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AIAA Distinguished Lecture

Missile Design and System Engineering

on

Eugene L. Fleeman, E-mail: GeneFleeman@msn.com, Web Site: http://genefleeman.home.mindspring.com


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the Publisher and / or Author. 11/9/2011 ELF 1

AIAA Textbook and Short Course: Missile Design and System Engineering
Chapter 1: Introduction / Key Drivers in the Missile Design and System Engineering Process Chapter 2: Aerodynamic Considerations in Missile Design and System Engineering Chapter 3: Propulsion Considerations in Missile Design and System Engineering Chapter 4: Weight Considerations in Missile Design and System Engineering Chapter 5: Flight Performance Considerations in Missile Design and System Engineering

Chapter 6: Measures of Merit and Launch Platform Integration / System Engineering


Chapter 7: Sizing Examples and Sizing Tools Chapter 8: Missile Development Process

Chapter 9: Summary and Lessons Learned


References and Follow-up Communication Appendices ( Homework Problems / Classroom Exercises, Example of Request for Proposal, Nomenclature, Acronyms, Conversion Factors, Syllabus, Quizzes, Design Case Studies, TMD Spreadsheet, Soda Straw Rocket Science )
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Typical Missile Subsystems Packaging Is Longitudinal, with High Density


Dome Seeker Warhead Electronics Warhead Propulsion Flight Control

Wings

Stabilizers

Body Airframe Structure


Note: Missile density ~ 60% density of concrete ( 0.05 vs 0.08 lbm / in3 )
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Missile Design and System Engineering Requires System Integration


Environmental
Storage . Transportation.. Carriage

Launch Platform Constraints


Geometry Weight Loading / Launcher / Launch Separation Safety Survivability / Observables Avionics / Vetronics

Targeting
Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Fire Control System

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( C4ISR )

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Most Missiles Use Skid-to-Turn Maneuver, Other Options: Bank-to-Turn, Rolling Airframe, Divert

Skid-To-Turn ( STT ): Sea Sparrow

Bank-to-Turn ( BTT ) JSOW

Rolling Airframe ( RA ): HOT

Divert:

MKV

Video of Sea Sparrow, JSOW, HOT, and MKV Flight Trajectories


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Each Type of Air Breathing Propulsion Has an Optimum Mach Number for Max Specific Impulse
4,000 ISP, Specific Impulse, Thrust / ( Fuel or Propellant Weight Flow Rate ), s
Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel Turbojet: ISP typically constrained by turbine temperature limit

3,000

2,000

Liquid Hydrocarbon or Solid Fuel Ramjet: ISP typically constrained by combustor insulation temperature limit Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel Scramjet: ISP typically constrained by thermal choking Solid Propellant Ducted Rocket

1,000

Solid Propellant Rocket: ISP typically constrained by safety

0 0 2 4 6 Mach Number 8 10 12

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Laminate Graphite Composite Provides a High Strength-to-Weight Airframe


12.0

ultimate, tensile / , Ultimate Tensile Strength / Density, 105 In.

10.0 8.0

Graphite / Polyimide ( = 0.057 lb / in3 ), 0-45-90 Laminate Graphite / Epoxy ( = 0.065 lb / in3 ) 0-45-90 Laminate Ti3Al ( = 0.15 lb / in3 ) Ti-6Al-4V Annealed Titanium ( = 0.160 lb / in3 ) PH15-7 Mo Stainless Steel ( = 0.277 lb / in3 ). Note: High strength ( thin wall ) steel susceptible to buckling.

6.0
Graphite

4.0
2.0 0

Glass Chopped Epoxy 2219-T81 Composites, Random Orientation Aluminum ( = 0.103 lb / in3 ) ( = 0.094 lb / in3 )

Major Limitations

, Temperature Temperature Buckling Cost

200

400
ELF

600

800

1,000
7

Short Duration Temperature, F


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Accurate Guidance Enhances Lethality

BILL - Two 1.5 kg EFP warheads

Roland - 9 kg warhead: multi-projectiles from preformed case..

Hellfire - 24 lb shaped charge warhead ..

2.4 m witness plate

GMLRS - 180 lb blast / fragmentation warhead .


