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ilias saxelmwifo universiteti semiotikis kvleviTi centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

XII SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2012

2 UDC 8122

mTavari redaqtori cira barbaqaZe Editor-in-Chief Tsira Barbakadze

redaqtorebi Tamar berekaSvili Tamar lomiZe gia joxaZe

Editors Tamar Berekashvili Tamar Lomidze Gia Jokhadze

ilias saxelmwifo universiteti, semiotikis kvleviTi centri 2012 ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT: E-mail: semiotics@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
gza enasa da kulturaSi, gzis semiotika
elizbar elizbaraSvili (Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis saxelmwifo universiteti) istoriis gzis dasasruli Jan bodriaris filosofiis postmodernul Sav xvrelSi...............................................8 cira barbaqaZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
koncepti ocneba _ gza da labirinTebi (semiotikuri analizi) ......................................................................................15 n. TuSabramiSvili, n. baxtaZe, l. suxiSvili (Tbilisi,

ilias saxelmwifo universiteti)


zemo imereTi - gzebi, kldis Zeglebi da komunikaciis sakiTxebi .....................................................................................27 rusudan mircxulava (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
gza, rogorc saxviTi art-Treningis ZiriTadi simbolo.. .....................................................................................38 inga milorava (Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis

qarTuli literaturis instituti)


`gzis~ sivrculi modeli modernistul teqstSi .......... 48 maia jaliaSvili(Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis

qarTuli literaturis instituti)


`gzis~ mxatvruli modeli (Tamaz bibiluris romani `Svidi xmisa da torolasaTvis~) ........................................................................65 dali baxtaZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo universiteti) gza taZrisaken (ena da religia) ...........................................73

4 salome omiaZe (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universiteti) `gza~, rogorc lingvosemiotikuri niSani ........................81 lali daTaSvili (Tbilisi, saqarTvelos pedagogTa kvalifikaciis amaRlebis centraluri instituti) gzis, svlisa da olamur sivrceSi gadaadgilebis aspeqtebi Zvel qarTul literaturaSi .............................86 xaTuna maisaSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
galis drama, anu maradiuli mZevlebi.................................97 naira bepievi, nino popiaSvili (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universiteti) gzis recefciebi kavkasiur miTologiaSi ..........................105 laSa CxartiSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti, doqtoranti)
liris geografia....................................................................115 zeinab kikviZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti)
semantemagzada misi paradigmebi.......................................122 mariam goduaZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti, doqtoranti)
koncept gzis enobrivi aRqmis sakiTxisaTvis............... 130 rusudan zeqalaSvili (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
`gzis~ Semcveli Sesityvebebis semantika ...........................149

5 sofiko kvantaliani (Tbilisi, saqarTvelos erovnuli

universiteti, (seu)
gza labirinTidn (x. l. borxesi `babilonis biblioTeka~, u. eko `vardis saxeli~) ............................................................163 nato wuleiskiri (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti)
koncept gzis ZiriTadi leqsikografiuli da semantikuri aspeqtebi .............................................................173 ada nemsaZe (Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti) gzis sivrculi da warmosaxviTi ganzomilebani oTar WilaZis romanebSi .....................................................................183 irine maniJaSvili (Tbilisi, davT aRmaSeneblis

universiteti(sdasu)
gzis semiotika qarTuli enis masalebis mixedviT...........189

semiotika da sxva
mirian ebanoiZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti)
taZris semiotika.......................................................................202

gia joxaZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
qarTvel berTa yoveldRiurobis ramdenime elementis Taobaze (giorgi merCules ,,grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis mixedviT) ....................................................................................207

goCa kuWuxiZe (Tbilisi, Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli

literaturis instituti)
monazonTa gza wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebaSi. . . 230

maka vasaZe (Tbilisi, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, doqtoranti) robert sturuas saTeatro enis zogierTi maxasiaTebeli ........................................................................................................240 Tamar lomiZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo universiteti) klasikuri epistemis cneba da qarTuli anbanTqebebi. . . .249 maka laSxia (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo universiteti,

doqtoranti)
warmosaxvis cnobierebidan Tavisuflebis cnobierebamde ...........................................................................271

nino gogiaSvili (Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
Rimilakis konteqsti qarTul eleqtronul sivrceSi feisbukis mixedviT ..................................................................280 SoTa barbaqaZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti, magistri) suerte de muerte - cxovrebis gza .............................286

Sorena barbaqaZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti)
gza siyvarulidan pasuxismgeblobamde (vergiliusis poemis ,,eneida-s mixedviT) ...............................................299

meri nebieriZe (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo

universiteti, magistri)
gza, rogorc semiotikuri niSani d. kldiaSvilis personaJTa metyvelbaSi .......................................................313 malxaz mayaSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
komunikacia mdedrebsa da mamrebs Soris ..........................320 Tamar berekaSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
identobis problema Tanamedrove samyaroSi ...................326

elizbar elizbaraSvili

istoriis gzis dasasruli Jan bodriaris filosofiis postmodernul `Sav xvrelSi~


postmoderni rom istoriis filosofiaSi Savi xvrelia, es yvelaze reliefurad Jan bodriaris filosofiaSi mJRavndeba. bodriaris filosofia STanTqavs Tavis winamorbed istoriis filosofiis yvela paradigmatul models: spiraluri brunvisas, istoriis dasasrulisas Tu usasrulo, sworxazobrivi ganviTarebisas. frangi avtori TiTqos sakuTar TavSi erTdroulad aerTianebso arnold toinbis, frensis fukuiamas da ganmanaTlebel iohan herders, magram sanam maT STanTqavdes da gaaqrobdes, maT deformirebas axdens da saxes ucvlis maT. Jan bodriarTan istoriis gzis spirali istoriis turbulentur bzrialad modificirdeba, istoriis gzis dasasruli istoriis sivrcis retrospeqtul gamrudebad an hiperrealur samyaroSi istoriis gaqrobad, xolo istoriis gzis dausrulebeli ganviTareba istoriuli farsebis dausrulebel procesad gardaiqmneba. Tanamedroveobis, teqnikuri ganviTarebis da yvela, aqamde arsebuli linearuli struqturis gazrdili

istoriis gzis dasasruli Jan bodriaris filosofiis...

siCqare qmnis turbulenturobas da saganTa wriul dabrunebas, romelic imas cxadyofs, rom dRes aRaraferia Seuqcevadi, wers Jan bodriari eseSi aTaswleulebis CrdilSi, anu 2000 wlis SeCereba. rodesac istoria gadadis turbulentur bzrialSi, igi ganvlili epoqebis Sesrutvis, Sewovis gziT warsulidan periodulad abrunebs yvelafers. yvelaferi, razec Cven vfiqrobdiT, rom ukve didi xnis mkvdaria, dasrulebulia, damarxulia universaluri progresis auwereli simZimis qveS, brundeba. es gvagonebs Jurassic Park is bolo scenas, rodesac klonirebuli dinozavrebi uecrad gamoCndebian muzeumSi, sadac maTi gaqvavebuli winaprebia gamoufeniaT. isini anadgureben yvelafers, sanam TviTon maT gaanadgurebdnen. es ramdenadme emsgavseba adamianis dRevandel situacias. Cvenc CavebiT Cvens oreulebTan da Cvens gaqvavebul formebTan brZolaSi (gv. 4), agrZelebs bodriari. igive azri aqvs gamoxatuli frang avtors fragmentSi, sadac istoriis turbulenturi Zravis bzrialis wva-afeTqebaze gvesaubreba: ,,axali perspeqtivebisaken moZraobis magier, istoria dayovnebebiT feTqdeba, da es afeTqebebi sxva ara aris ra, Tu ara movlenaTa aRdgena, romelzec Cven, rogorc odiTganve momxdarze, ise vfiqrobdiT ( gv. 3). es aris istoria, sadac eqstremaluri movlenebis daCqareba, recirkulaciis (gadamuSavebis) dausrulebel samuSaosTan erTad, qmnis ganmeorebad situaciebs, romelTa axsna istoriuli mizezebiT (raison historique) ukve SeuZlebelia. ganmeorebadi situaciebi, rogorebicaa omebi, eTnikuri konfliqtebi, nacionalisturi da religiuri ajanyebebi, mudmivad Cndebian. Cven SegviZlia, maT moCvenebiTi movlenebi vuwodoT (ghost-events). vfiqrobdiT, rom SegveZlo warsul movlenebTan Sedarebisas gagvego isini, magram isini ukve imaves aRar niSnaven (gv. 6). frangi avtori wignSi borotebis gamWvirvaloba 1990 wels werda: amave dros, Tanamedrove fizikis mier turbulenturobis, qaosis da katastrofis movlenebze Catarebuli analizis Sedegad, CvenTvis cnobilia, rom nebismieri nakadi, nebismieri linealuri procesi, rodesac mas aaCqareben, Rebulobs ucnaurad katastrofulad mruddeba ( . . 2000 gv. 149). istoriis dasasrulis paradigmaze ki Jan bodriari azrTa mTel paradoqsul nazavs ,,gvasxurebs: paradoqsia, magram istoria

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elizbar elizbaraSvili

arasdros dasrulebula, radgan mis mier dasmuli problemebi sabolood arasdros gadamwydara. ufro istoriis dasasruls icileben Tavidan, roca arc erT problemas ar wyveten (,,qalaqi da siZulvili, Jurn. arili. 2001. 20 seqtemberi). diax, imis magivrad, rom hegelTan, marqsTan an fukuiamasTan marTlac gadamwydariyo (rogorc isini gvaimedebdnen) sakacobrio istoriis problemebi, hantingtonis TqmiT, yvela problema darCa, boroteba agrZelebs arsebobas da amitom _ istoriac grZeldeba. iq, sadac Tavdapirveli sikeTea gabatonebuli, sadac Tavdapirveli socialuri harmoniaa, istoria ar iwyeba. istoriis dasasrulis xedvaSi istoria aris realur borotebasTan brZolis gaxangrZlivebuli procesi, am borotebis saboloo damarcxeba-amoZirkvisaken mimarTuli. da radganac borotebis saboloo damarcxeba sanatreli gagvixda, sanatreli gvaqvs istoriis dasasrulic. Jan bodriari ambobs: Cven davkargeT istoriis dasasruli istoriasTan erTad, roca am aTaswleulis bolos Seiqmna istoriuli sivrcis retrospeqtuli gamrudeba. Jan bodriari statiaSi aTaswleulebis CrdilSi, anu 2000 wlis SeCereba wers: istoriuli sivrcis retrospeqtuli gamrudeba SesaZloa aTaswleulis dasasrulis didi aRmoCena iyos. igi Seesabameba mrud figuras, romelic yovel winamaval stadiaze gavliT isev ukan brundeba (gv. 3). frangi postmodernisti ganagrZobs: sinamdvileSi Cvens energias vxarjavT samyaros usasrulo ngrevaSi, istoriis ganadgurebaSi, romelsac aRar ZaluZs Tavisi dasasrulis warmoqmna... kidev erTxel vityvi, rom aRar gagvaCnia istoriis dasasruli, aramed mxolod uunaroba, daamTavro istoria. Cven davkargeT istoria, mis dasasrulTan erTad. miaRwio bolos es yvelaze sasurvelia, rac ki SeiZleba moxdes. dasasruls da mxolod dasasruls aqvs unari gviTxras, Tu ra moxda sinamdvileSi (gv. 5). wignSi borotebis gamWvirvaloba Jan bodriari aRwers istoriis retrospeqtuli gamrudebis arss, romelic dasasrulis miuRwevlobasa da istoriis Tanmimdevrul waSlaSi mdgomareobs: unda dagvesva kiTxva im Semobrunebaze, romelsac Tanamedrove movlenebSi axorcielebs ara marto sakuTari dasasrulisaken moZravi _ misi linearuli fatalobis nawili romaa _ aramed sakuTari arsis gadatrialebisa da sistematuri waSlisaken mimavali istoria. axla mivdivarT iqiT, rom

istoriis gzis dasasruli Jan bodriaris filosofiis...

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waiSalos mTeli XX saukune, erTi meoris miyolebiT waiSalos civi omis yvela simptomi, SesaZloa, yvelaferi, rac meore msoflio oms da saukunis politikur da ideologiur revuluciebs gvaxsenebs. germaniis gaerTianeba da bevri sxva movlena gardauvalia ara istoriis winsvlis, aramed mTeli XX saukunis gadaweris mniSvnelobiT, romliTac dakavdeba bolo misi aTwleuli. am mimarTulebiT svlisas, SesaZlebelia, male saRvTo romanul-germanul imperias davubrundeT. iqneb esaa am saukunis dasasrulis gonebrivi ganaTeba, istoriis dasasrulis winaaRmdegobrivi figuris namdvili azri! (gv. 145). filosofosi xazs usvams, rom rogorc aRmosavleTis movlenebi metyvelebs (aq sabWoTa blokis dangreva igulisxmeba, e.e.), es procesi SeiZleba Zalze swrafi tempiT ganviTardes swored imitom, rom saqme ara SeqmnasTan, aramed istoriis Zlier ngrevasTan gvaqvs, romelic TiTqmis virusul, epidemiur formas Rebulobs. sabolood, SesaZloa, 2000 weli saerTod ar dadges imitom, rom istoriis gamrudeba sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT ise aSkaraa, SeuZlebeli iqneba drois horizontis gadalaxva (gv. 140). ai, rogor dasruldeba sabolood istoriis gza istoriis dasasrulis bodriariseul versiaSi istoria Tavisi saboloo daniSnulebisaken usasrulod ivlis, magram verasodes miaRwevs mas. sabolood ki, misgan sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT daSorebul asimptomatur traeqtoriad iqceva istoriis dausruleblobasa da ukusvlas SegviZlia istoriis paradoqsuli dasasruli vuwodoT. istoriis dasasrulis paradigmaze Jan bodriars ufro radikaluri koncefciac aqvs. imave wignSi filosofosi gveubneba: ,,dRes Cven aRar varsebobT politikurad an istoriulad (gv.133). 1981 wels wignSi simulakrebi da simulaciebi frangi postmodernisti wers, rom Cveni drois umTavresi movlena realobis agonia da simulaciis eris dasawyisia (J.Boudrillard. Simulacres et Simulation. paris). istoria realuri iyo, magram dRes ukve hiperrealuri gaxda. es aris istoriidan gasvlis, misi dasasrulis simulaciuri modeli, rodesac istoriis referenti daikarga da igi miTad iqca. aTaswleulebis CrdilSi, anu 2000 wlis SeCereba- Si vkiTxulobT: ,,Tanamedrove epoqa postTanamedrovea im azriT, rom misi mdgomareoba movlenaTa simulaciisa da moCvenebiTobis mdgomareobaa, romlisTvisac erTaderTi scena masobrivi

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informaciis saSualebebia, istoriisa, romelsac aRar ZaluZs ganaxleba ararealuri istoriisa (gv. 6). istoria daikarga informaciis grigalisebr xveulSi (gv .7). masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis mier warmoebuli movlenebi ukve aRar floben raime istoriul mniSvnelobas. maT aRara aqvT politikuri axsnis forma_ movlenebi xdebian virtualurni. sayovelTao virtualoba anadgurebs imas, rasac Cven SegviZlia vuwodoT Tuki amas kidev aqvs raime mniSvneloba _ istoriis realuri moZraoba. am wertilidan Cven vvardebiT transpolitikur, anda transistoriul sferoSi. am sferoSi movlenebi ukve aRar mimdinareoben realur sinamdvileSi sakuTari warmomavlobisa da realur droSi gaSlis gamo. isini SeiZleba iyvnen mxolod transpolitikurad Sepyrobilni. isini, rogorc transpolitikuri movlenebi, Cakargulni arian informaciis vakuumSi. informaciuli sfero _ es aris sivrce, sadac movlenebi bolos da bolos Tavisufldebian sakuTari arsebisagan, aRdgenilia xelovnuri seriozuloba da movlenebi brundebian orbitaze, sadac isini realur droSi SemCnevadni xdebian. an, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, istoriuli vitalobis dakargvis Semdgom, movlenebi, SesaZloa, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis transpolitikur doneze iqnen retranslirebulni. xdeba igive, rasac adgili aqvs kinofilmis Seqmnisas. Tu istoria kinofilmia (radac igi namdvilad gadaiqceva Tavis uSualo retro-proeqciisas), simarTle masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSia es sxva araferia, Tu ara - Semdgomi sinqroni, dublaJi, subtitrebi (gv. 6-7). maS ase, dagvrCa kidev erTi sakiTxi istoriis gzis dausrulebeli progresis paradigmis modificireba-gadagvareba istoriuli farsebis dausrulebel procesad, romelic veRarasodes daubrundeba realur istorias: cifruli, kibernetikuli da virtualuri teqnologiebis CareviT, Cven ukve realobis miRma varT, xolo sagnebi _ sakuTari dasrulebis miRma. maT aRar SeuZliaT dasruleba da usasrulobis (usasrulo istoriis, usasrulo politikis, usasrulo ekonomikuri krizisis) ufskrulSi cvivian (aTaswleulebis CrdilSi, anu 2000 wlis SeCereba, gv. 5). aq frangi avtori k. marqsis filosofias iSveliebs da gveubneba: istoria iyenebs ganmeorebis teqnikas imisaTvis, rom win wavides, maSin, rodesac faqtobrivad, ukan brundeba. istoria gameorebiT farsad

istoriis gzis dasasruli Jan bodriaris filosofiis...

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gadaiqceva. da Cven SegveZlo dagvematebina: farsi ganmeorebiT gadaiqceva istoriad (gv. 6). bodriari askvnis: Cveni naxtomi virtualur samyaroSi arRvevs im yvelanair materialur pirobas, romlebzec saubrobda marqsi, da SeuZlebels xdis dRevandeli istoriuli situaciis raimenair dialeqtikur axsnas (gv.7). rogorc vTqviT, istoriis turbulenturi bzriali Seiwovs, mudam ukan abrunebs yovelgvar warsuls da am kvlavdabrunebis procesiT iqmneba istoria, rogorc farsTa dausrulebeli Tanmimdevroba. axla aRvweroT mTliani procesi: istoriis filosofiis Savi xvreli moicavs, deformirebas axdens, urTierTgadanaskvavs da bolos STanTqavs misi winare epoqis yvela paradigmatul models. ai, rogor xdeba es: istoriis filosofiis samive paradigmatuli modeli _ istoriis spiraluri brunvis, istoriis dasasrulis da istoriis dausrulebeli progresisa _ vardeba Jan bodriaris mravalSriani, paradoqsuli azrovnebis velSi da erTmaneTis gverdigverd ganicdis modificirebas: spiraluri brunva _ istoriis turbulentur bzrialad, dausrulebeli progresi _ istoriis farsebis procesad, xolo istoriis dasasruli istoriuli sivrcis retrospeqtul gamrudebad an hiperrealur samyaroSi istoriis gaqrobad modificirdeba. TiToeuli es modeli, sxva danarCenebTan erTad, frangi postmodernistis azrovnebaSi qmnis difuziur kvanZs, sadac yvela erTmaneTTan aris SeerTebul-Serwymuli. aq ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs da ixlarTeba rTul postmodernul kvanZSi vedur-herakliteseultoinbiseuli, avestur-bibliur-hegeliseuli da anaqsagoraherderiseuli istoriuli modelebi. istoriis turbulenturi bzriali Sewovis talRis meSveobiT mudmivad abrunebs warsulis movlenebs da qmnis farsebis dausrulebel process, rogorc istorias. es aranamdvili istoria ki ukavSirdeba hiperrealur sferoSi istoriis gaqrobas. Tavis mxriv, istoriuli sivrcis retrospeqtuli gamrudeba, romelic veRar miiwevs momavlisaken da mudmivad warsulis gadaweriT aris dakavebuli, ukavSirdeba turbulentur bzrials, romelSic istoria mudmivad warsulidan acocxlebs gardasul formebs. hiperrealobis sivrce ki, romelic Tanamedrove informaciuli, kibernetikuli da virtualuri teqnologiebis udidesma ganviTarebam moitana,

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Tavis mxriv SesaZlebels xdis informaciul media-sivrceSi cariel siCqareze istoriis turbulentur bzrials. Semdgom ra xdeba? Semdgom _ araferi _ simulaciis ganzomileba STanTqavs yvelafers, rogorc es moxda platonisa da nicSes SemTxvevaSi. bodriaric ar gamohyofs istoriis wakiTxvis am romelime modelTagan privilegirebuls, ar Tvlis, rom romelime maTgani sxvaze sicocxlisunariani, sxvaze ufro WeSmariti unda iyos. yvelaferi iZireba da qreba simulaciis ganzomilebaSi.* es aris Savi xvreli _ yvela modelis qroba simulaciis sivrceSi. es istoriis gzis bodriariseuli dasasrulia. Jan bodriari xom postmodernizmSi simulaciis Teoriis pirveli Teoretikosia! is, rac ver gamoTqva platonma, ver Camoayaliba sruli saxiT nicSem, frangi avtoris SemoqmedebaSi mas calke wigni aqvs daTmobili simulakrebi da simulaciebi (1981) _ da bunebrivia, bodriari yvelafers, maT Soris - istoriasac, simulaciis prizmaSi aRiqvams. *erTia, istoriulad, kacobriobis istoriis garkveul etapze hiperrealuri xanis dadgoma da mTliani kulturis da istoriis hiperrealurSi gaqroba anu simulaciur reJimSi gadasvla, da meorea, roca istoria, rogorc aseTi, simulaciurad ganixileba _ vedebidan daviwyebT, Tu platonidan, Cven istorias vkiTxulobT, rogorc ararsebuls, romelic iqmneba da arsebobs simulaciurad. es exeba istoriis gagebis nebismier models. Jan bodriarTan simulaciis ganzomileba STanTqavs da aqrobs mis filosofiaSi Semosul yvela istoriul models, maT Soris (istoriis) realobidan hiperrealurSi gadasvlis modelsac.

literatura bodriari J., qalaqi da siZulvili, Jurn. ,,arili, 2001. 20 seqtemberi . , 2000 http://www.vusnet.ru/forum/ . . . 2000 J.Boudrillard.SimulacresetSimulation.paris1981

cira barbaqaZe

koncepti ocneba _ gzebi da labirinTebi


semiotikuri analizi ocneba - leqsikonebSi cnobilia, rom konkretuli saxelis warmoTqmisas adamianebs am sagnis sruliad gansxvavebuli formebi uCndebaT cnobierebaSi, abstraqtul saxelebTan mimarTebiT ki suraTi sruliad siurealisturia, miT ufro, Tu es sityva, amave dros, koncepticaa. aseT SemTxvevaSi, rTuldeba sityvakonceptis erTi ZiriTadi mniSvnelobis dadgena da mas imdeni mniSvneloba aqvs, ramdeni adamianic warmoTqvams. konceptis azris gasagebad saWiro xdeba am enaze molaparakeTa koleqtiuri cnobierebis analizi _ anu rogori da rogori mniSvnelobiT iyeneben am sityvas, rogori asociaciebia dakavSirebuli am sityviT gamoxatul cnebasTan, rogori iyo misi arqetipuli mniSvneloba, rogor gamoixateba myar sityvaTSexamebebsa da frazeologizmebSi, agreTve _ literturasa da sasaubro metyvelebaSi.

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cira barbaqaZe

koncepti warmoadgens azris verbalur gamovlinebas, azri ki iqmneba niSnebiT, Cven SegviZlia azrs CavwvdeT mxolod sityvebis meSveobiT. koncepti miekuTvneba nacionalur enobriv cnobierebas, igi enisa da azris erTianobaa, romelic asaxavs idealuri an realuri samyaros sagans (movlenas) da inaxavs enis nacionalur mexsierebaSi verbaluri aRmniSvnelis saxiT. koncepti _ abstraqtulobis maRali xarisxis semantikuri warmonaqmnia. Cven ganvixilvT swored erT aseT koncepts: ocneba. am sityvis warmoTqmas yovelTvis gansxvavebuli warmodgenebi, aRqmebi da asociaciebi axlavs erTi molaparakis SemTxvevaSic ki, amitom am sityviT gamoxatuli mniSvnelobaTa niuansebi yovelTvis mravalferovani da bundovania. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis mixedviT, sityva ocneba ganimarteba: 1. imis warmodgena, ris ganxorcielebac sasurvelia; sasiamovno, sanatrel rameze fiqri. oh, ra kargi xar, ocnebav tkbilo(vaJa).... 2. gadat. TviT is, razedac an vizedac ocneboben, ocnebis sagani. katoa Cemi ocneba... (vaJa), is aris Cemi tkbili sizmari da momxiblavi mZlavri ocneba (akaki). sainteresod ganmartavs sulxan-saba orbeliani ocnebas: xolo

ocnebiTi ars Zali usityvelisa sulisa moqmedeba grZnobaTa mier, romeli saxel-idebis grZnobad, rameTu romeli ara WeSmarit da arsebiT iyos, cxad ars viTar sagoneblobiT da ocnebiT iqmnebis, viTarmed ara ra sadme hpovo.
sulxan-sabas mixedviT, ocneba aris sulis moqmedeba grZnobaTa mier, romelic sinamdvileSi ar arsebobs; es ubralod, sulis mdgomareobaa, netari mdgomareoba, magram meocnebe adamianis tragedia maSin iwyeba, rodesac am or samyaros urevs erTamaneTSi da realobas ejaxeba. am ganmartebis mixedviT, ocneba da realoba erTi mTelis nawilebia da iseTive antonimebi, rogorebic: dRe da Rame, ca da miwa, sizmari da cxadi... romlebic erTmaneTze zemoqmedeben, magram gansxvavebuli

koncepti ocneba _ gzebi da labirinTebi

17

mxareebia. galaktion tabiZe leqsSi ocneba da sinamdvile ocnebas uwodebs mware gaTiSvas fiqrTa da sinamdviles Soris. frzeologizmebidan SeiZleba gamovyoT Semdegi:

ocnebas kaci ar mouklavs _ ramdenic ginda iocnebe, mainc ar axdebafuWi ocneba _ realur safuZvels moklebuli,
ganuxorcielebeli ocneba

ocnebas mieca _ ocneba daiwyo ocnebidn gamoiyvana _ ocneba Seawyvetina ocnebis koSkebs agebs
_ gatacebiT ocnebobs Znelad

gansaxorcielebel rameze

ocnebis morevSi gadaeSva _ TavdaviwyebiT ocnebobs ocnebis zRvaSi Secura _ Tavdaviwyebam waiRo
sintagmebi: amao ocneba, tkbili ocneba, mware ocneba, tkbil-

mware ocneba, asrulebuli ocneba, ausrulebeli ocneba, ocnebis gza, ocnebis bilikebi... im ocnebas gaumarjos, romelic arasodes axdeba _ qarTuli
sadregrZeloebidan. enaSi arsebuli uzusuri mniSvnelobebi konceptis ZiriTadi sayrdenia, magram imisaTvis, rom CavwvdeT qarTuli ocnebis azrs, unda ganvixiloT is konteqstebi da masTan dakavSirebuli mniSvnelobebi, romelSic es sityva gvxdeba enis funqcionirebis sxvadasxva sferoSi.

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ocneba _ teqstebSi

cira barbaqaZe

qarTuli kulturis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani teqstia Raribi d qila erbo, romelic kargad gamoxatavs qarTvelis mimarTebs ocnebasTan. am teqstis mixedviT qarTveli kaci aris iolad gamdidrebisken midrekili meocnebe, romelic ise erToba ocnebaSi, rom yvelaferi aviwydeba:
_ Caval qalaqSi, erbos maneTad gavyidi, im fuliT Tormet varikas viyidi, davzrdi, davasuqeb, mere Caviyvan qalaqs da TiTos aT-aT Saurad gavyidi, naSovni fuliT goWebs viyidi, davasuqeb da or-or maneTad gavyidi, Semdeg saxare xborebs viyidi, xarebad gavzrdi, gavmarTav urems, guTans, movxnav, davTesav da avSendebi... am fiqrebSi rom iyo, viTomc urems SeSa kidec daudo da qalaqs gasayidad miaqvs. _ aq xom xari Znelad gaivlis, xma unda mivceo da SesZaxa: _ hamoo! Tan joxi mouqnia. erboiani qoTani Zirs davarda da gatyda, erboc sul daiRvara. darCa meocnebe glexi iseTive Raribi, rogoric iyo.

es teqsti ar Seiqmneboda, rom ara qarTvelis Tviseba: Tavdaviwyebul ocnebas mieces da dakargos realobasTan kavSiri. teqsti sarkea da rogorc ilia ityoda, masSi unda Caixedo da dainaxo Seni avi da ara imitom, rom igive gaimeoro, aramed imisaTvis, rom icode, ra gaqvs Sesacvleli. ilia WavWavaZem bazaleTis tbiT axali miTi da saocnebo misca qarTvelebs:

iqneb akvanSi is yrma wevs, visic ar iTqmis saxeli, visac dRe da Ram hnatrulobs Cumis natvriTa qarTveli?
iqneb amitom qarTvelebi gamudmebiT mxsnelis molodinSi arian da am gmirs sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva saxels arqmeven.... mxsneli ki TiTqmis arasdros ar amarTlebs, radgan qarTvelis meocnebe buneba Raribi da qila erbos SinaarsiT ikvebeba... ilia WavWavaZe ki isev ityvis: awmyo Tu ara gwyalobs, momavli Senia! _ esec cru dapirebasaviTaa, Tavi rom gadairCinos erma,

koncepti ocneba _ gzebi da labirinTebi

19
bednieri

Torem jer momavali.

ar

arsebula

awmyoSemomwyralTaTvis

kargia Tu cudia ocneba... unda viocneboT Tu unda davexsnaT ocnebebs...? ocneba Cveni cnobierebis Tvisebaa da SeuZlebelia, mas daexsna, iseve, rogorc SeuZlebelia, rom mxolod ocnebiT icxovro. konceptisaTvis ambivalenturoba niSania, Sesabamisad, ocneba sasargebloc SeiZleba iyos da sazianoc. am azrs kargad gamoxatavs vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebidan ori fragmenti. erT SemTxvevaSi, poeti ocnebas kvamls adarebs da negatiurad ganixilavs, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi _ pozitiurd. erT-erT eseiSi vaJa wers: me ki RmerTma damixsnas da zogis TavSi es fiqri xandaxan kvamlad gadaiqceva; am kvamls ocnebas veZaxiT, Tqvens mters, rac es kvamli imas, vis TavSic astydeba, avardeba, saqmes dahmarTebs: Tvalebs ubrmavebs, yurebSi bambas ucobs... fiqriani da moszrebiani kacic Zlier ufrTxis ocnebas, - ufrTxis imitom, rom ocneba, jer erTi, tvins ulayebs kacsa da meore _ saqmes acdens... vaJas am leqsSi ki vkiTxulobaT: Cemo samSoblo mxareo!

Cemis kacobis gvirgvino,

Sengan Sobili ocneba guls SanTad gaviyareo. ar mimefaro TvalTagan, damicev, damifareo. bevrs tanjvas gamovlili var, bevri dRe vnaxe mwareo. ar daimalvis, rogorc mze, rac me cremlebi vRvareo. is moigone, mainca, beCavo are-mareo! Cems cremls ubeSi inaxav, vici, samSoblos mTvareo; ar miRalato, ocnebav, mnaxodi male-maleo.

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ki ar Semomwyre, mimuxTlo, iaro gare-gareo. Tu amas izam, wina dRiT saflavi gamiTxareo. movkvde, kacT xeli meridos, ocnebav, dagibareo: Sen mnaxe, Sena, marto Sen, guls miwa momayareo. sagulisxmoa, rom vaJa-fSavela erT SemTxvevaSi msjelobs, poeziaSi ki ocnebis funqcia sul metaforulad ganicdeba, gasulierebulia da mas poeti, rogorc suliers, wmindans. ocneba samSobloa.

cira barbaqaZe

pragmatulad sxvaa, ocneba ise mimarTavs aq sanukvari

giorgi leoniZis natvris xis personaJi, eliozi, ewireba ocnebas:

sawyali eliozi mainc ver gaeqca Semzarav sinamdviles da ocnebis xes Seewira.
saintereso damokidebulebas WaRara ocnebasTan. avlens akaki wereTeli leqsSi

poeti ocnebas akavSirebs imedTan (cis niWTan), xolo eWvTan asocirdeba ocnebis mokvla, uimedoba. am WidilSi finalSi akaki ambobs: ara, ayvavdes imedi... ................................................ magram imedi, cis niWi, rom gamielvebs glax-gulsa,

Tavi tariel mgonia, ocnebiT garemoculsa. magram vaime, rom eWvi mougzavnia jojoxeTs: macdur sarkeSi maxedebs, ocnebas miklavs... guls mixeTqs!.. ambobs: fridon da avTandil jer ver gadixdis omsao!...

koncepti ocneba _ gzebi da labirinTebi

21

da Senc tariels mohgavxar ise, viT kata lomsao. marTali aris, magram ra? risTvis davkargo imedi? gmirs wina-uZRvis yovelTvis uZluri winamorbedi!.. ara! ayvavdes imedi!... guls ver gamitexs WaRara!.. gmirebs uZaxis... uyivis Cemi dafi da naRara!..

ocneba galaktionTan

rac ufro Sors xar, miT ufro vtkbebi, me SenSi miyvars ocneba Cemi, xeluxlebeli, rogorc mzis sxivi, miuwvdomeli, rogorc edemi...
es striqonebi galaktionis ocnebis erTgvari himnia: misTvis miuwvdomeli da Soreulia mxolod saocnebo. ase qmnis igi meris xatebasac. ocnebis morevSi gadaSvebuli poeti qaosebis mxatvaria... da romc axdes misi ocneba, materializdeba qaosebSi. rogoria galaktionis ocnebis anatomia? ocneba mcenarea, amitomac mas SeuZlia Sriali, romelic, Tavis mxriv, edareba gafrenili arwivis frTebs: rad aSrialda Cemi ocneba, rogorc gafrenil arwivis frTebi? atmis xe Slili ocnebas hgavda... ocneba cecxlia: sadRegrZelo iyos misi, vinc ocnebiT iwvoda;

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maTi mxurvale ocnebebiT msurs viamayo; rom ocnebebiT cecxli galeso, sulo, im cecxlze umxurvaleso. ocneba xomaldia: sad odesme meocnebe afrebiT...;

cira barbaqaZe

is irRveva, is ocneba berdeba da xomaldi napralebTan Cerdeba. da gaSala ocnebaTa lurji ialqnebi.

Zveli, axali, Sori, mxurvale, gulgapobili, gayinuli, mokluli, sneuli, Wreli, tkbili, mawre, giJi, Cumi...
ocnebis atributebia: es ocneba aris Wreli fiqri bneli Ramisa...; Zvel ocnebebze romeli ar swuxs?; dgas gayinuli ocnebaT kreba; gaqra giJi ocneba; Rirda Tu ra sxva sicocxleze ocneba Cumi da fermixdili; sadac moklul ocnebiT RimilisTvis Cavedi; ocnebao, Cemo, Zvelo, var RameTa mTeveli; erTi Sori ocneba maxsovs Zvel motividan... da mesizmrebi Sen, visac qera samosi gmosavs sneul ocnebiT; giyvrdes marad ocneba Cveni _ gulgapobili;

ocneba ganmeorebadia:

koncepti ocneba _ gzebi da labirinTebi

23

magram gulSi dards nu isev, ocneba Tu gSordeba, yovelive igi isev ise ganmeordeba. aseTi ocnebebis Semdeg poeti uflebamosilia Tqvas: he, qaosSi dakarguls, qari damedevneba.

gaZevebuli ocnebebi roca cnobiereba ivseba ausrulebeli ocnebebiT, maSin is amsubuqebis nacvlad mZimdeba da aucileblad unda gadaitvirTos. qarTuli cnobiereba enisa da literaturis teqstebis mixedviT ausrulebeli ocnebebiTaa savse da modis axali Taoba, romelic aprotestebs amao da fuW ocnebebs, axdens mis ironizebas da amiT amyarebs erTgvar wonasworobas cnobierebaSi. am mxriv gamorCeuli teqstebi aqvT: giorgi kekeliZes, paata Samugias da zaza koSkaZes... Wirsac wauRia eg Tqveni sevda, wamova wvima, iwvimebs da Wirsac waiRebs... me gavaZeve ocnebebi da survilebi, avkide qarebs, amZimebT qarebs... ...kvdomis rigSi Cadgnen qarebi da simSvidea... var mCate... (giorgi kekeliZe)

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............................... Cemi suli waqceuli qaris wisqvilia, viRam mixedos obmodebul ocnebis tomrebs_ movlen Tagvebi da daxraven, usaTuod movlen, dideba Tqvenda, Tagvno! me gaswavliT Tqven yvela kunWuls, sadac ki miZevs mivardnili rame ocneba _ sulyvela kuTxes, rom daimSeT ufro da ufro da Cemi sulis daCrCiluli kedlebic daxraT _ Cemi suli xom

cira barbaqaZe

waqceuli qris wisqvilia... (giorgi kekeliZe)

........................................................

paata Samugia ki ase emijneba sauTar Tavs _ fiqrs, cremls da


ocnebas: me Cemi megobari var da vcxovrob Cemgan asiode fiqris moSorebiT da vcxovrob Cemgan asiode cremlis moSorebiT da vcxovrob Cemgan asiode ocnebis moSorebiT...

zaza koSkZis ironizeba ki ase mZafrad gamoiyureba:


ra saWiroa ocnebebi - Tu isini TvalebSi ar agiyroldeba. ra saWiroa religia TviTmkvlelobebi... Tu mas ar moaqvs fsiqozi da masobrivi

koncepti ocneba _ gzebi da labirinTebi

25

daskvnisTvis koncepti ocneba adamianis Sinagan samyaros aRwers da axasiaTebs. ocneba rTuli struqturisaa da is gansxvavebulad reprezentirdeba sxvadasxva kulturaSi. konceptis aRweradxasiaTebiT Cven warmovadgenT qarTuli cnobierebis enobriv suraTs. miuxedavad imisa, rom gaanalizebuli masalebi aris fragmentuli, zogad suraTs maiinc iZleva. qarTuli ocnebis aRwerisas gamoikveta Semdegi kognitiuri modelebi: a) ocneba megobari...) _ sulieri, adamiani (satrfo, deda, smSoblo,

b) ocneba _ frinveli, cxoveli g) ocneba _ mcenare (yvavili, xe...) mxolod mis xmaze ixsneba kari da SeCveuli dumils da lodins, frTxilad mococavs ocneba gareT, viT Sin gazrdili mcenaris ylorti (oTar WilaZe) d) ocneba _ cecxli... e) ocneba _ xomaldi v) ocneba _ gazafxuli isev galobad dasxdnen frTosnebi, yayaCos Savi Svenis xalebi, yvelas dudga Jami (grigol abaSiZe) ocnebis, gnaxlebis da feriscvalebis

ocneba ganixileba ori mTavari mimarTulebiT:

26

cira barbaqaZe

ocneba, rogorc sulis mdgomareoba, romelsac ara aqvs mizani da mizezi da arsaiT ar miemarTeba; (ufro metad poeziaSi) oh, ra kargi xar, ocnebav tkbilo! (vaJa) ocneba _ survili, mizani..., rodesac sasurvelze fiqrobs adamiani da romlis axdena momaval droSi aris SesaZlebeli (sasaubro da prozaul metyvelebaSi). ocneba ambivalenturi semantikisaa, masTan enaSi dakavSirebulia, rogorc dadebiTi, aseve uaryofiTi semantika; saleqsikono aRwerebis mixedviT, qarTul kulturaSi am konceptTan ufro metad ganuxorcielebeli ocnebebia dakavSirebuli, rac Seexeba poezias, es sruliad sxva ganzomilebaa da poeziaSi ocneba warmodgenilia uformod, qaosurad, rac gamoricxavs kidec mis axdenas. amitom iyofa ocnebebi: Zvel, daberebul an axal ocnebebad... ausrulebel ocnebebze dardi poetebis movaleobaa (auxdenel fiqrs vin ar igonebs, Zvel ocnebebze romeli ar wuxs...?), Tumca Tanamedrove poeziaSi SeiniSneba amgvari kvnesa-godebis moyirWeba da amitom gamodis axali Taoba ocnebebis gamZeveblad... paradoqsulia, magram ocnebebis axdena iwyeba roca dgeba qmedebis dro, roca sruldeba ocneba... es mdgomareoba cnobierebisaTvis aris monacvleobiTi, rogoc Jami qvebis Segrovebis da qvebis srolis, aseve ocnebobis da ocnebebis materializebis... literatura
1989: , ( ) Sartre J.P. 1943: L'tre et le Nant, P. 1943 ..1990: .,1990. // .

. 1999: . .,1999.

n. TuSabramiSvili n. baxtaZe, l. suxiSvili


zemo imereTi - gzebi, kldis Zeglebi da komunikaciis sakiTxebi


zemo imereTis regioni (zemo imereTis plato) warmoadgens karstul sistemas, romlis formireba zeda carcul periodSi unda dasrulebuliyo. plato WiaTuris municipalitetis teritoriaze daserilia mdinareebiT (md. yvirila da misi Senakadebi), romlebic qmnian sakmaod Rrma (150 m-mde) kanionebs. kanionebSi, flateebsa da kldeebSi uxvad aris warmodgenili rogorc bunebrivi, ise istoriul epoqebSi nakveTi xelovnuri gamoqvabulebi, mRvime-qvabebi. regionisadmi interesi jer kidev XVIII saukunis didma qarTvelma istorikos-geografosma, vaxuSti bagration gamoxata, romelic Tavis TxzulebaSi `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, zemo imereTis mimoxilvisas werda: `sveris wylis SesarTavidam mRvime-saCxeremde, am yvirilas iqiT da aqeT ars friad maRali klde, da arian mas Sina quabni mravalni, gamokveTili saxizrad da Seuvali mtrisagan, da sakuirveli, viTar uqmniaT. Dda dadga [e.i. Seiqmna.

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n. TuSabramiSvili, n. baxtaZe, l.suxiSvili

Nn.b.] esenic Jamsa yrusasa~ (vaxuSti batoniSvili 1973:760). me-19 saukuneSive, mRvimevisa da mis maxloblad mdebare kacxis monastrebi mounaxulebiaT m. broses (Brosset M.-F 1851:88-93), g. wereTels ( . 1898), d. baqraZes ( . 1853) da sxva cnobil mkvlevrebsac, magram am kompleqsebSi qvis saeklesio nagebobebis da bunebrivi mRvimeebis gverdiT arsebul kldeSi nakveT qvabovan sistemebze yuradReba arc maT gaumaxvilebiaT. Aes mecnierebi arc xeobis mezobel, kldovan monakveTebSi arsebuli xelovnuri gamoqvabulebis daniSnulebiT dainteresebulan. isini, vaxuSti batoniSvilis Sefasebis gavleniT, am gamoqvabul kompleqsebs ubralo TavSesafar-saxizrebad miiCnevdnen da vinaidan upirvelesad Zveli, brwyinvaled nagebi eklesia-monastrebis aRnusxviT iyvnen dakavebulni, maTi aRnagobiT didad ar dainteresebulan; esec ar iyos, aRniSnuli cnobis gadasamowmeblad, alpinisturi teqnikis gamoyenebis gareSe am gamoqvabul sivrceebSi SeRweva SeuZlebeli, an metad Zneli iqneboda. XX s-is II naxevarSi, qarTvel sazogadoebriobaSi Cveni qveynis istoriisa da kulturis Zeglebisadmi interesis zrdis kvalobaze, adgilobrivma mosaxleobam Tu mogzaurdamTvaliereblebma yvirilas auzis aRniSnul gamoqvabulebisadmi meti cnobismoyvareobis gamoCena iwyes da zogierT maTganSi siZveleTmoyvarulma mTamsvlelebma SeaRwies kidec (aseT asvlebs im garemoebamac Seuwyo xeli, rom WiaTuris raionis industriul gigantTan, marganecis mompovebel organizaciasTan, profesiuli, samTo saqmianobis specifikidan gamomdinare, imxanad mudam funqcio mTamsvlelTa klubebi). XX s-is 50-60-ian wlebSi swored adgilobrivma alpinistebma da enTuziastma mxareTmcodneebma miakvlies am kldis ZeglSi sakmaod saintereso artefaqtebs da umTavresad saskolo muzeumebs gadasces isini; cnobilma siZveleTmoyvarulma alpinistma goderZi samxaraZem (romelic dResac mxarSi gvidgas am mimarTulebiT kvleva-Ziebisas) raionul gazeT `WiaTuris maRaroelSi~ statiebic gamoaqveyna aRniSnuli Zeglebis Sesaxeb da maTi funqciisa Tu Seqmnis epoqis Taobazec gamoTqva varaudi (g.samxaraZe 1965). TiTqmis maSinve, am saqmeSi droebiT Caeba teqnikuri mecnierebis imxanad cnobili warmomadgeneli, profesori domenti mSvenieraZe, romelic qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis istoriiTac iyo dainteresebuli. Mman

zemo imereTi gzebi, kldis Zeglebi da komunikaciis sakiTxebi

29

adgilobriv mTasvlelTa mier miwodebuli sqemebis safuZvelze WiaTuris midamoebis gamoqvabulTa ramdenime jgufi ganixila sakuTar monografiaSi `gamoqvabuli nagebobani saqarTveloSi~ da es Zeglebi uklebliv safortifikacio daniSnulebis sistemebad miiCnia (d. mSvenieraZeU1955). : rom aRaraferi vTqvaT aRniSnuli Zeglebis moyvarulis donezec ki sustad argumentirebul tipologiur Sefasebaze, rogorc aRmoCnda, am wignSi gamoqveynebuli gegmarebiTi sqemebic sruliad arazustia. 1968 wels arqiteqturis doqtorma g. gafrindaSvilma da alpinistma a. nemsiwveriZemac moinaxules yvirilas xeobis ramdenime aseTi qvabovani kompleqsi; am Ziebas mxolod erTi sagazeTo publikacia mohyva, Tumca CvenTvis sayuradRebo isaa, rom am statiaSi pirveladaa gamoTqmuli varaudi zogierTi am gamoqvabulis SesaZlo kavSiris Sesaxeb samonastro moZraobasTan (g. gafrindaSvili, al. nemsiwveriZe 1955:96) mdinare yvirilas auzis xeobaTa kldeSi nakveTi Zeglebis xelovnebaTmcodneobiTi da arqeologiuri kuTxiT seriozul, gegmazomier mecnierul Seswavlas pirvelad ilias saxelmwifo universitetis dedamiwis Semswavlel mecnierebaTa institutis paleogaremos rekonstruqciis laboratoriam (xelm. prof. n. TuSabramiSvili) Cauyara safuZveli. am laboratoriis rionyvirilas auzis Semswavlelma multidisciplinurma eqspediciam (xelm. prof. n. TuSabramiSvili) gaafarToa Tavisi kvlevebis areali da 2011 wels, adamianis garemosTan adaptaciis proeqtis farglebSi, mRvimuri Zeglebis kvlevasTan erTad daiwyo WiaTura-saCxeris regionebis xelovnuri da naxevrad-xelovnuri gamoqvabulebis moZieba-Seswavla. kvlevis procesSi, upirveles yovlisa, SevecadeT dagvedgina, ramdenad marTebuli iyo istoriul wyaroeb da samecniero-popularul publikacaTa umetesobaSi damkvidrebuli mosazreba, rom Sua saukuneebSi es gamoqvabulebi mxolod safortifikacio daniSnulebiT gamoiyeneboda. gamoqvabulTa ramdenime dajgufebis gegmarebis analizis safuZvelze gamoirkva, rom md. Yvirilas auzis naxevarmRvimeebsa Tu xelovnuri gamoqvabulebis didi nawili marTlac TavdacviTi mizniT Seqmnisa da gamoyenebis niSnebs atarebs. aseTi gamoqvabulebi, funqciebis mixedviT, ufro

30

n. TuSabramiSvili, n. baxtaZe, l.suxiSvili

konkretulad or jgufad SeiZleba daiyos: a) saxizrebi, romelTa iyo mtris Semosevebis dros mosaxleobis maqsimaluri raodenobis Sefareba da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi TavdacviTi brZolis warmoeba; b) cixe-qvabebi (es termini mravalgzisaa dadasturebuli leonti mrovelis `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~), romlebic strategiulad moxerxebul adgilebSi ikveTeboda mtris laSqris Sesakaveblad, xeobebSi maTi winsvlis SesaCereblad da mowinaaRmdegis saTvalTvalod. unda aRiniSnos, rom md. yvirilas auzis xeobaTa kalTebSi saxizrad Tu mtris winsvlis SesaCereblad gamokveTili xelovnuri Tu naxevrad bunebrivi gamoqvabulebis safasado Riobebi, umeteswilad, damatebiTi qviTkiris kedlebis sistemebiTaa amoSenebuli (istoriul wyaroebSi gvxvdeba termini `gamokiruli~). es nagebobani an droTa ganmavlobaSi Camongreuli Sesasvlelebis aRmdgeni wyobebia, an qvabulebis tevadobis gasazrdeli da Tavdacviunarianobis zRudeebi. gamoqvabulTa da qviT nagebi simagreebis amgvari kombinacia Zvel qarTul istoriul TxzulebebSi `qvabnaSenebadac~ moixsenieba da isini saqarTvelos zogierT sxva regionSic gvxvdeba. yvirilas xeobis safortifikacio sistemebSi SeiniSneba Semdegi kanonzomierebac: Tuki saxizari mRvimeebi da gamoqvabulebi mxolod miuvalobisa da sakmao tevadobis pirobas akmayofilebs, cixe-qvabebi strategiulad ufro moxerxebul, garemoze gabatonebul adgilebSia mowyobili: mag., maTi mniSvnelovani nawili gamokveTilia md. yvirilas kanionTan misi Senakadi mdinareebis xeobebis SerTvis adgilze Seqmnili kldovani koncxebis sakmaod maRal vertikalur niSnulebze imnairad, rom am sivrceebis Sesasvleli Riobebi, an samzeri sarkmelebi mainc, am xeobebis orive napirs akontroleben. garda amisa, gamoirkva, rom aseTi sabrZolo-saTvalTvalo gamoqvabulebisaa da qvabnaSenebis absolutur umravlesobas vizualuri komunikacia sxva, ufro xSirad, ramdenime metnaklebad daSorebul cixe qvabTan (rogorc xeobis amave kalTebSi, ise gadaRma kldovan masivebSi nakveTebTan). magaliTad, dReisTvis gamovlenilia gamoqvabulebis sami dajgufeba,

zemo imereTi gzebi, kldis Zeglebi da komunikaciis sakiTxebi

31

romelTa SigniT arsebul qvabebsa da safortifikacio nagebobebs erTameTTan aqvT pirdapiri vizualuri kavSiri: 1. md. yvirilas md. SuqruTiswylis SesarTavTan orive napirze arsebuli gamoqvabulebi da safortifikacio nageboba; md. yvirilas orive napirze arsebuli gamoqvabulebi (md. jruWulis marjvena napirTan, saCxere-WiaTuris gzis daaxloebiT me6-7 km-ze)

2.

3.

md. yvirilas marjvena napirze, saCxere-WiaTuris centralur gzaze, sof. sarekis teritoriaze mdebare qvabebi da xeobis mopirdapire kalTaSi gamokveTili gamoqvabulebi. (sur. 1)

TavdacviTi daniSnulebis sistemebis (nagebobebisa Tu gamoqvabulebis) imgvar geografiul ganlagebas, rodesac landSaftis reliefi maT erTaneTTan vizualur komunikacias uwyobs xels, saqarTvelosa da sazRvargareTis qveynebis mraval raionSi gaedevneba Tvali sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqebis ganmavlobaSi. aseTi dislokacia xels uwyobda calkeul obieqtTa Soris informaciis swraf gacvlas mowinaaRmdegis gadaadgilebisa da sabrZolo moqmedebebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb. xSirad am mizniT specialuri, saTanado mowyobilobebiT aRWurvili, erTaneTisgan optimaluri manZiliT daSorebuli saTvalTvalo an Sualeduri-sainformacio koSkebis da sxva saTavsebis qselebic ewyoboda xolme landSaftze dominirebul punqtebSi. informaciis gadacema xdeboda sxvadasxvagvari xiluli signalebis gamoyenebiT: gansxvavebuli feris almebiT manipulirebiT, cecxlis naTebisa Tu kvamlis saSualebiT da a.S. (cxadia, Tuki manZili da Sesabamisi mowyobiloba amis saSualebas iZleoda, vizualuris nacvlad aranaklebi warmatebiT iyenebdnen xmovan Setyobinebasac).

