphen if it is necessary. (RANGE) 1. The changes to the government will have wide-ranging implications for ordinary people. (POWER) 2. My friend has a job in the city selling stocks and shares but I dont envy his fast car or his high-powered lifestyle. (SEE) 3. Im sorry to have to tell you this but your blouse is completely seethrought when you stand next to the window! (CAST) 4. When I was a student I didnt have much money to spend on clothes but I didnt mind wearing other peoples cast-offs (GET) 5. My friends are organising a get-together next week to celebrate my birthday so I hope youll be able to come to it. B a. brigade b. song c. skiing d. penalty e. families f. mate g. property h. clock i. wheel j. recorder

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21. QUANTIFIERS
Like articles, quantifiers are words that precede and modify nouns. They tell us how many or how much. a) SOME, ANY, NO, NONE (OF) Some and any are used to talk about indefinite numbers or quantities. Some is used for positive statements, any for questions and negatives. E. There is some gold in the mine. (positive) C. Hi ha una mica dor a la mina. S. Hay un poco de oro en la mina. E. Is there any gold in the mine? (question) C. Hi ha or a la mina? S. Hay oro en la mina? E. Are there any tools in your garage? (question) C. Hi ha alguna eina al teu garatge? S. Hay alguna herramienta en tu garaje? E. There arent any tools in my garage. (negative) C. No hi ha cap eina al meu garatge. S. No hay ninguna herramienta en mi garaje. E. Would you like some more tea? (offer expecting yes answer) C. Vols una mica ms de te? S. Quieres un poco ms de te? E. Can I have some coffee, please? (question) C. Podria prendre una mica de caf? S. Podra tomar un poco de caf? E. Take any book you want. (meaning it doesnt matter which one) C. Agafa el llibre que vulguis. S. Coge el libro que quieras. E. If there are any calls, take a message. (commonly used after if) C. Si telefonen, agafa el missatge. S. Si hay alguna llamada, coge el mensaje.

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The examples above can also be applied for anybody, anyone, anything, anywhere, somewhere, something, someone and somebody. E. I have no money. C. No tinc diners. S. No tengo dinero. E. How many children do you have? None. (without a noun) C. Quants nens tens? Cap. S. Cuantos nios tienes? Ninguno. E. None of the students came into the class. (none of + plural noun) C. Cap dels alumnes va venir a classe. S. Ningn alumno vino a clase. If the verb is positive, we do not use any. We use no + noun, nothing, nobody or no one. None of is followed by a noun or a pronoun.

b) MUCH/ MANY, (A) FEW/ LITTLE, A LOT OF/LOTS OF/PLENTY OF E. Joseph hasnt got much money. C. En Josep no t gaires diners. S. Jos no tiene mucho dinero. E. Ann has little time for her breakfast. (almost none) C. LAnna t poc temps per esmorzar. S. Ana tiene poco tiempo para desayunar. E. Elsa and Brian have a little money in the bank. (some but not a lot) C. LElsa i en Brian tenen uns quants diners al banc. S. Elsa y Brian tienen algo de dinero en el banco. Much/little (negative meaning)/a little(positive meaning) are used with non-count nouns. E. John has many friends. (lots of) C. En Joan t molts amics. S. Juan tiene muchos amigos.

E. They have few books here. (almost none) C. Tenen pocs llibres aqu. S. Tienen pocos libros aqu.

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E. Sally has a few flowers in the garden. (some but not many) C. La Sally t unes quantes flors al jard. S. Sally tiene unas cuantas flores en el jardn. Few has a negative meaning. A few a positive meaning. Too much and too many mean more than necessary. Much is often used in negative sentences. E. There is a lot of/plenty of/lots of gold. (much) C. Hi ha molt/Est ple d/ Hi ha una gran quantitat dor. S. Hay mucho/Est lleno de/ Hay una gran cantidad de oro. E. There have been a lot of/lots of/plenty of exams. (many) C. Hi hagut molts / una gran quantitat/Ha estat ple dexmens. S. Ha habido muchos/una gran cantidad/Ha estado lleno de exmenes. A lot of/lots of/plenty of can be used with non-count nouns and plural count nouns.

c) BOTH, NEITHER/ EITHER E. Both films are about crimes. (or Both of the films) C. Ambdues pel.lcules sn sobre crims. S. Ambas pelculas tratan sobre crmenes. E. Neither T-shirt likes you. (or Neither of the T-shirts) C. No tagrada cap samarreta. S. Ninguna camiseta te gusta. E. Either subject is interesting. (or Either of the subjects) C. Qualsevol assignatura s interessant. S. Cualquier asignatura es interesante. Both, neither and either are used when talking about two things. Both of, neither of and either of require the or a pronoun before a noun.

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QUANTIFIERS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Fill in the blanks with some, any, none, none of or no. 1.Are there..pencils on the desk? No. There ismaterial at all. 2...students learned the lesson. 3.There is.reason why you cant work in the office. 4.There arent .buses today. 5.How many students cheated ? EXERCISE 2. Fill in the blanks with somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything, somewhere or anywhere. 1. ..will tell you the way to EUPM. 2. Iron is.that John never works with. 3. I dont know.to go tonight. 4.Your house was.in England, wasnt it? 5. Did you find ..walking through the mountains? EXERCISE 3.Fill in the blanks with anything, anywhere, nothing, nowhere, no one or nobody. 1. My brother rarely goesor does 2.wants to pay for car repairs. 3.There is..to go this weekend. 4.Is there..you like in this bedroom? 5...cant tell I didnt sleep yesterday night. EXERCISE 4.Fill in the blanks with much, many, a lot of, (a) few, little, plenty of or lots of. 1. Joseph is so popular; he has...friends. Jenny, her sister, is very different she doesnt have friends, because She talks too. 2.We havent got..air left in our tyres. 3.There are onlytools on that table. 4. Mandy is very busy. She has..time to spare. EXERCISE 5. Underline the correct answer. 1.Either/Both/Most of the students are in the first class. 2.Neither/Both/Either jackets suit you. 3.Jimmy enjoys neither/both/either films.

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QUANTIFIERS KEY EXERCISE 1.Fill in the blanks with some, any, none, none of or no. 1.Are there any pencils on the desk? No. There is no material at all. 2.Some students learned the lesson. 3.There is no reason why you cant work in the office. 4.There arent any buses today. 5.How many students cheated ? None EXERCISE 2. Fill in the blanks with somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything, somewhere or anywhere. 1. Somebody will tell you the way to EUPM. 2. Iron is something that John never works with. 3. I dont know anywhere to go tonight. 4.Your house was somewhere in England, wasnt it? 5. Did you find anything walking through the mountains? EXERCISE 3.Fill in the blanks with anything, anywhere, nothing, nowhere, no one or nobody. 1.My brother rarely goes somewhere or does something. 2.Nobody wants to pay for car repairs. 3.There is nowhere to go this weekend. 4.Is there anything you like in this bedroom? 5.No one cant tell I didnt sleep yesterday night. EXERCISE 4.Fill in the blanks with much, many, a lot of, (a) few, little, plenty of or lots of. 1. Joseph is so popular; he has a lot of friends. Jenny, her sister, is very different she doesnt have many friends, because She talks too much 2.We havent got much air left in our tyres. 3.There are only a few tools on that table. 4. Mandy is very busy. She has little time to spare. EXERCISE 5. Underline the correct answer. 1.Either/Both /Most of the students are in the first class. 2.Neither/Both/Either jackets suit you. 3.Jimmy enjoys neither/both/either films.

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22. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES


Comparatives and superlatives are special forms of adjectives. They are used to compare two or more things. Generally, comparatives are formed using er and superlatives are formed using est. a) Forming regular comparatives and superlatives These forms are created depending on how many syllables there are in the adjectives. Here are the rules:

Only one syllable, ending in E. Examples: wide, fine, cute Only one syllable, with one vowel and one consonant at the end. Examples: hot, big, fat Only one syllable, with more than one vowel or more than one consonant at the end. Examples: light, neat, fast Two syllables, ending in Y. Examples: happy, silly, lonely

Add -R: wider, finer, cuter

Add -ST: widest, finest, cutest

Double the consonant, and add ER: hotter, bigger, fatter

Double the consonant, and add -EST: hottest, biggest, fattest

Add -ER: lighter, neater, faster

Add -EST: lightest, neatest, fastest

Change Y to I, then add -ER: happier, sillier, lonelier Use MORE before the adjective: more modern, more interesting, more beautiful

Change Y to I, then add -EST: happiest, silliest, loneliest Use The MOST before the adjective: the most modern, the most interesting, the most beautiful

Two syllables or more, not ending in Y. Examples: modern, interesting, beautiful

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HOW TO USE COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

Comparatives are used to compare two things. You can use sentences with THAN, or you can use a conjunction like BUT. Examples: E. A cylinder is more expensive than a piston. C. Un cilindre s ms car que un pist. S. Un cilindro es ms caro que un pistn. E. A piston is expensive, but a cylinder is more expensive. C. Un pist s car, per un cilindre ns ms. S. Un pistn es caro, pero un cilindro es ms caro.

Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Superlative sentences usually use THE, because there is only one superlative. Example: E. John is tall, and Carl is taller, but Bill is the tallest in the class. C. En Joan s alt i en Carles s ms alt, per en Bill s el ms alt de la classe. S. Juan es alto y Carlos es ms alto, pero Bill es el ms alto de la clase.

b) FORMING IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES All of these adjectives have an irregular form: Adjective Good Bad Much Little Far Comparative Better Worse More Less Further/Farther Superlative The best The worst The most The least The furthest/The farthest

c) AS + ADJECTIVE + AS To compare people, places, events or things, when there is no difference, use as + adjective + as : E. The tower is a hundred meters high. The bridge is a hundred meters high. The tower is as high as the bridge. C. La torre mesura cent metres. El pont fa cent metres. La torre s tan alta com el pont. S. La torre mide cien metros. El puente mide cien metros. La torre es tan alta como el puente.

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COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Complete the sentences using the superlative of the adjective of the first sentence : 1. She is an intelligent girl. She isthat I know. 2. That is a very old castle. It is..castle in Spain. 3. My friend is very beautiful. She is..in the school. 4. He is a very good architect. He isin the country. 5. John is less hard-worker than James. In fact, John ishard-worker in the office. EXERCISE 2. Choose the correct form of the comparative: Allison is smartest/the smarter/smarter than Ann. A Ford is cheapest/the cheaper/cheaper than a Mercedes. Physics is the more difficult/difficulter/more difficult than Languages. A plane is more fast/faster/the fastest than a car. A skyscraper is more tall/the most tall/taller than a house. EXERCISE 3. Complete the following sentences: 1. The most stressful situation is. 2. The least stressful situation. 3. The best thing in your university is. 4. The worst book you ever have read is 5. The fastest car you know is. EXERCISE 4. Describe gradual effects using get + comparative. Use the adjectives below. longer thinner fitter better dirtier stronger

1. Joseph did a lot of exercise, so he got_______________. 2. Elisabeth wanted to get______________, so she didnt eat fats. 3. Bill had to get________________, so he rested a lot. 4. Carl didnt want to cut his hair, so it got_______________. 5. Peter hated showers, so he got_______________everyday. 6. Erin liked exercise, so she got________________. EXERCISE 5. Word order. Write these sentences in the correct word order: 1. as as tool my is expensive 2. as copper as is heavy not iron. yours.

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COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES KEY EXERCISE 1. Complete the sentences using the superlative of the adjective of the first sentence : 1. She is an intelligent girl. She is the most intelligent girl that I know. 2. That is a very old castle. It is the oldest castle in Spain. 3. My friend is very beautiful. She is the most beautiful girl in the school. 4. He is a very good architect. He is the best architect in the country. 5. John is less hard-worker than James. In fact, John is the least hard-worker in the office. EXERCISE 2. Choose the correct form of the comparative: 1. Allison is smarter than Ann. 2. A Ford is cheaper than a Mercedes. 3. Physics is more difficult than Languages. 4. A plane is faster than a car. 5. A skyscraper is taller than a house. EXERCISE 3. Complete the following sentences: (The answer is optional. It depends on each student) 1. The most stressful situation is. 2. The least stressful situation. 3. The best thing in your university is. 4. The worst book you ever have read is 5. The fastest car you know is. EXERCISE 4. Describe gradual effects using get + comparative. Use the adjectives below. longer thinner fitter better dirtier stronger

1. Joseph did a lot of exercise, so he got stronger. 2. Elisabeth wanted to get thinner, so she didnt eat fats. 3. Bill had to get better, so he rested a lot. 4. Carl didnt want to cut his hair, so it got longer. 5. Peter hated showers, so he got dirtier everyday. 6. Erin liked exercise, so she got fitter. EXERCISE 5. Word order. Write these sentences in the correct word order: 1. My tool is as expensive as yours. 2. Copper is not as heavy as iron.

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23. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST


There are some ways to express similarities and differences in technical English. Apart from the comparatives and superlatives, some other expressions are used: 1. WAYS OF EXPRESSING COMPARISON Expressions i. to be similar to ii. to be (almost) like iii. to resemble iv. to be the same as v. to be alike vi. to be similar vii. to compare to (to express similarity) viii. to compare with (to express both similarities and differences) ix. In comparison with x. ; similarly, xi. ; likewise, xii. (just) as + clause xiii. (just) like + clause - both/neither/either WAYS TO INDICATE CONTRAST Expressions xiv. to be different from xv. to differ from xvi. to be unlike xvii. to be in contrast with xviii. to be opposed to Connectors PREPOSITIONS Join a clause + noun phrase or gerund Despite In spite of For all Notwithstanding ADVERBS However, Nevertheless, though (oral) on the one hand on the other hand all the same even so. still. yet. On the contrary, Compared with In/by comparison

2.1.

2.2.

CONJUNCTIONS Join 2 clauses But although And though Yet , though As much even though As Although While Whereas

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COMPARISON AND CONTRAST

EXERCICE 1. Complete these sentences using a connector to indicate contrast: 1.I like traveling abroad, I cant do it this year because I have no money. 2. I am not a nervous person..I feel nervous when somebody is behind me. 3. She is intelligent..her brother. 4. ..working, we went to the university at 3 oclock. 5. .he was an architect, he didnt have practice in drawing. 6. .the allergic, Martha was studying for her final exams. EXERCISE 2. Complete the dialogue with like or as:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ann Smith works.. a translator. John looks ...her grandmother Allison. My mother talks to me..if I were a child. Im sorry Frank, but..I said the answer is no. I like this activity. Its.being on holiday.

EXERCISE 3. Compare and contrast silver and gold. Are they similar enough that there are grounds for comparison? Are they sufficiently different?

SIMILARITIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

DIFFERENCES

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COMPARISON AND CONTRAST KEY EXERCISE 1. Complete these sentences using a connector to indicate contrast: 1. Although I like traveling abroad, I cant do it this year because I have no money. 2. I am not a nervous person but I feel nervous when somebody is behind me. 3. She is intelligent in comparison/compared with her brother. 4. In spite of working, we went to the university at 3 oclock. 5. Although he was an architect, he didnt have practice in drawing. 6. Despite the allergic, Martha was studying for her final exams. EXERCISE 2. Complete the dialogue with like or as:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ann Smith works as a translator. John looks like her grandmother Allison. My mother talks to me as if I were a child. Im sorry Frank, but as I said the answer is no. I like this activity. Its like being on holiday.

EXERCISE 3. Compare and contrast silver and gold. This activity is going to be done depending on each student. It can be a way of introducing a dialogue in class.

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24. PREPOSITIONS
Generally, when we use prepositions of place, the reference is to a point, a surface or a containing area. Reference to a point in space (1) indicating direction Go to A Go away from A Go back to A Go through A We have gone past (beyond) A

Reference to a point in space (2) indicating position Stay at A We are past (beyond) A

Reference to a surface (1) indicating direction Go onto the platform Get off the platform We are driving along the road We are going across the road

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A is running behind B A is running beside B Go up the hill Go down the hill Jump over A The plane is flying over A Crawl under A We are flying above the water

Reference to a surface (2) indicating position Stay on the platform Stay off the platform We live along the road We are safely across the road A is in front of B A is behind B A is beside B A is opposite B We are up the hill We are down the hill It is over A

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Now we are over A Stay under A We are above the water We have gone all (a)round the circle My belt is (a)round my waist

Reference to a containing area (1) indicating direction Come into (inside) my office Go out (outside) of my office

Reference to a containing area indicating position Stay in (inside) my room Stay out (outside) of my room

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PREPOSITIONS EXERCISES EXERCISE 1. Complete with the appropriate preposition: 1.Our friends are ____ a wedding today. 2. My husband was ____ a party in Barcelona yesterday night. 3. I studied ____ England for four years. 4. Imagine you are _____ a ship and you carry it on... 5. When you are driving, it means, that you are _____ a car. 6. Now, John is ____the kitchen cooking a lot. 7. My father is _____ work at 7.00 . 8. Somebody was _____the corner of the street when we arrived. 9. The girls are ______ the window watching the landscape. 10. You appeared ______ television yesterday night. 11. A horse is _____ the field. In the field, there are many people. 12. John lives ______ the Main Street. 13. You are sitting _____ the table next to you. 14. You are ______ the photo, you have in your bedroom. 15. London is ______ the River Thames.

EXERCISE 2. Complete the following sentences with the correct preposition: to, toward, on, onto, in, or into. Some sentences may have more than one possible correct answer. Remember that a few verbs of motion take only "on" rather than "onto." 1. Anna has returned ______ her home. 2. The dog jumped ______ the lake. 3. Are the boys still swimming ______ the pool? 4. Mathew fell ______ the floor. 5. The plane landed ______ the runway. 6. We drove _____ the river for an hour, but turned north before we reached it. 7. The kids climbed ______ the monkey bars. 8. Joanna got ______ Fred's car. 9. The baby spilled his cereal ______ the floor. 10. We cried to the man on the ladder, "Hang ______!" 11. I just called ______ say I love you. 12. Matthew and Michelle moved the table ______ the dining room. 13. Allan left your keys ______ the table. 14. Dr. Karper apologized for interrupting us, and told us to carry ___ with our discussion. 15. I'd like_____ ask you a question. 16. Pat drove Mike _______ the airport. 17. Glenn almost fell _______ the river. 18. The waitress noticed that there was no more Diet Pepsi ____ Marty's glass. 19. Lee and Sarah took the bus that was heading _______ the university. 20. Mary Sue jumped ________ the stage and danced

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PREPOSITIONS EXERCISE 1. Complete with the appropriate preposition: 1.Our friends are at a wedding today. 2. My husband was at a party in Barcelona yesterday night. 3. I studied in England for four years. 4. Imagine you are on a ship and you carry it on... 5. When you are driving, it means, that you are in a car. 6. Now, John is in the kitchen cooking a lot. 7. My father is at work at 7.00 . 8. Somebody was on the corner of the street when we arrived. 9. The girls are at the window watching the landscape. 10. You appeared on television yesterday night. 11. A horse is in the field. In the field, there are many people. 12. John lives in / on the Main Street. 13. You are sitting at the table next to you. 14. You are in the photo, you have in your bedroom. 15. London is on the River Thames.

