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RC Detailing to BS 8110

S A Karunaratne 29-01-2013

(I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI)

Paper & Envelope Sizes & Drawing Sizes Title Panel, Scales, Line Thickness & Abbreviations Layouts, Axes & Grid Lines & G A Drawings Levels & Dimensions Slabs & Beams

Columns & Walls

What is presented ?

(VII)
(IIX) (IX) (X)

Staircases
Corbels & Nibs Footings, Piles & Pile Caps Bar Bending Schedules (XI) What should be done & what should not be done

Paper & Envelope sizes


ISO 216 sizes
(mm x mm)

ISO 216 sizes


(mm x mm)

ISO 269 sizes


(mm x mm)

Paper - A Series A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 841 594 420 297 210 148 105 74 52 37 26 x x x x x x x x x x x 1189 841 594 420 297 210 148 105 74 52 37

Paper - B Series B0 1000 x B1 707 x B2 500 x B3 353 x B4 250 x B5 176 x B6 125 x B7 88 x B8 62 x B9 44 x B10 31 x 1414 1000 707 500 353 250 176 125 88 62 44

Envelopes - C Series C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 917 648 458 324 229 162 114 81 57 40 28 x x x x x x x x x x x 1297 917 648 458 324 229 162 114 81 57 40

A0 aspect ratio is 1 : 2 & area is 1m2

B0 is 1m to 2m & GM between A series same number and one lower

GM between B series same number & A series same number

Sizes of Paper A & B & Envelopes C are defined by halving preceding size

3
A1 A0 A2

Size A Paper fits to same size Envelope e.g., A4 to C4 Size B Paper fits to one number lower size Envelope e.g., B4 to C3

Notes

MA2-4 MA0-1

M A0-1 = 20 Minimum M A2-4 = 10 Minimum


Design stage changes

Margin Thickness = 0.5mm minimum

Revisions

Title Panel

75 - 200

M L = 20mm minimum

105

MA2-4 MA0-1

Drawing Margins & Title Panel

Title Panel should include:


Main & Associated Consultants (If Applicable)
Project Title Clients Name (If Applicable)

Drawing Title
Drawn by (Name) Designed by (Name) Checked by (Name & Signature) Approved by (Name & Signature) Scales & drawn Scale Office Job Number

Drawing Number & Space for Revision Suffix


Date of Drawing Office of origin of Drawing Copy Right Protection Statement

Recommended sizes of drawings


General Arrangement Drawings (G A) Reinforcement Drawings Details : A1 : A1 : A3 & A4

Recommended scales
GA 1 : 100 Wall & Slab details Beam & Column sections 1 : 50 1 : 20 Beam & Column elevations 1 : 50

Recommended thickness of lines


Dimensions & center lines Concrete outlines & G A drawings Concrete outlines & R/F drawings Links, hoops & cross-ties Main R/F bars 0.25mm 0.35mm 0.35mm 0.35 0.7mm 0.7mm

Changes & Revisions should include:


Suffix; numeral for changes 1, 2, 3, ----- & letters for revisions A, B, C, -Brief description of revision Revision made by (Name & Signature) Date of revision Cloud revised details
450
250

Beam depth changed 300 to 450

SAK
Made by Signature

24-06-2008
Date

Revision Description

Notes should include:


Cross references to GA Drgs Cross references to connected Detail Drgs List of abbreviations Grade of concrete (i) Main bar size minus link size (40 -10) = 30mm

(ii) Exposure moderate - C40 30mm Cover to R/F (iii) 1 hour fire resistance 20mm

(iv) 20 mm aggregate size 20mm

30mm

BS 8110 Exposure conditions


Specify nominal cover to all reinforcement including links o Mild Protected from weather or aggressive conditions o Moderate Sheltered from severe rain, subject condensation, continuously under water, in contact with non-aggressive soil o Severe Exposed to severe rain, alternate wetting and drying or severe condensation o Very severe Exposed to sea water spray, corrosive fumes o Extreme Exposed to abrasive action or machinery or vehicles

BS 8110 Table 3.4 Nominal cover to meet durability requirements


Condition of exposure Mild Moderate Severe Very severe Extreme Max. w/c ratio Min. cement (kg/m3) Lowest concrete grade
mm