32

n. TuSabramiSvili, n. baxtaZe, l.suxiSvili

amdenad, yvirilas xeobis aRniSnul monakveTebSi mdebare saxizar gamoqvabulebsa da cixe-qvabebis zogierT jgufs Soris aRniSnuli geografiuli urTierTmimarTebis dadastureba sruliad kanonzomieri movlenaa. ufro metic: Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT yvirilas xeobis gayolebiT mTeli Sua saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi gamavali strategiuli gzis mniSvnelobas, romelic qveynis aRmosavleT, dasavleT da Crdilo-dasavleT nawilebs akavSirebda, Semdgomi kvlevisas yvirilis xeobis danarCen, tyis safarvelis gamo amJamad xSirad uxilav uamrav gamoqvabulTa Soris unda veZioT iseTi saTvalTvalo qvabebi, romlebic zemoT aRniSnul, vizualurad aSkarad urTierTkavSirSi myof jgufebs erTaneTTan aZlevda informaciis gacvlis saSualebas da romelTa daxmarebiTac Setyobineba did manZilebze, faqtd, gzis mTel gayolebaze gavrceldeboda. md. yvirilas auz gamoqvabulebSi Cven mier Catarebuli kvleva-Ziebis Sedegad kidev erTi umniSvnelovanesi garemoeba dadasturda. gamoirkva, rom am xeobebis gamoqvabulTa mniSvnelovani nawili sruliadac ar yofila gamoyenebuli mxolod TavdacviT daniSnulebiT: aq ramdenime, dRemde sruliad ucnobi kldeSi nakveTi udabno-monasteric dadasturda, riTac gaifanta qarTul mecnierebaSi bolo dromde damkvidrebuli azri imis Taobaze, TiTqos adreul Sua saukuneebSi mniSvnelovani gamoqvabuli monastrebi mxolod aRmosavleT da samxreT saqarTveloSi iyo gavrcelebuli. ramdenadme moulodneli garemoebaa isic, rom garegnuli mimoxilviT, safortifikacio ieris mqone gamoqvabulebis qvabnaSenebis mniSvnelovani nawili, gegmarebisa da arerTi detls mixedviT, sruliad calsaxad, organulad aRmoCnda dakavSirebuli CvenSi qristianuli meudabnoeobis CasaxvaganviTarebis sawyis etapebTan. magaliTad, XIII - mRvimevis aRmosavleTiT, 500 m-is daSorebiT, kldovani kanionis kalTaSi gamokveTili aRmoCnda

zemo imereTi gzebi, kldis Zeglebi da komunikaciis sakiTxebi

33

savaraudod, VI-VII ss-is ornaviani eklesia, romlis irgvliv qvab-senakebi da samonastro daniSnulebis sxva gamoqvabulebia ganlagebuli (cxadia, ganviTarebuli Sua saukuneebis sayovelTaod cnobili monasteri am udabnos bazaze ) (sur. 2-4). am uZvelesi qvabovani monastris TvalsawierSi, md, yvirilas kanionis mopirdapire mxares, miuval simaRleze gamokveTilia ramdenime qvabiani jgufi, romelic aseTi miudgomlobi da metad xelsayreli strategiuli mdebareobi garegnulad ufro safortifikacio cixe-qvabis STabeWdilebas tovebs. Tumca, gamoqvabulTa am jgufSi alpinisturi teqnikiT SeRwevisa da interierebis gamokvlevis Sedegad davrwmundiT, rom is gandegili berebis sadgomad yofila gamoyenebuli. amaze migvaniSnebs Tundac kldeSi nakveTi saZvale akldamebi (sur. 5), romelTa msgavsi saqarTvelosa Tu qristianuli aRmosavleTis sxva regionebSi mxolod samonastro struqturebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. is garemoeba, rom am sadasayudeblo jgufs sakuTari eklesia ar gaaCnia, advili asaxsnelia: saqarTvelos sxva qvabovan udabno-monastrebSic gvxvdeba gandegilTa gafantuli sadgomebi, romelTa binadari berebi wirvaze saerTo, centralur eklesiaSi dadiodnen, anu, unda vifiqroT, rom mRvimevis Tavdapirveli qvabovani monasteri lavris yaidaze iyo mowyobili: mis central, zemoT aRniSnul qvabovan eklesiaSi mxolod kvira dRes midiodnen misgan metnaklebad daSorebuli soxasterebis binadari gandegili berebi wirvaze dasaswrebad, ziarebis da saerTo trapezisTis. kviris danarCen dReebs ki isini Wipiani kldisa (sur.2), Tu sxva mezobel kldovan masivebSi mdebare qvabovan sadasayudebuloebSi atarebdnen. mRvimevis ornaviani eklesia da Wipiani kldis qvabnaSeni ise arian ganlagebuli, rom maT erTaneTTan vizualuri kavSiri aqvT. albaT, SeZlebisdagvarad, aseTive adgilebs irCevdnen mRvimevis lavris CvenTvis cnobili zogierTi sxva sadasayudebuloebis moswyobadac: mag., monastris dRevandeli

34

n. TuSabramiSvili, n. baxtaZe, l.suxiSvili

centris dasavleTiT, 200-ode m-is daSorebiT mdebare qvabovan jgufic (agreTve akldamebiani) Zveli udabnos centridan, eklesiidan kargad Cans. Amrigad, pirdapiri Tu diagonaluri vizualuri kavSiri imereTis am mxareSi ara marto TavdacviTi gamoqvabulebisTvis, aramed lavris tipis qvabovani monastrebis Semadgeneli gancalkevebuli jgufebisTvis yofila damaxasiaTebeli. savaraudod, monastrebSi qvabebis aseTi ganlageba emsaxureboda rogorc, zogadad, qveynis strategiul-TavdacviTi mniSvnelobis komunikaciis sakiTxis mogvarebas, ise, kerZod, informaciis gavrcelebas monastris liturgiul SinaganawesTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze, vTqvaT, riggareSe wirvis Tu sxva Sekrebebis Sesaxeb. amgvarad, am regionSi TiTqos ikveTeba socialpolitikuri da safortifikacio arsis mqone Semdegi sqema: Sua saukuneebis sxvadsxva stadiaze md. yvirilas da mis Senakad xeobebSi gamokveTili gamoqvabulTa sistemebi, ganurCevlad imisa, wminda TavdacviTi mniSvnelobisaa isini, Tu samonastro struqturebis Semadgeneli qvabovani sagandegiloebi, TiTqmis yovelTvis imis gaTvaliswinebiT iqmneboda, rom maT urTierTSoris vizualuri komunikaci hqonodaT; yovelive es imis saSualebas iZleoda, rom maT Soris moxdariyo sasicocxlod aucilebeli sxvadasxva saxis informaciis gacvla da amasTan, es saero Tu sasuliero daniSnulebis obieqtebi aqtiurad yofiliy CarTuli signalizaciis sistemaSi, romelic qveynis Tavdacvisunarianobis gaZlierebis saqmes emsaxureboda. zogadad, funqciurad, saerTo principebis dacvis miuxedavad, qvabovani monastrebi iqmneboda landSaftis gaTvaliwinebiT. magaliTisTvis SeiZleba moviyvanoT daviT garejisa da WiaTuris regionis samonastro kopmpleqsebi. Tu pirveli maTgani naxevrad udabur landSaftTan aris adaptirebuli, WiaTuris regionis qvabebis gamokveTa xdeboda

zemo imereTi gzebi, kldis Zeglebi da komunikaciis sakiTxebi

35

kldovan, daklaknil kanionebSi. mRvimeebsa da kldeebSi qvabebis gamokveTisas gaTvaliswinebuli iyo kldovani koncxebis, mRvimeebis urTierTmimarTeba maT Soris komunikaciis damyarebis mizniT. sur.1

sur. 2

36

n. TuSabramiSvili, n. baxtaZe, l.suxiSvili

sur.3

sur. 4

sur. 5

zemo imereTi gzebi, kldis Zeglebi da komunikaciis sakiTxebi

37

literatura

g. gafrindaSvili, al. nemsiwveriZe 1955: g. gafrindaSvili, al. nemsiwveriZe WiaTuris miuval gamoqvabulebSi. gazeTi. Tb.: `komunisti~, # 96. 1955 vaxuSti batoniSvili 1973: aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa. qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV. Tb., 1973 d. mSvenieraZe 1955: d. mSvenieraZe., gamoqvabuli nagebobani saqarTveloSi, Tb. 1955 g. samxaraZe 1965: `WiaTuris maRaroeli~; misive, xelnaweri dRiurebi . 1873: . , .,.V.,1873 . 1898: . , . VII, , 1898. Brosset M.-F. 1851: Rapports sur un voyage archeologique dans la Georgie et dans lArmenie, excute en 1847-1848, livr. 1-3, St. Petersbourg, 1851.

rusudan mircxulava

gza, rogorc saxviTi artTreningis ZiriTadi simbolo


art - Treningis qeisi art-Treningi (iseve, rogorc artTerapia) iyenebs saxelovnebo resurss, ris gamoc simbolos fsiqikaze zemoqmedebis efeqtur agentad ganixilavs da simboloebiT, mxatvruli niSnebiT manipulirebas ukavSirdeba. fsiqoTerapiis procesSi simbolos mravalferovani funqciebi miewereba, maT Soris, ZiriTadad, SemecnebiTi (kognitiur insaiTTan dakavSirebuli), socialur -komunikaciuri da eqspresiul-afeqturi. Cvens fsiqologiur praqtikaSi gzis simbolos centraluri mniSvneloba eniWeba. aq sailustraciod warmovadgenT fsiqologiuri muSaobis procesSi gzis simbolos gamoyenebis konkretul magaliTs (qeisi). magaliTi (qeisi): art-sesiis forma: saxviTi art-sesia. samizne jgufi - afxazeTidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebi da ltolvilebi. adgili: norvegiis ltolvilTa sabWo (2002 weli). jgufi Sedgeba 21-dan 34 wlamde asakis 12 participantisagan (8 qali, 4 mamakaci). (pirobiTi saxelebi:

gza, rogorc saxviTi art-Treningis ZiriTadi simbolo

39

ana (21 w), dali (34 w), qeTo (32 w), zaira (30 w), manana (29 w), roza ( 34w), nani (28 w), liza (32 w), gio (23 w), vaso ( 32w), ramazi (25 w), merabi (27 w). samuSao masala: kedelze fiqsirebulididi formatis saxatavi qaRaldebi, feradi flomasterebi da markerebi. jgufis wevrebi sxedan naxevrad wriulad ganlagebul skamebze, maT pirdapir, kedelze, samuSao qaRaldia gakruli. muSaoba iwyeba e.w. moTelvis savarjiSoebiT , romelTa miznebia jgufis wevrebis gacnoba da maTi momzadeba mxatvruli davalebis Sesasruleblad. saxviTi art-sesiis Temaa gzaze mavali adamiani.

cxadia, rom ltolvilebisTvis gzis simbolos gansakuTrebuli datvirTva da mniSvneloba aqvs ara mxolod samSoblosTan dacilebis, aramed, aseve - momavali axali cxovrebis perspeqtivis TvalsazrisiTac. Sesabamisad, aRniSnul jgufSi fsiqologiuri muSaobisas gzis simbolo gansakuTrebiT efeqtur instrumentad iqceva. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom, fsiqologiuri muSaobis procesSi gzis simbolo ganixileba ara mxolod mocemul jgufTan (ltolvilTa jgufTan) misi arsebuli mimarTebebis safuZvelze (jgufis piradi gamocdilebisa da gancdebis gaTvaliswinebiT), aramed ufro zogadad, rogorc universaluri semionic. fsiqologiuri muSaobis procesSi CaerTvis sxva simboloebic, romelTa daniSnulebac ZiriTadi simbolos gzis interpretaciaa da masTan dakavSirebuli, misi insaiTi. fsiqologiuri muSaobis procesSi iqmneba optimaluri pirobebi imisaTvis, raTa jgufma srulad gamoxatos damokidebuleba da, rac mTavaria, emociuri damokidebuleba mxatvruli masalis (gzis) mimarT, moaxdinos grZnobebis eqspresia, Camoayalibos Sexedulebebi momavlis perspeqtivasTan dakavSirebiT da, aseve ganimtkicos Sida-jgufuri socialuri kavSirebi. SemoTavazebul Temaze (gzaze mavali adamiani) jgufis Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi Treneri-fsiqologi kiTxvebiT mimarTavs

40

rusudan mircxulava

jgufs da diskusiis Semdeg miRebuli pasuxebis safuZvelze xatavs gzas. jgufs es kiTxvebi daesmis: ra feris flomasteriT davxato gza?, gza diagonaluri, horizontaluri Tu vertikaluri xaziT (xazebiT) gamovsaxo? , swori, klaknili Tu wyvetili xazi gamoviyeno? TiToeul kiTxvasTan dakavSirebuli arCevani diskusiis procesSi Sesabamisi argumentirebis safuZvelze miiReba. Cvens konkretul jgufSi SeirCa ruxi flomasteriT daxatuli klaknili gza, romelic siRrmeSi midis. Trenerifsiqologi xatavs gzas da skamze participantebs Soris ikavebs adgils. Treneri-fsiqologi: modi, Cvens gzaze adamiani movaTavsoT. bavSvobaSi yvelas gvixatia kacunebi, ara? Zalian martivad gamovsaxoT: Tavi - wre, cxvir-piri wertilebi, xel-fexi xazebi (oTaxSi sicilia). aba, vin iTavebs amas? jgufidan msurveli dgeba (pirobiTad, ana). ana: me mexerxeba xatva.

is saxatav qaRaldTan midis da Sav flomasters moimarjvebs . es konturebisTvis, - azustebs Tavis arCevans. erTi wuTiT, - aCerebs mas Treneri-fsiqologi ganvaTavsoT figura? gzis TavSi, SuaSi Tu boloSi? sad

jgufSi diskusia iwyeba, pirvel or versias uCndeba momxreebi. bolos jgufi irCevs pirvel versias da adamiani gzis dasawyisSi Tavsdeba. uecrad jgufidan meore volontiori dgeba (pirobiTad, gio). gio: jobia, adamianis figura gamovWraT da skoCiT an WikartiT mivamagroT xolme iq, sadac gvinda! (jgufi da anac erTxmad eTanxmebian gios) da adamianis figura (is Sarval-perangSi gamowyobili, axalgazrda vaJia) gzis dasawyisSi Tavsdeba.

gza, rogorc saxviTi art-Treningis ZiriTadi simbolo

41

jgufSi isev sicilia. afaseben gios naxelavs: -kargi vinmea! viRacas magonebs!. . . pauzis Semdeg, Treneri-fsiqologi isev mimarTavs jgufs: ai, axla TiToeuli Tqvenganis aqtiuroba iqneba saWiro! gzaze Tu gzis irgvliv daxateT yvelaferi, rac, Tqveni azriT, Cvens gmirs (isev sicili jgufSi) SeiZleba daxvdes. aseve, fonic SeuqmeniT naxats. ise, ra davarqvaT Cvens gmirs? iwyeba diskusia. bolos jgufi Tanxmdeba, rom ganTavsebul figuras ewodos, ubralod, adamiani. qaRaldze

jgufi aqtiurad erTveba muSaobaSi da daaxloebiT, 20 wuTis ganmavlobaSi xatavs. naxatis aRwera: jgufis koleqtiur naxatze gamosaxulia ruxi, klaknili gza, romelic naxatis ukana planze daxatuli aseve ruxi mTebisken midis. adamianis figura, Sav Sarvalsa da TeTr perangSi gamowyobili, wina planze, gzis TavSia. gzaze ganTavsebulia sxvadasxva obieqtebi da arsebebi: ori manqana (mwvane da wiTeli), oTxi adamiani (oTxive mamakacia da naxatis mTavari gmiris msgavsad Semosili), xeebi, yvavilebi (aq gamoyenebulia gansxvavebuli ferebi: wiTeli, lurji, yviTeli. . .), qvebi (mcire zomis, ruxi feris). naxatis siRrmeSi patara xidia (Savi feris). gzis miRma daxatulia eklesia, patara saxlebi (wiTeli saxuravebiTa da TeTri kedlebiT), erT-erT saxlTan Cans Wa da palma. naxatis marcxena mxares klaknili lurji xazebiT zRvaa gamosaxuli, iqvea feradi kenWebi, zemoT dafrinaven TeTri Toliebi. naxati mzadaa, jgufis wevrebi sxdebian. isev iwyeba xmamaRali saubari, Sorisdebulebi. jgufSi naxatis mimarT araerTgvarovani emociuri reaqciaa. gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva qeTos, dalis da mananas reaqciebi; maT cremli moeriaT da erTmaneTs eCurCulebian. Treneri-fsiqologi (swored am sam qalbatons mimarTavs): Cven yvelani aRelvebulebi varT. iqneb gagviziaroT Tqveni gancdebi? qeTo (gaubedavad): iq Cemi saxli davxate (dasaxlebis saxels aq ar mivuTiTebT), WiT da palmiT (cremlebi isev ereva).

42

rusudan mircxulava

dali ( qeTos damSvidebis ganzraxviT): yvelam davtoveT saxlebi, marto Sen xom ara. . . (xels gadaxvevs qeTos) ana: saerTod, Cveni adamiani zRvis sanapirodan, saxlidan ( sityvas saxli SedarebiT, Cumad warmoTqvams) mTebisken midis! ana naxats uaxlovdeba, adamianis figuras skoCiT xsnis da gzis dasawyisidan gzis Sua monakveTze gadaanacvlebs. jgufSi isev iwyeba saubari. gio da merabi aqtiuroben. gio: es TavisiT gamovida! me sulac ar mqonda amis daxatva ganzraxuli (TiTqos Tavs imarTlebs) merab, Senc magas ar ambobdi? merabi: iseTi Temaa. . . gamovidoda ra, TavisiT. aucileblad gamovidoda. Treneri-fsiqologi (jgufis SedarebiT mimarTavs): Tqven xom ar gindaT raimes Tqma? zaira: biWebs veTanxmebi. . . nani: Cveni cxovrebac egaa! gza da isev gza! pasiur wevrebs

merabi: Tan saiT midis, gaurkvevelia!. . . ana: ( intonaciaSi agresia etyoba) da vin unda gagirkvios?

merabi: vinc daiwyo eg yvelaferi! omi vinc daiwyo! ana dgeba da oTaxSi iwyebs siaruls. aSkarad ukmayofiloa merabis pasuxiT, magram samagierod verafers eubneba. Treneri-fsiqologi: gza xom, zogadad, nebismieri adamianis cxovrebas SeiZleba niSnavdes, Tanac, moulodnelobiT, xifaTiT savse gza? dali: yvela mogzauria, ara? (iRimeba) ana: da aravin icis, sabolood visi mogzauroba gamodgeba ufro mZime. . .

gza, rogorc saxviTi art-Treningis ZiriTadi simbolo

43

ana naxatTan midis da naxatis siRrmeSi, mTis ferdobze, qeTos saxlis (WiTa da palmiT) asls xatavs. qeTos isev cremlebi ereva, anasTan midis da exveva. qeTo: anam Cemi saxli damixata momavalSi!

Treneri-fsiqologi: (qeTos ukan dgeba da xelebs mxrebze adebs) ukve CamovayalibeT, Tu ra datova ukan Cvenma adamianma. nani: zRva da saxli. . . Treneri-fsiqologi: gzaze. naxatze isic Cans, Tu ras xvdeba adamiani

gio: iseTs arafers. . . qeTo: ratom? ager xalxi, manqanebi. . . eklesiacaa. ramazi: eg arafers niSnavs. . . vaso: SeiZleba niSnavdes kidec.. . mTlad marto araa. imas, rom es Cveni adamiani

gio: mTlad marto ras niSnavs? martoa da eg ari! (isev iwyeba diskusia) manana: eklesia? eklesiaze arafers ambobT?

qeTo: Cvens adamians mand daxvdeba (!) imedi . . . gio: eklesia isedac daixateboda! qeTo: da magas vambob me! ana: hoda, es Cveni adamiani sulac ar yofila marto vaso: RmerTis imedadaa ana: da kidev momavlis. . . Treneri-fsiqologi: miaqcieT yuradReba, rom anas garda aravis araferi dauxatavs momavalSi. SexedeT, naxatze xidicaa!

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rusudan mircxulava

(Treneri-fsiqologi adaminis figuras xidze amagrebs) liza: xidi me davxate. iq mdinare gadis. gio: (Trener-fsiqologs mimarTavs) adamianis figura axlis dawyebis niSnad dasviT, ara? Treneri-fsiqologi: (icinis) hoc da arac! gio: aSkarad magitom! (jgufi gios eTanxmeba) Treneri-fsiqologi: hoda, modi, cota xniT ukan davtovoT tkivili iseve, rogorc Cvens naxatze gzaze mavalma adamianma moitova ukan. modi, davubrundeT xatvas da gzis siRrmeSi, mTebis ferdobebze is davxatoT, rasac Cvens mogzaurs momavalSi vusurvebdiT! Treneri-fsiqologi pirveli midis koleqtiur naxatTan da mTebis zemoT cisartyelas gamosaxavs. jgufis wevrebi aqtiurad erTvebian xatvaSi, isinic ki, romlebic diskusiis dros pasiurobdnen. mTebis ferdobebze ixateba xelCakidebuli adamianebis jgufi, Senobebi, eklesia, gaSlili sufra, yvavilebi, wigni, kompiuteri, saqarTvelos erovnuli droSa. . . sul bolos ana midis naxatTan gvirgvins, mzes adgams. da mas Tavze, rogorc xidze

jgufi msjelobs TiToeul simbolosTan dakavSirebiT; ra mizniT iqna gamosaxuli, ras gamoxatavs, ra akavSirebs gzis simbolosTan. ana: cisartyela da vlaparakobdiT. . . mze es momavlis imedia, romelzedac

roza: me momavalSic eklesia davxate - rwmena yvelgan saWiroa! dali: yvavilebi davxate bednierebas gamoxatavs.

gio: xelCakidebuli adamianebi davxate - magaT Soris Cveni adamianicaa.

gza, rogorc saxviTi art-Treningis ZiriTadi simbolo

45

qeTo: anu is aRaraa marto! (icinis) gio: egre gamodis (icinis). Tan erovnuli droSac davxate samSoblos siyvaruli da imedi erTad mindoda gamosaxuliyo. qeTo giosTan midis da dedobrivi alersiT gadausvams Tavze xels. qeTo: me bevri saxli davxate! mTeli qalaqia! qalaqze didia! zaira: me gaSlili sufra davxate! (jgufSi sicilia) ratom iciniT?! (Tavadac ecineba) merabi: me kompiuteri da wigni davxate! momavali da codna, erTi sityviT. . . amis Semdeg Treneri-fsiqologi jgufis wevrebs naxatisTvis saxelis darqmevas sTxovs. Cndeba ramdenime versia: mogzauri, adamianis gza, ocneba, win sinaTlisaken, gza mzisken, natvra. msjelobis Semdeg, jgufi irCevs versias - adamianis gza. koleqtiuri naxatisTvis saxelis SerCevis Semdeg naxatTan merabi midis da mTebis ferdobebze (momavalSi) wvimas (nacrisferi vertikaluri, mokle xazebiT) gamosaxavs. qeTo (sayveduriT): ratom gaafuWe naxati? ra unda wvimas mand?! merabi: ese ufro namdvilia. . . Tanac, vis unaxavs cisartyela wvimis gareSe? jgufSi sicilia. merabs eTanxmebian. ana: wvimam TiTqos gaaerTiana momavali, sinamdvile da ocneba. Cveni adamianis warsuli da

gio: ho, ese ufro namdvili gamovida. Treneri-fsiqologi: naxatis romeli detali migaCniaT yvelaze sainteresod da mniSvnelovnad? qeTo: Cemi saxli da ezo. . . gansakuTrebiT , anas daxatuli.

46
ana: xidi! kargad gamoxatavs Cvens mdgomareobas. gio: xidi da gza! orive sainteresoa! merabi: cisartyela da wvima. . . da gzac!

rusudan mircxulava

amis Semdeg jgufs eZleva mxatvruli davaleba saxlSi Sesasruleblad; art-sesiaze miRebuli gamocdilebis safuZvelze maT unda daweron mokle Txzuleba, saxelwodebiT - adamiani gzaze. meore dRes gasagrZeleblad. jgufi isev modis art-sesiaze muSaobis

art-sesiis warmodgenil qeisTan dakavSirebiT da analogiuri meTodiT Catarebuli sesiebis safuZvelze mokled Semdegi unda iTqvas: 1) saxviT art-sesiaze gzis simbolos gamoyenebisas jgufis wevrebi xatvis procesSive aracnobierad (an zogjer cnobierad) axdenen masTan sakuTari cxovrebis da sazogadod, adamianis cxovrebis dakavSirebas. verbaluri obieqtivirebis safexurze gzis simbolos aRniSnuli semantikuri Sinaarsi sruli sisavsiT vlindeba. aqve unda iTqvas, rom ltolvilTa jgufi gansakuTrebiT sensitivuria gzis simbolos mimarT. 2) art-sesiis manZilze gzis simbolos eniWeba rogorc diagnostikuri, ise -makoregirebeli mniSvnelobac; is xels uwyobs Sekavebuli afeqtis gamovlenas (emociur kaTarziss), arsebuli problemebisa da konfliqtebis asaxvas, adamianis mier sakuTari, aqtualuri mdgomareobisa da misi cxovrebis gzis obieqtivirebas, samomavlo perspeqtivis gaazrebas. 3) gzis simbolos gamoyeneba astimulirebs art-sesiaze miRebuli gamocdilebis ganzogadebasa da viwro individualuri donidan zogad-adamianur doneze gadanacvlebas.

gza, rogorc saxviTi art-Treningis ZiriTadi simbolo

47

literatura mircxulava r. fsiqologiuri dramidan - fsiqodramamde, Tb. mwignobari, 20122.- ., ., -, , 2001 . () - , , , 2002 . , ., , 1998

. - , ., -, 2007 . , , , 1999

inga milorava

gzis sivrculi modeli


modernistul teqstSi
`gzis~ models yovelTvis didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda xelovnebaSi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gza, Tavisi arsiT, sinesTeziuri, gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT ki sinkretulia. horizontisken mimavali gza, nawarmoebis mizandasaxulobis da ganwyobilebis mixedviT, Rameuli Tu mziT gabrwyinebuli, ukacuri Tu nelnela sivrcesTan Sesarwymelad moZravi figuriT an figurebiT, SesaZloa, nebismieri sxva kompoziciiT, moqmedebis dausruleblobis, miRmur samyarosTan kavSiris da momavlis gamWvirvale metaforaa da xSirad ikavebs kuTvnil adgils ferwerul tiloebze, gansakuTrebiT ki - kinofilmebis finalur scenebSi. gza siuJeturi qargis gaSlis saSualebac xdeba. `gzis~ modeli fabulis, RerZis, Txrobis xerxemlis rolSi gamodis, magram uSualod gmiris saxis mimarT, umniSvnelovanesia misi, rogorc darRveuli mTlianobis aRdgenis sakraluri gzis funqcia. antikurobidan moyolebuli `gza~ mxatvruli literaturis yuradRebis centrSia moqceuli. `gzis~ simbolika

gzis sivrculi modeli modernistul teqstSi

49

rTulia da transformirdeba epoqaTa saazrovno tendenciebis cvalebadobis kvalobaze. `gza~ xdeba nawarmoebis siuJeturi RerZi (antikuri miTebi; `odisea~; `eneada~; antikuri saTavgadasavlo romani; bizantiuri romani; Sua saukuneebis bedis ukuRmarTobis romani; nawilobriv, biografiuli romani; Tanamedrove saTavgadasavlo da fantastikuri beletristika). `gza~ gansazRvravs nawarmoebis kompozicias, struqturas da gavlenas axdens mxatvruli saxis agebis principebze. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania `gzaze~ axali formiT gasvlisa da samyaros Signidan, ucxo rakursiT xilvis SesaZlebloba (apuleusi, `oqros viri~). gvaqvs `gzis~ mistikuri gaSifvris cdac. `gzis~ simbolika ukavSirdeba RmerTTan, kosmosTan adamianis kavSiris problemas, yvela winaaRmdegobis aRmofxvra da dasasrulisa da dasawyisis dakavSireba bunebrivad spobs winaaRmdegobas Sinagansa da garegans, sakralurs da profanuls Soris, aseTi bolomde ganvlili `amoxsnili~ da daZleuli `gza~ ukavSirdeba absoluturi WeSmaritebis Secnobas da Sinagani mTlianobis aRdgenas. nawarmoebis `gzas~ aqvs horizontaluri (fizikuri) da vertikaluri (sulieri) forma. mxolod miTologiur personaJs an gamorCeuli Tvisebebis mqone kultis msaxur ZaluZT aRasrulon vertikaluri mogzauroba zeviT an qveviT, e.i. gadaseron samaro vertikalurad. xolo qveynierebis kidiT kidemde svla horizontalurad, rogorc wesi, ukavSirdeba `zekacs~, gmirebs, moRvaweTa klass an gansakuTrebul mdgomareobas (magaliTad, ritualSi monawileobas an wminda adgilebis mosanaxuleblad mogzaurobas). cxadia sxvaoba: ubralo mokvdavs SeuZlia realurad gaudges honizontalur gzas da gansakuTrebuli Zalisxmevis meSveobiT gaasrulos igi, xolo vertikaluri gza SeiZleba gadailaxos mxolod figuralurad _ suliT (toporovi 1983: 127). aseTi vertikaluri struqturaa mocemuli dantes `RvTaebriv komediaSi~, sadac sxvadasxva sibrtyeebi (jojoxeTi, salxinebeli, samoTxe) vertikalur RerZzea ganlagebuli da gmiric am `gzas~ sulis meSveobiT gadis.

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inga milorava

`gzis~ mniSvneloba Tu ar izrdeba, yovel SemTxvevaSi, arc iklebs Tanamedrove mxatvrul azrovnebaSi. rogorc `zekais~ saxesTan mimarTeb Cans, igi TvalsaCino rols asrulebs modernistul qarTul moTxrobaSic. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa niko lorTqifaniZis proza. niko lorTqifaniZis `gzis~ sivrculi modeli ZiriTadad horizontaluria da emsaxureba gmiris rogorc gamarjvebis, ise damarcxebis Cvenebas. paradoqsulia, magram orive SemTxvevaSi aRdgeba darRveuli mTlianoba da srulad ikveTeba gmiris mimarTeba gare samyarosadmi, mxatvruli saxis mizandasaxuloba. eli (`Selocva radioTi~) ver sZlevs mis `gzaze~ arsebul yvela winaaRmdegobas. elis `gza~ ar Sedgeba Tvalsainod gamijnuli monakveTebisagan, igi pirdapiria, horizontaluri da dasaSvebze ufro grZeli, elis Tavidanve arabunebrivi tempi aqvs, rogorc `naptkveni bumbuli~ mihqris `gzaze~, cal mxares gaxsnilia, mihyavs adamiani samSoblodan Sors, ucxo samyaroSi, magram ubrundeba sakuTar Tavs. Tavis samSobloSi eli gaucxoebuli iyo sakuTar TavTan, ver grZnobda miwas, fesvebs, magram `gzaze~, romelmac daaSora mSobliur miwas, man gaacnobiera Tavisi ganuyreli kavSiri samSoblosTan. mTlianoba aRdga, mxolod - sulier planSi. eli Seecada, rogorme dakavSireboda samSoblos, radioTi gadmocemuli mSobliuri sityvebi, xmis mTlianobis aRdgenis kidev erTi impulsi xdeba, `gzis~ bolos, sikvdilSi uerTdeba cxovrebisagan damarcxebuli eli sakuTar Tavs, mSobliur wiaRs da aseTi srulqmnili saxiT warmodgeba. es gamTlianeba mxolod sulier planSi xdeba. rac Seexeba `gzis~ fizikur plans, misi sruli aTviseba mxolod zemZlavr gmirTa xvedria. niko lorTqifaniZis `zekaci~ an `pirobiTi warsulis~ gmiri yovelTvis periferiidan centrisaken moZraobs da axdens mis SemosazRvras. sapirispirod, awmyos `patara adamiani~ fizikurad ver gadalaxavs `gzas~, magram sulier planSi isic Semokrebs sakralur sibrtyes da ar rCeba Sinaganad darRveuli, periferiaze gariyuli. zemZlavri adamianis mier `gzis~ gadalaxvis yvelaze TvalsaCino modelia mocemuli niko lorTqifanibis

gzis sivrculi modeli modernistul teqstSi

51

`qeduxrelnSi~. zurab jiSkariani iRebs gadawyvetilebas Tavisi nebiT Caekiros cixis kedelSi. `zekacis Seqmnas~ swored `gzam~ Seuwyo xeli. `gza~, romelzc Tanamimdevrulad lagdeba ZiriTadi movlenebi, jer fizikurad daiZleva gmiris mier, Semdeg ki gadadis sulier planSi da simbolod gardaiqmneba. `gzam~ gaaerTiana eri da gmiri da aRadgina darRveuli mTlianoba. gmiri gamodis mSobliuri saxlidan (sawyisi wertili) da miemarTeba cixis kedlisken (bolo wertili). `gzaze~ xdeba zurabis saxis aTviseba da TandaTanobiT Sevseba, yoveli axali monakveTis gavlis Semdeg igi adis ufro maRal safexurze da Cveulebrivi mokvdavidan erovnuli Zlierebis simbolomde maRldeba. zurab jiSkariani _ `zekaci~ miuyveba miTopoeturi samyaros `gzas~, gadalaxavs mas fizikuradac da sulieradac da Semokrebs sakralur vels, romelSic aRmofxvrilia ZiriTadi winaaRmdegobani, centri SeuRwevadia da daculia misi zneobrivi mTlianoba. zecisken mimavali sulieri transformaciis `gzaa~ gamosaxuli basil meliqiSvilis moTxrobaSi `Turmani~. nawarmoebis miTopoeturi qsovili garTulebulia lirizmiT, reminiscenciebiT, Sinagani monologebiTa da uCveulo eqspresiiT, rac TiTqmis nervuli aSlilobis, sigiJis zRvramde midis. yovelive es odnav abundovanebs nawarmoebis mxatvrul samyaros, arTulebs mis aRqmas, magram, imavdroulad, aRZravs idumalebis mistiur gancdas. moqmedeba aq mudmivad meryeobs cxadisa da zmanebis mijnaze da zogjer Zneli saTqmelia, ras asaxavs da gamosaxavs mwerali _ mZafri vnebebisagan SeZrul gmiris Sinagan samyaros Tu mis gareT ganfenil movlenebs. am SemTxvevaSic erTmaneTs gadaewna `gzis~ modeli, `zekaci~ da misi misia. am misiis aRsrulebis `gzaze~ xdeba Turmanis saxis gamTlianeba, srulqmna da zecad amaRleba. mistikur-simboluri plastebi met gamomsaxvelobas aniWebs gmiris xasiaTsac da mis samoqmedo sivrcesac. RvarZli, dalija, romelic mosdebia SuqarTs da adamianebis dasneulebas gadagvarebas iwvevs, sruliad gamWvirvale simboloa da eris sulier degradaciaze mianiSnebs. aseTive simboluria jaTi. maxinji, favnis an eSmakis

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garegnobis mqone jaTi _ borotis, bnelis simbolo upirispirdeba Turmans sikeTis matarebels. Turmanis mier wminda Teslis Zebnac simboluri da mistiuri mniSvnelobiTaa datvirTuli da zemZlavri sulis - adamianis mier TanamoZmeTa mimarT Tavisi movaleobis sruliad realur SegrZnebamde, maTi fizikuri da sulieri gadarCenis saSualebaTa gamalebul Ziebamde dadis. Tavdapirvelad Turmani TiTqos Cveulebrivi adamiania, sruliad garkvuli mizniT lasticixes amosuli cotaTi kuSti ucnobi _ `ucxo~. Tu romelime saxes ukavSirdeba igi am etapze, isev `zekacs~. Turmanis portretSi irekleba mTlianad gaucxoebuli, martosuli, samyaros mimarT TiTqmis zizRiT ganwyobili kaci. am TvalsazrisiT exmianeba igi nicSes `zekacs~; portretSi arsad Cans misi Zala, miTumetes, zeZliereba. `lelian da da daCalul tbasTan Camosjeqi da dainaxe Seni saxe: viwro, gamxdari da mkacri. mxolod maSin dainaxe Seni Tvalebi _ RvarZliTa da gesliT savseni; Seni Tvalebi, qveyanas dacinviT rom umzeren~ (meliqiSvili 1987: 55). lasticixeSi amosuli Turmani jer mxolod `ucxoa~, mxolod esaa garkveuli da aqedan irTveba nawarmoebis Sinagani qronometri. am SemTxvevaSic Tavi iCina imave `ucxos~ momentma, romelic aseT mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda grigol robaqiZis moTxrobaSi `engadi~. Turmani adgeba `gzas~, rogorc `ucxo~, TandaTan ivseba, mTliandeba da `gzis~ dasasruls uerTdeba pirdapir zecas, usasrulobas. zecis da usasrulobis SegrZneba `gzis~ dasawyisSive, pirvelive nabijidan Cans. daxatulia `gza~ sivrceSi, mTeli misi perspeqtiva. upirvelesi, rasac am `gzaze~ Semdgari adamiani grZnobs, SiSi, SiSi idumalis, Seucnoblis, TviT cxovrebis, skuTar TavTan pirispir marto darCenis. Turmanis SiSi TiTqos garemosac gadaedo, garindda da miibinda. TvalnaTliv ikveTeba gmiris da garemomcveli peizaJis Sinagani erTianoba. metic, mweralma peizaJi TviT Turmanis sulis moZraobis gamosaxatavad gamoiyena. garemo fizikuridan nawilobriv mainc `gadaizida~ sulier planSi. garemodan aRZruli idumalebis SegrZneba

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amzadebs gmirs raRac axlis, jer unaxavis Sesacnobad da, imavdroulad, garemo Turmanis sulis SidapeizaJis funqciasac asrulebs. siaxle sikvdilis saxiT Semodis moTxrobaSi: Turmanis Tvalwin kvdeba qali. sikvdilis SecnobiT da gaTavisebiT eyreba safuZveli `zekacs~, magram `zekacma~ (arc nicSeseulma, arc pirobiTma) ar icis SiSi. TurmanSi ki kvlav batonobs. man mxolod erTi nabiji gadadga Tavis sakralur `gzaze~ da SiSs, kerZod, micvalebulisadmi SiSs, jer ver morevia. mwerali nabij-nabij aRwers gmiris sulier transformacias. pirvel rigSi, iTrguneba SiSi. sikvdilis SecnobiTa da SiSis damorCilebiT iwyeba Turmanis tanjviTa da tkiviliT savse aRmasvla. sagulisxmoa, rom am SemTxvevaSic `gza~ baridan mTisken miemarTeba. `mTis~ simbolikam (dasabams iRebs bibliidan, moses aRmasvla mTaze) Tavisi roli Seasrula XX s-is ^ qarTul prozaSi (gr. robaqiZe, `engadi~; b. meliqiSvili, `Turmani~, `mokveTili TiTi~; m. javaxiSvili, `TeTri sayelo~). `mTaSi~, lasticixeSi asuli Turmani poulobs meziss, daRupuli xoreSanis asuls, romelsac siyvaruli moaqvs misTvis. kvlav gadaejaWva erTmaneTs siyvaruli da sikvdili. Turmani _ `ucxo~ Zlieri grZnobis meSveobiT ukavSirdeba qals da TandaTan scildeba `ucxos~ damRa. lasticixeSi ecnoba igi salTujs idumalebiT mocul moxucs, romelsac winaswarmetyvelis da patriarqis funqciebi aqvs SeTavsebuli. salTujTan urTierTobiT Cawvdeba Turmani dalijas, wminda Teslis Tesvis da samsxverplod ganwiruli mTesveli balRis WeSmarit mniSvnelobas. `...balRi RvTiuria da wminda, magram, xalxma moiTxova xeluxlebeli~ (meliqiSvili 1988: 69). Turmanis `gza~ bevrad ufro rTulia, vidre qarTul moTxrobaSi asaxuli romelime `zekacis~ an sulieri adamianis `gzebi~. es sirTule yvelaze martiv, grafikul donezec TvalnaTliv Cans. sxva SemTxvevebSi `gza~ erTi mimarTulebiT midis, `TurmanSi~ ki igi ramdenjerme Semobrundeba, ubrundeba sawyis wertils SuqarTs, Semdeg isev iwyebs aRmasvlas mTisaken. `gzis~ aseTi konvulsiuri moZraoba nawarmoebis

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mxatvrul sivrce zustad asaxavs Turmanis mtanjvel Sinagan winaaRmdegobebs, sulier tkivilebs, Widils skuTar TavTan, Zlivs Sekowiwebuli mTlianobis xelaxal daSlas da yvelafris Tavidan dawyebas, gausaZlis miusafrobas. apokalifsur xilvebSi eZebs Turmani sakuTar Tavs. lasticixeSi eguleba Sveba, magram guli kvlav damZimebuli aqvs. misTvis mTavari Tavisi `zekacuri~ misiis aRsruleba, eris, sulis gadarCenaa. verc mxolod qalis mezisis siyvaruli, verc Zmadnaficis _ solos megobroba, verc brZenis salTujis saubari Seavsebs Turmans, ver gaamTlianebs mis suls, romelic eWvebma da sakuTari misiis simZimem dafliTa. Turmani xedavs, rom balRis mokvdinebiT azri ekargeba mis aRmasvlas SuqarTidan lasticixisken. Turmanma icis, rom Tu balRi mokvdeba, msxverplad Seewireba, maSin SuqarTsac daRupva elis, radgan ZaladobiT, mkvlelobiT mopovebuls sicocxl . Turmani afrTxilebs xalxs, ar gadalaxon mijna, ar moklan xeluxlebeli balRi, anu ar Caklan sakuTar sulSi siwminde, Torem yvelaferi daiRupeba: `-xorbali veRaras giSveliT, gagiqrebaT sicocxle da xalisi. gaimijneT da SesdeqiT!..~ (mliqiSvili 1987: 55). Turmani winaswarmetyvelis donemde maRldeba. misma `gzam~, romelic TandaTan realuridan mistikur-simbolur planSi gadavida, Seasrula Tavisi misia, garesamyarosTan, xalxTan umWidroesi Sinagani kavSiriT aRdga Turmanis Sinagani `mes~ mTlianoba da roca igi gaemijna mxolod sakuTari Tavis gadarCenis da sisxlis wyurviliT dabrmavebul xalxs, es mTlianoba mainc Seuryvneli darCa. ase rom, mwerlisTvis gmiris mier sakuTari arsis povna is TviTmizania, romlis aRsrulebas ewireba yovelive da misi daSla, dangreva ukve aRarafers arc ganmartoebas, arc damarcxebas aRar SeuZlia. Turmanis gamTlianebuli saxe mTlianad mistiur planSi mkvidrdeba. mas hyavs megobari _ `keTili mwyemsi~ _ solo. `keTili mwyemsi~ qristes erT-erTi cnobili epiTetia. Turmanis msxverplTSewirvasTan dapirispireba, sxvebis codvebisaTvis udanaSaulo balRis dasja, jaTi _ banjgvliani, eSmakisebri

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arseba, `keTili mwyemsi~, _ solo, romelic, SesaZloa, Tavisive cxvarma gadaTelos _ `ra icis solom, rom cxvari ar mohklavs? ra icis, adamiano, rom cxvari ar gasTelavs keTil mwyemsis cxedars?~ (meliqiSvili 1987: 69), _ bibliur asociaciebs aRZravs. Turmans ar surda exila, rogor Seiwiravda sisxlismieri warmarTuli civilizacia umanko balRs (jvarcma), mas sjeroda salTujis (winaswarmetyveli, patriarqi, msajuli) da misdevda `keTil mwyemss~ _ solos (qristes). mas ar SeeZlo ecxovra samyaroSi, sadac gabatondeboda jaTi (eSmaki) da amitom SesTxovda wminda balRs dacvas, jaTis sauflodan . igi Tavs grZnobs udabnoSi, aq ewveva xilva _ balRi tbaSi. balRisadmi aRvlenili locva Tavisi mxatvruli saxeebiT, mimarTvis formiT, Sinagani dinamikiTa da ritmiT religiur himns enaTesaveba da kidev ufro ganamtkicebs balRis, rogorc zearsebis, pozicias: mas mimarTaven, xotbas asxamen, Svelas SesTxoven, guls uSlian. balRis movlinebam gamoaaSkarava da zedapirze amoativtiva apokalifsuri samyaros maxinji saxeebi da faruli codvebi. Turmanis xilvebSi faqtobrivad gadaiSala kacobriobis daRupvis mTeli mistiuri suraTi. apokalifsuri mxedrebis rols aq umanko sisxliT pirmoTxvrili SuqarTelebi asruleben ninias meTaurobiT. Turmanma bolomde SeigrZno miwieri, amqveyniuri yofis absurduloba. SuqarTidan lasticixemde, baridan mTamde mimavali `gzis~ ramdenjerme gadalaxviT man Seicno WeSmariteba, moipova rwmena, Sinagani mTlianoba da misi zekacurad mZlavri suli pirvelmowameTa msgavsad siyvaruliTa da sinanuliT aivso da moemzada TavganwirvisaTvis. Turmani damarcxda, damarcxebasTan erTad eWvbic ganqarda. man moipova ufro meti, vidre miwier saqmeebSi gamarjvebaa. igi mTlianad gardaiqmna, gamTlianda, Seivso, Seicno sakuTari suli. amis Semdeg Turmani ukve aRar ekuTvnis codvil da borot miwas. mis sikvdils mwerali mistiur saburvelSi xvevs da zecaSi STanTqmad, miRm samyaroSi gadasvlad gamosaxavs. `diax, Turmani STainTqa da sivrceSi gailia, Turmani salTujisferi da balRi, cam Tu CaZira?!~ (meliqiSvili 1987: 77).

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rogorc gamoCnda, gmiris damarcxeba ar niSnavs imas, rom igi ver Seivso, ver gamTlianda da arc darRveuli mTlianobis aRdgenas moaqvs bedniereba. miznis miRweva ar niSnavs WeSmaritebasTan ziarebas TavisTavad, TviT Ziebis procesi ufro saintereso da esTetikuria. `gzis~ modeli aseT meqanizmsac iTvaliswinebs. `gzaze~ gasvla, `gzaze~ dadgoma Zalze mniSvnelovania gmiris saxis gaxsnisaTvis. moZraoba TavisTavad gulisxmobs moqmedebas da samoqmedo garemos aTvisebis aqtiur mcdelobas. niko lorTqifaniZis `cxovrebis mefeSi~ nawarmoebis poetizebul sivrces Semofarglavs mefeTmefis vaJis `gza~, romelzec `damagrebulia~ ZiriTadi movlenebi. mefeTmefis vaJis fizikuri `gza~ oqromWedlis sulieri `gzis~ pararelulad miedineba. oqromWedels aqvs ori mizani, romlis miwevisaTvisac ibrZvis: esaa siyvaruli da xelovneba. mxolod maTTan SeerTebiT gamTliandeba oqromWedeli, magram moutans ki es miswrafeba mas sulis simaRles, samyaros agebulebis Secnoba? siyvarulisa da xelovnebis gaTavisebis mZafri survili TandaTan aqtiur qmedebaSi gadadis da intensiuri mcdelobiT sinamdviled iqceva. swored am or wertils Sua (survili da miRweuli mizani) gadis oqromWedlis sulieri gardaqmnis `gza~. igi moicavs yvela sakvanZo moments _ survils, Semoqmedis tanjvas, uimedo siyvaruls, gazviadebul grZnobas, mSvenierebis wvdomas, dapyrobas. mefeTmefis vaJis `gza~ paralelurad mihyveba oqromWedlisas. igi xedavs, rogorc SeierTa oqromWedelma xelovneba da siyvaruli. man daipyro, rasac eswrafoda _ srulyo ostatoba da moipova mefis asulis siyvaruli. aseve auxda yvela ocneba mefis asulsac. oqromWedeli Sinaganad gamTlianad, `gza~ Caiketa da dro SeCerda. mefeTmefis vaJi, axla ukve Tavad mefeTmefe, gaocebulia aseTi gardaqmniT. igi xedavs Sewyvetil moZraobas, `gayinul~ samyaros, SeCerebul, uZrav dros. mas aocebs qandakebebiviT gaxveuli, ocnebaaxdenili adamianebi. igi Sesabamisad afasebs situacias: `ra mSvenierebi iyvnen, sanam miiswrafodnen! xelis SeSlac ki menaneboda, Tumc aqeTken mqonda guli, _ fiqrobda gzaze mefeTmefe. _ dakmayofilebulan da ras hgvanan? nuTu

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natyorcni isaria mxolod lamazi da ara mizanSi moxvedrili? mxolod talRaTa Soris mebrZol xomalds aqvs mimidveloba, navsayudelSi ki uRimRamo saxlia? gana kacic, sanam iwrafvis, mnamdis aqvs mas Sno, lazaTi da roca aisrulebs wadils, maSin ekargeba suls Zala?~ (lorTqifaniZe 1953: 308). adamianma ganvlo sulieri transformaciis `gza~, gamTlianda, Seivso, magram dakarga umTavresi _ sulis sicocxle. ase, rom darRveuli mTlianobis aRdgenas yovelTvis ara aqvs pozitiuri mniSvneloba, Tumca misi ganxorcielebis `gza~ igivea. raodenobrivi TvalsazrisiT aseTi gadawyveta iSviaTia, magram aranaklebi esTetikuri Rirebuleba aqvs. darRveuli mTlianobis aRdgenis `gza~ organuli aRmoCndeba modernistuli mxatvruli azrovnebisaTvis, romlisTvisac swored Sinagani ekleqturobaa damaxasiaTebeli. qarTul modernistul moTxrobaSi aisaxa daqsaqsulobis, fragmentulobis daZlevisaken gadadgmuli pirveli nabijebi, rac modernistuli azrovnebisaTvis, erTi SexedviT, paradoqsul _ darRveuli mTlianobis aRdgenis `gzis~ modelSi gamoixata. grigol robaqiZis `engads~ Tavisi gamorCeuli adgili uWiravs XX saukunis I naxevris qarTuli moTxrobis galereaSi. misTvis niSandoblivia: a) qvecnobieri donis, miTiuri mexsierebis amoqmedeba; b) Sinagani monologi, Sesityveba sakuTar TavTan; g) aqtiurad funqciobs `gzis~ modeli, romelic realuridan sulier planSi gadadis da am dros ioldeba nawarmoebis ZiriTadi saTqmelis warmoCena, filosofiuresTetikuri Sreebis TandaTanobiT gaxsna. giorgi valuevi midis baridan mTisken da gzaze xdeba misi saxis transformacia. moTxrobis mxatvrul qsovils sami ZiriTadi Sto aqvs: a) mTasTan mimaval gnzaze sakuTari Tavisa da fesvebis Zieba; b) `ucxos~ mier sakuTari Tavis povna, anu gaucxoebis momentis moxsna pirvelqmnil samyarosTan SenivTebiT; g) mTelisa da nawilis urTierTmimarTeba. isini mtkiced erTmaneTs da `gzis~ modelze arian damokidebulni. am sakiTxebis garkvevas emsaxureba moTxrobaSi aqcentirebuli

58

inga milorava

sworfrobisa da mkvlelobis miTologiur-filosofiuri aspeqtebis gaazreba. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania mTelis da nawilis urTierTmimarTeba. am rTuli da sakraluri kavSiris pirveli gamovlineba gzis dasawyisSive, landSaftis aRwerisas xdeba `es gza erTi mTliani xelovnuri qmnilebaa, 200 kilometrze harmoniulad gaSlili _ aqaa misi upiratesoba yoveli nakveTi misi landSaftisa gulisxmieri elementia kompoziciurad sastikad daculi mTelisa~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 189) miuxedvad sakmaod gavrcelebuli `mogzaurobis Canaweris~ formisa, moTxrobis pirveli striqonebidanve gasagebi da naTelia, rom es ar aris ubralo eTnografiuli an samogzauro dRiuri. Ziebis sfero scildeba materialur farglebs da sulier planSi gadadis. es gadanacvleba emTxveva `gzis~ aRmasvlas baridan mTisken, calkeuli elementebidan mTelisaken. Zaldautaneblad Smodis dumilis esTetika. `irgvliv mdumareba sufevs. Cvenc vdumT~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 191). dumilSi unda moxdes samyaroSi Cakargul, danawevrebul elementTa nebis daZabva, TviTCaRrmaveba da momzadeba erTiani, harmoniuli mTelis `SesaTxvzelad~. sagulisxmoa xazgasmuli sityvaZunwoba xevsurTa, romlebic, mwerlis Tanaxmad, didi civilizaciis naSTni arian da TavianT sulis siRrmeSi inaxaven farul codnas, romelic dumilSi, meditaciiT miiRweva. aseve mniSvnelovania SiSis aspeqti. `amreci biliki xdeba ufrodaufro saSiSari~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 191), _ wers grigol robaqiZe, rac ufro maRla miiwevs gza, matulobs SiSi, moZraobis mistiuri gancda, aRZruli movlenaTa faruli arsidan. ileba zRvari zmanebasa da cxads Soris, rac damaxasiaTebelia modernistuli azrovnebisaTvis. `SiSma imata. xol myisve vigrZeniT ucxo ram: TiTqo klde xomaldi yofiliyos udidesi da mZlavri; sizmareuli migvaqanebda igi usazRvroebaSi cis rZe TeTri SoreTis mimarT. iyo erTi wuTi: megona Sevexe maradisobis samosels~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 191). ikargeba realobis, drois SegrZneba. rac Seexeba fers _ rZeTeTrs: gamomsaxvelobiTi TvalsazrisiT, mniSvnelovania mwerlis mier SemoTavazebuli

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asaxvis rakursi, ganaTeba da feri. idumalebis gancdas aZlierebs nislovani ferwera. nislma moicva Txemebi, nislSi micuravs klde-gemi. rZeTeTri nislis miRma zmanebaTa da ocnebaTa, Ziebisa da mixvedrisaTvis bunebrivi adgilia, ra ufro uaxlovdeba gmiri am daniSnul adgils _ sakralur centrs, romliskenac iswrafis, rakursic icvleba. nislovaneba da siTeTre adgils uTmobs dasaxelebul Tu dausaxelebel fers (asociaciur fers), romliTac ivseba ukve mkveTrad moxazul figuraTa zedapiri. ,,xevi gaganierda. odnav amwvanda~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 191).... tye _ simwvane, xavsisferi... mcenareebis da qvebis feradovani laqebi. `muqgrema kav-ZarRvian Tirqvavnarze livlivebdnen Tbili zavTiani zalebi~. `borcvTa dafenebani, xalebiT aqa-iq amwvenebulni; SigadaSig _ aRvivebuli yviTeli xorbalvelebi~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 191). da sagulisxmoa, rom swored am feradovnebaSi gamoCndeba pirveli sofeli xevsureTisa. nislidan, siTeTridan, erTgvarovnebidan da bundovanebidan gamosuli adamiani ra fro uaxlovdeba im pirvelwyarosTan , romlis anareklia yovelive xiluli, miT ufro mSvenieri da feradi xdeba mis irgvliv garemo, samyaro ferTa harmoniaSi warmodgeba, rogorc calkeuli elementebis bunebrivi da Tanazomieri SexamebiT miRebuli mTeli. xevsureTamde giorgi valuevi danawevrebuli _ naxevrad rusi, naxevrad qarTveli, qalaqis adamiani, civilizebuli kaci da Tan raRac uTqmelis, pirvelyofilis Seucnoblad maZiebelia. pirveli safexuri misi gamTlianebisa saxelis cvlilebaa. saxels Tavisi mistiuri datvirTva aqvs. valuvma kargad icis qarTuli, nawilobriv grZnobs kidec Tavs qarTvelad, magram saxeli borkavs _ `rasiuli elementi Cems pirovnebaSi ufro qarTulia, vidre rusuli, xolo qaRaldebis mixedviT rusad viTvlebi mainc~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 193), _ ambobs igi. xevsurma mgelikam eri xelis dakvriT moxsna es winaaRmdegoba, giorgi valuevi monaTla `givargi valiurad~, pirovnebis gamTlianeba da gaucxoebis daZleva ase iwyeba da es rTuli, safexurebrivi procesis pirveli etapia.

