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You are on page 1of 110

Unit 1

Numbers up to 1000

1.01

Can you draw one square below?

Ones

one square

Tens Ones

This document was downloaded from the following website: http://www.mathabacus.com 2008 Kreatif Kembara Sdn Bhd. Free worksheets available for download at http://www.mathabacus.com

1.02

Look at the abacus images. Write the numbers they represent.

Look at the numbers above and count in tens. How many tens make 100? Thats right! 10 tens make 100.

2

This document was downloaded from the following website: http://www.mathabacus.com 2008 Kreatif Kembara Sdn Bhd. Free worksheets available for download at http://www.mathabacus.com

1.03

There are 100 coins in each box. Lets count the coins in hundreds.

100,

400 ,

1000 .

This document was downloaded from the following website: http://www.mathabacus.com 2008 Kreatif Kembara Sdn Bhd. Free worksheets available for download at http://www.mathabacus.com

1.04

Match the place values on the abacus correctly.

Ones

Tens

Hundreds

Thousands

Lets try these on your abacus! 1. Move up 1 at Hundreds, move up 3 at Tens, move up 2 at Ones, clear abacus. 2. Move up 4 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens, move up 5 at Ones, clear abacus. 3. Move up 3 at Hundreds, move up 5 at Tens, move up 7 at Ones, clear abacus. 4. Move up 5 at Hundreds, move up 6 at Tens, move up 9 at Ones, clear abacus. 5. Move up 8 at Hundreds, move up 2 at Tens, move up 8 at Ones, clear abacus. 6. Move up 2 at Hundreds, move up 9 at Tens, move up 6 at Ones, clear abacus. 7. Move up 7 at Hundreds, move up 7 at Tens, move up 5 at Ones, clear abacus. 8. Move up 8 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens, move up 9 at Ones, clear abacus. 9. Move up 9 at Hundreds, move up 9 at Tens, move up 9 at Ones, clear abacus. 10. Move up 1 at Thousands.

4

1.05

Write the correct numerals and number names.

Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

Thousands Hundreds

Tens Ones

Thousands Hundreds

Tens Ones

1.06

Visualise these numbers and draw the beads. Say the numbers out loud.

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

6

143

1.07

Try these with your abacus. Write down the number names as shown on the abacus.

2

1. (1) (2)

(3) Move up 2 at Ones Two hundred and sixty-two 2. (1) (2) (3) Move up 3 at Hundreds Move up 7 at Tens Move up 9 at Ones

2 1 3

2 1 3

1

2 3

1.08

Lets count in twos from 300. Visualise the numbers and draw the beads.

1.09

Lets count in fives from 360. Visualise the numbers and draw the beads.

1.10

Lets count in tens from 590. Visualise the numbers and draw the beads.

10

1.11

Use your abacus to move the beads. Write down the numbers shown on your abacus. Say the numbers out loud.

1. Move up 2 at Hundreds, move up 7 at Ones. 2. Move up 7 at Tens, move up 3 at Ones. 3. Move up 8 at Hundreds, move up 3 at Tens, move up 5 at Ones. 4. Move up 1 at Hundreds, move up 9 at Tens, move up 6 at Ones. 5. Move up 6 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens. 6. Move up 5 at Hundreds, move up 4 at Tens, move up 1 at Ones. 7. Move up 9 at Hundreds, move up 8 at Ones. 8. Move up 3 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens, move up 2 at Ones. 9. Move up 4 at Hundreds, move up 1 at Tens, move up 9 at Ones. 10. Move up 1 at Thousands.

11

1.12

Circle the smaller number.

12

1.13

Jenny is visualising some numbers. Write the numbers in ascending order.

ascending order

13

1.14

Jenny is visualising some numbers. Write the numbers in descending order.

descending order

14

1.15

Use your abacus to do the following. Clear the abacus before you start each exercise.

1. Move up 356. 2. Move up 1000. 3. Move up 113. 4. Move up 978. 5. Move up 183. 6. Move up 52. 7. Move up 906. 8. Move up 515. 9. Move up 777. 10. Move up 49. 11. Move up 521. 12. Move up 257.

13. Move up 825. 14. Move up 419. 15. Move up 710. 16. Move up 30. 17. Move up 613. 18. Move up 267. 19. Move up 174. 20. Move up 239. 21. Move up 271. 22. Move up 763. 23. Move up 579. 24. Move up 194.