EXERCISE 2. Complete the following sentences with the correct preposition: to, toward, on, onto, in, or into. Some sentences may have more than one possible correct answer. Remember that a few verbs of motion take only "on" rather than "onto." 1. Anna has returned to her home town. 2. The dog jumped in / into the lake. 3. Are the boys still swimming in the pool? 4. Thomas fell on / onto the floor. 5.The plane landed on the runway. 6. We drove toward the river for an hour, but turned north before we reached it. 7. The kids climbed on / onto the monkey bars. 8. Joanna got in / into Fred's car. 9. The baby spilled his cereal on the floor. 10. We cried to the man on the ladder, "Hang on!" 11. I just called to say I love you. 12. Matthew and Michelle moved the table into the dining room. 13. Allan left your keys on the table. 14. Dr. Karper apologized for interrupting us, and told us to carry on with our discussion. 15. I'd like to ask you a question. 16. Pat drove Mike to the airport. 17. Glenn almost fell in / into the river. 18. The waitress noticed that there was no more Diet Pepsi in Marty's glass. 19. Lee and Sarah took the bus that was heading toward the university. 20. Mary Sue jumped on / onto the stage and danced.

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25. ADVERBS
Adverbs are used to give more information about verbs and adjectives. Therefore, they play an important role in scientific descriptions of processes, procedures and instructions. A complete table with their main types, positions and examples has been included here for a better understanding of their function in the English sentence and in scientific contexts. ADVERBS TYPE ADVERBS OF TIME POSITION EXAMPLES

These usually come at the After, again, ago, already, at end of the clause. first, at last, eventually, finally, in the end, before, early, late, now, once,soon,still,then, today, tomorrow , last, next, yesterday, yet...

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

They are usually placed before the main verb, except to be. If the sentence contains an auxiliary verb, the adverb still goes before the main verb.

Often, usually, generally, ever, never, seldom, hardly ever, always, rarely, sometimes, frequently.

If they contain more than one Now and then, once a day, word they usually come at every day, again and again, the end of the clause (unless once, twice, three times,etc., followed by an adverbial of time), or less frequently at the beginning. ADVERBS OF PLACE These usually come at the end of the clause, unless followed by adverbials of frequency and/or time. Outside, inside, in, at, anywhere, somewhere, nowhere, around, far, near, there, here, up, down, away, back, behind, under, below, above, across, along, off, out...

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ADVERBS OF MANNER They occur either at the end Quickly, instinctively, carefully, carelessly, slowly, of the clause, before the easily, intensely verb or after the first auxiliary. Most are formed by adding kind - kindly y to the adjective: But if the adjective ends in y then it is replaced by easy easily -ily. And l becomes -lly careful - carefully If it ends in ble, it is comfortable comfortably changed by -bly Others do not change: hard, well, aloud, fast, straight, tight.

ADVERBS OF DEGREE

They usually come after the Not at all, not very, a bit, verb and before and quite, very, extremely, adjective. almost, greatly, much, partly, too, fairly, pretty, quite, rather. These also occur after the One, some, any, not any, a main verb. few, few, a little, little, many, much, no, none, a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a great deal of, enough, several, all.

ADVERBS OF QUANTITY (QUANTIFIERS)

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ADVERBS EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Place the indicated adverb in its proper position in each of the following sentences. 1. I saw Mr.Robins in the meeting. (yesterday) 2. Peter has been a very careful workman. (usually) 3. She goes to Dsseldorf on business trips. (often) 4. He stayed with our company. (seldom) 5. They celebrated their victory. (cheerfully) 6. Samantha plays the piano.(well) 7. Tom has spoken to me. (never) 8. The teacher prepares her lesson. (carefully) 9. Some students are late for class (always) 10. We went for a walk in the park. (on Saturday) 11. I spoke to Mr.Evans about that matter (last Friday) 12. Have you visited Denmark? (ever) 13. Have you finished writing your exercises? (already) 14. I have read that report. (twice) 15. Daniel is going to leave for Spain. (tomorrow) EXERCISE 2. Complete the table with the proper adverbs. ADJECTIVE CAREFUL EXTREME COMPLETE ANGRY COMFORTABLE HAPPY SAD BEAUTIFUL SLOW EXERCISE 3. Put the following sentences in order. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I always am tired by the end the week of. Sally yesterday read article research a interesting very. Louise goes ever to the gym hardly. Most of students my speak English good. Just a businessmen few abroad travel occasionally. ADVERB

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ADVERBS KEY EXERCISE 1. Place the indicated adverb in its proper position in each of the following sentences. 1. I saw Mr.Robins in the meeting yesterday. 2. Peter has usually been a very careful workman. 3. She often goes to Dsseldorf on business trips. 4. He seldom stayed with our company. 5. They celebrated their victory cheerfully. 6. Samantha plays the piano well. 7. Tom has never spoken to me. 8. The teacher prepares her lesson carefully. 9. Some students are always late for class. 10. We went for a walk in the park on Saturday. 11. I spoke to Mr.Evans about that matter last Friday. 12. Have you ever visited Denmark? 13. Have you already finished writing your exercises? 14. I have read that report twice. 15. Daniel is going to leave for Spain tomorrow. EXERCISE 2. Complete the table with the proper adverbs. ADJECTIVE careful extreme complete angry comfortable happy sad beautiful slow ADVERB carefully extremely completely angrily comfortably happily sadly beautifully slowly

EXERCISE 3. Put the following sentences in order. 16. I am always tired by the end of the week . 17. Sally read a very interesting research article yesterday. 18. Louise hardly ever goes to the gym. 19. Most of my students speak good English. 20. Just a few businessmen travel abroad occasionally.

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26. THE ENGLISH SENTENCE PATTERNS


It is essential to be familiar with the different basic sentence patterns in English so as to be able to organize the sentence elements properly and be aware of their functions at the same time. Choosing the best type of sentence is sometimes hard for English learners, therefore two tables with the basic sentence patterns and bilingual examples have been included in this unit as a reference. TYPE TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 TYPE 4 TYPE 5 TYPE 6 TYPE 7 TYPE 8 PATTERN SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT/S Noun Phrase + Intransitive Verb Noun Phrase + Transitive V + Noun Phrase Noun Phrase +To Be + Noun Phrase (Adjective/ Noun/ Adverb of Place) Noun Phrase + Lexical Verb + Noun Phrase (Adjective/Noun) Noun Phrase + Transitive Verb + Object/s (Direct and Indirect) Noun Phrase + To Have + Noun Phrase Noun Phrase + To Be + Noun Phrase It + Lexical /weather verb + Noun Phrase EXAMPLES TYPE TYPE 1 TYPE 2 ENGLISH Time flies. I saw Martin. CATALAN El temps vola. Vaig veure en Mart. En Pau est trist. LArtur era el meu cap. El meu cotxe s fora. Ella sembla feli. Es va fer advocat. Ens va donar diners. T un refredat. Fa molt fred. Sona b. Est plovent. SPANISH El tiempo vuela. V a Martn. Pablo est triste. Arturo era mi jefe. Mi coche est fuera. Ella parece feliz. l se hizo abogado. Nos dio dinero. Tiene un resfriado. Hace mucho fro. Suena bien. Est lloviendo.

TYPE 3 Paul is sad. (Adj) (Noun) Arthur was my boss. (AdvP) My car is outside. TYPE 4 She seems happy(A) (Noun) He became a lawyer. TYPE 5 He gave us money. TYPE 6 He has a cold. TYPE 7 It is very cold. TYPE 8 It sounds nice. (L) It is raining (W Verb)

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ENGLISH SENTENCE PATTERNS

EXERCISE 1. Indicate what type of basic statement pattern has each of the following sentences. 1. They elected him President. 2. The students painted the classroom blue. 3. It sounds interesting. 4. Mr Davies horse died. 5. Milk is healthy. 6. I am ready. 7. Her story was the truth. 8. The lion is the king of beasts. 9. Michael has grown old. 10. This food smells bad. 11. Sheila gave him a book. 12. Henry brought my brother a present. 13. The pain drove me mad. 14. This book may be interesting. 15. The cat killed a little rat. 16. The house looks great. 17. Mark looks an old man. 18. He wont have another chance. 19. This report lacks organization. 20. It smells like rain. 21. It is raining cats and dogs. 22. I saw him yesterday. 23. I can see the school from here. 24. The Presidents decision meant trouble. 25. They sold me a computer. EXERCISE 2. Following the basic order of English, make sentences with these words. Remember that sentences can be more complex: you can add adjectives, adverbs, infinitives, prepositional complements,etc. But the basic order will be Subject + Verb + Objects. 1. study engineering English students 2. Maths is an subject important 3. Businessmen work companies in 4. good teacher a accurate gives explanations 5. Mr Swales a great is lecturer 6. CILFE6 an is interesting ESP congress international 7. Learning a is long language hard foreign and process 8. Engineers how make to learn calculations difficult 9. ETSEIT in a school Campus is Terrassa superior engineers for

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ENGLISH SENTENCE PATTERNS KEY

EXERCISE 1. Indicate what type of basic statement pattern has each of the following sentences. 1. They elected him President. TYPE 5 2. The students painted the classroom blue. TYPE 5 3. It sounds interesting. TYPE 8 4. Mr Davies horse died. TYPE 1 5. Milk is healthy. TYPE 3 6. I am ready. TYPE 3 7. Her story was the truth. TYPE 3 8. The lion is the king of beasts. TYPE 3 9. Michael has grown old. TYPE 4 10. This food smells bad. TYPE 4 11. Sheila gave him a book. TYPE 5 12. Henry brought my brother a present. TYPE 5 13. The pain drove me mad. TYPE 5 14. This book may be interesting. TYPE 3 15. The cat killed a little rat. TYPE 1 16. The house looks great. TYPE 4 17. Mark looks an old man. TYPE 4 18. He wont have another chance. TYPE 6 19. This report lacks organization. TYPE 6 20. It smells like rain. TYPE 8 21. It is raining cats and dogs. TYPE 7 22. I saw him yesterday. TYPE 2 23. I can see the school from here. TYPE 2 24. The Presidents decision meant trouble. TYPE 6 25. They sold me a computer. TYPE 5 EXERCISE 2. Following the basic order of English, make sentences with these words. Remember that sentences can be more complex: you can add adjectives, adverbs, infinitives, prepositional complements,etc. But the basic order will be Subject + Verb + Objects. 1. Engineering students study English. 2. Maths is an important subject. 3. Businessmen work in companies. 4. A good teacher gives accurate explanations 5. Mr Swales is a great lecturer. 6. CILFE6 is an interesting ESP international congress. 7. Learning a foreign language is a long and hard process. 8. Engineers learn how to make difficult calculations. 9. ETSEIT is a superior school for engineers in Terrassa campus.

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27. BASIC ERRORS


As second, or even third language learners, we still commit some basic errors in English that can be avoided just paying some attention to the following types: WRONG SENTENCE: 1. OMISSION OF SUBJECT: * Is easy to understand. * I think that is really important. CORRECTED VERSION: It is easy to understand. I think that it is really important.

2. FAULTY SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: * My boss like traveling abroad. My boss likes traveling abroad. * Many people has computers. Many people have computers. 3. FAULTY NEGATION: *He didnt finished his project. * Peter didnt know nothing. He didnt finish his project. Peter didnt know anything.

4. FAULTY QUESTIONS FORMATION: * Where Sarah lives ? Where does Sarah live? * What does Tom studies? What does Tom study? 5. FAULTY ADJECTIVE-NOUN WORD ORDER *This is a problem very common. This is a very common problem. *Martha studies a language foreign. Martha studies a foreign language. 6. INFLECTION OF ADJECTIVES: *These cars are too expensives. *Mark studies difficults subjects. These cars are too expensive. Mark studies difficult subjects.

7. USE OF MODALS WITH OTHER THAN BASE FORM: * I must to work on Saturdays. I must work on Saturdays. *That engineer can helps you. That engineer can help you. 8. INCORRECT PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT CONCORDANCE: * On Friday Mike wrote your report. On Friday Mike wrote his report. * This is terrible and his effects, too. This is terrible and its effects, too. 9. USE OF THE FOR GENERIC MEANINGS: * The life is very difficult. Life is very difficult. * The taxes are too high. Taxes are too high.

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BASIC ERRORS EXERCISE 1. Correct the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Engineers who study foreign languages cans have better jobs. The teacher handed in some exercises easy. Engineering is a profession very important. Where is Lucy going the Sunday? When my boss have a problem, he calls me. If Tom has any problem with her project, please tell me. I must to visit the headmaster to ask him for advise. Where are going all the Electronics students? The Robotics is a very interesting field.

EXERCISE 2. Identify the type of error in each sentence: WRONG SENTENCE: * The money is necessary to live. * I bought two books and read its. * Philip dont can finish. * Tomorrow I will must work. * Susan no has time to study. * Everybody have a PC nowadays. * Why is going Ms. Johnson.? * Students didnt smoked in class. * Yesterday carried out an experiment. * Is essential to understand this. EXERCISE 3. Choose the correct sentence in each case: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The people/ people like travelling abroad. These electronic tools are very usefuls/useful. My computer can run/runs this program. The breakdown is serious and her/its consequences are terrible. My colleague didnt finish/ finished his job on time. My brother like/likes studying Chemistry. The smoking/smoking is dangerous for everyone. We dont can/cant finish today, Im afraid. Nobody want/wants to help me carrying those parcels. ERROR TYPE:

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BASIC ERRORS KEY EXERCISE 1. Correct the following sentences: 1.Engineers who study foreign languages can have better jobs. 2.The teacher handed in some easy exercises. 3.Engineering is a very important profession. 4.Where is Lucy going on Sunday? 5.When my boss has a problem, he calls me. 6.If Tom has any problem with his project, please tell me. 7.I must X visit the headmaster to ask him for advise. 8.Where are all the Electronics students going? 9. X Robotics is a very interesting field. EXERCISE 2. Identify the type of error in each sentence: WRONG SENTENCE: * The money is necessary to live. * I bought two books and read its. * Philip dont can finish. * Tomorrow I will must work. * Susan no has time to study. * Everybody have a PC nowadays. * Why is going Ms. Johnson.? * Students didnt smoked in class. * Yesterday carried out an experiment. * Is essential to understand this. ERROR TYPE: 9.THE IN GENERIC MEANINGS 8. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT 7. USE OF MODALS 7. USE OF MODALS 3. FAULTY NEGATION 2.SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT 4. FAULTY QUESTIONS 3. FAULTY NEGATION 1. OMISSION OF SUBJECT 1. OMISSION OF SUBJECT

EXERCISE 3. Choose the correct sentence in each case: 1.The people/ people like travelling abroad. 2.These electronic tools are very usefuls/useful. 3.My computer can run/runs this program. 4.The breakdown is serious and her/its consequences are terrible. 5.My colleague didnt finish/ finished his job on time. 6.My brother like/likes studying Chemistry. 7.The smoking/smoking is dangerous for everyone. 8.We dont can/cant finish today, Im afraid. 9.Nobody want/wants to help me carrying those parcels.

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28. BUSINESS HEADINGS


Some useful advice on how to start and end a letter (both formal and informal style) has been included here so that English language learners can look it up as a basic reference. AT THE BEGINNING OF A LETTER: ENGLISH CATALAN Estimat Marc, Estimada Sandra, Hola David! Benvolguda senyora Smith, Benvolguda senyor Jones, Benvolguda senyora Russell, Benvolguts senyora, senyor SPANISH Querido Marcos: Querida Sandra: Hola David! Apreciada seora Smith: Apreciado seor Jones Apreciada seora Russell:

To someone you Dear Mark, Dear Sandra, know or to a Hi David! friend: To someone you Dear Mrs Smith, Dear Mr Jones, know or to Dear Ms Russell, business contacts: To companies or Dear Sir or Madam, organizations: Dear Sirs, To someone whose title you know: ENDING LETTER: Informal: A Dear Sir, Dear Madam, Dear Doctor, ENGLISH Love, Kisses, (xxx) Hugs, (000) Regards, Best wishes, Yours, (ever)

o Muy seores mos: Estimados seoras:

Benvolguts senyors, Distingit/Benvolgut senyor, Distingida senyora, Distingit doctor, CATALAN Cordialment, Petons, Una abraada, Records, Amb els millors desitjos Salutacions, Distinguido seor: Estimada seora: Apreciado doctor: SPANISH Con cario, Besos, Un fuerte abrazo, Recuerdos, Con mis mejores deseos, Saludos, Atentamente, Cordialmente,

Formal:

Yours sincerely, Atentament, (you know his/her name) Yours faithfully, Cordialment, (you dont know his/ her name)

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29. BUSINESS LETTERS SAMPLES


Customer Service Request Form CUSTOMER SERVICE REQUEST DATE______________ CUSTOMER____________________________________________________ ADDRESS_____________________________________________________ _____________________________PHONE___________________ MERCHANDISE PROBLEMS: DELIVERY PROBLEMS: ORDER NOT FILLED BAD ADDRESS DEFECTIVE MERCHANDISE CUSTOMER NOT IN REPAIR PROBLEM DELAYED/LOST IN TRANSIT WRONG MERCHANDISE SOLD DAMAGED IN TRANSIT AMOUNT CHARGED IN ERROR MDSE. MISSING IN PACKAGE CREDIT/REFUND NOT ISSUED OTHER___________________ OTHER___________________ ________________________ REMARKS: DISPOSITION:

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Advance Notice of Out of Business Sale Dear It is true, we are going out of business! My wife and I have decided that now that the children are grown, we are going to do some of things we could only dream about for so many years. So, starting on (date) , everything in our store which includes our merchandise, our racks, our fixtures, our showcases and even our delivery truck will be up for sale and prices that are too good to be true. As a good and valuable customer of ours, we thought you would be interested in this advance notice of sale that we are sending out today. We will look forward to seeing you on the (date)

Amendment to Lease AMENDMENT TO LEASE FOR GOOD CONSIDERATION, _ (Landlord), and _ (Tenant), under a certain lease agreement between them for premises known as _, dated _, 19_ hereby modify and amend said lease in the following particulars: (Describe modified terms) _ All other terms shall remain as contained. Signed under seal this _ day of _, 19_.

