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Derivation of Wiens and Stefan-Boltzmann Laws from Blackbody Radiation Distribution

R() =

I.

c
c  8 
hc/
u() =
4
4 4 ehc/kB T 1

(1)

WIENS DISPLACEMENT LAW

hc
ehc/kB T 

dR 
5
2 kB T
= 0 = R()
+ hc/k T
B
d max

e
1

0 = 5 ehc/kB T + 5 +
Let x =

hc
,
kB T

(2)

hc
ehc/kB T
kB T

(3)

then we can write,


0 = ex (x 5) + 5

Solution: x =

hc
kB T

M AX T =

II.

(4)

= 4.965
1240 eV nm
hc
=
= 2.898 106 nm K
5
4.965kB
(4.965)(8.617 10 eV /K)
I=

STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW:

I=

Let x =

R() d =
0

hc
kB T

then =

R
0

(5)

R() d = T 4

1
8c hc
d
5
hc/k
T 1
B
4 e

1 hc
x kB T

and d =

dx hc
x2 kB T

(6)

(7)

Substituting for and d in terms of x and dx, the integral in Eq. 6 becomes,

8c (kB T )4
I=
4 (hc)3

x3 dx
ex 1

8c (kB T )4
4 (hc)3

[ 4 /15]

(8)

So,

I=

2 5 (kB T )4
15 c2 h3

T4

(9)

where
=

4
2 5 kB
15 c2 h3

W
2 5
(1.381 1023 J/K)4
= 5.67 108
8
2
34
3
2
15 (3.00 10 m/s) (6.626 10
J sec)
m K4

(10)

(11)