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Unit 1

Numbers up to 1000
1.01
Can you draw one square below?
Ones

one square

Draw ten squares below. Count them as you draw.

10 ones make ten! How do you represent 10 on the abacus?


Tens Ones

Move up 1 at Tens on your abacus. This is how it should look like...

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1.02
Look at the abacus images. Write the numbers they represent.

Look at the numbers above and count in tens. How many tens make 100? Thats right! 10 tens make 100.
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1.03
There are 100 coins in each box. Lets count the coins in hundreds.

100,

400 ,

, Fill in the blanks. There are

1000 .

coins altogether. coins. boxes of coins.

Each box contains There are

So, 10 hundreds make 1000!

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1.04
Match the place values on the abacus correctly.

Ones

Tens

Hundreds

Thousands

Lets try these on your abacus! 1. Move up 1 at Hundreds, move up 3 at Tens, move up 2 at Ones, clear abacus. 2. Move up 4 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens, move up 5 at Ones, clear abacus. 3. Move up 3 at Hundreds, move up 5 at Tens, move up 7 at Ones, clear abacus. 4. Move up 5 at Hundreds, move up 6 at Tens, move up 9 at Ones, clear abacus. 5. Move up 8 at Hundreds, move up 2 at Tens, move up 8 at Ones, clear abacus. 6. Move up 2 at Hundreds, move up 9 at Tens, move up 6 at Ones, clear abacus. 7. Move up 7 at Hundreds, move up 7 at Tens, move up 5 at Ones, clear abacus. 8. Move up 8 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens, move up 9 at Ones, clear abacus. 9. Move up 9 at Hundreds, move up 9 at Tens, move up 9 at Ones, clear abacus. 10. Move up 1 at Thousands.
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1.05
Write the correct numerals and number names.
Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

1 0 1 one hundred and one


Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

Thousands Hundreds

Tens Ones

Thousands Hundreds

Tens Ones

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1.06
Visualise these numbers and draw the beads. Say the numbers out loud.

136

137

138

139

140

141

142
6

143

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1.07
Try these with your abacus. Write down the number names as shown on the abacus.
2

1. (1) (2)

Move up 2 at Hundreds Move up 6 at Tens

(3) Move up 2 at Ones Two hundred and sixty-two 2. (1) (2) (3) Move up 3 at Hundreds Move up 7 at Tens Move up 9 at Ones

2 1 3

2 1 3

3. (1) (2) (3)

Move up 4 at Hundreds Move up 5 at Tens Move up 8 at Ones


1

4. (1) (2) (3)

Move up 5 at Hundreds Move up 1 at Tens Move up 7 at Ones

2 3

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1.08
Lets count in twos from 300. Visualise the numbers and draw the beads.

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1.09
Lets count in fives from 360. Visualise the numbers and draw the beads.

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1.10
Lets count in tens from 590. Visualise the numbers and draw the beads.

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1.11
Use your abacus to move the beads. Write down the numbers shown on your abacus. Say the numbers out loud.

1. Move up 2 at Hundreds, move up 7 at Ones. 2. Move up 7 at Tens, move up 3 at Ones. 3. Move up 8 at Hundreds, move up 3 at Tens, move up 5 at Ones. 4. Move up 1 at Hundreds, move up 9 at Tens, move up 6 at Ones. 5. Move up 6 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens. 6. Move up 5 at Hundreds, move up 4 at Tens, move up 1 at Ones. 7. Move up 9 at Hundreds, move up 8 at Ones. 8. Move up 3 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens, move up 2 at Ones. 9. Move up 4 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens, move up 9 at Ones. 10. Move up 1 at Thousands.
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1.12
Circle the smaller number.

Circle the larger number.

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1.13
Jenny is visualising some numbers. Write the numbers in ascending order.

ascending order

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1.14
Jenny is visualising some numbers. Write the numbers in descending order.

descending order

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1.15
Use your abacus to do the following. Clear the abacus before you start each exercise.

1. Move up 356. 2. Move up 1000. 3. Move up 113. 4. Move up 978. 5. Move up 183. 6. Move up 52. 7. Move up 906. 8. Move up 515. 9. Move up 777. 10. Move up 49. 11. Move up 521. 12. Move up 257.

13. Move up 825. 14. Move up 419. 15. Move up 710. 16. Move up 30. 17. Move up 613. 18. Move up 267. 19. Move up 174. 20. Move up 239. 21. Move up 271. 22. Move up 763. 23. Move up 579. 24. Move up 194.

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Unit 2

Addition with the highest total of 1000


2.01
Use your abacus to do the following.

1. (a) Up 111 (b) Up 121

2. (a) Up 315 (b) Up 151

3. (a) Up 500 (b) Up 413

4. (a) Up 132 (b) Up 557

5. (a) Up 222 (b) Up 706

6. (a) Up 713 (b) Up 166


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2.02
Practise with your abacus to do the following.

1. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 101 (c) Up 38 3. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 210 (c) Up 168 5. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 333 (c) Up 165 7. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 601 (c) Up 277 9. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 322 (c) Up 655 11. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 900 (c) Up 27 13. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 715 (c) Up 182
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2. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 57 (c) Up 421 4. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 19 (c) Up 760 6. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 415 (c) Up 531 8. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 444 (c) Up 555 10. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 300 (c) Up 607 12. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 856 (c) Up 132 14. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 503 (c) Up 296

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2.03
Perform the following with your abacus.

1.

32 (Up 32) 114 (Up 114) 53 (Up 53) 212 (Up 212) 21 (Up 21) 608 (Up 608) 465 (Up 465) 740 (Up 740)

10 (Up 10) 75 (Up 75) 35 (Up 35) 672 (Up 672) 857 (Up 857) 291 (Up 291) 532 (Up 532) 256 (Up 256)
18

42

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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2.04
Use your abacus to calculate the following.

1. 42

+ 106 =

2. 137 + 212 = 4. 87 + 201 = =

3. 215 + 132 = 5. 98 + 301 =

6. 408 + 90

7. 331 + 152 = 9. 170 + 516 = 11. 713 + 285 = 13. 60 + 200 = + 211 = + 300 = + 173 = + 910 =

8. 551 + 123 = 10. 600 + 206 = 12. 418 + 511 = 14. 523 + 255 =

15. 31 + 56 16. 121 + 67 17. 15 + 10 18. 77 + 2

19. 50 + 205 + 622 = 20. 3 + 20 + 876 =


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2.05
Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 280 + 119? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 280, up 280

Step 2:

plus 119, up 119

Step 3:

equals

280

119
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2.06
Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 612 + 366? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 612, up 612

Step 2:

plus 366, up 366

Step 3:

equals

612

366
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2.07
Match the answers correctly.

1. The Little Friend of 3 is 2. The Big Friend of 7 is 3. The Big Friend of 4 is 4. The Little Friend of 2 is 5. The Big Friend of 6 is 6. The Big Friend of 5 is 7. The Little Friend of 1 is 8. The Big Friend of 2 is 9. The Big Friend of 9 is 10. The Little Friend of 4 is 11. The Big Friend of 8 is 12. The Big Friend of 3 is 13. The Big Friend of 1 is
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4

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2.08
Practise the following with your abacus. Clear your abacus before you begin each exercise.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Up 2 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 4 at Ones. What do you get? Up 1 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones. What do you get? Up 1 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 2 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 1 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 2 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Down 4 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Down 6 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 7 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 8 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 9 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 2 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get?
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24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

Up 4 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Up 4 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Up 3 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Up 2 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Up 3 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Up 2 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Up 2 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 6 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get?

24

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45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64.

Up 8 at Ones, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 6 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 7 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 4 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 6 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 7 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 8 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 13, Up 1 at Tens, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get? Up 24, Up 2 at Tens, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 35, Up 5 at Tens, Down 2 at Tens, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 46, Up 5 at Tens, Down 1 at Tens, Carry 1 at Tens, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones. What do you get? Up 57, Down 5 at Tens, Carry 1 at Hundreds, Carry 1 at Tens, Up 2 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones. What do you get? Up 68, Carry 1 at Hundreds, Up 1 at Tens, Down 5 at Tens, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 79, Carry 1 at Hundreds, Up 2 at Tens, Down 5 at Tens, Down 1 at Ones, Up 5 at Tens, Down 4 at Tens. What do you get? Up 483, Up 5 at Hundreds, Down 1 at Hundreds, Down 2 at Tens, Carry 1 at Hundreds, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get?

25

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2.09
Work with your abacus to answer these questions correctly.
1. What is 4 + 3? Step 1: Up 4 Step 2: Up 3 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to move . up 3). We use the little friend of 3, which is Using the little friend of 3, up 3 is Up 5, Down little friend. So, up 3 becomes... Up , Down . Step 3: The answer is . What is 7 + 9? Step 1: Up 7 Step 2: Up 9 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to move up 9). We use the big friend of 9, which is . Using the big friend of 9, up 9 becomes Down , Carry at . Step 3: The answer is . What is 25 + 6? Step 1: Up 25 Step 2: Up 6 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to move up 6). We use the big friend of 6, which is . Using the big friend of 6, up 6 becomes Down 4, Carry at Tens (move the beads to carry at Tens first) But there are not enough beads at Ones to move down 4. We use the little friend of 4, which is . Using the little friend of 4, down 4 becomes Up little friend, Down . Up , Down Step 3: The answer is .
26

2.

3.

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4.

What is 378 + 34? Step 1: Up 378 Step 2: Up 34 (but there are not enough beads at Tens and Ones to move up 3 and 4). At Tens, to move up 3 we use the big friend of 3, which is . Using the big friend of 3, up 3 at Tens becomes Down , Carry at . At Ones, to move up 4 we use the big friend of 4, which is . Using the big friend of 4, up 4 at Ones becomes Down , Carry at . Step 3: The answer is .

5.

