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Cc cng nhn nh my dt Unicorp nghe ni

v k hoch tng cng cng ngh tng nng


sut lao ng ca ban gim c. Cc cng nhn lo
ngi rng mt s trong s h s mt vic v lng b
gim.

i din cng nhn ngh gp ban gim c


tho lun

Theo bn, ban gim c c th c nhng gii


php no i ph vi cng nhn?

Bi 3: L THUYT SN XUT

L thuyt sn xut t nn mng cho l thuyt


cung
Vic ra quyt nh qun l lin quan n 2 loi
quyt nh sn xut
1. Kt hp s dng nhng u vo no
2. S dng cng ngh no

Hm sn xut
Hm sn xut l mt phng trnh ton hc cho bit

mc sn lng ti a c th sn xut c t mt tp
hp cc yu t u vo v cng ngh hin c.

Tin b cng ngh


f2(x)
f1(x) f0(x) - f2(x)
f0(x)

Q = sn lng
x = u vo

Hm sn xut (tip theo)


Q = f(X1, X2, , Xk)
Q
X1, , Xk

= sn lng
= u vo

n gin, gi s ch c hai yu t u vo: vn


(K) v lao ng (L):
Q = f(L, K)

Bng sn xut
S n v K
c s dng
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

37
42
37
31
24
17
8
4
1

60
64
52
47
39
29
18
8
2

83
78
64
58
52
41
29
14
3

Sn lng (Q)
96 107 117 127
90 101 110 119
73
82
90
97
67
75
82
89
60
67
73
79
52
58
64
69
39
47
52
56
20
27
24
21
4
5
6
7
S n v L c s dng

Cng mt mc sn lng Q c th c to ra vi nhiu cch kt hp


khc nhau gia cc yu t u vo, cc yu t u vo c th thay th
ln nhau mt mc nht nh

Sn xut trong ngn hn v di hn


Trong ngn hn mt s yu t u vo l c nh v mt

s khc c th thay i
V d, doanh nghip c th thay i s lao ng,
nhng khng th thay i lng t bn
Trong ngn hn chng ta c th bn v nng sut
nhn t

Trong di hn mi yu t u vo u c th thay i

V d, di hn l khong thi gian m mt doanh


nghip c th iu chnh mi yu t u vo theo
nhng tnh hung khc nhau
Trong di hn chng ta c th bn v hiu sut theo
quy m

Nhng thay i ngn hn ca qu trnh sn xut


Nng sut nhn t
S n v K
c s dng
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

37
42
37
31
24
17
8
4
1

60
64
52
47
39
29
18
8
2

83
78
64
58
52
41
29
14
3

Mc sn lng (Q)
96 107 117 127 128
90 101 110 119 120
73
82
90
97 104
67
75
82
89
95
60
67
73
79
85
52
58
64
69
73
39
47
52
56
52
20
27
24
21
17
4
5
6
7
8
S n v L c s dng

Sn lng Q thay i th no khi lng L tng?

Nhng thay i di hn ca qu trnh sn xut


Hiu sut theo quy m
S n v K
c s dng
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

37
42
37
31
24
17
8
4
1

60
64
52
47
39
29
18
8
2

83
78
64
58
52
41
29
14
3

Mc sn lng
96 107 117 127 128
90 101 110 119 120
73
82
90
97 104
67
75
82
89
95
60
67
73
79
85
52
58
64
69
73
39
47
52
56
52
20
27
24
21
17
4
5
6
7
8
S n v L c s dng

Mc sn lng thay i th no khi c L v K tng?

SN XUT TRONG NGN HN


Mi quan h gia Tng sn lng, Sn lng trung bnh v Sn
lng cn bin
Tng sn lng (TP) = tng s lng sn phm
Sn lng trung bnh (AP) = tng sn lng trn tng

u vo
Sn lng cn bin (MP) = s thay i ca sn lng khi

s dng thm mt n v u vo

Sn lng cn bin ca lao ng l s thay i ca

sn lng khi s dng thm mt n v lao ng (cc


yu t u vo khc gi nguyn)
MPL= Q/L (gi nguyn K)
= Q/L
Sn lng trung bnh ca L:

APL= Q/L (gi nguyn K)

Nu MP > AP th AP tng

Nu MP < AP th AP gim
MP = AP khi AP l ln nht
TP l ti a khi

MP = 0

Quy lut sn phm cn bin gim dn


Khi tip tc tng thm mt yu t u vo no trong iu kin
cc yu t khc khng i, n mt im no s n v sn
lng tng thm s bt u gim
V d, tng yu t lao ng m khng ng thi tng t

bn s dn n sn phm cn bin ca lao ng c xu


hng gim dn

Chng ta khng th ni trc c khi no sn phm cn bin gim dn,


m ch bit rng n s xy ra ti mt im no

Ba giai on sn xut trong ngn hn


AP,MP

G I

G II

G III

APX
Yu t u vo c
nh khng c
tn dng ti a;
chuyn mn ho v
lm vic nhm s
gip cho AP tng
khi s dng thm
X