______________________________ Landlord

______________________________ Tenant

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Agreement to Compromise Debt

AGREEMENT TO COMPROMISE DEBT FOR VALUE RECEIVED, the undersigned being a creditor of _ (Company) hereby enters into an agreement to compromise and reduce the indebtedness due the undersigned on the following terms and conditions: 1. The Company and the undersigned acknowledge that the present debt due is $_. 2. The parties agree that the undersigned shall accept the sum of $_ as full and total payment on said debt and in complete discharge of all monies presently due, provided the sum herein shall be punctually paid in the manner following: _ 3. In the event the Company fails to punctually pay the reduced amount, the undersigned creditor shall have full rights to prosecute it claim for the total debt due under paragraph 1 (less payments made). 4. This agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties, their successors, assigns and personal representatives. Signed under seal this _ day of _, 19_.

_______________________________ Creditor

_______________________________ Company

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Apology After Cancellation of Order Dear This is to acknowledge receipt of your letter of (date) in which you set forth your reasons for canceling your purchase order # I am very sorry about the misunderstanding that led to this cancellation and have taken the matter up with management in order to ensure that a problem of this nature does not occur again. As one of our valued customers, your satisfaction is one of our primary concerns. Please accept our apology. Complimentary Letter to Hotel Dear Our (name of event) that was held at your hotel was extremely successful. The compliments that I have received on your staff's courteousness and the excellent food that your chefs prepared for the occasion have been numerous. Thank you for helping to make our event a success. Credit Extension to Past Due Preferred Customer Dear Our credit department has notified me that your account is past due. You are one of our preferred customers and therefore we want to offer any assistance we can. We know that most overdue balances result from clerical errors. However, should you require additional time to settle your balance, please feel free to give us a call. I will see to it that you are granted an additional ( ) days in which to pay your account balance. We value your business, and sincerely hope that this gesture will be of some help. Thank you for your kind consideration, and we look forward to seeing you soon.

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Cover Letter for Loan Book Dear Thank you for the recent opportunity of serving you in our Installment Loan Department. The coupon book enclosed is provided for your convenience in making payments on your note. It will furnish you with a record of payments. We are certain that you will appreciate the convenience afforded by this book. Please make all payments directly to us. They may be made at any teller's window, including the drive in, or payments may be made by mail. Checks or money orders should be made payable to (name of bank) Please let us know if we can be of assistance to you in any of the other numerous banking services that we offer including checking accounts, savings accounts, trust department and investment counseling. Please feel free to drop in anytime at your convenience to discuss your further needs with our staff.

Cover Letter in Response to Catalog Request Dear Thank you for your inquiry about our (equipment) I am enclosing our catalog for your review. We developed (name of equipment) to provide educators with a comprehensive and effective means of transmitting information and to help modernize educational methods. That children are highly receptive and stimulated to learn through the usage of audio-visual material, is widely accepted by educators throughout the field. After you have reviewed our material, we would appreciate hearing your comments, and we will look forward to answering any questions you have about our product. Once again, thank you for your interest in the (product)

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30. CURRICULUM VITAE


NAME: NATIONALITY: DATE OF BIRTH: ADDRESS: TEL: E-MAIL: Drivers License EDUCATION 1995-1998 Bachelor of Technology in..............at the University of.............. University degree in................................

COURSES TAKEN 1997 1993 Catalan language studies-level.........(100 hours) Diploma in.............at...................., Terrassa, Barcelona.

PUBLICATIONS 1996 AWARDS 1998 1997 WORK EXPERIENCE 1993-1995 ........................................................................Tasks Awarded Student of the Year by...............................

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1992

.........................................................................Responsabilities

LANGUAGES Catalan- Mother Tongue Spanish- Mother Tongue English- Proficient French- Intermediate level COMPUTER SKILLS 2002 2000 HOBBIES Basketball, Tennis, Skiing, Canoeing. Course in Computer Studies (100 hours) (MS DOS,WordPerfect, Word, Excel) Currently work with Windows 98, Word, WordPerfect 6.0 and Excel.

REFEREES

At work Name Position Address Contact number E-mail

Academic

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CURRICULUM VITAE Write your own curriculum vitae following the model.

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31. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS


The organizational structure commonly used to report experimental research in many scientific disciplines is called the IMRAD format. This structure includes 4 different sections: Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion. Some hints to illustrate this specific writing skill have been included here as a reference for learners.

SECTION

CONTENTS

REQUIREMENTS & ADVICE

TITLE:

1. Describe contents clearly and precisely. Make it atractive for the reader. 2. Provide key words for indexing.

1. Avoid typical words such as, Studies on , An investigation of. 2. Avoid abbreviations and jargon.

ABSTRACT: (The whole report in miniature)

1. State the main objectives (What did you investigate and why?) 2. Describe methods (What did you do?) 3. Summarize the most important results (What did you find out?) 4. State major conclusions and significance (What do your results mean?)

1. Do not include references to figures, tables or sources. 2. Do not include information not mentioned in your report. 3. Find out the maximum length allowed (may vary from 50 to 300 words) 4. Extract key points from each section. Condense in successive revisions.

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INTRODUCTION:

1. Describe the problem investigated (What is it?) 2. Summarize relevant research to provide: context, key terms and concepts so that your reader can understand your experiment. 3. Review relevant research to provide rationale (Why is your study so important?, What conflict or unanswered question, untested population, untried method in existing research does you experiment address?, What findings of others are you challenging or extending? 4. Describe your experiment briefly (What solution or step towards it do you propose?) Include your: hypothesis/es, research question/s, general experimental design or method and its justification (in case alternatives exist)

1. Move from general to specific (your experiment). 2. Make clear the links between: problemsolution / question askedresearch designed / prior research-your experiment 3. Be selective, not exhaustive, in choosing studies to cite and amount of detail to include in your report. 4. Ask for advice whether to summarize results and/or conclusions in the introduction section.

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METHODS:

1. Include the materials, subjects and equipment that you used for your experiment. Answer: How did you study the problem? And what did you see? 2. Answer the following: How did you proceed?, What steps did you take?

1. Provide enough detail for replication. 2. Order procedures chronologically or by type of procedure.

3. Use the past tense to describe what you did. 4. Quantify whenever possible: concentrations, measurements, amounts, times, temperatures ,etc. 5. Dont include details of common statistical procedures. 6. Dont mix results with procedures.

RESULTS:

1. Briefly describe your experiment or procedure: (What did you observe?) 2. Report main result/ s supported by selected data: Representative (most common) Best case: (best example of ideal or exeption)

1. Order multiple results logically: From most to least important. From simple to complex. Type by type.

2. Use the past tense to describe what happened. 3. Select table data.

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DISCUSSION:

Answer: What do your observations mean? 1. Summarize the most important findings. 2. Include the conclusions that you can draw for each major result. 3. Consider patterns, principles and relationships that your results show. 4. Show how results relate to expectations and to literature cited in the Introduction section (agreement, exception, contradiction) 5. Add any plausible explanation for that. 6. Indicate any additional research that might resolve contradictions, explain exceptions, etc. 7. Explain how your results fit into a broader context: - What theoretical implications do your results have? - What practical implications might your results have? - Can you extend your findings to other situations? - Help Understand 1. Move from specific to general (i.e. from your findings to literature, theory and practice). 2. Dont ignore the major issue: Did the study achieve the goal?/ resolve the problem?/ answer the question?/ support the hypothesis /es? 3. Make your explanations complete: Give evidence for each conclusion. Discuss possible reasons for expected and unexpected findings.

4. Dont overgeneralize. 5. Dont ignore possible deviations in your data. 6. Avoid speculation that cannot be tested in the foreseeable future.

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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ACCOUNTING & BANKING


A list of the main vocabulary used in accounting and banking has been included in this appendix as a reference for Engineers. English Accountant Accounting Accounts department Accounts payable Accounts receivable Accrual concept Accrued liabilities Acquisition date Adviser (uk), advisor (usa) Amount Appreciation / added value Asset/ s Auction Bad debt expense Balance sheet Black economy Bonds Bonus Budget By installments Cash Cash card Cash desk Cash dispenser Cash down Cash flow Cash on delivery Cash price Cashier Certificate Certificate of deposits Charge Competitive bid Consumer goods Catalan Comptable Comptabilitat Departament de comptabilitat Comptes a pagar Comptes a cobrar Principi de meritaci Passiu acumulat Data dadquisici Assesor / conseller Quantitat Plusvlua Actiu /bns Subhasta Deutes de morosos Balan Mercat negre Bonus Bonificaci Pressupost Pagament a terminis Flux monetari Targeta de caixer Caixa Caixer automtic Pagament al comptat Moviment de fons Pagament al lliurament Preu al comptat Caixer Plissa Certificat de dipsits Recrrec / multa Oferta Bns de consum Spanish Contable Contabilidad Departamento de contabilidad Cuentas a pagar Cuentas a cobrar Principio de devengo Pasivo acumulado Fecha de compra Asesor / consejero Cantidad Plusvala Activo / bienes Subasta Deudas de morosos Balance Mercado negro Bonos Bonificacin Presupuesto Pago a plazos Flujo monetario Tarjeta de cajero Caja Cajero automtico Pago al contado Lquido Pago a la entrega Precio al contado Cajero Pliza Certificado de depsitos Recargo / multa Oferta Bienes de consumo

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Copyright Corporation Cost Creditor Currency Current asset Deal Dealer Deed Delay Desclaim Devaluation Discount Draft Earnings Employee Employer Exchange rate Expenditure Expenses Expiry date Failure Founding partner Fund Goodwill Gross Gross profit Guarantee / deposit Guarantor Headquarters Income Income statement Incoming Insolvency Interest and income taxes Interest rate Internal revenue service Investment plan Investor Invoice (uk), bill (usa) Law suit Lender Liabilities

Drets dautor Societat mercantil Cost Creditor Divisa Actiu realitzable a curt termini Negociaci Operador borsari Acte /execuci Retard Denegaci Devaluaci Descompte Gir Guanys Treballador Empresari/empleador Tipus de canvi Cost Despeses Data de venciment Fallida Soci fundador Fons Crdit comercial / fons de comer Brut Benefici brut Fiana / dipsit Avalador Oficina central Ingressos Compte de resultats Entrades Insolvncia Impostos dels ingressos o beneficis Tipus dinters Servei de recaptaci Pla dinversi Inversor Factura Procs judicial Prestador Passiu

Derechos autor Sociedad mercantil Coste Acreedor Divisa Activo realizable a corto plazo Negociacin Operador burstil Acto / ejecucin Demora Denegacin Devaluacin Descuento Giro Ganancias Empleado Empresario/empleador Tipo de cambio Coste Gastos Fecha de vencimiento Quiebra Socio fundador Fondos Crdito comercial / fondo de comercio Bruto Beneficio bruto Fianza / depsito Avalista Oficina central Ingresos Cuenta de resultados Entradas Insolvencia Impuestos de los ingresos o beneficios Tipo de inters Servicio de recaudacin Plan de inversin Inversor Factura Litigio / pleito Prestamista Pasivo

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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License Limited company Long -term Loss Manager Market accounts Market analysis Market fluctuation Matching concept Merchant Merge Mortgage Net Net worth Offshore account Operating expenses Outflows Owners equity Partnership Patent Payable to bearer Prepaid expenses Prepaid insurance Professional fees Profit Profit sharing Promissory Property Purchase Purchase power Purchasing power Quotation Quotation price Rate Receipt Renewal / extension Retained earnings Revenues Right Securities Settlement Share Shortage Short-term

Llicncia Societat annima A llarg termini Prdua Cap Inversions de valors Anlisi de mercat Oscil.laci de mercat Correlaci dingressos i despeses Comerciant Fusi (empreses) Hipoteca Net Valor net Compte a lestranger Despeses de funcionament Sortides Capital propi Societat col.lectiva Patent Per pagar al portador Despeses anticipades Assegurana anticipada Honoraris professionals Lucre Participaci als beneficis Pagar Patrimoni Comprar Poder adquisitiu Valor adquisitiu Pressupost Cotitzaci Taxa Rebut Prrroga Beneficis retinguts Ingressos Dret Valors / ttols obligacions Liquidaci Acci Dficit A curt termini

Licencia Sociedad annima A largo plazo Prdida Jefe Inversiones de valores Anlisis de mercado Oscilacin de mercado Correlacin de ingresos y gastos Comerciante Fusin (empresas) Hipoteca Neto Valor neto Cuenta en el extranjero Gastos de funcionamiento Salidas Capital propio Sociedad colectiva Patente Pagadero al portador Gastos anticipados Seguro anticipado Honorarios profesionales Lucro Participacin en beneficios Pagar Patrimonio Comprar Poder adquisitivo Valor adquisitivo Presupuesto Cotizacin Tasa Recibo Prrroga Beneficios retenidos Ingresos Derecho Valores / ttulos Obligaciones Liquidacin Accin Dficid A corto plazo

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Stock holder Stock market Stock market cash Strategy Subsidiary Swing of quotations Tax Tax evasion Tax free Tax haven Tax offence Tax return To apply for a loan To become due To boost To cancel To cash To collect To disburse To earn To exceed To exchange To incur To invest To make a transaction To offset To open a bank account To pay off a debt To pay taxes To purchase To settle an account To spend To sue To transfer money To veer To withdraw Trade Trademark Treasury V.a.t. Working capital

Accionista Mercat borsari (borsa) Borsa de valors Estratgia Filial Oscil.laci de cotitzacions Impost Frau Lliure dimpostos Parads fiscal Delicte fiscal Declaraci fiscal Demanar un prste Vncer Pujar Anul.lar Bescanviar Cobrar Desembossar Guanyar Excedir Bescanviar Contraure Invertir Fer una trasferncia Compensar Obrir un compte bancari Pagar un deute Tributar Adquirir/ comprar Liquidar un compte Gastar Demandar Transferir / moure diners Desviar Reintegrament Comer Marca comercial Tresor pblic Iva Fons de maniobra

Accionista Mercado burstil (bolsa) Bolsa de valores Estrategia Filial Oscilacin de cotizaciones Impuesto Fraude Libre de impuestos Paraso fiscal Delito fiscal Declaracin fiscal Pedir un prstamo Vencer Elevar Anular Cambiar Cobrar Desembolsar Guanyar Exceder Canjear Contraer Invertir Hacer una transferencia Compensar Abrir una cuenta bancaria Pagar una deuda Tributar Adquirir / comprar Liquidar una cuenta Gastar Demandar Transferir / mover dinero Desviar Reintegro Comercio Marca comercial Tesoro pblico Iva Fondo de maniobra

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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AT WORK
A selection of the most important vocabulary related to the workplace has been included here so that foreign language learners can get familiar with it. English A go-see A job share Assembly line work (uk), serial production (usa) Assistant Basic wage Boss Burnt out Businessman Career-break Claims Clerk Coffee break Covering letter Cv Daily wages Day labourer Demonstration Dismissal Early retirement Employee Employer Employment bureau (uk), agency (usa) Employment exchange (uk), employment bureau (usa) Enquiry letter Export Factory Farm worker Free-lancer Full- time job Goods Catalan Visitar una empresa Treball compartit- socis Treball en cadena Ajudant Salari base Cap Cremat / esgotat Home de negocis Pausa laboral Reivindicacions Oficinista Pausa Carta de presentaci Currculum Sou Jornaler Manifestaci Acomiadament Jubilaci anticipada Empleat Persona que contracta Agncia de col.locaci Borsa de treball Spanish Visitar una empresa Trabajo compartido Trabajo en cadena Ayudante Salario base Jefe Agotado Hombre de negocios Pausa laboral Reivindicaciones Oficinista Pausa Carta de presentacin Currculo Jornal Jornalero Manifestacin Despido Jubilacin anticipada Empleado Persona que contrata Agencia de colocacin Bolsa de trabajo

Carta de petici dinformaci Carta de peticin de informacin Exportaci Exportacin Fbrica Fbrica Treballador agrcola Trabajador agrcola Col.laborador Colaborador Treball de jornada sencera Trabajo de jornada entera Bns / productes Bienes/ productos

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Holidays (uk), vacation (usa) Import Industrial accident Job Labour law Labour legislation Labour market Letter of complaint Management Maternity leave Meeting Merchandise Minimum wage Ministry of labour (uk), department of labour (usa) Mobbing Negotiation Old-age pension On sale On sales Part-time employment / job Part-time job Pay / wage / salary Payday Payroll Permanent worker Personnel department Production Profession / occupation Purchase Remuneration Resignation Retirement Salary earner Sale Salesman /woman Schedule / Time-table Seasonal worker Self-employed Shopassistant Situation / post Skilled worker

Vacances Importaci Accident laboral Feina Dret laboral Llei laboral Mercat laboral Carta de queixa / reclamaci Gerncia Baixa per maternitat Reuni Mercaderia Salari mnim Ministeri de treball Assetjament Negociaci Pensi (vellesa) En venda De rebaixes Treball de mitja jornada Treball de mitja Jornada Salari / sou Dia de pagament Nmina Treballador fix (en plantilla) Departament de personal Producci Professi Compra Remuneraci Dimissi Jubilaci Assalariat Venda Venedor/a Horari Treballador temporal Autnom Dependent/a Lloc de treball Treballador qualificat

Vacaciones Importacin Accidente laboral Empleo Derecho laboral Legislacin laboral Mercado laboral Carta de queja / Reclamacin Gerencia Baja por maternidad Reunin Mercadera Salario mnimo Ministerio de trabajo Acoso laboral Negociacin Pensin (vejez) En venta De rebajas Trabajo de media jornada Trabajo de media jornada Salario / sueldo Dia de paga Nmina Trabajador fijo (en plantilla) Departamento de personal Produccin Profesin Compra Remuneracin Dimisin Jubilacin Asalariado Venta Vendedor/a Horario Temporero Autnomo Dependiente/a Puesto/empleo Trabajador cualificado

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Specialist Staff Strike Substitution Supplier Taxes To apply To be paid by the hour To charge To employ To float the company / to go public To go bust To launch a product To make redundant To sack/ fire / dismiss someone To sell To set up a business To shortlist To sign on / to go on the dole To terminate a contract To work overtime Trade / craft Trade union (uk), labour union (usa) Trainee (uk), apprentice (usa) Unemployed Unemployment Unemployment benefit Unskilled worker Vacancy Vocational training Work contract Work experience Work permit Work shadowing Worker Working class Working day (uk), workday (usa) Working hours Workshop