15

Unit 2

2.01

Use your abacus to do the following.

16

2.02

Practise with your abacus to do the following.

1. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 101 (c) Up 38 3. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 210 (c) Up 168 5. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 333 (c) Up 165 7. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 601 (c) Up 277 9. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 322 (c) Up 655 11. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 900 (c) Up 27 13. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 715 (c) Up 182

17

2. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 57 (c) Up 421 4. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 19 (c) Up 760 6. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 415 (c) Up 531 8. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 444 (c) Up 555 10. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 300 (c) Up 607 12. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 856 (c) Up 132 14. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 503 (c) Up 296

2.03

Perform the following with your abacus.

1.

32 (Up 32) 114 (Up 114) 53 (Up 53) 212 (Up 212) 21 (Up 21) 608 (Up 608) 465 (Up 465) 740 (Up 740)

10 (Up 10) 75 (Up 75) 35 (Up 35) 672 (Up 672) 857 (Up 857) 291 (Up 291) 532 (Up 532) 256 (Up 256)

18

42

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

2.04

Use your abacus to calculate the following.

1. 42

+ 106 =

6. 408 + 90

7. 331 + 152 = 9. 170 + 516 = 11. 713 + 285 = 13. 60 + 200 = + 211 = + 300 = + 173 = + 910 =

8. 551 + 123 = 10. 600 + 206 = 12. 418 + 511 = 14. 523 + 255 =

19

2.05

Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 280 + 119? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 280, up 280

Step 2:

Step 3:

equals

280

119

20

2.06

Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 612 + 366? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 612, up 612

Step 2:

Step 3:

equals

612

366

21

2.07

Match the answers correctly.

1. The Little Friend of 3 is 2. The Big Friend of 7 is 3. The Big Friend of 4 is 4. The Little Friend of 2 is 5. The Big Friend of 6 is 6. The Big Friend of 5 is 7. The Little Friend of 1 is 8. The Big Friend of 2 is 9. The Big Friend of 9 is 10. The Little Friend of 4 is 11. The Big Friend of 8 is 12. The Big Friend of 3 is 13. The Big Friend of 1 is

22

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4

2.08

Practise the following with your abacus. Clear your abacus before you begin each exercise.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Up 2 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 4 at Ones. What do you get? Up 1 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones. What do you get? Up 1 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 2 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 1 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 2 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Down 4 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Down 6 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 7 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 8 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 9 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 2 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 3 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get?

23

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

Up 4 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 4 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Up 4 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Up 3 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Up 2 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 5 at Ones, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Up 3 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Up 2 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 6 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Up 2 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 7 at Ones, Down 6 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get?

24

45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64.

Up 8 at Ones, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 6 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 8 at Ones, Down 7 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 3 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 4 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 6 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 7 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 9 at Ones, Down 8 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 13, Up 1 at Tens, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get? Up 24, Up 2 at Tens, Up 5 at Ones, Down 1 at Ones. What do you get? Up 35, Up 5 at Tens, Down 2 at Tens, Down 5 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 46, Up 5 at Tens, Down 1 at Tens, Carry 1 at Tens, Up 1 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones. What do you get? Up 57, Down 5 at Tens, Carry 1 at Hundreds, Carry 1 at Tens, Up 2 at Ones, Down 5 at Ones. What do you get? Up 68, Carry 1 at Hundreds, Up 1 at Tens, Down 5 at Tens, Down 2 at Ones, Carry 1 at Tens. What do you get? Up 79, Carry 1 at Hundreds, Up 2 at Tens, Down 5 at Tens, Down 1 at Ones, Up 5 at Tens, Down 4 at Tens. What do you get? Up 483, Up 5 at Hundreds, Down 1 at Hundreds, Down 2 at Tens, Carry 1 at Hundreds, Up 5 at Ones, Down 2 at Ones. What do you get?

25

2.09

Work with your abacus to answer these questions correctly.