MPX

Chuyn mn ho v
lm vic nhm tip tc
lm cho mc sn
lng tng khi s
dng thm X; yu t
u vo c nh c
s dng hp l

Cng sut ca yu
t u vo c nh
ti a; vic s
dng thm X lm
sn lng gim

Nguyn tc xc nh mc u vo ti u
Mt doanh nghip vi mc tiu ti a ho li nhun hot
ng trn th trng u ra v u vo cnh tranh hon
ho s kt hp u vo ti u khi doanh thu thm c
t vic bn cc sn phm m n v lao ng to ra
(sn phm doanh thu cn bin ca lao ng) bng vi
chi ph b thm thu thm n v (chi ph lao ng
cn bin)
MRP = MLC

Bi tp vn dng 1: Xc nh lao ng ti u trong ngn hn


P = Gi sn phm = $2
W = Chi ph mt n v lao ng = $10000
TRP = TP x P, MRP = MP x P
TLC = L x W
MLC = TLC / L

Kt hp Sn phm doanh thu bin ca lao ng (MRP) vi Chi ph lao ng bin (MLC)
Tng S.phm Tng
Chi ph
Lao ng Tng SL
SL
SL
Doanh
D.thu Chi ph Lao ng
trung bnh
bin
Thu
Bin Lao ng Bin
(L)
(Q hoc TP) (AP)
(MP)
(TRP)
(MRP) (TLC)
(MLC) TRP-TLC MRP-MLC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
10000
10000
10000
20000 20000 10000 10000
10000
10000
2
25000
12500
15000
50000 30000 20000 10000
30000
20000
3
45000
15000
20000
90000 40000 30000 10000
60000
30000
4
60000
15000
15000 120000 30000 40000 10000
80000
20000
5
70000
14000
10000 140000 20000 50000 10000
90000
10000
6
75000
12500
5000
150000 10000 60000 10000
90000
0
7
78000
11143
3000
156000 6000
70000 10000
86000
-4000
8
80000
10000
2000
160000 4000
80000 10000
80000
-6000

SN XUT TRONG DI HN

Mi u vo (c K v L) u c th thay i
Lm th no xc nh c kt hp ti u gia
cc yu t u vo?

minh ho cho trng hp ny chng ta s dng cc


ng ng lng v ng ng ph

ng ng lng
ng ng lng l mt ng th hin cc cch kt

hp c th c gia cc yu t u vo sn xut ra
cng mt mc sn lng u ra.
S n v K
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

37
42
37
31
24
17
8
4
1

60
64
52
47
39
29
18
8
2

83
78
64
58
52
41
29
14
3

Sn lng (Q)
96 107 117 127
90 101 110 119
73
82
90
97
67
75
82
89
60
67
73
79
52
58
64
69
39
47
52
56
20
27
24
21
4
5
6
7
S n v L

ng
ng
lng

S thay th gia cc yu t u vo
Cc yu t u vo c th thay th ln nhau mt
mc no .
Cc mc thay th khc nhau:

Xe taxi

T bn

ng
a) Thay th hon ho

Ngi li xe

b) B sung hon ho

K1 K2 K3

K4

ng
ho
hc

L1 L2 L3

L4

c) Thay th khng
hon ho

Lao ng

S thay th gia cc yu t u vo (tip theo)


Mc thay th gia cc yu t c o lng

bng t l thay th k thut cn bin (MRTS):


MRTS = K/L

MRTS cho bit mt s n v L no c th c

thay th bi K trong khi vn duy tr c mc sn


lng nh c

MRTS chnh l dc ca ng ng lng

MRTS = K/L = - MPL/MPK


S n v K
c s dng
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

37
42
37
31
24
17
8
4
1

60
64
52
47
39
29
18
8
2

83
78
64
58
52
41
29
14
3

Mc sn lng (Q)
96 107 117 127
90 101 110 119
73
82
90
97
67
75
82
89
60
67
73
79
52
58
64
69
39
47
52
56
20
27
24
21
4
5
6
7
S n v L

ng ng ph
ng ng ph l mt ng th hin

cc cch kt hp c th c gia cc yu
t u vo m vi mt mc chi ph nht
nh, doanh nghip c th thu mua
c.