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inga milorava

Semdegi safexuria Tarze amoWrili Sairebis gaazrebagaTaviseba. axla ukve givargi valiauri kiTxulobs amokveTil, mosxepil striqonebs da misTvis poeziaSi, xalas poetur xilvebSi irekleba adamianuri arsis erTianoba. `aq cxovroben naSierni homerisa~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 194), _ fiqrobs igi. am erTianobis analitikos-inteleqtuali intuiciiT grZnobs da axsnas ki istoriasa da saerTo miTosur arqetipebSi eZiebs. mis gancdas aZlierebs garemomcvelis arqaulobis SegrZneba. upirveles yovlisa, es exeba fSav-xevsurul kilos. `es kilo ar aris provincializmi, igi ufro arqaizmia~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 194). SairSi igi xedavs am samyaros sayrdens, safuZvels. `sityvebi aq yofis fesvebia TviTon, maT jer kidev ar daukargavT surneli pirvelqmnisa~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 194). xevsurTa poeziaSi valiaurma SeigrZno nawilTa sakraluri erTianoba, mTlianoba. `metaforebi ubralo Sedarebebi ki ar arian aq, aramed TviT sinamdvile, gancalkevebul saganTa Tu movlenaTa Sinagan gadabmulni~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 194). poeturi enis Sinagan kavSirTa SecnobiT givargi valiauri nawilgobriv mainc eziareba idumal sferoTa harmoanias da kidev erT nabijs dgams darRveuli `mes~ gamTlianebis gzaze. momdevno safexuria Zmadnaficoba. mgelika da givargi Zma Seficvis rituals aen. mgelikasTan sulieri TanaziarobiT givargisaTvis unda gaixsnas is samyaro, romelSic Sinagani harmonia da siwminde sufevs. mgelikas sufTa, Seuryvnel bunebasTan SeerTebiT igi aRidgens Tavisi pirvelsaxis siwmindes. `gankurnavs~ mis Wrilobebs, moiSorebs im xorcmetTa nawils mainc, rac miwierobaze, yofaze orientirebulma aswlelebma daumates am Zireul, kristalur pirvelxats. `am wesiT davZmobildiT Cven. amieridan Cveni bedi erTi gziT warimarTa~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 199). amieridan mTis Svilad cxebuli valiauric ivlis im gziT, rTac dadian mgelika da misi TanamoZmeni. mxolod Zmad aRiarebis da sulieri SeerTebis Semdeg gadadis givargi Semdeg safexurze, romelic sworfrobaSi gamoixata. SeiZleba paradoqsulad mogvCvenos, magram pirovnebis

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metamorfozis am suraTSi wina safexurebi _ peizaJis aTvisebagaazreba, saxelis gadarqmeva, poeturi saxeebis wvdoma Tu ZmadSeficva bevrad ufro materialuri qmedebebia, vidre sworfrobis misteria. qalis sxeulTan Sexeba aRvivebs gmiris sulis uRrmes SreebSi miZinebul sulier Zalebs. es iseTive madliani da ucodveli cecxlia, romelic daeca fiWvis xes. `xes wamsve ucxo ali moedo. vigZen mTeli taniT raRac uaRresad aRmtacebeli. mgelikas Tvalebi elvarebdnen. vxedavdiT sicocxles. brmas, ucodos, pirvelsunTqvians, Zlevamosils~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 205). swored aseTi sicocxlis mZafri SegrZneba aRviZebs valiaurSi sworfrobis tradiciis fesvebs da arsis Ziebis survils. masSi jer kidev Zlieria racionaluri adamiani, analitikosi, romelsac s, Cawvdes movlenis Sinaarss da ara ubralod irwmunos da mihyves mas. am SemTxvevaSi mwerali da misi gmiri mTlianad identicifirebulia da valiauric zustad misdevs grigol robaqiZisaTvis niSneul movlenaTa gaazrebis gzas _ moZebnos am movlenis analogia istoriaSi, Semdeg ki misi miTosuri arqetipi. man gonebis Tvali ganCxrika da miagno herodotesTan msgavs qmedebas, TiTqos axsna kidec `ucxosTan~ SeerTebiT da misi gaTavisebis fenomeniT, magram Tavadve dainaxa gansxvaveba xevsurul adaTsa da afroditesaTvis xorcieli siyvarulis Sewirvis wess Soris. magram, imavdroulad, man SeigrZno, rom am movlenaSi devs RmerTTan miaxloebis, sulieri Zalebis gamoRviZebiT, sulieri intensivobiTa da sakuTari nebis daZabviT arsSi gamTlianebis SesaZlebloba. `velodi mzeqalas da vgonebdi Tavs `ucxod~ _ saSiSaria da Tanve netaric amis warmoTqma _ RvTiur arsad~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 207), _ ambobs igi. magram Tavisi mosazrebebi mas damajeeblad ar eCveneba da bevri ram marTlac gaugebaria, vidre nawarmoebis mxatvrul qsovilSi ar CaerTvis sikvdili. moSuRarma sasikvdilod dasWra gogoTuri. `givi laCar ars~, - ambobs mgelika. givi laCaria, radgan ver SeZlo sulis simtkice, nebis Zala daepirispirebina sibraziT aRZruli kacTakvlis, ganadgurebis, mospobis impulsaTvis. am laCrobiT man daarRvia Sinagani harmonia,

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inga milorava

romelic sufevs adamiaeSi aq, mTaSi, zecasTan axlos. valiauris Tvalwin Tavbrudamxvevi siswrafiT gairbens ukuprocesi: sisxlis aRebis wesis aCrdilqveS pirovnebis gaucxoeba, Temidan mogleja, gaqceva, sazRauri. mTlianobis rRvevis process mxolod sruli ganadgureba dausvams wertils. sakuTar sisusts vergamklaveba dasabamia dacemisa. swored es ori SesaZlebloba devs sworfrobaSic: sulis gamTlianeba, `ucxos~ sabolood gaqroba da harmoniul mTelSi SenivTeba an ufro danawevreba da sruli daSla. is, vinc gauZlebs xorciel cunebas, miRwevs RvTaebriv mTlianobas, `iwvod mxolod~ _ ese igi igzne RvTiur-waruvali cecxlur zRvarzed. gadalaxav zRvars _ fuWad iqeva gzneba~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 219). amitomacaa sworfroba yvelaze ufro sulieri safexuri, sadac umTavresi swored sulier ZalTa intensivoba, nebis ukiduresi daZabviT xorcis daTrgunva, gadazidva xdeba. mzeqalas saxis simboluri datvirva aSkarad vlindeba maSin, roca gmiri wyvets analizs, msjelobas da mTlianad misdevs, emorCileba sulis moZraobas, Sinagan gznebas: `erTi wuTiT Sewyda fiqrTa dena. uecrad vscne: mzeqala Rvivoda CemSi, Zalavsili da maTrobeli~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 219). aq Cans siyvarulis areopagituli moZRvrebis anarekli. saRvTo trfialebis gavrcelebuli gamovlinebaa alegoria _ mSvenieri qali, romelSic RmerTi igulisxmeba. xSirad Zalze Znelicaa gamivna, sadaa saubari realur qalze da sad RmerTze. msgavsi saxea mzeqala _ RvTiuri madli, ucodveloba, siwminde, sinaTle, nebisyofis simtkiciT miRweuli sispetake adamianis sulisa gadavida, SeenivTa gmiris kerZo arss da saRvTo mijnurobaSi gamoikvirta sazogado mTeli. magram es erTianoba mxolod gansakuTrebu adgilas mTaSi miaCnia SesaZleblad mwerals. mTaSi gansakuTrebiT Zlieria mTlianobis gancda. am movlenis sailustraciod gamodgeba dResaswaulis aRwera, sadac mTlianis moqmedebis meqanizmi aqvs Taviseburad axsnili mwerals. `ucxo atmosfero iSleboda Cems irgvliv. yoveli xevsuri cocxlobda aq sicocxliT mTelisa. pirovnuli Tauri, tomisagan gamoyofili, ubrundeboda Tavis bnel saSos. calkeuloba

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hqreboda... gvaruli Rvivoda. modgmis magari sisxldeniT ayvanilni, monadimeni fizikuri wevrebi iyvnen mxolod erTi uxilavi mTelisa. calkeulTa uTvalav qvefenebSi _ vgonebdi ase unda xatuliyo uTuod cocxali saxe mTelisa: tomis. CavukvirdeT sityvas `xati~. ra aris es, Tu ara Sinagani yalibi xeluxlebeli mTelisa? salocavs `xati~ hqvia, sadac erTi xatic ki baris gagebiT ar moipoveba. maS `xati~ suraTi ki ar yofila, aramed Sina-saxe~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 203). `xati~ bolo wminda marcvalia, romlis daSla aRar SeiZleba. Sinasaxes mTlianobis ormagi gamovlineba aqvs: realuri, xiluli _ tomi da ufro maRali _ is mTlianoba, rsac aRwevs pirovneba iniciaciis gziT. mTasTan daSorebis, Zirs daSvebis Semdeg givargi valiauri, romelmac ganvlo ucxodan, sawolidan, kerZodan ganzogadoebulamde, mTlianamde amaRlebis urTulesi gza, ganicdis did tkivils, magram mas ukandasaxevi gza aRara aqvs. mTam gamoawrTo misi suli, aziara WeSmaritebas da Tavisuflad gauSva mdumare sivrceSi saqrolvelad. mgelikas sasowarkveTili Zaxili gls ufl givargis, magram mas Tavis gza aqvs. aq gaielvebs erTi sagulisxmo detali. igi ambobs: `gavbrunebuliyav da erTxel kidev gameSva mzera Zmadnaficisaken? magram es miwas mimakravda~(robaqiZe 1994: gv. 223). maSasadame, mTis skolis, wvrTnis, aRmasvlis Semdeg igi aRar unda miekras miwas. igi Tvisobrivad gardaqmnilia da amieridan sxva gzas mihyveba `mZime, Rvremamocul mdumarebaSi~. SeiZleba gvevarauda, rom aq `zekacis~ motivTana gvaqvs saqme da es Zalian bunebrivi iqneboda grigol robaqiZisTvis, magram valuev-valiauris saxe, xasiaTis ganviTarebis dinamika, moqmedebis motivacia da faruli arsi ar gvaZlevs saSualebas, aSkarad davinaxoT masSi mkacrad formirebuli zeadamiani, rogorc vasil barnovi werda, `kacRmerTi~. valiaurma ganvlo nebismieri sulieri adamianisaTvis bunebrivi Ziebis, analizis, mindobis, Secnobis, rwmenis mopovebis etapebi da aRidgina adamianis arsis darRveuli mTlianoba, romelsac adamiani

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horizontaluri gzis gavlis Semde axali gzisken, miwidan cis mimarTulebiT mihyavs.

Dliteratura robaqiZe 1994: gr. robaqiZe, Txzulebani, seria ,,Serisxulni, t. II, Tb., 1994 meliqiSvili 1987: b. meliqiSvili, mkerdSebolili mercxali, Tb., `merani~, 1987. lorTqifaniZe 1953: n. lorTqifaniZe, rCeuli Txzulebani, t. II, Tb., 1953. toporovi 1983: . . . .: , , 1983.

maia jaliaSvili

gzis mxatvruli modeli (Tamaz bibiluris romani Svidi xmisa da torolasaTvis


adamiani maradiuli mgzavria _ wuTisoflidan zesTasoflisken mimaval gzaze damdgari. gza imdenia, ramdeni `mec~ aris yovel pirovnebaSi. es gzebi warmarTaven mis xorciel-sulier ganviTarebas. fizikuri ganviTareba materialuri samyaros kanonebs emorCileba da droSia SezRuduli, sulieri ganviTareba ki Tavisufalia da dro-sivrces arad dagidevT. nebismieri mxatvruli nawarmoebi, simbolurad, gzaa, romelic mkiTxvelis gulisa da gonebisaken miemarTeba da ramdenad miaRwevs sawadels, es ara mxolod teqstis Rirebulebazea damokidebuli, aramed mkiTxvelis mzaobasa da droze, romelic nawarmoebs garkveul konteqsts uqmnis. Tamaz bibiluri Tavis romanSi `Svidi xmisa da torolasaTvis~ gzis Tavisebur mxatvrul models qmnis, romelic, upirvelesad, adamianis sulier ganviTarebas warmoaCens. mis mxatvrul sistemaSi irekleba literaturulfilosofiuri gamocdileba, romelic miTosuri da bibliuri teqstebis codnas emyareba. gzis sxvadasxva

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mxatvruli modeli ki imisTvis iqmneba, rom mkiTxvelma adamianis amqveynad arsebobis azris Cawvdoma SeZlos. `samyaro marTlac isev savsea idumalebiT da miuwvdomlobiT, momaval saukuneTa adamiani, Tu dedamiwam kidev gasZlo, aucileblad udidesi mistikosi iqneba~, _ ase fiqrobs `ambebis mTxzveli~ am romanSi. TviTon mwerali swored aseT `mistikosad~ warmogvidgeba da qmnis, upirvelesad, mistikas Calaurisas, sadac romanis personaJebi midian. am romanSic mTavari mainc ori gzaa, romlebic erTmaneTs gadakveTen da qmnian jvarsaxovnebas. revaz siraZem sagangebod gamoikvlia jvarsaxovnebis mxatvruli fenomenis arsi, romlis mixedviTac, `teqstis Cveulebriv mdinarebaSi misi amqveyniuri Sinaarsia, xolo misave siRrmeSi aris sulieri Sinaarsi, romelic jvris vertikals Seesabameba. amas swvdeba mkiTxvelis zecnobiereba~ (siraZe 2008: 7). romanis gmirebi materialur samyaroSi gadaadgildebian, mravalgvar xifaTs gadalaxaven da mainc miaRweven Calauramde, Tan Sinaganad icvlebian, sakuTar Tavsa da samyaros ufro Rrmad Seimecneben, sakuTari arsebobis gamarTlebas pouloben. romanis mTavari gmirebi Calaurisken miemarTebian. isini Svidni arian, radgan swored ricxvi Svidi gamoxatavs srulyofilebas _ RmerTma xom Svid dReSi Seqmna samyaro. sxvadasxva kulturasa da religiaSi ricxvi Svidi sakraluri cifria da amitomac literaturaSi xSirad gxvdeba simboluri mravalmniSvnelovnebiT. Svidi xma, ra Tqma unda, upirvelesad, unikalur, qarTul xalxur Svidxmian simRerebs gvaxsenebs. Tumca romanis arc erTi personaJi uSualod musikasTan dakavSirebuli ar aris, magram mTlianobaSi mkiTxvels aqvs polifoniurobis gancda, romelsac qmnis Txrobis ritmi, movlenaTa ganviTarebis dinamika. romani feradovnebiTac gamoirCeva, mwerals saocari SegrZneba aqvs xazisa da ferisa, amitomac es Svidi personaJi cisartyelas Svidi feriviTaa, romlebic erTmaneTs avseben da ganapirobeben. `Calauri mogonili ar aris. Calauri arsebobs da iarsebebs manamde, sanam arsebobs kacTa modgma~ (bibiluri 1987: 716). mainc ra aris es Calauri, romelsac mwerali warmoaCens, rogorc maradiulobasTan wilnayars? is arsebobs, rogorc ocneba da iluzia, warmosaxviTi sivrce, sadac Tavs iyrian materialuri Tu sulieri gzebi. Tavs iyrian da mere erT gzad

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erTiandebian, gzad, romelsac adamianis Tvali (gonebisa da sulisa) veRar swvdeba. Calauramde ki cxovrebiseuli gzajvaredinebia, wamodgoma da dacema, sasowarkveTileba da imedi. `Calauri yvelaferia: Cveni xsovna, Cveni mogoneba, Cveni warsuli. vidre Calauri gaxsovs, arafrisa ar unda geSinodes. yvelas Tavisi Calauri aqvs, yvelani Cveni Calauridan movdivarT. movdivarT arxeinad galaRebulni da aris erTi dro, siWabukis dro, roca aRarc ki gvaxsovs, rom Calauridan wamovediT. es xanmokle droa... rac ufro vberdebiT da wuTisofels vemSvidobebiT, Calauri Cveni xsna gvgonia. bolos yvelani, fiqriT mainc, aucileblad, isev CalaurSi vbrundebiT~ (bibiluri 1987: 716). romanis mixedviT, Calauri maRlaa, zecasTan axlos, saidanac `RmerTTan misasvlelad didi gza aRar dagWirdeba~. ase rom, Calaurisken mimavali gza, realur planSi TviTon cxovrebaa. yvelani am gzas mivyvebiT, radgan TviTon sicocxlea gza, gza siymawvilidan siWabukisken da siWabukidan siberisaken. Tamaz bibiluri erT interviuSi aRniSnavda: `aq yvelaze ufro gzis simbolika mxiblavda. yvelani, Svidiveni da, albaT, torolac, sadRac midian. es detali ukve TviT kacTa cxovrebis modelis Seqmnis SesaZleblobas maZlevda~ (bibiluri 1987: 716). italo kalvino werilSi `simsubuqe~ persevsis mier meduza gorgonas mokvlis Sesaxeb miTs warmoaCens, rogorc poetisa da samyaros urTierTobis alegorias. persevsi gaqvavebas imiT gadaurCeba, rom gorgonas ki ara, brinjaos farze areklil mis saxes umzers, Tanac, qarsa da Rrublebs eyrdnoba. meduzas sisxlidan ki frTosani raSi, pegasi iSveba. e. i. erTi mxriv, arsebobs sazarel arsebaTa realoba, rogorc tvirTi, da am realobidan `areklili samyaro~, rogorc simsubuqe _ mxatvruli realoba. kalvinos mTeli kacobrioba `simZimemisjilad~ warmoudgeba, romelic mudam cdilobs simsubuqis mopovebas xelovnebis gziT. mwerlebi gamoarCeven erTgvar `egzistencialur pozicias~, romelic saSualebas iZleva, sulieri, sazogadod, `cxovrebiseuli drama melanqoliis garda, ironiiTac SevamsubuqoT~ (kalvino 2010: 14). amvari simsubuqis (`yofierebis autaneli simsubuqis~ milan kunderaseuli `autaneli simZimis~konteqstiT) gancdas

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iwvevs Tamaz bibiluris zemoT naxsenebi romani, romelic SeiZleba, persevsis fars SevadaroT, romliTac mwerali igeriebs meduzas (realobis) Semoxedvas, da aramcTu gaqvavebas icilebs Tavidan, aramed `klavs~am meduzas misi mxatvrul realobad gardaqmnis gziT. am romanSi realoba ki ar STanTqavs da sress Tavisi tvirTiT adamians (rac xSirad aris aRweris sagani literaturisa), aramed ukan ixevs da qreba, ETumca ara samudamod, aramed mxolod Zalis mokrebisa da xelaxali gamoCenisaTvis. romanis `Svidi xmisa da torolasaTvis~ Txrobis ritmi imdenad mowesrigebulia, rom erTbaSadd ipyrobs mkiTxvels. mwerali qmnis samyaros, kacobriobis mikromodels Svidi personaJiT, romlebic sxvadasxva sofelSi cxovroben, sxvadasxva asakisa da gansxvavebuli `realobis~ matarebelni arian, magram isini yvelani erT wertilSi, gzis erT monakveTze ikribebian gangebis ZaliT. es gza ki Calaurisken midis. `literatura plastikuri velia, _ wers Jerar Jeneti werilSi `literaturis utopia~, _ gamrudebuli sivrce, sadac nebismier momentSi yvelaze moulodneli urTierTobebi da yvelaze paradoqsuli Sexvedrebia SesaZlebeli~ (Jeneti 2010: 12). amgvari `moulodneli urTierTobebisa~ da `paradoqsuli Sexvedrebis~ adgilia Calauri _ Tamaz bibiluris literaturul utopia. Calauri samoTxis paradigmacaa (guram doCanaSviliseul `lamazqalaqsac~ rom mogvagonebs), xsnis sivrcea. aqeTken moemarTebian abria maxauri, garsos deda, dideda lela SviliSvil zazasTan erTad, kaWkaWa dedaberi, eliso da gelac _ jer kidev ymawvilebi, magram ukve `saidanRac~ gamoqceulebi. yovel maTgans erTi ram aerTianebs _ swrafva Calaurisaken, Tumca TiToeuls Tavisi mizezi aqvs. abria maxaurs CalaurSi SviliSvili giorgi eguleba da amitomac midis iqiT, rom sikvdils misi Semyure Sexvdes. uCveulo da saocari motivia _ momakvdavi abria bolos Zalas ikrebs, fexze dgeba da sikvdilis Sesaxvedrad midis, magram Tan sicocxlis dauZleveli wyurviliT. SeiZleba SviliSvilis yurebaSi gardacvaleba mas sicocxlis sxva formiT gagrZelebad esaxeboda. amis Sesaxeb arafers gveubneba `SeTxzuli ambebis avtori~, romelic TviTonac uxilavi, usaxelo personaJia, magram aranaklebi

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simZafriTa da vnebiT miuyveba wvimian bilikebs gadakarguli Calaurisaken. garsos dedas siyvaruliT, SvilebiviT gazrdili xarebi mihyavs, rom ar CamoarTvan. mis TavgadasavalSi irekleba XX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi Catarebuli koleqtivizaciis procesi. eliso, biWisgan motyuebuli, sircxvilsa da SiSs gamoeqca. mis bedSi irekleba axalgazrda Taobis winaaRmdegobebiT aRsavse suliskveTeba, survilebisa da SesaZleblobebis konfliqtiT gamowveuli tanjva da SfoTi. oc wels qalaqs Sexiznuli lela, rogorc iqna, Tavs daaRwevs iZulebiT marwuxebs da mSobliuri Calaurisken SviliSvilsac gamoiyolebs. romanSi qalaqi ixateba, rogorc erTgvari Caketili sivrce, romelic adamianis Tavisufal, sulier ganviTarebas abrkolebs. qalaqis, rogorc apokalifsuri sivrcis, gancda, literaturisTvis nacnobia. qalaqi, sazogadod, civilizaciasTan asocirdeba. teqnikis ganviTarebam adamiani bunebasa da RmerTs daaSora, rac nicSes xmamaRla gamocxadebuli `RvTis sikvdiliT~ dagvirgvinda. nicSes `ese ityoda zaratustraSi~ vkiTxulobT: `he, zaratustra, aq didi qalaqia: aq araferi gaqvs saZiebeli, dakargviT ki yvelafers dakargav. rad mogisurvebia am wumpeSi Cafloba? Seibrale Seni fexebi! ukeTesia SeafurTxe qalaqis kars da gabrundi! aq jojoxeTia mwiris azrebisaTvis. aq did azrebs cocxlad aduReben da xarSviT amcireben. aq lpeba yvela didi grZnoba. aq mxolod mxmar mcire grZnobaT SeuZlia xmauroba... gana am qalaqs dakluli sulis simyralis oxSivari ar asdis?... gana ar gesmis, rom suli sityvaTa TamaSad iqca... sad siyvaruli aRar SeiZleba, iq unda gverdze CaviaroT~ (nicSe 1993: 135). amgvar ganwyobas bibiluris romanis personaJis sulieri mdgomareoba exmianeba. Calaurisken bejiTad miemarTeba kaWkaWa dedaberi, sibereSi, pensiis dasaniSnad imis mowme rom dasWirda, rom misi gardacvlili qmari mixa namdvilad misi qmari iyo (amis damadasturebeli sabuTi ar arsebobda). CalaurSi ki eguleboda qaliSvilobisdroindeli megobari, mis jvrisweras rom daswreboda. es Tavi gamoirCeva cocxali iumoriT. dedabris narativi gaJRenTilia imgvari surneliT, romelic mxolod sofleli, mravalWirnaxuli, xandazmuli qalis metyvelebas SeiZleba axldes. mwerali axerxebs mkiTxveli daajeros personaJTa realurobaSi. Calauris gzas adgas gelac, erTguli saxedris saZebnelad wamosuli. am TavSi

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adamianisa da bunebis harmoniuli urTierToba warmoCndeba, rogorc sicocxlis mTeli sisavsiT gancdis aucilebeli piroba. es Svidi personaJi ikribeba mdinaris napiras. am mdinaris gadalaxva simbolurad ganwmendas, ganaxlebas edareba. yovel SemTxvevaSi, misi gadalaxvis gareSe CalaurSi ver mixval. `ganwmendisa~ Tu `sinanulis~ motivs amZafrebs wvimac, romelic Calaurisken mimaval mgzavrebs ramdenime dRe Seaferxebs. es `Seferxeba~ ki erTmaneTisTvis ucxo adamianebs siyvarulis, ndobisa da Tanalmobis grZnobiT daakavSirebs. es Svidi adamiani SeiZleba sxvadasxvad gamovlenil erTadac gaviazroT, gamTlianebulad, maradiul ganzomilebaSi SesvlisaTvis gamzadebulad. erTad Sekrebili `Svidi xma~ harmoniulobisa da srulyofilebis simboloa. am Svid xmaSi erTiandeba miwa da ca, sulieri da usulo, materialuri da warmosaxuli. ase rom, romanis saxelwodeba _ `Svidi xmisa da torolasaTvis~ _ SeiZleba gaviazroT, rogorc `himni~ sicocxlisadmi, aseve _ sikvdilisadmi da, aqedan gamomdinare, samyarosadmi. da, rac mTavaria, `sicocxlis romantikisadmi~, romlis maradiulobisac sjeroda mwerals da mkiTxvelis darwmunebasac cdilobda. swored amitomac warumZRvara romans Son o keisis sityvebi: `sanam amodis Tu Cadis mze, sanam miiqceva da ukuiqceva zRva, sanam galoben frTosnebi da yvavilebi yvavian, sanam idgebian mTani, sanam biWs klavs gogos survili, xolo gogos surs, sasurveli iyos, manam ar Caqreba sicocxlis romantika~ (bibiluri 1987: 295). mTeli romani swored mzis amosvla-Casvlaa, oRond yovel dRes gansxvavebuli feriTa da surneliT. am `feradovnebas~ aRmqmneli sWirdeba, Tamaz bibilurisTana `mTxzveli ambebisa~. romanSi Svidi Tavia Svidi damoukidebeli novelasaviT: `sityvebi~, `Sopenis balada~, `SiSi~, `mowme~, `poetis sikvdili~, `saxedari~, `epilogi CalaurSi~. Svidi sxvadasxva ambavi, rogorc sxvadasxva `xma~ erTiani sicocxlis simRerisaTvis~. Svid `adamianur~ xmas emateba torolas (cis) xma da iqmneba RvTisgan Seqmnili daurRveveli, unaklo erTianoba. Calauri romanis personaJebisTvis is adgilia, sadac samyarosTan Serwyma-gamTlianeba unda ganxorcieldes.

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mwerlisTvis mTavaria arCevani _ gadawyvetilebis miReba _ CalaurSi wasvla. zogi axalgazrdobaSi iRebs am gadawyvetilebas, zogi _ sibereSi, zogi SemTxveviT irCevs am gzas, zogi _ gaazrebulad. zogi aRwevs Calauramde, zogi _ vera. zogs iRebs Calauri, zogs _ ara. vin gamoigona Calauri? `ambebis mTxzvelma~ Tu man, vinc `kacTa modgmis mTel cxovrebas Txzavs~; vinc igonebs sityvebs da TviTon aris `sityva~; sityva, romelic moicavs dasawyissa da dasasruls, sityva, romelic `pirveliTgan iyo da sityva igi iyo RmrTisa Tana da RmerTi iyo sityva igi~ (ioane maxarebeli). Tamaz bibiluris azriT, sityva yofila is, riTac kacis cxovreba iwereba, Tundac, `TviTon sityva ar ismodes, arc marTla iwerebodes~. sityvis magiur Zalasa da mravalmniSvnelovnebaze msjelobs borxesi werilSi `wignis kultis Sesaxeb~: `msoflio istoria _ es aris wminda werili, romelsac Cven vSifravT da gumaniT vwerT, da romelSic aseve gvweren Cven. Semdeg leon blua ityvis: `dedamiwaze ar arsebobs arc erTi sulieri, rom SeeZlos Tqvas, vin aris igi. aravin icis, risTvis movida amqveynad, ras Seesatyviseba misi qceva, misi grZnobebi, azrebi da rogoria misi WeSmariti saxeli, misi warudinebeli saxeli wuTisoflis matianeSi... istoria uzarmazari liturgikuli teqstia, sadac iotebsa da wertilebs aranaklebi daniSnuleba aqvT, vidre striqonebsa da Tundac, Tavebs, magram mniSvneloba erTisa da meorisac CvenTvis gaurkveveli da Rrmad dafarulia~. malarmes Tanaxmad, msoflio wignisTvis arsebobs. leon blua ambobs, rom Cven magiuri wignis striqonebi varT, an sityvebi, an asoebi, da wigni, romelic maraddRe iwereba, erTaderTia, rac aris msoflioSi, ufro swored, igi TviTon aris msoflio~ (borxesi 1996: 39). ase rom, mweralic da mis mier gamogonili personaJebic `sxvisi~ dawerilebi arian, amitomac ase xSirad Tavneboben personaJebi, maT Soris, es `Svidni~, jiutad mimavalni Calaurisaken. mwerals surs, mkiTxvels daamaxsovros isini `mdinaris piras gakruli suraTiT~ _ Tanac, nawvimar WalaSi, rodesac gadawmendili ferebi xasxaseben. isini yvelani poetebi arian, oRond, rogorc giorgi leoniZe ityoda, ara `qaRaldze riTmebiT molparakeni~, aramed poeturi guliT, poeturi TvaliT da didi ocnebiT gasxivosnebulni. es `didi ocneba~ Calauria, romlis devnaSi SeiZleba sicocxle gailios.

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abria maxaurma CalaurSi ver aaRwia da ise mokvda, SviliSvils ver Sexeda TvalebSi, magram `ambebis mTxzvelisgan~ is mainc `dasaCuqrda~ _ igi sikvdilis wamebSi torolas Sehyurebda da mis galobas ismenda. caSi monavarde frinvelsa da momakvdav adamians Soris uxilavi Zafebi ibmeba. torolac eTxoveba sicocxles Tavisi simReriT. iqmneba mSvenieris, amaRlebulis gancda. mweralsac, albaT, es surda, romanidan mkiTxvelis sulsa, gulsa da gonebaSi gadadeniliyo `didi ocneba~, amitomac mTavrdeba romani am sityvebiT: `abria maxaurs, sikvdils rom xvdeboda, torolas galoba Caesmoda. im wamSi ki mzis erT planeta dedamiwaze amaze mniSvnelovani araferi momxdara~ (bibiluri 1987: 716). literatura bibiluri 1987: bibiluri T. Svidi xmisa da torolasaTvis, Tb.: gamomc., `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1987 borxesi 1996: borxesi x. enigmaTa sarke, gamomc. `lomisi~. Tb.: 1996 kalvino 2010: kalvino i. simsubuqe, Tb.: Jurn. `arili~, 24 maisi, 2010 nicSe 1993: nicSe f. ese ityoda zaratustra, gamomc., `filosofiuri biblioTeka~, Tb.: 1993 siraZe 2008: siraZe r. istoria `mkiTxvelis fenomenisa~ da saxismetyvelebiTi periodizacia. wignSi: `kultura da saxismetyveleba~. Tb.: gamomc., `inteleqti~, 2008 Jeneti 2010: Jeneti J. literaturis utopia, Tb.: Jurn. `arili~, 12 Tebervali, 2010

dali baxtaZe

gza taZrisaken (ena da religia)


1. Sesavali. enisa da religiis urTierToba Semecnebisa da codnis gansxvavebuli sferoa. am urTierTobaSi asaxulia adamianis goniTi kulturis umTavresi formebi (ernst kasireris mixedviT, esenia: ena, miTosi, religia, istoria, xelovneba, mecniereba). religiis samsaxurSi Cayenebuli ena metad rTul da mravalmxriv subsistemas qmnis (Cassirer 1996: 185). saeklesio religiuri ena inaxavs da icavs zogadsakacobrio, moralur da didaqtikur normebs. misi specifika ar hgavs yoveldRiuri socialuri Tu kulturuli cxovrebis amsaxvel en niSan-Tvisebebs; mis TaviseburebebSi gamokveTilad vlindeba eTnikuri xasiaTi. saeklesioreligiuri ena arc Tanamedrove sasaubro enis tolfardia, Tumca Tanamedrove msmenelzea gaTvlili. misi leqsika da enobrivi saSualebebi gasul saukuneTa iseTi gamoZaxilia, romlis Sinaarsobrivi Zala gamoikveTa enis mier religiur da zeazrobriv mniSvnelobaTa gamoxatvis unar. 2. religiuri ena Tanamedrove lingvisturi TvalTaxedviT. taZari mrevlis koleqtiuri SemakavSirebeli adgilia (dawesebulebaa). aq ena mraval saSualebaTagan azris simbolur da ritualur-ceremoniul

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elementebs/ gamoxatulebebs iyenebs. mis yoveldRiur racionalurad gamWvirvale sasaubro formebSi Semonaxulia imaginaruli, aradiskursuli arsis mqone formebi, isini gamoirCevian komunikaciuri SinaarsiTa da daniSnulebiT, aseve performaciul doneze simboloTa siWarbiT, anu sakomunikacio azri simbolizbulia kognitur da performaciul doneebze (Habermas 2001: 61, 63). lingvisturi, azrobrivi, filosofiuri da kulturuli gagebiT religiuri enis qmediToba ganviTarebis sami safexuriT ganisazRvreba: miTologiuri, metaforuli da pragmatuli. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom enis emociur da propoziciul movlenebs Soris arsebuli mkveTri sxvaobis miuxedavad, anu sulis moZraobasa da obieqtur viTarebas Soris arsebuli sxvaobisas konvencionalizms gverd daudga konotaciebisa da eqspresiulobis, i grZnobebisa da emociebis faqtori, rogorc sakomunikacio ganzraxvis saSualeba, gaTvlili msmenelis rwmenis gaRrmavebasa da Sesabamis zemoqmedebaze (kasireri 1983: 4, 178, 187). religiaSi erTiandeba azrobrivi da racionaluri cnebebi. am ori elementis urTierToba sinamdvilis Semecnebas emsaxureba. religia racionalurze metia, igi adamianis sulis/sulierebis struqturaa, `suliereba, rogorc adamianisa da samyaros asaxva~ (`die Seele als eine Spiegelung von Welt und Mensch~ (Jung, C.G. 2001: 95). Tanamedrove lingvistikis TvalTaxedviT, saeklesioreligiuri ena moicavs fsiqologiur, sociologiur faqtorebs. bolo dros aqtualuri gaxda identurobis, komunikaciisa da enobrivi mexsierebis faqtori (koleqtiuri identobis suraTi/xateba da komunikaciuri gacvlis daniSnuleba (Schiewe u.a. 2011: 25). 3. religiuri ena da transcedencia. enisa da religiis urTierTobaSi aisaxa is zegavlena, rsac ena Tavisi arsebobis manZilze axdenda sulierebaze. lingvisturi Teoriebis mixedviT, religiis ena, rogorc fenomeni, da TviT religia, sociologiurad ganisazRvreba. religiis sociologias enaTmecnierebaSi moeZebna sociolingvisturi safuZvlebi da misi socialur-maintegrirebeli Zala sakraluri sawyisebidan dawyebuli, miTosisa da magiis, religiisa da kultis gavliT, komunikaciur gardasaxva aiyvana (Habermas 2001: 64). iurgen habermasis azriT, `sulisa da sxeulis/xorcis~, `subieqtisa da obieqtis~ winaaRmdegobrioba jer kidev hegelma `mesame kategoriis SemotaniT~ _ sulis Sinagani da garegani mxaris axsniT

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gansazRvra. `enis niSnobriv subsat gamoxatulia aramaterialuri mniSvnelobebi, sxeulis eqspresiul JestebSi asaxulia fsiqikis moZraoba, muSaki sxeuli pirovnebaTSoris urTierTobaSi gamoxatavs inteleqtualur ganzraxvas (Habermas 2001: 70). adamianis suliereis filosofiur siRrmeebze Cven aq ar SevCerdebiT; vityviT mxolod, rom lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT sayuradRebo aRmoCnda me-20 saukunis germaneli sociologebisa da filosofosebis Aarnold gelenis (Arnold Gehlen), helmut plesneris (Helmut Plessner) da ernst kasireris (Ernst Cassirer) Sromebi. isini ikvlevdnen moRvawe subieqtis SemecnebiT damokidebulebas gare samyarosTan: kasirerma Seiswavla samyaros aRqma/aRiarebis simboluri formebi. azrTan dakavSirebuli yoveli simbolo warmoaCens yovel enobriv `niSanSi~, yovel miTiur Tu xelovnur `suraTSi~ sulier SigTavss/Semcvelobas, romelic zeazrobrivze miuTiTebs. es Sinaarsobrii SigTavsi gardaisaxeba mniSvnelobis funqcia (Cassirer 1988: Bd.1: 42). Plesnema Seswavla sxeulTan dakavSirebuli eqspresiuli qmedebebi. xolo gelenma _ samyarosTan arsebuli instrumentuli da ritualuri kavSiri/ urTierToba. lingvistikaSi simbolo, tradiciulad, gaigeba rogorc azriT datvirTuli, azrobrivi daniSnulebis mqone raRac erTeuli. bevri enaTmecnieri simbolos xatebsa da niSanTan erT rigSi ayenebs ( 1988). sinamdvileSi simbolos xatebsa da niSans Soris Sualeduri adgili uWiravs. ( 2001/4:86). religiuri enis specifika i, rom erT mxares dgas gamoxatvis enobrivi, propoziciuli da racionaluri qmedebisa da gamoxatvis formebi Tavisi Sinaarsobrivi manifestaciiT. meore mxares ki _ aradiskursuli, gareenobrivi, ritualizebuli, gamoxatvis xatovani azrisa da stilis mqone formebi, romlis Sinaarsobrivi, performaciuli mxare uaRresad did zegavlenas axdens msmenelze. kasirerma es orive aspeqti simbolizebis procesSi moaqcia (Hebermas 1997: 9-40). misi azriT, simboloTa gamoyenebiT xdeba samyarosTan arapirdapiri urTierToba. gamoxatvis simboluri formebi warmoadgens uwyvet jaWvs, kontinuums xatovan gamoTqmasa da cnebas Soris da sulierebis yovel gamoxatulebas Tavis racionalurobas ganumtkicebs (iqve: 76). 4. gza adamianidan taZramde sul ufro metad semiotikis interesebis sagan. igi SemecnebiTi Teoriebis semiotikuri transformaciebiT aris aRsavse. sakomunikacio

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azri simbolizebulia rogorc kognitur, aseve perormaciul doneze. gancdaTa, gamocdilebaTa, azrobriv STabeWdilebaTa gardasaxva transcendentulia, zeazrobrivia. es rTuli gza oTx ZiriTad simbolizebul aqtze gadis: 1. religiur saubarze (locva, vedreba, qadageba) 2. ritualze (sawesCveulebo aRsrulebis normebi) 3. galobaze (musika, mgalobelTa gundi, sasuliero pirisa da mrevlis galoba) 4. jvarze/xatze/suraTze (qandakebaze). maSasadame, religiuri ena aerTianebs oTx urTierTdamokidebul process, romelic Tavisi kompleqsuri formiTa da SinaarsiT udides Zalas warmoadgens da STambeWdav zemoqmedebas axdens. religiuri enis es oTxi urTierTSemavsebeli procesi adamianidan taZramde mimavali ZiriTadi gzaa. am gzaze TiToeul monakveTs Soris uwyvet wreze gadebulia imagologiuri xidi, TiToeuli movlenis zeazrobrivi Sinaarsis erTi miznis qveS _ religiuri mrwamsis/aRmsareblobis/RmerTisadmi ltolvis _ gamaerTianebeli xidi.

naxazi 1.

imagologiuri xidi
saubari/metyveleba
(locva, vedreba, qadageba tonalurprosodiuli saSualebebiT) religiuri

ena

jvari, xati/suraTi (simbolo) (qandakeba)

rituali
(Tanmxlebi wes-

galoba
(mgalobelTa gundiT; sasuliero pirisa da mrevlis monawileobiT) (musika)

Cveulebebis SesrulebiT)

masSi TvalsaCinoa adamianis arapirdapiri mimarTeba religiur samyarosTan. adamiani azrovnebs, moqmedebs religiur simboloTa, ritualTa samyaroSi. misi gamoxatva xdeba enis propoziciul, raconalur formeb. es aris semiotikis, eTnologiisa da kulturuli anTropologiis

gza taZrisaken

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sinTezi. ena metaforulia. gamoxatvis simboluri formebi erTiandeba gamoxatvis xatovan saSualebebTan, cnebebTan, rac abstraqtuli ideebis gadmocemas emsaxureba. adamianTa aRqmisa da moqmedebis SemaerTebeli imagologiuri xidi Tavis gzaze gviCvenebs im dinamikas, romelSic Semonaxulia eris kulturuli mexsiereba (Becker 2000: 5, Konnersmann 1996: 351). 5. religiuri saubris aqti gansxvavdeba saero saubris aqtisagan, Tumca imave lingvisturi kategoriebiT sargeblobs, r saubris aqtis enaTmecnierulma Teoriam . subaqti lokucia religiisaTvis imave subdisciplinaTa (fonetika/fonologia, morfologia, sityvawarmoeba, leqsikologia, sintaqsi) gansxvavebuli erTianobaa. komunikaciis meore aqtSi- ilokuciaSi Cadebulia saubris intencia, e.w. semantikuri intencia. enobriv komunikaciur doneze gvaqvs komunikaciuri aqtisa da intenciis erTianoba, intenciisa da konvenciis sinTezi. religiur enaSi, saerosagan gansxvavebiT, saxezea sul sxva, oTxi urTierTSemavsebeli aqti imagologiuri xidiT Sekruli (ix. zemoT naxazi). perlokucia msmenelis fsiqikaze zemoqmedebis aqtia. igi zegavlenas axdens msmenelis grZnobebze, azrebze, fiqrebze, qmedebebze. Tu saero saubris aqtis perlokuciaSi winaswar ver ganWvret mosaubris motivaciis siRrmeebsa da msmenelze zemoqmedebis masStabebs, religiuri saubris aqti zustad gaTvlil perlokucias iZleva, Tumca am Teorias, rogorc saeros, iseve religiurs, esaWiroeba Rrma fsiqologiuri analizi, kulturaTa doneebisa da moTxovnebis Sesabamisi filosofiuri gaazreba. perlokucia am kuTxiT naklebadaa Seswavlili (Adamik 2004: 223-226). ilokucia eqspresiul faqtorsac iTvaliswinebs, anu zednadebia mniSvnelobis konotaciuri aspeqti. religiur enaSi eqspresiuloba da konotaciebi imdenadaa komunikaciuri ganzraxvis saSualeba, ramdenadac igi msmenelis rwmenis gaRrmavebasa da Sesabamis zemoqmedebazea gaTvlili. saubris aqti arapirdapiria. igi sruldeba ara ori an meti xiluli personaJis TandaswrebiTa da monawileobiT, aramed erTi personaJis locviT, TxovniT, vedrebiT zeazrobrivad arsebuli RmerTisadmi. am locva-vedrebaSi nagulisxmebi, Cafiqrebuli unda gacxaddes eqsplcituradac da implicituradac. am sakiTxze ufro dawvrilebiT SeiZleba visaubroT religiuri teqstis/ diskursis analizis dros (mag., `mamao Cveno).

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saerosagan gansxvavebiT, religiuri enis lokuciailokucia metwilad enis istoriuli leqsikur-gramatikulfonetikuri masalidan SerCeuli struqturebiTa da konstruqciebiT sargeblobs, gansakuTrebuli frazeologiiT, romelic ZiriTadad gasagebia mrevlisaTvis. aseTi ena xels uwyobs socializaciis process. socializaciis am procesSi, rogorc wesi, ar xdeba saero enisagan gamijvna, radgan es, garkveulwilad, komunikaciis Seferxebebs gamoiwvevda. marTalia, religiur garemoSi Tanamedrove sasaubro ena CrdilSi eqceva, TiTqos mniSvnelobas kargavso, magram igi religiuri sakomunikacio bazisia. upiratesoba eniWeba religiur-saeklesio enas, misiT aResruleba wakiTxva, saubari, mosmena, ritualuri qmedeba _ Tanamonawileoba. saeklesio-religiuri ena mravalmxriv Sevsebulia paralingvisturi da kinesikuri (pirjvris gadawera, muxlis moyra, Tavdaxra, xelebis aRmarTva...) saSualebebiT, sivrciTi komunikaciiT (sruldeba e.w. Krper Raum Kommunikation) religiuri ena da misi buneba verbalur Tu araverbalur teqstSi, upirveles yovlisa, aisaxeba interdisciplin analiziT, enaTmecnierebasa da filologiaSi mopovebul kompetenciaTa SejerebiT, kerZod: religiuri

didaqtika
imagologia
(suraTi, simbolika)

homiletika religiuri ena


(Se)locva)

hermenevti a ritorika ritorikuli komunikacia

teqstis refleqsia

komunikaciis aqtis Teoria/ saubris aqtis Teoria

5. kulturis gramatika. simboluri formebis semiotikuri Teoria tradiciuli da normirebuli gramatikis safuZvlebi udavod saWiroa. arc

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Langue/parole=Kompetenz/Performenz-is dayofa iwvevs eWvs, magram gramatikuli formebis sistema, rogorc komunikaciuri saSualeba, sinqronuli da diaqronuli enaTmecniereba iseT fenomenTa krebuls moicavs, romlebic droTa ganmavlobaSi icvlebian, viTardebian. amitom verc erTi ena veRar eteva struqturirebis tradiciul CarCoebSi, metyvelebis nawilebad dayofil `prokrustes sarecelSi~. enam ar unda Seasrulos mxolod universaluri logikis moTxovnebi da amocanebi, man sazogadoebis amocanebic unda gaiTvaliswinos, rac am sazogadoebis socialur urTierTobebzea damokidebuli. dRis wesrigSi dadga gramatikis konceptis axleburi gaazrebisa da gansazRvris sakiTxi, rasac bevri enaTmecnieri ar iziarebs. calkeul enaTa mravalferovnebam da enaTa tipebis heterogenulobam, Tanamedrove socialurma principebma da moTxovnebma, simbolurma logikam da kulturis filosofiam Sors gaswies gramatikis sazRvrebi da enobrivi fenomenis siRrmeebSi wvdomis SesaZleblobebi. enas, rogorc niSanTa da simboloTa krebuls, aRar akmayofilebs arsebuli vokabulari, gramatikuli wesebi, iTxovs abstraqtuli wesebis axal gramatikul sistemas (Cassirer 1996: 200-207). jer kidev humboldti aRniSnavda, rom `mTvare~ erTsa da imave sagans warmoadgens berZnebisTvisac da laTinebisTvisac. berZnuli ena mas `men~-s uwodebs, laTinuri ena ki _ `luna~-s. am ori enis artikulaciaSi mocemulia sxvadasxva intencia da sxvadasxva cneba. berZnuli men mTvare `drois aRmricxvels~ aRniSnavs, laTinuri luna _ sinaTles, mTvaris naTebas. enebSi arsebuli amgvari klasifikaciebi arc SemTxveviTia da arc uneburi. isini eyrdnobian adamianTa aRqmis gonebis, gamocdilebis mudmivad ganmeorebad elementebs. aRqmisa da am ganmeorebadobis gareSe enobriv konceptebs safuZveli gamoecleboda. rogorc kasireri ambob, adamianis suliereba cocxlobs sityvasa da miTiur xatebaSi, Tumca verc sityva da verc xateba enaze ver mZlavrobs. kasirerma Seqmna simboluri formebis filosofia da semiotikuri Teoria, es enis axal perspeqtivebs qmnis (ix. Cassirer 1988: Philosophie der Symbolischen Formen. In 3 Bdn. B.1. Frankfurt (M).

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literatura

dali baxtaZe

1. Adamik, Kirsten 2004: Sprache: Wege zum Verstehen. 2. Aufl. A. Franche Verlag. Tbingen und Basel. 2. , .. 1988: //. .. .. 3. Becker, Udo 1999: Lexikon der Symbol. 3. Aufl. Cordon Art B.V. Baarn-Holland. 4. Habermas, Jrgen 1997: Die befreiende Kraft der symbolischen Formgebung. In: Habermas, J.: Vom sinnlichen Eindruck zum symbolischen Ausdruck. Frankfurt a.M. 5. Habermas, Jrgen 2001: Zeit der bergnge. Kleine politische Schriften IX. Suhrkamp Verlag. Frankfurt a.M. 6. Jung, Carl Gustav 2001: Seelenprobleme der Gegenwart. Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. Mnchen. 7. kasireri, ernst 1983: ra aris adamiani? cda adamianuri kulturis filosofiis agebisa (germanulidan Targmna lamara ramiSvilma) gamomc. `ganaTleba~. Tbilisi. 8. Cassirer, Ernst 1988: Philosophie der symbolischen Formen. In 3 Bdn. Frankfurt/M. 9. Cassirer, Ernst 1996: Versuch ber den Menschen. Einfhrung in eine Philosophie der Kultur. Felix Meiner Verlag. Hamburg. 10. Konersmann, Rolf 1996: Kultur als Metapher//Kulturphilosophie. Hrsg. v. Rolf Konersmann. Reclam Verlag. Leipzig. 11. Schiewe, Jrgen/Lipczuk, Ryszard/Nerlicki, Krzysztof/Westphal, Werner (Hg.) 2011: Kommunikation fr Europa II. Sprache und Identitt. Peter Lang Verlag. Frankfurt a.M. 12. , .. 2001: //. . . 19. 2001/4 . 86

salome omiaZe

gza, rogorc lingvosemiotikuri niSani


samyaros Semecnebisas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba niSnebs. swored niSanTa gansxvavebuli gageba da interpretacia qmnis samyaros erovnul suraTebs, romlebic lingvokulturologiisa da lingvosemiotikis kvlevis sagania. rogorc cnobilia, semiotikaSi erTmaneTs upirispireben ikonur, indeqsur da simbolur niSnebs (pirsi 2000: 185). ikonuri niSnis forma garkveul msgavsebas avlens aRsaniSn obieqtTan, amdenad, amgvari niSnis Sinaarsi advilad ikiTxeba. indeqsuri niSnis formisa da Sinaarsis kavSiri pirobiTia, amitom saWiroa imis codna, rom garkveuli obieqti raRacis niSans warmoadgens. simboluri niSnis SemTxvevaSi ki misi forma badebs asociaciebs, rac simbolos interpretirebisaken gvibiZgebs da rasac sabolood, garkveul obieqtamde mivyavarT. gza is lingvokulturuli konceptia, romelic sxvadasxva konteqstSi sxvadasxva tipis niSnad kvalificirdeba. igi SeiZleba signaladac ganvixiloT da indeqsadac. signali aris avtomaturi bunebrivi

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kavSiri niSansa da obieqts Soris, igi metonimiuria, indeqsi ki miTiTebiTi TviTnebur-Tavisufali kavSiria da, amdenad, metaforulobiT xasiaTdeba. Cveni yoveldRiuroba datvirTulia emblemebiT. emblema, zogadad, is niSania, romelsac aqvs zusti axsna. lotmanis ganmartebiT, emblema gulisxmobs erTi enidan, magaliTad, sityvieri enidan sxva enaze, magaliTad, grafikul enaze gadatanas (lotmani 1997: 418). amis TvalsaCino nimuSia sagzao niSnebi, romelTa umravlesoba swored gzis ikonuri niSania. sayovelTao SexedulebiT, emblema sxvadasxva kodiT samyaros semiotikuri dublirebis Sedegia. Tumca, igi erTi sistemis farglebSic funqciobs; magaliTad, romelime mxatvrul teqstSi saxeldebiTi winadadeba `gza~ SeiZleba emblematuri funqciisac iyos, radgan winadadebaSi sxva wevrebis ararseboba am erTaderTi wevris vizualizacias ganapirobebs. es, Tavis mxriv, mas ikonur niSnad aqcevs, romlis funqcia aris identificireba, sainformacio dublireba an Sinaarsis gamartiveba. iseTi lingvokulturuli konceptebi, romelTac sagnobrivi denotatebi aqvT, magaliTad, gvirgvini, skiptra, vazis jvari da misT. emblematurobis meti potenciiT xasiaTdebian, magram gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis gamo, romlis Tanaxmadac, emblema gansxvavebul kodTa sistemebs gulisxmobs, igi lingvosemiotikurad saTanadod gamokvleuli ar gaxlavT. swored amitom emblematuroba, ZiriTadad, yofiTi da sareklamo diskursebis maxasiaTebladaa miCneuli, arada mxatvrul diskursSi koncept-emblemaTa xmareba iSviaTi ar aris. urTierTobis specifikur modusebad emblemasTan erTad alegoriasa da simbolos ganixilaven. zogjer dasaxelebuli erTeulebis gamijvna Wirs, Tumca maTi kvalifikaciisaTvis konkretuli instruqcia arsebobs: emblema icnoba, mas, simbolosagan gansxvavebiT, amoxsna ar sWirdeba, emblema reducirebuli saxea, romlis miRmac ara idea, aramed miTiTebaa im situaciaze, romelSic idea aqtualizdeba. emblema metonimiuria, xolo alegoria garkveuli ideis qaragmuli aRniSvnaa, romelsac, emblemisagan gansxvavebiT, cnoba ki ara, amocnoba sWirdeba, magram, simbolosagan gansxvavebiT, alegoria mxolod erT wakiTxvas gulisxmobs, interpretaciis mxolod erT variants varaudobs.

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83

lingvokulturuli koncepti `gza~, alegoriulobis TvalsazrisiT, didi potenciis matarebelia. mas, rogorc leqsikur erTeuls, araerTi gadataniTi mniSvneloba aqvs, mniSvnelobis gadatana ki alegoriis Semqmneli ZiriTadi meqanizmia. es potencia gansakuTrebiT vlindeba alegoriis im saxesxvaobaSi, romelsac yofiTi, niadagsaxmari qaragmuloba SeiZleba vuwodoT da romlis wyaroc qarTuli paremiologiuri fondia. `gzis~ monawileobiT Seqmnil idiomebsa da e. w. sityvis masalaSi xSiria imgvari nimuSebi, romelTac pirdapir mniSvnelobasTan erTad gadataniTi mniSvnelobac aqvT. aRniSnulic imis gamoZaxilia, rom `gza~, ganyenebulad mdgomic ki, TavisTavad alegoriulia. moviyvanT ramdenime nimuSs: gzas dakargavs; gzas ipovis; gzas daadgeba; gza gaexsneba; gzas dauTmobs; gzas warumarTavs; gzas Seukravs; gzas eweva da sxv. yvela dasaxelebuli erTeulis gadataniTi mniSvneloba iseve advili gasagebia, rogorc pirdapiri, imitom, rom alegoriuli niSani advilad amosacnobia da erTaderT interpretacias gulisxmobs. andazuri Tqmebi is Janria, romelSic yofiTi qaragmuloba didaqtikas emsaxureba. andazaSi gamoTqmuli azri umetesad xatovnadaa motivirebuli, Tumca yvela andaza yovelTvis alegoriul gagebas ar moiTxovs, magaliTad: `kacs saqme gamoscdis da cxens gzao~; `nu dakargav Zvelsa gzasa, nurca Zvelsa megobarsa~ da sxv. gvxvdeba iseTi andazuri Tqmebi, romlebic sakomunikacio situaciis Sesabamisad an pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT unda gavigoT, an gamonaTqvamis alegoriuloba unda amovxsnaT, magaliTad: `Sori gza moiare da Sin mSvidobiT midio~; `gza vinc icis, fexs ar wahkravso~; `gaqceuls erTi gza aqvs, mdevars aTasio~; `uremi rom gadabrundeba, gza maSin gamoCndebao~ da sxv. mxatvrulsa da religiur diskursebSi alegoriuloba gamoxatulia arakebiTa da igavebiT, romlebSic `gzis~ gadataniTi mniSvnelobebiT araerTi saxe da konteqstia Seqmnili. maTi erTi nawili Seswavlilia, danarCeni ki sagangebo kvlevas moiTxovs, rac Zalzed mniSvnelovania `gzis~, rogorc universaluri lingvokulturuli konceptis, srulyofili aRwerisaTvis.

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`gza~, rogorc simbolo, gansakuTrebuli sakiTxia qristianuli mrwamsis lingvokulturebSi. ieso ambobs: `me var gzai da WeSmaritebai da cxorebai~ (ioane 14:6). iesosa da gzis gaigiveba qristianobisa da `gzis~ gaigivebas niSnavs. ase Cndeba qristianul kulturaSi erT-erTi yvelaze didi da amaRlebuli simbolo `gza~, romelic xan msazRvrelebTan erTad (WeSmaritebis gza, gza xsnisa, ukanaskneli gza Tu sxv.), xan maT gareSe, xanac derivatebis sayrdenad qceuli (gziri, gzamkvlevi, megzuri, gziani, ugzo ...), dResac mravalpasuxian amocanad rCeba. simbolo principulad mravalmniSvnelovania, rac ara mxolod simbolos mravalgvar interpretirebas gulisxmobs, aramed interpretaciis mravaljerad SesaZleblobasac, ukeT rom vTqvaT, interpretirebis usasrulo process. simbolom kerZo SemTxvevidan samyaros zogad xatTan unda migviyvanos, gza unda gviCvenos. `qristianobis erT-erTi uZvelesi saxeli martivad `gzaa~, _ vkiTxulobT episkopos kaliste uearis naSromSi `marTlmadideblobis gza~. saxels am citataSi Tavisuflad SeiZleba Caenacvlos simbolo, rasac imave naSromis prologidan amonaridi Semdegi konteqstic gvidasturebs, prologidan, romlis saTauric nana baRaTurias mier `sagzao niSnulebad~ aris Targmnili: `qristianoba ufro metia, vidre Teoria, metia, vidre qaRaldze gadmotanili swavleba, es aris gza, romelzec mivdivarT da, yvelaze Rrma da farTo gagebiT, es aris cxovrebis gza~ (ueari 2007: 9-18) episkopos kalistes TqmiT, `iyo qristiani, niSnavs iyo mogzauri~. mogzauri, romelic mihyveba gzas JamTasvlidan maradiulobaSi. amdenad, zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, sagangebo statistikuri kvlevebis gareSec SegviZlia davaskvnaT _ `gza~ is diskursuli erTeulia, romlis denotaciur mniSvnelobaze metad gaaqtiurebulia misi konotaciebi, misi emblemuri, alegoriuli da simboluri mniSvnelobebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, am movlenis ufro Rrma lingvosemiotikuri Seswavlis aucileblobaze migvaniSnebs.