1. What is 4 + 3? Step 1: Up 4 Step 2: Up 3 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to move . up 3). We use the little friend of 3, which is Using the little friend of 3, up 3 is Up 5, Down little friend. So, up 3 becomes... Up , Down . Step 3: The answer is . What is 7 + 9? Step 1: Up 7 Step 2: Up 9 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to move up 9). We use the big friend of 9, which is . Using the big friend of 9, up 9 becomes Down , Carry at . Step 3: The answer is . What is 25 + 6? Step 1: Up 25 Step 2: Up 6 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to move up 6). We use the big friend of 6, which is . Using the big friend of 6, up 6 becomes Down 4, Carry at Tens (move the beads to carry at Tens first) But there are not enough beads at Ones to move down 4. We use the little friend of 4, which is . Using the little friend of 4, down 4 becomes Up little friend, Down . Up , Down Step 3: The answer is .

26

2.

3.

4.

What is 378 + 34? Step 1: Up 378 Step 2: Up 34 (but there are not enough beads at Tens and Ones to move up 3 and 4). At Tens, to move up 3 we use the big friend of 3, which is . Using the big friend of 3, up 3 at Tens becomes Down , Carry at . At Ones, to move up 4 we use the big friend of 4, which is . Using the big friend of 4, up 4 at Ones becomes Down , Carry at . Step 3: The answer is .

5.

What is 659 + 281? Step 1: Step 2: Up 659 Up 281 (move up 2 at Hundreds, but there are not enough beads at Tens and Ones to move up 8 and 1). At Tens, to move up 8 we use the big friend of 8, which is . Using the big friend of 8, up 8 at Tens becomes Down , Carry at Hundreds (move the beads to carry at Hundreds first). But there are not enough beads at Tens to move down 2. We use little friend of 2, which is . Using the little friend of 2, down 2 becomes Up little friend, Down . Up , Down . At Ones, to move up 1 we use the big friend of 1, which is . Using the big friend of 1, up 1 at Ones becomes Down , Carry at . Step 3: The answer is

27

2.10

When there are not enough beads, how do you move?

1.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 1. a. If using the help of the little friend, Up 1 becomes Up Down , Down , Carry . at . b. If using the help of the big friend, Up 1 becomes

2.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Up 2. a. If using the help of the little friend, Up 2 becomes Up Down , Down , Carry . at . b. If using the help of the big friend, Up 2 becomes

3.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 3. a. If using the help of the little friend, Up 3 becomes Up Down , Down , Carry . at . b. If using the help of the big friend, Up 3 becomes

4.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Up 4. a. If using the help of the little friend, Up 4 becomes Up Down , Down , Carry

28

. at .

5.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 5. Using the help of the big friend, Up 5 becomes Down , Carry at .

6.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Up 6. Using the help of the big friend, Up 6 becomes Down , Carry at .

7.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 7. Using the help of the big friend, Up 7 becomes Down , Carry at .

8.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Up 8. Using the help of the big friend, Up 8 becomes Down , Carry at .

9.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Up 9. Using the help of the big friend, Up 9 becomes Down , Carry at .

10.

There are not enough beads at Hundreds to move Up 5. Using the help of the big friend, Up 5 becomes Down , Carry at

29

2.11

Use your abacus to answer the following questions. 1. 14 + 26 = 3. 16 + 29 = 5. 35 + 9 = 2. 27 + 13 = 4. 8 + 33 =

6. 22 + 19 = 8. 12 + 23 = 10. 42 + 6 =

7. 23 + 14 = 9. 33 + 16 = 11. 28 + 39 = 13. 44 + 66 = 15. 66 + 88 = 17. 57 + 89 = 19. 17 + 28 + 39 = 21. 22 + 44 + 66 = 23. 44 + 66 + 88 = 25. 41 + 57 + 89 = 27. 64 + 49 + 33 = 29. 98 + 48 + 67 =

30

12. 29 + 37 = 14. 66 + 99 = 16. 77 + 99 = 18. 74 + 75 = 20. 18 + 29 + 30 = 22. 33 + 66 + 99 = 24. 55 + 77 + 99 = 26. 73 + 74 + 75 = 28. 57 + 58 + 59 = 30. 71 + 89 + 97 =

2.12

Work with your abacus to get the answers!

1. 134 + 257 = 3. 611 + 169 = 5. 234 + 345 = 7. 789 + 111 = 9. 413 + 354 = 11. 223 + 229 = 13. 777 + 199 = 15. 936 + 28 =

2. 316 + 578 = 4. 123 + 456 = 6. 345 + 123 = 8. 343 + 666 = 10. 513 + 395 = 12. 371 + 535 = 14. 747 + 146 = 16. 835 + 75 =

18. 424 + 287 = 20. 388 + 499 = 22. 124 + 135 + 146 = 24. 96 + 286 + 417 =

23. 288 + 472 + 111 = 25. 333 + 333 + 279 = 27. 276 + 344 + 239 = 29. 316 + 495 + 169 =

31

26. 603 + 192 + 193 = 28. 358 + 264 + 298 = 30. 444 + 232 + 158 =

2.13

Use your abacus to add these numbers.

