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Republic of the Philippines Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City

The Modern Families And The Size of the Family

Submitted by: Jasmin E. Caballero BBTE 3-1

Submitted to: Prof. Artemus Cruz

Chapter I

Introduction
Family is the basic unit of the society. It is closely related through bonds of relationship or marriage present in all societies. Preferably, the family provides its members with protection or security, companionship and socialization. The structure of the family and the needs that the family fulfills vary from society to society. It is also defines as set of people related by blood, marriage or some other agreed-upon relationship, or adoption, who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for member of society. Taught that the ideal state was a just society in which people dedicate themselves to the common good, practice civic virtues of wisdom courage moderation and justice and perform the occupational role to which they were best suited quoted by Plato. Filipino people highly valued their families more than anything. In traditional family, the father is considered as the head and financial supporter while the mother takes responsibility in domestic needs and also in charge in the development of emotional growth and values formation of their children. They both function differently but work as a team as well as family. There is a saying that goes like this one cook can serve a family, but six cooks can serve an army. In deeper context, it says that few people working together can accomplish a certain goal better than many people doing things uncooperatively. A family, generally speaking, is a blessing from God. Over the years, Filipino families are considered as one of the happiest, versatile and strongest people in the world.

Traditionally speaking, we love to get along together, to hold some family reunions, to chit chat about the latest information and many more. We held the view that things may change but we end up with our own family. Filipino by definition, are a multicultural people with Chinese, Spanish, Malayan, Indonesian, South Asian, American and in the south, Muslim cultural influences. The result of these influences emphasizes a shared identity and connectedness, the centrality of the family, acceptance of uncertainty, ability to relate to others, respect offered according to the individuals place in the structure of hierarchical relations, adaptability and religiosity. (Enriquez 1994) In line with this, Filipinos are known for their family ties, and valuing or giving respect to elders. They are also identified from being second to the largest Asian descent group in the United States at almost 2.4 million constituting 18.3% of the Asian population. It is not flesh and blood but the heart which makes us a family.

Significance of the Study

For the Students: Be aware about the importance of having knowledge regarding on current trends or news about the development of fast changing society and its effect to the Filipino families and cultures. For the Parents: As for the parents, this will made them understand the possible reason why they have that kind of family and what are the rationale that might affect ones living and behavior. For the Administration: The administration may use this study as their basis or background why students now a days change their attitudes and point of view in life which they might use in guidance and counseling. To the Government: This study will serve as their blue print about the modern Filipino families, their practices and how Filipinos adapt in modern society. It will also serve as a legal source of information with regards to current issues and new trends about Filipino familys lifestyle. To the Future Researchers: The result and findings of this study will help other researchers who are planning to conduct a research about modern Filipino families. This will serve as their source to come up for a successful research study.

Statement of the Problem

1. What is a family? 2. Do we really need the family? 3. Are there any changes in terms of Authority pattern in modern Filipino family?

4. How rapid population affects the Filipino families? 5. Is there any a policy or programs to prevent or curb high rates of population growth?

Chapter II Review of the Related Studies

Foreign Literature

Microsoft Encarta Dictionary (2009) Historical studies have shown that family structure has been less changed by urbanization and industrialization than was once supposed. The nuclear family was the most prevalent preindustrial unit and is still the basic unit of social organization. The modern family differs from earlier traditional forms, however, in its functions, composition, and life cycle and in the roles of husbands and wives. The only function of the family that continues to survive all change is the provision of affection and emotional support by and to all its members, particularly infants and young children. Specialized institutions now perform many of the other functions that were once performed by the agrarian family: economic production, education, religion, and recreation. Jobs are usually separate from the family group; family members often work in different occupations and in locations away from the home. Education is provided by the state or by private groups. Religious training and recreational activities are available outside the home, although both still have a place in family life. The family is still responsible for the socialization of children. Even in this capacity, however, the influence of peers and of the mass media has assumed a larger role.