Especialista Personal Vaga Substituci Provedor Impostos Sol.licitar Treballar per hores Cobrar Contractar Vendre accions duna empresa a la borsa Fer fallida Llanar un producte al mercat Acomiadar Acomiadar alg Vendre Iniciar un negoci Seleccionar Apuntar-se a latur Rescindir un contracte Treballar hores extra Ofici Sindicat Aprenent Aturat Atur Subsidi datur Treballador no qualificat Vacant Formaci professional Contracte de treball Prctiques Perms de treball Aprendre observant alg Obrer / treballador Classe treballadora Dia feiner Hores de feina Taller

Especialista Personal / plantilla Huelga Sustitucin Proveedor Impuestos Solicitar Trabajar por horas Cobrar Contratar Vender acciones de una empresa en la bolsa Ir a la bancarrota Lanzar un producto al mercado Despedir Despedir a alguien Vender Abrir un negocio Seleccionar Apuntarse en el paro Rescindir un contrato Trabajar horas extra Oficio Sindicato Aprendiz Parado Paro Subsidio del desempleo Trabajador no cualificado Vacante Formacin profesional Contrato de trabajo Prcticas Permiso de trabajo Aprender observando Obrero / trabajador Clase trabajadora Dia laborable Horas de trabajo Taller

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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BUSINESS AND TRADE


Most engineers should be familiar to business and trade specific vocabulary. Hence, a list of basic concepts and words has been included in this appendix. English Account book Accountant / bookkeeper Accounting / bookkeeping Allowance / grant / subsidy Amortization / redemption Available capital Balance / balance sheet Bank Banknote / note (uk), bill (usa) Bearer cheque / cheque payable to bearer Black market Bond / debenture Borrower Budget Buyer By cheque (pay) By credit card (payment) Capital Capital flight Cash balance Cash on hand Cash price Cashbook Change Cheque Chequebook (uk) / check book (usa) Coin Competition Competitor Consumer Consumer goods Contingent expenses / contingencies Cost price Catalan Llibre de comptabilitat Comptable Comptabilitat Subsidi / subvenci Amortitzaci Capital disponible Balan Banc/a Bitllet Xec al portador Mercat negre Obligaci Prestatari/ria Pressupost Comprador Pagar amb xec Pagar amb targeta de crdit Capital Fugida de capital Saldo de caixa Efectiu a caixa Preu al comptat Llibre de caixa Canvi / monedes Xec Talonari de xecs Moneda Competncia Competidor Consumidor Bns de consum Despeses Imprevistes Preu de cost Spanish Libro de contabilidad Contable Contabilidad Subsidio / subvencin Amortizacin Capital disponible Balance Banco/a Billete Cheque al portador Mercado negro Obligacin Prestatario/a Presupuesto Comprador Pagar con cheque Pagar con tarjeta de crdito Capital Fuga de capital Saldo de caja Efectivo en caja Precio al contado Libro de caja Cambio / monedas Cheque Talonario de cheques Moneda Competencia Competidor Consumidor Bienes de consumo Gastos imprevistos Precio de coste

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Credit Creditor Crossed cheche Currency Current account (uk) / checking account (usa) Customs Dealer /salesman Debtor Deflatin Demand Devaluation Developing Discount Dividend Domestic commerce / trade Domestic currency Drawing Earnings Economic fluctuation Economic situation Economics Economist Expenses / expenditure / outgoing Export / exportation Exporter Factory price / manufacturers price Fiscal authorities Fixed assets Fixed costs Foreign commerce/ trade Frozen capital Goods Hire-purchase Holding company Import / importation Importer Income Income tax Infrastructure Insurance Interest International trade Investment

Crdit Creditor Xec encreuat Divisa Compte corrent Duana Venedor Deutor Deflaci Demanda Devaluaci En desenvolupament Descompte Dividend Comer nacional o interior Moneda nacional Gir Guanys Fluctuaci econmica Situaci econmica Economia Economista Despeses Exportaci Exportador A preu de fbrica Hisenda Capital fix Despeses fixes Comer exterior Capital congelat Bns Pagar a terminis Holding Importaci Importador Ingressos Impost sobre la renda Infraestructura Assegurana Inters Comer internacional Inversi

Crdito Acreedor Cheque cruzado Divisa Cuenta corriente Aduana Vendedor Deudor Deflacin Demanda Devaluacin En desarrollo Descuento Dividendo Comercio nacional o interior Moneda nacional Giro Ganancias Fluctuacin econmica Situacin econmica Economa Economista Gastos Exportacin Exportador A precio de fbrica Fisco / hacienda Capital fijo Gastos fijos Comercio exterior Capital congelado Bienes Pagar a plazos Holding Importacin Importador Ingresos Impuesto sobre la renta Infraestructura Seguro Inters / rdito Comercio internacional Inversin

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Investor Lender Loan / borrowing Manufacturer Margin Market Marketing Maturity Middleman Miscellaneous costs Money Monopoly Mortgage Offer Open market Output / production Overhead expenses Price Productivity Profit Profit margin Purchase Purchasing power Quotation Rate of growth Rate of interest Registered / head office Retail Retail price Retailer Sales Saving Scarcity Security / stock Self-financing Share Shareholder / stockholder Short / long / medium term loan Speculation Stagnation Standard of living Statement of accounts Stock market / stock exchange Stocks

Inversor Prestador Prstec Fabricant Marge Mercat Comercialitzaci Venciment Intermediari Despeses vries Diners Monopoli Hipoteca Oferta Mercat lliure Producci Despeses generals Preu Productivitat Benefici Marge de benefici Compra Poder adquisitiu Cotitzaci Index de creixement Tipus dinters Domicili social Al detall Preu al detall Minorista Vendes Estalvi Manca Ttol / valor Autofinanament Acci Accionista Prstec a curt / a llarg /a mitj termini Especulaci Estancament Nivell de vida Estat de comptes Mercat borsari (la borsa) Existncies

Inversor Prestamista Prstamo Fabricante Margen Mercado Comercializacin Vencimiento Intermediario Gastos diversos Dinero Monopolio Hipoteca Oferta Mercado libre Produccin Gastos generales Precio Productividad Beneficio Margen de beneficio Compra Poder adquisitivo Cotizacin ndice de crecimiento Tipo de inters Domicilio social Al por menor Precio al por menor Minorista Ventas Ahorro Escasez Ttulo / valor Autofinanciacin Accin Accionista Prstamo a corto / largo / medio plazo Especulacin Estancamiento Nivel de vida Estado de cuentas Mercado burstil (bolsa) Existencias

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Taxable Tax / duty Tax collector Tax return Taxation Tax-free Taxpayer To pay in cash To pay in terms To sell Trademark Transfer Understanding / Agreement Wholesale Wholesale price Wholesaler

Subjecte a impost Impost Recaptador dimpostos Declaraci de la renda Recaptaci Lliure dimpostos Contribuent Pagar en efectiu / metal.lic Pagar a terminis Vendre Marca registrada Transferncia Acord A lengrs Preu a lengrs Majorista

Sujeto a impuesto Impuesto Recaudador de impuestos Declaracin de la renta Recaudacin Libre de impuestos Contribuyente Pagar en efectivo / en metlico Pagar a plazos Vender Marca registrada Transferencia Acuerdo Al por mayor Precio al por mayor Mayorista

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
A compilation of the most common electrical appliances has been included here. English Air conditioning Automatic washing machine Cd player Coffee maker Coffee machine Cooker hood Deep-fat fryer Dishwasher / dishwashing machine Electric alarm clock Electric coffee grinder Electric cooker Electric fire Electric hotplate Electric iron Electric kettle Electric kitchen knife Electric lawnmower Electric lead Electric razor / shaver Electric toothbrush Electrical appliance Electricity E-mail Espresso coffe maker Fan Fan heater Fax machine Fluorescent lamp Freezer Fridge Fuse Games console Hairdryer High-fidelity (hi-fi) system Juice extractor / juicer Catalan Spanish

Aire condicionat Aire acondicionado Rentadora automtica Lavadora automtica Reproductor de disc Reproductor de disco compacte compacto Cafetera elctrica Cafetera elctrica Cafetera automtica Cafetera automtica Campana extractora de fums Campana extractora de humos Fregidora elctrica Freidora elctrica Rentavaixelles Lavavajillas Despertador elctric Molinet de caf elctric Cuina elctrica Estufa elctrica Escalfaplats elctric Planxa elctrica Tetera elctrica Ganivet elctric Tallagespa elctric Cable elctric Mquina dafaitar elctrica Respall de dents elctric Aparell elctric Electricitat Correu electrnic Cafetera exprs Ventilador Calefactor Fax Tub fluorescent Congelador Nevera Fusible Vdeocnsola Secador (cabell) Equip dalta fidelitat Exprimidor electric Despertador elctrico Molinillo de caf elctrico Cocina elctrica Estufa elctrica Calientaplatos elctrico Plancha elctrica Tetera elctrica Cuchillo elctrico Cortacspedes elctrico Cable elctrico Mquina de afeitar elctrica Cepillo de dientes elctrico Aparato lectrico Electricidad Correo electrnico Cafetera exprs Ventilador Calefactor Fax Tubo fluorescente Congelador Nevera / frigorfico Fusible Videoconsola Secador (pelo) Equipo de alta fidelidad Exprimidor elctrico

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Lamp Microwave Mincer / mincing machine Mixer / blender Modem Parabolic antenna Personal computer Plug Plug socket Printer Radio Record player Remote control Scanner Sewing machine Slide projector Socket Spotlight Stereo system / equipment Switch Telephone / phone Television / tv Toasted sndwich maker Toaster Tumble drier / tumble dryer Vacuum cleaner Video Video camera Vdeo telephone Word processor

Lmpada Microones Picadora de carn Batedora Modem Antena parablica Ordinador personal Endoll (mascle) Presa de corrent Impressora Aparell de rdio Tocadiscs Comandament a distncia Escner Mquina de cosir Projector de diapositives Endoll (femella, de paret) Focus Cadena estereofnica Interruptor Telfon Televisor Sandvitxera Torradora de pa Assecadora elctrica (roba) Aspiradora Vdeo Videocmera Videotelfon Processador de textos

Lmpara Microondas Picadora de carne Batidora Modem Antena parablica Ordenador personal Enchufe (macho) Toma de corriente Impresora Aparato de radio Tocadiscos Mando a distancia Escner Mquina de coser Proyector de diapositivas Enchufe (hembra, de pared) Foco Cadena estereofnica Interruptor Telfono Televisor Sandwichera Tostador de pan Secadora elctrica (ropa) Aspiradora Vdeo Videocmara Videotelfono Procesador de textos

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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ENGINEERING SPECIALITIES
English Agriculture Engineering Architecture Automatic Control Spanish Ingeniera Agrcola Arquitectura Ingeniera de Sistemas, Automtica e Informtica Industrial Biotecnologa Ingeniera de la Construccin Organizacin de Empresas Ingeniera de Caminos, Canales y Puertos Arquitectura de Computadores Comunicaciones Ingeniera Qumica Ingeniera Elctrica Ingeniera Electrnica Ingeniera del MedioAmbiente Mecnica de FluIdos Enginyeria del Ingeniera del Terreny, Terreno, Cartogrfica i Cartogrfica y Geofsica Geofsica Mquines i Motors Mquinas y Trmics Motores Trmicos Enginyeria Ingeniera Hidrulica Hidrulica Informtica Informtica Enginyeria Industrial Ingeniera Industrial Enginyeria Martima Ingeniera Martima Matemtiques Matemticas Cincies dels Ciencias de los Materials Materiales Enginyeria Mecnica Ingeniera Mecnica Enginyeria Ingeniera Metal.lrgica Metalrgica Enginyeria Minera Ingeniera Minera Catalan Enginyeria Agrcola Arquitectura Enginyeria de Sistemes, Automtica i Informtica Industrial Biotecnologia Enginyeria de la Construcci Organitzaci dEmpreses Enginyeria de Camins, Canals i Ports Arquitectura de Computadors Comunicacions Enginyeria Qumica Enginyeria Elctrica Enginyeria Electrnica Enginyeria del Medi Ambient Mecnica de Fluids

Biotechnology Building Engineering Business Administration Civil Engineering Computer Architecture Comunications Chemical Engineering Electric Engineering Electronic Engineering Environmental Engineering Fluid Mechanics Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences Heat Engines Hydraulic Engineering Informatics Industrial Engineering Maritime Engineering Mathematics Material Science Mechanical Engineering Metallurgy Engineering Mining Engineering

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Nautical Sciences Nuclear Engineering Operations Research Optics Optometry Paper engineering Photography Physics Signal Theory Software Engineering Statistics Strength of materials Structural Architecture Structural Engineering Telecomunications Telematics Textile Engineering Transport and Highway Engineering Urbanism and Regional Planning

Cincies Nutiques Enginyeria Nuclear Investigaci Operativa ptica Optometria Enginyeria del Paper Fotografia Fsica Teoria del Senyal Enginyeria del Software Estadstica Resistncia dels Materials Estructures a lArquitectura Estructures en Enginyeria Telecomunicacions Telemtica Enginyeria Txtil Infraestructura del Transport i del Territori Urbanisme i Ordenaci del Territori

Ciencias Nuticas Ingeniera Nuclear Investigacin Operativa ptica Optometra Ingeniera del Papel Fotografa Fsica Teora de la Seal Ingeniera del Software Estadstica Resistencia de los Materiales Estructuras EN la arquitectura Estructuras en la ingeniera Telecomunicaciones Telemtica Ingeniera Textil Infraestructura del Transporte y del Territorio Urbanismo y Ordenacin del Territorio

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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MATERIALS
A compilation of the most widely used materials in all branches of engineering has been included here as a reference. English Alloy Aluminium Brass Bronze Carboard Carbonfibre Carbonpaper Cast iron Cellophane Cement Ceramic Chalk Charcoal Chromium Clay Coal Composite Concrete Copper Corduroy Cotton Cristal Diamond Felt Foil Glass Gold Insulator Iron Lead Elter Lining Lycra Mercury Mineral / ore Nickel Nylon Paper Catalan Aliatge Alumini Llaut Bronze Cartr Fibra de carb Paper de carb Ferro forjat Cel.lofana Ciment Cermica Guix Carb vegetal Crom Argila/fang Carb Compsit Formig Coure Pana Cot Cristall Diamant Feltre Paper dalumini / de plata Vidre Or Allant Ferro Plom Cuir Folre Licra Mercuri Mineral Nquel Nil Paper Spanish Aleacin Aluminio Latn Bronce Cartn Fibra de carbn Papel de carbn Hierro forjado Celofn Cemento Cermica Yeso Carbn vegetal Cromo Barro Carbn Composite Hormign Cobre Pana Algodn Cristal Diamante Fieltro Papel de aluminio Vidrio Oro Aislante Hierro Plomo Cuero Forro Lycra Mercurio Mineral Nquel Nylon Papel

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Plastic Powder PVC Quartz Recycled paper Reinforced glass Rock Rope Rubber Sand Sandpaper Silicon Silo Silver Slate Soil Stainless steel Steel Stone String Suede Tar Thread Uranium Velvet Wax Wicker Wire Word Wool Wrapping paper Zinc

Plstic En pols PVC Quars Paper reciclat Vidre reforat Roca Corda Goma Sorra Paper de vidre Silici Seda Argent Pissarra Terra Acer inoxidable Acer Pedra Cordill Camussa Quitr Fil Urani Vellut Cera Vmet Filferro Fusta Llana Paper dembolicar Zinc

Plstico En polvo PVC Quarzo Papel reciclado Vidrio reforzado Roca Cuerda Goma Arena Papel de lija Silicio Seda Plata Pizarra Tierra Acero inoxidable Acero Piedra Cordn Ante Alquitrn Hilo Uranio Terciopelo Cera Mimbre Alambre Madera Lana Papel para envolver Zinc

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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THE MEDIA
Most engineers should be already familiar with the media glossary included here. English Advertisement Aerial Airmal Audience Broadcasting Call box (uk), phone box (usa) Camera Channel Column Commercial Computer Earpiece / receiver E-mail Exchange / switchboard Express registered Fax Interview Journal Journalist Laser printer Setter Magazine Messenger Microphone Mobile phone / cell phone MODEM News News bulletin Newspaper Parcel Photographer Picture Post and telegraph office Post box (uk), mailbox (usa) Postage Postage stamps Postal order Catalan Anunci (premsa) Antena Correu aeri Audincia Radiodifusi / retransmissi (tv) Cabina telefnica Cmera Cadena / canal (tv) Columna (diari) Anunci (tv) Ordinador Auricular Correu electrnic Centraleta Carta urgent Fax Entrevista Revista especialitzada Periodista Impressora lser Carta Revista Missatger Micrfon Telfon mbil Mdem Notcies Noticiari Diari Paquet postal Fotgraf Imatge Correus i telgrafs Bstia Franqueig Segells Gir postal Spanish Anuncio (prensa) Antena Correo areo Audiencia Radiodifusin / Retransmisin (tv) Cabina telefnica Cmara Cadena / canal (tv) Columna (peridico) Anuncio (tv) Ordenador Auricular Correo electrnico Centralita Carta urgente Fax Entrevista Revista especializada Periodista Impresora laser Carta Revista Mensajero Micrfono Telfono mvil Mdem Noticias Noticiario Peridico Paquete postal Fotgrafo Imagen Correos y telgrafos Buzn Franqueo Sellos Giro postal

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Postman (uk), mailman (usa) Presenter Press Printer Public telephone Radio Radio station Report Reporter Satellite telecommunicat. Script Share Sound Tape recorder Telegram Telegram boy Telephone Televiewer Video Videoconference

Carter Presentador /a Premsa Impresora Telfon pblic Radio Emissora de rdio Reportatge Reporter Comunicaci via satl.lit Gui Quota de pantalla So Magnetfon Telegrama Repartidor de telgrafs Telfon Televident / telespectador Vdeo VideoConferncia

Cartero Presentador /a Prensa Impresora Telfono pblico Radio Emisora de radio Reportaje Reportero Comunicacin por satlite Guin Cuota de pantalla Sonido Magnetfono Telegrama Repartidor de telgrafos Telfono Televidente / Telespectador Vdeo Vdeo conferencia