1. +

83 228 68

2.

31 119 + 97

3. +

318 62 241

4. +

427 155 31

5. +

201 564 49

6. +

98 762 81

7. +

8. +

515 242 53

9. +

10. +

442 133 39

11. +

631 210 88

12. +

778 33 111

13. +

867 99 8

14. +

229 93 675

15. +

32

16. +

248 197 75

17. +

18. +

19. +

20. +

245 426 99

21. +

22. +

23. +

24. +

25. +

26. +

299 399 99

27. +

28. +

29. +

477 334 55

30. +

815 97 49

33

Unit 3

3.01

Use your abacus to do the following.

34

3.02

Practise with your abacus to do the following.

1. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 423 (c) Down 12 3. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 752 (c) Down 201 5. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 599 (c) Down 78 7. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 684 (c) Down 171 9. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 493 (c) Down 271 11. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 999 (c) Down 685 13. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 898 (c) Down 576

35

2. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 516 (c) Down 511 4. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 679 (c) Down 163 6. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 885 (c) Down 560 8. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 666 (c) Down 515 10. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 306 (c) Down 201 12. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 756 (c) Down 651 14. (a) Clear abacus (b) Up 895 (c) Down 665

3.03

Perform the following with your abacus.

1.

32 (Up 32) 176 (Up 176) 453 (Up 453) 862 (Up 862) 971 (Up 971) 447 (Up 447) 296 (Up 296) 754 (Up 754)

2.

3.

101 = (Down 101) 652 = (Down 652) 850 = (Down 850) 216 = (Down 216) 165 = (Down 165) 601 = (Down 601)

36

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

3.04

Use your abacus to calculate the following.

1. 186 21

3. 684 132 = 5. 498 301 = 7. 388 152 = 9. 776 516 = 11. 289 85 =

8. 764 213 = 10. 640 200 = 12. 603 601 = 14. 576 565 =

61 611 = =

18. 988 777 211 = 19. 850 200 650 = 20. 993 81 712 =

37

3.05

Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 887 636? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 887, up 887

Step 2:

Step 3:

equals

887

636

38

3.06

Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 678 157? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 678, up 678

Step 2:

Step 3:

equals

678

157

39

3.07

Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 779 258? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 779, up 779

Step 2:

Step 3:

equals

779

258

40

3.08

Lets visualise and calculate.

What is 969 366? Visualise and draw the beads. Step 1: 969, up 969

Step 2:

Step 3:

equals

969

366

41

3.09

When there are not enough beads, how do you move?

1.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 1. a. If using the help of the little friend, Down 1 becomes Up 4 , Down 5 . b. If using the help of the big friend, Down 1 becomes Tens . Remove 1 at Hundreds, Up 9 at

2.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Down 2. a. If using the help of the little friend, Down 2 becomes Up , Down . b. If using the help of the big friend, Down 2 becomes Remove at , Up at .

3.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 3. a. If using the help of the little friend, Down 3 becomes Up , Down . b. If using the help of the big friend, Down 3 becomes Remove at , Up at .

4.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Down 4. a. If using the help of the little friend, Down 4 becomes Up , Down . b. If using the help of the big friend, Down 4 becomes Remove at , Up at .

42

5.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 5. Using the help of the big friend, Down 5 becomes Remove at , Up at .

6.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Down 6. Using the help of the big friend, Down 6 becomes Remove at , Up at .

7.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 7. Using the help of the big friend, Down 7 becomes Remove at , Up at .

8.

There are not enough beads at Ones to move Down 8. Using the help of the big friend, Down 8 becomes Remove at , Up at .

9.

There are not enough beads at Tens to move Down 9. Using the help of the big friend, Down 9 becomes Remove at , Up at .

10.

There are not enough beads at Hundreds to move Down 5. Using the help of the big friend, Down 5 becomes Remove at , Up at .