Davidson & Moore, (1992) the function attributed to families is economic consumption, socialization of the young & affective dimensions. This definition takes into account other family structure such as single parent/headed families, homosexual or domestic partnership types of families, live-in partners, etc. Primary importance here is placed on the issues of commitment & affection. Residence is not a criterion as there are also people who lives under one roof but are not necessarily considered a family (referred to as households). The family performs six paramount functions, first outlined more than 65 years ago by sociologist, William F. Ogburn and Tibbits 1934: 1. Reproduction. For a society to maintain itself, it must replace dying members. In this sense, the family contributes to human survival through its function if reproduction. 2. Protection. Unlike the young of other animal species, human infants need constant care and economic security. In all cultures, the family assumes the ultimate responsibility for the protection and upbringing of children. 3. Socialization. Parent and other kin monitor a childs behavior and transmit the norms, values, and language of their culture to the child. 4. Regulation of sexual behavior. Sexual norms are subject to change both over time (for instance I the custom of dating) and cross cultures (compare Islamic Saudi Arabia to the more permissive Denmark). However, whatever the time period or cultural values of a society, standards of sexual behavior are most clearly defined within the family circle. 5. Affection and Companionship. Ideally, the family provides members with warm and intimate relationships, helping them to feel satisfied and secure. Of course, a family member may find such reward outside the family from peers in school at work and may even perceive the home as an unpleasant or abusive setting.

Nevertheless, we except our relatives ti understand us, to care for us, and to be there for us when new need them. 6. Provision of social status. We inherit a social position because of the background and reputation of our parents and siblings. The family presents the newborn child with an ascribed status based on race and ethnicity that helps to determine his or her place within societys stratification system. Moreover, family resources affect childrens ability to pursue certain opportunities, such as higher education and special lesson. To Schaeffer and Lamm (1992) issues such as over population, sub-fecundity and immigration are important because they help shape the quality of life in our society and on the planet as a whole. The World Almanac for Kids (2000) reported that in 1997, a total of 798,378 people migrated to the United States: 497,117 of them from the Philippines. In the 1998 census reported in the World Almanac for Kids (2000), the Philippines had a total population of 77,726,000. The World Almanac for Kids has recorded the 1998 population of the worlds largest countries and according to it, Philippines is on the 13th rank. As cited by Farr (1999) in patriarchal society such as Iran, the eldest male often wields the greatest power, although wives are expected to gain respect and kindness. A womans status in Iran is typically defined by her relationship to a male r elative, usually as a wife or daughter. In many patriarchal societies, women find it more difficult to obtain a divorce than a man does.

As stated by Bielby and Bielby (1992) Sociologist has found that women are likely to leave their jobs when their husbands find better employment opportunities than men are when their wives receive desirable job offers. According to (Richardson 2001) feminist research on the family as a whole, one researcher concludes that the family is the source of womens strength. ( Tyre and McGinn 2003) little research has been done on how these families may differ from those in which the husband is the major breadwinner. Also according to Paul Ehrlich, author of the Population Bomb, is the proponent of the neo-Malthusian theory which espoused that the sensible use of the worlds resources and birth control are the factors to consider in population growth.

Local Literature

Arsenio N. Balisacan. The Philippine Economy: alternatives for the 21st Century (2001) despite of rural urbanization in recent years, poverty in the Philippines are still a largely rural phenomenon. Nearly two-thirds of the poor live in rural areas with the large majority of them dependent on agriculture for employment and income. Poverty in combination with insecure property rights also causes resource degradation through channels involving household decisions on fertility and production techniques. Female headship has become an urban phenomenon because it is in the urban center where employment opportunities for women are more available (Medina, 2001). According to Medina (2001), the family is a familiar topic but there is a need to step back & study it in critical & scientific lenses as personal experiences alone could be very limited & may not be representative of other families in the society. Philippine Family & Kinship Structure According to Medina (2001), the definition of family is evolving as structures continue to change. One of the current definitions which encompass all types of families is: two or more persons who share resources, share responsibility for decisions, share values & goals, & have a commitment to each other over time. (Davidson & Moore, 1992 as cited by Medina, 2001) the functions attributed to families are economic consumption, socialization of the young & affective dimensions As cited by Zulueta (2002) Population is the area of sociology that includes the size, growth, demographic characteristics, composition, migration, changes and quality vis--vis economic, political and social system.