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Lliteratura

lotmani 1997: .. // . .2. .: - , 1997. pirsi 2000: .. . .: , 2000. ueari 2007: episkoposi kaliste ueari, marTlmadideblobis gza, Targm. n. baRaTuriasi, Jurnali `arCevani~, # 2, Tb., 2007.

lali daTaSvili

gzis, svlis da olamur sivrceSi gadaadgilebis aspeqtebi Zvel qarTul literaturSi


qristianuli cxovrebis wesi olamur erTobas efuZneba: yvelaferi uflisgan modis da masve ubrundeba; samyarosa da kacobriobis gza-savali Tu myofobis formac misgan ars; yovelive uflis, samyarosa da kacis urTierTdamokidebulebiT ganisazRvreba. ufalia cxonebis gza. ieso amitomac gvmoZRvravs: me var gzai da me var WeSmaritebai da cxorebai; aravin movides mamisa, garna Cem mier (ioane 14, 6). Sua saukuneebis qristianul kulturaSi droiT-sivrciTi, anu qronotopuli (baxtini 1975: 43) cnebebi Tu Rirebulebani eTikuri kategoriebia da ara _ geografiuli. WeSmariti sarwmunoebis gavrcelebisa da wmindanTa Tu siwmideTa simravlis Sesabamisad, simbolurad moiazreba mxareebi, mimarTulebebi, ganirCeva sauflo, Cveulebrivi da codvili teritoriebi; aisaxeba vertikaluri da horizontaluri sivrcis proporciuloba, soflisa da zesTasoflis urTierTmimarTeba; gza da svla qristianisTvis drois amsaxveli kategoriacaa da sivrcisac.

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radgan gzis gavla sicocxlea, gzis dasasruli ki, anu srbis aRsruleba _ gardacvaleba. gza realur, amqveyniur cxovrebasa da adamianis wuTisofelSi arseboba-mimoqcevas gulisxmobs. amave mniSvnelobiT aris moxmobili es sityvebi pavle mociqulis epistoleSic: srbai aRmisrulebies (2 tim. 4, 7). kacobriobis istoriac gzaa, adamidan axal adamamde, gza, romelsac safuZvlad udevs Ze Secdomilis sevda, samoTxidan gamoZeveba da maradiuli msvleloba ukan, mamis saxlSi, dasabruneblad, Zeobis pativis aRsadgenad. luka maxarebliseuli Ze Secdomilis igavi macxovrisa da mTeli kacobriobis, uflisa da yoveli adamianis urTierTdamokidebulebis paradigmaa, pirvelqmnili codvidan moyolebuli adamiani _ uZRebi Svili, mamisagan ganmdgari da dakarguli, Tavisi sulis, saxlisa Tu samoTxis gzas eZiebs (amitomacaa, rom am igavs wmida mamebi yvela droisa da xalxis udides monaTxrobs uwodeben.). Cvens winapars istoria warmodgenili hqonda, rogorc or movlenas Soris moqceuli gza: Sesaqmidan esqatologiur aRsasrulamde. Sesabamisad, rogorc kacobriobis msvleloba win _ warsulisa (am sityvis warmomavlobasac davukvirdeT) da uflisken, dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisken, radgan aRmosavleTi uflis mxarea, dasavleTi _ esqatologiuri aRsasrulis. yoveli adamiani _ erTi droiT-sivrciTi wertili, sadRac uerTdeba am rigs da winaparTa nakvalevs mihyveba. ilia marTlis Tqmisa ar iyos: wina kaci xidia ukanasi _ es aris, swored, olamuri erToba. meore mxriv (rac umTavresia), gza sivrcis kategoriaa, Tanac orgvari sivrcis: fizikur-materialuri da sulieri. amitom gza simboluri Sinaarsisaa: adamianis mTel cxovrebas gamoxatavs da mis zneobriv saxesac gviCvenebs imis mixedviT, Tu saiT midioda: zecisa Tu miwisken da rogori samudamo gansasvenebeli moipova. umniSvnelovanesi swavlebaa, rom cxonebis mosurne adamianma sulieri gzac: dacemisa da amaRlebis, dabrkolebaTa gadalaxvis grZeli jaWvi _ sifrTxiliTa da dakvirvebiT unda ganvlos, raTa ar gardaidrikos gzisagan simarTlisa (iovane sabanisZe), moTminebiT iaros zeciuri mamulisken da srbis aRsrulebis

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Semdeg Seurcxvenlad wardges macxovris winaSe. sabanisZiseuli mamulisa Cveulebisaebr svla mamuls orive mniSvnelobiT gulisxmobs: miwiersa da zeciursac. hagiografs isic mSvenivrad moexseneba, rom am svlis sisworis SenarCunebas safuZvlad udevs morwmuneTa mier WirTa moTmineba da sulieri goniereba. gaufrTxilebloba da uyuradReboba gzidan gadacdenas iwvevs, radan samoTxisken sacalfexo, mixveul-moxveuli biliki midis, masze gamvlels unda hqondes marjve Tvali, mtkice guli (a. wereTeli, gamzrdeli). jojoxeTisken ki farTo Sara migviZRvis. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba admianis mier msvlelobis mimarTulebis arCevas: cxvrisa Tu mglisken, miwisa Tu zecisaken, codvisa Tu madlisaken. amazea damokidebuli, vin ver scnobs gzas madlTa fonisken(d. guramiSvili) da vin gaikvlevs mas, vin miagnebs samoTxis karibWes iwro da saWirveli bilikis gavlis Semdeg. amitom mogviwodebs ufali: SevediT iwroisagan bWisa, rameTu vrcel ars bWe da farTo ars gzai, romelsa mihyavs warsawymedelad, da mravalni vlenan mas zeda. viTar-igi iwro ars bWe da saWirvel gzai, romeli miiyvanebs cxonebasa, da mciredni arian, romelni hpoeben mas (maTe 7, 12-13). ufali xSirad TviTon urCevs da aswavlis gzas adamians, Tumca am ukanasknelzea damokidebuli, ramdenad ganwmendili TvaliTa da guliT mihyveba macxovars. Tu, erTi mxriv, abraami gagvaxsendeba, RvTis mowodebas rwmeniTa da imediT savse rom mihyveboda, Sesabamisad, ganvlilma gzam aRTqmul qveyanaSi miiyvana, meore mxriv, udabnoSi 40 wlis ganmavlobaSi itanjebodnen xan mosesa da xan ufalze Semomwyrali ebraelebi, sikeTis gzas ki sakuTari codvebi da urwmunoeba, uflisadmi jerovani ndobis uqonloba uborkavdaT. amitomac maTma mcire nawilma miaRwia sanukvar miznamde. yovladwmida mariam RvTismSobelia adamianis meoxi da cxonebis gzis saukeTeso maCvenebeli. mravlad arsebobs odigitria, anu gzis maCvenebeli deda RvTismSoblis xatebi. yovladwmida dedas cali xeliT yrma ieso uWiravs, meoriT ki qristianebs migvaniSnebs masze, rogorc cxonebis gzaze. yovladwmida deda konkretul adamiansac exmareba sworad

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cxovrebaSi: wm. nino maciqulTaswors saqarTveloSi agzavnis samoRvaweod; daweril qaRalds gadaaylapebs ioane oqropirs da mWevrmetyvelad gadaaqcevs; qarTulad gamarTulad metyvelebas ubrZanebs wm. eqvTime mTawmindels... revaz siraZe amasTan dakavSirebiT SeniSnavs: aq kidev erTi analogiaa: warmodgenilia Suasaukuneobrivi odigitriis (gzis maCvenebeli RvTismSoblis) gansaxovnebis msgavsi suraTi: RvTismSobelma upyra xelsa eqvTimes da gzaze daayena (siraZe 1992: 73). ioane naTlismcemelic sauflo gzis maswavlebeli da ganmamzadebelia. misi qadagebaa: ganhmzadeniT gzani uflisani da wrfel yveniT alagni misni (maTe 3, 3). Tumca, adamianis sulSi es sityvebi ar unda darCes xmad mRaRadeblisa udabnosa zeda, aramed unda gadaiqcnen SemZlebelad warmarTebad ferxTa CuenTa gzasa mSvidobisasa (luka 1, 79). amqveyniuri yofis, rogorc gzis, da adamianis, rogorc am gzaze mavalis, simboluri gaazrebisas gansakuTrebiT sainteresod migvaCnia wmindanis moxsenieba malemsrbolis epiTetiT. wm. makrinas, wm. petre sebastielisa da maTi msgavsi moRvaweebis dasaxasiaTeblad wm. grigol noseli wm. makrinas cxovrebaSi ambobs: Tvissa cxorebasa samaradisod hxdebodes, viTarca malemsrbolni axovanni (noseli 2010: 23). wmindani mTeli Tavisi arsebiT iswrafis uflisaken da wadiereba, mondomeba Tu yuradReba mimarTuli aqvs sasurvelisa Tvisisa mimarT. wm. grigolis azriT, cdilobs, srbisas ara raisa mimarT midrkes Tuali misi soflisa amis sasurvelTaganisa (noseli 2010: 15), anu uSecdomod, swrafad da daubrkoleblad ganvlos amqveyniuri gza-savali. Cveni azriT, am siCqarisa da erTi miznisken koncentraciis gamo uwodebs igi gamorCeul moRvaweebs malemsrbolebs. Tu wmindanni TvalmuSorebliv mihyvebian uflis gzas, sxvani _ cxovarni gzaSecdomilni eSmas zegavleniT ikargebian da macxovris Sewevnas saWiroeben swor gzaze dasabruneblad. urjuloTa mier datyvevebuli daviT guramiSvilis locva swored lukas saxarebis gamoZaxilia. igi, rogorc dakarguli cxvari, mgelT warsatacad farexTa gare, uzenaess moZiebasa da amqveynad _ samSobloSi, im qveynad ki sasufevelSi damkvidrebas

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evedreba; poeti SehRaRadebs macxovars, eSmasagan, anu uxilavi mxecisagan daicvas, TikanTa _ jojoxeTisTvis ganwirulTa rigebSi ar Caayenos da samoTxis mkvidrT _ kravebs SeuerTos: Sen, ieso, mwyemso Cveno, CvenTvis sisxlis damanTxeo! viT cxovari var wymendili, nu damkargav, momnaxeo... ieso, mwyemso keTilo, Cemebr warwymendilT mpovelo, Cavvardi codvis xnarcvSia, vscade da ver amovelo, viTxov, Semindev codvani, ros mkvdari ganmacxovelo. wmindanis misiac ase esmodaT, rom mas ara mxolod TviTon unda gaekvala gza cxonebisa, aramed Cveulebrivi adamianis _ sawuTros kacis (iakob xucesi), gzas acdenili cxvrisTvis xeli unda gaewodebina Tu SeeSvelebina da zecisken mimaval gzaze daeyenebina. sulier gzamkvlevebs _ zecisa kacebs da queyanisa angelozebs (giorgi merCule) ase SehRaRadebs giorgi mcire: xnarcvsa Sina vnebaTasa mdgomare varT, viTarca ixila didman paxumi, da veZiebT msgavsTa TqvenTa xelis-micemad, raiTamca mier aRmovediT da mRvimisagan glaxakobisa da Tixisagan uyisa kldesa zeda saTnoebaTasa ferxni Cvenni davamtkiceniT da gzaTa maT, zecad mimyvanebelTa, daubrkoleblad svlad warvemarTeniT (Zeglebi 1978: 208). am rols asruleben, bibliis mixedviT, malemsrbolebic. neStTa wigni mogviTxrobs, isini rogor cdiloben xalxis dabrunebas mowyale RmerTTan, uqadageben ra, rom am gziT ufalic daubrundeba moqceul toms, xolo ganmdgarT xels aaRebs (ix. 2 neStTa, 30, 6-10). morwmuneni, wmindanTa winamZRolobiT, mudam agneben swor gzas. vaJa-fSavelas TvalTaxedviT, 1659 wels saswaulebrivi gamarjveba kaxeTis ajanyebaSi jaris wminda mxedrisTvis mindobam gamoiwvia. laSqarma zecaSi wminda giorgi SeniSna da misi cxenis nafexurebs gahyva, TiTqos zeciur mxedrobad gadaiqca da cis kabadonze gainavarda. yvelasTvis cxadi gaxda, rom brZolaSi aucileblad gaimarjvebdnen. zecaSi mimavlebma erTaneTs amayad gadaxedes: netav, ra mteri iqneba,_ exla gagviZlos, biWebo, Cveni kvali xar dRes Sena

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lurjais danabijebo! (baxtrioni). hagiografiaSi wmindanis mier gzis daZleva mis sulier amaRlebasa da moRvaweobisaTvis momzadeba-gaZlierebas gulisxmobs: nino mociqulTaswori kabadokiidan qarTlSi modis, mcxeTaSic mimoiqceva, vidre gaZlierdeba da ganemzadeba moRvaweobisaTvis; wm. abo arabeTidan modis qarTlSi da gaqristianebis survili uCndeba. arabTa SiSs xazareTSi gadasvla daaZlevinebs, iq ukve moinaTleba, xolo afxazeTSi gadasuli mgzavr marxvisa da locvis Semdeg ukve ara xolo tanjvad, sikudiladac mzad aris qristes siyvarulisTvis; wm. grigol xanZTels TviT ufali waruZRva opizamde, raTa moRvaweobis sirTules ver SeeSinebina es didi mama, xanZTaSi asuls moRvaweobis formac auwya xuedios dayudebulis mier. is saqmeni ki, romelnic utoldebian daulevnelTa keTilTa safases, mama grigolma konstantinopolis molocvis Semdeg aRasrula; orjer gaiparebian Teodore da qristefore xanZTidan, moivlian qarTlisa da afxazeTis sanaxebs da mxolod Semdeg miiCnevs maT wm. grigoli samoRvaweod gamzadebulebad; giorgi mTawmindelic tao-klarjeTis, ierusalimisa da sinas gavliT, mTeli aqauri madliT gaZlierebuli midis aTonze. SevniSnavT, rom, Tu wmindanebs sikeTeSi aZlierebs gadalaxuli manZili, eSmakeulT borotis qmnis survili eZalebaT. qtezifonidan mobrunebuli, anu satanursa da jojoxeTurs naziarebi, varsqeni borotebiT savse eSmakeuli, mgeli, cofi da mZvinvare mxecia. d. lixaCovi miuTiTebs, rom gzis siZneles, manZilis gadalaxvis sirTules hagiografi ar asaxavs, aramed gadmogvcems mxolod oriode sityviT: wamovida da moiwia (lixaCovi 1970: 65), amitom uyuradRebod rCeba msvleloba-mogzaurobis sawyis da saboloo wertilebs Soris moqceuli dro-sivrce. wm. grigol noseli SeniSnavs, uSoresi gzisai warguevlo, Tumca arafers ambobs am didi da Sori gzis gadalaxvis siiolesa Tu sirTuleze. asea qarTul hagiografiaSic. mag. varsqeni ijmna sparsTaisa da moiwia sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa (iakob xucesi).

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mkiTxveli mxolod TviTon Tu gaiazrebs, rom manZili advilad gadasalaxavi ar aris. mag. nino mociqulTaswori umZimes gzas gamoivlida Cvenamde CamosaRwevad, es patara gogona daiTmenda SimSils, SiSs, sicivesa da wyurvils, an serapion zarzmeli samonastro teritoriis misagnebad Tu SemdgomSi im sivrcis gars Semosavlelad, romelic zarzmisa unda yofiliyo, Zalian gawvaldeboda da daiqanceboda, wm. grigolsa da sabas gauWirdebodaT kacTagan uval adgilamde miRweva, sadac iSxani unda aSenebuliyo, Tumca cxovrebaTa avtorebi amaze sagangebo yuradRebas ar amaxvileben. hagiografi wmindanis mogzaurobidan mxolod iseT raimes gviambobs, rasac sulieri Tu istoriuli Rirebuleba aqvs., mag. wm. ninos is aZlierebda, rom qarTlSi macxovris kvarTi eguleboda, afxazeTisken mimavali abo mgzavr marxulobda da loculobda, Teodoresa da qristefores Zebnisas wm. grigolma daimowafa efremi, serapion zarzmelma, uflis SewevniT, mzis Casvla ramdenime wuTiT Seayovna da a.S. gadaadgileba horizontalur sivrceSi, miwier-zeciuri erTobidan gamomdinare, vertikalze amaRlebas, ufalTan daaxloebas an masTan daSorebas, dacemas, jojoxeTisken svlas niSnavs. wmindanis mier ralurad ganvlili, anu daZleuli, sivrcis yoveli axali wertili simbolurad Seesabameba mis axal sulier simaRles. wm. dionise areopagelis azriT, ufalTan siaxlovis mixedviT, adamianebi, pirobiTad, jgufebad nawildebian da kibis safexurebze ganlagdebian, adamiani, TandaTan rom waremateba saTnoebaSi, TiTqos maRldeba, uflisken mimaval kibeze adis. wm. SuSanikis gadaadgileba sasaxlidan eklesiaSi, simboluri qveteqstiT, dedoflis (marTali qristianis) wmindanad gadaqcevaa, xolo misi eklesiidan cixeSi gadayvana wmindanis mowamed gardaqmnas gulisxmobs. amgvarad, iakob xucesi SuSanikis gadaadgilebiT mis amaRlebasa da ufalTan daaxloebas asaxavs. sqemiT es amgvarad warmogvidgeba: sasaxle (dedofali) _ eklesia (wmindani) _ cixe (mowame). vfiqrobT, wmindanis sivrceSi gadaadgilebis asaxva gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania abos wamebaSi. es Txzuleba sanimuSod migvaCnia hagiografiaSi sivrculi gadaadgilebis amsaxveli epizodebis rolisa da Rirebulebis TvalsazrisiT.

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iovane sabanisZe abos horizontalur sivrceSi amogzaurebs da gavlili gzis TiToeul monakveTs sulieri kibis safexurs Seusabamebs: baRdadSi, roca vecnobiT, abo muslimia; TbilisSi Camosvlis Semdeg moisurvebs naTlobas, kaTakmeveli xdeba; nersesTan erTad xazareTSi misuli gaqristiandeba; afxazeTisken marxviT, locviTa da mdumarebiT mimavali xdeba marTali; afxazeTSi Casuls ukve wmindanad Tvlian; TbilisSi dabrunebuls awameben da martvilad wardgeba macxovris winaSe (umaRles safexurze amaRldeba). e. i. yovel gadaadgilebas miwier sivrceSi mosdevs abos amaRleba vertikalze, arabi Wabuki nabijnabij, TandaTanobiT uaxlovdeba ufals. am svla-amaRlebas sqematurad ase gamovsaxavT: baRdadi (muslimi) _ Tbilisi (kaTakmeveli) _ xazareTi (qristiani) _ gza afxazeTisken (marTali) _ afxazeTi (wmindani) _ Tbilisi (mowame). wm. grigol xanZTelis svlac simboluri mniSvnelobisaa. Cveni azriT, SesaZloa wmindanis gadaadgilebisas yovel orientirs simboluri mniSvneloba mieniWos: giorgi merCule Tavis personaJs qarTlSi gvacnobs. es teritoria wmindanis Sobasa da aRzrdas ukavSirdeba; opizaSi misvlis Semdeg grigoli emzadeba moRvaweobisaTvis. ori wlis ganmavlobaSi ficxeli, monazvnuri SromiT waremateba saTnoebaSi; xanZTaSi misul grigols euwyeba uflis brZaneba, rogorc rCeuls; konstantinopoli da ZelicxovelTan locva uflis madls aziarebs wmindans da sulierad aamaRlebs, gaaZlierebs; xanZTaSi dabrunebuli grigoli ukve didi moRvawea, qmnis wes-gangebas, wers saweliwdo iadgars; afxazeTSi Casuli mama grigoli warmoCndeba, rogorc mwyemsi keTili da moZRvari rCeuli; SatberdSi wm. grigolis moRvaweoba dagvirgvindeba da didi mama amaRldeba zeciur meufesTan; miwieri sicocxlis dasasruls didi mamis kvlav xanZTaSi dabruneba saqmeTa srulqmnis, zeciur pirvelsawyisTan dabrunebis, samoTxeSi damkvidrebis mimaniSnebelia. sqematurad yovelive amas amgvarad gamovsaxavT: qarTli (Soba da aRzrda) _ opiza (mzadeba moRvaweobisaTvis) _ xanZTa (uflis rCeulobis gamocxadeba) _ konstantinopoli

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(uflis madlTan ziareba) _ xanZTa (didi moRvawe) _ afxazeTi (mwyemsi keTili) _ Satberdi (moRvaweobis dagvirgvineba) _ xanZTa (samudamo savanis moZieba da ufalTan damkvidreba). wm. grigol xanZTelis mogzauroba-gadaadgilebis qveteqstursimboluri mniSvnelobis gaazrebisas vsargeblobdiT TvalsazrisiT, rom moZRvreba-swavleba, viTarca sauflo saqmis ganmeoreba, qriste-rabis, moZRvris mibaZva, sxvaTaTvis swavleba moRvaweobis ufro mniSvnelovani saxea, vidre pirovnuli, kerZoobiTi Sroma. pavle mociquli xucess ormagi pativis Rirsad miiCnevs, radgan igi iRvwis sityviTac da moZRvrebiTac (ix. I tim. 5, 17-18). amgvarad, moZraoba geografiul sivrceSi aris gadaadgileba religiuri faseulobebis vertikalur skalaze (leqsikoni 1974: 211). sivrceSi gadaadgilebisas qristianisTvis yvelaze sasurveli, pativdebuli da mniSvnelovani wminda adgilebSi mosalocad svla iyo. ierusalimis molocva zeciuri ierusalimis, anu sasufevlis moxilvas gulisxmobda. radgan qristian moRvaweTa rwmeniT, miwieri gzebi erwymis zeciurs (gureviCi 1972: 84), gadaadgileba, mimosvla, sivltolva siwmindisaken igivea, rac ufalTan daaxloebis mcdeloba. moxilva, gavrcelebuli da SedarebiT pativdebuli forma mogzaurobisa, moiazreboda ara mxolod rogorc svla wmida adgilebisken, aramed rogorc gza RmerTisken (gureviCi 1972: 86). ierusalimi iyo wyaro madlisa, taZari RvTisa, qalaqi, romlis xuroTmoZRuar da Semoqmed RmerTi ars. aq adamiani sulier da xorciel kurnebas elodeboda da eswrafoda, uflis miwier saxlSi misuli Tavs zeciur sasaxleSi warmoidgenda. ierusalims mimaval morwmuneTa nakadi arasodes Sewyvetila. aq eSurebodnen keTrovanni Tu sapyarni gankurnebis imediT, morwmune adamianebi, saeroni Tu sasulieroni, sulieri madlis miRebis imediT. wm. SuSanikma iq avadmyofi qali gagzavna, wm. grigolma iqauri wes-gangebis dawera da warmocema sTxova salocavad mimaval megobars, warvide da wyalobiT moxedva-yos RmerTman Cem-zeda da saxierebisa da sitkboebisa misisaTvis daadinos Cem zeda wveTi madlisa da sitkboebisai _ fiqrobs daviT garejeli (Zeglebi 1978: 237), samudamo samyofelad ierusalims irCevs mosalocad wasuli ilarion qarTveli...

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qarTuli andaza yvela gza ierusalimSi midis, Cveni azriT, qristianul-olamuri Sexedulebis erT-erTi gamoxatulebaa da gulisxmobs, rom yvela kaci mokvdavia, rom yvelani uflisagan movdivarT da isev ufals vubrundebiT, radgan ierusalimi uflis saxlia. amiT kidev erTxel warmoCndeba, qarTveli kacisTvis ramdenad axlobelia qristianuli moZRvreba da ramdenad ganapirobebs mis mrwamssa Tu amqveyniurobasTan damokidebulebas. sapirispirod, egviptisken msvleloba, simbolurad, jojoxeTis gzis gavlas, saSinelebasTan ziarebas niSnavda, radgan egviptes jojoxeTis miwier gamoxatulebad miiCnevdnen: farao uxorcoisa mis faraoisi, viTarca egvipte _ jojoxeTisai, urTierTas maxlobelni saxiTa_ vkiTxulobT ninos cxovrebaSi, xolo egviptidan gamosvla jojoxeTis klanWebidan Tavdaxsnasa da Tavisuflebas moaswavebda.amitomaa, rom paseqi egviptelTa monobidan Tavdaxsnis dResaswaulia, xolo aRdgoma gulisxmobs jojoxeTis warmotyvevnas, anu jojoxeTis Zalis daZlevasa da misi monobidan gamoxsnas. davukvirdeT, rom ufali gaizrdeba egvipteSi da moRvaweobas iwyebs am qveynidan gamosvlis Semdeg. amiT aRsruldeba sauflo winaswarmetyveleba: egviptiT uwodo Zesa Cemsa. wm. grigol noseli amgvari Tvalsazrisis winaaRmdegi iyo. misi mosazrebiT, umTavresia sulidan imogzauro uflisken, vidre kabadokiidan _ palestinaSi (noseli 2010: 125). es didi kabadokieli mama locvas miiCnevda uflisaken mogzaurobis saukeTeso formad, sulieri amaRlebis gzad, radgan aRmomyvanebeli ars jojoxeTisagan da ganmRebeli karisa mis sasufevelisa (noseli X: 30). amgvarad, gza, srba, svla qristianul-olamur sivrceSi cxovreba-gadaadgilebis amsaxveli metaforebia.

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literatura baxtini 1975: baxtini m.n., literaturisa da esTetikis sakiTxebi, m. 1975, rusul enaze; gureviCi 1972: gureviCi a. i., Suasaukuneobrivi kulturis kategoriebi, m. 1972, rusul enaze; leqsikoni 1974: bibliuri RvTismetyvelebis leqsikoni, briuseli, 1974, rusul enaze; lixaCovi 1970: lixaCovi d. s., adamiani Zveli ruseTis istoriaSi, moskovi, 1970, rusul enaze; noseli 2010: grigol noseli, sityvai locvisai, saukune, gv. 30-31; S 1387, X

noseli X: grigol noseli, wmida makrinas cxovreba, Tb. 2010; siraZe 1992: siraZe revaz, qristianuli kultura da qarTuli mwerloba, Tb. 1992. Zeglebi 1978: Zveli qarTuli literaturis Zeglebi, Tb. 1978.

xaTuna maisaSvili

galis drama, anu maradiuli mZevlebi


Sesavali
radganac jer kidev arseboben omebi, konfliqtebi, krizisebi, arsebobs omis, konfliqtis, krizisisa da riskebis Jurnalistikac. omis an SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis cxeli fazis mediacia bevrad ufro advilad emorCileba kanonzomierebebs, vidre gangrZobadi, paTologiuri konfliqturi situaciis mediacia. cxeli faza xasiaTdeba SedarebiT mokle droiTi periodiT, dapirispirebuli mxareebis gamokveTili urTierTqmedebebiT, xilo konfliqtis gangrZobadobis pirobebSi Tavad dapirispireba icvlis mimdinareobis bunebas, grildeba, ikargeba konfliqtisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tavdapirveli niSan-Tvisebebi, dominanturi politikuri diskursis gavleniT mniSvnelobas icvlian is Rirebulebebi, romlebmac Tavis droze konfliqti gamoiwvies. ifanteba konfliqtis gadmocemis adgili, da saomari Teatri adgils uTmobs sxvadasxva centrebs. ver xerxdeba mxareTa poziciebis Tanazomierad warmoCena, radgan mxareTa sakomunikacio

98
veli imdenad scildeba sibrtyeebad iqcevian. erTmaneTs, rom

xaTuna maisaSvili

isini

gadaukveTav

qarTul-afxazuri konfliqti amgvar gangrZobad, paTologiur konfliqtTa tips miekuTvneba. specifikuri droiTi periodis 2002-2010 wlebi Seswavlam gviCvena is TeTri laqebi da xafangebi, romlebsac gangrZobadi konfliqti uqmnis Jurnalistebs da isic, Tu rogor icvlian bunebasa da funqcias sxvadasxva ganzomilebebis mqone sakomunikacio efeqtebi. kerZod:

sivrce Tu omis an konfliqtis cxeli fazis mediaciisas


mediuri Setyobinebis mimRebisTvis mniSvnelovania, Seexeba Tu ara mas es konfliqti piradad da uSualod, an ramdenad axlos an Sors aris misgan omi da misiT gamowveuli yvela safrTxe, sicocxlis xelyofis CaTvliT, gril periodSi es sivrciTi ganzomileba mniSvnelobas kargavs da mimRebi sjerdeba mxolod codnis, anu informaciis miRebas konfliqtis adgilidan.

Zalaufleba omis an cxeli konfliqtis periodSi miRebuli nebismieri Setyobineba mimRebis mier aRiqmeba misi, rogorc rogorc garkveuli Zalauflebis mqone individuumis, garkveuli qcevis wamqezebeli mowodeba.
konfliqtis gril periodSi es efeqtic grildeba da mimRebic ara bihevioristuli, aramed kognitiuri efeqtebis velSi eqceva.

dro

omisa da cxeli konfliqtis mediacia mimRebSi amZafrebs sakuTari warsulisa da momavlis aRqmas, radganac es omi, konfliqti, msxverpli swored warsul-momavlis mijnaa, gangrZobadi konfliqti ki, awmyos adinamiurobisa da momavlis bundovanebis gamo mimRebs mxolod warsuls utovebs gadasaazreblad.

identoba konfliqtis cxeli fazisgan gansxvavebiT, gril fazaSi SesaZlebelia, moxdes mimRebis identobiTi disociacia konfliqtis identobiTi safuZvlebisgan. amis yvelaze ufro cxadi magaliTia cvlilebebi, romlebic gangrZobadi konfliqtisas paradigmaSi Cvenisini iCenen Tavs. mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT, Cven ufro metad inarCunebs

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erTmniSvnelovnebas, vidre isini. Cven yovelTvis qarTuli mxarea, qarTveli xalxi da saqarTvelos xelisufleba, isini ki konfliqtis fazebis cvlilebis kvalad icvlian konotaciur mniSvnelobebs. isini mudam CvenTan arian dapirispirebulebi, oRond sxvadasxva bunebiT da sxvadasxva motivaciiT, isini xan Cvenis separirebuli nawilia (ucxoTa, magaliTad, rusebis gavleniTa da waqezebiT), xan Tavad arian ucxo da mteri, xan - Cvengan gansxvavebulni da gansxvavebuli miznebis mqoneni. Tumca, arsebobs erTi gamonaklisi CarCo, romelzec naklebad vrceldeba es cvlilebebi. es aris galis mediaciis CarCoebi.

meTodi
meTodi: kritikuli diskursuli analizi; sakvlevi populacia: yoveldRiuri gazeTi rezonansi da yovelkvireuli gazeTi kviris palitra. am gazeTebis arCeva ganpirobebulia maTi wvdomis erovnuli masStabiT, sazogadoebis maTdami ndobiT da maTSi gadmocemuli mediuri masalis diskursuli mravalferovnebiT, isini warmoadgenen rogorc mimdinare bazas afxazuri sakiTxis yoveldRiuri qronikis, misi Tematuri aqcentebis gasaanalizeblad; aseve im mediur wyaroebs, romlebisTvisac afxazuri sakiTxi saredaqcio politikis erT-erTi mTavari fokusia. droiTi monakveTi: 2002-2010 wlebi

ganxilva
mediasistemis kuTvnilebaSi myofi gali politikurad damuxtuli dramis adgilia. Sida mediuri dakveTa galis reprezentaciaze aseTia: qarTuli drama unda SenarCundes, muxti ar unda daikargos. mTeli ganxiluli periodis ganmavlobaSi galidan erTi da imave Tematuri kuTxis, erTi tonalobis, erTsa da imave efeqtze gaTvlili informaciebi gadmoicema, da efeqtis dagegmili buneba ukve publikaciis hedlainebidan (saTauri, qvesaTauri, foto) ganmeorebadi lingvisturi stimulebiT mJRavndeba. afxazebma da rusebma galidan 30 mZevali aiyvanes (rezonansi, 2002 weli, 16 ianvari), samurzayanoSi qarTvelebze nadiroba grZeldeba

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xaTuna maisaSvili

(rezonansi, 2002 weli, 24 oqtomberi); afxazebma omis damTavrebis Semdeg galSi 17 000 mSvidobiani mosaxle daxvrites (rezonansi, 1 noemberi, 2002 weli); qarTvelebi afxazebs xarkis saxiT 50 kilo Txils uxdian (rezonansi, 26 noemberi, 2002 weli); 238 mkvleloba or welSi da klasikuri aparteidi; Tbilisi galSi saerTaSoriso policiis amoqmedebas moiTxovs (rezonansi, 27 maisi, 2005 weli); afxazeTis orgzis gmiri aafeTqes (rezonansi, 28 noemberi, 2005 weli); ratom iRupebian eTnowmendaSi monawile afxazeTis gmirebi gaurkvevel viTarebaSi? (rezonansi, 29 noemberi, 2005 weli); galSi qarTvelebs isev arbeven (kviris palitra, 12 dekemberi, 2005); afxazi policielebi naRmze afeTqdnen (kviris palitra, 28 noemberi, 2005); qarTvelebs galSi aRar uSveben (kviris palitra, 14 noemberi, 2005); ar ilaparako qarTulad, Torem (kviris palitra, 11 dekemberi, 2006 weli); galSi iZulebiTi pasportizacia gaaprotestes (kviris palitra, 30 ianvari, 2006 weli); afxazeTSi faSizmi mZvinvarebs (kviris palitra, 17 seqtemberi, 2007 weli); 35 galeli axalgazrda afxazebis tyveobaSi rCeba (rezonansi, 9 ianvari, 2008 weli): galelebs raionis datovebas aiZuleben (kviris palitra, 29 seqtemberi, 2009 weli); separatistebma 50 ojaxi dasajes (kviris palitra, 2 marti, 2009 weli); galis raionis pedagogebs ultimatumis vada amoewuraT (16 Tebervali, 2009 weli); rusebi aRaravis indoben ( 2 Tebervali, 2009 weli); soxumis xelisuflebas dagegmili aqvs, galis raions avtonomia mianiWos (rezonansi, 14 maisi, 2005 weli) an ganmeorebadi sezonuri teroris (Txilis, mandarinis mosavlis gamo) amsaxveli mravali informacia [xazgasma yvelgan Cemia x. m.]. procesis amsaxveli yvela sxva mediuri nimuSisagan gasxvavebiT, TiToeuli Setyobineba galidan an galSi mimdinare movlenebis Sesaxeb agebulia modelze Setyobineba SetyobinebaSi (roca Setyobinebis mTeli Sinaarsi ganpirobebulia erTi sakvanZo sityviT. magaliTad, igive: samurzayanoSi qarTvelebze nadiroba grZeldeba. aq gali, misi qarTulobis dasadastureblad moxseniebulia istoriuli saxelwodebiT samurzayano; galelebis mimarT ganxorcielebul afxazTa qmedebas sisxliani saxeli nadiroba ewodeba, xolo sityva grZeldeba Zaladobis

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uwyvet bunebaze mianiSnebs; an sityva xarki TavisTavad xdis naTels, ris safasurad inarCuneben galeli qarTvelebi TavianT saxlebSi cxovrebis uflebas). konotaciurad es aris diskriminaciisa da moZalade-msxverplis urTierTobis, ucxoobis, afxazTaTvis saSiSobis aRmniSvnelebis uwyveti jaWvi. am aRmniSvnelebis ganmeorebadoba da gamoyenebis sixSire zrdis dramis efeqts da amyarebs ramdenime damkvidrebul Sexedulebas: a) Sexedulebas galze, rogorc Zalian zust Secdomaze, romelic qarTvelebma da afxazebma erTad dauSves: a) saqarTvelosTvis gali saqarTveloa, magram ratomRac afxazeTis SemadgenlobaSi; afxazebisTvisac gali saqarTveloa, magram ratomRac afxazeTis SemadgenlobaSi; b) amyarebs mosazrebas, rom afxazeTis xelisuflebas galSi samoqmedod mxolod erTi alternativa aqvs: an Seeguos galis qarTulobas, an ZaliT moerios mas. miuxedavad imisa, rom galis qarTulobasTan Seguebis politika mediur reprezentaciaSi bevrad ufro farTo da mravalwaxnagian cnebad aris warmoCenili, vidre eTnikur niadagze Cadenili kriminalis an mizanmimarTuli eTnikuri niSniT diskriminaciis lokaluri alagmvaa, igi, rogorc rogorc politikuri arCevani, Zalian SezRudul opcionebs moicavs. Segueba iZulebiTi nabijia afxazeTis de faqto xelisufleba garkveuli politikuri sargeblis (saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis TvalSi humanurad da kanonmorCilad warmoCena da galelebis perspeqtiuli gaafxazeba, anu eTnikuri afxazebis raodenobrivad gazrda) gamo Tanxmdeba devnilebis dabrunebaze galSi, Tumca icis, rom 50 aTasi eTnikuri qarTveli mas sakmaod did problemebs Seuqmnis; iZulebas Seguebaze is Zaladobrivi, zedmetad administraciuli xerxebiT, xandaxan Zalis gamoyenebiTac ki pasuxobs. Zaladoba ki sapasuxo Zaladobas warmoSobs (magaliTad igive publikaciebi moviyvanoT: afxazeTis orgzis gmiri aafeTqes (rezonansi, 28 noemberi, 2005 weli); ratom iRupebian eTnowmendaSi monawile afxazeTis gmirebi gaurkvevel viTarebaSi? (rezonansi, 29 noemberi, 2005 weli); afxazi policielebi naRmze afeTqdnen (kviris palitra, 28 noemberi, 2005). devnilebis faqtobriv dabrunebas win molaparakebebis xangrZlivi da mravalpirobiani da mravalkomponentiani procesi uZRvis. mediis mier gamokveTili erT-erTi aqcenti aris dabrunebis adgilad mxolod galis da

102

xaTuna maisaSvili

dasabrunebelTa Soris mxolod galeli devnilebis aRiarebis politikuri mizanSewonileba. karg da cud devnilebad dayofa afxazuri politikuri diskursis mier seriozuli ganxeTqilebis sagnad SeiZleba iqces Tavad devnilTa TemSi da galelebis, rogorc afxazebisTvis misaRebi qarTvelebis marginalizeba gamoiwvios. meore problemuri aqcenti, romelsac media akeTebs, Seexeba gadaulaxav gaucxoebas, romelic dabrunebul galelebsa da afxazebs Soris arsebobs. ras emsaxureba es dabruneba? mxolod imis Cvenebas, rom am gaucxoebuli adamianebis erTad cxovreba SeuZlebelia? Tu mxolod maSin gaxdeba SesaZlebeli am gaucxoebis gadalaxva (anu Segueba), Tuki afxazebi galelebs ara _ qarTvelebad, aramed megrelebad, xolo gals _ megrul anklavad moixsenieben? Seguebis politikas media didwilad galis administraciis xelmZRvanel ruslan qiSmarias ukavSirebs. qiSmarias komentarebi galSi momxdar Zaladobis faqtebTan dakavSirebiT, romelsac qarTuli media gadmoscems, emsaxureba kriminalis eTnikuri safuZvlebis Serbilebas, SeniRbvas da wina planze socialuri da kriminaluri faqtorebis wamowevas, gansakuTrebiT galis samxreT, samegrelos regionTan uSualod mosazRvre (!) nawilSi (magaliTad, galSi afxazebsac itaceben (rezonansi, 11 ianvari, 2006 weli). Tavisi qarTuli Tu ormag-identobiTi bunebis gamo gali is adgilia, romelzec gaaTmagebuli ZaliT proecirdeba qarTulafxazur konfliqtTan asocirebul yvela centrSi momxdari Tu Cafiqrebuli nebismieri politikuri cvlileba (Tbilisi, soxumi, kodoris xeoba, realuri Tu xelovnurad provocirebuli xmebi afxazebis pretenziebze samegrelos teritoriis mimarT da sxva). gali mowyvladi adgilia yvela politikuri avantiurasa Tu provokaciisTvis. gali qarTveli da afxazi politikosebisTvis is avanscenaa, romelzec nebismieri scenari SeiZleba moisinjos. galelebi orive mxaris xelisuflebisTvis saarCevno resursia. baRafSis pirvel arCevas de-faqto prezidentad galSi xanmokle simSvide mohyva (galSi qarTvelebs aRar awiokeben, rezonansi, 19 marti, 2005 weli), galis sul ufro met adgils ikavebda axali prezidentis ritorikaSi. qarTuli media baRafSs miawerda sityvebs: Tu gali Cvenia, maSin rogorc

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saWiroa, ise mivxedoT, xolo Tu es ar SegviZlia, maSin es TqviT, da gali saqarTvelos mivceTo (rezonansi, 3 ivnisi, 2005). 2008 wlis ainvarSi galelebs apatimreben saqarTveloSi saprezidento arCevnebSi monawileobis sababiT samegrelos regionis teritoriaze (rezonansi, 9 ianvari, 2008 weli). 2008 wlis agvistos omamde gali saqarTvelos xelisuflebis diskursSi ganixileboda, rogorc berketi, sababi, mizanSewonilobis safuZveli garkveuli tipis qmedebebisTvis. magaliTad, Jurnalistis SekiTxvaze: xom SeiZleba, Seiqmnas iseTi viTareba, rom iZulebuli gavxdeT, davarRvioT samSvidobo kursi?, reintegraciis saxelmwifo ministri Temur iakobaSvili aseT eqstremalur viTarebad gals asaxelebs: ra Tqma unda, SeiZleba. Tu galSi aTas kacs yels gamoWrian, ver davelodebiT aTas meerTe qarTvelis sikvdils (axali 7 dRis yovelTviuri gamocema sityva, 2008, 5). semiologiuri aspeqtis garda, galis reprezentaciis meore mniSvnelovani aspeqtia uSualod reportirebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi (magaliTad, adgilis specifika da adamianebis istoriebi am adgilze). informaciis galidan gadmocemis faqti ukve qmnis garkveul molodins am informaciebSi reportirebuli faqtebisa da movlenebis bunebis Sesaxeb (rogorc, magaliTad, winaswar aris cnobili im faqtebis buneba, romlebic sasamarTlos, policiis, parlamentis an saavadmyofos Senobidan gadmoicema. am istoriebSi yovelTvis miTiTebulia wyaro, isini yovelTvis uSualod TviTmxilvelebis naambobs eyrdnobian, yovelTvis miTiTebulia monawile adamianebis vinaoba, dro da iseTi detalebi, romlebic adasturebs, rom informacia mizanmimarTulad, sainformacio badis gamoyenebiT iqna mopovebuli. media iyenebs mis xelT arsebul upiratesobas specifikuri viTarebis gamo galisa da galelebis saxes mxolod media qmnis (socialuri garemo da personaluri gavlenebi ver cvlis da verc veranair gavlenas axdens mediis mier Seqmnil damokidebulebebze) da monopoliurad ayalibebs galis warmoCenis dRis wesrigs: galis moqceva Sida qarTul sivrceSi;

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xaTuna maisaSvili

yvela faqtis politikuri ganpirobebuloba; xdomilebis motivacia, rogorc winaswarganzraxulis; faqtebis daxasiaTeba, rogorc tragediis;

faqtebis

emociuri sakvanZo sityvis Semotana neitralur informaciul tonalobaSi; galis, rogorc mediasistemis Temis, SenarCunebis aucilebloba.

literatura

Goffman, E. (1974) Frame Analysis: an Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York: harper and Row. Lippmann, W. (1922) Public Opinion. New York: Harcourt Brace. Ms Quail, D. (2005) McQuals Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage Tuchman, G. (1978) Making News: a Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: Free

naira bepievi nino popiaSvili


gzis recefciebi kavkasiur miTologiaSi


gzas kavkasiur folklorSi Tavisi sakraluri daniSnuleba aqvs. is aris damakavSirebeli samyaros mravalganzomilebiani sistemisa. erTi mxriv, mkveTrad aris gamijnuli erTmaneTisagan saaqao da saiqio. Tumca kavkasiur miTologiaSi samyaro zogjer samganzomilebian sistemaSicaa moazrebuli: Cveni samyaro Sualeduri rgolia, amasTan erTad, arsebobs aseve zeda samyaro (zeskneli) da qveda samyaro (qveskneli). raWvelebis, kaxelebisa da sxvaTa azriT, Sualeduri aris samyaro, sadac Cven vcxovrobT; zeda samyaro suleTis samyaroa baraqiani, qveda unayofoa (asevea gaazrebuli samyaro afxazur folklorSi). es miToreligiuri sistema yvelgan erTnairi ar aris. inguSebis rwmeniT, arsebobs mxolod saaqao da arsebobs aseve saiqio, romelic miwisqveSeTSia, qvesknelSia da mas Tavisi RmerTi hyavs (eStri).

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naira bepievi, nino popiaSvili

erTi ganzomilebidan meoreSi gadasvla _ gardacvaleba swored gzis meSveobiT xorcieldeba. rogorc cnobilia, kavkasielebi saiqioSi mimavalT tansacmelTan erTad sagzalsac atandnen (sagzali xom leqsikuradac imis maniSnebelia, rac mgzavrma gzaSi unda miirTvas). ojaxis diasaxlisi gamoacxobda sam an xuT kotors ... Semdeg kotrebs daWridnen da erT yanw sasmels da TiTo naWer kotors iq myofebs Camourigebdnen. amiT micvalebulis suls suleTis sagZali gaumzades (cocaniZe 1990:114). esec mianiSnebs, rom maTi Rrma rwmeniT, saiqioSi mosaxvedrad micvalebuls garkveuli gzis monakveTi aucileblad unda gaevlo. erT-erT micvalebuls ase dastirisa Wirisufali: meac ro moidev emag alagSiav, gza gamaswavlide (cocaniZe 1990:118). arc isaa SemTxveviTi, rom zogierTi xalxis folklorSi saiqio ugzo-ukvlo adgilad moixsenieba. daRestnelTa natirlebSi aseTi frazac gvaqvs: im sofelSi midixar, gza rom ara aqvs (Tumca aq sxva msoflmxedvelobazea saubari). qarTulSi arsebobs idiom Tavisi gziT wavida (gardaicvala). analogiuri gamoTqma gvaqvs osurSic. es idioma myarad migvaniSnebs, rom imqveynad savali gza sazogadoc, saerToc aris (yvelam unda gaiaros) da pirovnulic, kerZoc (Tavisi gza; yvelas Tavisi gza aqvs); am gzas mihyavs bolos adamiani Tavis kuTvnil adgilamde, romelsac isev saiqios gamgebeli ganusazRvravs im codva-madlis mixedviT, romelic mas amqveynad Caudenia. suleTis gza gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovania imiTc, rom kanonzomierebas, romelsac es gza emorCileba, veravin Secvlis, misi aranairi cvlileba ar SeuZlia arc erT mokvdavs is aris, upirvelesad,@yvelasTvis, yoveldRiuri. erT qarTul xalxur leqsSi vkiTxulobT:

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erTxel dRiuri,

momelis

sikvdili,

sicocxle

me

maqvs

erT wuTSi dagisruldeba yovelwasuli xniuri, es mimdinare gza ari, yvelasTvis yoveldRiuri, mas Seamoklebs veravin, verc wuTi, verca wliuri, Tu ginda iyos kaxeli, Tu ginda (qarTuli xalxuri poezia 1979: 67). iyos mTiuli

gza, romelic yvela ganzomilebas cal-calke aqvs, gzajvaredinTan iyreba. zogjer TviTon individi irCevs, Tu romel gzas gahyves. osur miTologiaSi mas zogjer mrCevelic exmareba:

gzajvaredinTan misuls gaxsovdes: marjvniv nu waxval mosisxarTa gza aris is gza; nurc marcxniv waxval borotebis savali gzaa, Sua gzas gahyev... asevea qarTul folklorSi: ivli, ivli da miadgebi gzajvaredins. aq ki ukve unda aucileblad Seni savali gza airCio. is, vinc Tavis saval gzas sworad irCevs, advilad imarjvebs, visac aq gza SeeSleba, anu, araswor arCevans gaakeTebs, uamravi dabrkolebis gadalaxva uxdeba. erT qarTul

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naira bepievi, nino popiaSvili

natirlebSi micvalebuls ase moZRvraven: sworad ivlideo, gza arsaiT SageSalosao. gzajvaredini folklorSi erTgvari Seyovnebis adgilia gmirisTvis. aq keTdeba misTvis umniSvnelovanesi arCevani. gmiri unda Sedges aq da dafiqrdes: ra gza airCios, saiT ganagrZos siaruli, igi unda gaerkves sakuTar ZalaSi, unda awon-dawonos, ra SeuZlia, imitom, rom mcdarma, arasworma arCevanma SeiZleba samudamod daRupos, SeiZleba piriqiT moxdes arCeulma gzam miiyvanos gamarjvebamde. amitom gzajvaredini, aris misi samomavlo gzis arCevanisTvis gankuTvnili adgili: gzajvaredini misi SesaZleblobebisa da arCevanis simboluri gamoxatulebaa (kiknaZe, 2007: 80). suleTs mimavali gza aucileblad midis saiqios karTan. es gza zogjer bewvis xidze gadis:

Sua gzas gahyev, erTi bewvis xidTan migiyvans, magram ar Sedrke, ar SesSinde, cxens maTraxi gadauWire ise Zlierad, rom xelisgulze tyavi agaskdes, cxens ki barZayze _ xorci da miadgebi mkvdarTa sauflos (osuri zepirsityviereba 2005:47). xidis Semdeg ki karia TviT suleTisa. erTi xevsuruli leqsis mixedviT, suleTSi Sen TviTon unda Sexsna suleTis kari: suleT Savida wiqai, xeliT SaaRa karia.

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osuri miTologiiT, aq sagangebo ritualia Sesasrulebeli - locvis rituali, raTa kari gagiRon. kars ki Tavisi mcveli hyavs, romelic am gzaze Sedgomis uflebas iZleva. mcdaria mosazreba, TiTqos qristianul religiaSi calke, damoukidebel saxes saiqios ganmgeblisas ver vxvdebiT, magram misi funqciebi gadatanilia RmerTisa da eSmakis saxeze (d. giorgaZe). osebis rwmeniT, iq, karTan arsebobs mcveli, romelic iq misuls gauRebs an ar gauRebs karebs. aq sagangebod unda SeCerde, aminons - osuri miTologiiT - saiqios mcvels unda sTxovo nebarTva. saiqios moxvedrili ki ukve barasTiris (saiqios gamgeblis) nebas emorCileba. rogorc aRvniSneT, osuri miTologiiT, saiqios kars mcveli hyavs aucileblad, romelic Tavad wyvets sakiTxs SeuSvas Tu ara suleTis kars momdgari SigniT (iqidan gamosvlasac, rac Zalze iSviaTad xdeba, isev aminoni akontrolebs). es wesi mkacrad gansazRvruli iyo, magram xdeboda isec, rom Tu ar uSvebdnen SigniT, ZaliT Sediodnen: narTi soziriyo mkvdarTa sauflosaken gaemarTa. mivida mkvdarTa qveynis zRurblTan, magram kuSt aminonma is SeaCera da uTxra: - narTo, ukan dabrundi, aq mosvlis rigi ara gaqvs jera! soziriyo ar daemorCila da gawyra, Selewa kari, sadac ar Tqmula stumris Seyvana, SeiWra qarze uswrafes cxeniT da moiara mkvdarTa qveyana (narTebi 1947:386). rogorc aRvniSneT, suleTis gzaze Semdgars winaaRmdegoba Tu mainc xvdeba, is iZulebis wesiT Sedis iq. ase xvdeba cxenSewirvis gmiri saiqioSi: miadgebi mkvdarTa sauflos

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karebs aravin ar gamogiRebs, mze Cavidao, _ ase getyvian, locva warmoTqvi: RmerTo maRalo, iyav mowyale, mTis wverebze mzis naTeli gamoabrwyine! mTebze mzis sxivi gamokrTeba, qusli hkar karebs

naira bepievi, nino popiaSvili

da gaiReba (osuri zepirsityviereba 2005:47). saiqios saval gzaze mimavals uamravi vinme xvdeba da ilustrirebulia maTi dasjis formebic. zogisTvis rTulia da mtanjveli iq yofna (boroti, Zunwi, qurdi, gulRrZo da sxva saxis codvebis Camdenni sxvadasxvagvari formiT isjebian), xolo msubuqi da aradamRlelia maTTvis, vinc sikeTes emsaxura. erTerTi osuri Tqmulebis (soziryo mkvdarTa qveyanaSi) mixedviT, micvalebulTa saufloSi mimavali soziriyo xedavs, erT adgils srulad titveli col-qmari iwva did xaris tyavze, xaris tyavisve exuraT, magram ver eteodnen da, braziT savse, xeliT erTmaneTs glejdnen im tyavsa da wyevla-krulvas ayridnen Tavze (narTebi 1947:386). am gzaze ixila soziriyom sruliad sapirispiro suraTi: imaT gverdiT ki kurdRelis tyavze iwva sxva wyvili coli

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da qmari, mis naxevarze iwvnen mSvidad da dasaxuradac hqondaT sakmari (narTebi 1947:386-387). gaocebuli soziriyo ekiTxeba Tavis winaprebs, ras niSnavs yovelive , : es imitom rom maT cxovrebaSi ar hyvarebiaT erTimeore! (pirveli SemTxveva); isini iyvnen Seyvarebulni, mTels sicocxleSi ase Svrebodnen: ar Ralatobdnen erTimeores, erTimeores ar Sordebodnen (meore SemTxveva). am gzaze Semdgar sxva Tqmulebis personaJ

(cxenSewirva) aseTive suraT . jer is col-qmari xvdeba, romelTac didi adgilic (xaris tyavic) ar hyofniT, iqac ver etevian, Semdeg ki is col-qmari, romlebsac kurdRlis tyavzec ki rCebaT adgili. axsna aqac analogiuria: pirvel SemTxvevaSi maT erTmaneTi ar hyvarebiaT; meore SemTxvevaSi _ maT erTmaneTi Zlier uyvardaT, roca iq iyvnen, asea aqac. osuri rwmena-warmodgenebiT, suleTs savali gza sakmaod grZelia da amitomaa, rom am gzaze bevri, TiTqos ucnauri ram xvdeba gmirs: kidev ivli da erT qals Sexvdebi, mas yelze gvelis tyavi hkidia, Tavze bayayis tyavi hxuravs. es ase ratom aris, es ras niSnavs-Tqo? eg mxolod sxvaTa dasanaxad icavda marxvas, CumCumad ki igi miirTmevda Turme yvelafers, saiqios ai, ase isjeba axla (osuri zepirsityviereba 2005:48).