What is 659 + 281? Step 1: Step 2: Up 659 Up 281 (move up 2 at Hundreds, but there are not enough beads at Tens and Ones to move up 8 and 1). At Tens, to move up 8 we use the big friend of 8, which is . Using the big friend of 8, up 8 at Tens becomes Down , Carry at Hundreds (move the beads to carry at Hundreds first). But there are not enough beads at Tens to move down 2. We use little friend of 2, which is . Using the little friend of 2, down 2 becomes Up little friend, Down . Up , Down . At Ones, to move up 1 we use the big friend of 1, which is . Using the big friend of 1, up 1 at Ones becomes Down , Carry at . Step 3: The answer is
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2.10
When there are not enough beads, how do you move?

1.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 1. a. If using the help of the little friend, Up 1 becomes Up Down , Down , Carry . at . b. If using the help of the big friend, Up 1 becomes

2.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Up 2. a. If using the help of the little friend, Up 2 becomes Up Down , Down , Carry . at . b. If using the help of the big friend, Up 2 becomes

3.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 3. a. If using the help of the little friend, Up 3 becomes Up Down , Down , Carry . at . b. If using the help of the big friend, Up 3 becomes

4.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Up 4. a. If using the help of the little friend, Up 4 becomes Up Down , Down , Carry
28

. at .

b. If using the help of the big friend, Up 4 becomes

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5.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 5. Using the help of the big friend, Up 5 becomes Down , Carry at .

6.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Up 6. Using the help of the big friend, Up 6 becomes Down , Carry at .

7.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 7. Using the help of the big friend, Up 7 becomes Down , Carry at .

8.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Up 8. Using the help of the big friend, Up 8 becomes Down , Carry at .

9.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 9. Using the help of the big friend, Up 9 becomes Down , Carry at .

10.

There are not enough beads at Hundreds to move Up 5. Using the help of the big friend, Up 5 becomes Down , Carry at
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2.11
Use your abacus to answer the following questions. 1. 14 + 26 = 3. 16 + 29 = 5. 35 + 9 = 2. 27 + 13 = 4. 8 + 33 =

6. 22 + 19 = 8. 12 + 23 = 10. 42 + 6 =

7. 23 + 14 = 9. 33 + 16 = 11. 28 + 39 = 13. 44 + 66 = 15. 66 + 88 = 17. 57 + 89 = 19. 17 + 28 + 39 = 21. 22 + 44 + 66 = 23. 44 + 66 + 88 = 25. 41 + 57 + 89 = 27. 64 + 49 + 33 = 29. 98 + 48 + 67 =
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12. 29 + 37 = 14. 66 + 99 = 16. 77 + 99 = 18. 74 + 75 = 20. 18 + 29 + 30 = 22. 33 + 66 + 99 = 24. 55 + 77 + 99 = 26. 73 + 74 + 75 = 28. 57 + 58 + 59 = 30. 71 + 89 + 97 =

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2.12
Work with your abacus to get the answers!

1. 134 + 257 = 3. 611 + 169 = 5. 234 + 345 = 7. 789 + 111 = 9. 413 + 354 = 11. 223 + 229 = 13. 777 + 199 = 15. 936 + 28 =

2. 316 + 578 = 4. 123 + 456 = 6. 345 + 123 = 8. 343 + 666 = 10. 513 + 395 = 12. 371 + 535 = 14. 747 + 146 = 16. 835 + 75 =

17. 738 + 175 = 19. 362 + 249 = 21. 615 + 97 + 108 =

18. 424 + 287 = 20. 388 + 499 = 22. 124 + 135 + 146 = 24. 96 + 286 + 417 =

23. 288 + 472 + 111 = 25. 333 + 333 + 279 = 27. 276 + 344 + 239 = 29. 316 + 495 + 169 =
31

26. 603 + 192 + 193 = 28. 358 + 264 + 298 = 30. 444 + 232 + 158 =

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2.13
Use your abacus to add these numbers.

1. +

83 228 68

2.

31 119 + 97

3. +

318 62 241

4. +

427 155 31

5. +

201 564 49

6. +

98 762 81

7. +

294 234 264

8. +

515 242 53

9. +

163 226 450

10. +

442 133 39

11. +

631 210 88

12. +

778 33 111

13. +

867 99 8

14. +

229 93 675

15. +

305 356 329

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16. +

248 197 75

17. +

130 574 166

18. +

252 467 164

19. +

163 368 364

20. +

245 426 99

21. +

137 557 126

22. +

393 278 197

23. +

134 216 424

24. +

250 167 408

25. +

185 323 259

26. +

299 399 99

27. +

445 145 246

28. +

369 246 135

29. +

477 334 55

30. +

815 97 49

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Unit 3

Subtraction within the range of 1000


3.01
Use your abacus to do the following.

1. (a) Up 888 (b) Down 121

2. (a) Up 498 (b) Down 153

3. (a) Up 624 (b) Down 523

4. (a) Up 763 (b) Down 651

5. (a) Up 595 (b) Down 560

6. (a) Up 989 (b) Down 776


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3.02
Practise with your abacus to do the following.

1. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 423 (c) Down 12 3. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 752 (c) Down 201 5. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 599 (c) Down 78 7. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 684 (c) Down 171 9. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 493 (c) Down 271 11. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 999 (c) Down 685 13. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 898 (c) Down 576
35

2. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 516 (c) Down 511 4. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 679 (c) Down 163 6. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 885 (c) Down 560 8. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 666 (c) Down 515 10. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 306 (c) Down 201 12. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 756 (c) Down 651 14. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 895 (c) Down 665

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3.03
Perform the following with your abacus.