In accordance with Balliao and Loriega (1999) any significant decrease or increase in population size and growth rates may affect or even disrupt social life. As said by Salcedo (2001) Policy decisions must, therefore, be based not only on population growth, but also on other demographic factors such as age structure and spatial distribution of population. From 2000 to 2010, the household population in the Philippine has recorded an increase of 15.8 million persons, or 20.7 percent, according to the results of the 2010 Census of Population and Housing conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO). On the word of Timbreza (2003), family success is the measure of a successful life for the Filipinos. According to Zaide (1998) refers to a group of people united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption. As a group, the members of the family live together under one roof and that they constitute a single housekeeping unit. As stated by Logue and De leon (2001), rapid population has economic, social and political effects. It is also interacts with public education, health, welfare and the quality of the environment in which people live.

Chapter III

Discussion

1. What is a Family?

Microsoft Encarta Dictionary (2009) Historical studies have shown that family structure has been less changed by urbanization and industrialization than was once supposed. The nuclear family was the most prevalent preindustrial unit and is still the basic unit of social organization. The modern family differs from earlier traditional forms, however, in its functions, composition, and life cycle and in the roles of husbands and wives. The only function of the family that continues to survive all change is the provision of affection and emotional support by and to all its members, particularly infants and young children. Specialized institutions now perform many of the other functions that were once performed by the agrarian family: economic production, education, religion, and recreation. Jobs are usually separate from the family group; family members often work in different occupations and in locations away from the home. Education is provided by the state or by private groups. Religious training and recreational activities are available outside the home, although both still have a place in family life. The family is still responsible for the socialization of children. Even in this capacity, however, the influence of peers and of the mass media has assumed a larger role.

In accordance with Timbreza (2003), family success is the measure of a successful life for the Filipinos. According to Zaide (1998) refers to a group of people united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption. As a group, the members of the family live together under one roof and that they constitute a single housekeeping unit. Philippine Family & Kinship Structure According to Medina (2001), the definition of family is evolving as structures continue to change. One of the current definitions which encompass all types of families is: two or more persons who share resources, share responsibility for decisions, share values & goals, & have a commitment to each other over time. From different point of view, family is defining positively or has a good description which is evidently shown in the gathered data.

2. Do we really need a family? In relation to Encarta dictionary (2009) usually it is define as a group of people living together and functioning as a single household, usually consisting of parents and their children. As cited by Friedrich Engels a colleague of Karl Marx (1959) he described a family as the ultimate source of social inequality because of its role in the transfer of power, property and privilege.

Family is the basic unit in society. They play vital roles as well as different functions. A family performs six paramount functions as cited by a sociologist William F. Ogburn and Tibitts in 1934. 1. Reproduction. For a society to maintain itself, it must replace dying members. In this sense, the family contributes to human survival through its function if reproduction. 2. Protection. Unlike the young of other animal species, human infants need constant care and economic security. In all cultures, the family assumes the ultimate responsibility for the protection and upbringing of children.

3. Socialization. Parent and other kin monitor a childs behavior and transmit the norms, values, and language of their culture to the child. 4. Regulation of sexual behavior. Sexual norms are subject to change both over time (for instance I the custom of dating) and cross cultures (compare Islamic Saudi Arabia to the more permissive Denmark). However, whatever

the time period or cultural values of a society, standards of sexual behavior are most clearly defined within the family circle. 5. Affection and Companionship. Ideally, the family provides members with warm and intimate relationships, helping them to feel satisfied and secure. Of course, a family member may find such reward outside the family from peers in school at work and may even perceive the home as an unpleasant or abusive setting. Nevertheless, we except our relatives to understand us, to care for us, and to be there for us when new need them. 6. Provision of social status. We inherit a social position because of the background and reputation of our parents and siblings. The family presents the newborn child with an ascribed status based on race and ethnicity that helps to determine his or her place within societys stratification system. Moreover, family resources affect childrens ability to pursue certain opportunities, such as higher education and special lesson. In traditional way, family has to fulfill a number of other functions such as providing religious training educations ad recreational activities.