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

English For Specific Purposes

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OFFICE MATERIAL
A list of office material translated into Catalan and Spanish has been included here so that English language learners can get familiar with its specific vocabulary. English Account book Address book Answering machine Archive Briefcase Briefing kit Business computer Calculator Card index Clerk / office worker Computer Computer file Computer graphics Correcting fluid / tipp-ex Database Desk / bureau Desk diary Disk Disk drive Document Document holder E-mail Engagement book Envelope Felt tip pen Files Filing cabinet Filing clerk Floppy disk / diskette Folder / file Fountain pen Glue Hard disk Index card Ink Inventory / stocktaking Journal Catalan Llibre de comptabilitat Llibreta dadreces Contestador automtic Arxiu (lloc) Cartera Carpeta dinformaci Ordinador de gesti Calculadora Fitxer Oficinista Ordinador Fitxer informatitzat Grfics per ordinador Corrector lquid Base de dades Escriptori Agenda Disc Disquetera Document Portadocuments Correu electrnic Agenda de treball Sobre Retolador Arxiu (document) Fitxer (moble) Arxiver Disquet Carpeta / papers / Documents Ploma estilogrfica Cola Disc dur Fitxa Tinta Inventari / balan Revista especialitzada Spanish Libreta de contabilidad Libreta de direcciones Contestador automtico Archivo (sitio) Maletn Carpeta de informacin Ordenador de gestin Calculadora Fichero Oficinista Ordenador Fichero informatizado Grficos por ordenador Corrector lquido Base de datos Escritorio Agenda Disco Disquetera Documento Portadocumentos Correo electrnico Agenda de trabajo Sobre (carta) Rotulador Archivo (documento) Fichero (mueble) Archivero Disquete Carpeta / papeles / Documentos Pluma estilogrfica Pegamento Disco duro Ficha Tinta Inventario / balance Revista especializada

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Keyboard Laser printer Letter Listing / print out Mail Mainframe computer Modem Mouse Mousepad Newspaper Note Note book Office Office furniture Paper knife Paperclip Paperweight Paperwork Pen, ballpoint pen Pen/ pencil holder Pencil Pencil-sharpener Personal computer Photocopier / photocopying machine Pocket diary Portable computer/ laptop computer Portfolio Printer Programa Propelling pencil (uk) / mechanical pencil (usa) Ring binder Rubber Ruler Scanner Scissors Screen / monitor Secretary Sheet Spiral / bound notebook Spreadsheet Stamp Staple/ paper fastener

Teclat Impressora lser Carta Llistat informtic Correu Ordinador central Mdem Ratol Estoreta del ratol Diari Nota / apunt Llibreta Oficina / despatx Mobles doficina Obrecartes Clip Petjapapers Treball administratiu Bolgraf Portallapis Llapis Maquineta de fer punta Ordinador Fotocopiadora Agenda de butxaca Ordinador porttil Portafolis Impressora Programa Portamines Carpeta danelles Goma desborrar Regle Escner Tisores Pantalla Secretari /ria Administratiu /iva Foli Llibreta danelles Full de clcul Segell Grapa

Teclado Impresora lser Carta Listado informtico Correo Ordenador central Mdem Ratn Alfombrilla del ratn Peridico Anotacin / apunte Libreta Oficina / despacho Muebles de oficina Abrecartas Sujetapapeles / clip Pisapapeles Trabajo administrativo Bolgrafo Portalpices Lpiz Sacapuntas Ordenador Fotocopiadora Agenda de bolsillo Ordenador porttil Portafolios Impresora Programa Portaminas Carpeta de anillas Goma de borrar Regla Escner Tijeras Pantalla Secretario/a Administrativo/a Folio Libreta de anillas Hoja de clculo Sello Grapa

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

English For Specific Purposes

133

Stapler /stapling gun Sticky tape Swivel chair Telephone Telephone directory To call back To e-mail To fax To forward / send To leave a message To post (uk), to mail (usa) To print out To save To take a message To take notes To telephone / To call / to ring Typewriter Typist Wastepaper bin Word porcessor Writing pad

Grapadora Cinta adhesiva Cadira giratria Telfon Llista de telfons Tornar a trucar Enviar un correu electrnic Enviar un fax Enviar Deixar un missatge Enviar per correu Imprimir Guardar / arxivar Prendre nota Prendre notes Trucar per telfon Mquina descriure Mecangraf/a Paperera Processador de textos Bloc

Grapadora Cinta adhesiva Silla giratoria Telfono Listn telefnico Volver a llamar Enviar un correo electrnico Enviar un fax Enviar Dejar un mensaje Enviar por correo Imprimir Guardar / archivar Coger un recado Tomar notas Llamar por telfono Mquina de escribir Mecangrafo/a Papelera Procesador de textos Bloc de notas

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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PRODUCTION & MANUFACTURING


Most Engineers have to deal with production and manufacturing processes somehow. Thus, a list of its main words and concepts has been included here.

English Antislip Assembly line Assembly process Automation Auxiliary materials Bar code Batch Bulk production Colleague Competition Computer -designed Computer -integrated manufacturing Consumption per unit Continuous Continuous processing line Counter Defect / fault Delay Direct cost Distribution expenses Electrostatic charge Endurance test Energy costs Equipment Equipment purchase Factory floor Feasibility Final inspection Finished goods inventory Fixed manufacturing costs Flowchart Goods lift (uk), goods elevator (usa) Guarantee (uk), warranty (usa) Heavy materials

Catalan Antilliscant Cadena de muntatge Procs de muntatge Automatisme Materials dajuda Codi de barres Srie Producci a lengrs Company de feina Competncia Dissenyat per ordinador Fabricaci assistida per ordinador Consum per unitat Continu Lnia de procs continu Comptador Defecte Retrard Cost directe Despeses de distribuci Crrega electrosttica Test de resistncia Despesa denergia Equipament Compra dequipament Fbrica Viabilitat Inspecci final Inventari de productes llestos Costos fixos de fabricaci Diagrama Munta crregues Garantia Materies pesants

Spanish Antideslizante Cadena de montaje Proceso de montaje Automatismo Materiales de ayuda Cdigo de barras Serie Produccin al por mayor Compaero de trabajo Competencia Diseado por ordenador Fabricacin asistida por ordenador Consumo por unidad Continuo Lnea de proceso continuo Contador Defecto Retraso Coste directo Gastos de distribucin Carga electrosttica Test de resistencia Gasto de energa Equipamiento Compra de equipamiento Fbrica Viabilidad Inspeccin final Inventario de productos acabados Costes fijos de fabricacin Diagrama Montacargas Garanta Materia pesada

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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In process of completion In progress In stock Industrial area Industrial espionage Industrial property Inventory listing Label Laboratory Laboratory test Labour cost per output unit Labour hand-work / manual labour Large scale Logistics Machine Machinery Main product Maintenance Manufacturers brand Manufacturing industry Mass production Mix Notice board Operations scheduling Optical scanner reader Order Order backlog Out of order Packaging room Packing department Parcel / packet Personal replacement Personal rotation Personnel management Piece / item Pilot plant Plant manager Price tag Processing method Producer / manufacturer Product analysis Product design Product launching

En procs final En curs En estoc Zona industrial Espionatge industrial Propietat industrial Llistat dinventari Etiqueta Laboratori Test de laboratori Cost de m dobra per unitat M dobra A gran escala Logstica Mquina Maquinari Producte principal Manteniment Marca de fabricant Indstria fabricant Producci en cadena Barreja Taulell danuncis Programaci doperacions Lector ptic per escner Comanda Endarreriment de comanda No funciona Sala dembalatge Departament dembalatge Pquet Canvi de personal Rotaci de personal Direcci / gesti de personal Article Planta de proves Cap de planta Etiqueta de preu Mtode de processament Productor / fabricant Anlisi del Producte Disseny del producte Llanament del producte

En proceso final En curso En stock Zona industrial Espionaje industrial Propiedad industrial Listado de inventario Etiqueta Laboratorio Test de laboratorio Coste de mano de obra por unidad Mano de obra A gran escala Logstica Mquina Maquinaria Producto principal Mantenimiento Marca de fabricante Industria fabricant Produccin en cadena Mezcla Tabln de anuncios Programacin de operaciones Lector ptico por escner Pedido Retraso de pedido No funciona Sala de embalaje Departamento de embalaje Paquete Cambio de personal Rotacin de personal Direccin de personal Artculo Planta de pruebas Jefe de planta Etiqueta de precio Mtodo de procesamiento Productor / fabricante Anlisis del producto Diseo del producto Lanzamiento del producto

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Product range Product specialization Production / manufacturing time Production constraints Production cost Production cycle Production index Production management Production manager Production output Production planning Production potential Production prices Production standards Production volume ratio Productive Productivity indicators Progress control Project Project management Prototype Quality certificate Quality control Quality criteria Randomized sample Raw material Reliable Research and development Research lab Safety device Safety measures Semi-finished goods Sheet Shortage Spare part Specific-purpose equipment Sticker Stock level Storage costs Store room / warehouse Technical consultant Technician

Gamma de producte Especialitzaci del producte Temps de producci / fabricaci Limitacions de producci Cost de producci Cicle de producci ndex de producci Gesti de producci Cap de producci Sortida del producte Planificaci de producci Potencial de producci Preus de producci Estndard de producci Taxa de volum de producci Productiu Indicadors de productivitat Control de progrs Projecte Gesti del projecte Prototip Certificat de qualitat Control de qualitat Criteri de qualitat Mostra aleatria Matria primera Fiable Recerca i desenvolupament Laboratori de recerca Aparell de seguretat Mesures de seguretat Productes semi-acabats Placa Manca Pea de recanvi Equipament per a finalitats especfiques Adhesiu Nivell destoc Despeses d emmagatzematge Magatzem Assessor tcnic Tcnic

Gama de producto Especializacin del producto Tiempo de produccin / fabricacin Limitaciones de produccin Coste de produccin Ciclo de produccin ndice de produccin Gestin de produccin Jefe de produccin Salida del producto Planificacin de produccin Potencial de produccin Precios de produccin Estndar de produccin Tasa de volumen de produccin Productivo Indicadores de productividad Control de progreso Proyecto Gestin del proyecto Prototipo Certificado de calidad Control de calidad Criterio de calidad Muestra aleatoria Materia prima Fiable Investigacin y desarrollo Laboratorio de investigacin Aparato de seguridad Medidas de seguridad Productos semi-acabados Placa / lmina Escasez Pieza de recambio Equipamiento para finalidades especficas Adhesivo Nivel de stock Gastos de almacenamiento Almacn Asesor tcnico Tcnico

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

English For Specific Purposes

137

Timing / time scheduling To carry To deliver To design To draw a plan To handle To innovate To label To load To overproduce To pack To plan To programme / schedule To repair / fix To store To unload To unpack To work on-line To wrap Total output Toxic Turnover Unsold /leftover stocks Waste Waste goods Workable Workforce Working conditions Workings Workload Zero-defect purchase

Programaci/ cronometratge Transportar Entregar Dissenyar Dibuixar un planell Manipular Innovar Etiquetar Carregar Produir massa Empaquetar Planificar Programar Arreglar Emmagatzemar Descarregar Desempaquetar Treballar en lnia Embolicar Producci total Txic Benefici Estocs no venuts Restes Restes de srie Prctic, factible M dobra Condicions de treball Funcionament Quantitat de treball Compra lliure de defectes

Programacin/ cronometraje Transportar Entregar Disear Dibujar un plano Manipular Innovar Etiquetar Cargar Producir demasiado Empaquetar Planificar Programar Arreglar Almacenar Descargar Desempaquetar Trabajar en la lnea Envolver Produccin total Txico Beneficio Stocks no vendidos Restos Restos de serie Prctico, factible Mano de obra Condiciones de trabajo Funcionamiento Cantidad de trabajo Compra sin defectos

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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THE CAR
A list of the main parts and components in a car has been included here as a reference for Engineering students. English Aerial (UK), antenna (USA) Axle Bonnet (USA), hood (USA) Boot (UK), trunk (USA) Brake Bumper Car door Car window Carburettor Cd player Clutch Cylinder Cylinder head Diesel Engine Exhaust pipe (UK), tailpipe (USA) Fanbelt Four-wheel drive Gear lever / gearstick (UK), Gearshift (USA) Handbrake Headlamps / headlights Horn Left-hand drive Model Numberplate (UK), license plate (USA) Oil level Paint Piston Radio / tuner Rally lights Rear view mirror Seat Catalan Antena (rdio) Eix de rodes Cap Maleter Fre Paraxocs Porta del cotxe Finestra (cotxe) Carburador Reproductor cd Embragatge Cilindre Capal (cilindre) Disel Motor Tub descapament Corretja del ventilador Tracci a les quatre rodes Canvi de marxes Fre de m Fars Clxon Cotxe amb volant lesquerra Model Placa de matricula-cotxe Nvell doli Pintura Pist Rdio Llums de ral.li Mirall retrovisor Seient Spanish Antena (radio) Eje de ruedas Cap Maletero Freno Parachoques Puerta del coche Ventana (coche) Carburador Reproductor cd Embrague Cilindro Cabezal (cilindro) Diesel Motor Tubo de escape Correa del ventilador Traccin en las cuatro ruedas Cambio de marchas Freno de mano Faros Claxon Coche con volante a la izquierda Modelo Placa de matricula-coche Nivel de aceite Pintura Pistn Radio Luces de rally Espejo retrovisor Asiento

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

English For Specific Purposes

139

Servodrive Spare wheel Speed control Steering wheel Suspensin Tank Trademark transmisin Tyre Valve Water level Windscreen (UK), windshield (USA) Winscreen wiper Wire

Direcci assistida Roda de recanvi Control velocitat Volant Suspensi Dipsit Marca Transmissi Pneumtic Vlvula Nivell daigua Parabrisa Eixugaparabrisa Cable

Direccin asistida Rueda de recambio Control de velocidad Volante Suspensin Depsito Marca Transmisin Neumtico Vlvula Nivel de agua Parabrisas Limpiaparabrisas Cable

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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TOOLS
A compilation of the main tools most engineers are familiar with has been included in this specific vocabulary appendix. English Adhesive tape Adjustable spanner, shifting spanner, monkey wrench Anvil Bar Bellows Bit Blowlamp(uk), blowtorck (usa) Bolt Bottle Box Brace Can Carton Cross-point screwdriver Catalan Cinta adhesiva Clau anglesa Spanish Cinta adhesiva Llave inglesa Yunque Barra Fuelle Mecha de taladro Soplete Cerrojo Botella Caja Berbiqu Lata Cartn Destornillador de estrella Troquel Chincheta Taladro Taladradora elctrica Cable prolongador Lima Metro plegable Horca, horquilla Manguera Tijeras de jardinera Pegamento Gubia Sierra de metales Martillo Taladradora de mano Serrucho Azada Gato Frasco, bote Torno Cortacsped

Enclusa Barra Manxa Metxa de trepant Bufador Forrellat Ampolla Caixa Filaberqu Llauna Cartr Tornavs Destrella Die Encuny Drawing pin uk),thumbtack(usa) Xinxeta Drill Broca Electric drill, power drill Trepant elctric Extension cord Cable perllongador File Llima Folding ruler Metro plegable Fork Forca, forquilla Garden hose, hosepipe Mnega Garden shears Tisores de jardineria Glue Cola / goma denganxar Gouge Gbia Hacksaw Serra de metalls Hammer Martell Hand drill Trepant de m Handsaw, saw Xerrac Hoe Aixada Jack Gat Jar Pot Lathe Torn Lawnmower Tallagespa

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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141

Locknut Magnet Mallet Mattock Metal shears Multipurpose, Universal pliers Nail Nail puller Needle Nut Pack Paint Paint brush Pin, peg, dowel Pincers, tongs Plane Plumb line Press Pruning shears Punch Rank Revolving punch Riveter Roll Soller Ruler Sachet Sandpaper Saw Scraper Screw Screwdriver Sealing tape Set square, triangle Shears Shovel Sickle Six-pack Soldering flux Soldering iron Spatula Spray can Square Stepladder

Contrafemella Imant Maa Aixadella Tisores per a xapa Alicates universals Clau Desclavador Agulla Femella Paquet Pintura Brotxa Clavilla Tenalles Ribot Plomada Premsa Podadora Punx Rasclet Alicates Mquina rebladora Rotllo Corr Regle Sachet Paper de vidre Serra Raspador Cargol Tornavs Cinta allant Cartab Podadora Pala Fal Paquet de sis Lquid per a soldar Soldador Esptula Aerosol Esquadra Escala

Contratuerca Imn Mazo Azadn Tijeras para chapa Alicates universales Clavo Sacaclavos Aguja Tuerca Paquete, cajetilla Pintura Brocha Clavija Tenazas Cepillo Plomada Prensa Podadera Punzn Rastrillo Alicates Mquina remachadora Rollo Rodillo Regla Sachet Papel de lija Sierra Raspador Tornillo Destornillador Cinta aislante Cartabn Cizallas Pala Hoz Paquete de seis Lquido para soldar Soldador Esptula Aerosol, atomizador Escuadra Escalera

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Tack, stud Tape measure Tin-lead solder Toolbox Tropel Tube Washer Watering can Wheelbarrow Wire Wire cutters Wire wheel brush Workbench

Tatxa Cinta mtrica Estany per a soldar Caixa deines Paleta Tub Volandera Regadora Carret Cable Tallafilferros Raspall metl.lic Taula de treball

Tachuela Cinta mtrica Estao para soldar Caja de herramientas Paleta Tubo Arandela Regadora Carretilla Cable Cortaalambres Cepillo metlico Mesa de trabajo

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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143

TRANSPORTS
Most engineers should be familiar with transports specific vocabulary .Hence, a compilation of the main ones has been included here. English Airliner Airplane Bicycle Boat Breakdown truck Bus Canoe Car Caravan Carriage Crane Cruiser Ferry Fire engine Glider Hearse Helicopter Hire car Hot air ballon Jet plane Locomotive Lorry (uk), truck (usa) Motorboat / speedboat Motorcycle / motorbike Ocean liner Pickup truck Pram Racing car Raft Sailboat Scooter Ship Sleeping car Sportscar Steam roller Steamer Taxi (uk), cab (usa) Tractor Catalan Avi de passatgers Avi Bicicleta Barca Grua municipal Autobs Canoa / piragua Cotxe Caravana Carruatge Grua Creuer Transbordador Cotxe (bombers) Planador Cotxe (morts) Helicpter Cotxe (lloguer) Globus aerosttic Avi de reacci Locomotora Cami Llanxa motora Motocicleta Transatlntic Camioneta Cotxet (nad) Cotxe de competici Rai Veler Escter Vaixell Cotxe-llit Cotxe esportiu Piconadora Vaixell de vapor Taxi Tractor Spanish Avin de pasajeros Avin Bicicleta Barca Gra municipal Autobs Canoa / piragua Coche / auto Caravana Carruaje Gra Crucero Transbordador Coche (bomberos) Planeador Coche (muertos) Helicptero Coche (alquiler) Globo aerosttico Avin a reaccin Locomotora Camin Lancha motora Motocicleta Transatlntico Camioneta Cochecito (beb) Coche de carreras Balsa Velero Escter Barco, buque Coche-cama Coche deportivo Apisonadora Barco a vapor Taxi Tractor

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Train Tram /streetcar Transport (uk), transportation (usa) Underground / tube (uk), subway (usa) Van Vehicle