1.

32 (Up 32) 176 (Up 176) 453 (Up 453) 862 (Up 862) 971 (Up 971) 447 (Up 447) 296 (Up 296) 754 (Up 754)

10 (Down 10) 75 (Down 75)

2.

3.

101 = (Down 101) 652 = (Down 652) 850 = (Down 850) 216 = (Down 216) 165 = (Down 165) 601 = (Down 601)
36

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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3.04
Use your abacus to calculate the following.

1. 186 21

2. 427 212 = 4. 787 225 = 6. 698 90 =

3. 684 132 = 5. 498 301 = 7. 388 152 = 9. 776 516 = 11. 289 85 =

8. 764 213 = 10. 640 200 = 12. 603 601 = 14. 576 565 =

13. 890 240 = 15. 739 16 16. 992 502 =

61 611 = =

17. 898 701 66

18. 988 777 211 = 19. 850 200 650 = 20. 993 81 712 =
37

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3.05
Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 887 636? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 887, up 887

Step 2:

minus 636, down 636

Step 3:

equals

887

636
38

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3.06
Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 678 157? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 678, up 678

Step 2:

minus 157, down 157

Step 3:

equals

678

157
39

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3.07
Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 779 258? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 779, up 779

Step 2:

minus 258, down 258

Step 3:

equals

779

258
40

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3.08
Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 969 366? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 969, up 969

Step 2:

minus 366, down 366

Step 3:

equals

969

366
41

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3.09
When there are not enough beads, how do you move?

1.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 1. a. If using the help of the little friend, Down 1 becomes Up 4 , Down 5 . b. If using the help of the big friend, Down 1 becomes Tens . Remove 1 at Hundreds, Up 9 at

2.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Down 2. a. If using the help of the little friend, Down 2 becomes Up , Down . b. If using the help of the big friend, Down 2 becomes Remove at , Up at .

3.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 3. a. If using the help of the little friend, Down 3 becomes Up , Down . b. If using the help of the big friend, Down 3 becomes Remove at , Up at .

4.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Down 4. a. If using the help of the little friend, Down 4 becomes Up , Down . b. If using the help of the big friend, Down 4 becomes Remove at , Up at .

42

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5.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 5. Using the help of the big friend, Down 5 becomes Remove at , Up at .

6.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Down 6. Using the help of the big friend, Down 6 becomes Remove at , Up at .

7.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 7. Using the help of the big friend, Down 7 becomes Remove at , Up at .

8.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Down 8. Using the help of the big friend, Down 8 becomes Remove at , Up at .

9.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 9. Using the help of the big friend, Down 9 becomes Remove at , Up at .

10.

There are not enough beads at Hundreds to move Down 5. Using the help of the big friend, Down 5 becomes Remove at , Up at .
43

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3.10
Work with your abacus to answer these questions correctly. 1. Step 1: Step 2: Up 7 Down 3 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to move down 3). We use the little friend of 3, which is . Using the little friend of 3, down 3 becomes... Up , Down . The answer is . Up 18 Down 9 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to down 9). We use the big friend of 9, which is . Using the big friend of 9, down 9 becomes... Remove at , Up . The answer is . Up 22 Down 7 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to down 7). We use the big friend of 7, which is . Using the big friend of 7, down 7 becomes... Remove at , Up (remove the beads at Tens first). But there are not enough beads at Ones to move up 3. We use little friend of 3, which is . Using the little friend of 3, down 3 becomes... Up , Down little friend. Up , Down . The answer is .
44

Step 3: 2. Step 1: Step 2:

Step 3: 3. Step 1: Step 2:

Step 3:

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4.

Step 1: Up 463 Step 2: Down 85 (but there are not enough beads at Tens and Ones to move down 8 and 5). At Tens, to move down 8... we use the big friend of 8, which is . Using the big friend of 8, down 8 at Tens becomes... at , Up . Remove At Ones, to move down 5... we use the big friend of 5, which is . Using the big friend of 5, down 5 at Tens becomes... at , Up . Remove Step 3: The answer is .

5.

Step 1: Up 846 Step 2: Down 267 (move down 2 at Hundreds, but there are not enough beads at Tens and Ones to move down 6 and 7) At Tens, to move down 6... . we use the big friend of 6, which is Using the big friend of 6, down 6 at Tens becomes... at , Up (remove the Remove beads first). But there are not enough beads at Tens to move up 4. . We use little friend of 4, which is Using the little friend of 4, up 4 becomes , Down . Up At Ones, to move down 7... we use the big friend of 7, which is . Using the big friend of 7, down 7 at Ones becomes... at , Up . Remove Step 3: The answer is .