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iq, imqveynad, aseve mkacradaa dasjili wisqvilSi mindis mparavi, qmris orguli, mkacrad isjebian mosamarTleni, romelnic aq samarTals amrudebdnen da a. S. gza, romelsac suli gadis saiqioSi, yvelafer xedavs, ganicdis da erT SemTxvevaSi (soziryo mkvdarTa qveyanaSi) didi gaWirvebiT, magram mainc ukan brundeba (esaa iSviaTi SemTxveva, ganpirobebuli im azriT, rom amqveynad yvelas acnobos _ ra xdeba iq, imqveynad). meore SemTxvevaSi (cxenSewirva), sadac suli imave gzas gaivlis, iq mkvidrdeba samudamod: gagiWirdeba samoTxeSi Sesvla Zalian, magram im bavSvTa xaTriT mainc kars gagiReben iq, samoTxeSi barasTiris marjvniv iqnebi. sulis gza kavkasieli xalxis folklorSi zogjer gansxvavebulad aris aRwerili. am gzaze mimavals bevri personaJi xvdeba, zogi sicruis, borotebis, orgulobis, siZunwis gamo dasjili, bevric sikeTis gamo aRzevebuli. kavkasiis xalxTa miTologiaSi suleTis gzaze Semxvedr personaJebs Soris msgavsebac didia da gansxvavebac, umTavresi ki isaa, rom isini am gzas aucileblad gaivlian, anu maTi SemakavSirebelia gza, romelsac sxvadasxvagvarad, magram mainc yvela odesRac daadgeb. narTebis rwmena-warmodgenebiTac suleTs myofi adamianebi aq, amqveynad, gavlili cxovrebis wesis iReben iq, saiqioSi, sazRaurs: keTili sikeTiT jildovdeba, samoTxeSi xvdeba; borots ki codvebis Sesabamisad exdeba samagiero. anu saaqaos ganvlil gzas Seesabameba saiqios saazRauri. am gzis gavlas, mis ilustrirebas erTi umTavresi daniSnuleba aqvs, esaa

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adamianis sulieri srulyofis, ganwmendis, kaTarzisis saSualeba. miTosuri azrovnebis mixedviT, suleTis gza adamianis erTgvari transformirebis saSualeba. am gzaze Sedgomamde adamiani aqve unda ganiwmidos codvebisagan, raTa saukunod mimaval gzaze am tanjvisagan ixsnas suli. amgvarad, kavkasiur miTologiaSi gzas aqvs sakraluri daniSnuleba. gzis fenomeni wriulia da mTliani. is iwyeba aq, am samyaroSi, da mTavrdeba iq, saiqioSi. is aris SemakavSirebeli wre mTliani samyarosi (Sua, zeda da qveda). gzis meSveobiT formirdeba samyaro erT mTlianoba. TiToeuli adamiani am gzas aq, saaqaoSi iwyebs (xorcielTa samyofeli) da, roca gardaicvleba da saiqioSi sulTa sameufoSi (suleTSi, maradiul samyofelSi) Seabijebs, wre iq ikvreba. saaqaodan mimavali gza aucileblad unda gaiaros yvelam, raTa es wre Seikras. iqidan aqeT, samzeoze gamosasvleli gza aRar arsebobs (Zalze iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda). kavkasiuri miTologiis mixedviT, rogori moklec unda iyos sicocxle (ra mokle gza qoniao, - ityvian xolme udrood gardacvlilze), es gza mainc sayovelTaoa. mas aucileblad gaivlis yvela mokvdavi da misi Secnoba yvelasTvis aucilebelia. amitomac aris, rom es gza datvirTulia kavkasiuri miTologiuri azrovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ilustrirebuli detalebiT.

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literatura giorgaZe 1981: giorgaZe d. (warmodgenebi saiqioze xevsureTSi), masalebi saq. eTnografiisaTvis. XXI Tb.: mecniereba, 1981. kiknaZe 2007: kiknaZe z. qarTuli folklori, Tb.: Tbilisis sax. un-tis gamomc., 2007. narTebi 1947: narTebi, staliniri, samxreT oseTis sax. gamomc., 1947. osuri zepirsityviereba 2005: Tb.: gamomc., kavkasiuri saxli, 2005. qarTuli xalxuri poezia 1979: qarTuli xalxuri poezia, t. VII Tb.: mecniereba, 1979. cocaniZe 1990: cocaniZe g. mecniereba, 1990. giorgobidan giorgobamde, Tb.:

laSa CxartiSvili

liris geografia
mefe liris scenuri interpretaciis ruka me-20 saukunis meore naxevris evropul TeatrSi meoce saukunis evropuli Teatris Seswavlisas SeuZlebelia gverdi auaro sam yvelaze cnobil, popularul da gavlenian Teatralur samonastro kompleqss: stredfordis samefo Teatrs, milanis pikolo Teatrs da rusTavelis Teatrs. am samma Teatralurma keram umniSvnelovanesi da gardamtexi wvlili Seitana msoflio Teatralur azrovnebaSi, SemoqmedebiTi procesebis winamZRolebad ki am Teatrebis maSindeli samxatvro xelmZRvanelebi - piter bruki, jorjo streleri da robert sturua gvevlinebian. maTi Ziebebis mwvervalebs ki Seqspiris mefe liri warmoadgens, romlebmac gardamtexi roli Seasrules TiToeulis SemoqmedebaSi. ucnauria, is rom am sam speqtakls erTmaneTTan aTi weli aSorebs da maTi dadgmebis periodulobis diagramis agebisas srul harmoniulobas da mkacrad dacul periodulobas miviRebT (ixileT suraTi

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1).

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dadgenili faqtia, rom piter brukis speqtaklis premiera stredfordis samefo TeatrSi 1962 wels gaimarTa, jorjo strelerma mefe liri Tavis pikolo TeatrSi 1972 wels dadga, xolo robert sturuam mefe liris pirvel variantze muSaoba 1982 wels daasrula da rusTavelis Teatris remontis gamo speqtaklis oficialuri premiera 1987 wels gaimarTa. cnobilia, rom sturuas mefe liri gacilebiT adre hqonda dadgmuli, vidre misi oficialuri premiera Sedgeboda. speqtaklis dadgmis dros rusTavelis Teatri profkavSirebis saxlSi muSaobda. Teatrmcodne da sturuas Semoqmedebis mkvlevari nodar gurabaniZe Tavis wignebSi reJisori robert sturua, fantastikuri ramaz CxikvaZe, klasikuri dramaturgia rusTavelis Teatris scenaze dawvrilebiT aRwers im speqtakls, romelic man profkavSirebis saxlSi 1982 wels naxa. gamodis, rom speqtakli am droisTvis ukve dadgmuli iyo, Tumca misi oficialuri premiera ar gamarTula. asec rom ar iyos, brukis, streleris da sturuas speqtaklebis dadgmebis aTwliani intervalis Skala mainc ar irRveva, radgan sturuas speqtaklis TariRi ar gadadis momdevno aTeulSi. Sesabamisad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom evropaSi aRiarebuli sami

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mniSvnelovani speqtakli, romlebmac gansakuTrebuli wvlili Seitanes Seqspiris piesebis scenur interpretaciaSi, zustad aTi wlis periodulobiT idgmeba. TiToeuli dadgmis aucilebloba ki ganpirobebulia reJisorTa qveynebSi gamowveuli politikur-socialuri mdgomareobiT. zemoT aRniSnuli speqtaklebi gamoirCeva Seqspiris teqstis originaluri interpretaciiT, piesis tradiciuli gaazrebis ignorirebiT, axleburi da Tamami gadawyvetiT. qronologiurad Seqspiris mefe liris pirveli originaluri da Tamami gadawyveta britanel reJisors piter bruks ekuTvnis, meore italiel jorjo strelers, xolo mesame qarTvel robert sturuas. maT TavianTi moRvaweobiT Seqmnes erTgvari Teatraluri samonastro kompleqsebi, laboratoriebi, sadac urTulesi SemoqmedebiTi problemebi gadaiWreboda. maTi Ziebebis da eqsperimentebis masStabebi imdenad globaluri iyo, rom scildeboda konkretul geografiul sazRvrebs. Cveni kvlevis mizania Seqspiris mefe liris evropaSi sami gamorCeuli scenuri interpretaciis magaliTze SeviswavloT liris dadgmebis geografia meoce saukunis meore naxevarSi, im Teatraluri kera-monastrebis magaliTze, romelTa Teatraluri kvlevebi da aRmoCenebi gadamdebi iyo sxva evropuli TeatrebisaTvis. Tu kvlevisas gamoviyenebT tipur geografiul samecniero kvlevis meTodebs, aRmovaCenT, rom am speqtaklebs Soris aris xiluli harmoniuloba da logikuri kavSirebi. pirvelyovlisa, TvalSisacemia is garemoeba, rom sami arCeuli speqtaklidan pirveli ganxorcielda ukidures Crdilo-dasavleT evropaSi (didi britaneTi, stredfordi eivonze), meore Suagul evropaSi (italia, milani) da mesame ukidures samxreT-aRmosavleT evropaSi (saqarTvelo, Tbilisi). rukaze liris scenuri interpretaciis evoluciis procesi dasavleTidan-aRmosavleTisaken ase gamoiyureba: (ixileT suraTi 2)

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stredfordi eivonze erT-erTi uZvelesi samefo qalaqia britaneTSi, romelic londonidan 81 km-iT aris daSorebuli, Sesabamisad is londonis regionSi moiazreba da ganTavsebulia imave grZedsa da ganedze, romlebzec _ britaneTis dedaqalaqi londoni.

stredfordi eivonze mdebareobs: grZedi: 51 (513026N 0739W) ganedi: -1 , jorjo strelerma mefe liri italiis qalaq milanSi, dedaqalaqidan 477 km-iT daSorebiT dadga. qalaqi milani mdebareobs: grZedi: 45 (452751N 091125E) ganedi: 9 rac Seexeba Tbiliss, igi ganTavsebulia: grZedi: 41 ( 41430N 44470E) ganedi: 44

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Tu am monacemebs (51-45-41) erTmaneTs SevadarebT, maT Soris garkveul, maTematikur kanonzomierebas SevniSnavT intervalebSi. am sam monacems Soris intervali aris xuTi erTeuli, xolo pirvelsa da bolos Soris 10. grafikulad es monacemebi ase gamoiyureba: (ixileT suraTi 3)

rac Seexeba kilometraJs: stredfords milanamde aSorebs 1020 km, milans Tbilisamde 2876, xolo pirveli da bolo geografiuli wertili erTmaneTTan daSorebulia 3553 kmiT. Tu ki kilometraJis diagramas avagebT, maT Soris intervali yovel meaTase kilometrSi Tavisuflad Tavsdeba.

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am diagramidan kargad

laSa CxartiSvili

Cans,

rom speqtaklis mefe liri Seqmnis adgilebi erTmaneTisgan daSorebulia ara mxolod aTwliani, aramed aTaskilometriani intervaliT. Tu ki stredfords da milans erTmaneTTan aSorebs 1020 km, milans TbilisTan aSorebs 2876 km, TiTqmis ori imdeni, ramdenic stredfordsa da milans, Tuki kilometraJis daTvlisas aviRebT 4 000-ian intervals, miviRebT erT e.w. amovardnil mniSvnelobas. Tu am logikiT mivudgebiT sakiTxs, aRmoCndeba, rom robert sturuas speqtakli yvelaze metad daSorebulia brukisa da streleris speqtakls, vidre Tavad brukisa da streleris speqtaklebi. realurad, TeatrmcodneobiTi TvalsazrisiTac, robert sturuas mefe liris interpretacia yvelaze metadaa daSorebuli brukisa da streleris speqtakls ara mxolod reJisoruli koncefciis TvalsazrisiT, aramed scenografiulmxatvruli gadawyvetiTac, aseve musikaluri gaformebiT da speqtaklis qoreografiuli monaxaziT. liris gamorCeuli da gansakuTrebuli dadgmebis geografiuli rukis Sedgenisas mniSvnelovania isic, rom progresuli ideebi da konceptualuri evolucia SeiniSneba dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisaken. aRmosavleT evropis Teatri, kerZod, robert sturuas mefe liri marTlac ajamebs me-20 saukunis meore naxevris Ziebebs Seqspiris samyaroSi.

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kvlevis Sedegad gamoikveTa, rom brukis, streleris da sturuas Sedevrebs Soris liri gansakuTrebuli movlenaa, xolo am radikalurad gansxvavebul dadgmebs Soris SeiniSneba bevri saerTo niSani. liris scenurma interpretaciam me-20 saukunis meore naxevarSi gaiara winaaRmdegobebiT aRsavse gza. TiToeul dadgmas mSobliur qveyanaSi uswrebda araerTi warumatebeli dadgma imave piesisa, xolo brukis, strelerisa da sturuas dadgmebma mSobliur qvyenebSi, axleburma interpretaciebma gza gauxsnes sxva reJisorebis im kvlevebsa da Ziebebs Seqspiris dramaturgiaSi, romelnic am sami reJisoris konkretul speqtaklebSi ganxorcielda. procesi, romelic dasavleT evropaSi daiwyo, aTwliani intervalis Semdeg gagrZelda Suagul evropaSi, romelmac kidev ufro win waswia Seqspiris axleburi interpretaciis cdebi, xolo saukunis dasasruls, kvlav aTwliani intervalis Semdeg, ukidures aRmosavleT evropaSi _ kerZod, qarTul TeatrSi dasrulda mniSvnelovani Ziebebis procesi da Sejamda postmodernuli Teatris miRwevebi.

zeinab kikviZe

semantema gza da misi paradigmebi


im ramdenime sityvas Soris, romelTa saxesxvaobani qarTuli enis leqsikur fonds ufro Rrmasa da tevads qmnis, leqsema ,,gza erT-erTi mniSvnelovani da konotaciurad mravalferovania, radgan misi arsis interpretacia bevr paradigmul saxes avlens. sulxan-saba orbelianis ganmartebiT gza aris ,,yovel savali, gza ewodebis zomiers savalsa, xolo Sara_vrcelsa da biliki_viwro gzasa, da qaSani_TovlTa gatkecilTa, gina SambTa ugzoTa adgilTa, da wavarna_kldeTa viwroTa gatkepnilsa, kldeTa Sina mxecTa oden gasavalsa, kvalad gzad iTqmis folorcni da Sukanica (orbeliani 1991:158). am ganmartebaSi gzis, rogorc sivrcis aRmniSvneli terminis sxvadasxvagvari variaciebia mocemuli, xolo misi idiomaturi done sabas ara aqvs fiqsirebuli. enaSi arsebul sityvaTa semantikuri veli mudmivad cvalebadi aRmniSvnelis mravalferovnebiT gaiazreba. leqsema ,,gza SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc fuZe sityva mravali paradigmuli konotaciisa, romlebic qarTuli enis

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leqsikaSi fiqsirdeba. am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gamoiyos ori done: pirveli gviCvenebs konotaciaTa kavSirs adamianis fizikur qmedebasTan (gzis gayvana, gzaze wasvla, mgzavroba, mogzauroba da a.S.); meore _ azrobriv, goniT aqtivobasTan (,,ra gzas davadge?, ,,kargi hqeni, gzas dadevi, gaiare, win dagxvdeba, ,,gza dasaxa da a.S.). ,,gzis semantemasTan dakavSirebuli konotaciebis doneebad dayofa da maTi prioritetuloba ramdenadme pirobiTia. pirvel doned gamovyofT im leqsemebs, romlebic fizikur aqtivobas ukavSirdeba. QqarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi fuZe ,,gza sakmaod bevri sityvis sayrdenad gvxvdeba: mgzavroba, mogzauroba, mgzavri, sagzali, gzaareuli, gzajvardini, gzagamtari, gzadagza, gzavna, gzatkecili, gzawvrili, gzakvalareuli, babusagzala, gziri, ugzo da a.S.(qegl 1986:149). maTSi aisaxeba rogorc gzis ragvaroba, aseve masTan dakavSirebuli saqmianoba. meore doneSi vgulisxmobT enaSi arsebul frazeologizmebs, romelTa gaCena swored im fsiqologiur, goniT aqtivobas emyareba, romelic ukavSirdeba dinamikas, moZraobas an kidev gadawyvetilebis miReba-armiRebas. Tedo saxokias mier Sedgenil qarTul xatovan sityva-TqmaTa leqsikonSi ,,gza semantemadan aRmocenebuli frazeologizmebi sxvadasxsva rakursiT avlenen adamianis ganwyobas moqmedebisa da umoqmedobis mimarT. frazeologizmTa Sinaarsobrivad mowesrigebis Sedegad SesaZloa gamoiyos ori jgufi: erT maTganSi aisaxeba dadebiTi ganwyoba, humanisturi damokidebuleba adamianebisadmi, keTilSobili miswrafebani, rac sociumis wevrebis erTmaneTisadmi zrunvisa da kacTmoyvareobis markerad SegviZlia moviazroT. aseTi frazeologizmebia: gzad da xidad dgoma (meTauroba, winamZRvroba), gzis Cveneba, gzaze dayeneba (xelis Sewyoba, Svela, daxmareba), gzis gagneba (orientacia, gamarjveba, saqmis mogvareba), gzis maCvenebeli (Wkuis maswavlebeli, damrigebeli), gzaze dadgoma (saqmis dawyeba), gzis qona (xsna, gamarjveba), gza xsnilia (dabrkolebis acileba, gamarjveba). meore jgufSi erTiandeba adamianTa Soris uaryofiTi ganwyobis, winaaRmdegobrivi damokidebulebis mafiqsirebeli xatovani Tqmani, esenia: gzas gadacdena (motyueba, Secdoma,

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zeinab kikviZe

daRupva), gzis gadaRobva (dabrkoleba, xelis SeSla, winaaRmdegoba), gzis dagdebineba (xelis SeSla, xelis aReba raimeze), gzis Sekvra (xelis SeSla, dauxmarebloba) gzaabneuli (visac xeli aqvs mocaruli saqmeSi), gzadakarguli (daRupuli, gaWirvebuli), gzamrudo (ukeTuri, upatiosno), gzaasaqcevi mosaridebeli, mosaSorebeli, dasaviwyebeli), gzagasayarze dgoma (roca kacma ar icis, ra gadawyvitos). frazeologizmTa aseTi farTo speqtri mowmobs, rom am sityvis semantikuri horizonti sakmaod didia da tevadi. masSi kacobriobis emansipaciisa da sociokulturuli nabijebis Wvretacaa SesaZlebeli. mocemuli ori donis mkveTrad gamijvna, faqtobrivad, SeuZlebelia, radgan azrovnebis procesSi orive maTgani dakavSirebulia garkveul moqmedebasTan. erT SemTxvevaSi goniTi aqtivoba amzadebs adamians, miiRos gadawyvetileba da fizikurad gadaadgildes sivrceSi, meore SemTxvevaSi ki isev goniTi aqtivobiT pirovneba iRebs gadawyvetilebas, rogor moiqces, ra gziT, anu ra saSualebiT gaarTvas Tavi arsebul situaciasa Tu dabrkolebas. savaraudoa, rom ,,gzis aseT semantikur vels ganapirobebs adamianis msoflmxedvelobrivi mdgomareoba, rac uZveles droSive unda Camoyalibebuliyo. am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba davimowmoT biblia. adamis gamoZeveba samoTxidan mis azrovnebaSi ,,gzis semantemis orive dones erTdroulad gaaCenda. adamians unda efiqra, gadaewyvita da emoqmeda, ra gzas dadgomoda, anu saiT wasuliyo da rogor earseba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ,,gzis semantemaSi kodirebuli samive aqtivoba avlens qronotopul mdgomareobas. dro unda Serwymoda sivrces. samoTxe iyo erTgvari simboluri adgili, sadac statikuri myofoba gulisxmobda ugzobas, anu usivrcobas. masTan organulad unda yofiliyo dakavSirebuli udrooba, ufro sworad, aradrooba. samoTxis qronotopi gamoricxavda damoukidebel aqtivobas; Tumca es ar niSnavs imas, rom adami ar iyo Tavisufali; mas unda ecxovra edemis baRSi, eRvawa, magram ar uwevda, eRvara ofli da tanjviT moepovebina arsobis puri. RvTis mier

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boZebul samyaroSi yvelafriT uzrunvelyofili adami ar fiqrobs, maSasadame, mas ara aqvs damoukideblobis SegrZneba, radgan is mxolod da mxolod dasazRvrul sivrceSi myofobs. aseTi arsebobis ganmapirobebeli isic iyo, rom man ar icoda sikvdili. kacobriobis mtris _ gvelis CagonebiT adamianma daarRvia RvTis sityva da akrZaluli xis nayofis gemos xilviT Seicno keTili da boroti. amiT is fizikuradac Seicvala. ,,ukvdavis Seqmnili adami da eva Tavadac ukvdavni unda yofiliyvnen, magram maT im nayofis gemosxilviT TavianT bunebaSi mokles is, rac ukvdavebis matarebeli iyo. amieridan, Tuki isini Seqmnidnen rasme an Sobdnen, maTi gaCenili mxolod mokvdavi SeiZleboda yofiliyo(kiknaZe 1989:19). maradiuli sicocxle gamoricxavda aqtiur qmedebas, samoTxidan gamodevna ki gamoixata imiT, rom adamma, anu kacobriobis kerZo saxem, SeiZina sikvdili. es TavisTavad niSnavda statikuridan aqtiur poziciaze gadasvlas. adams daudga dro, (drois garkveuli gagebiT) efiqra, ra moemoqmeda. misi qronotopuli mdgomareoba Tvisebrivad axal kondicias moicavs. droca da sivrcec iZens kacobriobis nebelobisa da damoukideblad arsebobis aRmniSvnelis funqcias. adamis gzaqronotopi erTgvari adeptia, romelic bibliaSive mravalgzis meordeba da bevr dauviwyar ambavs ukavSirdeba. maT Soris erTerTi STambeWdavi epizodi moses mier ebraeli eris egviptidan gamoyvanaa. faraonis winaaRmdegobis miuxedavad israelma unda moipovos sakuTari samSoblo. is gzas unda daadges. udabno ki unda iqces am gzis sakralur adgilad, sadac eri unda dafiqrdes, gaavlos zRvari warsulsa da momavals Soris; SeZlos, uari uTxras sakuTar mexsierebaSi CarCenil statikur egviptes; sakuTar arsSive ipovos sasicocxlo energia da daimkvidros iordanes miRma arsebuli miwa. israelis gzaze svlaSi yalibdeba arsebobis axali wesi, romelic ori sityviT SeiZleba gamoixatos: sad? da rogor? maTi mniSvneloba exmianeba ,,gzis semantemis meore dones. aseTi mdgomareoba SemdgomSi kacobriobis arsebobis wesis ganmsazRvrel faqtorad iqceva. uZveles teqstebSi gmiris mier dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad mogzauroba erTgvari Sablonia.

126

zeinab kikviZe

amaze metyvelebs Tundac ,,gilgameSiani an ,,amiranis eposi. gilgameSi uaxloesi megobris, enqidus sikvdilis Semdeg gadawyvets moipovos Sobis balaxi. es aris misTvis is impulsi, romelmac gzis, rogorc maradiuli arsebobis mosapovebeli saSualebis aRmniSvneli unda warmoSvas. uruqis mefe ver grZnobs drois dinebas, misTvis sicocxle maradiuli myofobaa, rasac wertils usvams sikvdilze fiqris gaCena. aqac statikuri yofa dinamikurSi gadadis da mas logikurad erwymis gzis Zieba. gilgameSis SemTxvevaSi semantema ,,gza orive dones iTavsebs. is eZebs sicocxlis gasaxangrZlivebel saSualebas da amave dros eZebs gzas (pirveli donis gagebiT), riTac SeeZleba ocneba aixdinos. qarTuli folkloruli Semoqmedebac xom mTlianad gzaze gasvlis, gzis dasaxvis motivs efuZneba. miTologiuri Tqmulebebisa Tu zRaprebis gmirebi iniciaciis gasavlelad da xeldasxmis mosapoveblad gzas adganan. gzaSive ikveTeba winaaRmdegoba da misi daZlevis saSualebani, romlebic aseve adamianis aqtiur goniT Tu fizikur qmedebas ukavSirdeba. gza ambivalentur Tvisebebs avlens: erTi mxriv, is SeiZleba sasikeTo da keTildReobis momtani iyos gmirisaTvis, meore mxriv _ masze SeiZleba aTasgvari xifaTi SeemTxves mgzavrs. orive SemTxvevaSi mogzauris neba mis pirovnul TavisTavadobas ayalibebs. es faqtori gansazRvravs kidec iniciaciis mizans. ,,amiranis eposSi gmiris habitusSi Tavidanve Cadebulia misi misia. is aucileblad bneli Zalis konkretuli saxeebis _ gveleSapebisa da devebis gamanadgurebel figurad unda iqces. sakuTari funqcia rom Seasrulos, amiranma unda ipovos gza Tundac camcumis koSkisaken; gzaze unda Seeyaron igi da misi Zmebi gveleSapebs da daamarcxon isini. qarTuli zRaprebis dasawyisSi gzaze dadgoma an gzas gadgoma erT-erTi aucilebeli winapirobaa imisa, rom kolizia warmoiqmnes. moqmedi piri aucileblad unda gavides dasazRvruli sivrcidan. maSasadame, ipovos gza miznis misaRwevad da isev mobrundes imave sivrceSi, oRond axla ukve saxecvlili, gamobrZmedili da aTasgvar xifaTgamovlili, imisaTvis rom pirvandeli sivrce Tvisebrivad axali gaxdes misTvis.

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qarTuli zepirsityvierebis teqstebSi gza moiazreba rogorc horizontalze, ise _ vertikalze. horizontalis gamomxatvelia sworxazovani gza, romelsac personaJi gahyavs funqciurad mniSvnelovan sivrceSi, es SesaZloa iyos triali mindori, mdinaris napiri an tba, gamoqvabuli, an kidev tye. maTi daniSnuleba iTavsebs gmiris iniciaciisaTvis aucilebel atributikas. am adgilebSi unda moxdes raRac iseTi, rac zRapris Cveulebriv personaJs gmiris statusamde aamaRlebs. vertikalis gamomxatvelia moqmedi piris miRma samyaroSi gadasvla, rac erTmaneTis sapirispiro ganfenisaa da moicavs zemo da qvemo yovladobis elementebs. ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, moqmedi piri mogzaurobs qarTuli miTologiuri azrovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel sknelebSi. zRaprebSi zeskneli SesaZloa gamoixatos koSkiT, romelic caSia dakidebuli da xmeleTs ar exeba, an RrublebiT, sadac gmiri jadosnuri raSiT unda afrindes. qveskneli, ufro sworad qvemo yovladoba, SesaZloa, warmosaxuli iyos gziT, romelze avlilic bevri unaxavT, magram Camovlili aravin, da ormoTi, romelSic TokiT eSvebian, da gmiri sxva samyaroSi gadadis. saxifaTo davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg ki samzeoze, anu SuasknelSi brundeba faskunjis an oqrosrqiani erkemlis daxmarebiT. gzis vertikali, ramdenadme, gzis simbolos sakralizacias uwyobs xels, radgan moqmedi piri gadadis sxva ganzomilebaSi. am qmedebasTan erTad unda gaCeniliyo idiomi: ,,cam Caylapa, Tu miwam uyo piri, romlis literaturuli variacia ,,vefxistyaosanSi ase JRers: ,,hgvanda qvesknels CaZromilsa anu zecad anafrensa. horizontalze gmiris mogzauroba dakavSirebulia gzis paradigmul semantemebTan, rogorebicaa ,,gzajvaredini da ,,labirinTi. orive arsebobis gadarCenisaTvis gaCenili alternativis simboluri gamoxatulebaa. gzajvaredinica da labirinTic unda yofiliyo is adgili, romelic uaRresad aqtiur rols Seasrulebda iseTi frazeologizmis gaCenaSi, rogoricaa ,,ra gzas davadge. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom misi sivrcobrivi gamoxatuleba erTdroulad iTavsebs semantema ,,gzis orive dones.

128

zeinab kikviZe

semantema ,,gzis bibliuri da folkloruli mniSvneloba iqceva erTgvar kliSed, romelic mkvidrdeba mxatvrul azrovnebaSi. literaturuli personaJebi irCeven gzas _ arsebobis wesis dasadgenad da amisaTvis konkretuli qmedebis gansaxorcieleblad. mwerlobis ganviTarebis yvela etapze moqmedi pirebis aqtivoba dinamikas ukavSirdeba. is sivrce, romelSic isini myofoben, garkveuli miznebisaTvis irRveva, farTovdeba da axal sivrceebs iTavsebs, amisaTvis ki gansakuTrebuli funqcia gzas (orive donis gagebiT) eniWeba. ase xdeba qristianul teqstebSi, roca gmirebi RmeTSemosilobisa da martvilis statusis mosapoveblad gzas adganan. asea renesansul teqstebSi, sadac esTetikuri ideali raindobiTa da mijnurobiT miiRweva, amisTvis ki ,,gaWra da ,,saqmeTa sagmironis Cvenebaa saWiro, rac aseve, gzis Ziebasa da gzaze dadgomas ukavSirdeba. mogvianebiT gzis semantema Janris definiciis sazRvrebs afarToebs da mimosvla-mogzaurobanis CamoyalibebaSi iRebs monawileobas. romantikul mimdinareobaSi aqtiurdeba ,,gzis meore donis gageba, radgan arsebobasTan dakavSirebul filosofiur TavsatexTa asaxsnel saSualebad swored gzis Zieba da mobiloba iqceva. aseTi funqcia ufro Rrmavdeba da memkvidreobiT faqtorad formdeba realizmSi. modernizmsa da postmodernizmSi semantema ,,gza fsiqologiur aRmniSvnelebs aaqtiurebs. moqmedi pirebis nebeloba sakuTar meSi mogzaurobiT gamoixateba. ,,gzis semantemasTan dakavSirebuli aRmniSvneli modificirdeba da iRebs mravalsaxovani interpretantas formas. paradigmuli konotaciebi ki vlindeba kacobriobis miTosuri, eTosuri, fsiqologiuri da sociokulturuli aspeqtebiT.

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literatura

kiknaZe 1989: kiknaZe ,,mecniereba.1989.

z.

saubrebi

bibliaze,

Tb.:

gam-ba

orbeliani 1991: orbeliani s-s. leqsikoni qarTuli, t.I, Tb.: gam-ba ,,merani, 1991 saxokia 1979: saxokia T. qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani, Tb.: gam-ba ,,merani, 1979. qegl 1986: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, erTtomeuli, sma, enaTmecnierebis institutis gam-ba, 1986.

mariam goduaZe

koncept gzis enobrivi aRqmis sakiTxisaTvis


Ggzis cneba msoflio kulturul universaliebs miekuTvneba da igi miTopoeturi sivrcis umTavres elementadac moiazreba. cxoveli interesi konceptisadmi, romlis simravleTa kveTa qmnis literaturuli qronotopis kategorias [toporovi, 1983, 228], mkvlevarTa Soris dRemde SenarCunebulia. winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens mcdelobas, gamoikveTos gzis reprezentaciis Taviseburebani qarTuli da indoevropuli leqsikurfrazeologiuri sistemebis, aseve folkloruli, Teologiuri Tu fsiqologiuri konteqstebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Tanamedrove evropul enebsa da rusulSi sityva gzas Semdegi ekvivalentebi eZebneba: berZnulSi (ZvelSic, axalSic): ,,aseve; frangulSi: voie (<laTin. via), chemin,aseveroute; inglisurSi: way,path,aseveroad;

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131

rusulSi: ,, . aRniSnuli formebi sinonimebadaa miCneuli specialur saenaTmecniero da leqsikografiul gamocemebSi [CeSko 1969, 127]. laionsis Tanaxmad, sinonimebad miiCneva ori (an meti) sityva, Tu maTi CanacvlebiT miRebul winadadebebs mniSvneloba ar Seecvleba [laionsi 1968, 428]. maT msgavseba-gansxvavebebs ki axsna daeZebneba am sityvaTa istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT [foCxua 1978, 36]. gasaTvaliswinebelia mosazrebani e.w. absoluturi sinonimebis funqcionirebis Sesaxebac [afridoniZe 2009, 6]. aseve sainteresoa, Tu ratomaa qarTul enaSi gezi, sarbieli, ganzraxva..., erTi mxriT, da mimosvls zoli [qegli 2010, 1052-3], Sara..., meore mxriT, gamoxatuli erTi konceptiT _ gza. al. neimanis qarTul sinonimTa leqsikonSi gzis Semdegi sinonimuri variantebi gveZleva: kvali, gza da kvali, asaval-dasavali (misi asaval-dasavali, gza da kvali aravin icis), avala, mimarTuleba (did Rirsebad

vuTvli rusTavels, rom... aseTi ganieri gza da avala misca. ilia) [neimani 1978, 112-3]. baraTaSvilis ugzoukvlod gafrenil meransac gaixsenebda kaci (...gza uvali, Sengan Telili, merano, Cemo, mainc darCeba... rom Cems Semgdomad moZmesa Cemsa siZnele gzisa gauadvildes...) an sityvagzian vaJas aluda qeTelaurs, romlis mwerluri ganaCeni swored gza aris (vis moswyenia sicocxle, gzas is vin gaudgebisa...)...
sityvam moitana da, haidegerTan swored hodosi ( -s, anu gza) iwodeba garRvevad, kvlad. kvali isaa, risi wyalobiTac Cndeba gza via rupta (germ. via _ gza, gadat. xerxi, saSualeba, ruptor _ damangreveli, mZleveli) sivrcis gaxsnis meTodi [derida 1993]. al. neimanTan gzis sinonimebic umTavresad metaforulia. masTan mxolod me-6 nomrad gvxvdeba gzis is gageba, romelTac indoevropul enebSi , route, strada, road da ... Seesatyviseba (ise ki es koncepti esinonimeba: manZils; mimarTulebas; xels; xerxs; yamirgzas; Saras; Saragzas; gzatkecils; TemSaras; orRobes, rkinigzas, miwisqveSa gzas, Telil gzas;

132

mariam goduaZe

gasavlels...). igive avtori saanalizo cnebasTan dakavSirebiT araerT derivantsa Tu sityvaTkombinatorikas gvTavazobs sruli semantikuri, gramatikuli Tu leqsikuri SeTavsebadobiT. gza-sTan dakavSirebuli myari gamoTqmebi da idiomaturi sityvaTSenaerTebi arc indoevropuli enebisTvisaa ucxo. rusul-qarTul leqsikonSi sakvlev koncepts Semdegi definicia eZleva: 1. , rasac windebulebi da sxvadasxva determinantebi ukavSirdeba anac frazur sityvaTnaerTebSi motivirebuli 1 mniSvnelobebiT aris warmodgenili da 2. (gza, gezi).2

swori gza;rknigza;gzaze; gzis pirad; gzis dakargva, gzis acdena; gzis daTmoba; gzidan gadaxveva; gzis gadaWra; gzis gakafva; gzas gaudga; ori dRis gza; gadat. karg gzas adgas; _ gadat. Sroma warmatebis gzaa; namgzavrebs dasveneba; ! gza mSvidobisa! me da Tqven erTi gza ar gvaqvs; ! gza mSvidobisa! isemc wasuliyav, ukan aRar mogexedos! ! jandabamde gza hqonia! , gzis gadaRobva [rql 1959, 336]. sasunTqi gzebi; gzaSi, gzad; gzas acdena, gzis areva; movlili, arapirdapiri gziT; gzas gaudgnen; gzis gayvana; gadat. cxovrebis gza; ganviTarebis gza; swor gzas adgas, swor gzazea; , gza gadauRoba; yvelanairi gziT, saSualebiT; ! ! gza mSvidobisa, bednieri mgzavroba!; _ ? saiT miemgzavrebiT? sami ddRis savalze; dabrunebisas, aqeTobisas; saub. misgan xeiriani araferi gamova; 2. rkinigzis xazi, liandagi; saTadarigo liandagi; liandagis samsaxuri; rkinigzis xazi, liandagi; saub. cudubralod, umiznod; umiznod tyuis; erTi gza gvaqvs; gza iqiTa maqvs; ast. irmis
2
1

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133

rusulenovan masalaze dagvirveba gviCvenebs, rom pirveladi cnebisa da metaforis kveTaze absoluturi sinonimiac ki SeiniSneba. erTi mxriT, gvaqvs: // ; // ; // ; // magram aramc da aramc: , , , (Tumca gvaqvs ). igive SeiZleba iTqvas gzis cnebasTan dakavSirebul derivantze sagzuri.34 etimologistebi -s, preslavur *p t-s Zvelinduri pnths-sgan momdinared miiCneven da igi erTad samive sinonimur wevrs (, , ) aRniSnavs. avestaSi nt (ntn-, -), Zvel sparsulSi i- -a, osurSi ki fandag, fndg aris , Zv. prusiulSi pintis aris orive _ , , laTinurSi pons aRniSnavs xids, biliks, fasmeri Tavis leqsikonSi saanalizo Zirs berZnul -s (, ), aseve (
naxtomi; - gza; xmeleTiT; zRviT; gzad; gasveneba [rql 1959, 821].

sxvaTa Soris, niklai da maria aSukinebis wignSi frTiani sityvebi [akuSinebi 1955, 462] gvxvdeba gamoTqma _ , romelic n. ekma da a. stolpnerma kinoscenaris saxelwodebad aiRes (1931). filmSi naCvenebia damnaSaveTa gza moralur sazogadoebamde. gamoTqma cxovrebis sagzuri ()gamoiyeneba mniSvnelobiT, rom igia yvelaferi, rac gvaZlevs uflebas sazogadoebisTvis sasargeblo arsebobisa Tu moRvaweobisTvis. igive avtorebi gerceniseul imave mniSvnelobis Sesityvebas Targmnian, rogorc . meti sizustisaTvis frazas rusulad vimowmebT: ,, ,...
4

diletantizmi mecnierebaSi, Tavi III; aseve: vin aris damnaSave?, 1,6.

134

mariam goduaZe

(*p tos)-s, goTur finan-s (rac povnas, gagebas niSnavs) ukavSirebs [fasmeri 1986, 224]. sinonimTa ukeT gaazrebisTvis mniSvnelovnad gvesaxeba berZnulenovani masalis Cvenebac. berZnul-qarTuli dokumentirebuli leqsikonis VI tomSi [yauxCiSvili 2007, 170] gzisTvis Semdegi ekvivalentebia mocemuli: , , , , , , , , , , , . aseve gvxvdeba Semdegi leqsikuri kombinatorika: gzavna , ;gzavna arsebiTi, ; gzavna warmoSobisa ; gzavniT Tanmoqcevi ; gzavniTi moqcevi , ; gzavniTi ukunqcevi ; gzasa moyvaneba (gzasa moviyvaneb) ( );gzasaslva (gzasa val) ( ); gza-ucnauri ; gza qalaqisa ; gzayofa ; gzeba (vagzeb) ( ); gzeba (cecxlisa) ; gziTa ; gzisa slva , , ;gzisa cema ( );gzis sagroba . TinaTin giorgobianis ZvelberZnul-qarTul leqsikonSi [giorgobiani 2012, 295] ganmartebulia, rogorc 1. gza, misasvleli, 2. quCa, mimarTuleba, 3. gadasasvleli, mgzavroba, samoZrao adgili, gezi. gadat. gza, saSualeba, meTodi: 1. vmogzaurob, vxetialob; 2. vaRwev, im adgilamde mivdivar,. 3. gavivli. 4. gars vuvli, Semovuvli; amgzavroba, gza. / ... mihyveba swor / arswor gzas; ... stadius quCaze vcxovrob; Sua quCaSi, oqros Suaguli ... / zneobrivi gza, cxovrebis wesi; uzneo cxovrebis wesi; anat. ... sasunTqi gzebi [Samanidi, 2009, 707] (Sdr. ). ZvelqarTul-ZvelberZnuli filosofiur-Teologiuri terminologiis dokumentirebuli leqsikonSi gzisgan warmomdgari qarTuli, aseve berZnuli leqsemebi Semdeg suraTs iZleva: gza- (saRmrTo) _ aramed TT

maTi TsiTa midrekilebiTa marTlad myvanebelisa saRmrTosa gzisagan ganvrdomileba sabralobel ars

koncept gzis enobrivi aRqmis sakiTxisaTvis

135
_

(areop. zec., efr., 9,3); gza- (uflisa)

ukueTnu cocxal iyvnen kacni uRmrToni da gardaaqcevnden gzaTa uflisaTa wrfelTa (areop., ep., efr., 8,6) : _ _ iyo ... odes-igi reca RmrTismetyuelebasa arca Tu gza aqunda Sesvlad ezoTa uflisaTa (naz., hom., 21,12, efT.) // Sdr.
Tanawarsavali (naz., hom., 21,12, Eefr.)) gzavna- _ neoplat. arsis struqturis warmomqmneli meqanizmi, emanacia, arsis rigebis (seriebis siraTa) warmoeba [ars] yoveli gzavna udaresobisagan sakuTarTagan arsebiTTa mizezTasa (pr., kavS., petr., 64;. 42,10-11); _ gzavna (arsebiTi) yoveli gzavna

arsebiTi msgavsebisa mier srul iqmnebis SemdgomTa pirvelTadve mimarT (pr., kavS., petr., 29, 253); iyos yovelive gzavna arsebiTi romelnime ufrosTa mizezTa mier da romelnime umcrosTasa (pr., kavS.,
petr., 58; 39.16-19); gzavna (aRsvliTi qmnisagan) _ perioduli aRmasvla qmnadobidan; gzavna STasvliTi qmnisadmi _ _ perioduli dablasvla qmndobamde _ TiToeuli [nawilebiTi suli]

hyofdes

[gzavnasa]

gzavnasa arsvliTsa qmnisagan da kulad STasvliTsa qmnisadmi da ese iyos dauwyuedel samaradisoobisaTs Jamisa (pr., kavS., petr.,

206; 124.4-6); gzavna (namrgulivi)_ _wrebrunva _

yoveli suli aRmkulis-Sorisi namrgulivTa gzavnaTa ( ) imarebs Tsisa cxovelobisaTa da sadaT iwyo, munve [qmnis] kualad-ukunqcevaTa (pr., kavS., petr.,
198; 118.30-31); gzavna (saRmrToTa moqcevTa) - RmrTaebrivi emanaciis gamomavloba, gzavna _ Tu jer ars, raca ganukueTel iyos gzavna saRmrToTa moqcevTa da TiToeulsa wessa ( ) Soris TiToeuli

TanSekrul TsTa saSualTa mimarT, saWirvo ars, raTa umwuervalesni SemdgomTani Tan-aRekvrodin misasrulsa pirvelTasa (pr., kavS., petr., 148; 89.28-30 D. 147);
gzavniTi moqcevn-i perioduli cikluri brunva, TviTkmarTa gamomavlobis, warmoobis cikli _ esenica [niadag Tanameqoneni] Tan aRekrvian TanauqonoTa keTilwesierTa vinaTa mier gzavniTTa moqcevTa (pr., kavS., petr., 63; 41.16-18). amave leqsikonSi ar moipoveba

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lemebi: mgzavri, Tanamgzavri, Tanawarsavali. Tumca gvxvdeba lema _ Tan(a)-msrboli Tanmxvedri, sinqronulad, erTdroulad moqmedi, angelosTa zeda [iTqumis TTelmwifeba] viTarca ( ) anagebisaTa pirvel TanamsrbolobiTa

elyofisa da drosa Jamisasa yovlad armiTualviTa (mqsm. piros. gel., 36,39) // xolo angelosTaTs viTarca Tanamsrbolad nebisa Tana saqmisa mis da ara samar ars sigrZ Jamisa, wamisyofiTa miT saRmrToTa (mqsm.
piros. efT. 11,24) [meliqiSvili, 2010, 94-5]. bernulSi, iseve rogorc rusulSi, gzis konceptis sxva sinonimebic iZebneba. 1. gza soflamde aris . -s ki, Tavis mxriv, sivrcis aRqmasTan dakavSirebuli sxva mniSvnelobebi gvxvdeba. mag.: quCa romel quCaze cxovrob? (Sdr. stadius quCaze vcxovrob;) manZili, gza, distancia: ; didi manZilia ioaninamde? gadat. gza mTeli gza xumrobdnen; sport. distancia, cxovrebis gza, wesi cxovrebis araswor gzas vadgavar. RmrTis gza; gasasvleli; gamosavali; mimarTuleba; marSruti () () axal gzas, horizonts gavxsni. gv 318. , , - srba, srbola; sarbieli; moqceva. da srbad (flav. 210. 44); sarbieli wmindai srul hyavo (ios. himn.); sarbieli (kac. Ses.); moqceva [yauxCiSvili 2003, 407]; homerosis leqsikonSic [krauze, 1880, 146]( ) cursus ganmartebulia, rogorc yofna 281. 12; asparezi, sarbieli, moedani. 2. asparezoba, rbola, doRi 321. da 2. , rogorc gza, saSualeba, manera ( am gziT), qcevis wesi, moqceva; niWi, SesaZlebloba, saSualeba; kargi finansuri mdgomareoba; musikaluri wyoba, kilo [Samanidi 2009, 1053]; aseve mimarTva, gezi, saxe, Tviseba, buneba, xasiaTi...[brl 1969, 569]; Cveuleba, niri, xerxi... [giorgobiani, 2004, 126].

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did qarTul inglisur leqsikonSi [reifildi 2006] gzis aRmniSvnel inglisur ekvivalentebs Soris dasaxelebulia: 1. path: gzas mouWris will cut sb (s path) off; 2. (air) corridor; 3. way: gza momeci! Make way! gzad / gzaze /gzaSi on its/the way; gzidan Camoiclis will get sb/sth out of ones way; jandabamdisac gza hqonia! sb can go to hell; 4. route; journey; gzas gauyenebs will send sb off; gzaze dgas is about to depart; gzasSeudgeba will set off; gza mSvidobisa! Have a good journey! gzis mamali travelling cockerel (at head of caravan to keep time); visime gzas ucqeris/uyurebs watches out/waits for sb; 5. way out, solution: meti ra gza hqonda What else could he do? gzasa zeda on a journey; gzisa mavali traveler; gzisa qmna sojourning; 6.causativity. inglisurad naTargmn saxarebiseul teqstebSi ki qarTuli gzis (gza/alagis) wil, ZiriTadad, way, ufro iSviaTad ki, path iZebneba (Sdr.: (4.) da vidre igi me mival, uwyiT da gzaca igi iciT. (5) hrqua mas Toma: ufalo, ara viciT, vidre xual, da viTar SemZlebel varT gzisa mis cnobad? (6) hrqua mas ieso: me var gza da me var WeSmariteba da me var cxovreba da aravin movides mamisa, garna Cem mer / (4) And you know the way where I am going. (5) Thomas said to Him, Lord, we do not know where You are going, how do we know the way? (6) Jesus said to him, I am the way, and the truth, an the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me (ioane 14: 4-6); ganhmzadeniT gzani uflisani da wrfel hyveniT alagni misni / Make ready the way of the Lord, make His path straight! (ioane 1, 23.) da sxv... inglisurenoveni bibliis teqstebze dakvirvebisas SeniSnaven, rom gza, way umTavresad metaforuli mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba RmerTis, qristianobis, 5 iudaizmis... gamosaxatad [teni 1967].

There are about 25 Heb. and Gr. words rendered way in the Bible. It is often used metaphorically to describe the conduct or manner of life, whether of God or of man ( Exod. 32 :8) ; Deut. 5 :33 ; Job 16 :22). in the NT, Gods plan of salvation is called the way of the Lord (Matt. 3 :3, etc.). The term is also used to mean Christianity or Judaism (Acts 9 :2 ; 19 : 9 : 22 :4) [teni 1967].

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bibliis leqsikonis masalebze dakvirvebiT aSkaraa qarTuli gzis metaforuloba da polisemantizmi. aq, umTavresad, gza ganzraxvis funqciiT gamoiyeneba da, Sesabamisad, gzani, rogorc ganzraxvani RmrTisani aris: 1. miuwvdomeli igav. 21, 30 ; es. 4, 27, 40, 13-14 ; dan. 4. 35; 7; rom. 11, 34 ;1 kor. 2, 16. 2. gardauvali. iob. 23, 13 ; fs. 32. 11 ; igav. 19. 21 ; es. 14, 24 ; 46, 10 ; ier. 4. 28 ; rom. 9,11 ; ebr. 6,17; 3. saukuno fs. 32,11 ; efes. 3.11 ;2 tim. 1,9. 4. WeSmariti. es. 25, 1. 5. didi. ier. 32,19. gzani (ganzraxvani) RmrTisani sruldeba gardauvlad. Iob 23, 14 ; es. 14, 24; 46, 10-11; ier. 23. 20 ; 51. 29; saqme. 4. 28; efes. 1, 11. ravis SeuZlia RvTis ganzraxvis gzis winaaRmdegoba. iob. 23,13 ; 42.4; igav. 21,30; es. 14,27; saqme. 5;39. Mmoamzades da Seasrules: gamosyidva codvaTagan ganwmendiT. rom. 3, 24-25 ; 1 pet. 1, 18-20; gamocx. 13,8. xsna adamianisa. Lluk. 2, 30-32; efes. 1, 9-13 ; I Tes. 5,9 ; 2tim. 1,9. qristes vnebani. luk. 24, 44-46 ; saqme. 2,23; 4,28; 13,27-29; arCeva gadasarCenad. rom. 8,28-29; 9,11 ; efes. 1,11, 2 tim. 1, 9. morwmuneni mowodebul da xsnili arian RmrTis gzaTa mier. rom. 8, 28-30 ; efes. 1,9-11 ; 2 tim. 1, 9; xelmZRvaneli arian RmrTis gzaTa mier. fs. 15,7; 72,24; emsaxurebian gzaTa (ganzraxvaTa) RmrTisaTa. saqme. 13,36. unda swavlobdnen RmrTis gzas. 2 sj.. 29,29; ier. 49,20; 50,45.Uusjuloni ver cnoben gzaTa (ganzraxvaTa) RmrTisaTa. miq. 4,12; ejavrebaT gzani (ganzraxvani) RmrTisani. fs. 106,11; igav. 1,30; es. 5, 19; uaryofen gzaTa (ganzraxvaTa) RmrTisaTa. fs. 106,11; igav. 1,25; maT zraxva RmrTisa Seuracxyves Tavsa Tssa luk. 7,30 [sarjvelaZe, 2009, 85]. ivane imnaiSvilis qarTuli oTxTavis simfonialeqsikonSi [imnaiSvili 1948, 104] daZebnil SemTxvevaTagan umetesad metaforasTan gvaqvs saqme6:

koncept gzis enobrivi aRqmis sakiTxisaTvis

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nargiza goguaZis, mzeqala SaniZis da zurab sarjvelaZis mier gamocemul Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli Zeglebis simfonia-leqsikonSi [goguaZis, SaniZe, sarjvelaZe 2005, 176-8] warmodgenili masala amyarebs qarTuli sakvlevi terminis polisemanturobis Tvalsazriss. aq warmodenil masalaSi gzis metafora da gza, rogorc mimosvlis zoli, TiTqmis Tanabari raodenobiT gvxvdeba. yuradebas ipyrobs gzeba, gzneba derivantebi, romlebic iv. imnaiSvilis mier ganmartebulia, rogorc anTeba. Tu kargad davakvirdebiT, maTi pirveladi mniSvneloba Tanamegzeobas, adevnebas ukavSirdeba (urigo, albaT, rusTavelis gaxsenebac ar iqneboda _ mijnurobiTa damwvarvar, cecxli uSreti mgzebia... aqedan naTlad sCans, rom siyvarulis cecxli avTandilis megzuri, Tanamdevi gamxdara): kualsa missa egzebin cecxli I 133,15. viTarca ali egzeboda I 155,10. ali igi ... cecxlebr egzo III 111,27. mivida adgils, IV 401,21. Sdr. iv. romelsa egzna cecxli imnaiSviliseuli magaliTebi: dges mun msaxurni igi da monani da egzna, rameTu yinel iyo i. 18, 18 C. [imnaiSvili 1948, 106] aRgzeba, aRgzneba [nTeba] aRagznes cecxli Soris ezosa, l. 22, 55; nakuer cxali aRegzna... da tfebodes, i. 18, 18. e: cecxlisa moved mifenad
6

ganmzadeT gza uflisa, m. 3,3 C; mr. 1, 3. C ; l. 3,4 C; gza zRsa wiaR iordanesa, m. 4,15. farTo ars gza; vrcel ars gza, m. 7, 13 C ; iwro ars bW da saWirvel gza, m. 7,14 ; ganmzados gza Seni winaSe pirsa Sensa, m. 11, 10 C ; mr. 1,2 C ; viTar mivles dRisa erTis gza., l. 2,44 C ; wrfel yavT gza uflisa, i. 1, 23. C ; me var gza, i. 14,6 ; viTr-me gza igi uwyodiT, i. 14,5 C; gzaca igi iciT, i. 14, 4 ; raJams warvaln kaci gzas, m. 25.14 ; war Tu utevne igini uzmis saxid Tsa, Sehgusnes maT gza, m. 8,3 C;

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queyanasa zeda da ra mnebavs, raTa awve aRegznas, l. 12,49 CD; aRegznes iqve, E; SesTxinen igini saumilsa mas cecxlisasa aRgzebulisasa, m. 13, 42 C [imnaiSvili 1948, 45]. mgzebel [danTebuli cecxli] (petre) ikusvoda mgzebelsa mas, mr. 14, 54 [imnaiSvili 1948, 316]. 4. gziscema 0-2 igi gza-gcems I 219,37 B. gza-sces mdinare III 134,9. wyalman gza-sca I 220,7. melad gza-sces.
qarTlis cxovrebis simfonia leqsikonis ortomeulis Tanaxmad (I. leonti mrovelis cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa da arCilis wameba; II. juanSeris cxovreba vaxtang gorgaslisa) mixedviT [ZiZiguri 1986] ikveTeba, rom saistorio ZeglebSi gzis pirveladi mniSvneloba dominirebs, gansxvavebiT religiuri teqstebisagan, sadac umTavresad sakvlevi cnebis sityvis metafora ikiTxeba (Tuki aRmosavlur religiebsac gavixsenebT, CinurSi dao sityvasityviT gzas, biliks aRniSnavs)7. vnaxoT, rogor aris gamosaxuli gzis gancdis sinamdvile xalxis Semoqmedebis qmnilebebSi. miCneulia, rom metaforebis mniSvnelovan fermentebs adamianTa fsiqikis Sesaxeb codna da sibrZne Seadgens [frangiSvili 1987, 35]. qarTuli enis fsiqologiuri leqsikonic enobrivi gonis mier adamianis fsiqikuri moqmedebebis realur faqtebze agebul, sitemaSi moyvanilsa da Camoyalibebuli fsiqikuri moqmedebebis suraTs gamoxatavs. am fonze interessmoklebuli ar unda iyos, erTi mxriv, qarTuli enis dialeqtur korpusSi daZebnili masala8 da, meore mxriv, qarTuli
7

http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gwdict/index.php?a=term&d=16&t=817 gzaalagi (qarTuli/qarTluri) gzis piri [nozaZe, 1981]

(arCilas karq adgilas udgia saxli, zed gzaalagzeda;

gzaalagze cxovrofs, rogorc Cvena vcxovrofT gzis pirze)8; gzabrundi (qarTuli/qarTluri) ityvian saaqaoze (Cvenca, cocxlebi, gzabrunds mivdivarT, isi gzamarTals aris)8.
gzaTuxvedri (qarTuli/qarTluri) rasac gza ar udgeba, miuvali, miudgomeli (gzaTuxvedri is ari, ro arc aqeTa

koncept gzis enobrivi aRqmis sakiTxisaTvis

141

andazebi: brma Robes miadga, Sens iqiT gza ara maqvso; gza ram moRala da berikacmao; gza siarulma dalia, sipi qva _ wyalTa denama, lamazi gogo da biWi erTmaneTisa cqerama; deda naxe, mama naxe, Svili ise gamonaxe, Tu gazrdiT ar Seicvala, win aqvs mSobel gza da maxe [metreveli 1926, 25-33]; mdidris uremi mTas gadaivlis da Raribisa _ swore gzasac SeSliso [iqve, 1926, 65]; cdomas aTasi gza aqvs, WeSmaritebas ki _ erTi [iqve, 1926, 103]; gza gausinje saqmesa, Tu ginda, rom ar waxdesa; gza nagzurze, wyali _ narwyulzeo gza yivis warmavalisa, [jorjaneli 2003, 53]; damwolelisa _ logini; gzaSi Semoyril kacs gamarjoba uTxari da gascildi; gzaSi Seyrils mters guliT nu eSurebi [sonRulaSvili 1991, 16]; uZmo qalsa ise ar sdevs pativi, rogorc saqaravno gzasao [iqve, 1991, 66]; wyevlam Tqva: swore gzaze damayene, Torem ukanve dagibrundebio; xSirad samgzavros mavali _ gvelsa an gvelis Zvalsao; gza-kvals, Tavgzas aubnevs [iqve, 1991, 83-5]). gzis araerTgvarovani aRqmiTa da emociuri gancdiT mdidaria galaktionis enac. aq koncepts, rogorc metforas, miemarTeba: vnebis, statikurobis, tanjvis, SiSis, xifaTis, zizRis, simSvidis, sindisis, sixalisis, silaRis, sifaqizis, Sexebis... SegrZnebebi da emociebi:

gza ekliani cremliT gavkvalo; gza aris cxeli; silamaze iyo gza pirdapiri; ara damobis gza sazizRari; gza Tqveniv dedis... sisxlis Crdilia;

gzai, arc iqiTa; gzaTuxvedr alagze aravis unda saxli aSenebai (browl.). gzakafi gakafuli gza, saurme, samanqano (ro gakafam tyesa gzaTa, gzakafi is aris. gzakafze uremma unda gaiaros, biliki sacalfexoa; biliki sxva ari, manqanac gaivlis, sxva rameca (CumaT.)). gzamarTl [cocaniZe, 2002] swori gziT, gzidan gadauxvevlad (Tarasi mogviWri, sul gzamarTl viareT/arsad mogviWria, sul swori gziT viareT); gza ugzoda ugzod, mokleebze moWriT (gza-ugzod gavavlevieb, vaJis buneba xelia)

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gza TovliTaa gadavinuli; miatove gakvaluli gza da nacadi; gza axal-axal gadamTovrebis gaixsnis Rilebs; laRi gza; isev mogonebad eSveba kivilis gza; Cveni mze rion-hesia, Cveni gza _ rkina-betoni; sisxliani gza CaiSala; sixaruliT aRivseba gza _ simRerad mrxevi; Zirs dampyrobelTa gza sazizRari; aris gza, aris neli TamaSi; gza sul ar aris; gza rom imRerebs; gza mewamuli; gza Cveni ieriSis nawilebze gadvida; man ganirida gza saxifaTo; gza cis aTviseba gza iyo mxatvris mimoecraT; ramdenimesi; dabla yvav-yoranT gza Wrili, dReebi savse tanjvebiT; visic gza mSvidze mSvidia; aRar arsebobs gza brundi; gza qveyniuri gzneba sixalisea...
[danelia 1990, 798-812]. galaktionis poeziaSi gza sivrcisa da drois gamaerTianebeli saSualebaa. cnobilia, rom Zvelad gzasavali droiT izomeboda [Turqia 2012]. amaze metyvelebs gamoTqmebi: erTisa dRisa gza; ori kviris savalze iyo... droisa da gzis kavSiri Cven mier mopovebul araqarTulenovan masalaSic gamoCnda. mag.: rusuli , da berZnuli da . gansivrcebuli dro Tu droSi sasruli (anac usasrulo) gza-sivrce ikiTxeba galaktionis Semdeg striqonebSi: xangadasuli gza aRar ganmeordeba; es weli CemTvis aris kandeli, ufro elvari, vidre gza SarSandeli; misi gza saukunea; gza mSvidobisa, warsulo; sad gza misken miiCqaris; bevri waSlila gza naurmali; ra gza Cqari, mrisxane da boboqari; ra gza gahqra, ra mdidari!; efineba rogorc gza da droeba... aqve SeiZleba gavixsenoT marina cvetaevas marSuti: , , , ; sxvaTa Soris, sivrcis aRqma axlavs drois zmnisarTul frazebs: xuTi wlis win (qarT.); (berZn.); Five years ago (ingl.); (rus.). rogorc vxedavT, qarTul da berZnulenovani SemTxvevebi erTmaneTs mihyveba (CvenTvis warsuli mudam win aris), inglisur da rusulenovani ki _ ara. erTerTma kviproselma poetma, pampos (karalambos)

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kozalisma es dro-sivrculi qronotopi sulac kiCxibis metaforiT warmogvidgina. kirCxibi win moZraobs, Tumca TvalebiT warsulis gzas gascqeris.9 yovelive zemoTqmulis davakvnaT: gaTvaliswinebiT, SeiZleba

1. gza zogadkulturuli mniSvnelobis da Rirebulebis enobrivi cnebaa; 2. qarTul saistorio ZeglebSi dominirebs gzis pirveladi mniSvneloba, gansxvavebiT religiur-filosofiuri teqstebisagan, sadac, ZiriTadad, sakvlevi terminis metafora ikiTxeba, CinurSi ki sulac gzas niSnavs dao. 3. qarTulSic, iseve, rogorc sxva indoevropul enebSi, aSkaraa gzis drosTan kavSiri (qarT. dRisa erTis gza; erTi kviris savalze... rus./ ; ;, , , ) da berZn.: ; ); 4. qarTuli da indoevropuli enebis magaliTze konceptis araerTgvarovnad aRqmis fsiqologiur safuZvlad SeiZleba CaiTvalos aRqma sinonimTa cneburi diqotomiis pirveli donisaTvis (; route; road; ... Sdr. qarT.: gadaiares gza algeTisa...), xolo SegrZneba/azrovneba _ meorsaTvis ; voie; via; way; Sdr. qarT.: gza ar wava Tavsa wina SoTa; axla civia gza Sinagani galaktioni an rus.:
, . , , , , , . , . , , ' . leqsi eZRvneba kviprosis okupaciis mogonebas.
9

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mariam goduaZe

).10 amave movlenas unda ukavSirdebodes gzisagan warmomdgari gzeba sityvis [Tanaslvis, Tanasrbolis] moZraobis semantikuri budidan grZnobis semantikur budeSi gadanacvleba. axal qarTul enaSi gzneba did grZnobad, aRtacebad, vnebad ganimarteba [qgl 2010, 1547]. 5. mis araqarTul ekvivalentebs aqvs midrekileba absoluturi sinonimizaciisaken ( // rusulSi da // ; // berZnulSi), rac sabolood, polisemiisken ikvalavs gzas. 6. qarTul enaSi gzis polisemiis safuZvlad SeiZleba miviCnioT enobrivi ekonomiis principi. kulturuli da anTropolingvisturi kvlevis kveTaze enobrivi universaliebisa da gansxvavebebis gamovlenis TvalsazrisiT gzis konceptis kvleva SemdgomSic araerT saintereso Sedegs mogvcems.

literatura

Dix. d. uznaZe, zogadi fsiqologia, t. III-IV, Tb, 1978, gv. 112, sadac vigebT, rom pirveli uZiriTadesi Tviseba aRqmisa isaa, rom masSi Cem gareT arsebuli sagnis gancda meZleva. amitomaa, rom am fsiqikur gancdas yvela enaze aRqma (garedan miReba) ewodeba. grZnobadi aRqmis sagani uTuod sivrceSia sadme moTavsebuli da vrceuli Tvisebebis mTel rigs atarebs. mas garkveuli adgili uWiravs sivrceSi, igi uTuod ganfenilia, e.i. uTuod garkveuli sidide an garkveuli forma aqvs. klasikuri fsiqologiis warmomadgenelni ki aRqmis samyaros amgeb namdvil masalad SegrZnebas YmiiCnevdnen...
10

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afridoniZe 1988: S. afridoniZe, absoluturi sinonimebisaTvis qarTulSi: kr. qarTuli sityvis kulturis sakiTxebi, VIII, Tb., mecniereba. afridoniZe 2009: S. afridoniZe, samSoblo da mamuli (sinonimebis lingvisturi analizi), kadmosi, #1. Tb. baxtini 1965: ., , . derida 1993: . . ,.