43

3.10

Work with your abacus to answer these questions correctly. 1. Step 1: Step 2: Up 7 Down 3 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to move down 3). We use the little friend of 3, which is . Using the little friend of 3, down 3 becomes... Up , Down . The answer is . Up 18 Down 9 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to down 9). We use the big friend of 9, which is . Using the big friend of 9, down 9 becomes... Remove at , Up . The answer is . Up 22 Down 7 (but there are not enough beads at Ones to down 7). We use the big friend of 7, which is . Using the big friend of 7, down 7 becomes... Remove at , Up (remove the beads at Tens first). But there are not enough beads at Ones to move up 3. We use little friend of 3, which is . Using the little friend of 3, down 3 becomes... Up , Down little friend. Up , Down . The answer is .

44

Step 3:

4.

Step 1: Up 463 Step 2: Down 85 (but there are not enough beads at Tens and Ones to move down 8 and 5). At Tens, to move down 8... we use the big friend of 8, which is . Using the big friend of 8, down 8 at Tens becomes... at , Up . Remove At Ones, to move down 5... we use the big friend of 5, which is . Using the big friend of 5, down 5 at Tens becomes... at , Up . Remove Step 3: The answer is .

5.

Step 1: Up 846 Step 2: Down 267 (move down 2 at Hundreds, but there are not enough beads at Tens and Ones to move down 6 and 7) At Tens, to move down 6... . we use the big friend of 6, which is Using the big friend of 6, down 6 at Tens becomes... at , Up (remove the Remove beads first). But there are not enough beads at Tens to move up 4. . We use little friend of 4, which is Using the little friend of 4, up 4 becomes , Down . Up At Ones, to move down 7... we use the big friend of 7, which is . Using the big friend of 7, down 7 at Ones becomes... at , Up . Remove Step 3: The answer is .

45

3.11

Use your abacus to answer the following questions. 1. 26 14 = 3. 32 29 = 5. 35 9 = 2. 27 13 = 4. 33 8 =

6. 48 19 = 8. 44 26 = 10. 42 7 =

7. 23 15 = 9. 53 16 = 11. 66 28 = 13. 55 36 = 15. 93 88 = 17. 52 33 = 19. 92 6 29 = 21. 66 12 23 = 23. 88 66 7 = 25. 97 58 23 = 27. 43 15 9 = 29. 98 49 4 =

46

3.12

Work with your abacus to get the answers!

2. 578 386 = 4. 456 123 = 6. 345 123 = 8. 666 343 = 10. 513 395 = 12. 535 371 = 14. 757 148 = 16. 835 71 =

9. 413 354 = 11. 632 229 = 13. 777 199 = 15. 936 58 =

17. 738 175 = 19. 362 249 = 21. 615 97 108 = 23. 648 472 111 = 25. 733 345 79 = 27. 976 344 239 = 29. 900 26 738 =

47

18. 424 287 = 20. 488 399 = 22. 824 135 146 = 24. 906 287 315 = 26. 603 192 193 = 28. 700 264 107 = 30. 1000 17 346 =

3.13

Use your abacus to subtract the numbers.

1.

1000 412

2.

1000 386

3.

1000 573

4.

1000 993

5.

1000 678

6.

1000 846

7.

1000 250

8.

1000 607

9.

1000 504

10.

1000 57

11.

1000 84

12.

1000 22

13.

1000 93

14.

1000 16

15.

1000 68

16.

1000 5

17.

1000 3

18.

1000 9

48

19.

823 415

20.

786 462

21.

661 453

22.

509 235

23.

403 175

24.

306 168

25.

460 185

26.

580 492

27.

600 484

28.

787 399

29.

812 676

30.

966 679

31.

900 488

32.

800 669

33.

700 351

34.

800 413

35.

510 375

36.

200 117

49

3.14

Answer the questions with the help of your abacus.

1. There are 329 people in the hall. 173 of them wear a black shirt. How many of them wear other than black? =

2. There are 683 people at school. 461 of them are girls. How many of them are boys? =

3. Zura has 554 beads now. She needs 1000 beads. How many more should she get? =

4. The farmer collected 520 eggs from his farm. He went to the market and sold 379 of them. How many eggs are left? =

5. 46 out of 800 students came late to school. How many came early? =

6. If Andi needs 135 more stamps to have a total of 870 stamps in his collection, how many stamps does he have now?

50

7. What do you get when you take away 728 from 916? =

8. There are 931 fish altogether in the pond. 268 are dead. How many are alive? =

10. The baker used up 624 eggs in 3 months. In the first month she used 236 eggs. In the third month, she used 200 eggs. How many eggs did she use in the second month? =

11. Zura, Devi and Jenny have 484 coins among them. If Jenny has 129 and Devi has 73, how many coins does Zura have? =

12. Andi has 707 coins. He gives 38 coins to Ah Wai and 342 coins to Devi. How many coins does he have left? =

51

Unit 4

4.01

Practise the following with your abacus. Clear your abacus before you begin each exercise.