45

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3.11
Use your abacus to answer the following questions. 1. 26 14 = 3. 32 29 = 5. 35 9 = 2. 27 13 = 4. 33 8 =

6. 48 19 = 8. 44 26 = 10. 42 7 =

7. 23 15 = 9. 53 16 = 11. 66 28 = 13. 55 36 = 15. 93 88 = 17. 52 33 = 19. 92 6 29 = 21. 66 12 23 = 23. 88 66 7 = 25. 97 58 23 = 27. 43 15 9 = 29. 98 49 4 =
46

12. 74 17 = 14. 84 65 = 16. 71 59 = 18. 77 48 = 20. 88 29 30 = 22. 76 69 3 24. 77 58 4 = =

26. 76 32 12 = 28. 82 58 17 = 30. 80 48 24 =

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3.12
Work with your abacus to get the answers!

1. 257 134 = 3. 611 169 = 5. 345 284 = 7. 732 45 =

2. 578 386 = 4. 456 123 = 6. 345 123 = 8. 666 343 = 10. 513 395 = 12. 535 371 = 14. 757 148 = 16. 835 71 =

9. 413 354 = 11. 632 229 = 13. 777 199 = 15. 936 58 =

17. 738 175 = 19. 362 249 = 21. 615 97 108 = 23. 648 472 111 = 25. 733 345 79 = 27. 976 344 239 = 29. 900 26 738 =
47

18. 424 287 = 20. 488 399 = 22. 824 135 146 = 24. 906 287 315 = 26. 603 192 193 = 28. 700 264 107 = 30. 1000 17 346 =

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3.13
Use your abacus to subtract the numbers.

1.

1000 412

2.

1000 386

3.

1000 573

4.

1000 993

5.

1000 678

6.

1000 846

7.

1000 250

8.

1000 607

9.

1000 504

10.

1000 57

11.

1000 84

12.

1000 22

13.

1000 93

14.

1000 16

15.

1000 68

16.

1000 5

17.

1000 3

18.

1000 9

48

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19.

823 415

20.

786 462

21.

661 453

22.

509 235

23.

403 175

24.

306 168

25.

460 185

26.

580 492

27.

600 484

28.

787 399

29.

812 676

30.

966 679

31.

900 488

32.

800 669

33.

700 351

34.

800 413

35.

510 375

36.

200 117

49

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3.14
Answer the questions with the help of your abacus.

1. There are 329 people in the hall. 173 of them wear a black shirt. How many of them wear other than black? =

2. There are 683 people at school. 461 of them are girls. How many of them are boys? =

3. Zura has 554 beads now. She needs 1000 beads. How many more should she get? =

4. The farmer collected 520 eggs from his farm. He went to the market and sold 379 of them. How many eggs are left? =

5. 46 out of 800 students came late to school. How many came early? =

6. If Andi needs 135 more stamps to have a total of 870 stamps in his collection, how many stamps does he have now?
50

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7. What do you get when you take away 728 from 916? =

8. There are 931 fish altogether in the pond. 268 are dead. How many are alive? =

9. If you remove 314 from 806, what do you get? =

10. The baker used up 624 eggs in 3 months. In the first month she used 236 eggs. In the third month, she used 200 eggs. How many eggs did she use in the second month? =

11. Zura, Devi and Jenny have 484 coins among them. If Jenny has 129 and Devi has 73, how many coins does Zura have? =

12. Andi has 707 coins. He gives 38 coins to Ah Wai and 342 coins to Devi. How many coins does he have left? =

51

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Unit 4

Combination of addition and subtraction within 1000


4.01
Practise the following with your abacus. Clear your abacus before you begin each exercise.

1. Up 317, Up 121, Down 215. 2. Up 782, Down 261, Up 368. 3. Up 135, Up 253, Down 176. 4. Up 893, Down 632, Up 717. 5. Up 224, Up 225, Down 318. 6. Up 387, Down 162, Up 663. 7. Up 510, Up 284, Down 684. 8. Up 441, Down 230, Up 182. 9. Up 902, Up 57, Down 509. 10. Up 449, Down 217, Up 651. 11. Up 676, Up 221, Down 270. 12. Up 199, Down 73, Up 622. 13. Up 488, Up 511, Down 889. 14. Up 253, Down 152, Up 897. 15. Up 745, Up 153, Down 191. 16. Up 587, Down 66, Up 456. 17. Up 837, Up 52, Down 238. 18. Up 668, Down 156, Up 277. 19. Up 256, Up 602, Down 357. 20. Up 987, Down 765, Up 675.
52

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4.02
Fill in the blanks with the correct numbers. Use your abacus to calculate.

1. Up 372, Down 222, Up 518 + =

2. Up 897, Up 102, Down 665 + =

3. Up 845, Down 720, Up 862 + =

4. Up 113, Up 675, Down 727 + =

5. Up 649, Down 34, Up 284 + =

6. Up 405, Up 592, Down 386 + =

53

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4.03
Complete the number sentences with correct numbers and symbols. Use your abacus to calculate.

1. Up 174, Down 63, Up 512 = 2. Up 291, Up 607, Down 818 = 3. Up 338, Up 511, Down 126 = 4. Up 425, Up 72, Down 371 = 5. Up 569, Down 54, Up 383 = 6. Up 807, Down 602, Up 634 =
54

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4.04
Use your abacus to calculate.

1.

83 215 67

2.

31 117 23

3.

318 61 257

4.

427 561 76

5.

201 566 1 5 2

6.

97 702 88

7.