Nominal cover
25 0.65 275 C30 mm

20 35 0.60 300 C35

mm

20 30 40 50 0.55 325 C40

mm

20 25 30 40 60
0.50 350 C45

mm

20 20 25 30 50
0.45 400 C50

Cover may be reduced to 15mm aggregate not exceeding 15mm Table is for normal-weight aggregate of 20mm nominal max. size

BS 8110 Table 3.5 Nominal cover to meet fire requirements


Fire resistance
h 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 4

Nominal cover Beams Floors Ribs Columns SS Cts SS Cts SS Cts


mm 20 20 20 40 60 70 mm 20 20 20 30 40 50 mm 20 20 25 35 45 55 mm 20 20 20 25 35 45 mm 20 20 35 45 55 65 mm 20 20 20 35 45 55 mm 20 20 20 25 25 25

Cover may be reduced to 15mm aggregate not exceeding 15mm Additional measures are required to reduce spalling Cover to main R/F given in Tables 4.2 & 4.3 is considered.

BS 8110: Part 1: Section 7.3

COVER TO REINFORCEMENT Reference to EuroCodes


BS EN 206-1 Concrete Part 1: Specification, Performance, production & conformity

BS 8500-1 Concrete Part 1: 2002 Method of specifying & guidance for the specifier BS 8500-2 Concrete Part 2: 2002 Specification for constituent materials & concrete ; BS 5328 withdrawn 1-12-2003

A List of Abbreviations
ABR Bw Bwk = Alternate Bar Reversed = Both ways = Brick work = Centre Line = drawing Blk B Crs = block work = Bottom = Centres

drg

dia or F = Diameter EF EL = Each face = Existing level

EGWL = Existing ground water level

FF
FS horiz NF pkt RRM T

= Front face
= Full size = Horizontal = Near face = pocket = Random rubble masonry = Top

FFL
H

= Finished floor level


= High tensile steel

R
NTS RC SFL vert

= Mild steel / Round bars


= Not to scale = Reinforced concrete = Structural floor level = vertical

Recommended practices in drawing preparation


Site Plan drgs : should show North Point

All other drgs


Continuation drgs

: to site plan orientation


: provide key plan / portion covered provide reference continuation drg numbers

R/F drgs

: show large openings; upto 150 x 150 mm &

150F holes need not be shown; but refer to drgs As-Built or Record drgs: amend original drawings as constructed

1
7000

E
6000

A
6000

B
6000

C
6000

D
6000

Road

B
6000

Access

6000

7000

6000

Plan - Detail
Main Road

LAYOUT PLAN

DETAIL PLAN

ORIENTATION OF DRAWINGS

Key Plan

Floor slab A1 - 22nd Level

Detailed Area is marked in Key Plan

Grid lines & Axes


LUC

Axes commence at LLC and up. Omit I and O Grids commence at LUC and right Columns A1, A2 are at intersection of A & 1, A & 2 etc Beam reference is panel LLC column identification & a suffix say A11, A12 etc

1 C C C

C12

2 C

C22 B23

3 C

B11

B21

B12

B22

A11

A21

A23

A12

A22

LLC

A31

B31

Structural General Arrangement Drawing


(BASED ON ORIGINAL DRAWING BY OTHERS)

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWING

Concrete Grades in High Rise Buildings

C25/ 30

Concrete C40/50

C35/45

C32/40

C25/30

C20/25

Building Structures are Designed from top (roof) to bottom (foundations) Building Structures are usually constructed from foundations to roof Therefore typical details should be referred from bottom (foundation level) to top (roof level) and not from top to bottom to avoid confusion at construction stage.

Levels

in metres

(a) For major works use Ordnance Survey (OS) datum


(b) Civil & major Building works use a TBM or transferred OS datum (c) For minor works use a job datum wrt a suitable fixed point On plan levels are indicated within a rectangle and preferably described SSL 155.075 On Elevations & Sections project beyond drawing with closed FFL SSL arrowhead 155.075

50

Dimensioning recommendations
Unit for layouts and levels is metre; say 2.450, 128.400, 9.125m Unit for R/F and sections is millimeter; say 5, 35, 2575 (can avoid writing mm and dimension to whole mm) Place dimensions above and not through dimension lines or not inside details. Place to view from bottom or RHS of drg.