Tren Tramvia Transport Metro Furgoneta Vehicle

Tren Tranva Transporte Metro Furgoneta Vehculo

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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CONSTRUCTION
A compilation of English vocabulary related to the construction field has been included here so that foreign learners can look up basic words together with their bilingual translation into Catalan and Spanish. English Balcony Banister Bricklayer (UK), brickmason (USA) Building site (UK), construction site (USA) Column box Drain Excavation Extensin Ladder Lintel Masonry bonds Rubble/ Excavated herat Site hut / site office Tiles Tubular steel scaffold / scaffolding Under construction Wheelbarrow Work platform / Scaffolding Brick wall Bricklayers tools (UK), brick masons t. (USA) Builders hoist Concrete mixer Front Gravity mixer Ground floor Guard board Hollow-block wall Hosepipe House construction Laying-on towel Mallet Mechanical shovel / excavator Catalan Balc Barana Paleta, obrer Edifici en construcci Encofrat Desgus Excavaci Ampliaci Escala de m Dintell Aparells de construcci Runa Barraca dobra Teules / rajoles Bastida feta de tubs de ferro En construcci Carret Bastida de treball Paret de maons Eines de paleta Muntacrregues Mescladora de formig Faana Formigonera Planta baixa Pasarel.la Paret de maons Buits Mnega (aigua) Construcci duna llar Lana Torreta Pala excavadora Balcn Barandilla Albail Edificio en construccin Encofrado Desage Excavacin (obra) Ampliacin Escalera de mano Dintel (ventana) Aparejos de construccin Escombros / Tierra excavada Barraca de la obra Baldosas/ azulejos Andamio hecho con tubos de hierro En construccin Carretilla Andamio de trabajo Pared (ladrillos) Herramientas de albail Montacargas Mezcladora de hormign Fachada Hormigonera Planta baja Pasarela Pared de ladrillos huecos Manguera (agua) Construccin de una casa Llana Maceta Pala excavadora Spanish

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Mixer operador Navvy (UK), excavator (USA) Plank Plumb bob Stack of bricks Storey Thick lead pencil Tools Tower crane/ tower slewing crane Tropel Wall Upper floor Backhoe Bag of cement Beam / rafter Blueprints Board Brick Bucket Builder Building Building site Bulldozer Ceiling Cement Concrete Crane Drainpipe Fence Foundation trench Hard hat / helmet Jackhammer Level Measure tape Mixing drum dic ax Plastering Pulley Shovel Site fence Welder Welding iron

Operador de mquines Pe Plataforma de taulons Plomada Pila de maons Planta / pis Llapis de mina gruixuda Eines / estris Grua de torre giratria Paleta de manobre Paret /mur Primera planta Pala mecnica Sac de ciment Biga Planells Taul Ma Pala (mquina excavadora) Constructor Edifici / construcci Solar / obra (construcci) Enderrocadora Sostre Ciment Formig Grua Tub de desaigus Tanca Tanca de fomentaci Casc Martell mecnic Nivell Cinta mtrica Tambor mesclador Pic Enguixar Politja Pala Tanca de protecci Soldador Soldador (aparell)

Operador de mquinas Pen zapador Plataforma de tablones Plomada Pila de ladrillos Planta / piso Lpiz de albail Herramientas Gra de torre giratoria (pluma) Paleta de albail Pared / tabique Primera planta Pala mecnica Saco de cemento Travesao / viga Planos Tabla Ladrillo Pala (mquina excavadora) Constructor Edificio / construccin Solar / obra (construccin) Topadora Techo Cemento Hormign Gra Tubo del desage Valla / cerca Zanja de cimentacin Casco Martillo mecnico Nivel Cinta mtrica Tambor mezclador Pico Enyesar Polea Pala Valla de proteccin Soldador Soldador (aparato)

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

Extra Vocabulary Units

147

EXTRA VOCABULARY UNITS

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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14. AMERICAN ENGLISH-BRITISH ENGLISH GLOSSARY


American Account AM Radio Antenna Apartment Apartment house Awaken someone to Balcony (theatre) Band-aid Bathe (v.) Bathrobe Bathtub Bell pepper Biscuit Bill Billfold Broil Buffet Bureau Call collect Can Candy Candy store Check (restaurant) Chicory Chips (potatoe) Cigarette City/municipal goverment Conductor (train) Connect (telephone) Cookie Daven port/sofa Delivery truck Denatured alcohol British Bill/Account Medium Wave Aerial (radio/TV) Flat Block of flats Knock up Gallery Plaster Bath Dressing grown Bath Green pepper Scone-like thing (no equivalent) Bank note Wallet (men) Grill Sideboard Chest of drawers Reverse Changes Tin Sweets/chocolate Sweet shop Bill Endive Crisps Fag Corporation Guard Put through Biscuit (sweet) Sofa Van Methylated spirits Catalan Factura Rdio AM Antena Apartament Bloc de pisos Fer que alg sadoni dalguna cosa Tribuna Guix Banyar Barns Banyera Pebrot verd Factura Cartera Carn rostida a les graelles Trinxant Calaixera Telefonar a cobrament a destinaci Llauna Dolos Bomboneria Compte Xicoira Patates fregides Cigarret Ajuntament Revisor Posar en contacte Galeta Sof Furgoneta Lcors amb alcohol metlic Spanish Factura Radio AM Antena Apartamento Bloque de pisos Hacer que alguien se d cuenta de algo Tribuna Yeso Baar Albornoz Baera Pimiento verde Factura Cartera Carne asada a la parrilla Trinchero Cmoda LLamar a cobro revertido Lata Dulces Bombonera Cuenta Achicoria Patatas fritas Cigarrillo Ayuntamiento Revisor Poner en contacto Galleta Sof Furgoneta Licores con alcohol metlico

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

Extra Vocabulary Units

149

Derby Desk clerk Dessert Diaper Dishes, do the Downtown Draft Drapes Dresser Druggist Drugstore Drygoods store Dump (n. and v.) Dungarees Duplex Editorial Eggplant Electric cord/wire Elevator Endive Engineer (train) Eraser To eyeball Faculty Fag or faggot Fall FM radio Freeway/super Garbage/trash Trash can Garter belt Gas Gas station Generator German shepherd/police dog Gift Gonna Hamburger Hardware store Hope chest Incorporated (Inc)

Bowler hat Recepcionist Pudding/dessert Nappies Wash up Centre (city business) Conscription Curtains Chest of drawers Chemist Chemists shop Draper Tip Jeans Semi-detached Leader Aubergine Flex Lift Chicory Driver Rubber To stare directly at Staff Homosexual Autumn VHF Motorway Rubbish Bin Suspender belt Petrol Filling station Dynamo Alsatian Present Going to Beefburger Ironmonger Bottom drawer Limited (Ltd)

Barret fort, bolet Recepcionista Postres Bolquers Rentar els plats Centre (de la ciutat) Servei militar obligatori Cortines Calaixera Farmacutic Farmcia Draper Propina Pantalons texans Dplex Editorial Albergnia Filferro electritzat Ascensor Endvia Maquinista Goma desborrar Enfrontar-se cara a cara Personal docent Homosexual Tardor Rdio FM Autopista Escombraries Paperera De lliga Benzina Benzinera Generador Pastor alemany Regal Anar a Hamburguesa Ferreteria Parament Societat annima

Sombrero fuerte, seta Recepcionista Postres Paales Fregar los platos Centro de la ciudad Servicio militar obligatorio Cortinas Cmoda Farmacutico Farmacia Paero Propina Pantalones vaqueros Dplex Editorial Berenjena Alambre electrizado Ascensor Endivia Maquinista Goma de borrar Enfrentarse cara a cara Personal docente Homosexual Otoo Radio FM Autopista Basura Papelera De liga Gasolina Gasolinera Generador Pastor alemn Regalo Ir a Hamburguesa Ferretera Ajuar Sociedad annima

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Intermission Jail Junior Kerosene Knickers Laundromat Lawyer/attorney Leader Lease/rent Legal holiday Line (n.) Liquour Liquour store Living room Lobby Lost and found Mail Mail box Mailman Make reservations Motorbike Motorcycle Movie Movie house Moving van Muffler (car) Newsdealer Notion Odometer Office (doctors/dentist) Orchestra seats Overpass Package Paddle (v.)

Interval Prison 3rd Year School Paraffin Plus-fours Laundrette Solicitor Leading article in newspaper Let Bank holiday Queue Spirits Off licence/wine merchant Sitting room Foyer Lost property Post Pillar box Postman Book Moped Motorbike Film Cinema Removal van Silencer Newsagent Haberdashery Mileometer Surgery Stalls Flyover Parcel Bat (v.)

Interval Pres Estudiant de tercer any de secundria o universitat Queros

Intrvalo Crcel Estudiante de tercer ao de secundaria o universidad

Queroseno Pantalones Pantalons bombatxos bombachos Lavandera Tintoreria automtica automtica Advocat Abogado Encapalament dun Encabezamiento de article de diari un artculo de diario Arrendar/llogar Arrendar/alquilar Festiu oficial Festivo oficial Cua Cola Licor Licor Botiga de vins i de Tienda de vinos y licors de licores Menjador Comedor Vestbul Vestbulo Objectes perduts Objetos perdidos Correu Correo Bstia Buzn Carter Cartero Reservar Reservar Bicicleta Bicicleta motoritzada motorizada Motocicleta Motocicleta Pel.lcula Pelcula Cinema Cine Remolc Remolque Silenciador Silenciador Amo o empleat dun Dueo o empleado quiosc de un quiosco Tienda de ropa y Botiga de roba i accesorios para accessoris per a homes seores Compta- revolucions Cuentarrevoluciones Consultori Cadiratge, cadiram Pas elevat Paquet Remar Consultorio Sillera Paso elevado Paquete Remar

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Pants Pull-off Pullman/sleeper Purse Raincoat Realtor Rear view mirror Recess Restroom Rubber Schedule Senior Shorts (underwear) Shot (injection) Sidewalk Slice (bacon) Tag Take out Tic-tac-toe Toilet Traffic circle Trailer/camper Truck Tube Two weeks Undergraduates: freshman Undergraduates: sophomore Undergraduates: junior Undergraduates: senior Undershirt Underwear (washing) Vacation Vacuum Valence VCR Vest Wall to wall Wanna Wash up Water heater Windshield

Trousers Lay-by Lay-by Handbag Mackintosh Estate Agent Wing mirror Break (school) Toilet Condom Time-table 4th year (school) Pants Jab Pavement Rasher Label Take away Noughts and crosses Lavatory Roundabout/island Caravan Lorry Valve Fortnight 1st year undergraduate 2nd year undergraduate 3rd year undergraduate 4th year undergraduate Vest Smalls Holiday Hoover Pelmet Video Waistcoat Fitted carped Want to Wash your hands Immersion heater Windscreen

Pantalons Reposar rea de descans Bossa de m Impermeable Agent immobiliari Retrovisor Esbarjo Lavabo Preservatiu Horari

Pantalones Descansar rea de reposo Bolso Impermeable Agente inmobiliario Retrovisor Recreo Lavabo Preservativo Horario Estudiante de cuarto Estudiant de quart curs curso Calotets Calzoncillos Injecci Inyeccin Vorera Acera Tira Tira Etiquetar Etiquetar Emportar Llevar Tres en ratlla Tres en raya Lavabo Lavabo Rotonda Rotonda Caravana Caravana Cami Camin Vlvula Vlvula Dues setmanes Dos semanas Estudiant de primer Estudiante de curs primer curso Estudiant de segon Estudiante de curs segundo curso Estudiante de tercer Estudiant de tercer curs curso Estudiante de cuarto Estudiant de quart curs curso Samarreta (interior) Camiseta (interior) Roba interior Ropa interior Vacances Vacaciones Aspirar Aspirar Bastidor Bastidor Vdeo Vdeo Armilla Chaleco Moqueta Moqueta Voler Querer Rentat les mans Lvate las manos Escalfador Calentador Parabrisa Parabrisas

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Wire With or without? (milk/cream in coffee) Yard Zero Zip code Zucchini

Telegram Black or white? Garden Nought Postal code Courgettes

Telegrama Amb llet o sense? Jard Zero Codi postal Carbass

Telegrama Solo o con leche? Jardn Cero Cdigo postal Calabacn

Remember:

American x x x x x Billion (thousand million) Bomb (disaster) Second floor Chicory Endive

British Billion (million million) Bomb (success) First floor Endive Chicory Homely-pleasant Term (3 in a year)

x Homely ugly x Semester (school-2 in a year)

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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15. MAIN BRITISH-AMERICAN SPELLING DIFFERENCES


It is important to be aware of the spelling differences between British and American English, therefore a table with the main differences has been included in this section. British Aeroplane Aluminium Analyse Axe Catalogue Centre Cheque Colour Defence Dialogue Favourite Grey Humour Jewellery Kidnap-ping,-per,-ped Labour Licence Metre Neighbour Offence Plough Practise Pretence Programme Pyjamas Quarrel-ling,-ler,-led Skilful Storey Theatre Travel-ling,-ler,-led Tyre Worship-ping -ped, -per American Airplane Aluminum Analyze Ax Catalog Center Check Color Defense Dialog Favorite Gray Humor Jewelry Kidnap-ing, -er, ed Labor License Meter Neighbor Offense Plow Practice Pretense Program Pajamas Quarrel-ing,-er,-ed Skillful Story Theater Travel-ing,-er,-ed Tire Worship-ing -ed, -er Catalan Avi Alumini Analitzar Destral Catleg Centre Xec Color Defensa Dileg Favorit Gris/a Humor Joies Segrestar Treball Llicncia Metre Ve/ na Delicte Arada Practicar Pretensi Programa Pijama Baralla, barallar-se Hbil Pis/planta Teatre Viatge/viatjar Viatger Pneumtic Adorar,adoraci, Adorat/ adoradordor Spanish Avin Aluminio Analizar Hacha Catlogo Centro Cheque Color Defensa Dilogo Favorito Gris Humor Joyas Secuestrar Trabajo Licencia Metro Vecino/ a Delito Arado Prcticar Pretensin Programa Pijama Pelea, pelearse Hbil Piso/planta Teatro Viaje/viajar/ Viajero Neumtico Adorar/ adoracin Adorado/ adorador

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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16. FALSE FRIENDS


The following list of false friends will be helpful to Spanish or Catalan speakers as the words on the list are similar to Spanish or Catalan ones. If they are False Friends it is precisely because the words look alike but their meaning is different.
English Actual Actually Advise Advertise Agenda Catalan Real En realitat Aconsellar Anunciar Ordre del dia Spanish Real En realidad Aconsejar Anunciar Ordn del da Aviso hablado Inquieto Discusin Ayudar, auxiliar Intento Spanish Actual Actualmente Avisar Advertir Agenda Anuncio Ansioso (deseoso) Argumento Asistir Atentado terrorista Carta de Carrera (universitaria, de coches) Carpeta Casual Collar Colegio Comprensivo Catalan Actual Actualment Avisar Advertir Agenda Anunci Ansis (desitjs) Argument Assistir Atemptat terrorista Carta Carrera (universitria, cursa de cotxes) Carpeta Casual Collaret Col.legi Comprensiu Conductor Conferncia Conservatori Constipat Crim Content Decepci English Present, current Nowadays, present Warn Warn Diary at

Announcement Avs parlat Anxious Argument Assist Attempt Card Career Inquiet Discusi Ajudar, auxiliar Intent

Advertisement Eager, greedy Plot, issue Attend topic,

Terrorist attack Setter Race (cars), university studies Flder, file Accidental Necklace Primary School Sympathetic Driver Lecture Music academy (Have) a cold Murder Happy Disappointment

Tarjeta Tarjeta Anys de treball Aos trabajo

Carpet Casual

Catifa Informal, desenfadat Collar Coll (de camisa) College Facultat (universitat) Comprehensive Exhaustiu Conductor Conference Conservatory Constipated Crime Content Deception Director dorquestra Congrs Hivernacle Restret Acte delictiu Satisfet Engany

Alfombra Informal, desenfadado Cuello (de camisa) Facultad (universidad) Exhaustivo

Director de Conductor orquesta Congreso Conferencia Invernadero Conservatorio Estreido Acto delictivo Satisfecho Engao Constipado Crimen Contento Decepcin

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

Extra Vocabulary Units

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Deputy Discussion Disgust Divert Educated Exit Fabrics Firm Idiom Informal Large Lecture Library Mayor Miserable Notes Notice Parcel Parent Particular Preservative Presume Pretend Prize Prove Quiet Realise Record Remove Rest Resume Sensible Signature Spectacles Suburb Success Sympathetic Sympathy Topic Vicious Ultimate

Suplent Conversa Repugnncia Desviar Culte Sortida Tela, txtil Empresa Frase feta Desenfadat Gran Conferncia Biblioteca Alcalde Deprimit Apunts Avs Paquet Mare o pare Especial Conservant Assumir, pretendre Fingir Premi Demostrar Callat Adonar-se Gravar, enregistrar Prendre Descansar Continuar Sensat Firma Ulleres Barri residencial xit Comprensiu Compassi, Tema Malvat, saludable Definitiu

Suplente Conversacin Repugnancia Desviar Culto Salida Tela, textil Empresa Frase hecha Desenfadado Grande Conferencia Biblioteca Alcalde Deprimido Apuntes Aviso Paquete Madre o padre Especial Conservante Asumir, pretender Fingir Premio Demostrar Callado Darse cuenta Grabar Quitar Descansar Continuar Sensato Firma Gafas Barrio residencial xito Comprensivo Compasin

Diputado Discusin Disgusto Divertir Educado xito Fbrica Firma Idioma Informal Largo Lectura Librera Mayor Miserable Notas Noticia Parcela Pariente Particular Preservativo Presumir Pretender Precio Probar Quieto Realizar Recordar Remover Restar Resumir Sensible Asignatura Espectculos Suburbio Suceso Simptico Simpata Tpico Vicioso ltimo

Member of Parliament Discussi Argument Disgust Annoyance Divertir Enjoy Educat Polite xit Success Fbrica Factory Firma Signature Idioma Language Informal Irresponsible Llarg Long Lectura Reading Llibreria Bookshop Major, ms Main, bigger, gran, gran older Miserable Poor Notes Marks, grades Notcia News Parcel.la Plot of land Parent Relative Particular Private Preservatiu Condom Presumir Show off Pretendre Preu Provar Quiet Realitzar Recordar Remoure Restar Resumir Sensible Assignatura Espectacles Suburbi Succs Simptic Simpatia Tpic Vicis ltim Intend, try, seek Price Try, try on Still, motionless Carry out, implement Remember Stir Substract Sumarize, sum up Sensitive Subject Shows Slum Event Nice, friendly Affection, kindness Clich Addict, depraved Last