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Video: BILL, Roland, Hellfire, and GMLRS Warheads


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Most Kinetic-Kill Missiles Are Used Against Ballistic Missile and Armor Vehicle Targets

Standard Missile 3 Kill Vehicle ( NTW )

THAAD

PAC-3

GBI

LOSAT
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LOSAT Video
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Most Long Range Strike Missiles Use Either High Speed or Low RCS for Survivability
High Speed

SS-N-22 Sunburn ( Ramjet Supersonic Propulsion )

3M-54E Sizzler ( Rocket Supersonic Penetrator / Turbojet Subsonic Fly-out )

Low RCS

NSM ( Faceted Dome, Decoupled Airframe, Body Chines, Composite Structure )


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JASSM ( Flush Inlet, Window Dome, Trapezoidal Body, Single Tail, Canted Nozzle, Composite Structure )
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Missile Carriage Size, Shape, and Weight Limits May Be Driven by Launch Platform Compatibility
Launch Platform Integration / Firepower

US Launch Platform
Surface Ships

Launcher
VLS

Carriage Span / Shape

Length
263

Weight
3400 lb

Submarines

CLS

263

3400 lb

22
Rail / Ejection

Fighters / Bombers / Large UCAVs


Ground Vehicles

~24 x 24

~168

~500 lb to 3000 lb

Launch Pods Helo Rail, UCAV Rail / 13 x 13 Ejection Gun Barrel 120 mm
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158

3700 lb

Helos / Small UCAVs

70

120 lb

Tanks
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40

60 lb
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Missile Guidance / Launch Platform Integration Varies from Autonomous to Command Guidance
Active Seeker Transmitted Energy Seeker Target Reflected / Emitted Energy Launch / Midcourse Guidance

1. Homing Active / Passive Seeker Guidance

2. Homing SemiActive Seeker Guidance


Launch / Midcourse Guidance

Semi-Active Seeker

Target Reflected Energy

Fire Control System Tracks Target

3. Command Guidance
Launch / Midcourse Guidance Rear-looking Sensor Detects Fire Control System Energy

Fire Control System Tracks Target, Tracks Missile, and Command Guides Missile
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Missile Climatic Environment Requirements Are Typically Based on the 1% Probability Extreme
Environment Parameter Typical Requirement
Surface Temperature

- 60 F to 160 F* Surface Humidity 5% to 100% Rain Rate 120 mm / h** Surface Wind 150 km / h*** Salt Fog 3 g / mm2 per year Dust / Sand / Dirt 2 g / m3, wind @ 18 m / s Vibration 10 g rms at 1,000 Hz: MIL STD 810G, 648, 1670A Shock Drop height 0.5 m, half sine wave 100 g / 10 ms Acoustic 160 dB External Power Fluct +/- 10%, MIL-HDBK-781

ATACMS Launch

Video: Ground / Sea Environment

Note: MIL-HDBK-310 and earlier MIL-STD-210B suggest 1% world-wide climatic extreme typical requirement. * Highest recorded temperature 136 F. Lowest recorded temperature = - 129 F. 20% probability temperature lower than 60 F during worst month / location. ** Highest recorded rain rate = 436 mm / h. 0.5% probability greater than 120 mm / h during worst month / location. *** Highest recorded wind = 407 km / h. 1% probability greater than 100 km / h during worst month / location. Typical external air carriage maximum hours for aircraft 100 h. Typical external carriage max hours for helicopter 1000 h.
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Sizing Examples and Sizing Tools

Rocket Baseline Missile

Ramjet Baseline Missile

Turbojet Baseline Missile

Computer Aided Conceptual Design Sizing Tools

Soda Straw Rocket


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Examples of Missile Development Tests and Facilities


Airframe Wind Tunnel Test

Propulsion Static Firing with TVC ..

Propulsion Direct Connect Test .

Propulsion Freejet Test

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Examples of Missile Development Tests and Facilities ( cont )

Warhead Arena Test .

Warhead Sled Test

Insensitive Munition Test ..

Structure Load Test ..

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Examples of Missile Development Tests and Facilities ( cont )

Seeker Test .