G A drgs should give setting out dimension & sizes of members

Dimensions in R/F drgs only to show correct location of R/F.

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWING SHOWING DIMENSIONING AND LEVELS

SLABS 1
BAR CURTAILMENT
SIMPLE RULES

SLABS 2
BAR ANCHORAGE

TYPICAL ONE-WAY SPANNING SLAB

TYPICAL

TWO-WAY
SLAB

SLAB R/F ARRANGEMENT

1 H G F E

Open courtyard
D C B A

From experience recommend continuous nominal top R/F in: (1) All coloured panels preferably in open courtyard situations (2) All the slab panels in a roof to avoid shrinkage cracks

TYPICAL FLAT-SLAB PANEL 1

Flat Slab Raft Foundation & Column R/F Starter Bars

TYPICAL FLAT-SLAB PANEL 2

Flat Slab Raft Foundation with a Deep Beam at Change of Levels

Trimming of holes in normal slabs 1


l = length w = width (a) wras - max = 1000 ps = parallel to span (b) wmin - used = w1 = 250 (assume) lps lps used = unsupported lps edge distance (c) lps - max = 0.25 l x = 1000 wa-i wras w1 = = ras = right angle to span (d) wtotal - max = 0.25 l y = 1500 wmin - used (e) Small holes with sides (F ) <= 150 could be neglected structurally l y = 6000 (f) For holes side < = 500 displace bars either side; space checked Conditions

l x = 4000

Cut & replace equal area bars either side. Extend bars 45F beyond hole

45F

TRIMMING OF HOLES 2
(g) If hole side (500 - 1000) treat as in (f) but trim with similar bars at top. If element depth is >= 250 furnish diagonal bars top and bottom. 45f min

(h) In group of holes within 500 or less treat as single hole and trim as in (f); but bars should pass alongside where possible. (i) In group of holes within 500 and 1000 treat as single hole and trim as in (f) and (g).

Cutting element bars passing through hole and furnishing a stirrup as a trimmer is totally wrong

Joints in Slabs 1
Control joints a retooled, sawed, or pre-moulded joints to allow for shrinkage of large concrete areas.

Control joints create a weakened section that induce cracking to occur along the joint, rather than in a random fashion.
Isolation joints provide a separation between a slab on grade and columns or walls, so that each can move independently.

Expansion Joints 2

In a 100mm thick concrete walkway, what is the typical spacing for expansion joints? 6m on center accommodates movement due to both expansion and contraction

EXPANSION JOINTS 3

BEAMS 1
BAR CURTAILMENTS SIMPLE RULES 1

BEAMS 2

BEAMS 3
ANCHORAGE & LAP LENGTHS

Beam R/F Detailing Methods


(i) If pre-assembled main R/F, hanger bars & links stopped 50mm short of face of support & splice bars used at supports.

(ii) If assembled at works - Span main bars lapped at or near the support. Link support bars lapped with ends of top main bars.
(iii) Max. link space 0.75d longitudinal & 150mm horizontal space between tension bars (iv) Max. area Asc or Ast <= 4%bh; Min. Asc > = 0.2 & Ast >= 0.13
(V) Maxim. Clear Distance between tension bars ab<=160 Short line at 300 and tagged

Calling up of bars approx. at mid of bar

DETAIL OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

DETAILS OF CONTINOUS BEAMS

Holes in Concrete Beams: Circular preferable


(1) Checks required (a) Shear capacity and (b) Moment Capacity
(2) Additional stirrups and longitudinal bars and trimmer bars are required (3) If long rectangular hole unavoidable, frame with Vierendeel-type truss (4) Locate holes around o 1/3 span if possible (5) If many holes are required design the beam oversize (6) Sizes of vertical holes limit to b/4 & horizontal holes h/4