Diputat

Tema poc Malvado Definitivo

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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17. FRIENDS
There are some words tha are the same in English, Catalan or Spanish. Here you have the list: English Abdomen Abdominal Actor Admirable Aerosol Album Altar Antisocial Artificial Auto Badminton Backgammon Banana Barman Benefactor Bingo Boutique Bridge Brutal Cabaret Cable Cactus Cadaver Cafeteria Calibre Casino Cassette Cereal Civil Club Collar Colon Combustible Combustion Chocolate Cordon Corrosion Crisis Cultural Catalan Abdomen Abdominal Actor Admirable Aerosol lbum Altar Antisocial Artificial Auto Bdminton Backgammon Banana Brman Benefactor Bingo Boutique Bridge Brutal Cabaret Cable Cactus Cadver Cafeteria Calibre Casino Casset Cereal Civil Club Collaret Colon Combustible Combusti Xocolata Cord Corrosi Crisi Cultural Spanish Abdomen Abdominal Actor Admirable Aerosol lbum Altar Antisocial Artificial Auto Bdminton Backgammon Banana Brman Benefactor Bingo Boutique Bridge Brutal Cabaret Cable Cactus Cadver Cafetera Calibre Casino Cassette Cereal Civil Club Collar Colon Combustible Combustin Chocolate Cordn Corrosin Crisis Cultural

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Curable Cursor Decimal Decision Diesel Domino Doping Electro Elemental Enigma Facial Facsimile Gala Gangster Gardenia Handicap Marginal Material Multicultural Neuralgia Panacea Pastoral Peculiar Pedal Pedestal Postal Practicable Provisional Pubis Racial Radar Radical Regular Slogan Subtropical Superficial Superior Supervisor Tandem Tangible Tarot Taxi Virus Visa Visual Vulnerable

Curable Cursor Decimal Decisi Disel Dmino Dping Electro Elemental Enigma Facial Facsmil Gala Gngster Gardnia Hndicap Marginal Material Multicultural Neurlgia Panacea Pastoral Peculiar Pedal Pedestal Postal Practicable Provisional Pubis Racial Radar Radical Regular Eslgan Subtropical Superficial Superior Supervisor Tndem Tangible Tarot Taxi Virus Visa Visual Vulnerable

Curable Cursor Decimal Decisin Diesel Domin Dping Electro Elemental Enigma Facial Facsmile Gala Gngster Gardenia Handicap Marginal Material Multicultural Neuralgia Panacea Pastoral Peculiar Pedal Pedestal Postal Practicable Provisional Pubis Racial Radar Radical Regular Eslogan Subtropical Superficial Superior Supervisor Tndem Tangible Tarot Taxi Virus Visa Visual Vulnerable

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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PHRASAL VERBS
English Add up Add up to Answer back Answer for Ask about Ask after Ask for Ask back Ask in Back away Back out Back up Be about Be away Be back Be for Be in Break away Break down Break in Break off Break up Bring in Bring out Bring up Brush off Buy for Buy over Buy up Call at Call away Call for Call in Call on Call out Call over Call up Carry along Carry off Carry on Catalan Totalitzar Arribar a un total Contestar de mala manera Respondre de Preguntar per Preguntar per la salut Demanar Convidar a tornar Convidar a entrar Retrocedir Tornar enrere Reforar Estar per Estar fora Tornar a ser aqu Estar a favor de Estar a casa Deixar-se anar Derruir / Avariar-se Interrompre Trencar Acabar el curs o una relaci Fer entrar Fer sortir Criar, educar Treure la pols Comprar per o per a Subornar Acaparar Fer escala Continuar telefonant Demanar, exigir Cridar alg perqu entri Anar a veure (alg) Cridar Passar llista, enumerar Telefonar Persuadir Emportar-se a la fora Continuar Spanish Totalizar Alcanzar un total Contestar de malos modos Responder de Preguntar por Preguntar por la salud Pedir Invitar a volver Invitar a entrar Retroceder Volver atrs Reforzar Estar por Estar fuera Estar de vuelta Estar a favor de Estar en casa Soltarse Derruir / Averiarse Interrumpir Romper Terminar el curso o una relacin Hacer entrar Hacer salir Criar, educar Quitar el polvo Comprar por o para Sobornar Acaparar Hacer escala Seguir llamando Pedir a voces, exigir Llamar a alguien para que entre Ir a ver (a alguien) Gritar Pasar lista, enumerar Telefonear Persuadir Llevarse a la fuerza Continuar

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

Extra Vocabulary Units

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Carry out Clear away Clear off Come about Come across Come away Come down Come for Come from Come in Come off Come on Count on Count up Cut in Cut out Cut up Do up Do without Draw away Draw back Draw down Draw in Draw off Draw out Drive back Eat away Fall down Fall off Fall over Get about Get along Get back Get down Get into Get out Get over Get through Get up Give away Give back Give out Give up Go about Go along Go at

Portar a terme Dispersar (-se) Anar-sen Succeir Trobar-se amb Desprendres Baixar Venir per Venir de Entrar Desprendres Vinga! Comptar amb Calcular Interrompre Retallar / ometre Trinxar, triturar Cordar Passar sense Allunyar-se Retrocedir Baixar Economitzar Apartar-se Treure / redactar Rebutjar Erosionar Caure Disminuir Entrebancar-se Anar daqu cap all Anar fent, tirar endavant Tornar, recuperar Descendre, baixar Entrar Produir Saltar per sobre Obrir-se pas Aixecar-se Repartir, denunciar Tornar Esgotar-se, repartir Entregar, rendir-se Anar dun cant a laltre Anar al llarg de Atacar

Llevar a cabo Dispersar(se) Marcharse Suceder Encontrarse con Desprenderse Bajar Venir por Venir de Entrar Desprenderse Vamos! Contar con Calcular Interrumpir Recortar / omitir Trinchar, triturar Abrochar Carecer de Alejarse Retroceder Bajar Economizar Apartarse Sacar / redactar Rechazar Erosionar Caerse Disminuir Tropezar Ir de ac para all Hacer progreso Volver, recuperar Descender Entrar Producir Saltar por encima Abrirse camino Levantarse Repartir, denunciar Devolver Agotarse, repartir Entregar, rendirse Ir de un lado a otro Ir a lo largo de Atacar

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Go away Go by Go down Go in/into Go off Go on Go out Go over Go through Go up Go up to Hold on Hold out Hurry away Hurry up Jump about Jump at Jump down Jump in Look after Look at Look behind Look down Look for Look forward to Look in Look like Look out Look over Move along Move away Move down Move in Move on Move up Pay for Pay in Pay off Pay up Pull off Pull up Put in Put off

Explotar, anar-sen Passar per Baixar Entrar Explotar Continuar Sortir, passar de moda, apagar-se Repassar Patir Pujar Apropar-se a Continuar Resistir Marxar rpidament Afanyar-se Saltar Atacar Baixar dun salt Entrar dun salt Cuidar Mirar Mirar enrere Mirar avall Buscar Anhelar, desitjar Mirar a dins Semblar Mirar a fora Mirar per sobre de Passar Allunyar-se Baixar Mudar-se (de domicili) No detenir-se, passar a (un altre assumpte) Moures (per deixar un lloc) Pagar Ingressar diners Liquidar un compte Pagar un deute Arrencar Parar un vehicle Ficar, instal.lar Posposar

Explotar, marcharse Pasar por Bajar Entrar Explotar, marcharse Continuar Salir, pasar de moda, apagarse Repasar Sufrir Subir Acercarse a Continuar Resistir Irse rpidamente Darse prisa Dar saltos Atacar Bajar de un salto Entrar de un salto Cuidar Mirar Mirar atrs Mirar abajo Buscar Anhelar, desear Mirar dentro Parecer Mirar fuera Mirar por encima de Pasar Alejarse Bajar Mudarse (de domicilio) No detenerse, pasar a (otro asunto) Moverse (para dejar un sitio) Pagar Ingresar dinero Liquidar una cuenta Pagar una deuda Arrancar Parar un vehculo Meter, instalar Posponer

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

Extra Vocabulary Units

161

Put on Put out Put up with Speak to Speak up Take down Take for Take in Take off Take out Take up Throw away Throw back Throw down Throw in Throw off Throw out Throw up Turn away Turn back Turn down Turn off Turn on Turn out Turn into Turn up Work under Write down

Posar-se (una pea de roba) Apagar, treure Suportar Parlar amb Parlar en veu alta Baixar (alguna cosa) Equivocar-se Enganyar Treures una pea de roba, enlairar-se (un avi) Treure Pujar Llenar (una cosa inservible) Tornar Tirar cap avall Tirar cap endins Tirar a fora Llanar Tirar cap amunt Mirar cap a un altre costat Girar cua Posar cap per avall Apagar (el llum), tancar (una clau) Encendre (el llum) Apagar Convertir-se Arribar Treballar a les ordres de Anotar

Ponerse (una prenda) Apagar, sacar Soportar Hablar con Hablar en voz alta Bajar (algo) Equivocarse Engaar Quitarse una prenda, despegar Sacar, quitar Subir Tirar (algo inservible) Devolver Tirar hacia abajo Tirar hacia adentro Echar fuera Arrojar Tirar hacia arriba Mirar a otro lado Darse la vuelta Poner boca a bajo Apagar (la luz), cerrar (una llave) Encender (la luz) Apagar Convertirse Llegar Trabajar a las rdenes de Anotar

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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19. OPPOSITES
A list of the main english opposites has been included here so that english language learners can look it up and check its bilingual translation. English Beautiful/ugly Big/small Cheap/expensive Clean/dirty Clear/dark Deep/shallow Easy/difficult Far/near Fast/slow Full/empty Good/bad Happy/sad Heavy/light Here/there High/low Hot/cold Inside/outside Long/short Many/few Much/little New/old Rich/old Right/left Right/wrong Safe/dangerous Smooth/rough Soft/hard Strong/weak Tall/short Thick/thin Tight/loose Warm/cool Wet/dry Wide/narrow Young/old Catalan Bonic/lleig Gran/petit Barat/car Net/brut Clar/fosc Profund/poc fondo Fcil/difcil Lluny/proper Rpid/lent Ple/buit Bo/dolent Feli/trist Pesat/lleuger Aqu/all Alt/baix Calent/fred Dins/fora Llarg/curt Molts/pocs Molt/una mica Nou/vell Ric/pobre Dret/esquerre Vertader/fals Segur/perills Suau/aspre Tou/dur Fort/feble Alt/baix Gruixut/prim Apretat/fluix Clid/fresc Mullat/sec Ample/estret Jove/vell Spanish Bonito/feo Grande/pequeo Barato/caro Limpio/sucio Claro/oscuro Profundo/poco profundo Fcil/difcil Lejano/prximo Rpido/lento Lleno/vaco Bueno/malo Feliz/triste Pesado/ligero Aqu/all Alto/bajo Caliente/fro Dentro/fuera Largo/corto Muchos/pocos Mucho/un poco Nuevo/viejo Rico/pobre Derecho/izquierdo Verdadero/falso Seguro/peligroso Suave/spero Blando/duro Fuerte/dbil Alto/bajo Grueso/fino Apretado/suelto Clido/fresco Mojado/seco Ancho/estrecho Joven/viejo

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

Appendices

163

APPENDICES

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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1. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
F For A and N nor B but O or yet Y so S

An easy way to remember these six conjunctions is to think of the word FANBOYS. Each of the letters in this somewhat unlikely word is the first letter of one of the coordinating conjunctions. Remember, when using a conjunction to join two sentences, use a comma before the conjunction. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS CONJUNCTION WHAT IS LINKED And But Or So noun phrase+noun phrase sentence+sentence verb+verb sentence+sentence

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. They join similar elements.When joining singular and plural subjects, the subject closest to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS CONJUNCTIONS WHAT IS LINKED both...and Esther...or neither...nor subject+subject noun+noun subject+subject

not only...but also sentence+sentence SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS TIME after before when while since until CAUSE+EFFECT Because Since now that As in order that So OPPOSITION although though even though Whereas while CONDITION If unless only if Whether or not even if in case (that)

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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2. ABBREVIATIONS
Nowadays abbreviations are widely used for sending faxes, e-mails and SMS. Therefore, a sample of the commonest uses has been included in this appendix. Abbreviation Acc/accom Add Adv Arr Arr/arrng Approx ASAP Attn Bfor Btw Cld u Cfm Chng Del Dep Dly Docs Eta Fao Flgt Fwd Imo Info Inv Lst Ltr Max English Accommodation Addition/al Advise Arrive/ arriving Arrange/ ment Approximate/ly AS SOON AS POSSIBLE Attention Before By the way Could you Confirm Change Delivery Departure Delay Documents Estimated time of arrival For the attention of Flight Forward (send) In my opinion Information Invoice Last Letter Maximum Catalan Allotjament Addicional Recomanar Arribada Organitzar Aproximat TAN AVIAT COM SIGUI POSSIBLE Atenci Abans Per cert Podreu? Confirmar Canvi / canviar Repartiment/ entrega Sortida Retard Documents Hora estimada darribada A l atenci de Vol Enviar Segons la meva opini/al meu entendre Informaci Factura ltim/a Carta Mxim/a Spanish Alojamiento Adicional Recomendar Llegada Organizar Aproximado TAN PRONTO COMO SE PUEDA Atencin Antes Por cierto podras? Confirmar Cambio/cambiar Reparto/ entrega Salida Retraso Documentos Hora estimada de llegada A la atencin de Vuelo Enviar En mi opinin Informacin Factura ltimo/a Carta Mximo/a

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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Abbreviation Min Mtg N No Nu Nxt Ok Ok? Ord Ourlet Ourtelcon Pls Poss Re/ref Rec Rgds Rgrt Rply Ru Soonest Thks/tnks U Ur Vst Wk Wld u Yr

English Minimum Meeting And Number And you? Next Agree/ ment Is this ok? Order Our letter Our telephone conversation Please Possible About/reference Received Regards Regret Reply Are you As soon as possible Thanks You Your Visit Week Would you Your

Catalan Mnim/a Reuni I Nmero I tu/vost? Proper/ a Acord Dacord? Comanda La nostra carta La nostra conversa telefnica

Spanish

Mnimo/a Reunin Y Nmero y t / usted? Prximo /a Acuerdo de acuerdo? Pedido Nuestra carta Nuestra conversacin telefnica Si us plau Por favor Possible Posible Sobre/ref. Sobre/ref. Rebut Recibido Records Saludos Lamentem Lamentamos Contestar Contestar Ets/ ests...? eres/ ests...? Tant aviat com Tan pronto como sigui possible sea possible Grcies Gracias T/ vost T/ usted Teu/seu Tuyo/suyo Visita/r Visita/r Setmana Semana Voldres?/voldreu querras?/querra ? ? Teu/seu Tuyo/suyo

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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167

3. CALCULATING
1. Mathematical expressions: Symbol + English Plus Catalan Ms Spanish Ms

Minus

Menys

Menos

Times or multiplied by Multiplicat Per

Multiplicado Por

y = % 32 53 610

Over or divided by Equals Per cent Three squared Five cubed

Dividit per (s) igual a Per cent Tres al Quadrat Cinc al cub

Dividido por (es) igual a Por ciento

Tres al Cuadrado Cinco al cubo Seis a la Dcima Potencia

Six to the power of ten Sis a la desena Potncia

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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2. Fractions: Number 1/3 2/5 1/8 1/10 1/16 1 2 3/8 English A half A/one third A quarter Two fifths An/one eighth A/one tenth A/one sixteenth One and a half Two and three Eighths Catalan Mig/mitja Un ter Un quart Dues cinquenes parts Una vuitena part Una desena part Un setz Un i mig Dos i tres Vuitenes parts Spanish Medio/media Un tercio Un cuarto Dos quintos Un octavo Un dcimo Un decimosexto Uno y medio Dos y tres Octavos

Els autors, 2003; Edicions UPC, 2003

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4. CAPITALIZATION
Capitalization is also very important in written English. Therefore, the main points that have to be capitalized have been included: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The first word of a sentence. The first word of a cuotation. She told, Study hard. The word I. Proper names and abbreviations of proper names. ASAP Geographical names and names of political units. Europe, European Union Compass directions only when they are parts of names. North Korea Names of streets, buildings, parks and companies. Baltimore Street, the Empire State Building, Central Park, Sony. 8. Proper names used as adjectives. the Fourier Transform 9. Names of organisations and religions. The Republican Party, Prothestantism 10. Names of races and nationalities. Caucasian, American 11. The names of wars, battles, historical events and historical periods. World War I, the Battle of Waterloo, Americas Discovering, the Restoration 12. The names of prizes, treaties and famous documents. the Nobel Prize, the Declaration of Independence 13. Military and civilian titles. General MacArthur, Prime Minister Hashimoto 14. Academic degrees. John Smith, Ph. D. 15. The first word and all important words in the names of books, plays, newspapers, journals and magazines.

