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What is

Dynamometer ?
A dynamometer is an apparatus that measures
mechanical force i.e. frictional resistance.

Knowing the frictional resistance, we may


obtain
nThe torque transmitted
nThe power of engine
Types of
Dynamometer
Basic types:
Absorption Dynamometer
Transmission Dynamometer
Driving Dynamometer
Some Other Types are:
Water Brake Dynamometer
Eddy Current Dynamometer
D.C. Dynamometer
A.C. Dynamometer
Absorption
Dynamometer
 In absorption dynamometer, the entire
power produced by the engine is absorbed
by the friction resistances & is transformed
into heat during the process of
measurement.

 Good for power systems as they measure


power of generators, electric motor,
turbines & engines.
Types of Absorption
Dynamometer

Prony Brake Dynamometer


Rope Brake Dynamometer
Inductor Dynamometer
Rope Brake
Dynamometer
It is simplest form of
absorption
dynamometer as shown
in figure;

A rope is wound round a


large wheel called brake
drum pulley coupled to
the shaft whose power
is to be measured.
Explanation
The rope is attached to a spring balance at one
end to a deadweight W at the other end.
The torque is T = (W-S) r
S = reading of spring balance
r = the effective radius
r = (D + d) / 2
The power is P = 2πNT/60

Horse power H.P. = 2πN (W – S) r / 735 ҳ 60


Advantages &
Disadvantages
Advantages
Simple in operation & easy to make
Suitable for measurement of wide range of
power
Steadier in operation & requires no lubrication
Disadvantages
Output of driving machine is dissipated as
heat
Do not stabilize the speed of machine under
test as there is no increase in torque with
Prony Dynamometer
A rather old device
like the rope brake for
the measurement of
torque and power
from machines; as
shown in figure
Transmission
Dynamometer
In transmission dynamometer, principle
involved is that the power measured being
transmitted either to or from the
dynamometer is not absorbed or dissipated.
The power after measurement is available in
useful mechanical or electrical form
Types of Transmission Dynamometer

Epicyclic – train Dynamometer


Belt transmission Dynamometer
Torsion Dynamometer
Torque measurements on (Transmission
Dynamometer)
Water Brake
Dynamometer
 The schematic shows the most
common type of water brake, the
variable level type.

 Water is added until the engine


is held at a steady rpm against
the load. Water is then kept at
that level and replaced by
constant draining and refilling,
which is needed to carry away
the heat created by absorbing
the horsepower (which in itself is
a measure of power output of
the engine). The housing
attempts to rotate in response to
the torque produced but is
restrained by the scale or torque
metering cell which measures
the torque.
Water Brake Dyno
Setup
Advantages &
Disadvantages
Advantages:
Low Cost
Low Inertia
Disadvantages:
Difficult to Control
High Maintenance
Eddy Current
Dynamometer
• The eddy current
dynamometer shown
generates electrical currents
by rotating a disk in a
magnetic field.
• The resultant currents are
dissipated inside the
machine.
• An electrical input allows the
user to dictate the strength
of the field and thus amount
of dissipation for a given
speed.
Eddy Current Dyno
Setup
Advantages &
Disadvantages

Advantages
The speed-torque characteristics make the eddy
current dynamometer ideal for engine testing, and its
versatility also allows effective use in testing
transmissions, turbines, electric motors, gears,
pumps and many other machines
Precise Control & Low Maintenance
Widely accepted in the automotive industry
Disadvantages
High Inertia
Moderate Cost
D.C. Dynamometer
D.C. Electric type
dynamometers so called
Cradled dynamometer are
widely used for power &
torque measurement of IC
engines & other
mechanical equipments
The basic arrangement is
shown in figure:
Some facts:
The D.C. machine can act as both generator
and motor. Thus , the D.C. machine can act
both as absorption dynamometer and a
transmission dynamometer
When D.C. machine is made to work as a dc
motor, it acts as driving dynamometer
D.C. Absorption
Dynamometer
Electrical Dynamometer Setup

(showing engine, torque measurement arrangement and tachometer)


Explanation
Fig shows d.c. generator which act as absorption
dynamometer. The generator is mounted on low
friction trunnion bearings & is driven by test machine
(IC engine). The rotation is opposed when load is
connected to armature circuit of the D.C. machine.
The power absorbed by the resistive load is
P = V² / R
V = the output voltage of
generator
R = the resistance of the load
The resisting torque can be controlled by varying
either V or R.
The range of d.c. dynamometer when used as an
absorption dynamometer is 5000 H.P.
Advantages &
Disadvantages
Advantages:
Fast Response
Air Cooled (No water required)
Line Regenerative
Disadvantages:
High Cost (Dynamometer and Power Amplifier)
High Inertia
Requires high amperage electrical service
A.C. Dynamometer
An AC dynamometer is
similar to a DC
dynamometer except it
uses an AC motor and is
powered by alternating
current.
The important features of
A.C. Dynamometers
include fast response,
flexible control & energy
conservation since 85 %
of the energy absorbed is
returned back to the
power lines.
Advantages &
Disadvantages
Advantages:
Very Low Inertia
Very Fast Response
Line Regenerative
Disadvantages:
High Cost
Requires high amperage electrical service
Servo Controlled
Dynamometer
In this arrangement an engine of an automobile
is automatically controlled using D.C.
dynamometer. Tape recordings of engine torque
and speed under actual driving conditions are
utilized to reproduce these conditions in Lab.
The dynamometer has a load cell which has
strain gauges. The output of the strain gauges
bridge is proportional to the actual torque.