3. Are there any changes in terms of Authority pattern in modern Filipino family? There are three patterns of authority in a family; the patriarchal comes from the Latin word pater which means father. It is a type of family where authority is vested in the oldest male in the family, often the father. Next is line is the Matriarchal where the authority is vested in the mothers kin and lastly is the Egalitarian or Bilateral descent , a type of family where the husband and the wife exercise a more or less equal amount of authority. As cited by Farr (1999) in patriarchal society such as Iran, the eldest male often wields the greatest power, although wives are expected to gain respect and kindness. A womans status in Iran is typically defined by her relationship to a male relative, usually as a wife or daughter. In many patriarchal societies, women find it more difficult to obtain a divorce than a man does. As stated by Bielby and Bielby (1992) Sociologist has found that women are likely to leave their jobs when their husbands find better employment opportunities than men are when their wives receive desirable job offer. Also according to feminist research on the family as a whole, one researcher concludes that the family is the source of womens stre ngth. (Richardson 2001). This means that mothers are not capable of leaving the family for work. Womens work is traditionally focused on family life.

In contrast to the studies of a sociologist Suzanne Bianchi, estimates that 11 percent of marriages, the wife earns at least 60 percent of the familys income. Yet beyond individuals case studies, little research has been done on how these families may differ from those in which the husband is the major breadwinner ( Tyre and McGinn 2003) Female headship has become an urban phenomenon because it is in the urban center where employment opportunities for women are more available (Medina, 2001).

4. How rapid population affects the Filipino families? Population is the area of sociology that includes the size, growth, demographic characteristics, composition, migration, changes and quality vis-vis economic, political and social system as cited by (Zulueta 2002) As stated by Balliao and Loriega (1999) any significant decrease or increase in population size and growth rates may affect or even disrupt social life. A population that grows rapidly may cause too mass migration, cultural diffusion or even worse displacing population on other territories. On the other hand, if a population grows slowly, a country may face the danger of extinction. Also according to Paul Ehrlich, author of the Population Bomb, is the proponent of the neo-Malthusian theory which espoused that the sensible use of the worlds resources and birth control are the factors to consider in population growth. To Schaeffer and Lamm (1992) issues such as over population, subfecundity and immigration are important because they help shape the quality of life in our society and on the planet as a whole. In the 1998 census reported in the World Almanac for Kids (2000), the Philippines had a total population of 77,726,000 and also they reported that in 1997, a total of 798,378 people migrated to the United States: 49,117 of them from the Philippines. The World Almanac for Kids has recorded the 1998 population of the worlds largest countries and according to it, Philippines is on the 13th rank.

From 2000 to 2010, the household population in the Philippine has recorded an increase of 15.8 million persons, or 20.7 percent, according to the results of the 2010 Census of Population and Housing conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO). As stated by Logue and De leon (2001), rapid population has economic, social and political effects. It is also interacts with public education, health, welfare and the quality of the environment in which people live. This finding shows that there is an effect in terms of rapid population. One of it is the immigration which is clearly shown in the result of World Almanac for Kids (2000). In the long run, rapid population growth may become a security problem.