294 234 228

8.

815 210 82

9.

463 262 787

10.

692 131 417

11.

731 201 466

12.

788 33 111

13.

867 22 638

14.

599 93 181

15.

305 652 705

55

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16.

346 152 275

17.

839 514 151

18.

252 647 169

19.

968 363 374

20.

946 425 367

21.

137 552 126

22.

373 625 197

23.

134 365 424

24.

950 750 278

25.

185 313 258

26.

899 399 99

27.

445 551 246

28.

961 26 135

29.

477 325 726

30.

885 660 673

56

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4.05
Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 297 + 602 629? Visualise and draw the beads.

Step 1:

297, up 297

Step 2:

plus 602, up 602

Step 3:

minus 629, down 629

Step 4:

equals 297 + 602


57

629

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What is 418 + 561 706? Visualise and draw the beads.

Step 1:

418, up 418

Step 2:

plus 561, up 561

Step 3:

minus 706, down 706

Step 4: 418

equals + 561
58

706

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What is 556 + 233 518? Visualise and draw the beads.

Step 1:

556, up 556

Step 2:

plus 233, up 233

Step 3:

minus 518, down 518

Step 4: 556

equals + 233
59

518

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What is 783 221 + 31? Visualise and draw the beads.

Step 1:

783, up 783

Step 2:

minus 221, down 221

Step 3:

plus 31, up 31

Step 4: 783

equals 221 +
60

31

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What is 440 200 + 751? Visualise and draw the beads.

Step 1:

440, up 440

Step 2:

minus 200, down 200

Step 3:

plus 751, up 751

Step 4: 440

equals 200 +
61

751

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What is 998 835 + 126? Visualise and draw the beads.

Step 1:

998, up 998

Step 2:

minus 835, down 835

Step 3:

plus 126, up 126

Step 4: 998

equals 835 +
62

126

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4.06
Calculate with your abacus.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

224 673 118 939 35 645 678 444 500 709

+ + +

187 139 455 78 585 343 284 333 78 362

+ + + + + + +
63

442 323 326 55 216 555 299 99 194 371

= = = = = = = = = =

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11.

446

290

221

12.

895

261

232

13.

331

577

448

14.

700

277

15.

87

585

478

16.

867

565

333

17.

456

43

334

18.

734

171

289

19.

100

699

20.

602

346

255

64

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21.

902

78

91

22.

1000

65

55

23.

499

501

67

24.

502

298

123

25.

687

223

49

26.

1000

365

275

27.

1000

38

25

28.

578

129

309

29.

301

395

30.

204

86

716

65

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4.07
Rearrange the numbers so that the number sentences are true. Calculate with your abacus to check the answers.

257

362

251

368

736

861

38

163

772

652

78

198

66

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260

139

198

201

886

617

566

937

177

812

86

721

67

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79

63

371

387

551

780

111

340

57

559

346

848

68

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178

574

415

811

675

515

999

839

155

227

722

650

69

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Unit 5 Multiplication of basic facts within 2, 3, 4 and 5 times-tables


5.01

Fill in the blanks with the correct answers.

1. 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 =

How many 2s are there above?

You can also write the above sentence as x 2 =

Write and say the number sentence out loud!

times

two

equals

70

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2. 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 =

How many 3s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 3 =

times three equals

3. 4 + 4 =

How many 4s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 4 =

times four equals

71

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4. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 =

How many 5s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 5 =

times

five

equals

5. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 =

How many 5s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 5 =

times

five

equals

72

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6. 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 =

How many 3s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 3 =

times three equals

7. 4 + 4 + 4 =

How many 4s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 4 =

times four equals

73

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5.02 7 x 2 =

How do we do this? What is 7 x 2?

Thats easy! We write 2 seven times and then we add them all up to get the answer.

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2=

Thats right! So, 7 x 2 =

Now, can you try 8 x 2?

Thats easy! We write 2 eight times and then we add them all up to get the answer.

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8 x 2 =
74

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5.03 Lets add the numbers to find answers to the multiplication problems. 1. What is 6 x 2? 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 12 2. What is 9 x 2?

3. What is 5 x 2?

4. What is 3 x 2?

5. What is 2 x 2?

6. What is 7 x 2?

7. What is 4 x 2?

8. What is 8 x 2?

75

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5.04

Lets build the 2 times-tables.

2+2=

2+2+2=

2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2=
76

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5.05 Lets add the numbers to find answers to the multiplication problems. 1. What is 6 x 3? 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 2. What is 9 x 3?

3. What is 5 x 3?

4. What is 3 x 3?

5. What is 2 x 3?

6. What is 7 x 3?

7. What is 4 x 3?

8. What is 8 x 3?

77

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5.06

Lets build the 3 times-tables.

3+3=

3+3+3=

3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3+3+3+3+3=
78

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5.07

Lets add the numbers to find answers to the multiplication problems. 1. What is 6 x 4? 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 2. What is 9 x 4?

3. What is 5 x 4?

4. What is 3 x 4?

5. What is 2 x 4?

6. What is 7 x 4?

7. What is 4 x 4?

8. What is 8 x 4?

79

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5.08

Lets build the 4 times-tables.