Hardware-In-Loop

Environmental Test ..

Submunition Dispenser Sled Test


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Examples of Missile Development Tests and Facilities ( cont )


RCS Test .

Store / Avionics Integ Test

Flight Test .

Video of Facilities and Tests

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Missile Development Flight Test Should Cover the Extremes / Corners of the Flight Envelope
Example: Ramjet Baseline Missile Propulsion Test Validation ( PTV )
High L / D Cruise Flight 7 Flight 3

High Aero Heating


Flight 7

( 40 s )
Booster Transition: Thrust - Drag Flight 1
Flight 7

( 60 s ) Flight 1 failure of fuel control. As a result of the high thrust, the flight Mach number exceeded the design Mach number.

( 140 s ) Flight 5 ( 160 s ) ( 140 s )

Flight 3

Flight 7 ( 500 s )

Flight 3 ( 200 s )

Flight 2 failure of flight control. Because the missile was out of control, the flight was intentionally terminated.

Note: Seven Flights from Oct 1979 to May 1980 ( 1 / month )


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Missile Technologies Have Transformed Warfare


Air Targets
1957: SA-2 Rocket Motor High Altitude Intercept 1956: Sidewinder Proportional Guidance Lethality 1973: Sea Dart Radar Seeker BVR Intercept 1987: Archer TVC Lethality 2001: PAC-3 Accuracy Ballistic Missile Defense

1985: Stinger Two Color Seeker 2002: SM-3 Accuracy Target Acquisition in Clutter High Alt Missile Defense

1950

1960
1957: R-7 ICBM

1970

1980

1990

2000

Future

1969: GBU-10 Laser Guid 1982: Sunburn Ramjet Precision Strike Time Critical Strike 1972: SRAM Low Observables 1989: Hellfire Digital Processor Multi-purpose & High Reliability Survivability 1979: Tomahawk Light Turbine Long Range Strike 2000: JDAM GPS / INS Low Cost X Weather Strike

Surface Targets

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Note: Year is initial operation application ( IOC )


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Conduct Unbiased and Creative System-ofSystems Design, with Rapid Evaluation / Iteration
Mission / Scenario / System Definition
Initial Update Revised Trades / Eval Initial Reqs Alt Concepts Baseline Selected Iteration Effectiveness / Eval

Weapon System Requirements, Trade Studies and Sensitivity Analysis Launch Platform Integration

Initial Carriage / Launch

Refine Weapon Req

Weapon Concept Design Synthesis Technology Assessment and Dev Roadmap


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Alternate Concepts Select Preferred Design Eval / Refine Initial Tech Tech Trades Initial Revised Roadmap Roadmap

Note: Conceptual design requires fast cycle, ~ 3 to 9 months.


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Wrap Up ( Part 1 of 2 )

Missile Conceptual Design and System Engineering Is a Creative, Fast, and Iterative Process that Includes
System requirements flow-down System integration considerations Missile concepts and sizing Technology assessment Flight trajectory evaluation Measures of merit evaluation

Cost / Performance / Risk Drivers Are Often Locked In During Conceptual Design Missile Conceptual Design and System Engineering Is Best Conducted by a Diverse Group


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Military customer mission / scenario definition Operations analysts system-of-systems modeling System integration engineers launch platform integration Missile design engineers missile concept synthesis Technical specialists technology assessment / technology roadmap
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Wrap Up ( Part 2 )

The Missile Conceptual Design System Engineering Philosophy Requires


Iteration, iteration, iteration Evaluation of a broad range of alternatives Traceable flow-down allocation of requirements Starting with a good baseline Pareto sensitivity analysis to determine most important, driving parameters Awareness of System Engineering Boundaries / Constraints Synergistic compromise / balanced subsystems and technologies that are high leverage

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Follow-up Communication
I would appreciate receiving any questions, comments, and corrections that you may have on this presentation, as well as any data, photographs, drawings, videos, examples, or references that you may offer.

Thank you,
Gene Fleeman Missile Design and System Engineering E-mail: GeneFleeman@msn.com Web Site: http://genefleeman.home.mindspring.com

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