1. Up 317, Up 121, Down 215. 2. Up 782, Down 261, Up 368. 3. Up 135, Up 253, Down 176. 4. Up 893, Down 632, Up 717. 5. Up 224, Up 225, Down 318. 6. Up 387, Down 162, Up 663. 7. Up 510, Up 284, Down 684. 8. Up 441, Down 230, Up 182. 9. Up 902, Up 57, Down 509. 10. Up 449, Down 217, Up 651. 11. Up 676, Up 221, Down 270. 12. Up 199, Down 73, Up 622. 13. Up 488, Up 511, Down 889. 14. Up 253, Down 152, Up 897. 15. Up 745, Up 153, Down 191. 16. Up 587, Down 66, Up 456. 17. Up 837, Up 52, Down 238. 18. Up 668, Down 156, Up 277. 19. Up 256, Up 602, Down 357. 20. Up 987, Down 765, Up 675.

52

4.02

Fill in the blanks with the correct numbers. Use your abacus to calculate.

53

4.03

Complete the number sentences with correct numbers and symbols. Use your abacus to calculate.

1. Up 174, Down 63, Up 512 = 2. Up 291, Up 607, Down 818 = 3. Up 338, Up 511, Down 126 = 4. Up 425, Up 72, Down 371 = 5. Up 569, Down 54, Up 383 = 6. Up 807, Down 602, Up 634 =

54

4.04

Use your abacus to calculate.

1.

83 215 67

2.

31 117 23

3.

318 61 257

4.

427 561 76

5.

201 566 1 5 2

6.

97 702 88

7.

8.

815 210 82

9.

10.

11.

12.

788 33 111

13.

867 22 638

14.

599 93 181

15.

55

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

899 399 99

27.

28.

961 26 135

29.

30.

56

4.05

Lets visualise and calculate.

Step 1:

297, up 297

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

57

629

Step 1:

418, up 418

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4: 418

equals + 561

58

706

Step 1:

556, up 556

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4: 556

equals + 233

59

518

Step 1:

783, up 783

Step 2:

Step 3:

plus 31, up 31

Step 4: 783

equals 221 +

60

31

Step 1:

440, up 440

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4: 440

equals 200 +

61

751

Step 1:

998, up 998

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4: 998

equals 835 +

62

126

4.06

Calculate with your abacus.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

+ + +

+ + + + + + +

63

= = = = = = = = = =

11.

446

290

221

12.

895

261

232

13.

331

577

448

14.

700

277

15.

87

585

478

16.

867

565

333

17.

456

43

334

18.

734

171

289

19.

100

699

20.

602

346

255

64

21.

902

78

91

22.

1000

65

55

23.

499

501

67

24.

502

298

123

25.

687

223

49

26.

1000

365

275

27.

1000

38

25

28.

578

129

309

29.

301

395

30.

204

86

716

65

4.07

Rearrange the numbers so that the number sentences are true. Calculate with your abacus to check the answers.

257

362

251

368

736

861

38

163

772

652

78

198

66

260

139

198

201

886

617

566

937

177

812

86

721

67

79

63

371

387

551

780

111

340

57

559

346

848

68

178

574

415

811

675

515

999

839

155

227

722

650

69

5.01

1. 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 =

times

two

equals

70

2. 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 =

How many 3s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 3 =

3. 4 + 4 =

How many 4s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 4 =

71

4. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 =

How many 5s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 5 =

times

five

equals

5. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 =

How many 5s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 5 =

times

five

equals

72

6. 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 =

How many 3s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 3 =

7. 4 + 4 + 4 =

How many 4s are there above? You can also write the above sentence as x 4 =

73

5.02 7 x 2 =

Thats easy! We write 2 seven times and then we add them all up to get the answer.

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2=

Thats easy! We write 2 eight times and then we add them all up to get the answer.