5. Is there any a policy or programs to prevent or curb high rates of population growth? As early as 1969, the Philippines came up with programs and created commissions that undertook the study of population problems and developed policies to control rapid population growth. The Population Commission (POPCOM), created in 1969, established the Philippine Population Program (PPP) which was later known as the Revised Population Act of the Philippines as per promulgation of Republic Act 6365. This policy was made to pursue national development while increasing the fruit of economic progress and encountering social and economic challenges of high rate population. Through the declaration of Presidential Decree No. 79 POPCOM was developed in to a policy making, coordinating and monitoring agency of the countrys family planning program. The other one is the Philippine Population Management Program (PPMP). It is based on the P-opulation, R-esource & E-nvironment. Its main goal is to fastened proper balance among population, to achieve an improved quality of life for all Filipinos through proper management of population growth and distribution. The Acronym P-R-E stands for the following: P - population that is healthy, educated, gainfully employed, etc. R resources for education, health and other services and a healthy E environment and a natural resource base

In line with this, Salcedo (2001) stated that the Policy decisions must, therefore, be based not only on population growth, but also on other demographic factors such as age structure and spatial distribution of population. This will achieve unless otherwise will have a balance among these three factors.

Chapter IV Conclusion

Based from the findings and data gathered, the researcher arrived at these conclusions: Filipino family is best known by being a multicultural people because of complex sociopolitical history has shaped Filipino culture. Though modern and changing along with the current trends, still Filipinos adhere to their own culture and the main significance of the traditions still remains. Filipinos are generally family oriented; we valued every each and everyones role specially the role of the head of the family like in the traditional authority pattern. However Filipino immigrants is rampant, they still maintain their Filipino identity. How Filipino families overseas cope by adopting the culture present in the foreign country they are living in while still struggling to keep their identity as Filipinos is spoken of in the book The Philippine Jeepney by Penlope V. Flores with Araceli N. Resus. They still cook Filipino dishes which they share when they get together for family meals. In terms of the size of population, Philippines is subjugating in the 13 th place which is quite alarming according to Thomas Robert Malthus an Clergyman, in his book the Principle of Population (1798), he stressed that the population of the world was increasing more rapidly than the available food supply. To prevent rampant population, the Philippines came up with the programs and created commissions that undertook the study of population problems and developed policies to curb high rates of population growth.

Chapter V Recommendation

Based on the findings that was revealed, the researcher came up with the following recommendations:

Students Students should realize the significance of studying the past culture of Filipino Families as well as the changes in present days. Students should also have an urge to seek new information with regards in our previous urbanity.

It is also desirable to be involved in family orientations programs inside or outside the campus. Lastly, students should bear in their mind that valuing our past culture is more likely giving worth and recognizing our ancestors. Administration The School Administration and Academic Head should encourage the students to conduct studies pertaining to modern Filipino family trends.

The researcher bearing the result of this investigation would like to recommend to the administration to implement a program that will embark Filipino families in modern world.

Government The Government should help the Institution for its continuous development. The benefits of the planned program would greatly enhance their knowledge relating to Filipino family as a culture. The government should support the programs created in orienting or preventing rampant population. Parents The findings of this study should serve as an eye-opener to every parent for them to be informed about their past cultures and behaviors. This study will update or give them information about the new trends in rampant population and what are the possible prevention. Future Researchers The future researchers should be more innovative in creating programs that would greatly benefit the welfare of the students and also the community. The Future researcher should provide programs that are achievable by the students and the campus.

References

Books
Dr. Belen Medina, T. G. (2001). The Filipino family (2nd ed.). Philippines: University of the Philippines Press Timbreza, Florentino T. (2003) Filipino values today: a primer for values education Philippines: Navotas Press. Balisacan, Arsenio N. The Philippine Economy: alternatives for the 21 st Century (2001) Capule, Ricardo B. Jr. (2003) General Sociology Schaefer, Richard T. (2005) Sociology Ninth Edition Thomas Robert Malthus (1798) The Principle of Population

Internet
http://www.philippinecountry.com/philippine_culture/common_family_traits.html http://www.manilatimes.net/index.php/news/nation/30826-average-filipinohousehold-size-shrinks-to-4-6-members http://showbizandstyle.inquirer.net/lifestyle/lifestyle/view/20080430133703/What-is-happening-to-the-Filipino-family