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V d: ng ng ph

Gi nh PL =$100 and PK =$200

Cch kt hp cc yu t u vo
vi ngn sch l $1000
Cc kt hp
L
K
A
0
5
B
2
4
C
4
3
D
6
2
E
8
1
G
10
0
23

Kt hp ti u cc yu t u vo
K

100L + 200K = 1000


5
B
A

Q52
C

10

im kt hp ti u: im A: khi ng ng lng tip xc


vi ng ng ph, dc ca hai ng bng nhau.
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Kt hp ti u cc yu t u vo
Gi y chng ta c th tr li c cu hi lm th no

xc nh c s kt hp ti u gia cc yu t u vo

Nh ni trn, s kt hp ti u ny xy ra khi dc

ng ng lng (mc thay th gia cc yu t u vo)


bng dc ng ng ph (gi tng i ca cc yu t
u vo).

Mi quan h ny c th c biu din nh sau:

MPL/MPK = PL/PK
(hay MPL/PL= MPK/PK)

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Bi tp vn dng 2: Kt hp u vo ti u trong di hn
Mt cng ty mun ti thiu ho chi ph sn xut cho mt mc sn

lng trong mt gi, Q

S lng cng nhn s dng trong mt gi l L, s my mc s

dng trong mt gi l K, v hm sn xut c dng


Q = 10(LK)0.5.

Tin lng l $8 mt gi, v gi thu mt chic my l $2 mt gi


Cng ty ny nn s dng bao nhiu cng nhn v bao nhiu my

mc nu nh h mun sn xut 80 n v sn phm mt gi?

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Q = 10(LK)0.5
Tnh cc sn lng bin:
MPL = 0.5(10)K0.5L-0.5 = 5(K/L)0.5

MPK = 0.5(10)L0.5K-0.5 = 5(L/K)0.5

Do vy, nu MPL/PL = MPK/PK

K 0. 5
L

Nhn c hai v ca phng trnh trn vi

L 0 .5
K

5( ) 5( )

8
2

(K/L)0.5 5K/8L = 5/2 K = 4L.


Do Q = 80 10(LK)0.5 = 80 10[L(4L)]0.5 = 80 L = 4 v K = 16

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Hiu sut theo quy m


By gi chng ta xem xt mc thay i ca mc sn lng

khi gia tng tt c cc yu t u vo theo cng t l khi nim


hiu sut theo quy m
Nu mi yu t u vo trong qu trnh sn xut tng gp i, ba

trng hp c th xy ra:

Sn lng tng ln hai ln


Hiu sut tng theo quy m (IRTS)

Sn lng tng ln hai ln


Hiu sut khng i theo quy m (CRTS)

Sn lng tng t hn hai ln


Hiu sut gim theo quy m (DRTS)

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V d: Hiu sut theo qui m

S n v K
c s dng
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

37
42
37
31
24
17
8
4
1

60
64
52
47
39
29
18
8
2

83
78
64
58
52
41
29
14
3

Mc sn lng (Q)
96 107 117 127
90 101 110 119
73
82
90
97
67
75
82
89
60
67
73
79
52
58
64
69
39
47
52
56
20
27
24
21
4
5
6
7
S n v lao ng L

128
120
104
95
85
73
52
17
8

Qu trnh sn xut ny c hiu sut tng theo quy m


29

Nguyn nhn ca hiu sut tng theo quy m:


Phn cng lao ng (chuyn mn ho) lm tng

nng sut lao ng

Tnh khng th chia nh ca my mc hoc nh

my mc tinh vi lm tng nng sut

L do khng gian

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Nguyn nhn ca hiu sut gim theo quy m:


Ch yu do vic qun l doanh nghip v vic phi hp cc hot

ng cc b phn khc nhau ca doanh nghip tr nn kh


khn hn khi qui m hot ng ln hn:
Nhng vn v thng tin, truyn t
Thi quan liu
Trong thc t, lc lng gy ra hiu sut tng v gim theo qui

m thng hot ng song song.


Khi Q thp, lc lng gy ra IRTS ln t lc lng gy ra
DRTS

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o lng hiu sut theo quy m

Nhn cc h s ca hm sn xut:
Nu hm sn xut gc c dng
Q = f(X,Y)
Sau khi nhn tt c cc yu t u vo vi hng s k th hm
sn xut c dng
Q = f(kX, kY)
Nu
Q > kQ hiu sut tng dn
Q = kQ hiu sut khng i
Q < kQ hiu sut gim dn

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Bi tp vn dng 3

Nu hm sn xut ca mt doanh nghip c c lng l hm Cobb-Douglas


Q = 10K0.5L0.7
Xc nh h s co gin ca sn lng theo vn v lao ng. Nu doanh nghip
ch tng s vn hoc s lao ng ln 10% th sn lng c th tng ln bao
nhiu?
Doanh nghip ny c hiu sut tng, gim hay khng i theo qui m?

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