4+4=

4+4+4=

4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4=
80

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5.09

Lets add the numbers to find answers to the multiplication problems. 1. What is 6 x 5? 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 2. What is 9 x 5?

3. What is 5 x 5?

4. What is 3 x 5?

5. What is 2 x 5?

6. What is 7 x 5?

7. What is 4 x 5?

8. What is 8 x 5?

81

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5.10

Lets build the 5 times-tables.

5+5=

5+5+5=

5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5+5+5+5+5=
82

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5.11

We need to learn the multiplication tables or times-tables by heart!

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

X X X X X X X X X

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

= = = = = = = = =
83

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

X X X X X X X X X

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

= = = = = = = = =

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Try to learn these tables by heart!

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

X X X X X X X X X

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

= = = = = = = = =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

X X X X X X X X X

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

= = = = = = = = =

84

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5.12

Answer these questions without looking at the times-tables.

1. 4 x 3 = 3. 7 x 2 = 5. 7 x 3 = 7. 1 x 2 = 9. 6 x 3 = 11. 8 x 2 = 13. 2 x 3 = 15. 9 x 2 = 17. 5 x 3 =


85

2. 4. 6.

3x2= 8x3= 5x2=

8. 9 x 3 = 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 4x2= 3x3= 6x2= 1x3= 2x2=

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5.13

Answer these questions without looking at the times-tables.

1. 4 x 5 = 3. 7 x 4 = 5. 7 x 5 = 7. 1 x 4 = 9. 6 x 5 = 11. 8 x 4 = 13. 2 x 5 = 15. 9 x 4 = 17. 5 x 5 =


86

2. 4. 6.

3x4= 8x5= 5x4=

8. 9 x 5 = 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 4x4= 3x5= 6x4= 1x5= 2x4=

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5.14

Match the questions to the answers.

5x4 6x3 7x2 8x5 9x4 1x3 2x2 3x5 4x4 5x3 6x2

36 40 3 20 16 18 15 12 14 4 15

16 24 27 12 21 35 25 30 32 18 45

9x3 8x2 7x5 6x4 5x5 4x3 7x3 9x5 6x5 8x4 9x2

87

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5.15 Answer the questions and colour the boxes accordingly. 1. Colour the multiplicand YELLOW, the multiplier ORANGE and the product GREEN. 7 x 4 = 2. Colour the multiplicand ORANGE, the multiplier YELLOW and the product GREEN. 8 x 3 = 3. Colour the multiplicand GREEN, the multiplier YELLOW and the product ORANGE. 2 x 5 = 4. Colour the multiplicand YELLOW, the multiplier GREEN and the product ORANGE. 1 x 4 = 5. Colour the multiplicand RED, the multiplier ORANGE and the product YELLOW. 4 x 2 = 6. Colour the multiplicand ORANGE, the multiplier RED and the product YELLOW. 1 x 5 = 7. Colour the multiplicand GREEN, the multiplier ORANGE and the product RED. 5 x 2 =
88

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5.16 How do you show the products on the abacus? Draw the beads correctly.

1. 4 x 2 = Step 1: Display at 1st rod Step 2: Up at 2nd rod Step 3: So, 4 x 2 =

2. 6 x 3 = Step 1: Up at 1st rod Step 2: Up at 2nd rod Step 3: So, 6 x 3 =

3. 7 x 4 = Step 1: Up at 1st rod Step 2: Up at 2nd rod Step 3: So, 7 x 4 =

4. 9 x 5 = Step 1: Up at 1st rod Step 2: Up at 2nd rod Step 3: So, 9 x 5 =

89

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5.17 Draw the beads to show the products on the abacus. 1. 2.

4x5= 3. 4.

3x2=

7x3= 5. 6.

6x4=

3x3=
90

8x4=

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5.18 Visualise the products and draw the beads. Write down the answer.

=
91

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5.19 Visualise the products and draw the beads. Write down the answer.

5 3

2 2

9 4

7 5

92

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5.20

Answer the following questions.

1. If 4 x 3 = 12, what is 3 x 4? 2. If 2 x 5 = 10, what is 5 x 2? 3. If 4 x 5 = 20, what is 5 x 4? 4. If 3 x 2 = 6, what is 2 x 3? 5. If 3 x 5 = 15, what is 5 x 3? 6. If 2 x 4 = 8, what is 4 x 2? 7. 9. 11. 13. 15. 7 1 2 x x x x x 3 5 = = = = = 3 8 24 25 28 8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 8 3 6 5

3x4= 5x2= 5x4= 2x3= 5x3= 4x2= x x x x x 4 = = = = = 9 12 20 32 40

93

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Unit 6

Division within 2, 3, 4 and 5 times-tables


6.01 Jenny has 21 oranges. She wants to give 3 oranges to each guest who comes to her house. How many guests will get the oranges from Jenny?
How do we solve this?

First, let us look at all the oranges Jenny has. Lets count them.

How many oranges are there? She wants to give each guest 3 oranges. So now, lets make groups of three from these oranges. The first group has been done for you. Continue grouping the oranges in threes.