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8 x 2 =

74

5.03 Lets add the numbers to find answers to the multiplication problems. 1. What is 6 x 2? 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 12 2. What is 9 x 2?

3. What is 5 x 2?

4. What is 3 x 2?

5. What is 2 x 2?

6. What is 7 x 2?

7. What is 4 x 2?

8. What is 8 x 2?

75

5.04

2+2=

2+2+2=

2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2=

2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2=

76

5.05 Lets add the numbers to find answers to the multiplication problems. 1. What is 6 x 3? 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 2. What is 9 x 3?

3. What is 5 x 3?

4. What is 3 x 3?

5. What is 2 x 3?

6. What is 7 x 3?

7. What is 4 x 3?

8. What is 8 x 3?

77

5.06

3+3=

3+3+3=

3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3+3+3+3=

3+3+3+3+3+3+3+3+3=

78

5.07

Lets add the numbers to find answers to the multiplication problems. 1. What is 6 x 4? 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 2. What is 9 x 4?

3. What is 5 x 4?

4. What is 3 x 4?

5. What is 2 x 4?

6. What is 7 x 4?

7. What is 4 x 4?

8. What is 8 x 4?

79

5.08

4+4=

4+4+4=

4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4=

4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4=

80

5.09

Lets add the numbers to find answers to the multiplication problems. 1. What is 6 x 5? 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 2. What is 9 x 5?

3. What is 5 x 5?

4. What is 3 x 5?

5. What is 2 x 5?

6. What is 7 x 5?

7. What is 4 x 5?

8. What is 8 x 5?

81

5.10

5+5=

5+5+5=

5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5+5+5+5=

5+5+5+5+5+5+5+5+5=

82

5.11

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

X X X X X X X X X

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

= = = = = = = = =

83

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

X X X X X X X X X

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

= = = = = = = = =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

X X X X X X X X X

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

= = = = = = = = =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

X X X X X X X X X

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

= = = = = = = = =

84

5.12

85

2. 4. 6.

8. 9 x 3 = 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 4x2= 3x3= 6x2= 1x3= 2x2=

5.13

86

2. 4. 6.

8. 9 x 5 = 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 4x4= 3x5= 6x4= 1x5= 2x4=

5.14

5x4 6x3 7x2 8x5 9x4 1x3 2x2 3x5 4x4 5x3 6x2

36 40 3 20 16 18 15 12 14 4 15

16 24 27 12 21 35 25 30 32 18 45

9x3 8x2 7x5 6x4 5x5 4x3 7x3 9x5 6x5 8x4 9x2

87

5.15 Answer the questions and colour the boxes accordingly. 1. Colour the multiplicand YELLOW, the multiplier ORANGE and the product GREEN. 7 x 4 = 2. Colour the multiplicand ORANGE, the multiplier YELLOW and the product GREEN. 8 x 3 = 3. Colour the multiplicand GREEN, the multiplier YELLOW and the product ORANGE. 2 x 5 = 4. Colour the multiplicand YELLOW, the multiplier GREEN and the product ORANGE. 1 x 4 = 5. Colour the multiplicand RED, the multiplier ORANGE and the product YELLOW. 4 x 2 = 6. Colour the multiplicand ORANGE, the multiplier RED and the product YELLOW. 1 x 5 = 7. Colour the multiplicand GREEN, the multiplier ORANGE and the product RED. 5 x 2 =

88

5.16 How do you show the products on the abacus? Draw the beads correctly.

89

4x5= 3. 4.

3x2=

7x3= 5. 6.

6x4=

3x3=

90

8x4=

5.18 Visualise the products and draw the beads. Write down the answer.

=

91

5.19 Visualise the products and draw the beads. Write down the answer.

5 3

2 2

9 4

7 5

92

5.20

1. If 4 x 3 = 12, what is 3 x 4? 2. If 2 x 5 = 10, what is 5 x 2? 3. If 4 x 5 = 20, what is 5 x 4? 4. If 3 x 2 = 6, what is 2 x 3? 5. If 3 x 5 = 15, what is 5 x 3? 6. If 2 x 4 = 8, what is 4 x 2? 7. 9. 11. 13. 15. 7 1 2 x x x x x 3 5 = = = = = 3 8 24 25 28 8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 8 3 6 5

93

Unit 6

6.01 Jenny has 21 oranges. She wants to give 3 oranges to each guest who comes to her house. How many guests will get the oranges from Jenny?