Turqia 2012: TinaTin Turqia, adgilkuTvnilebis aRmniSvneli leqsikis socialuri mgrZnobiarobis sakiTxi qarTulSi, spekali (Tsu bilingvuri referirebadi Jurnali), VI, Tb. laionsi, 1968: John Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. metreveli 1926: metreveli, tf. qarTuli andazebi winaTqmiT, lev

sonRulaSvili 1991: qarTuli andazebi da gamocanebi, juanSer sonRulaSvili, gamomc. mecniereba, Tb. toporovi 1983: .. // : , . uznaZe 1978: d. uznaZe, zogadi fsiqologia, t. III-IV, Tb. frangiSvili 1987: a. frangiSvili, narkvevebi, gamomc. mecniereba, Tb. fsiqologiuri

foCxua 1974: b. foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia, Tsu gam-ba, Tb. jorjaneli 2003: rCeuli qarTuli andazebi. karlo jorjaneli, gamomcemloba merani, Tb.

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leqsikografiuli wyaroebi:

aSinebi 1955: . . , . . . ( , ), . brl 1969: - , II, giorgobiani 2004: TinaTin leqsikoni, logosi, Tb. . qsenofontis

giorgobiani,

giorgobiani 2010: TinaTin giorgobianis ZvelberZnulqarTul leqsikoni, logosi, Tb. goguaZe, SaniZe, sarjvelaZe 2005: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli Zeglebis simfonia-leqsikoni, t. I, gamomcemloba artanuji, nargiza goguaZis, mzeqala SaniZis da zurab sarjvelaZis redaqciiT, Tb. (naSromi moicavs 1963-1971 wlebSi gamocemuli Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis oTxtomeulis masalas). Teieri da smiti 1999: Thayer and Smith. "Greek Lexicon entry for Hodos". "The NAS New Testament Greek Lexicon". imnaiSvili 1948: i. imnaiSvili, qarTuli oTxTavis simfonia leqsikoni, a. SaniZis redaqciiT, nakveTi I, saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, Tb. krauze 1880: . , , .-. meliqiSvili 2010: ZvelqarTul-ZvelberZnuli filosofiur-Teologiuri terminologiis dokumentirebuli leqsikoni, damana meliqiSvilis saerTo redaqciiT, bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba, t. I-II, Tb.

koncept gzis enobrivi aRqmis sakiTxisaTvis

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mesxiSvili, nozaZe, berozaSvili 1981: qarTuli dialeqtis leqsikoni, meri mesxiSvili, lamara nozaZe, Tamar berozaSvili. Tb. neimani 1978: al. neimani qarTuli sinonimTa leqsikoni, gamomcemloba ganaTleba, Tb. reifildi 2006: A Comprehensive Georgian-English Dictionary (didi inglisur-qarTuli leqsikoni). Editor-in-Chief D. Rayfield, 1-2 vol., London, Garnett Press rql 1959: rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni, t. III, saq. ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, Tb. sanikiZeebi da tabiZe 1990: T. sanikiZe, c. sanikiZe, n. tabiZe, galaktion tabiZis enis leqsikoni, wigni I, k. danelias redaqciiT, universitetis gamomcemloba, Tb. sarjvelaZe 2009: bibliis leqsikoni, sarjvelaZis saerTo redaqciiT, mTawminda, Tb. t. I.-II zurab gamomcemloba

teni 1967: ZONDERVAN Pictorial Bible Dictionary, General Editor Merril C Tenney. Zondervan. fasmeri 1986: / Russisches etymologisches Worterbuch / . . . .: , . 1- 4. qegl 2010: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. II (axali gamocema) a. arabulis saerTo redaqciiT, Tb. yauxCiSvili 2003: berZnul-qarTuli dokumentirebuli leqsikoni, tomi II-VI, simon yauxCiSvilis saerTo redaqciiT; Tbilisi. Samanidi 2009: axalberZnul-qarTuli leqsikoni, sofio Samanidis redaqciiT, Tbilisi. CeSko 1984: . . . . , , 1847; . . . . .

148

mariam goduaZe

cocaniZe 2002: g. cocaniZe, TuSuri leqsikoni, qarTuli ena, Tb. ZiZiguri 1986: qarTlis cxovrebis simfonia-leqsikoni, (leonti mrovelis cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa, arCilis wameba) Semdgenlebi: manana kvaWaZe, nini natraZe, zurab sarjvelaZe, maia Cxenkeli, Tamar xaJomia. S. ZiZiguris saerTo redaqciiT, gamomcemloba mecniereba, t. I, Tb. ZiZiguri 1986: qarTlis cxovrebis simfonia-leqsikoni, (juanSeri, cxovreba vaxtang gorgaslisa) Semdgenlebi: aleqsandre sarjvelaZe, zurab sarjvelaze, Tamar xaJomia. S. ZiZiguris saerTo redaqciiT, gamomcemloba mecniereba, t. II, Tb. gamoyenebuli internet-resursebi http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gwdict/index.php?a=term&d=16&t=817http://w ww.mygeorgia.ge/gdc/Dictionaries/List.aspx?id=19

rusudan zeqalaSvili

gzis Semcveli Sesityvebebis semantika


`gza mizania. roca mizani Sorsaa, gzac grZelia~. (konfuci) `cxovreba mogzaurobaa, romelic jobia, rom martom gaiaro~ (J. adani)
adamiani aRiqvams samyaros da enobriv garsSi axvevs sakuTar aRqmawarmodgenebs, damokidebulebebs. sxvadasxva enis warmomadgenelTa msoflaRqma sakmaod gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, magram SeiniSneba msgavsebebic. ana veJbicka semantikur universaliebze msjelobisas aRniSnavs, rom sazogadoebriv cxovrebasa da leqsikas Soris arsebobs mWidro kavSiri: ,,Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom is, rac materialur kulturas, sazogadoebriv ritualebsa da wesebs exeba, ukavSirdeba xalxis Rirebulebebs, idealebsa da ganwyobebsac da aseve imasac, Tu rogor fiqrobs is samyaroze

150

rusudan zeqalaSvili

da Tavis cxovrebaze am samyaroSi~ (veJbicka 1999:264). bevri semantema iTvleba universalurad. maT Soris unda davasaxeloT erT-erTi _ `gza~, romelsac gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia sxvadasxva enaSi. qarTulSi uamravi idiomaturi gamoTqmaa dakavSirebuli gzasTan, radgan gza aris qveynebis, adamianebis, amqveyniuri samyarosa da RmerTis damakavSirebeli. adamiani mudam sadRac midis, raRac gzas irCevs: dedamiwaze, zesknelsa Tu qvesknelSi, realur Tu miTologiur samyaroSi, xanac gzis gasayarTan arCevanis gasakeTeblad yoymaniT Cerdeba. marTalia, konkretul gzas aqvs sawyisi da sasruli, magram, zogadad, gza usasrulo da ukideganoa, radgan adamiani arasodes ar dgas. samyaroc maradiulad moZraobs, viTardeba. gzis am Tvisebis TvalnaTeli dadasturebaa qarTulSi gzis gamocana: `vkece, vkece, ver davkece~. zogadad Tu vimsjelebT, samyaros enobriv xatSi adamiani SeiZleba aRviqvaT gzaze mdgar pirovnebad, mgzavrad, romlis svlac dabadebidan iwyeba, aTasgvari gzis gavla uwevs cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi, mravali arCevanis winaSe dgeba: romel gzas daadges, rogor gaiaros, rom mivides amqveyniuri gzis bolos. sworadaa SeniSnuli, rom `gzis modelis gaazreba sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxvagvarad xdeboda. Zveli aRTqmis adamianisTvis droSi ganfenili gzis saTaveSi winaprebi arian, xolo maT misdeven STamomavlebi, anu Semdegi Taobebi, romlebic winamorbedTa cxovrebis wesiTa da kanonebis dacviT cxovroben, maTTvis Rirebuli warsulia, romelic arqetipebSia dapresili~ (yuraSvili 2007). pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebul `gzasTan~ uamravi msazRvreli gvxvdeba, romelTa umetesobis gaazreba SesaZlebelia metaforuladac. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis axal gamocemaSi gzasTan dasaxelebulia Svidi mniSvneloba: 1. miwis zedapirze gayvanili (gasworebuli, gatkepnili...) zoli, gankuTvnili mimosvlisaTvis; 2. adgili,

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151

xazi sivrceSi, sadac xdeba mimosvla, gadaadgileba, trasa; 3. gadat. mimarTuleba, gezi, marSruti; 4. mgzavroba, mogzauroba; 5. gadat. gamosavali (raime mdgomareobidan); saSualeba, SesaZlebloba, xerxi; 6. gadat. vinmes moRvaweobis mimarTuleba; raimes ganviTarebis gezi; 7. Zv. spec. zmnis kategoria, romelic gamoxatavs, uSualod subieqtis mier sruldeba moqmedeba Tu SualobiT (sxvis meSveobiT), kontaqti (qegl 2010). `gza~, rogorc semantema, ufro srulyofilad warmoCndeba masTan gamoyenebul Tavisufal Tu myar SesityvebebSi1. zmnur SesityvebaTa didi nawili frazeologizmebia: 1. gzis gavlasTan (gadataniT karierul svlasTan) dakavSirebuli Sesityvebebi: gzas gaudgeba (daadgeba, eweva, adgas, baraqas daayris, gaagnebs,auqcevs, auxvevs, gautevs, gauyenebs), Sua gzaze gaCerdeba, .gza (gzakvali) aebneva (aereva)... 2. vinmesTvis dabrkolebis Seqmnis gamomxatveli: gzas gadauRobavs (gadauWris, mouWris, Seukravs), gzidan Camoicilebs (Camoiclis)... 3. dabrkolebis gadalaxvasTan dakavSirebuli: gza gaexsneba, gzas gaignebs (gaikvalavs, gaikvlevs, gaikafavs, gaiwaldavs)... 4. sxvisTvis daxmarebis gamomxatveli: gzas gaukafavs (gauxsnis, aZlevs, miscems, dauTmobs, dauclis, warumarTavs, gaunaTebs)... 5. zneobriv-moraluri Rirebulebebis arCevanTan dakavSirebuli: gzas ascdeba (aacdens, gadaacdens), swor (mrude...) gzaze dadgeba (daayenebs), gzas (gzakvals) ipovis (dakargavs)... saxelads SesityvebebSi gza daxasiaTebulia msazRvrelebiT ramdenime parametris mixedviT da gamoiyeneba rogorc pirdapiri, ise gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT. aq gamovyofT
1

Sesabamisi Sesityvebebis mosaZebnad, garda gamoviyeneT qarTuli korpusi (ix. korp.).

leqsikonebisa,

152

rusudan zeqalaSvili

sam ZiriTad jgufs: I. gzis ragvaroba; II. gzis kuTvnilebis an mimarTebis Cveneba; III. mimarTulebis (miznis, sulieri gzis) gamoxatva: I. ragvarobis mixedviT: a) fizikuri maxasiaTeblebi: 1. manZili: mokle (Sori, grZeli, uaxloesi, umoklesi) gza; 2. sigane da forma: viwro (farTo, daklaknili, lariviT swori, mrude, gamrudebuli, xveuli, mixveul-moxveuli, uswormasworo, oRroCoRro, okrobokro, sacalfexo) gza; 3. feri: Savi (TeTri, naTeli, ganaTebuli, dabnelebuli, cisferi, vardisferi, mewamuli) gza; bneli,

4. raodenoba: erTi (ori, aTi, bevri) gza... (mag.: `aTi gza maqvs, aTive Sensken modis!~ gr. orbeliani, `muxambazi~); 5. garemo da dabrkolebebi: qviani (RorRiani, mTagoriani, ormoebiani, usafrTxo, urisko, uxifaTo, saSiSi, saxifaTo, cicabo, abalaxebuli, ekliani, nar-ekliani, Tovliani, wvimiani, molipuli, moyinuli) gza; 6. sisufTave da mdgomareoba: sufTa (WuWyiani, mtvriani, talaxiani, atalaxebuli, alufxuli, lafiani, mokirwyluli) gza; 7. gadaadgilebis saSualebebis mixedviT: saxmeleTo (samanqano, sarkinigzo, samdinaro, sazRvao, sabagiro, sanaxire,

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wyalqveSa, sacxenosno, saurme,

saqaravne, saokeano, sahaero, sacalfexo, sarbeni...) gza2.

8. siZnele: Zneli (mZime, martivi, ioli, rTuli) gza; 9. manZilis gavlis siCqaris (xangrZlivi, gaWianurebuli) gza; mixedviT: xanmokle

10. arCevani adamianis zneobrivi Tvisebebis marTali (WeSmariti, wminda, araswori, mcdari) gza;

mixedviT:

11. gzis zemoqmedeba mgzavrze: damRleli (momqancveli, momabezrebeli) gza; 12. gzaze Tavad adamianis zegavlenis maCvenebeli: gakvaluli (gaukvalavi, gauvali, gaTelili, gauTeleli, datkepnili, dautkepneli) gza; II. gzis kuTvnilebis an mimarTebis maCvenebeli: 1. kuTvnileba adgildebareobis mixedviT: qalaqis, soflis, mTis, baris...; 2. gzis mimarTebis maCvenebeli: a) (cxovrebiseuli) gza, rogorc vinmesTvis mibaZvis saSualeba: RvTis (uflis, sauflo, RvTisSvilis, macxovris, qristes, abelis, eSmakis, satanis, barabas, akakis, amiranis, gabrielis, danielis, iakobis, platonis, mama-papis, mamaTa, winaprebis, winamorbedTa, marTalTa, urwmunoTa, alqimikosTa, raindTa, uRmrToTa, filistimelTa) gza; b) qristianuli samoTxis, samSvinvelis, (golgoTis, eklesiis, saxarebiseuli, kaTarzisis, jojoxeTis) gza;

am tipis Sesityvebebi mxolod pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba.

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3. gza, rogorc drois monakveTi anu moralur-eTikuri arCevani cxovrebis ama Tu im etapze: cxovrebis (sicocxlis, sikeTis, siyvarulis, zneobis, humanurobis, amaRlebis, simarTlis, wuTisoflis, xsnis, imedis, aRmavlobis, ayvavebis, warmatebis, morCilebis, sicruis, siZulvilis, borotebis, sikvdilis, daRupvis, dacemis, tkivilis, wamebis, tanjvis, sevdis, Ziebis, misticizmis) gza; III. mimarTulebis (miznis, sulieri gzis) maCvenebeli: gza Sinisken (taZrisken, uflisken, xelovnebisken, didebisken, sulisken, jandabamde, mousavleTisken, sxva adamianisken; Sdr. laSa TabukaSvilis piesa `Senken savali gzebi~); rogorc vxedavT, pirveli jgufi yvelaze mravalferovania da moicavs bevr parametrs. Sesityvebebi gamoyenebulia qarTul andazebSi: Sori gza (`Sori gza moiare da Sin mSvidobiT midio~), grZeli (`grZel gzasac bolo eqnebao~), mokle (`koWli kacis gza mokleao~), Zveli (`nu dakargav Zvelsa gzasa, nurca Zvelsa megobarsa~) da sxv. gzis feri pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT naklebadaa aqtualuri, magram ukve sainteresoa, roca simbolur gagebas iZens. magaliTad, Savi, TeTri, vardisferi, cisferi, laJvardovani gza. siTeTre zamTarTan da TovlTan asocirdeba (`ca _ TeTri ca, gza, gza, gza _ TeTri gza~, n. diasamiZe), magram vardisferi gza g. tabiZesTan xazs usvams netarebasa da simsubuqes: sikvdilis gza ar-ra aris vardisfer gzis garda; rom am gzaze zRaparia mgosanT siTamame~

(g. tabiZe,

`mTawmindis mTvare~).
adamianis cxovrebis warmavlobasa da moCvenebiTobas usvams xazs laJvardovani gza: Cemi cxovrebis gza sizmaria da Soreuli cis silaJvarde (g. tabiZe, `silaJvarde anu vardi

silaSi~).

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gzis feradovneba cxovrebis mravalferovnebas, sasiamovno emociebs ganasaxierebs: `ubralod minda gimRero ubralo simRera, notebiT minda gagarTo, gagiferado gza~ (n. diasamiZe, `ubralod~). gza xSirad gaigivebulia drois monakveTTan (cxovrebis gza, warmatebis gza...) da masTan ganuyofel erTobas qmnis. rogorc cnobilia, dro da sivrce mWidrodaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli da droSi mimdinare cxovreba adamianma SeiZleba warmoidginos, rogorc sivrcis monakveTi, Tavisi sawyisiT (dabadeba) da dasasruliT (sikvdili). marTebuladaa SeniSnuli, rom `qarTul cnobierebaSi amqveyniuri, miwieri cxovreba droisa da sivrcis koordinatTa gadakveTaa _ drois gza sivrceze gadis. amitom dro sivrces zomavs da TviTon sivrciTve izomeba~ (omiaZe, 2009:101). m. baxtini rusuli enis magaliTze wers: `aq dro TiTqos erwymis sivrces da miedineba masSi (Tan warmoqmnis gzebs). swored amitom xdeba gzis ase mdidruli metaforizacia: `cxovrebis gza~, `axal gzaze dadgoma~, `istoriuli gza~ da misT. gzis metaforizacia mravalferovani da mravalplaniania, magram misi mTavari sayrdenia drois mimdinareoba~ (baxtini 1975:392). unda iTqvas, rom es sityvebi esadageba Cvens enobriv sinamdvilesac. qarTul poetur metyvelebaSi gza xSirad gaigivebulia cxovrebis sirTuleebTan, bediswerasTan, romelic saxifaTo moulodnelobebiTaa aRsavse. n. aruTinova erTmaneTisagan mijnavs adamianis cxovrebiseul gzasa da bedisweras: `cxovrebis, rogorc bedisweris, gagebas, romlis gzebi idumali da Seucnobelia, upirispirdeba cxovrebis, rogorc gzis, koncepti, romelsac mivyavarT daniSnulebis punqtamde. bedis msgavsad, gza

156

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cxovrebas warmoaCens erT mTlian warmonaqmnad, romelic etapebadaa dayofili, magram, bedisagan gansxvavebiT, adamiani Tavisi cxovrebis gzas iwyebs ara dabadebis momentSi, aramed gzis pirveli gasayaridan da pirveli arCevanis gakeTebiT. bediswera adamians xsnis pasuxismgeblobas ganvlili cxovrebis gamo, gza ki piriqiT, akisrebs mas am pasuxismgeblobas. xSirad amboben bedis samduravs, abraleben mas sakuTar warumateblobasa da uiRblobas, magram cxovrebiseul gzas, rogorc wesi, aravin ar uCivis~ (aruTinova 1994:141). am mosazrebas exmianeba erTgvarad vaJaseuli striqonebi: `gamSordi, suliT sidablev, gzao, maSineb veRara, _ im Tavad, Cemo savalo, Senze ekali eyara~ (vaJa-fSavela `gulo, ar gastyde~). cxovrebiseuli gza xSirad nar-ekliania, tanjviTa da codvebiT aRsavse, iSviaTad ki _ fiandaziTa da ia-vardiT mofenili. am gzaze yvela Tavis jvars atarebs da adis sakuTar golgoTaze, radgan esaa adamianis vali: `nar-ekliT savse gzao cxovrebis, aRarc ki maxsovs SegigrZen rodis da arasodes meucxoveba, cremli da ofli, sisxli da SfoTi. cxovrebis gzao, codvebiT savse~ (o. gelaSvili,

`cxovrebis gzao~).
gzis erT-erTi mniSvneloba gulisxmobs adamianis arCevans, romelsac cxovrebis xarisxis mixedviT afaseben: adamiani daadgeba an uflis gzas _ zeciurs, wmindas, marTals, ucodvels, an eSmakisas _ codvis, uwmindurebis, sicruis, Ralatis, Suris gzas, romelTac d. guramiSvili uwodebda `or wrfel gzas~. RmerTi arCevanis uflebas utovebs Tavad adamians, romelic erT-erTs daadgeba da amis mixedviT misi suli sabolood gadarCeba an daiRupeba:

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`orsav gzas wrfels win udebdi: xorciels da sulierso. SegamTxvieso!~ guramiSvili, `daviTiani~: `moTqma xmiTa Tav-bolo erTi~) amis sanufqod Sen maTa sikvdilsa

(d.

siyvaruli saSualebaa cxovrebiseuli dabrkolebebis gadasalaxavad. rusTaveli gvaswavlis, rom moyvasisadmi damokidebulebas `gzad da xidad~ siyvaruli unda daedos: `xams moyvare moyvrisaTvis Tavi Wirsa ar damridad, gulis misces gulisaTvis, siyvaruli gzad da xidad~

(rusTaveli).
gza aRiqmeba, rogorc adamianis samoqmedo asparezi, svla sulieri Rirebulebebis realizaciisa da pirovnuli srulyofisaken. Sesityvebebi uvali da gaTelili gza qarTul cnobierebaSi gamoxatavs adamianis Tavdadebas TanamoZmisTvis, sxvis samsaxursa da keTildReobisTvis zrunvas: `cudad kveTeba, xom mainc ar Caivlis es ganwirulis sulis

da gza uvali, Sengan Telili, merano Cemo, mainc darCeba~ (n. baraTaSvili, `merani~). qarTveli poeti filosofiur gansjas saiqios gzis Sesaxeb ukavSirebs ufals, rogorc absolutur WeSmaritebas da upasuxebs kiTxvaze: ra aris maradiuli gza? `erTi gza gvidevs sicocxliT, saiqiosken savali, yvela im gzaze mivdivarT, maTxovaric da mTavaric, suyvelas zurgze hkidia Tavis Tavgadasavali, maradiuli amqveynad marto ufalis gza aris~ (g. Coxeli, `uflis gza~).

158

rusudan zeqalaSvili

cxovrebis uamravi gzis gavlis Semdeg adamians rCeba ukanaskneli gza, romelsac ukve Tavisi fexiT veRar gaivlis da sxvebi miacileben. xalxSi amboben, `gzamarTals gauyvao~, radgan saiqiosken mimavali gza, marTali da wminda, RmerTs ukavSirdeba. SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom adamiani aRiqmeba, rogorc martosuli maradiuli mgzavri, romelic mudam sadRac midis: `netav, vin aris es Savosani pirquSi qali, joxis amara rom dasdgomia ukacur biliks, kabis kalTiT rom auTrevia misive ConCxis magvari ZeZvi da midis, midis, arc icis, saiT~ (o. WilaZe, `daviwyebuli

motivi~).
qarTul poetur azrovnebaSi gzasTan dakavSirebuli msazRvrelebi amravalferovnebs am semantemis eqspresiul Zalas da cal-calke ganxilvas saWiroebs. magaliTad, gza SeiZleba iyos Zlieri, Zvirfasi, mSvenieri, farTo, feradi, iribi, saocnebo da uamravi sxva. gza Zlieria, magram cxovrebis grigalebTan SebrZolebis dros erT-erTi qarTveli poeti marto Serkinebas amjobinebs: `daviRupebi. qari ityvis: ucnaurobda! ar damifaro grigalebSi, gzao Zliero...~ (n. samadaSvili,

`alionamde~).
yvelas sakuTari gza aqvs, romelic misTvis Zvirfasi, mSvenieri da ganumeorebelia. mSobliuri gza megobaricaa, magram is sasrulia, zRvardadebulia, rac guls stkens adamians: `eh, Zvirfaso gzebo, gzebo alviano,

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minda Tqveni lurji sivrce gaviaro... gzebo, gzebo, rad Rirs zogjer xetiali, roca megobari qveynad meti ari. roca siyvaruli qveynad meti ari, mSveniero gzebo, rad Rirs xetiali! me rom bilikebiT gavel farTo gzaze, miTxres: _ es gza ase gagrZeldeba as wels. da metkina guli, rom daudes zRvari gzas, romelic Cemi gasavleli ari~ (f. xalvaSi, `o, Zvirfaso

gzebo~).
soflis gza mSobliuri kuTxis simboloa migvatovebs, CvenTvis mZime tragediad iqceva: `rogor miyvardi, ra iqeni, saiT mihfardi, rad migatove? xom vicodi, rogor miyvardi?! zvrebo, baRebo, mobibine puris yanebo, orRobeebo, soflis gzebo, saTayvanebo~ (s. narimaniZe, `kaxeTs~). samSoblos gzebi usasrulo, saocnebo da xvavrieli, magram amouwuravi da Seucnobelia: `vkece, vkece, ver davkece saqarTvelos saocnebo gzebi, grZeli, rogorc Cveni mravalJamieri, xvavrieli, rogorc puris Znebi~ (m. kaxiZe, `Cemi miwis sadRegrZelo~). adamianis cxovrebiseuli gza, Tavis mxriv, sxvadasxva etapze patar-patara monakveTebad iyofa da Tavisi ganumeorebloba, xibli axlavs. aseTia bavSvobis an studentobis gzebi: `uSenod veRar gavZeli, Cemi balRobis gzav...~; da Tu is

160

rusudan zeqalaSvili

da Semdeg: `da elandeba damwveli kvlav studentobis gza _ meliqiSvilis gamziri, ia, vardi da bza~ (m. lebaniZe, meliqiSvilis gamziri). sakuTari gza, Tundac is sacalfexo biliki iyos, yvelasgan gamorCeuli, Zvirfasi da erTaderTia. adamiani misi erTguli unda darCes, misTvis unda icocxlos, radgan es gza aris misi rwmena, xati, mRelvareba da imedi: `ar miZebnia gzebi feradi, gza mixveuli, gzebi iribi, baridan mTaSi, mTidan velamdi, maqvs miCneuli Cemi biliki. me am gziT vxvdebi binds da alions, Cems mzes da nislebs, dards da molodins. Tundac damqancos, Tundac gamlios, misi erTguli vrCebi bolomdis. is aris Cemi xatic da RmerTic, imedi, Relva ram uCveulo, vicocxleb SenTvis, movkvdebi SenTvis, gzao, sxva gzebSi gamorCeulo~ (q. mJavia, `gza~). zogjer gzas maradiul svlas, win swrafvas, mTeli cxovrebis dinebas da mSobliuri kuTxis siyvaruls ukavSireben. amis dasturia S. niSnianiZis leqsi `Cqari matarebeli~ _ erTgvari oda gzisadmi, romelic cxovrebas ganasaxierebs: `gzebi midis okrobokro, gogo midis, agdi-gogdi... ezo-ezo, karikar, Robe-Robe, sari-sar... gzebi - Zoweulebi, gzebi - gana Sukebi, gzebi, broweulebis gznebiT ganaSuqebi... da misdeven zvrebi zvrebs, Suka - Sukas, gzebi - gzebs,

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kideebi, kordebi, xidebi da bondebi~ (S. niSnianiZe, `Cqari matarebeli~). rogorc vxedavT, qarTul enaSi `gza~, rogorc leqsema, Sesityvebebis saSualebiT avlens semantikuri niuansebis simdidres, eqspresiuli da metaforuli gaazrebis potencials. es enobrivi erTeulebi asaxavs Cveni xalxis msoflaRqmas da did msgavsebasac amJRavnebs sxva enebTanac, rac kidev erTxel adasturebs `gzis~ konceptis universalurobas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gzasTan dakavSirebuli Sesityvebebis ganxilva qarTul enaSi adasturebs, rom adamianis cxovreba gaigivebulia aTasgvari dabrkolebiTa da sacduriT aRsavse gzasTan, romelic gamocdas uwyobs adamianis zneobas, erTgulebas, megobrobas, avlens mis niWs, SesaZleblobebs da mis winaSe Slis samoRvaweo asparezs; am gamocdis Rirseulad Cabareba adamians SeuZlia mxolod brZoliTa da winaaRmdegobebis daZleviT; TiToeuli pirovnebis mier arCeuli gza uflis dadgenilia da xSirad iqceva bediswerad; wmindad ganvlili gza SeiZleba sxvisTvis misabaZi iyos, momdevno TaobisTvis gezis mimcemi. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia universaluri simbolo: adamiani, rogorc maradiuli mgzavri, romelic mudam win miiwevs _ winaswar dasaxuli an gaurkveveli miznisaken.

literatura

aruTinova 1994: .., (....),.:,1994. baxtini 1975: , .., .

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:,.., . , .: . ., 1975, 234 407:eleqtronuli resursiURL: http://philologos.narod.ru/bakhtin/hronotop/hronotop10.html veJbicka 1999: ., : ., (. . . . . . . ), .: , 1999, 263-305: eleqtronuli resursi URL: http://www.twirpx.com/file/58792/ omiaZe 2009: omiaZe s., qarTuli diskursis kulturologiuri paradigma (red. g. kvaracxelia), Tb., 2009. qegl 2010: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, axali redaqcia, t. 2 (mT. redaqtori a. arabuli), 2010. yuraSvili 2007: yuraSvili T., semantema ,,gzis~ konceptualuri veli qarTulSi, semiotika, 2007, 2, 267-275: eleqtronuli resursi URL: http://arili2.blogspot.com/2010/01/blog-post_9880.html korp.: http://iness.uib.no/gekko/concordance

sofiko kvantaliani

gza labirinTidan
(x. l. borxesi `babilonis biblioTeka~, u. eko `vardis saxeli~) sityva `gza~ qarTvelurad, qarTul-Wanuris doneze, aRdgeba rogorc arsebiTi saxeli, Tumca qarTuli enis idiomatikasa da frazeologiaze dayrdnobiT vlindeba misi aqtiuri zmnuri nawilic, romlis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba ara konkretul obieqts, aramed qmedebas, gzaze dgomas aRniSnavs, daos (samyaros udiadesi gza da adamianis zneobrivi cxovrebis gza) niSnebis Semcvelia. am polisemiuri sityvisa da universaluri simbolos nairsaxeobaa labirinTi. igi mniSvnelovani arqetipi da metaforaa, romliTac ganisazRvreba kulturuli, filosofiur-literaturuli da sxv. procesebi. (Tu m. paviCs davujerebT, adamianis suli da sxeulic labirinTis bunebisaa. `SuSis lokokinaSi~ (1998) igi wers: `suli da sxeuli _ labirinTia, radgan labirinTs aqvs sulica da sxeulic. sxeuli _ es labirinTis kedlebia, suli ki gzebi, romlebsac centrisken mivyavarT. Sesvla _ dabadebas niSnavs, gamosvla _ sikvdils. roca kedlebi irRveva, mxolod gzebi rCebian, mimavalni an ar mimavalni

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centrisken~)(paviCi 2003:68). Tu Tvals gavadevnebT labirinTis istoriul dinamikas, dedamiwis yvela materikze, yvela kulturaSi, neoliTis xanidan postmodernizmamde, vnaxavT, rogor icvleba misi forma da Sinaarsi. miTologiuri da religiuri cnobierebis labirinTs mkveTrad gamoxatuli konkretizebuli centri (Tezevsi/qriste) da masTan misasvleli gza aqvs, rac Sua saukuneebSi struqturulad ar icvleba, Tumca xdeba misi kardinaluri semantikuri metamorfoza. aRorZinebis periodidan dawyebuli procesi dRes rizomatul labirinTs gvTavazobs, romlis cilovani centric mouxelTebelia an moCvenebiTi, an srulebiT ar arsebobs, rac Tanamedroveobis, faqtobrivad, zogadkulturul-filosofiuri da literaturis markeria (klasikuri romanis sworxazovneba berZnuli labirinTis princips daukavSirda, iseve rogorc aralinealuri teqstis _ hiperromanis, labirinT-rizomas, saidanac postmodernistuli epoqis emblemad gaformda). amgvarad, sinqronuli ganxilviT, labirinTi yvela materiksa da kulturaSi TiTqmis erTdroulad Cndeba, diaqronul sibrtyeSi ki igi mTeli kulturis istorias gasdevs. Tavdapirvel, neoliTis xanis, misteriul labirinTebs erTgvari kavSiris funqcia hqondaT miwisqveSa samyarosTan da damkrZalav Tu iniciaciis ritualebSi gamoiyeneboda. am tipis labirinTis centri qveviT mimarTul veqtors warmoadgenda. labirinTis `sxeuls~, rogorc wesi, erTi Sesasvleli hqonda, romelic gamosasvlelic iyo (aseTebia CrdiloeTi arqipelagebis qvis labirinTebi, romlebic gamosaxulia kretul monetebze, avstralieli aborigenebis saflavebze, qristianuli eklesiebis iatakebsa da kedlebze gamosaxuli labirinTebi). swored eseni SeiZleba miviCnioT miTologiuri minotavris labirinTis prototipad. am tipis labirinTis zedapiruli Sexedvisas advili dasanaxia, rom misteriuli labirinTebis semantika ar Seicavs mgzavris gzidan acdenis intencias. warmodgena labirinTze, rogorc sivrcul aporiaze an gzis amcden manqanaze Semdgomi, mogviano semantikuri metamorfozis Sedegia. am metamorfozis Sedegad, labirinTi TandaTan kargavs misteriul Sinaarss. Sua saukuneebidan dawyebuli, labirinTi gaiazreba rogorc adamianis rTuli cxovrebiseuli gzis metafora samyaroSi. xelovnurad dagrZelebuli gza labirinTSi gardauvali pirobaa centrSi (anu dakargul samoTxeSi)

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SesaRwevad. aq veqtori vertikalia _ RmerTiskenaa mimarTuli. Sesabamisad, Tezevss cvlis qriste, romelmac gaiara miwieri labirinTi, daamarcxa satana (minotavri). is aris gzis mimTiTebeli maradiuli sasufevlisaken. igi TviTon aris gza. (ioanes saxarebaSi qristes erT-erTi epiTeti aris gza: `me var gza da WeSmariteba da cxovreba. ara vin movides mamisa, garna Cem mier~ (ioane, T.14:6). qristianuli eklesia misteriuli labirinTis sivrcis mxolod parametrebs cvlis, kosmologiur spiralSi Semodis jvris simbolo, romelic kveTs labirinTis mistikur centrs, saidanac gamoidevneba yovelgvari `arawminda~, minotavris msgavsi arseba. qristianobis ideologebs izidavT gzis dagrZelebis idea, es erTgvari metafizikuri Seneleba, rac aucilebeli pirobaa wminda eklesiaSi Sesasvlelad. ase rom, SuasaukuneebSi labirinTi struqturulad TiTqmis ar icvleba, aqvs mkveTrad gamoxatuli centri da masTan mimavali erTi gza, Tumca xdeba kardinaluri semantikuri cvlileba: funqciuri ritualebidan labirinTi RmerTTan misasvleli rTuli gzis metaforad iqceva. am gzaze dakargva SeuZlebelia, magram mizani aq mxolod ariadnes ZafiT _ rwmeniT miiRweva. aRorZinebis periodSi humanistebi samyaro-labirinTis centrad adamians aRiareben. aq erT sibrtyeze ganlagdeba RmerTisa da adamianis poziciebi da swored aq isaxeba Cixisebri labirinTis tipi. labirinTi rCeba samyaros saxe-xatad, magram Tu adre igi kosmosis simbolo iyo, axla igi ufro qaoss an raRac Sualedurs _ qaosmoss (joisis neologizmi) aRniSnavs. romantizmis epoqaSi, me-17 saukunis barokos baRebSi, igi Tavisebur semantikur gaformebas iZens _ sando TavSesafaria romantikuli SexvedrebisTvis. am kulturaSi dawyebuli labirinTis demisterializaciis procesi Seuqcevadia. labirinTi TandaTan kargavs Tavis sxeulebriobas. es procesi sul ufro Cqardeba da sabolood, igi gonebis erTgvar savarjiSod aqcevs labirinTs (virtualuri labirinTi), sadac kargavs fizikuri Zalisxmevis (Tezevsis kompleqsi) CarTvis saWiroebas da gardaiqmneba mowyenilobisa da drois gasayvan lokusad. aseTia mokled labirinTis, rogorc kulturis erT-erTi universaluri simbolos, semantika, romelic yovel kulturul sivrceSi gansazRvrul `kulturul kods~ Seicavs. u. ekos `vardis saxelisa~ (1980) da x. l. borxesis babilonis

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biblioTekis (1941) labirinTebis SedarebTi analizis safuZvelze SevecdebiT labirinTis (da labirinTSi gz(eb)is), rogorc Tanamedrove samyaros landSaftis, rekonstruqcia movaxdinoT, aRniSnuli teqstebis da Tanamedrove epoqis, rogorc labirinTi-rizomas manifestaciiT, romlis simbolur diagramas, aRniSnul teqstebSi, biblioTeka warmoadgens. `vardis saxelis~ teqst-labirinTSi aRmoCenili simkvriveebis dekodirebiT fantasmagoriul `babilonis biblioTekaSi~ movxvdebiT. WeSmariti gzis ZiebaSi ki vxvdebiT, rom borxesTan es gza efemerulia, usasrulo satyuaraa da rogorc ekosTan, am labirinTis mTavari funqcia mgzavris gzas acdenaa. gzas acdenaa mwerlis meTodologiac, razedac wers i. lotmani u. ekos `SeniSvnebi vardis saxelis Sesaxeb~ (1983) rusuli gamocemisTvis daweril werilSi, saTauriT `gamosasvleli labirinTidan~ (1998:650-669), rac romanSi sxvadasxva plastebis aRrevaSi mdgomareobs. u. eko mkiTxvels mudmivad sTavazobs gzebs (aseTi cru gzebia magaliTad romanis deteqtiuri, istoriuli da a.S. plastebi), romlebic moulodnelad teqstilabirinTis naxvretebSi uCinardebian. mwerali mkiTxvels atyuebs, igi erTdroulad or kars uxsnis mas _ erTSi Sua saukuneebis deteqtivs sTavazobs, meoreSi istoriul romans, magram maleve CixSi amwyvdevs. ase rom, mkiTxveli uecrad saxtad rCeba ori moxuruli karis winaSe. swored mkiTxvelis mier gzis Ziebas mivyavarT labirinTis lakunisebr metaforasTan, rac `vardis saxelis~ emblemadac iqca. am meTodologiuri labirinTis modeli borxesis, ukve kargad gamokveTili, samyarobiblioTeka-labirinTia, romelic ekos labirinTi-rizomas jojoxeTur prototipad iqca. es, arsebiTad, gzebis kveTaa, romlebic CixiT bolovdeba. gzas gvacdens romanis mTavari personaJi me-14 saukunis ingliseli beri uiliam baskervilelic, romelic TiTqos, erTi SexedviT, istoriuli personaJia (moqmedeba 1327 wels italiis Crdilo-dasavleTiT mdebare benediqtelTa monasterSi xdeba. franciskeli beri uiliam baskervileli da misi ymawvili Tanamgzavri adso monasterSi momxdari sazareli mkvlelobebis gamoZiebas cdiloben. mkvlelobebi monastris biblioTekaSi Senaxul saidumlo wigns ukavSirdeba, romlis xelSi Cagdebis msurvelebic ucnaur viTarebaSi iRupebian). magram irkveva, rom is mxolod avtoris fantaziis nayofia da monasterSi Zveli teqstebis dekodirebiT

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aris dakavebuli _ e.i. rogorc lotmani wers, igi Suasaukuneebis semiotikosia (adsos sizmris axsna pirdapiri miniSnebaa semiozisze). aq ki saqme anaqronizmTan gvaqvs _ semiotika xom XX saukunis mecnierebaa (lotmani amtkicebs, rom uiliams kargad esmis baxtinis karnavalurobis Teoriac (lotmani 1998:650-669) _ es ki niSania imis, rom ekos labirinTis CixSi xarT moqceuli! `vardis saxelis~ am sabediswero labirinTis Sida sivrcec rTuli sistemaa xuT da Svidwaxnaga oTaxebisgan Semdgari, romlebic sarkis anareklebis meSveobiT usasrulobamde iSleba. ekos biblioTeka, romlis struqtura dedamiwis kontinentebis analogiiTaa Seqmnili, erTdroulad labirinTicaa, romelSi moxvedrili cnobismoyvareni mis sivrceSi samudamod ikargebian. uiliam baskervileli ekiTxeba xorxes: ` _ biblioTeka labirinTia? _ Hunc mundum tipice laberinthus denotat ille, (is udidesi labirinTia, samyaros xati (laT.) _ STagonebiT warmoTqva moxucma. Intranti largus, redeunti sed nimis artus. (SemsvlelTaTvis ganieria, gamomsvlelTaTvis viwro (laT.). biblioTeka uzarmazari labirinTia, samyaros labirinTis niSani. Sexval da ar ici, gamoaRwev Tu ara. ar unda gadalaxo herkulesis svetebi...~ (eko 2012:267). ekoseuli biblioTeka-samyaro erTgvari paradoqsuli antipodia bibliuri Sesaqmisa (savaraudod, amis simbolur miniSnebad romanis siuJetis Svid dRed dayofa SegviZlia miviCnioT), rac, sabolood, misi ganadgurebiT sruldeba. labirinTebis moyvaruli borxesis prozac labirinTis principzea agebuli, saidanac gamosasvleli gza ar arsebobs. mwerlis teqsti-labirinTi srulad Seesabameba mis mier Seqmnil nivTier labirinTs: `qveyniereba (romelsac sxva biblioTekas daarqmevda) Sedgeba eqvskuTxa galereebis ganusazRvreli an sulac usasrulo ricxvisgan, romlebsac SuagulSi datanebuli aqvs dabali moajiriT garSemortymuli farTo saventilacio Webi. yoveli eqvswaxnagidan moCans zeda da qveda sarTulebis dausrulebeli rigi... galereebSi sagnebis ganawileba ucvlelia. ocdaxuTi farTo Taro _ xuT-xuTi TiToeul kedelze _ yvela

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kedels faravs erTis gamoklebiT... Tavisufali kedeli viwro derefanSi gadis, romelsac, Tavis mxriv, sxva galereaSi mivyavarT, romelic pirvelisa da yvela danarCenis identuria... yoveli eqvskuTxedis yovel kedels xuTi Taro Seesabameba; yovel Taroze ganlagebulia erTi da imave formatis ocdaTormeti wigni: yovel wignSi oTxas aTi gverdia; yovel gverdze _ ormoci pwkari, ormoci Savi feris asoniSnisagan Semdgari... sinamdvileSi biblioTeka mxolod absolutur uazrobas ki ar Seicavs, aramed yvela verbalur struqturas, yvela im kombinacias, romelic ocdaxuTi orTografiuli simbolos saSualebiT miiReba.~ (`babilonis biblioTeka~, borxesi 2005:23). es borxesis labirinTia. Tezevsisgan gansxvavebiT, ariadnes Zafisadmi gadaulaxavi SiSiT atanili, borxesi ar eZebs gasasvlels. misi mizania, Seityuos mkiTxveli labirinTSi da naxevargzaze miatovos. TviTon ki Soriaxlo gzidan uTvalTvalebs mas. borxesis labirinTidan ar aris gamosavali, is usasrulo gzaa centrisken. uamravi gzisa da bilikis wanazardSi dakarguli mwerali faqtebisa da citatebis gadaqselvis meTodiT gzas urevs komentatorebsac. igi kompilatorTa da plagiatorTa sapirispirod moqmedebs (Tu es ukanasknelni sxvis azrebs sakuTar Tavs aweren, mwerali piriqiT, klasikosebs awers sakuTar azrebs). mis teqstlabirinTSi Semodis gameorebis, TamaSis elementi, rac labirinTis gzebze usasrulo xetialiT gamoixateba da sabolood formdeba, rogorc mudmivi dabruneba, mudmivi svla, gameoreba erTisa da igivesi (amis erTgvar aluziad SegviZlia CavTvaloT is, rom borxesi ucnaur zRapars poulobs `aTas erT RameSi~, rodesac Sahrazada mefes maTsave istorias uyveba (don kixotic imaves ar akeTebs _ Tavisive cxovrebis meore wignSi pirvels rom kiTxulobs?!). es wriuli kompoziciis diagrama, romelic borxesis labirinTSia Catanebuli, erTdroulad SiSs hgvris da izidavs, ahipnozebs avtorsac da mkiTxvelsac. swored amaSi, am usasrulo gameorebaSi, am gigantur labirinTul teqstSia gacxadebuli Tanamedrove samyaros paradigma _ mudmivi gameoreba, `igives maradiuli dabruneba~ (haidegeris terminologiiT), an nicSes maradiuli dabrunebis idea (die ewige Wiederkehr).

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borxesTan mocemulia niSani postmodernizmisaTvis _ es labirinTis modelia, rac Semdgom ekom daamuSava, rogorc universumis saxecvlili xati. `afrikis kideSi~ momxdari konceptualuri xanZriT ki mas surda Seecvala, an sruliad gaenadgurebina borxesis paradigma (amis gamWvirvale miniSnebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos saabatos biblioTekis siRrmeSi mcxovrebi usinaTlo xorxe burgoseli, romelic mkiTxvelSi uneblie inversias iwvevs cnobil argentinelTan). `babilonis biblioTeka~ Zalian hgavs `vardis saxelis~ saabatos biblioTekas. rogorc borxesi ambobs, igi Cafiqrebuli iyo, rogorc buenos airesis municipaluri biblioTekis koSmaruli varianti. es samyaro-biblioTeka struqturirebulia da perioduli (aq yvela wigni imave uwesrigobiT meordeba). rogorc borxesis biblioTekis parametrebis gaSifvriT aRmoCnda, biblioTekis am hipersferos moculoba bevrad aRemateba Cveni samyarosas. `vardis saxelis~ labirinTs SegviZlia mivusadagoT eqvswaxnaga oTaxebis usasrulo wyeba da babilonis biblioTekalabirinTi an abenhakanis (x. l. borxesi `sakuTar labirinTSi daRupuli abenhakan el bohari~(1951) labirinTi. idealistebi amtkiceben, rom eqvswaxnaga sagani idealuri formaa. mistikosebs ki eqstazSi ecxadebaT burTisebri oTaxi, mrgvali wigniT, romelic RmerTia. rogorc borxesi ambobs, biblioTeka yovlismomcvelia, rac imas niSnavs, rom is Seicavs yvelafers, TviT sakuTari sikvdilis ambavsac. adamianTa modgma rom gaqres, biblioTeka mainc SenarCundeba: auTvisebeli, usargeblo, saidumlo, usasrulo... absurduli daSvebaa, rom eqvswaxnagebi sadRac dasruldeba, ambobs borxesi, absurdulia isic, rom SesaZlo wignebis raodenobac usasruloa. `biblioTeka ufro metad usasruloa da perioduli da Tuki maradiuli mgzavri gzas Seudgeba, nebismieri mimarTulebiT, darwmundeba, rom igive wignebi imave uwesrigobiT meordeba. es ki imeds gvisaxavs~ (borxesi 2005:22). ikveTeba, rom borxesiseuli labirinTi, Tavisi uamravi gziTa da bilikiT daxlarTuli, realurad ar Seicavs Cixs. `babilonis biblioTekaSi~ moxvedrili mgzavri, principSi, SeuZlebelia daikargos, is

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mxolod maradiuli xetialisTvisaa ganwiruli. gzis dakargva, gzis ararseboba `vardis saxelSia.~ `vardis saxelSi~ koSkis mesame sarTulze ganlagebuli biblioTeka adsos aocebs Tavisi zomebiT, didebulebiT da simbolisturi arqiteqturiT, romelic Zalian hgavs `babilonis biblioTekas~. igi uamravi eqvswaxnaga galereisagan Sedgeba. `vardis saxelis boloTqmaSi~ eko ase gviRwers maneristuli labirinTis tips: `Tu davakvirdebiT, is fesvebian, datotvil xes hgavs, romelic uamrav Cixs qmnis. gamosasvleli erTia, magram SeiZleba Secde. ariadnes Zafi gWirdeba, rom ar daikargo. es labirinTi trial-and-error process-is (ingl. cdisa da Secdomis meTodi) modelia~ (eko 2012:280). rogorc eko Tavis komentarebSi azustebs _ misi maneristuli labirinTi datotvili derefnebisgan Sedgeba, romlebic, ZiriTadad, CixiT bolovdebian. mwerlis Tanaxmad, namdvili sqema samyaro-labirinTisa _ rizomaa. potenciurad aseTi struqturac usasruloa, Tumca borxesisgan gansxvavebiT, im principuli sxvaobiT, rom aq yoveli gzis wanazardi CixiT bolovdeba. `Cemi biblioTekis labirinTi jer kidev maneristuli labirinTia, magram samyaro, romelSic uiliami cxovrobs (mixvdeba, rom cxovrobs) ukve rizomas yaidazea mowyobili, ufro sworad, mowyobadi, Tumca bolomde Camouyalibebelia. erTma 17 wlis biWma miTxra, Teologiuri diskusiebisa veraferi gavige, magram ise aRviqvamdi maT, rogorc sivrculi labirinTis gagrZelebebso (rogorc musika hiCkokis filmSi...)~ (eko 2012:280). aseTi tipis labirinTSi mogzauroba, mudmivi arCevanis mdgomareobaa, radgan amgvari samyaros xati bolomde Camoyalibebuli, dasrulebuli ar aris, is mudmivad ganicdis saxecvlas. gzis Teologia orive mweralTan darRveulia. borxesTn igi gzebsa da mis uwvriles bilikebze usasrulo xetialiT gamoixateba, rac imTaviTve gamoricxavs centrTan, WeSmaritebasTan misvlas. es gza ar midis RmerTisken. es gza arsad ar midis, igi erTgvari komikuri gzaa, radgan uxvad Seicavs TamaSis anu mudmivi gameorebis elements, rasac absurdis ideasTan mivyavarT. erTaderTi meTodologia semiozisia, romlis meSveobiTac uiliam baskervileli (`vardis

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saxeli~) labirinTis efemerul sazrisSi _ `afrikis kideSi~ Sedis, rac imas niSnavs, rom saidumlo TiTqos amoxsnilia, Tumca esec moCvenebiTia da gza labirinTSi isev regenerirdeba, da ase _ usasrulod. ekosa da borxesis Tanaxmad, samyaros labirinTis namdvili sqema rizomaa, sadac arc centria, arc periferia da arc gamosasvleli, rac imas niSnavs, rom labirinTidan gamosasvleli gza ar arsebobs! postmodernizmis mixedviT xom samyaro teqstia, yvelaferi teqstia, ufro zustad ki, yvelaferi teqstiviT struqturirebulia. es teqsti xasiaTdeba mniSvnelobaTa gansakuTrebuli simravliT, sityvebisa da frazebis dezorganizebiT, decentralizebiT; damaxasiaTebelia agramatikuloba (rifateris terminologiiT), interteqstualoba, `ormagi kodireba~, `metaTxroba~, `avtoritetTa krizisi~, fsevdokarnavaluri narativi da sxv. amgvarad, samyarosa da adamianis Sinagani entropia miemarTeba mxatvrul teqsts da mis sruliad saxecvlil models gvTavazobs. klasikur wigni-fesvis metaforas enacvleba wigni-rizoma. fesvis simbolo mTavaria. rogorc g. baSlari ambobs, SesaZloa, fesvis simbolos gaxsniT (g)aixsnas kacobriobis suli (swored am fesvs unda gulisxmobdes gr. robaqiZe `Taur fesvSi~, romelSic J. deliozi da f. gvatari samyaros saxes xedaven da romelsac wignis metaforis magaliTze ganixilaven. wignis pirveli saxe, maT Tanaxmad, aris wigni-fesvi, klasikurad organizebuli struqtura, meore saxe ki aris wigni, funjisebri fesviT, romelsac mTavari fesvi ganuviTarebeli aqvs, an srulebiT ar gaaCnia. ase rom, axali, Secvlili epistemes metaforad ufesvo, sarevela _ rizoma iqca, romlis fesvi da yvavili erTmaneTisgan ar gansxvavdeba. rizomaSi darRveulia samyaros pirvelqmnili, Cinebulad organizebuli saxe. rizoma _ bolqvebia, xlarTebi, xveulebi, gorgali. igi aerTianebs yvelaze kargs da yvelaze cuds: kartofilsa da sarevelas, cxovelursa da mcenareuls. misi centri mouxelTebelia. mis stuqturaSi ar arsebobs azrobrivi centri, arc zRvruli konturi ikveTeba, arc periferia, arc Sesasvleli, arc gamosasvleli, rac imas

172

sofiko kvantaliani

niSnavs, rom arc gamoxatuli mizani arsebobs, arc marSruti, arc universaluri moZraobis grafiki). rizomatul labirinTSi, gzis moulodneli wanazardebis gaCeniT, mgzavri mudmivad gzas scdeba. gza mudmivad icvlis Tvisebas da formas da amitomac mgzavrs pirvelad mdgomareobaSi dabruneba aRar SeuZlia, rac imas niSnavs, rom gza amgvari labirinTidan TavdasaRwevad ar arsebobs! postmodernizmSi RmerTis mier dawerili `bunebis wignis~ wil saubaria `avtoris sikvdilze~. amitom aseT teqsts araTu ar hyavs avtori, aramed arc pirvelwyaro hyavs, aq yoveli wyaro mudmivad gadagvamisamarTebs sxva wyarosTan, mudmivad xelidan gvisxlteba gza, romelsac davadeqiT. swored am diskursidan ganvixileT axali episteme, romlis simboloc gaxda es mcocavi sarevela (c r a b - g r a s s ) . maT diagramad ki, borxesis `babilonis biblioTekisa~ da ekos `vardis saxelis~ labirinTebi davisaxeT, romlebic zustad ireklaven samyarosa da teqstSi mimdinare procesebs.