How many groups of three are there altogether? So, if Jenny wants to give 3 oranges to each guest, how many guests will get the oranges?
94

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We can also solve it this way!

How many oranges does Jenny have? How many oranges does she want to give to each guest? So, the number of guests who will get the oranges can be calculated as follows: 3 =

21 divided by 3 equals

What if Jenny has 27 oranges to give to her guests? How many guests will get the oranges?

Lets make groups of three from these 27 oranges.

How many groups of three can you make? So, how many guests will get the oranges? We can also calculate it this way: 27 divided by 3 equals
95

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6.02 Divide the objects into groups of 2 and write the number sentences. 1.

4 2.

3.

4.

5.

96

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6.03 Can you divide these apples into 2 groups equally? 1.

How many apples are there in each group? 2. 2 =

How many apples are there in each group? 3. 2 =

How many apples are there in each group?


97

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6.04 Divide the objects into groups of 3 and write the number sentences. 1.

6 2.

3.

4.

5.

98

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6.05 Can you divide these flowers into 3 groups equally? 1.

How many flowers are there in each group? 2. 3 =

How many flowers are there in each group? 3. 3 =

How many flowers are there in each group?


99

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6.06 Divide the objects into groups of 4 and write the number sentences. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

100

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6.07 Can you divide these triangles into 4 equal groups? 1.

How many triangles are there in each group? 2. 4 =

How many triangles are there in each group? 3. 4 =

How many triangles are there in each group? 4


101

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6.08
Divide the dots into groups of 5 and write the number sentences.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

102

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6.09 Can you divide these dots into 5 equal groups? 1.

How many dots are there in each group? 2. 5 =

How many dots are there in each group? 3. 5 =

How many dots are there in each group? 5


103

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6.10
Answer the questions and colour the boxes accordingly.

1. Colour the quotient YELLOW, the divisor ORANGE and the dividend GREEN. 45 5 = 2. Colour the quotient ORANGE, the divisor YELLOW and the dividend GREEN. 24 4 = 3. Colour the quotient GREEN, the divisor YELLOW and the dividend ORANGE. 18 2 = 4. Colour the quotient YELLOW, the divisor GREEN and the dividend ORANGE. 18 3 = 5. Colour the quotient RED, the divisor ORANGE and the dividend YELLOW. 36 4 = 6. Colour the quotient ORANGE, the divisor RED and the dividend YELLOW. 35 5 = 7. Colour the quotient GREEN, the divisor ORANGE and the dividend RED. 21 3 =
104

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6.11

Answer the following using the standard written method for division.

1. 2

14

2. 3

27

3. 2

10

4. 5

15

5. 4

32

6. 5

40

7. 3

18

8. 2

9. 3

10. 4

16

11. 5

35

12. 4

28

105

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6.12

Match A and B where the products equal the quotients.

A
2x4 3x3 1x2 2x3 1x5 2x2 1x4 1x3 3x2 4x2

B
30 5 84 24 3 20 4 45 5 24 4 82 32 4 15 5 12 3

106

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6.13 Label the rods if different reference points are chosen.


Reference Point

1.

0
Reference Point

2.

Answer the questions and identify the m and n.


m: number of digits for dividend n: number of digits for divisor

m 82= 10 5 = 28 4 = 63=
107

n 1

mn1 -1 or 1

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6.14 Label the rods and fill in the blanks correctly. Show the dividend, divisor and quotient on your abacus.
Reference Point

Dividend
5 Up 5 at rod 27 Up 2 at rod Up 7 at rod 6 Up 6 at rod 32 Up 3 at rod Up 2 at rod

Divisor
5 Up 5 at rod 3 Up 3 at rod

Quotient =
1 Up 1 at rod 9 Up 9 at rod m= n= m-n-1= m= n= m-n-1=

2 Up 2 at rod 4 Up 4 at rod

3 Up 3 at rod 8 Up 8 at rod

m= n= m-n-1=

m= n= m-n-1=

108

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Dividend

Divisor

Quotient =
Up rod at m= n= m-n-1=

16
Up 1 at rod Up 6 at rod

4
Up 4 at rod

10
Up 1 at rod Up 0 at rod

2
Up 2 at rod

=
Up rod at m= n= m-n-1=

21
Up 2 at rod Up 1 at rod

3
Up 3 at rod

=
Up rod at m= n= m-n-1=

8
Up 8 at rod

4
Up 4 at rod

=
Up rod at

m= n= m-n-1=

35
Up 3 at rod Up 5 at rod

5
Up 5 at rod

=
Up rod at m= n= m-n-1=

Try again from the top and visualise the bead movements.
109

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6.15 Remember your times-tables? Try and do these without looking at them. Say the number sentences out loud.

1. 30 5 = 2. 12 4 = 3. 93=

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
110

x 5 = 30 x 4 = 12 x3= 9 x 2 = 18 x 5 = 40 x 4 = 36 x 3 = 21 x 2 = 12 x 5 = 25 x 4 = 20 x 3 = 18 x 2 = 14

4. 18 2 = 5. 40 5 = 6. 36 4 = 7. 21 3 = 8. 12 2 = 9. 25 5 = 10. 20 4 = 11. 18 3 = 12. 14 2 =