How do we solve this?

First, let us look at all the oranges Jenny has. Lets count them.

How many oranges are there? She wants to give each guest 3 oranges. So now, lets make groups of three from these oranges. The first group has been done for you. Continue grouping the oranges in threes.

How many groups of three are there altogether? So, if Jenny wants to give 3 oranges to each guest, how many guests will get the oranges?

94

How many oranges does Jenny have? How many oranges does she want to give to each guest? So, the number of guests who will get the oranges can be calculated as follows: 3 =

21 divided by 3 equals

What if Jenny has 27 oranges to give to her guests? How many guests will get the oranges?

How many groups of three can you make? So, how many guests will get the oranges? We can also calculate it this way: 27 divided by 3 equals

95

6.02 Divide the objects into groups of 2 and write the number sentences. 1.

4 2.

3.

4.

5.

96

97

6.04 Divide the objects into groups of 3 and write the number sentences. 1.

6 2.

3.

4.

5.

98

99

6.06 Divide the objects into groups of 4 and write the number sentences. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

100

101

6.08

Divide the dots into groups of 5 and write the number sentences.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

102

103

6.10

Answer the questions and colour the boxes accordingly.

1. Colour the quotient YELLOW, the divisor ORANGE and the dividend GREEN. 45 5 = 2. Colour the quotient ORANGE, the divisor YELLOW and the dividend GREEN. 24 4 = 3. Colour the quotient GREEN, the divisor YELLOW and the dividend ORANGE. 18 2 = 4. Colour the quotient YELLOW, the divisor GREEN and the dividend ORANGE. 18 3 = 5. Colour the quotient RED, the divisor ORANGE and the dividend YELLOW. 36 4 = 6. Colour the quotient ORANGE, the divisor RED and the dividend YELLOW. 35 5 = 7. Colour the quotient GREEN, the divisor ORANGE and the dividend RED. 21 3 =

104

6.11

Answer the following using the standard written method for division.

1. 2

14

2. 3

27

3. 2

10

4. 5

15

5. 4

32

6. 5

40

7. 3

18

8. 2

9. 3

10. 4

16

11. 5

35

12. 4

28

105

6.12

A

2x4 3x3 1x2 2x3 1x5 2x2 1x4 1x3 3x2 4x2

B

30 5 84 24 3 20 4 45 5 24 4 82 32 4 15 5 12 3

106

Reference Point

1.

0

Reference Point

2.

m: number of digits for dividend n: number of digits for divisor

m 82= 10 5 = 28 4 = 63=

107

n 1

mn1 -1 or 1

6.14 Label the rods and fill in the blanks correctly. Show the dividend, divisor and quotient on your abacus.

Reference Point

Dividend

5 Up 5 at rod 27 Up 2 at rod Up 7 at rod 6 Up 6 at rod 32 Up 3 at rod Up 2 at rod

Divisor

5 Up 5 at rod 3 Up 3 at rod

Quotient =

1 Up 1 at rod 9 Up 9 at rod m= n= m-n-1= m= n= m-n-1=

2 Up 2 at rod 4 Up 4 at rod

3 Up 3 at rod 8 Up 8 at rod

m= n= m-n-1=

m= n= m-n-1=

108

Dividend

Divisor

Quotient =

Up rod at m= n= m-n-1=

16

Up 1 at rod Up 6 at rod

4

Up 4 at rod

10

Up 1 at rod Up 0 at rod

2

Up 2 at rod

=

Up rod at m= n= m-n-1=

21

Up 2 at rod Up 1 at rod

3

Up 3 at rod

=

Up rod at m= n= m-n-1=

8

Up 8 at rod

4

Up 4 at rod

=

Up rod at

m= n= m-n-1=

35

Up 3 at rod Up 5 at rod

5

Up 5 at rod

=

Up rod at m= n= m-n-1=

Try again from the top and visualise the bead movements.

109

6.15 Remember your times-tables? Try and do these without looking at them. Say the number sentences out loud.

1. 30 5 = 2. 12 4 = 3. 93=

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

110

x 5 = 30 x 4 = 12 x3= 9 x 2 = 18 x 5 = 40 x 4 = 36 x 3 = 21 x 2 = 12 x 5 = 25 x 4 = 20 x 3 = 18 x 2 = 14

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