1 2500 2500 2500 6500 6500 6500

2 7500 7500 7500

hagg + 5; but < F or F e

50 11R6-08-150 VARIES 25 25

50 23R10-05-250 27R10-05-250

11R6-08-150 VARIES

23R10-05-250

27R10-05-250

2/3xhagg or F or F e if > = hagg +5

Min. distance between bars

Bar curtailment not shown completely Sometimes stirrup arrangement not shown

Correct & unacceptable beam labeling

b =500
>1000 for EC2

b = 500

sb

750 150 450

ab <= 160

450

F side bar =

sb x b / fy

sb =<250; F = 16 sb =<150; F = 12 for EC2

Beam side bar detailing Correct & wrong practices

Even in EC2

DO NOT ALLOW
1000 1000

DISCONTINUITY OF VERTICAL LEG

115 800 800

185

TIE ALL COMPRESSION BARS TIE TENSION BARS WHEN GAP >150

TENSION BARS COMPRESSION BARS SIDE BARS

CORRECT STIRRUP ARRANGEMENT

SINGLE STIRRUP WRONG

Wide beam stirrup arrangement

A very deep beam shows link arrangement

SIMPLE COLUMN DETAIL


(1) Main R/F Max. 6%bh; Min 0.4%bh; Max area at laps 10%bh (2) Min. Bar size 12mm; circular columns 6 number of bars (3) Min. joggle offset = 2F + 10% tolerance (4) Min. joggle length 10 x centre-lineoffset or 300mm Min.

(5) Allow 75mm for kicker


(6) Min. size of link F of largest vertical bar (7) Max. pitch 12 F smallest compression bar

(8) All vertical bars to be tied if space > 150mm and all alternate bars to be tied by links
(9) Maximum space between main R/F; Compression <=300 Tension <=175

DETAILS OF COLUMNS 1
ACI 318-02 in new Appendix A recommends hooking bars towards the center of the column to develop full flexural strength of the column.

tension lap

tension lap

t>= 300; 4 corner bars t< 300; 2 corner bars Horizontal bar outside easy to fix t>= 300; 4 corner bars t< 300; 2 corner bars Horizontal bar inside difficult to fix

WALL REINFORCEMENT

For shrinkage effects (a) Min. R/F both vertical & horizontal 1 face or

Fy 250 0.3% 0.15%

460 0.25% 0.125%

each face

(b) Vertical R/F; (i) Min. Asc = 0.4% (0.2% each face) (ii) Max. Asc = 4%

(iii) When Asc > 2%; Max. bar space >= 16 x vertical bar size

WALL VERTICAL R/F INSIDE & HORIZONTAL R/F OUTSIDE

DETAILS OF WALLS

R/F of wall showing horizontal bar placement in outer layer

WALL R/F ASSEMBLY

RETAINING WALL DETAILS SHOWS OUTER HORIZONTAL R/F

500T16-02-250 NF 500T12-03-250 FF

500T16-02-250 NF 500T12-03-250 FF

12T10-04-200 NF

500T16-01-250 NF 12T10-04-200 NF

500T16-01-250 NF

Correct & unacceptable labeling of wall R/F

12T10-05-200 FF

12T10-05-200 FF

STAIRCASE R/F DETAILS

DETAILS OF STAIRCASES

Ast- Main TR; Main tensile R/F. Large bend required on plan Two column links close to corbel top

Ast- Main TR; Main tensile R/F. Large bend required as in elevation Two column links close to corbel top

Ast - Main TR welded to plate or cross bar

DO NOT BEND THIS WAY


Tension lap Tension lap

Compression anchorage

Ast - Horiz >= 50% of Ast - Main TR

Compression anchorage

Ast - Horiz >= 50% of Ast - Main TR

Compression bars. Area >= 1000mm2/metre of width of corbel

Compression bars. Area >= 1000mm2/metre of width of corbel

When main tensile R/F <= 16mm F

When main tensile R/F <= 20mm F

Corbel R/F (without welds)

Corbel R/F (with welds)

CORBELS

Tension anchorage length Tension anchor if "U" bars used Closed links or "U" bars be used Tie to at least two main longitudinal reinforcement Link F should not more than 12 Lacer bar same F as horizontal "U" bars Horizontal "U" bars. F <= 16

t >= 140

Standard Nib detail

Shallow Nib detail

NIBS

PAD FOOTING 1

Pad Foundations with Schedule

DETAILS OF FOUNDATIONS 2 PAD FOOTING & SCHEDULE

Detailing of Pile Locations & Pile Cap Drawings (1) Show the pile centers wrt grid lines (2) Do not indicate dimensions from grid lines to site boundaries (3) Indicate cut off levels and anticipated rock levels (4) Indicate concrete grade, cover to reinforcement (5) Pile diameters, Identity of Pile, Pile Groups and number of piles (6) Pile cap dimensions (7) Indicate column or wall starters (8) Show the radius of bend of main reinforcement of piles (9) Provide outer (peripheral) bursting reinforcement T16@200 (10) Indicate pitch of links if different at top and the rest of the pile length (11) Indicate whether the links are helical or circular (12) Use nominal top reinforcement in large pile caps to avoid shrinkage cracks