Lliteratura

borxesi 2005: : .2: 1942-1969 . - 2005 eko 2012: eko umberto. vardis saxeli [me-2 Sesw. gamoc.] diogene, 2012. lotmani 1998: . , . . . - ., 1998 paviCi 2003: : .: -, 2003

nato wuleiskiri

koncept gzis ZiriTadi leqsikografiuli da semantikuri aspeqtebi


koncepti, rogorc kulturuli arsi, SeuZlebelia arsebobdes Taviseburi interteqstis gareSe xalxTa istoriul da genetikur mexsierebaSi. rig SemTxvevebSi koncepti individualuri warmodgenacaa da erTobac. Tanamedrove lingvokulturologiaSi dRemde ar aris am terminis zusti gansazRvreba. Tumca, es kanonzomiericaa. \\ saukunis bolos lingvistur tradiciebSi Cndeba mimarTuleba, romelSic koncepti ganixileba misi gaazrebis sxvadasxva aspeqtis mixedviT: rogorc materialuri obieqti, romelic asaxavs samyaros erovnul suraTs, an rogorc sinamdvilis gaazrebis abstraqtuli done (segali 1994:95100). v. zusmani konceptis bunebaze msjelobisas ganmsazRvrel rols aniWebs azrs da ara _ mniSvnelobas. (zusmani 2003:72) koncepti gza(rus. , ) erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani da

174

nato wuleiskiri

uZvelesi msoflio, zogadsakacobrio konceptia. amas mowmobs misi mravalricxovani gamovlineba msoflios xalxTa yofacxovrebaSi. konkretuli konceptis Sinaarsis gaazrebaSi mniSvnelovania misi enobrivi prezentantebis nakrebi; es aris gzac, bilikic, nakvalevic, Sosec da a. S. sulxan-sabasTan sityva gza Semdegnairad ganimarteba: gza ars zomier kacTa savali, xolo Sara-vrceli da biliki-viwro, xolo qaSani-SambnarTa anu TovlTa zeda gatkecili savali da wavarna-kldeTa zed(a) viwro rame nadirTa warsavali. gza ewodebis zomiersa sivrciTa gatkepnilsa, xolo Sara-uvrcelessa, da biliki-wvlilsa gzasa da qaSani-SambTa Sina TovlTa zeda gaqeqilsa naTrevsa rasame msgavsad gzisa, xolo wavarna-kldeTa Sina mxecTa oden gasavalsa. kvalad gzad iTqmis folorcni da Sukanica (sulxan-saba orbeliani 1991:158). qarTuli enis ganmartebiT Semdegnairadaa ganmartebuli: leqsikonSi koncepti gza

1. miwis zedapirze gayvanili zoli, romelic gankuTvnilia mimosvlisaTvis (saatomobilo, moasfaltebuli, sacalfexo). 2. adgili, xazi sivrceSi, sadac xdeba mimosvla, gadaadgileba,trasa, sazRvao, sahaero. 3. mimarTuleba, gezi, gza miaswavla. 4. mgzavroba, mogzauroba, gza dauloca,-daapira gzis gagrZeleba. 5. gadat. gamosavali(raime mdgomareobidan), saSualeba, SesaZlebloba, xerxi, meti gza aRar iyo, sxva gza ar hqonda. 6. gadat. visime moRvaweobis, risame ganviTarebis mimarTuleba, moqmedebis xasiaTi, ganvlili gza, gamarjvebis gza,-swor xazze daayenebs, gzad-gavliT, mgzavrobisas, gzad Cvenken Semova, gzaze, gzaSi-siarulis, svlis, mgzavrobis dros. visime iqiT gza ar aqvs-visime daxmarebis gareSe ver SeZlebs rasme. gzas aZlevs(miscems, dauTmobs)-gavlis saSualebas aZlevs(miscems).gaatarebs. (swor) gzas aacdens (gzidan gadaacdens)-cud gzaze daayenebs, daRupavs. gzas gadauRobavs(gzas Seukravs)-1) win gadaudgeba, ar gauSvebs(mimavals). 2) gadat. moqmedebis, winsvlis saSualebas ar miscems. gza gaexsneba-moqmedebis, winsvlis saSualeba, gasaqani miecema. visime gzebi gaiyreba-

koncept gzis ZiriTadi leqsikografiuli da semantikuri aspeqtebi

175

samudamod daSordebian erTmaneTs. gzas gakafavs-1) gzas gakvalavs, risame mimarTulebas gaarkvevs, 2) dasawyiss miscems, magaliTs uCvenebs. gzas gauyenebs-gagzavnis, gaamgzavrebs, gaistumrebs. gzas gauxsnis-1)gzaze gavlis saSualebas aZlevs(miscems). 2) gadat. ganviTarebis, winsvlis saSualebas aZlevs(miscems), xels Seuwyobs rameSi, gasaqans aZlevs(miscems). visime gzas gahyurebs(gascqeris)-visme moelis mouTmenlad. rogorime gzaze daayenebs-rogorime mimarTulebas miscems(cxovrebaSi), maswavlebelma mowafeebi swor gzaze daayena. gzas dakargavs-gzas ascdeba, gza aereva, gzas ver gaignebs. gzas dauclis(gzidan Camoecleba)-gzas miscems, gzas dauTmobs, gavlis saSualebas miscems. gza mSvidobisa!-dalocva gzad mimavalisa. gza Semokldeba_1) mokle, uaxloesi gziT gavla moxerxdeba, 2) saubarSi gza SeumCnevlad gaileva. gza xsnilia vinmesTvis-raime miznis misaRwevad gasaqani aqvs visme, SesaZlebloba aris vinmesTvis.(qegl 1990:323). rusuli enis konceptebi da aris im konceptualuri rigis dominantebi, romelTac aqvT Tavisi Sinagani formis etimologiuri siRrme. sityva etimologiurad ukavSirdeba rusuli leqsikis indoevropul plasts. leqsema iTvleba ramdenime fuZidan warmoebulad. m. fasmeri aRniSnavs am fuZis siaxloes indoevropul ZirTan-dorgh- (fasmeri 1986:211). saintereso masalas vnaxulobT a. preobraJenskis rusuli enis etimologiur leqsikonSi. mkvlevari aRniSnavs am leqsemis kidev erT etimons-sanskrituli dhrajati-s (preobraJenski 1914:254). Tanamedrove sityvaTwarmoebiT leqsikonebSi sityva savsebiT logikurad ganixileba rogorc arawarmoebuli, xolo mis sityvaTwarmoebiT budes aqvs 40 erTeuli (tixonovi 1985:120). sityvebi da polisemiuria. v dali miakuTvnebs leqsemas - rva semas . mag., - . ; , , ; , ; . , . . ,

176

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; , , . , , , . ! , . , , , . , , . , , . , , . , , . ! . ! . , , , , ; , , xolo leqsemas -aT semas. mag., - . ( . .) , , , . . . , . , . ! . | , , , | , , , , . . , . | * , , . . , . , . . , , . | , , , , . , . , ; . . , , . , . | . , , , . -, ; . . , . , , , . , , . , ; , . , , . -, -, , ; , , , , . | , , , , . (dali 1978:473, 543) konceptis da leqsemis simboluri semantika Tavisi sabazo SemadgenliT siRrmiseulad dakavSirebulia qristianul tradiciebTan, romelic ukavSirdeba berZnul-bizantiur da iudaistur siZveles. leqsemis semantikuri moculoba gasakuTrebiT mkafiodaa gamosaxuli TargmanebSi, semantikuri akumulaciis ganxorcielebisaTvis unda arsebobdes sawyisi

koncept gzis ZiriTadi leqsikografiuli da semantikuri aspeqtebi

177

cnebiT-semantikuri baza. sityvis religiur-mwignobruli ganzogadeba da simboluroba umniSvnelo danakargebiT da transformaciebiT SenarCunda dRemde frazeologiaSi. Sdr: , , , da a. S. frazeologizaciis procesi, albaT, iyo sityvis brunebis Taviseburebis SenarCunebis ZiriTadi mizezi. bolo xans moxda leqsemebis da mkveTri konceptualuri da semantikuri daaxloeba, romelic aisaxa leqsemis semantikis gadasvlaSi leqsemis semantikur sivrceSi. am konceptebis Seswavlis sakmaod mniSvnelovan aspeqts warmoadgens maTi tipologia, am mentaluri warmonaqmnebis arsebobis aRwera sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis ZiriTad sferoebSi funqcionirebisas (samecniero, yofiTi, religiuri da sxv.). tipologiuri gajerebulobis TvalsazrisiT koncepti / Sedarebulia wyalbads, rogorc samyaros sabaziso qimiur elements (vorkaCovi 2002:10-11). gzis konceptis interpretaciuli fena, amave dros, asaxavs gzis gadataniT, metaforul, emoci da sxva aspeqtebs. adamianis cnobierebis mier gzis saxis gamoyenebis sixSire sxvadasxva kognitiuri aspeqtebis asaxvisaTvis, romlebic dakavSirebulia pirovnebis ganviTarebis mimarTulebasTan, mis moRvaweobis sferosTan, aisaxeba Sesabamis enobriv reprezentantebSi, romelTa SemadgenlobaSi Sedis konceptualuri sivrce-pirovnebis moRvaweobis sfero. . , -. . . . . ,

-. - - . Kkonceptualuri sivrce-urTierTdaxmarebis maRali faseuloba asaxavs erovnuli Segnebis pativiscemas adamianuri

178

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urTierTobis msgavsi aspeqtebis mimarT, rac fokusirebulia frazeologizmebSi: []. 1. , . 2. , . . , , .., - , . gzis saxe gamoiyeneba rusulenovan gonebaSi adamianebis miswrafebebis sxadasxva saxis da xSirad sxvadasxva polaruli gamoxatvisaTvis, rac aisaxeba konceptualur sivrceSi pirovnebis moRvaweobis mimarTuleba. . , -, - . [] . -, - . : . [] . , , - . , . , -. []. -; -. . , - , , .. [] . , - - , ..

koncept gzis ZiriTadi leqsikografiuli da semantikuri aspeqtebi

179

gzis saxe gvxvdeba sxvadasxva saxis msjelobSi, romlebsac SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc identuri, agreTve sapirispiro mniSvnelobebi. aisaxeba konceptualur sivrceSi adamianis moRvaweobis zogierTi Taviseburebebi. SevadaroT andazebi: - . - . , ; , (.. , ). . gzis saxe xSirad gamoiyeneba adamianTa survilebisa da Sefasebebis emociuri SeferilobisaTvis, rac asaxvas poulobs konceptualur sivrceSi msjelobebis emociuri Seferiloba: . -. . -, . . , . . , , , . gzis siZneleebis asaxva am konceptis kuTvnilebaa, rac fokusirdeba Semdegi amonaridiT: tradiciuli

- , ... SevadaroT agreTve andazebi: , .

180
, . .

nato wuleiskiri

, . . ). (

- ( ). - , . mniSvnelovania romantiuloba: , , ... mniSvnelovania gzis saxe xalxur Tqmulebebsa da alegoriebSi, rac SeiZleba klasificirdes, rogorc konceptualuri sivrce gzis miTologizacia: , ... , . () . . . qvemoT moyvanili frazeologizmebi erTdroulad gamoxataven SesaZlebeli gadaadgilebis kognitir niSansac da konceptualuri sivrce gzis

koncept gzis ZiriTadi leqsikografiuli da semantikuri aspeqtebi

181
ewodos

dabrkolebis warmoqmnis niSansac, rasac SeiZleba konceptualuri sivrce-gzis ganusazRvreloba:

<> . ( , .. ). . . amrigad, gzis konceptis interpretaciuli fena araerTgvarovania, rac ganapirobebs mis mimarT kvleviTi interesis gaZlierebas. SemTxveviTi ar is faqtic, rom konceptebi gza// leqsikografiul da semantikur doneebze aseT mrafalfeovnebas avlenen, rac maTi siZvelisa da tipologiuri mrafalferovnebis dasturia.

literatura

dali 1978: .. / .. . . 1., . 3 ., 1978. vorkaCovi 2002: .. / .. // . . 3: . , 2002. [ ]. URL: http://tpl1999.narod.ru/WEBTPL2002/VORKACHEVTPL2002.HTM zusmani 2003: .. / .. // . 2003, 2. [ ]. URL: http://magazines.russ.ru/voplit/2003/2/zys.html

182
preobraJenski 1914: . / . 1. ., 1914. .

nato wuleiskiri

segali 1994: .. / ... // . 94. . .. , , 1994. sulxan-saba orbeliani 1991: sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, t. 6, Tb,: merani, 1991. tixonovi 1985: .. / .. . . 1. ., 1985. fasmeri 1986: . . . 1. .: , 1986. 9. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni 1990: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, erTtomeuli, Tb,: 1990.

ada nemsaZe

gzis sivrculi da warmosaxviTi ganzomilebani oTar WilaZis romanebSi


sxva bevr daniSnulebas Soris literaturis erT-erTi mTavari funqcia sazogadoebisaTvis swori gzis Cvenebacaa. metadre maSin, roca Wirs garkveva rTul sociopolitikur garemoSi, roca faseulobebs gadafaseba da rRveva emuqreba, roca mTavari ukana planze iwevs, win ki fsevdoRirebulebebi inacvlebs da a. S. aseT viTarebaSi literatura Tavad aris gza. Tumc, meore mxriv, gza literaturisTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani konceptia. Tuki aramxatvrul teqstebSi sityva inarCunebs Tavis pirvelad, denotaciur mniSvnelobas, mxatvruli diskursis Tavisebureba sword isaa, rom denotatis qveS konotatTa mTeli simravle moiazreba. sityva gzis semantika Cveulebriv metyvelebaSi arc ise farToa, magram rogorc ki igi xdeba mxatvruli saxe, mkiTxvelis warmosaxva aaqtiurebs mis bevr sxvadasxva simbolur mniSvnelobas. gza uaRresad saintereso sivrculi modelia. am interess ufro zrdis misi ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi _ dausabamoba da usasruloba, ar viciT,

184

ada nemsaZe

sad iwyeba da sad mTavrdeba igi. es gansakuTrebiT SesamnCnevia wriuli struqturis mqone mxatvrul teqstebSi, sadac dro mudmivia da gza _ dausrulebeli. amgvari kvlevisaTvis nayofieri masalaa oTar WilaZis mxatvruli teqstebi Tavisi enobrivi novaciiT, mxatvruli enis mravalferovnebiTa da gamomsaxvelobiT. masTan gzas mdidari semiotikuri veli aqvs. oTar WilaZis mxatvruli saxeebi qmnian rTul polisemantur simbolur formebs, romelTa amoxsna da analizi mkvlevrisgan moiTxovs rogorc, zogadad, simbolologiur gamocdilebas, ise mwerlis enobriv samyaroSi wvdomis unars, radgan misi msoflmxedvelobis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe Znelia am mxriv miznis miRweva. mwerlis mxatvrul diskursSi erT-erTi sayrdeni funqcia aqvs gzis koncepts, romlis gamomsaxvelobis Zala da mniSvnelobaTa simravle sakmaod tevad enobriv rezervuars qmnis. gamorCeuli da Taviseburia misi dro-sivrculi modeli. igi erTiani, mwyobrad agebuli sistemaa. am sistemaSi ki gza sivrcis mTlianobaSi arsebuli Sidasivrcea, romelic xan vertikalurad aris mimarTuli, xan _ horizontalurad, xan realuria da xan _ warmosaxviTi. gzis koncepts mWidrod ukavSirdeba erT-erTi umTavresi motivi _ identobis Zieba. kerZod, gza Ziebis procesSi aucilebeli faqtoria. gzis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi personaJs naklebi Zalisxmeva sWirdeba, raTa mizans miaRwios, magram umeteswilad TviT es gzaa rTulad sapovneli. es xangrZlivi da mtkivneuli procesi xan warmatebulad sruldeba, xanac _ uSedegod. WilaZiseuli gzebic mTel sivrceSia ganfenili. masTan TviT cxovreba, an sulac samyaro, erTi didi da rTuli, dausrulebeli, maradmoZravi gzaa, romelic uamrav gansacdels faravs da umzadebs adamians. am gansacdelTan brZolaSi ki yalibdeba personaJis saxe, ikveTeba misi cxovrebiseuli misia. horizontalur sivrceSi ganfenil gzebad SesaZloa ganvixiloT is gzebi, romelTac gadian personaJebi: farnaozi _ vani-kreta-vani (`gzaze erTi kaci midioda~), qaixosro makabeli _ Tbilisi-rusis jarTan erTad gavlili gza-uruqi, aleqsandre _ uruqi-cimbiri-uruqi (`yovelman Cemman mpovnelman~), Tbiliseli msaxiobi _ mSobliuri sofeli-Tbilisi-baTumi (`rkinis Teatri~) da a. S. dasaxelebuli magaliTebidan Cans, rom nawilSi mxolod qveynis Sida gzebi ikveTeba, nawilSi ki

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185

samSoblos sazRvars gadadis gmiri. Tumca amas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ar eniWeba: mTavari aq gzis dasasrulia, ramdenad sworad amTavrebs personaJi Ziebis process. amavdroulad, gzebi, romelTac es personaJebi gadian, sakuTari Tavis povniskenaa mimarTuli. fizikuri gza mocemul teqstebSi sruliadac ar moiazrebs mxolod realur manZils, sivrces da dros, es aris Sidapirovnul samyaroSi mimdinare Ziebis procesic, romelic iqve unda dasruldes, sadac daiwyo, anu samSobloSi. am SemTxvevaSi umniSvnelovanesia komunikaciuri strategiis sworad gansazRvra: mimarTeba me_samSoblo Tu me_ucxoeTi. roca individi sworad gansazRvravs am strategias da Ziebis process asrulebs samSobloSi (an iq, sadac misi adgilia), igi yovelTvis poulobs sakuTar Tavs, adgilsa da daniSnulebas sivrceSi, xolo Tuki ver axerxebs amas, mizani miuRweveli rCeba da cxovrebac tragikulad sruldeba. farnaozis gamgzavreba kretaze, qaixosro makabelis Camosvla da dasaxleba uruqSi, aleqsandres wasvla cimbirSi, Tbiliseli msaxiobis mier sakuTari soflis datoveba _ aris gasavleli gzis pirveli nawili, romlis arasworad arCeva jer kidev ar aris danaSauli, an, ufro swori viqnebiT, Tu vityviT, Secdoma, radgan gamosworebis saSualeba jer kidev arsebobs, sanam gzis boloSi ar gasula personaJi. Tumc qaixosrosa da Tbiliseli msaxiobis SemTxvevaSi Secdoma ver swordeba, radgan isini ver axerxeben, daubrundnen maradiul Sin-s. meore mxriv, amas acnobiereben da amitomac axerxeben kidec farnaozi da aleqsandre, rac maTi gadarCenis winapirobaa. kidev ufro pirobiTia vertikalur sivrceSi arsebuli gzebi, romlebic SesaZloa, or jgufad davyoT: vertikalurad mimarTuli droSi da vertikalurad mimarTuli sivrceSi. pirvelis magaliTia niko (`martis mamali~) erTTviani Zilis dros. logins mijaWvuli, anu fizikurad pasiur mdgomareobaSi gadasuli, bavSvisTvis aqtiurdeba warmosaxviTi mogzauroba warmosaxviTi gzebis gavliT. niko mogzaurobs warsulSi, eswreba ilias mkvlelobas, iziarebs am codvaze pasuxismgeblobas. avtobusis epizodSi igi TiTqos kacobriobis mier gavlil gzas xelaxla gaivlis da codva-madlis Sesaxeb sakuTari warmodgena uyalibdeba. gamoRviZebuli TxuTmeti wlis mozardi cnobierad gacilebiT didia, radgan ukve uzarmazar codnas flobs, gamocdilebas iZens da cxovrebisTvisac mzadaa.

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amitomac mas aRar uWirs swori gzis arCeva. nikos gamoRviZeba pasiuri gzis dasrulebisa da cxovrebis aqtiur fazaSi gadasvlis dasawyisia. sivrcis vertikalSi _ zemodan qvemoTaa mimarTuli natos (`rkinis Teatri~) mier gavlili ukanaskneli gza. Tuki gela gadarCenis instiqts ugzoobis qveyanaSi mihyavs, natos sicocxlis azri da mizani, umTavresi _ Svili hyavs gadasarCeni. amitomac amaze fiqri sruliad gaazrebulad saba lafaCs miayenebs karze. magram maleve xvdeba, rom amas ver SeZlebs. sabas saxlidan iwyeba natos ukanaskneli gza, romlis, SeiZleba vTqvaT, logikuri dasasruli aris zRva. `Semoval, minda da Semoval! Sens iqiT mainc ara maqvs gza...~ (WilaZe 1987: 386) _ jiutad mimarTavs nato. daxrCoba zRvaSi qvemoT usasrulod mimarTuli gzaa. uaRresad tragikuli, Tumca natosTvis es aris erTgvari ganwmenda, codvebis monanieba da, rac yvelaze mTavaria, es aris msxverpli Svilis sicocxlisTvis gaRebuli. simboluri gaazrebiT, gza aris sazRvari `sakuTar~ da `sxvis~ sivrceTa Soris, miTologiurad igi `arawminda~ adgilia. xolo gansakuTrebiT saxifaToa ori an meti gzis gadakveTis adgili (simboloTa... 2010). natosTvis zRva iqceva swored am gzad, am sazRvrad, igi gzajvaredinze aRmoCndeba _ saxlisken mimaval gzas kveTs saba lafaCis saxlidan zRvisken mimavali gza. es ukve daRupvis cxad niSnad aRiqmeba mxatvrul teqstSi da mkiTxvelis molodinic maleve marTldeba: wyalSi SesvliT nato gadalaxavs gzajvaredins da Sesabamisad, `sxvis sivrceSi~ moqceuli iRupeba kidec, bneli stiqiis msxverpli xdeba. rac Seexeba gelas (`rkinis Teatri~) mier ugzoobis qveyanaSi gavlil gzas, igi sruliad unikaluria am TvalsazrisiT, radgan erTdroulad moiazreba, rogorc realuri da rogorc warmosaxviTi. cixidan gamoqceuli gela gauazreblad mirbis Tavis gadasarCenad da sruliad ucxo garemoSi aRmoCndeba. misi mTavari mamoZravebeli aris SiSi. bunebrivia, roca qmedebis safuZveli xdeba Tavis gadarCenis instiqti, Tan SiSiT daTrgunuli, racionalizmisTvis iq adgili aRar rCeba. `aqoSinebuli miuyveboda gauTavebel ferdobebs. mere TovlSi Seabija da TiTqmis ararsebul, TiTqos gamonagon drosa da garemoSi aRmoCnda uceb, Tovls gadaeyruebina iqauroba~ (WilaZe 1987: 204). avtori aq qmnis unikalur samyaros, romelSi mosaxvedradac gza miuyveba ferdobs. zogadad,

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literaturaSi mimarTeba qvemodan zemoT RvTisken swrafvas niSnavs, amaRlebas, ganwmendas, sikeTesTan miaxloebas. am romanSi ki sruliad sawinaaRmdego mocemulobasTan gvaqvs saqme. zemoT mimavali gela swor gzas ki ar poulobs, daRupvisken mieqaneba. viRac ucnobi da ucnauri kacis kiTxvaze: `saiT gagiweviao?~ pasuxobs: `gza amebnao~. am sityvaze ucnaurma kacma RimiliT dasZina: `Sen, etyoba, didi xnis win dagikargavs gza, radgan aq gza ar aris, aq ugzoobis qveyanaao~ (WilaZe 1987: 206). mkiTxvelis aRqmis sivrceSi sruliad axali sintagma _ ugzoobis qveyana _ Semodis da recefciac dauyovnebliv erTveba gaazrebis procesSi. es aris ararealuri, raRac ucnauri da warmosaxviTi samyaro, romelSic arc droa, arc sivrceSi ikavebs igi rame adgils da arc gza aqvs. arc gelam icis, rogor movida da arc isaa CvenTvis cnobili, zamTris qoxis sxva binadrebi rogor Seiyarnen aq. TviT saxeli _ ugzoobis qveyana _ amis mimaniSnebelia da Tan es aris gza, romelic aRarsad midis, igi mTavrdeba zamTris qoxSi; iq darCena TviTganadgurebas niSnavs, gadarCena ki mxolod aqedan gamoqcevaa imave gziT, romliTac Sexvedi, rasac didi sulieri da fizikuri tkivilis gancdis Sedegad axerxebs gela. gzis simbolur mniSvnelobaTagan aq aqtiurdeba misi uaryofiTi formebi. `am miTologiurad arawminda adgilze xSirad gvxvdeba demoni, romelic adamianis gzidan gadayvanas cdilobs misi daRupvis mizniT~ (simboloTa... 2010). romanis teqstSi amgvar demonebad SesaZloa miviCnioT is sami avazaki, romlebic qoxSi xvdebian gelas da cdiloben, maTnair adamianad aqcion gzaareuli bavSvi. oTar WilaZis samyaroSi gzas sruliad gansxvavebuli maxasiaTeblebi aqvs, misi warmosaxva da mxatvruli sityvis sfero aqac araCveulebrivad tevadi da msuyea. mis gzebs aqvT ara mxolod mimarTuleba, aramed feric da sunic. ugzoobis qveynidan brtyelsaxians ZaliT gamohyavs gela: `...gaaxsenda, rogor gamoaRwies Tovlidan, rogor datrialda haerSi gzis suni (iqamde arc icoda da verc warmoidgenda, gzasac Tu hqonda suni)~ (WilaZe 1987: 393). am SemTxvevaSi gza, romelsac suni aqvs, realur cxovrebaSi dasabrunebelia. radgan is gza, romelic mxolod Tovlze gadis, aramiwieri da araamqveyniuria. es raRac sxva samyaroa, tanjvis gzaa, kaTarsisisTvis aucilebeli, sadac xdeba avisa da kargis garCeva, sakuTari

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movaleobis gacnobiereba da ukve cnobierad arCeva im gzisa, romelic marTlac Senia, SenTvis gankuTvnili da mxolod Seni gasavleli. Tovlian gzas ugzoobis qveyanaSi mihyavs gela, mas mxolod mimarTuleba aqvs _ qvemodan zemoT. zamTris qoxi zemoT aris, Suagul tyeSi, miwa ki qvemoTaa. swored miwisken momavali gzaa cxovrebis gza da mxolod SvilTan dasabrunebel gzas aqvs suni. suni xsovnis kategoriaze migvaniSnebs, igi ar ikargeba (gavixsenoT: giorgam swored bavSvobisdroindeli suni icno, roca mis mosaklavad mosul TaTars Caexuta; Jasminis suni nikos bavSvobas axsenebs, xolo ucnobTan Sexvedrisas mamis suni igrZno da a. S.). `saerTod, suni aris drosTan kavSiris yvelaze sufTa da daxvewili forma, sadac sivrcul-vizualuri xatebi gadaSlilia da aracnobierSia kodirebuli. swored sunis gziT akavSirebs oTar WilaZe awmyos aracnobieris uRrmes struqturebTan~ (kvaWantiraZe 2001: 232). zamTris qoxSi gatarebuli dro, sadac aTvla sul sxva sistemiT xdeba, aris mizezi im yvelafris daviwyebisa, rac gelas natos samyarosTan akavSirebs. amitomac exveweba brtyelsaxians, ar gaiyvanos tyidan. magram rogorc ki Tovlian biliks gadalaxavs da gzis suns igrZnobs, maSinve axsendeba mTeli Tavisi arc Tu xangrZlivi warsuli da gloviT (da ara tiriliT) daadgeba gzas. gelas gza qvemoTken, miwisken, Svilisken is gzaa, romelmac mas, pirvel rigSi, sakuTari pirovneba apovnina, miwaze myarad dgomis unari SesZina da sakuTar movaleobebze pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba gauRviZa. `ukve darwmunebuli iyo, es gza mxolod da mxolod iq rom miiyvanda, sadac misi adgili iyo, sadac unda ecxovra da momkvdariyo~ (WilaZe 1987: 393). gela swor gzaze dgas: `Ze warsulisa da mama momavlisa! modioda...~ (WilaZe 1987: 394). romanis bolo zmna `modioda~ am Ziebebis aqtiuri fazis dasasrulze migvaniSnebs. oTar WilaZis mxatvrul sistemaSi gzas kidev uamravi saintereso aRmniSvneli ukavSirdeba. magaliTad, Toki, romelsac brmebi wnaven `martis mamalSi~ da romelic siwmindisken, samarTlianobisken, Tundac zeciskenaa mimarTuli, radgan isini xSirad iyurebian zecaSi. Tokis simbolika aq uSualodaa gzasTan dakavSirebuli, vinaidan es Toki usinaTloebisaTvis igive gzaa, mimarTulebis maCvenebeli da usafrTxod siarulisTvis aucilebeli. msgavsi saxeebia: dariaCangis baRi, rogorc WeSmaritebis gza, xolo misi sapirispiro mniSvnelobis

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mqone _ zRvis piras gaCenili mwvane, lorwoiani Waobi da a. S. msgavsi nimuSebis dasaxeleba mravlad SeiZleba sxvadasxva romanidan. amrigad, oTar WilaZis msoflmxedvelobriv da mxatvrul diskursSi konceptualuri datvirTvis matarebelia saxesimbolo gza. rogorc teqstebis analizma aCvena, horizontalur sivrceSi arsebuli gzebis sisworisaTvis gadamwyveti faqtori aris misi dasasrulis swori mdebareoba sivrceSi. xolo rac Seexeba vertikalur da ararealur, mxolod individis cnobierebaSi arsebul gzebs, aq mxatvruli warmosaxva warmoudgenel azrobriv siRrmeebs swvdeba da samyaroSi gadarCenis erTaderT gzad siyvaruls saxavs.

literatura kvaWantiraZe 2001: kvaWantiraZe m. oTar WilaZis mxatvruli samyaro // werilebi literaturaze, Tb., 2001. simboloTa... 2010: simboloTa leqsikoni http://www.symbolarium.ru/index.php - 26 ivlisi 2010. WilaZe 1987: WilaZe o. Txzulebani 3 tomad, t. III, Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1987.

irina maniJaSvili

gzis semiotika qarTuli enis masalebis mixedviT


gzis semiotika qarTuli enis sivrceSi TavisTavad moicavs leqsema gzis semantikuri velis gaazrebas , etimologiur wiaRsvlebs, gzis metaforul interpretaciebs mxatvrul literaturasa da zogadad, kulturaSi. Ggzis semiotikis kvlevisas viyenebT sityva-niSans da ara-simbolos. Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom orives agebuleba samkomponenturiaaRmniSvneli, aRsaniSni da denotati (sagani, movlena an moqmedeba) lingvistikaSi semantikuri samkuTxediT cnobili, anu semiotikuri kavSiria maT Soris, isini urTierTSenacvlebadi ar arian da sxvadasxva sibrtyeze ganixilebian. niSani moiTxovs gagebas, simbolo ki interpretacias. maTi gamoyeneba principulad gansxvavebulia. Aaqve unda aRiniSnos, rom semantikuri gza akavSirebs saxes metaforasTan, semiotikuri gza ki simbolos da niSanTan.

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Yyoveli konkretuli enis safuZvels gansazRvravs ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondi da gramatikuli wyoba. ZiriTad leqsikur fondSi Sedis is sityvebi, romlebic qmnian leqsikis yvelaze Zvelsa da mkvidr nawils. es aris yvelaze aucilebeli da stabiluri nawili leqsikisa (arn. Ciqobava, 1952, gv.24,25). gza, rogorc semantikuri erTeuli, aris qarTuli enis ZiriTad leqsikur fondSi Semavali sityva, e.w. gasaRebi sityva. lingvistikaSi arsebobs aseTi termini semantikuri universalia. Ees igivea, rac gasaRebi sityva. es sityvebi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania am enis mflobelTa kulturisTvis. ZiriTadi fondis dadgena SesaZlebelia sixSireTa leqsikonebiT, enis frazeologiasa da idiomatikaSi romelime leqsikis aqtualizaciiT, misi unariT, Seqmnas myari Sexameba meore sityvasTan. gasaRebi sityva aris igive koncepti, romlis meSveobiTac xdeba kulturis axsna. Llingvistur azrovnebaSi koncepti Tavis logikur-fsiqologiuri da enaTmecnieruli kategoriebis organul Serwymas. erT-erTi aseTi gasaRebi sityva qarTul saliteraturo enaSi aris gza. sityva gzis semantikuri veli qarTulSi mravlismomcveli da mravalmniSvnelovania. Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonSi warmodgenilia gzis ganmarteba, misgan nawarmoebi sityvebi da is myari sityvaTSexamebani, romelic gzas ukavSirdeba. Ggza savali(i.a.), gzad-yofa-gacileba,Mmgzavroba, mimosvla, gzaSi yofna, gzaTaebr msgavsad gzebisa,Mmogzavneba, mogzauri, momgzavreba, sagzali, sasagzle, ugzo(i.a.). gza sameufo didi gza(i.a.). gza soflisa -(didi gza) (i.a.). gza-yofa - gayola, gacileba(i.a.) gzisa ziarimogzauri, gzisa mavalimogzauri (Zveli qarTuli enis SeerTebuli leqsikoni, 2008, gv. 86). sulxan-saba orbeliani semantema gzas ase ganmartavs : gza aris zomieri kacTa savali, xolo Saravrceli da biliki

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viwro, xolo qaSani (xazgasma Cemia--i.m.)---SambnarTa anu TovlTa zeda gatkecili savali da wavarnakldeTa zeda viwro rame nadirTa warsavali. Ksvlad, gzad iTqmis folorcni da Sukanica. Nnawarmoebi sityvebi : babuasagZala, gzis, mogzauri, orgzis, sagzali, sagzaur, sagZali, SabaTis gza (sulxan-saba orbeliani, 1991, gv.158). sulxan-sabas leqsikonSi dasturdeba gzasTan dakavSirebuli uZvelesi qarTuli fuZeebi: qaSani, wavarna, folorcni, Sukani. sainteresoa, rom sityva-niSani gza qarTvelurad qarTulWanuri erTianobis doneze aRdgeba, rogorc arsebiTi saxeli. Tumca, svanurSi mas zmnuri mniSvneloba aqvs. dRevandeli svanuri sityva lizi svla -dasabamiseuli formiT aRdgeba, rogorc li-gz-ei (msgavsi mniSvnelobiT WanurSi gvxvdeba zmna iglaz-u: wavida, gaemgzavra) (ix. gamyreliZe, maWavariani, gv.348). maSasadame, Cans, sityva gza raRac obieqts ki ar aRniSnavda, aramed gzaze dgomas, raRacis qmedebas; anu dasabamiseuli mniSvnelobiT gza niSnavs ara raRac komunikacias, trasas an biliks, aramed gzaze dgomas, qmedebas. qarTuli enis frazeologiaSi, idiomebSi gza gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT mravalferovnad aris warmodgenili : vinmes moRvaweobis mimarTuleba, raimes ganviTarebis gezi, gza xsnilia (dabrkoleba ar Sexvdeba), gzas aacdens cud gzaze daayenebs, cxovrebis gza, gza-kvali (savali gezi, mimarTuleba), Tavgzas aubnevsdaabnevs, gziani sityvagonivruli sityva da sxv. Ggzis modeli sxvagvaradaa gaazrebuli miTologiaSi, filosofiaSi, Zvelsa da axal aRTqmaSi. qarTuli ena, rogorc qristianuli kulturis matarebeli, marTlmadidebluri tradiciis damcveli, mTavar orientirad iRebs saxarebiseul gzis epiTets : me var gza da WeSmariteba da cxovreba. ara vin movides mamisa, garna Cem mier (ioane, T. 14.6.).

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wminda werilSi araerTgzis meordeba, rom am qveynad Cven mgzavrebi da stumrebi varT. Ggzad yofna maradiul moZraobas, axlis Ziebas, winsvlas gulisxmobs. Aadamiani amovardnilia Tavisi bunebrivi konteqstidan mas Semdeg, rac igi cdunda cnobadis xis nayofiT ; gandevnilia uzenaesi konteqstidan ganviTarebis uwyveti, universaluri gzidan da misi amqveyniuri cxovrebis gza maradiuli mcdelobaa, ocnebaa im pirvel da dasabamiseul konteqstSi dabrunebisa. rogorc aRvniSneT, gzis metaforuli xati sxvadasxvagvaria gza qveynidan qveyanaSi, gza droidan droSi, gza sivrcidan sivrceSi, gza taZrisaken, gza Sinisaken... es erT-erTi yvelaze Tbili qarTuli sityvaTSexamebaa. SinaCemi saxli (TuSur dialeqtSi Sinai-saxli), mikrosamyaro, sadac yvelaze myudrod, daculad vgrZnob Tavs. farTo gagebiT, es cxovrebiseuli gzaa da qveteqsti moiazreba, rogorc gza Semoqmedisken, absolutisken swrafva. Aam SemTxvevaSi gza sulier planSia gaazrebuli. sainteresoa cremliani gzis metafora qarTul xalxur zRaparSi. Ggzaze mimobneuli xaxvis furclebi... ufrosi Zma tovebs kvals gzadagza, raTa ucros Zmas (STamomavlobas) siZnele gauadvilos. Ggzis gavla yovelTvis siZneleebis daZlevasTan aris dakavSirebuli. qarTuli mwerlobidan amis klasikuri magaliTia n. baraTaSvilis merani : da gza uvali, Sengan Telili, merano Cemo, mainc darCeba, da Cems Semdgomad moZmesa Cemsa siZnele gzisa gauadvildes... (n. baraTaSvili, leqsebi, 1968, gv.65). galaktionisTvis ki cxovrebis gza sizmaria da Soreuli cis silaJvarde (silaJvarde anu vardi silaSi); sikvdilis gza ki vardisferia ,,sikvdilis gza arra aris, vardisfer gzis garda... ( mTawmindis mTvare ) simSvidis, maradisobis feria (aq yofierebis gzazea laparaki) (tabiZe,1988, gv.51).

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erT-erTi universaluri metaforaa gzis kavSiri drosTan. Pprofesori z. kiknaZe Tavis statiaSi adamiani bibliur droSi xazs usvams gzisa da drois mimarTebas bibliaSi: bibliur Txrobas izidavs adamiani, romelic mimodis qveyanaSi. Bbiblia egviptes an udabnos ki ar aRwers, aramed gzas udabnoSi, drtvinvas, mosmenas, riTac ivseba udabnoSi gatarebuli dro, udabnos dro. Eegvipte da udabno is WurWlebia, romlebSic miedineba xalxis CamoyalibebisaTvis aucilebeli dro, romelic mimarTulia dasasrulisken. Zvel aRTqmaSi abraami mudmivad gzaSia, arsad sivrceSi mas mudmivi samkvidro ara aqvs. Ggzis arsebiTi maxasiaTebeli ki droa. droJamis ganmavloba Tavis kvals tovebs sivrceze. Aamdenad, sicocxle cxovreba identificirdeba gzis gavlasTan, drosTan. qarTuli enis leqsikaSi semantema gzis Sesaswavlad upirvelesad saWiroa idiomatikasa da frazeologiaze dakvirveba. Yyvelaze masStaburad sakvlev suraTs warmoaCens mxatvruli teqstebis analizi. Ggzis SemecnebiTi, komunikabeluri da esTetikuri funqcia mravalgvaradaa gaazrebuli qarTul mwerlobaSi. Gam SemTxvevaSi gamorCeulia oTar WilaZis Semoqmedeba. Ppoeziasa Tu prozaSi avtors uxvad aqvs gamoyenebuli gzis semantema gza pirdapiri Tu gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT. leqsSi WrilobaSi CarCenili tyvia gzis metaforis globaluri gaazrebaa mocemuli: rac ar yofila, is arc iqneba, magram rac iyo, iqneba kvlavac. gza gaixsneba, an Seikvreba, momsvleli mova, wamsvleli wava. (WilaZe, 2009, gv.126) avtoriGgzas yovlismomcveli, yvela gzis Semkrebi daos mniSvnelobiT moiazrebs. dao Zveli Cinuri filosofiidanaa cnobili da Targmnian, rogorc gonebas, sazriss. Ddao niSnavs yvelafris momagzavebel gzas, is saidanac fiqri ZalgviZs, rac gonebis, gonis, yvelafris gamoTqmis safuZvelia (ix. kaxa kacitaZe, gzis Sesaxeb).

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gzisa da drois urTierTkavSirs mTeli simZafriT grZnobs poeti: ...da ayvavebas.... mainc didi gzaa iqamde, kvlav Seveswrebi xis

Dda sanam mxrebze memsxvreva wvima, gzebi nabijebs sanam miTvlian, me dakargulad ver CavTvli imas, rac Cemi nebiT ar damiTmia . (o. WilaZe, 2009, gv.98) sagulisxmoa, rom am leqss epigrafad wamZRvarebuli aqvs xalxuri striqonebi: ra wams ki davibadebiT, iqve saflavi mza ari. poetisTvis cxovrebis gza SesaZloa orad gaiyos da tanjvis, gvemis gzad iqces: ...da gza, romelic gaiyo orad Daw ukve iqca codvad da Worad iyos dRegrZeli, rom Seni wili, Tavisi RorRiT, mtvriTa da CrdiliT tanjvis gzad iqces da ucxo Tvali: yrmis Tu moxucis, kacis Tu qalis, gxedavdes mxolod am gzaze mavals, radgan dReidan me Seni xma var.... mtvriani gzis metafora cnobilia qarTul mwerlobaSi. Ggalaktion tabiZe: qalaqSi, mtverSi waiqca bavSvi... besik

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xaranaulis wigni amba besarionisa SesaniSnavad acocxlebs am metaforas: rac ginda xaliCaze miabijebde, erTaderTi WeSmariti gza mtvriania..... mtveri, bundovaneba, WuWyi identificirdeba aqac siZnelesTan, gzis gauvalobasTan. o. WilaZesTan gzis semiotika sabolood mainc universalisken, absolutisken, uzenaesisken swrafviT aris STagonebuli. dedaa, rasac pirvelad naxav, mamiT iwyeba gzebze fiqrebi, mere Cven vZerwavT sakuTar saxes im dRisTvis roca aRar viqnebiT. (o. WilaZe, 2009, gv.23) Semdegi leqsic amis dasturia: gamomitana bunebam msjavri: sulze borkilad madevs asaki da mainc Seni etlis var mgzavri, Tu gnebavs - Seni gzis avazaki. (gv. 120) gzis avazaki saintereso sintagmaa. Aam sityvaTSexamebiT avtori xazs usvams adamianis codvil bunebas da amave dros, saxarebiseuli monanie avazakis asociaciasac qmnis, romelmac gulwrfelad macxovris aRiarebiT moipova sasufeveli. Ggzis metaforas mniSvnelovani funqcia akisria da erT-erTi mTavari saxe-simboloa o. WilaZis prozaSi. TiTqmis yvela

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romani sakuTari Tavis Semecnebis, WeSmaritebasTan ziarebisa da sinamdvilesTan dabrunebis gzaze Semdgari maradiuli mgzavrebis erTi didi moZraobaa. Cven SevCerdebiT mis bolodroindel romanze godori, sadac gzis semiotika sxvadasxva, zogjer urTierTgamomricxav planSia gaazrebuli. o. WilaZe gzas rogorc gardauval aucileblobas ise ganixilavs. wuTisoflis gasavleli gza iseve erTaderTia adamianisTvis, rogorc uflis nebiT boZebuli cxovrebis jvari, romelic yvelam Tavisi unda itvirTos da moTminebiT, TavmdablobiT zidos... yvela adamiani Tavisi sakuTari, erTaderTi, ganumeorebeli gziT ibadeba da Tavcocxali ver gadauxvevs am gzidan ( WilaZe, 2006, gv. 263). avtorisTvis an erTaderTi gzaa, an ararsebuli : ararsebuli gzebis Zieba... diaxac rom ararsebuli gzebis Ziebaa adamianoba, Torem misTvis arasasiamovno situaciidan virTxac ki daeZebs gamosavals (WilaZe, 2006, gv.355). o. WilaZesTan gzis kidev erTi saintereso gaazreba gvxvdeba Ee.w. gzis nagleji, romelic ramdenjerme g romanSi. Ees metafora erTdroulad gulisxmobs rogorc imeds, aseve uimedobas sxvadasxva konteqstSi. sarkmlidan, quCis magivrad, ratomRac, soflis gzis patara nagleji moCanda mxolod... arsaidan momavali da arsaiT mimavali. Ggzis naglejs balaxi mosdeboda. Bbalaxs urmisa Tu etlis naborblari etyoboda. naborblarSi wyali Camdgariyo. wyals nemsiylapia dastrialebda. vidre Tundac gzis es patara nagleji arsebobs, es pawawina naglejiofiqrobda kniaJna qeTusia (WilaZe, 2006, gv. 39), magram sasowarkveTili lizikosTvis ki gzis nagleji uimedobis, daRupvis, ganwirulobis niSania: iq aris misi adgili (kaSelebTan dazusteba Cemia, i.m.), cocxlisTvisac da mkvdrisTvisac. sxva gza ar arsebobs. Ggza ar arsebobs saerTod. Ggzisgan patara naglejiRa darCa, arsaidan arsaiTken mimavali...balaxmodebuli... vin icis, rodindel naborblarSi,

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vin icis, ramdeni wvimis wyali Campala (WilaZe, 2006, gv. 124). igive azris gagrZelebaa Semdegi amonaridi teqstidan: ai, erTaderTi gza, romelic man cxovrebiT daimsaxura arsaidan momavali da arsaiT mimavali gza ki ara, gzis nagleji, gzis monarCeni, asfaltmosxmuli da xavsis mwvane burZglebiT mofenili... tkivilamde sagrZnobi da SemaZrwunebelia amgvari uimedobis gancda, romelic mweralma gzis semiotikuri niSniT gadmosca. o. WilaZe mainc imediT, brZolis JiniT ganawyobs mkiTxvels: vidre bilikis es nagleji mainc arsebobs, arc Cven ara gvaqvs far-xmlis dayris ufleba (WilaZe, 2006, gv. 375). semantema gzis erTgvari Sejameba ki mocemulia romanis finalSi, sadac avtors mTavar ideasTan mivyavarT: qaravani ki midis. isic ar viciT, saiT midis, an saidan movida. alRoc davkargeT, ynosvac da Sinisken mimavali gzac ver gvipovnia... aRar gvaxsovs, ras niSnavs Sin... (WilaZe, 2006, gv. 378). absolutTan Sexvedris rwmena da imedi asazrdoebs o. WilaZis romanebs da Sinisken mimavali gzebis Ziebaa mTeli misi Semoqmedeba. QqarTul poeziaSi niko samadaSvilis poeturi genia originalurad acocxlebs gzis metaforul xats. cnobilia, rom mTeli misi Semoqmedeba mistikur- alegoriuli xasiaTisaa. carieli gzebi Tanmdevia n. samadaSvilis poeziis... Sens SemkrTal ZeglTan mesaflave aituzeba, cariel gzebze SeaCerebs morbenal Tvalebs, dauSens wvima, wvivebamde gaiwuweba, is ki gzebisken cqeras mainc ar gaaTavebs (samadaSvili, 1999, mariams - meuRles).

198

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carieli gzebi mxolod niko samadaSvilisTvis damaxasiaTebeli msoflgancdaa. rogorc Tamaz Cxenkeli aRniSnavda, qarTul poeziaSi sxvas aravis hqonia esoden gamaxvilebuli, winaTgrZnobis sazRvramde misuli mtkivneuli gancda cxovrebis sicarielisa, miusafrobisa da ganwirulobisa. amitom logikuric aris gzebis SemaZrwunebeli sicariele. Mmis SemoqmedebaSi yvelgan Cans sicariele da sifuturove. Nn. samadaSvilis poeziaSi araerTxel Segvxvdeba gzebis ganwiruli yvirilic: es Seni guli aryis qvabia da qveS unTia Seni leqsebi, amaze meti ra gaqvavia, ager mTis iqiT yvirian gzebi. (samadaSvili, 1999, gv.8). Mmomdevno leqsSic igive ganwyobaa : maxsovs Zaxili, gzebis yvirili, sad mixval, sada, SeinTe kvari me mivdiodi gulSemoyrili

da qadagiviT yviroda qari (samadaSvili, 1999, gv. 23). Ggzebis es yvirili sxvagan RrialSic gadaizrdeba: swyevlida gamCens, kacTa gasagiss, Eesmoda SoreTs Rriali gzebis, ZaRlebis yefa maradisobas,

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sionis maRla glova zarebis (samadaSvili, 1999, gv. 39). Aamave leqsSi gvxvdeba saintereso sintagma - lewili gzebi: is dadioda lewili gzebiT, gulis kankaliT xvdeboda yvelas... lewili gzebi, gauTenari gzebi, umisamarTo svla gzebze an Saragzaze gaTeneba niko samadaSvilis msoflaRqmisTvis damaxasiaTebeli semiotikuri niSnebia: uflis naTeli dabarbacebda gauTenari gzebis bolomde (atenis sioni). is miiwevda, Tumca gza ki arcki icoda, xangamoSvebiT icinoda da icinoda (samadaSvili, 1999, gv.7). sxva leqsSi mgzavrs Saragzaze daaTendeba - kaci qariSxlebs rom gamostaces (kacis buneba). ramdenadac Rrmad sagrZnobia mis poeziaSi sarwmunoebrivi krizisi, imdenad didia sinaTlis, Suqis moTxovnileba. sakuTar saxifaTo xilvebTan marto darCenili poeti dananebiT ambobs : ra iqneboda, gza rom gamegno, miwaze mainc aenToT kvari. me viyav bediT gaognebuli da ZvlebSi mwared mivlida qari (samadaSvili, 1999, gv. 24). rogorc erT leqsSi - mogoneba Tavadve moixsenebs : quCebSi marto da gacrecili, gzebgadamcdari nicSe bRaoda... swored gzebgadamcdari nicSes zekacis ideiT iyo mowamluli misi msoflxedva, Serwymuli mxolod miseul samyaroul aRqmas.

200
kvlav daqanculi gavdivar gzebze. ar vici ra vqna, visTan mivide ?..

irina maniJaSvili

RmerTebs gavurbi, vxvdebi mizgiTebs, samSoblo raze gadavikide (samadaSvili, 1999, gv. 41). n. samadaSvilis urTules poetur samyaroSi gzis semiotikis iseTi mravalferovani gaazrebaa mocemuli, rom dausruleblad SeiZleba amaze saubari. Tumca, davamatebdi ferSecvlili gzebis metaforasac, radgan mainc optimalurad JRers leqsSi Tvals ar aSorebda : is midioda ferSecvlil gzebiT, wyalgaRmiT Crdilebs aenToT kvari, iwoda kaci Cumi, mgznebare, Tan sicocxleze rCeboda Tvali 1999, gv.

(samadaSvili, 60).

avtori ufro adrindel leqsSi Tu natrobda kvaris anTebas, sinaTlis sxivs, winamdebare leqsSi gzebi ukve ferSecvlilia, igulisxmeba naTliTmosili da kvaric anTebuli... qarTuli enis wiaRSi, es iqneba zepirsityvieri fondi Tu klasikuri mwerloba, gza da misgan nawarmoebi sityvebi, gzasTan dakavSirebuli frazeologizmebi Tu idiomebi xasiaTdeba ufro dadebiTi semantikiT, vidre uaryofiTi. radgan gza TavisTavad gulisxmobs moZraobas, svlas, moqmedebas.