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5. IRREGULAR VERBS

Infinitive To awake To be To beat To become To begin To bend To bite To bleed To blow To break To bring To build To burn To burst To buy To catch To choose To come To cost To creep To cut To deal To dig To do To draw To dream To drink To drive To eat To fall To feed To feel To fight To find To fly To forbid To forget To freeze To get

Past Awoke Was/were Beat Became Began Bent Bit Bled Blew Broke Brought Built Burnt Burst Bought Caught Chose Came Cost Crept Cut Dealt Dug Did Drew Dreamt Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Flew Forbade Forgot Froze Got

Participle Awaken Been Beaten Become Begun Bent Bitten Bled Blown Broken Brought Built Burnt Burst Bought Caught Chosen Come Cost Crept Cut Dealt Dug Done Drawn Dreamt Drank Driven Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Fought Found Flown Forbidden Forgotten Frozen Got

Catalan Despertar sser/estar Colpejar Esdevenir Comenar Doblegar Mossegar Sagnar Bufar Trencar Portar Construir Cremar Explotar Comprar Agafar Escollir Venir Costar Arrossegar-se Tallar Tractar Cavar Fer Dibuixar Somniar Beure Conduir Menjar Caure Alimentar Sentir Lluitar Trobar Volar Prohibir Oblidar Congelar Obtenir

Spanish Despertar Ser/estar Golpear Llegar a ser Empezar Doblar Morder/picar Sangrar Soplar Romper Traer Construir Quemar Reventar Comprar Coger Elegir Venir Costar Arrastrar-se Cortar Tratar Cavar Hacer Dibujar Soar Beber Conducir Comer Caer Alimentar Sentir Luchar Encontrar Volar Prohibir Olvidar Congelar Obtener

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Infinitive To give To go To grow To hang To have To hear To hide To hit To hold To hurt To keep To know To lay To lead To lean To leap To learn To leave To lend To let To lie To light To lose To make To mean To meet To mow To pay To put To read To ring To rise To run To saw To say To see To sell To send To set To sew To shake To shine To shoot To shrink

Past Gave Went Grew Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knew Laid Led Leant Leapt Learnt Left Lent Let Lay Lit Lost Made Meant Met Mowed Paid Put Read Rang Rose Ran Sawed Said Saw Sold Sent Set Sewed Shook Shone Shot Shrank

Participle Given Gone Grown Hung Had Heard Hidden Hit Held Hurt Kept Known Laid Led Leant Leapt Learnt Left Lent Let Lain Lit Lost Made Meant Met Mown Paid Put Read Rung Risen Run Sawn Said Seen Sold Sent Set Sewn Shaken Shone Shot Shrunk

Catalan Donar Anar Crixer Penjar Tenir Sentir Amagar Colpejar Sostenir Ferir Mantenir Saber Posar Dirigir/portar a Recolzar-se Saltar Aprendre Deixar/marxar Prestar Permetre Estirar-se Encendre Perdre Fer Significar Trobar Tallar Pagar Posar Llegir Sonar Pujar Crrer Serrar Dir Veure Vendre Enviar Posar Cosir Agitar Brillar Disparar Encongir

Spanish Dar Ir Crecer Colgar Tener Or Esconder Golpear Sostener Herir Mantener Saber Poner Dirigir Apoyarse Saltar Aprender Dejar/salir Prestar Permitir Tumbar-se Encender Perder Hacer Significar Encontrar Cortar/segar Pagar Poner Leer Sonar/llamar Subir/levantar Correr Serrar Decir Ver Vender Enviar Poner Coser Agitar Brillar Disparar Encoger

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Infinitive To shut To sing To sink To sit To sleep To slide To smell To speak To spell To spend To spread To stand To steal To stick To sting To strike To sweep To swim To take To teach To tear To tell To think To throw To understand To wear To weave To wet To win To wind To write

Past Shut Sang Sank Sat Slept Slid Smelt Spoke Spelt Spent Spread Stood Stole Stuck Stung Struck Swept Swam Took Taught Torn Told Thought Threw Understood Wore Wove Wet Won Wound Wrote

Participle Shut Sung Sunk Sat Slept Slid Smelt Spoken Spelt Spent Spread Stood Stolen Stuck Stung Struck Swept Swum Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thrown Understood Worn Woven Wet Won Wound Written

Catalan Tancar Cantar Enfonsar Seure Dormir Relliscar Olorar Parlar Lletrejar Gastar/emprar Estendre Estar de peu Robar Enganxar Picar Colpejar Escombrar Nedar Agafar Ensenyar Estripar Dir Pensar Llenar Comprendre Portar posat Teixir Mullar Guanyar Donar corda Escriure

Spanish Cerrar Cantar Hundir Sentarse Dormir Deslizar Oler Hablar Deletrear Gastar/emplear Extender Estar en pie Robar Pegar Picar/punzar Golpear Barrer Nadar Coger Ensear Rasgar Decir Pensar Tirar/lanzar Entender Llevar/vestir Tejer/trenzar Mojar Ganar Dar cuerda Escribir

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6. MAKE AND DO
Distinguishing make and do is not always easy. Do can be an auxiliary verb (Do you want to go to the cinema tonight?) or a main verb (I did my homework yesterday.). As an auxiliary verb, it has no meaning. It is necessary only for the grammatical structure. As a main verb it has a meaning, but the meaning is rather general. Make is not an auxiliary verb. It is always a main verb (I made my bed yesterday night). Its meaning is also general, but it often expresses the idea of construction or creation. The following list may help you: 1. GENERAL ENGLISH: make to make amends to make an attempt to make the best of to make a confession to make someones day to make a difference to make an example of someone to make an excuse to make an exception to make eyes at to make faces (at someone) to make a fool of to make friends with to make fun of to make a fuss about to make a habit of to make haste to make a journey to make love to make a mess to make the most of to make a noise to make peace (with) t0 make room for to make a success of something to make trouble (for) to make up your mind to to make war (on someone) to make a will to make ones way to make way for do to do away with to do your best to do your bit to do damage to do your duty to do an exam to do evil to do someone a favour to do good to do someone a good turn to do harm to do your homework to do justice to to do military service to do nothing to do something/anything to do wonders (for) could do with

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2. at home: make to make a bed/ the beds to make breakfast to make a cake to make a cup of tea / coffee to make (the) dinner to make ends meet to make lunch to make a mess to make (the) supper do to do the housework to do repairs

3. business contexts: make to make an application for a job to make an appointment to make arrangements to make a bid to make a cancellation to make a charge (for) to make a cheque out to to make a complaint to make a concession to make contact (with) to make a deal (british e.) to make demands on to make an effort to make a fortune to make an enquiry/inquiry to make headway to make an investment to make a loss to make money to make an offer to make a phone call to make a point of doing sth. to make preparations to make a profit do to do business to do a deal (american) to do a goo/bad job to do something for to do a roaring trade to do some/ any work

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to make progress to make a provision to make someone redundant to make a request to make a speech/statement to make a suggestion to make a trip to make use of to make work for someone 4. science and proof: make to make a breakthrough to make certain (that) to make a discovery to make a mistake to make sure (that) do to do an experiment to do an operation on to do research to do a test

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7. MEASURES
It is very important to be accurate while calculating. Hence, the main conversion tables that any student needs to measure weight, length, surface, volume and capacity according to the Imperial (U.K) and Metric systems have been included here.

1. WEIGHT: UNIT Grain Dram Ounce Pound Stone Quarter Quintal Hundredweight Long ton Short ton SYMBOL (gr.) (dr.) (oz.) (lb.) (st.) (qr.) (cwt.) (l.t) (t.) IMPERIAL 1/7000 pound 27,34 grains 16 drams 16 ounces 14 pounds 2 stones 100 pounds 112 pounds 20 hundredweight 2000 pounds METRIC 0,0648 g 1,7718 g 28,3495 g 453,6 g 6,350 kg 12,7 kg 45,360 kg 50,802 kg 1016,044 kg 907,18 kg

2. LENGTH: UNIT Inch Foot Yard Fathom Pole, Rod, Perch Chain Furlong Mile Knot, Nautical mile SYMBOL (in.) (ft.) (yd.) (fm.) IMPERIAL 12 inches 3 feet 6 feet 5,5 yards 4 poles 220 yards 1760 yards 2025 yards METRIC 2,54 cm 30,48 cm 91,44 cm 1,8288 m 5,0292 m 20,116 m 201,16 m 1609 m 1853 m

(m.)

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3. SURFACE: UNIT Square inch Square foot Square yard Acre Square mile SYMBOL (sq. in.) (sq. ft.) (sq. yd.) (a.) (sq. m.) IMPERIAL 144 square inches 9 square feet 4840 square yards 640 acres METRIC 6,452 cm2 929,03 cm2 0,836 m2 0,405 ha 2,59 km2

4. VOLUME AND CAPACITY: UNIT Pint Gallon Cubic yard Cubic foot Cubic inch Fluid ounce SYMBOL (pt.) (gall.) (cu. yd.) (cu. ft.) (cu. in.) (fl. oz.) IMPERIAL 8 pints 27 cubic feet 1728 cubic inches METRIC 0,568 l 4,546 l 1,308 m3 35,32 m3 0,061 cm3 0,352 cl

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8. PUNCTUATION
A list of the names of the punctuation marks in English, their symbols and functions has been included in this appendix for reference. SYMBOL , COMMA E. It indicates a pause within a sentence and separates the elements in a list. C. Indica una pausa breu dins duna frase i separa els elements duna llista. S. Indica una pausa breve dentro de una frase y separa los elementos de una lista. E. It is used to separate items. C. Sutilitza per separar elements. S. Se utiliza para separar elementos. E. They are used to indicate additional data. C. Sempren per indicar informaci addicional. S. Se utilizan para indicar informacin adicional. NAME FUNCTION

STROKE OBLIQUE SLASH BRACKETS PARENTHESES

()

; SEMI-COLON E. Its used to separate two different parts in a sentence. C. Sutilitza per separar dues parts ben diferenciades dins duna oraci. S. Se utiliza para separar dos partes bien diferenciadas dentro de una oracin.

DOUBLE QUOTES / QUOTATION MARKS / INVERTED COMMAS E. They are used to introduce words or thoughts from somebody C. Sutilitzen per introduir paraules o pensaments dalg ... S. Se utilizan para introducir palabras o pensamientos de alguien...

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HYPHEN

E. It is used to join two words making a unit, add a prefix or in compound nouns. C. Sutilitza per unir dues paraules que formen una unitat, per unir un prefix, o b en noms compostos. S. Se utiliza para unir dos palabras que forman una unidad, aadir un prefijo, y en sustantivos compuestos. E. Its introduced to separate one sentence which is usually an explanation within a longer sentence. It can also be placed at the end of a sentence to introduce a content summary. C. Sutilitza per separar una frase que sol ser una explicaci dins duna oraci ms mplia. Tamb el podem col.locar cap al final de loraci, per introduir un resum del contingut. S. Se utiliza para separar una frase que suele ser una explicacin dentro de una oracin ms amplia. Tambin lo podemos colocar al final de la oracin par introducir un resumen del contenido.

_ DASH

EXCLAMATION E. Its placed at the end of a sentence which expresses MARK surprise, enthusiasm, etc. C. Es posa al final duna frase que expressa sorpresa, entusiasme, etc. S. Se pone al final de una frase que expresa sorpresa, entusiasmo, etc. FULL STOP / PERIOD E. It indicates the end of a sentence when there is no question or exclamation mark. Its also used in abbreviations. C. Indica el final de la frase, sempre que no es tracti duna pregunta o una exclamaci. Tamb sutilitza en les abreviatures. S. Indica el final de la frase, siempre que no se trate de una pregunta o una exclamacin. Tambin se utiliza en las abreviaturas. E. Its used to introduce long quotations or lists of items. C. Sutilitza per introduir cites llargues o llistes dobjectes. S. Se utiliza para introducir citas largas o listas de objetos.

: COLON

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QUESTION MARK

E. Its placed at the end of a direct question. Never in an indirect one! C. Es posa al final duna frase interrogativa directa, per mai duna indirecta. S. Se pone al final de una frase interrogativa directa, pero nunca en una indirecta! E. It can indicate two things : a missing letter due to a contraction or the saxon genitive use. C. Pot indicar dues coses: que sha oms una vocal per causa duna contracci o ls del genitiu sax. S. Puede indicar dos cosas: que se ha omitido una vocal debido a una contraccin o la utilizacin del genitivo sajn.

APOSTROPHE

SYMBOL , / () ; _ ! . : ?

EXAMPLE: I ran very quickly to the station, but I still missed the train. We should please our clients/customers. Two of my students (Peter and Sally) failed the exam. Mr. Olsen wanted a refund; the salesman didnt. Ill show you how to use this device , the expert said. Home-made, anti-war, twenty-one. A few people _ not more than twenty _ attended the meeting. Come and have a look at the factory! Thank you. Fifth Ave. Elm St. You can choose between two course types: intensive or extensive. Who is your manager? Mr. Lindt. Hasnt, arent, Engineers profile, Students mark

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9. TIMELINE
So as to use the English verb tenses system properly, one must be aware of its sequence in time. Hence, this chart has been included in the book. SIMPLE ACTIVE / SIMPLE PASSIVE Mr. Ellis had already left when I called. That engineer finished his project last week. Sally has worked in that branch for years. Denis works five days a week. The office had been sold before we expected. CONTINUOUS ACTIVE My manager had been visiting a customer when his car broke down. I was making a phone call when Ms. Smith arrived.

Past Perfect p Past p

The report was written last month after a lot of trouble. Our company has been managed by Bent Olsen for the last twelve years. Those devices are made in the United Kingdom.

Present Perfect Tina has been carrying out important research for six years now. p Present The president is giving a speech at the moment.

p Future Intention Our salesmen are going to fly to New York tomorrow.

p The general meeting will take place The survey results will be shown later. Future Simple tomorrow at 12 p.m. p I will have completed the course by the end of June. The prototype will have been tested Future Perfect by tomorrow noon. My boss will have been running the company for twenty years by the end of next month. Mr. Davies will be travelling tomorrow.

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10. VERB TENSES IN ENGLISH


We have included this English verb tenses chart in the appendix so that Catalan and Spanish students can check the meaning in their own language. VERB TENSE PRESENT SIMPLE: EXAMPLE E. I work everyday. C. Treballo cada dia. S. Trabajo cada da. E. I am working now. C. Estic treballant ara. S. Estoy trabajando ahora. E. I have worked 4 hours this morning. C. He treballat 4 hores aquest mat. S. He trabajado 4 horas esta maana. E. I worked in my project yesterday. C. Vaig treballar en el meu projecte ahir. S. Trabaj en mi proyecto ayer. E. I was working when you arrived. C. Estava treballant quan vas arribar. S. Estaba trabajando cuando llegaste. E. I had worked in Paris before coming here. C. Havia treballat a Paris abans de venir aqu. S. Haba trabajado en P. antes de venir aqu. E. I will work in Dublin next year. C. Treballar a Dublin lany vinent. S. Trabajar en Dubln el prximo ao. E. I will have worked 8h by the end of the day. C. Haur treballat 8h al cap del dia. S. Habr trabajado 8h al final del da.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS:

PRESENT PERFECT:

PAST SIMPLE:

PAST CONTINUOUS:

PAST PERFECT:

FUTURE SIMPLE:

FUTURE PERFECT

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11. ENGLISH WORD ORDER


Sometimes it is difficult to remember where to place each word within an English noun phrase. Therefore, a table indicating the proper order to follow has been included in this table. 1. DETERMINERS: 1.1 Pre-deteminers 1.2 Determiners 1.3 Numerals: 1.3.1 Ordinals 1.3.2 Cardinals 2. GENERAL: 2.1 Inherent quality, opinion 3. PHYSICAL STATE: 3.1 Size 3.2 Shape 3.3 Age 3.4 Temperature 3.5 Colour 4. PROPER ADJECTIVES: 4.1 Place of origin, nationality, type... 5. NOUN ADJUNCTS: 5.1 Made of 5.2 Used for 6. NOUN NUCLEUS: EXAMPLES: Both, all, half, twice, double, three times... The, a/an, this, that, my, your, his, her, etc. several, some, any, either, every, each, many... First , second,etc. last, next, following... One, two, three, four, five,etc. Useful, useless, helpful, famous... Big, small, large, short, tall... Round, square, triangle, rectangular... Old, new, 20thC, XIX century, 60s... Hot, cold, cool, warm, 20C... Blue, green, red, orange, yellow... English, Danish, volumetric... Glass, wood, iron, steel, plastic, wool... Cutting, polishing, writing, ink... Bottle, container, tool, device, machine... EXAMPLES ENGLISH: His last two beautiful large round new white English rubber golf balls. CATALAN: Les seves dues ltimes pilotes de golf (boniques, grans, rodones, noves, blanques, angleses i de goma) SPANISH: Sus dos ltimas pelotas de golf (bonitas, grandes, redondas, nuevas, blancas, inglesas y de goma)

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12. INTERNET ADDRESSES


A selection of the main web sites for English learning has been included in here so that English learners can review grammar, do on-line exercises, look up words in multilingual dictionaries and check their English level on varied entry/ placement tests. http:// www.mansioningles.com http:// www.eleaston.com http:// www.bbc.co.uk http://esl.about.com http:// www.johnsesl.com http:// www.wisc.edu http:// www.unav.es http://near-online.net http:// www.jump.net http:// www.encarta.msn.com http:// www.virgilio.it/service/dizionario http:// www.elportaldeingles.com http:// www.uky.edu http://www.peevish.co.uk http: //www.better-english.com http://www.powa.org http:// webster.commnet.edu http://www.aulafacil.com http://www.ompersonal.com http://www.ctv.es http://www.english.bos.com http://www.berlitz.com http:// www.aspectworld.com http://www.educ.gotebrg.se http:// www.olsten.com http:// www.deep.pair.com http:// www.membres.lycos.fr http://www.effingpot.com http://engineering-ed.org http://www.aprender.com http://www.edufind.com http://www.lingolex.com http://www.businessletterpunch.com http://www.wsu.edu http:// www.cnn.com http://www.englishpage.com http://iteslj.org http://www.fh-karlsruhe.de http://www.rpi.edu http:// www.oup.com/elt/oxfordexchange

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
DIXSON, R.J.Graded Exercises in English. USA, Regents Publishing Company., 1971. DOOLEY, J.; EVANS, V. Grammarway. UK, Express Publishing, 2002. DOWNING, A.; LOCKE P. A University Course in English Grammar. UK Ltd, Prentice Hall International English Language Teaching,1992. FOWLER, W.S. The Right Word.Hong Kong, Nelson Ltd, 1987, GARCER VICENTE,J.J.Manual Prctico de Ingls Comercial para Hispanohablantes.Valencia, Coleccin Manuales Prcticos de Temas de Empresa, Nick Buenda El Club Profesional del Libro Tcnico, Novayek, 2000. GURREY, P. Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Great Britain, Longman Group Limited,1975. MURPHY, R. English Grammar in Use, Reference and Practice for Intermediate Students, Cambridge University Press, 1990. PITTMAN, G.A. Preparatory Technical English.London, Longmans, Green and Co LTD, 1960. QUIRK, R.;GREENBAUM, S. A University Grammar of English, Hong Kong, Longman, 1993. REDMAN, S. English Vocabulary in Use, Pre-intermediate and intermediate. Cambridge University Press, 2002. SWAN, M. Practical English Usage.Oxford University Press, 1990. VINCE, M. First Certificate Language Practice, with key, Madrid, Macmillan Heinemann , English Language Teaching,1998. WEBBER, M. Elementary Technical English. Hong Kong, Nelson Ltd, 1983. DICTIONARIES COLLINS DICCIONARIO INGLS, ESPAOL-INGLS, INGLS-ESPAOL. Barcelona, Collins Grijalbo,1971. COLLINS REFERENCE ENGLISH DICTIONARY. Comprehensive coverage of todays language, Clear concise definitions, Authoritative and up-to-date. Great Britain, 1992. DICCIONARI OXFORD Pocket Catal per a estudiants dangls, CATAL-ANGLSANGLS-CATAL. Oxford University Press, 1997. DICCIONARIO CAMBRIDGE KLETT COMPACT ESPAOL-INGLS, ENGLISHSPANISH. Cambridge University Press, 2002. MACMILLAN ENGLISH DICTIONARY FOR ADVANCED LEARNERS.UK, Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2002.

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