i.e. 0.13bh, where h= 250

DETAILING PILES & PILE CAPS 1


T10 - 300 T10 - 300
GFL

+0.70 +0.20
VARIES 500
PILE
PILE CUT OFF LEVE (m) -1.250 -1.250 -1.975 -1.975 -1.975 -1.975 -1.975 -1.975 1200 1000 900 24 31 15 800 28 600 08

12T25 1200 F PILE 1000 F PILE

PILE CUT OFF LEVEL VARIES

PILE CAP OUTLINE DETAILS


7500
4

2500
F

3800

7500

PILE GROUP SCHEDULE


4572kN
823 1516

6000

8623kN P13
1516

8910kN P16

P10
E

1/1200 F

6000

P11 1350 1350 P12 4200kN PG9 3/900 F

P14 1350 1350 P15 PG9 3/900 F

1200 1200

P23 P22

PILE PILE PILE GROUP F NO NO (mm) S P1 800 S P2 800 P11 900 PG9 P12 900 P13 900 P14 900 PG9 P15 900 P16 900

823

6000

PG1 2/800 F

PILE F NO OF PILES

TOTAL NUMBER OF PILES


TOTAL 106
PILES

LAYOUT

75

DETAILING PILES & PILE CAPS 2

DETAILING PILES & PILE CAPS 3


Tie beams detailed at the top of pile cap to reduce construction difficulties. Refer Pile Design & construction practice by M J Tomlinson Section 7.8

DETAILING PILES & PILE CAPS 4

(DETAILING PILES & PILE CAPS 5)

Bar bending scheduling to BS 8666, BSI 2000

SHEET 1 BAR SHAPES

7T16- 05 (a to g) -100 B1
SEVEN NUMBERS HIGH TENSILE SIXTEEN MM DIAMETER BAR MARK ZERO FIVE VARYING LENGTH a TO h

AT HUNDRED MM CENTERS AT
BOTTOM OUTER LAYER

SHEET 2 BAR SHAPES

SHEET 3 BAR SHAPES

SHEET 6 MIN SCHEDULING RADIUS AND BEND ALLOWANCES

STEMS

Bar schedule ref: 750 0 4

No of bars in each

Total No Length of each Shape code A mm


8 5000 00 12 12 51 21 47 16 1300 12 3250 80 2280 40 900 290 130 20 1955 2000

Type & F No of members

Bar mark

Member

Beam T 01 B1 20 T 02 20 T 03 12 T 04 10 T 05 10 R 06 6 T 10

2 2 2 2 2 2

4 8 3 20 20 10

Straight

680 380 130 380 685 385 680 380 A

This schedule complies with BS 8666: 2000

B mm

Typical Bar Bending Schedule

Site ref: 4321

Dat 24-05-08 Revised Prepared by : A B C Checked

24-06-08 SAK

What should and should not be done by Junior Structural Design Engineers (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Study the scope of works, and understand the Architectural drawings Discuss with senior engineers the concept and develop the GA Drawings Obtain approval from architects the GA drawings Discuss with Building Services Engineers ducts & opening sizes ect. Discuss with Architect, Services Engineers the clear depth between beam soffit & ceilings (6) Use computer meaningfully and double check the outputs with simple manual calculations (7) Obtain approval of sketches from senior engineers prior to draughting (8) Check drawings prior to obtaining senior engineers signature in drawings What should and should not be done by draughtspersons (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Study and understand the Architectural drawings Check whether the sketches are signed by senior engineers Study the sketches and if doubtful check with the designer Do not blindly copy (cut and paste) from other details without understanding If schedules are not given elevate all beams in one direction in some order without mixing up in other direction beams (6) Give cross reference to typical details of lower levels not from top levels (7) Indicate overall dimensions in plans & sectional elevation of buildings

Thank you