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literatura

humboldti, , , 1985 veJbicka a. 1999 mamardaSvili merab, azrovnebis esTetika, Tb., 1986 ramiSvili, 1995: ramiSvili g. enaTa Sinaarsobrivi sxvaoba enaTmecnierebasa da kulturis Teoriis TvalsazrisiT, Tb., 1995 siraZe, 1987: siraZe revazi, literaturul-esTetikuri narkvevebi, Tb., 1987 samadaSvili, 1999, samadaSvili niko, sinaTlis mimoqceva, 1999 tabiZe, 1988, tabiZe g. Txzulebani, t.I , Tb. 1988 Ciqobava, 2008, Ciqobava Aa. enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb, Tsu, 2008 WilaZe, 2006, WilaZe oTari, godori, 2006 WilaZe, 2009, WilaZe oTari, 100 leqsi, 2009

leqsikonebi 1. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni (Svidtomeuli), arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT 2. sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli (ortomeuli), Tbilisi, 1993 3. Zveli qarTuli enis SeerTebuli leqsikoni, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2008

mirian ebanoiZe

taZris semiotika
taZari, erTi mxriv, adamianuri Semoqmedebis simboloa, meore mxriv, masSi RvTaebrivis monawileoba igulisxmeba. ra qmnis teqstis RvTaebrivi warmomavlobis, da adamianur ,,qmnilebaSi - mis mier agebul SenobaSi - taZris arsebobis SesaZleblobas? rogorc RvTismetyveleba gveubneba, es ukve madlisa da wyalobis sakiTxia, da mxolod adamiani ver iqneba amis garanti. germaneli filosofosi haidegeri Suasaukuneebis ritorikiT gvatyobinebs, rom taZars taZrad mxolod RmerTis monawileoba qmnis da ara arqiteqturuli Tavisebureba an adamianis Canafiqri, Tumca mas garkveuli adgili uWiravs landSaftSi, riTac bunebis nawili xdeba. taZari, rogorc qmnileba, romelsac garkveuli adgili uWiravs landSaftSi, gadalaxavs bunebisa da kulturis antinomias. li bos leqsebi peizaJis nawilebia. maT, TavianTi arsebobiT, cvlilebebi SeaqvT landSaftSi.

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rogorc haidegeri ambobs, adamians SeuZlia ilaparakos mxolod maSin, roca misiT da masSi laparakobs miwa, ca, mokvdavi da RvTaebrivi. misi gamoCeniT ritualizdeba maradiuli dava miwisa da samyarosi, ganxeTqilebis idea da sawinaaRmdego ZalTa erToba. Cven ki ar vlaparakobT, ena gvlaparakobs. poeti ismens da mihyveba. ,,usmino piriT. dialeqtiT laparakoben gansxvavebuli landSaftebi, ese igi, miwa laparakobs. taZari anu qmnileba am dialeqtebis Sejaxeba, energiebis gadakveTis wertili, movlenaTa centria. eqsistencia da kultura, ena da yofiereba gadaikveTeba. zogi qmnileba am rols erTjeradad asrulebs, zogi - yovelTvis. SeiZleba Tu ara aRvadginoT taZari? es amocana damokidebulia imaze, aris Tu ara taZari masalisa da formis erTianoba. Tuki demiurgi qaoss kosmosad gardaqmnis, awesrigebs, da platoni ideisa da materiis (,,eidosisa da ,,hiules) urTierTobis gadmosacemad cvilze beWdiT gakeTebuli kvalis metaforas iSveliebs, qristianuli Sesaqme araradan Seqmnaa. mas win araviTari masala, cvili an qaosi ar uZRvis, rac SemoqmedebiTobas daakninebda da RmerTs momwesrigeblad warmogvidgenda. es ukanaskneli xelosnuri Sromaa da ara - Semoqmedeba, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli masalisa da formis ideologiiT. adamiani ,,raRacisagan da ,,raRacas qmnis, mas win Seqmnili da gamzadebuli samyaro uswrebs, amitom ki ar qmnis, aramed amzadebs. Seqmna gaCenasa da saswauls ukavSirdeba. mas mizezi da winapiroba ar gaaCnia. Tuki amis simulirebas vinme axdens, jadoqars an iluzionists vuwodebT. Sua saukuneebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli warmodgena Tavs iCens miqelanjelosTan imiT, rom misi roli qandakebis SeqmnaSi zedmeti marmarilos

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mocilebaSi gamoixateba, da es ar aris Semoqmedeba, absoluturi azriT. kidev erTi ganmasxvavebeli niSani RvTaebrivi da adamianuri ,,Semoqmedebisa drosTan mimarTebaa. adamiani qmnis droSi, RvTaebrivi Semoqmedeba maradiulobasTanaa dakavSirebuli da is Tavad qmnis dros. mas araviTari ,,manam an ,,Semdeg ar gaaCnia. Sesaqme, upirvelesad, Svidi dRis, anu drois Seqmnaa da Semdeg imisa, rac droSia. amgvarad, qristianuli SemoqmedebisaTvis naZaladevia masalisa da formis saxiT samyaros gageba. haiidegeris mixedviT, vulgarul wakiTxvas masalisgan formis miRebis xelosnuri gageba moxmarebis nivTebidan mTel samyaroze gadaqvs. xes, adamiansa da yovelives masalisa da formis erTianobad ganixilavs, romelic RmerTs raRac miznisTvis da moxmarebisTvis Seuqmnia. magram masala da forma xelosnur Sromas moiTxovs, anu damzadebasa da gakeTebas, riTac xelosnobis ideologia sakuTar warmomavlobas RmerTs ukavSirebs, romelmac yvelaferi ,,gaakeTa. xeli saWiroa imisaTvis, rom masalas (qva, sityva, feri, bgera) forma mianiWo, magram aris Tu ara akaki wereTlis ,,ganTiadSi sityvebi ubralod masala? Tu aq sityvebi pirvelad xdebian sityvebi, rogorc es rilkesTanaa? maTi sxvebiT Senacvleba SeuZlebelia, Cven am sityvebs verc ki vamCnevT, roca vlaparakobT, isini TiTqos qreba, radgan ubralo agurebia metyvelebis procesSi, mizani ki Setyobinebaa da maTi rolic Setyobinebis Sedegad ikargeba, iseve, rogorc kargad aSenebul saxlSi agurebs veRarc vamCnevT. akakis leqsSi ki es agurebi brwyinavs da elvarebs. amitomac, paradoqsulad aRar mogveCveneba haidegeris azri, rom ,,qmnilebaSi masaliseuli araferia. li bom Secvala peizaJi, roca Tavisi leqsebi maT Sesaxeb Tavad am peizaJSi Seitana. asociaciebis mizani rTuldeba da mdidrdeba: Tavidan aSenda taZari, romelic ise organulad Caewera landSaftSi, rom qarma igi Tavisad miiRo. Semdeg movida li bo,

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romelmac aRwera taZari. Semdeg gamoCnda du fu, romelic ixsenebs leqsebs winamorbedisas im adgilas, sadac isini Seiqmnen da amiT leqsebi bunebriv fenomenebs uTanabrdeba. sivrce, romelic droiT datvirTa, leqsebis sagnebad qceviT bunebas kulturad gardaqmnis. amiT bunebac kulturad gadaiqca. Cven viciT, rom avtori sam dRes mogzaurobda, vidre ar dainaxa mTebi,romlebic wvimis SuaSi gaixsna. es SemaZrwunebeli aRsareba gvaiZulebs, CavfiqrdeT: mTebi xom yovelTvis TavianT adgilze idgnen da poetmac icoda amis Sesaxeb, Tumca wvima uSlida xels, daenaxa da darwmunebuliyo imaSi, rac ar saWiroebs gadamowmebas. poetma dainaxa is, rac yovelTvis iyo da iqneba Cvenamdec, Cvens Semdegac, Cvens drosac. mTebi sakuTar adgilze dganan. Cven SeiZleba vimogzauroT. wvima SeiZleba movides an ara, magram mTebi amisgan ar icvleba. vicvlebiT mxolod Cven, erTaderTi cvalebadi realoba am peizaJSi Cven varT. am paradoqsze fiqrisas poeti erT strofSi exeba warmaval movlenebs: qars, yvavilebs da wvimas - landSaftis mudmiv elementebTan erTad, rogorebicaa mTebi, xeebi da taZari. romel kategorias mivakuTvnoT li bos leqsebi? - orives. maT fesvebi gaidges peizaJSi, rogorc xeebma, magram dafrinaven, rogorc qari, radgan mxolod mogonebisas arseboben, Tumca isini yovelTvis gaaxsendebaT, roca am adgilas moxvdebian. du fus mTeli saukune aSorebs li bosagan, magram es dro qreba bunebis perspeqtivaSi. yvavilebisa da qarisaTvis dro ar arsebobs, amitom asi weli, TiTqos, is sami dRea, romlebic poets dasWirda imis Sesacnobad, rac dainaxa da aRwera. ramdeni xanic yvavils gasaSlelad sWirdeba, amdenive sWirdeba poets naTlis saxilvelad. es vada, ra Tqma unda, pirobiTia. iqneba sxva yvavilebic, sxva poetebic, ufro metic: sxva li boc iqneba,

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radgan WeSmariteba, romelic misTvis gaixsna (rogorc mTebi wvimis SuaSi), ar Seicvleba imis mixedviT, vin uyurebs mas. am patara leqsSi Tanmimdevrulad qreba da bunebaSi ganzavdeba sivrcis, drois, identurobis CvenTvis Cveuli kategoriebi. poetis yofna peizaJSi pirobiTia: mTebi yvelganaa - Cven raime specialuri miTiTeba am adgilis Taobaze ar gvaqvs: yvavilebi, wvima da mTebia mxolod. adgili mxolod amosavali punqtia da ara - saboloo mizani gzisa Tu leqsisa. droc uazro gaxda. sami dRe, rogorc asi weli. samyaros mudmivi sikvdilisa da dabadebis maradiulobaSi qronologia uqmdeba iseve, rogorc yvavilebis Wknobasa da gafurCqvnaSi. dairRva poetis igiveobac. li bo da du fu avtorebi ki ar arian, aramed Tanaavtorebi, romlebmac aRmoaCines is, rac SeuZlebelia, ar aRmoCeniliyo - mTebi. du fus leqsSi taZari mTebisa da leqsebis gaigivebis simboloa. misi semiotikuri sazrisi bunebisa da kulturis opoziciis miRma unda veZeboT. avtori aq ubralod Suamavalia, raTa taZari davinaxoT, Tumca is marto ar aris. igi dialogSia rogorc Zvel, aseve momaval poetebTan. ase gagebuli poezia aRar gaxlavT individualuri amocana, sadac umTavresi originalobaa. es aris yofna tradiciaSi, sadac avtori Tanaavtoris rolSi gvevlineba.

Lliteratura

haidegeri, dasabami xelovnebis qmnilebisa, Tbilisi, 1999. du fu, gardasul mogzaurobebze fiqriT, teqstebi, 2007.

gia joxaZe

qarTvel berTa yoveldRiurobis ramdenime elementis Taobaze


(giorgi merCules ,,grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis mixedviT) Tanamedrove istoriuli mecniereba warmoudgenelia yoveldRiurobis istoriis gareSe. yofiTi pirobebisa da sxva im faqtorTa Seswavla, romlebic zemoqmedebdnen cnobierebisa da qcevis normebis, socialur-politikur SexedulebaTa formirebaze, gvarwmunebs, rom, erTi SexedviT, ganmeorebad, rutinul elementebSic SeiZleba imis mikvleva, rac icvleboda; SeiZleba imis ganWvreta, Tu vin xdeboda istoriuli procesis monawileTagan istoriis obieqti, vin ki - subieqti. Tanamedrove qarTuli istoriografia aseT kvlevaTa simravliT ver daitrabaxebs da Cveni Sroma erT-erTi pirvelia am orientaciis istoriografiaSi. ra aris yoveldRiuri cxovreba? es is yoveldRiuri qmedebania, romlebic qronologiuri TanmimdevrobiT meordeba da araviTari siaxle, originaloba da

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gia joxaZe

warmosaxviToba ar gaaCnia? Tu ,,yoveldRiurobad unda miviCnioT marad miqcevad-moqcevadi ritmebi, romlebic avseben adamianis gansazRvrul dros? sityva ,,cxovrebis mravalricxovan mniSvnelobaTagan ukeT romeli Seesabameba berTa yofas, romelic mimdinareobda Tavisuflebis gansxvavebuli formiT, gansxvavebuli ritmiT, gansxvavebuli struqturebiT? cxadia, rbilad rom vTqvaT, sibece iqneboda, monazonTa cxovreba wvrili faqtebis im krialosnad migveCnia, mxolod egzotikur interess rom aRZravs. uwinaresad ki imitom, rom teqsti, romelic araerTxel wagvikiTxavs da misi Studirebac ki mogvixdenia, saSualebas iZleva, CavwvdeT berTa cxovrebiseuli arCevanis seriozulobas, rwmenis siRrmes, maT gatacebas sakuTari yoveldRiurobiT. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom maTi zraxvebi arc ise uCveuloa, da, bevri TvalsazrisiT, Cveni Tanamedroveebis nostalgiur swrafvebsac ki eTanadeba. qmedebani, am zraxvebs rom amaRlebs da asxivosnebs, maT ganxorcielebas rom uwyobs xels, erTgvari askezaa, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, erTgvari Zalisxmeva, romlis gamovlena yvelas evaleba Tavis saqmianobaSi Tu srulyofilebis ara, warmatebis misaRwevad mainc. Zalze niSandoblivia, rom sityva ,,asketis pirveli mniSvneloba imaze miuTiTebs, vinc sakuTar profesiul daxelovnebaSi iwvrTneba. wregadasuli ltolvis ganmcdeli Tanamedrove sazogadoeba, modurad ecvas, modurad ikvebebodes, an piriqiT - moduradve ar ikvebebodes da a.S., unda Seecados imis gagebas, rom sxvebi imavenairad iqceodnen RvTis msaxurebisa da siyvarulisaTvis; TanamedroveebisaTvis, romlebic ufrTxildebian sakuTar uniformas da xandaxan sicocxlis fasadac ki icaven mis Rirsebas, gasagebi unda iyos gansazRvrul drosa da socialur jgufTaTavis mikuTvnebuli berebi ra seriozulad ekidebodnen maTi cxovrebiseuli sazrisis gamoxatveli aTasobiT simboluri niSnis dacvasa da mofrTxilebas (muleni).

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vcadeT, giorgi merCules ,,grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis kvaldakval aRgvedgina VIII-X ss. moRvawe qarTvel berTa yoveldRiuri cxovreba, imis garkveva, Tu rogor moqmedebs es berul msoflSegrZnebaze, da sakuTriv, maTi wes-gangeba ra zegavlenas axdens imdroindeli sazogadoebis qcevasa da azrovnebaze. CvenTvis saintereso iyo, gagverkvia, rogor gamoxatavdnen berebi TavianT damokidebulebas sakuTari yofis iseTi rutinuli markerebisadmi, rogorebic gaxldaT: siRaribe, ubiwoeba, locva, galoba, sasjeli, sinanuli, xorcis daTrgunva, aRsareba, kveba, marxva da a.S. amTaviTve vityviT, rom es CamonaTvali Tavisuflad SeiZleba ganifinos or maTganSi: locva da marxva, am ukanasknelis farTo saRvTismetyvelo mniSvnelobiT: marxva saqmiT gamoxatuli rwmenaa da am TvalsazrisiT, kvebis racionis SezRudvasTan erTad, marxvaa ubiwoebis dacvac, siRatakec, xorcis daTrgunvac, mZime sayofacxovrebo pirobebic da sxv. istoriulad es is epoqaa, rodesac IX s. dasawyisSi samxreTdasavleT saqarTveloSi damoukidebeli politikuri erTeuli ,,qarTvelTa samefo yalibdeba. ai, ZiriTadi asparezi, sadac samonastro moZraoba formdeba. es xana imiTacaa mniSvnelovani, rom adre arsebul samonazvno cxovrebis wesisagan gansxvavebiT (anaqoretizmi, martomyofloba, meudabnoeoba), aw laparakia monazonTa saerTo sacxovrissa da erTad cxovrebis (kinobiuri monazvnoba) Taviseburebebze. wminda mamebis mier orive wesi ganidideba, magram gansxvavebis moZebna mainc SeiZleba: jer kidev i. javaxiSvili SeniSnavda, rom anaqoretuli wesis berebi marTlac gaurbodnen macTur sofels, simdidres, kerZo sakuTrebas, rogorc yovelgvari borotebisa da usamarTlobis budes, daucxromlad eswrafodnen srul siglaxakes, upovarebas, sakuTari SromiT Tavis gamokvebas, zneobriv sispetakes da a.S., magram es TavisTavad maRalzneobrivi da mimzidveli mimarTuleba sazogadoebrivi keTildReobisaTvis

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TiTqmis unayofo da usargeblo movlena iyo. grigol xanZTelis samonastro moZraobam ki uSen an gaveranebul adgilebze sicocxle aaRorZina, kulturis kerebi Seqmna, gzebi gaiyvana da sasuliero nagebobani aago, utyv qveyanaSi adamianis cxoveli sityva gaisma, miwa daixna, baR-venaxi gaSenda da a.S. (javaxiSvili 1983: 118-119).

garda imisa, rom monazvnebi aTasgvar socialur funqcias asrulebdnen, Sua saukeneebSi sxva rom veravin ikisrebda, sruliad naTelia, rom isini gansazRvrul rols TviT rwmenis SenarCunebaSic TamaSobdnen. WeSmariti da srulyofili rwmena yvela epoqisTvis idealia, da raoden gasakviric unda iyos, arc Sua saukuneebi gaxldaT gamonaklisi: es iyo dro crurwmenisa da farisevlobisa, iracionaluri xasiaTis didi sazogadoebrivi nakadebisa, momlocvelobisa, socialur-mistikuri krizisebisa, milenaristuli molodinisa, sxvadasxvagvari winaswarmetyvelebisa da sxv. adamianTa gulebSi sufevda RvTismosaoba, magram mas zogjer adamianTa sulebisaTvis WeSmariteba ar mohqonda. religiuri Zalisxmeva efemeruli, spontanuri da zedapiruli gaxldaT. yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi blomad iyo mkrexelobisa da RvTis gmobis SemTxvevebi. erTxel kidev gavimeorebT: cxovreba religiiT iyo aRsavse, Tumc Rrma religiuri grZnobebisa da WeSmariti rwmenis calkeul gamovlinebaTa gamoklebiT, yoveldRiuroba gulgrilobaSi Cafluliyo, ,,RvTis daviwyebaSi CaZiruliyo. monastrebis arseboba, samagaliTooba da moRvaweoba, romlebsac sulieri energiisa da socialuri aqtivobis centrebs, qristianobis erTgvar ruporebs SevadarebdiT, sruliad aucilebeli da gamarTlebuli gvgonia. rogorebic unda yofiliyvnen, isini yovelTvis axerxebdnen adamianuri azrovnebisa da qcevis racionalizacias, adamianebSi TviTkontrolisa da kanonisadmi pativiscemis STanergvas. swored monazvnoba icavda

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qristianobis avanpostebs; monazoni iyo fari aTasgvar sacTurTa Sesakaveblad. monazonTa meoxebiT maRldeboda adgilobriv wmindanTa da relikviaTa xalxuri rwmena. monazvnebi qadagebdnen ufro Sinagan, ufro pirad, zneobriv moTxovnilebaTa Sesabamis religias. maTi qadagebani sinanulze, maTi piradi magaliTi ubiZgebda codvils, sulieri Zalebi codvis amoZirkvis, sinanulisa da aRsarebisaken miemarTa. glaxakobis idealis Tavwyaro swored samonazvno cxovrebaSi Cqefda. es cxovreba Camoayalibebs Sedeg mkafio mimarTulebas maradiuli xsnis miznisaken da am rwmeniT iqneba aRbeWdili Semdgomi saukuneebi. unda aRvniSnoT, rom monazvnoba saxelmwifos damorCilebuli eklesiis, madlganZarcvuli eriskaculi moZraobis antiTezad Camoyalibda. igi imTaviTve, qarizmatuli moZraoba iyo. ,,udabnoSi midiodnen sulieri ZRvnis misaRebad, romelic moipoveboda mkacri asketuri teqnikiT. amgvarad, monazvnoba avsebda damcrobil ,, sameufo siwmindes da amitomac ar iltvoda ierarqiuli simaRleebisaken. metic: is eWviT uyurebda TviT saepiskoposo Zalauflebasac. ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom jer kidev saba ganwmendilis epoqaSi (me-6 s. ), romlis tipikonic saxelmZRvanelod gamoiyena grigil xanZTelma, swored monazvnebi cdilobdnen, gadaeyenebinaT saeWvo reputaciis mqone episkoposebi. amgvarad, erTi mxriv, saeroTa saRvTismsaxuro praqtikasTan siaxlove, da, meore mxriv, sruliad gansxvavebuli samonazvno Cveulebebis simbiozi - ai, ra ganasxvavebda sabawmindis lavras sxvaTagan. monazonTa gaucxoeba saeklesio ierarqiisadmi dasturdeba ,,grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis pirvel nawilSi, meore nawilSi ki meudabnoe berebs xSirad vxedavT kaTedraTa Tu sakaTolikoso saydarTa mflobelebad, rac gvafiqrebinebs, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi qarTuli samonazvno wreebic veRar aRudgnen win cTunebas da saeklesio ierarqiaSi damkvidrebaze uari aRar uTqvamT. beris yoveldRiuri cxovrebis elementebi mravladaa teqstSi: monazvnis yoveldRiur cxovrebas giorgi merCule ,,monazvnur

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Sromas uwodebs, romelsac TviT martvilTa Tavdadebaze metadac ki afasebs. logika amgvaria: martvilni erTxel ewamnen, berebi ki ,,yovelsa Jamsa iwamebodes.... ras gulisxmobs es wameba? uwinaresad, locvasa da marxvas, upovarebasa da miwaze wolas, ,,xorciel iwroebas, mZime fizikur Sromas, RamisTevas da a.S. (qarTuli proza 1981: 221). uwinaresad, vcadoT qarTveli beris dRis ganrigis dadgena, rac, rasakvirvelia, Zalze rTuli saqmea naratiul wyaroTa ararsebobis gamo. magram radgan cnobilia liturgikuli dRis elementebi, SesaZloa, vivaraudoT, rom tao-klarjeTSi daarsebul qarTul monastrebSic am wess misdevdnen. pirvel rigSi gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom liturgikuli dRe-Rame 9 periodad anu cxra Jamad iyofoda:

1- me-9 Jami 2- mwuxris Jami 3- serobis Jami 4- ciskris Jami 5- 1-li Jami 6- SuaRamis Jami 7- me-3 Jami 8- me-6 Jami 9- sadilis Jami saRvTismsaxuro praqtikaSi Jamni ewodeba mokle RmrTismsaxurebas, romelic Seesabameba da eZRvneba dRis gansazRvrul droebs. amgvari locva sul xuTia: pirveli, mesame,

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meeqvse, sadilisa da mecxre. I-III-VI-IX sqema aqvT.

Jamnebs erTi da igive

Jamnebis dro, Cveni droiT, am saaTebs Seesabameba: pirveli Jamni dilis 7-9 saaTi; mesame 10-12 saaTi; meeqvse 1-3 saaTi; mecxre saRamos 4-6 saaTi. dRe-Ramis RmrTismsaxurebaTa cikli mwuxriT iwyeba. es gaxlavT erT-erTi locva yoveldRiur RmrTismsaxurebaTagan, romelic, rogorc saxelwodebidan Cans, saRamoTi, mzis Casvlamde sruldeba. radgan Cvenma eklesiam ZvelaRTqmiseuli eklesiis wesi gadmoiRo dRe-Ramis aTvlis wertilad saRamo CaiTvalos, amitom mwuxri yovelTvis meore dRes ekuTvnis. damdeg dRezea damokidebuli, rogori iqneba mwuxri: didi, mcire Tu sadagi dRis. mwuxris msaxurebaSi, samyaros SeqmnasTan erTad, aRwerilia RmerTis mzrunveloba qmnilebebze, gansakuTrebiT ki dacemul da samoTxidan gamoZevebul adamianze. gavixsenoT, rom RvTis mier samyaros Seqmnis aRwerisas dRe saRamodan iwyeba, vinaidan msoflios pirvel dRes da adamianis arsebobis dasawyiss win uswrebda sibnele, saRamo, mwuxri. igi amitomac aris dadginebuli pirvel adgilas yoveldRiur RvTismsaxurebaTa Soris. am msaxurebiT Cven madlobas vuZRvniT RmerTs ganvlili dRisaTvis.

mwuxris locvis Semdeg monazvnebi satrapezoSi vaxSmobdnen, Semdeg taZarSi brundebodnen da serobis locvas aRasrulebdnen. TviT es saxelwodebac - seroba (berZ. ) vaxSmis Semdgom msaxurebas niSnavs. arsebobs ori saxis seroba: mcire da didi. didi seroba aResruleba Sobisa da naTlisRebis dResaswaulebze da didmarxvis periodSi (didi mwuxris nacvlad). igi aseve SeiZleba aResrulos xarebis dResaswaulze da yvelieris SvideulSi. mcire seroba sruldeba yoveldRe, zemoT naxsenebi dReebis garda, magram, ZiriTadad monastrebSi.

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es msaxureba Sedgeba ramdenime locvisagan, romlebSic Cven vevedrebiT RmerTs codvaTa mitevebas da Zilad mimsvlelTaTvis sxeulisa da sulis mosvenebis miniWebas, Zilis dros ki eSmakis manqanebisagan dacvas. Zili sikvdils Segvaxsenebs, igi misi erTgvari savarjiSoa. amitom serobaze aRsrulebuli RvTismsaxurebisas mlocvelebs Segvaxseneben saukuno Zilisagan gaRviZebas, anu mkvdreTiT aRdgomas. did serobas Zvelad ewodeboda, agreTve, "xadilsa Cemsa" an "xadiliani": didi seroba iwyeba me-4-e fsalmuniT, romelic, Tavis mxriv iwyeba sityvebiT: "xadilsa Cemsa esma Cemi RmerTsa..." (Tanamedrove qarTuliT am fsalmunis xsenebuli adgilis Sinaarsis gadmocema ase SeiZleba: ,,mipasuxe, roca mogixmob, Cemi simarTlis RmerTo...). barem aqve vTqvaT, rom grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis teqstSi amis Taobaze pirdapiraa naTqvami:,, da serobasa ,,xadilsa Cemsa warTqvian (qarTuli proza 1981: 241). serobis Semdeg monazvnebi iZinebdnen, evropul monastrebSi es daaxloebiT 18.45-ze uwevda, da erTmaneTs kvlav locvaze xvdebodnen, SuaRamisas. locvis am tips SuaRamiani erqva. SuaRamis locva (SuaRamiani) SuaRamisas aResruleba mosaxsenieblad macxovris locvisa geTsimaniis baRSi, romelic man RamiT aRavlina. SuaRamianis msaxureba imiTac RirsSesaniSnavia, rom swored mas daukavSira ufalma Tavisi meored mosvla igavSi aTi qalwulis Sesaxeb. es msaxureba mouwodebs morwmuneebs, yovelTvis mzad iyvnen gankiTxvis saSineli dRisaTvis. ganasxvaveben am locvis sam saxes: yoveldRiurs, SabaTisas da kviris SuaRamians. saRvTismsaxuro tipikonis mixedviT, maTi Sesrulebis wesi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba. SuaRamianic, msgavsad mcire serobisa, ZiriTadad, monastrebSi aResruleba. SuaRamiani msaxurebis Semdeg monazvnebi isev iZinebdnen ciskramde anu dilis locvamde, mzis amosvlis win rom

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aResruleba, Tumca, dResdReobiT igi ZiriTadad, mwuxrs erwymis - saRamoxans aResruleba. ciskaric sami saxis arsebobs: yoveldRiuri, didi da saaRdgomo. yoveldRiuri ciskari aResruleba sadag dReebSi. didi ciskari, SeerTebuli did mwuxrTan da pirvel JamTan, RamisTevis (saRamos) locvaa. saaRdgomo ciskari ki sruldeba yoveldRe brwyinvale SvideulSi. alioni, romelsac sinaTle, sifxizle da sicocxle moaqvs, yovelTvis aRZravs morwmune adamianSi madlierebis grZnobas RmerTisadmi - sicocxlis momniWeblisadmi. am msaxurebiT Cven madlobas vuZRvniT RmerTs ganvlili RamisaTvis da wyalobas SevTxovT momaval dRes. marTlmadideblur RvTismsaxurebaSi ciskris locvisas ganidideba macxovris mosvla amqveynad, romelmac axali cxovreba moutana adamianebs. Semdeg iwyeboda wirva, dRis mTavari mRvdelmsaxureba,romlis drosac moixsenieba macxovris qveyniuri cxovreba da aResruleba ziarebis saidumlo, dadgenili TviT macxovris mier saidumlo serobaze. liturgia sruldeba diliT, sadilobis dromde. teqstSi ziarebis saidumlos aRsrulebis wesi ,,Jamiswirvad moixsenieba. aq igulisxmeba pirveli Jamnic, romelic Cvens dilis eqvs an Svid saaTs Seesatyviseba. es Jamnoba locviT gananaTlebs ukve damdgar dRes. pirveli Jamnobisas moixsenieba iudevel mRvdelmTavarTa samsjavro ieso qristeze, romelic daaxloebiT am dros moxda; mesame Jamnic, Cvens cxra saaTs rom Seesatyviseba. am Jamnobaze moixsenieba macxovris gasamarTleba, tanjva pilatesTan da mociqulebze suliwmidis gardamosvla; meeqvse Jamnic, romelic Seesabameba Cvens dRis Tormet saaTs da masze moixsenieba ieso qristes jvarcma, romelic dRis 12 saaTidan 2 saaTamde periodSi aRsrulda. sadilis Jamnis Semdeg monazvnebi sadilobdnen.

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bolos iyo mecxre Jamnis dro, romelic daaxloebiT dRis sami saaTisaTvis uwevda. masze moixsenieba ieso qristes jvarze sikvdili, rac daaxloebiT am dros moxda. gansakuTrebul dReebSi monazvnebi Rames aTenebdnen, roca mwuxridan vidre gaTenebamde unda elocaT. amas erTvoda winadRis locvebi, samwmidaobis galobis win kvereqsi unda warmoeTqvaT anu mosaxsenebeli vedreba aRevlinaT uflisadmi. teqstSi moxseniebuli ,,kvereqsi zeciT gardamoi unda iyos cnobili savedrebeli: ,,ze gardamo mSvidobisa da cxovrebisaTvis sulTa CvenTasa, uflisa mimarT vilocoT. sakvirao Jamiswirvisas samwmidaobis galoba eqvsjer unda gaemeorebinaT. aqve naTqvamia, rom Jamiswirva ,,Jamsa cxra Jamisasa imarTeboda. Zneli saTqmelia, Jamiswirvis drois gadaadgileba mxolod RamisTevisas xdeboda, Tu saerTodac ase iyo. monazonTa locviTi aqtivoba, cxadia, amiT ar Semoifargleboda: gardacvalebulTa sulebsac pativs maSin miagebdnen, romel dResac daemTxveoda gardacvalebidan mesame, meSvide, meormoce dReebi da weliwadi, am dReebis Jamiswirvas ar miaTvlidnen im oras dRes, romlebic xanZTaSi damarxulebisTvis daewesebinaT. paqsimadis (erTgvari orcxobilis) gayofac Tavidanve yofila dawesebuli. monazonTa mier marxvis Semadgeneli elementia. dacvac beris yoveldRiurobis

giorgiwmindobis Tvis dadgomidan giorgiwmindobamde anu 10 (23) noembramde marxulobdnen rZis nawarmiT. aseve, qristeSobisa da wminda mociqulTa marxvebs didi RvawliTa da keTilkrZalulebiT aRasrulebdnen. noembris Tvis dadgomidan ki vidre pirmarxvamde anu marxvis dasawyisamde - yovel SabaTs ciskris locvaze oTx kanons,

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didmarxvisas ki vidre bzobamde - yovel ciskarze aseve oTx kanons aRasrulebdnen da saTanado amonaridebs wminda werilidan oTxgzis kiTxulobdnen. berebi gansakuTrebuli skrupulozurobisT asrulebdnen vnebis SvideulSi dawesebul gangebulebas. aRdgomidan erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi "Wiris kanons" ar ambobdnen; serobisas warmoiTqmoda "xadilsa Cemsa", aRdgomis "wardgomani" da rac ciskarzea dawesebuli, da TiTo kanoni - axalkviriakemde. xolo sulTa xsenebisas, aRvsebis Semdeg, ciskrad warmoTqvamdnen cxra netarebas ("netararianni") da galobans" . giorgi merCules TqmiT, yovelives ase aRasrulebdnen mamebi TviT mis droSic, anu meaTe saukuneSi (qarTuli proza 1981: 240-241). SegaxsenebT, rom teqstSi araerTxel moxseniebuli ,,kanoni liturgikul praqtikaSi dadgenili wesis mixedviT Sekrebili wmida sagaloblebis erTobliobaa, romelic ZiriTadad 9 nawilisagan ("galobisagan") Sedgeba. didmarxvasa da zatikis (aRdgomidan sulTmofenobamde) periodSi kanoni zogjer or, sam an oTxnawiliniaa da am SemTxvevaSi Sesabamisi zedawerilic aqvs: orsagalobeli, samsagalobeli, oTxsagalobeli. TiToeuli nawilis, e.w. "galobis", Sinaarsi efuZneba 9 bibliur galobas, rac gansakuTrebiT naTlad Cans galobebis pirvel troparebSi ZlispirebSi. pirveli galoba mosesa da misi dis mariamis galobidan momdinareobs, romelic mewamuli zRvis gapobis Semdeg Seiqmna. masSi RmerTi idideba adamianTa modgmisadmi gamovlenili auracxeli saswaulisa da sikeTisaTvis. meore galoba moses mier ebraelebis mxilebas efuZneba. agreTve, am eris momaval usjuloebasa da gandgomas winaswarmetyvelebs. es galoba sinanulsa da RmerTisken Semobrunebas qadagebs. igi mxolod wmida didmarxvaSi sruldeba.

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mesame galoba agebulia ana winaswarmetyvelis, samoel winaswarmetyvelis dedis, galobis mixedviT, romelic man amoTqva unayofobamde da unayofobisagan gankurnebis Semdeg. meoTxe galoba Seicavs abakum winaswarmetyvelis locvas, romelmac RmerTi ixila "mTiT maRnariT gamomomavali. es galoba winaswarmetyvelebs Ze RmrTisas, ieso qristes dedamiwaze mosvlasa da qalwulisagan ganxorcielebas. mexuTe galobis Sinaarsi aRebulia esaias winaswarmetyvelebidan; igi mravalmxrivia, magram, umetesad, es aris locva bnelSi mcxovrebTaTvis zeciuri naTlis gardasamovlenad. meeqvse galoba iona winaswarmetyvelis galobaa, romelic man veSapis mucelSi warmoTqva. es mwuxare sagalobeli Seicavs RmerTisadmi RaRadebas im ufskrulis siRrmidan, romelSic Tavs vigdebT Cveni codvebiT. meSvide galoba sami yrmis galobas efuZneba, romelic maT babilonis saxmilSi gamoTqves. merve galobac sam yrmas ekuTvnis. masSi anania, azaria da misaili yvela qmnilebas mouwodeben, akurTxon, ugalobon da aRamaRlon RmerTi ukunisamde. mecxre galoba ukve axali aRTqmidanaa. igi Sedgeba yovladwmida RmrTismSoblis winaswarmetyveluri sityvisagan, romelic man elisabedTan Sexvedrisas aRmohxda, da ioane naTlismcemlis mamis, mRvdel zaqarias sityvisagan, romelic man metyvelebis unaris dabrunebis Semdeg warmoTqva. ganvmartavT teqstSi moxseniebul terminsac - ,,wardgoma, romelic ZiriTadad, daviTis fsalmunTagan amoRebuli ama Tu im dRisa Tu dResaswaulisaTvis misadagebuli muxlia. wardgoma gvauwyebs ZvelaRTqmiseul winaswarmetyvelebas qristes mosvlisa da axalaRTqmiseul eklesiaze;

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aqve SeiZleba erTi dakvirvebis TqvenTvis gaziareba: cnobili germaneli mecnieri norbert eliasi yoveldRiuri cxovrebis definiciisas yoveldRiurs, yofiTs, ganmeorebads, rutinulsa da a.S. dResaswaulebrivisagan, uCveulosagan, mkveTrisgan, ganumeoreblisagan gamoyofda, da amiT TiTqos mkafio zRvars viRebdiT erTi yofis meorisagan gasamijnad (puSkareva). magram beruli yoveldRiuroba amiTac gamorCeulia: saqme is gaxlavT, rom beris yoveldRiuri saqme - locva, erTi SexedviT, TiTqos, rutinaa: igi erT da imave dros erTi da imave scenariT sruldeba, magram meore mxriv, es mainc dResaswaulia, radgan yvelgan RmerTi igulisxmeba, romelic yoveldRiurs, yofiTs dResaswaulad gardaqmnis. amis saukeTeso magaliTi evqaristiaa, roca Cveulebrivi pur-Rvino macxovris sisxl-xorcad gardaisaxeba. amitom beris locva ufro metia, vidre rutinuli yoveldRiurobis ubralo elementi. locvas monazoni, cxadia, did mniSvnelobas aniWebs, da es Cvens teqstSi ara mxolod zemoT TqmuliT dasturdeba. avtori gvamcnobs, rom locvisas urTierTsaubari ikrZaleboda. locva iyo yvelafris SemzRudavi, TviT marxvisac ki. locva didxans unda gagrZelebuliyo (mdablad da gvianad), kedels miyrdnoba, Zili da ,, ukrZalvelad jdoma ikrZaleboda. gamorCeuli monazvnisaTvis niSandoblivia ,,mouklebelad locva; Jamiswirvis umizezo gacdena isjeba, mizezi ki mxolod uZlureba SeiZleba iyos; grigolma ekvdrebSi (mcire samlocveloebSi), romlebsac senakebTan axlos aSenebdnen, Jamiswirva akrZala. liturgia mxolod did eklesiaSi unda Catarebuliyo, romelze daswreba yvela mRvdelmsaxurs valad edo (qarTuli proza 1981: 309). gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom sakurTxevelSi Sesvla foCiani tansacmliT an tyaviT, ikrZaleboda (iqve: 240). ise Cans, yoveldRiurad, cvalebad klimatur pirobebSi mcxovreb da mudmivad fizikurad mSromel berebs zemoT dasaxelebuli samosi ecvaT, raTa erTi mxriv, sicivisagan daecvaT Tavi da, meore mxriv, Sesaferisadac cmodaT.

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dRisiT saxareba unda ekiTxaT da elocaT, RamiT ki fsalmunebi warmoeTqvaT (iqve : 240; 214; 265; 241). am bolo wessac Tavisi gamarTleba aqvs: monazvnebi, glexebiviT, dRis sinaTleze kiTxvas amjobinebdnen, anu bunebriv ganaTebas iyenebdnen, fsalmunebis warTqma ki, romelnic zepirad icodnen, RamiTac SeiZleboda. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom monazoni maSinac loculobs, roca qveynad sxva aRaravin loculobs: es xdeba dilaadrian an gvian RamiT; man yvelas unda daaswros uflisaTvis maradiuli sadideblis aRvlena da maSinac adidos ufali, roca yvela suldgmuli Zils miscemia: is xom samyaros WeSmariti sulieri faria! locvisagan Tavisufal dros monazoni Sromobs anu asrulebs pavle mociqulis anderZs: ukueTu visme ara unebs saqmis, nuca Wamn (2 Tes 3.10). teqstSi es araerTxel dasturdeba: grigolisa da misi mimdevrebis - sabas, Tevdoresa da qristefores opizel ZmebTan orwliani yofnisas mravalTagan grigols swored es siqvele auTvisebia: xelsaqme, mdumarebiT aRsrulebuli (qarTuli proza 1981: 218). grigols ,,Sromai didad uyvarda ara xolo locvisa da marxvisai oden, aramed dRe da Rame xeliTa TvisiTa iqmoda (iqve, 309). monazvnebi Tavisi xeliT aSeneben monastrebs (TviT grigolma daavaka eklesiis aSenebis adgili) (iqve, 232) da ,,iwyes Senebad (iqve, 233), aSeneben venaxebsa da baRebs (iqve, 245), qvasa da kirs, romelsac yiduloben, sakuTari zurgiT ezidebian (iq ve, 257258), purs acxoben (iqve, 270); roWikoben anu sjulieri mTavrobisagan Semowirul saCuqrebs saxedriT ezidebian (iqve, 245), mkian (iqve, 282). yovelive amas, romelic Rirsebad aRiqmeba, marTlac SeiZleba ,,gardareuli Sroma ewodos (iqve, 269). asec iyo, da teqstiTac dasturdeba, rom berebs samonastro mSeneblobaSi materialurad mefe-mTavrebi exmarebian. sainteresoa, rom miuxedavad amisa, diqotomia - sasuliero/saero

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umkacresadaa daculi. marTalia, eklesia-monastrebs, faqtobrivad, saeroTa saxsrebiT, Sromis iaraRebiTa da nedleuliT ageben, anu saeroni xorcielad uzrunvelhyofdnen sasulieroT, magram maSeneblebad mainc sulieri moZRvrebi iTvlebian (,,Tuinier mefeTa queyanaTa). es, ase vTqvaT, Sua saukuneebis kanonia da mas arc aravin ganikiTxavs, Tu ar CavTvliT mefe-mTavarTa sulebis sanacvlo moxseniebis praqtikas da monazvnebze ,,gamZvinvarebul erTi-or pirs; ber-monazonTa yoveldRiurobis kidev erTi mTavari aspeqti marxva, teqstSi amgvaradaa gamoTqmuli: ,,talanti monazonisa marxvai ars (qarTuli proza 1981: 244). rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, es sulier-fizikuri aqtivoba danarCenebsac gansazRvravs: kerZod, vgulisxmobT sakvebs, samoss, sacxovrissa da sxv. am aspeqtTa organizeba marxvis anu daTmenisa da TavSekavebis aRTqmis dacvas eqvemdebareba. rogorc zemoT rekonstruirebuli dRis ganrigiT davrwmundiT, monazoni dReSi orjer miirTmevda. grigoli amiTac gamonaklisia: is erTxel Wamda mcire raodenobis purs, romelsac amave raodenobis wyals ayolebda. Rvino ki saerTod ar daelia (iqve, 242). didmarxvac ki, romelic aRdgomis win 49 dRiT adre iwyeboda da aRdgomis dResaswaulamde grZeldeboda, grigolma ,,kalnabiTa umgbvriTa anu umi kombostos WamiT Seinaxa (iqve, 242). zogadad, teqstis Tanaxmad, zogi monazoni saerTod ar svamda Rvinos, xolo vinc svamda, Zalze mcires (iqve, 241). TviTon grigols Zalze moswonebia opizel dayudebul berTa cxovrebis wesi gastronomiis TvalsazrisiTac, rac niSnavda pirutyvTa msgavsad, mwvaniliTa da xiliT, an mcirodeni puriT gamokvebas (iqve, 221). amitomac eniWeboda aseTi didi mniSvneloba samonastro adgilebs, romelTa irgvliv wyaro unda yofiliyo da, aseve uricxvi maRnari anu tevri xilis mosapoveblad (iqve, 245), berebs mxolod trapezis dros SeeZloT Wama, senakSi es ekrZalebodaT (iqve, 241). marTalia, Cveni teqstis TiTqmis yvela gverdze sxvadasxva formiT gamoiTqmis debuleba, rom

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saWmel-sasmeli mxolod xorcis SesanarCunebladaa mogonili da is gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ar imsaxurebs, saWmeli, samoselisa ar iyos, Seuracxi, saglaxako, angariSSi Caugdebi, mcire da mdare unda iyos, magram xandaxan fsiqologiaSi marad miuwvdomeli ram sZuldebaT xolme da SesaZloa, saqme Cvenc am viTarebasTan gvqondes. grigolis SemTxvevaSi yovelive is, rac gulisTqmasa da mis moyvarebas ukavSirdeba, Wamadia: anu maradi daTmenis gamo iseTive saZulveli, rogoric xsnilobis sakvebi. amitomacaa gasagebi daniel winaswarmetyvelis naTqvamis gaTaviseba anu ,,TaviT TvisiT warmoTqma: ,,puri gulis saTqmeli ara vWamo. rogorc Cans, yvela puri puri rodia: zogi arsobas amkvidrebs da dalocvilia, zogi gulisTqmaT aRZravs da dasagmobia. es tendencia sWvivis teqstis sxva epizodebSic, roca upovareba Svebad gardaiqmneba; SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom xanZTaSi dayudebuli grigol xanZTelis maspinZeli beri xuediosis SemTxvevaSi fsiqikis damcavi meqanizmi moqmedebs da isic, ,,kniniTa miT saSvebliTa friad iSvebdes, viTarca didZaliTa sanovagiTa. saWmlis uqonloba (didi upovareba) sulier sazrdels Sobs, es sazrdeli ki uflisadmi locvaa; ,,ara naklulevan varT, aramed aRsavse madliTa saunjeTa maTgan mouklebelTa, uxilavTa da ganuparvelTa. morali naTelia: sakvebi ileva, xilulia da gaqrobas daqvemdebarebuli. ufals araferi akldeba, uxilavia da maradi. erT epizodSi ymawvilebis - efremisa da arsenis, rogorc jer isev balRRTa, gamosazrdel rZes RvTis madli Canacvlebia, is itvirTebs ymawvilTa sazrdelobis rolsa da funqcias (iqve, 250). imis xelaRebiT Tqma, rom berebi sinamdvileSi ase ar iqceodnen, ar ZalgviZs, radgan teqstSi ase weria. sxva teqsti ar gvaqvs. gaviTvaliswinoT Sua saukuneTa literaturuli kanoni, saeklesio tradicia da im daskvnamdec mivalT, rom ise weria, rogorc unda eweros. SeiZleba mxolod frTxili varaudis gamoTqma: Tu gastronomiis sublimacia teqstSi ar mogvCvenebia, maSin is unda Seqmniliyo gulmodgine monazonTa

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gasamxneveblad, magaliTis misacemad, xolo sulmdabalTa samxelada da dasaSineblad; agreTve, mrevlis, Sua saukuneTa im marad daunayrebeli publikis gasamxnevebladac, romelTaTavisac iwereboda es da msgavsi sakiTxavebi. swored is unda gardaqmniliyo, gaucxoebuliyo, fasdakargulad gamocxadebuliyo, rac ase sanatreli iyo maTTvis. magram mxolod gardaqmna, gaucxoeba da devalvireba sakmarisi ar iyo: mas axali xarisxi, zeciuri, saRvTo ganzomileba unda SeeZina. am sakiTxavebiT izrdeboda mrevli da roca axerxebda, materialur siameebze maRldeboda kidec. berTa yoveldRiur sakvebs, teqstis Tanaxmad, albaT, puri, wyali, Rvino, bostansa da baRebSi moweuli xil-bostneuli, SesaZloa, Tevzic Seadgenda, Tumc es bolo produqti teqstSi saerTod ar ixsenieba. da kidev erTi dakvirveba: marTalia, berebi TiTqos udrtvinvelad iTmendnen nebayoflobiT arCeul cxovrebiseul gaWirvebas, magram es rom marTlac did, angariSgasawev saqmeda da saeroTaTvis lamis dasayvedreblad miaCndaT, teqstidan Cans: mRvdel matoize naTqvamia, rom igi ,,gardareulma Sromam, kerZod ki, sxva Tavganwirul qmedebebTan erTad (mouklebeli locvai, uZilobai, zedgomai, muxlTa modrekai friadi), ,,wyurilma da SimSilma maradis moauZlura (qarTuli proza 1981:269). rogorc Cans, Zilic mudmivad sanatreli mdgomareoba iyo: grigols, zenonsa da makaris erT senakSi yofnisas fsalmunebi unda warmoeTqvaT, zenoni da grigoli aki asec moiqcnen, ,,xolo makaris hruloda da sarecelsa zeda mieZina (iqve, 317). berTa ,,xorcieli iwroebis kidev erTi markeria sacxovrisi anu senakSi cxovrebis pirobebi, romelTac grigolis ,,friad ficxeli wes-gangeba gansazRvravda: senaki idga eklesiisagan moSorebiT. Sig Tavsdeboda mcire sawoli, Seuracxi sagebeli, erTi WurWeli wylisaTvis. senaks sakvamuri ara hqonda, radgan

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cecxls ar anTebdnen. RamiT sanTlis anTebac ikrZaleboda (iqve, 241). ise gamodis, es mxolod TavSesafari, Ramis gasaTenebeli adgili gaxldaT. es ar iyo, da ar SeiZleba yofiliyo bina, Tanamedrove gagebiT: bina, i. lotmanis dakvirvebas Tu ganvazogadebT, didi sacTuria infernaluri Zalebis oinebisaTvis, biurokratiuli fiqciebis mistikisaTvis, yofiTi kinklaobisaTvis... sulierebis rTul ierarqiaSi bina qveda safexurzea, iq, sadac usicocxlo usulguloba, zedaze ki absoluturi sulierebaa. pirvels sWirdeba sacxovrebeli farTi (oRond, ara - saxli) (lotmani 2012: 87), meores igi arad argia: monazvnis miwieri cxovreba maradi gzaa. monazoni TviTganaTlebasac misdevda da drodadro kiTxulobda: es dasturdeba Tavad grigolis magaliTiT, romelsac siyrmidanve daeswavla daviTni da sxva saeklesio literatura qarTulad, aseve ucxo enebze dawerili saRvTo da filosofiuri literaturis nimuSebi (qarTuli proza 1981: 216), ubis monastersac dautova ,,Tvisni wignni, romel aqvndes; wignis TavisTvis kiTxvis anu soflisagan izolaciis kidev erTi Cveva rom ganviTarebuli iyo, adasturebs amave monastris mamasaxlisad dadgenili, ierusalimidan mosuli beris, vinme ilarionis xsenebac, romelsac ,,aqvndes...keTilni wignni (iqve, 244). teqstiT dgindeba, rom grigolis monastrebSi TiTqos mkacrad icaven sabawmindis tipikoniT gansazRvrul wess uwverul yrmaTa miuReblobis Taobaze (am wesis gamomcvlels wyevlasac ki uTvlis grigol xanZTeli); garda amisa, misi daxasiaTebisas naTqvamia, rom igi siyrmeSic ki bavSvuri TamaSebisagan Tavisufali gaxldaT; magram saRvTo avtoritetiT - kerZod, uflis angelozis gamocxadebiT, am wesis gverdiT avlac SeiZleba, ase vTqvaT, gamonaklisis saxiT, da arsenisa da efremis monasterSi darCenac (iqve, 249). logikuri iqneboda, mTxrobels am gamocxadebaze manam eambna, sanam sakuTriv grigoli amas sakuTar argumentad gamoiyenebda, magram hagiografiul teqstSi

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es mxatvruli kanoni daculi ar aris: wminda personaJis sityvebi ueWvelia: rasac geubnebiT, sinamdvile rom ar iyos, maSin vai Cemdao, ixsenebs mociqulis sityvebs grigoli. uflis nebas ki sacilod veravin gaxdis. sakiTxavi mxolod is aris, ramdenad ganekrZalebodnen jer kidev bavSvi arseni da efremi ,,bavSvur TamaSebs? sabawmindisave tipikoniT, SabaTobiT aravin unda gamovides lavridan sadReRamiso mRviZarebis gamo. mxolod misi dasrulebis Semdeg, winamZRvris TanxmobiT, wavides Tavis saqmeze. monasterSi ganwesebulni Tu TviTneburad stoveben monasters, ukan aRar miiRon da sxv. (alimovi). amis gamoZaxili unda iyos teqstis is epizodi, roca Tevdore da qristefore grigolisaTvis uTqmelad, farulad midian monastridan, raTa TavianTi ,,saRvTo Suri daicxron da Tavad aRaSenon monasteri (qarTuli proza 1981:242). TiTqos, aq mizezs didi mniSvneloba arc unda eniWebodes: berebma wes-gangeba daarRvies da ukiTxavad wavidnen. aseTebs ukan aRar iRebdnen. SesaZloa, amitomac wuxs grigoli (,,Sewuxna friad) da oTx ZmasTan erTad amitomac eZebs dakargul kravTa (iqve, 242-243). maTi povnisas teqsti mxolod imas gveubneba, rogor ,,Seuvrdes cremliT gamoparulni da rogor ,,aRadginna da Seitkbna siyvaruliT wmidaman grigol. sxvaTa Soris, aseve uflisave avtoriteti gamoiyena grigolma qarTlis kaTolikosad arsenis damtkicebis epizodSic (iqve, 273279). adamianuri logikiT, am qmedebaTa gamaanalizebelma, SesaZloa, eWvi Seitanos grigolis keTilsindisierebaSi, an mikerZoeba daswamos mas. magram istorikoss arc erTis saSualeba ara aqvs: ramdeni da rogori kiTxvac unda davusvaT teqsts, igi ar gvipasuxebs. erTi ram dagvrCenia: unda vifiqroT, rom aq qristesmieri siyvaruli, Zmebis gamoparvis mizezi (monastris sxvaganac aSeneba) da uflis angelozis Careva anu RvTiT inspirirebuli saqme maRla dadga kacis mier dadgenil wes-gangebaze; amas unda davurToT sakuTriv grigolis pativdebuloba, romelsac misadmi moSiSeba da mokrZaleba

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ganapirobebs. marTalia, teqstSi araerTxelaa xazgasmuli, rom berebs Soris sruli siyvaruli sufevda, romelsac SiSi unda ganedevna (1 ioane 4, 18), magram mxolod urwmunoT ara aqvT RvTis SiSi. morwmuneTa koloniaSi uflis moSiSeba misi warmogzavnilisadmi moSiSebaSi gamoixateboda. teqstSi am moSiSebas amJRavneben rogorc saeroni, ise - sasulieroni. urCebs disciplinaruli sasjeli eliT: maT xandaxan gaaZevebdnen kidec. magaliTad, erTi opizeli beri WabukobaSi grigols monastridan samjer gaugdia, ,,ukeTurobisagan slvaTa CemTaisao, ambobs monazoni, Tumc am zogadi frazidan konkretuli gadacdomebis dadgena SeuZlebelia (iqve, 302). faqtia, rom mas Secodebani mounaniebia da monasterSi dabrunebula. mavanis usjulod miCneul saqciels roca mamaTa krebuls gaacnobdnen da braldebulad cnobdnen, sakurTxevlidan Camoiyvandnen, samosels SemoZarcvavdnen da yovelTa erTobiT eklesiidan gaaZevebdnen (iqve, 306). sadac wminda mamaTa argumentebs gasavali ara aqvs, iq saswauli CaerTvis xolme da monazvnis avtoritetis saRvTo sanqtificirebas axdens: magaliTad, grigolis mowafis, epifanes winamZRvrobisas, erTi mdidari kaci werta ,,monazonTaTvis mksinvared iyo; cameti wlis asuli hyavda, dabadebiT yrumunji. dedamiss sizmrad epifane moevlina, romelmac uTxra, wirvaze kaci gamogzavne, Cemi xelnabani wyali waiRos, Sens gogonas daalevine, Tavzec wascxe da ganikurnebao. asec moxda sami dRe-Rame Zilis Semdeg. amis Semdeg wertam Tavisi Zveli damokidebuleba berTadmi Seinana da xanZTas didi Sesawiravi miuZRvna (iqve, 324-325). SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom werta manamde monazvnebs ar swyalobda da arc maTTvis xelis gamarTva miaCnda saamur saqmed. saswaulma ki igi moaqcia. garda amisa, aq adamianTa yoveldRiurobis iseTi elementi, rogoric xelis dabanaa, berTa yoveldRiurobaSi gardaisaxeba da saswaulebriv Zalas iZens: Jamiswirvis win ganbanva ucilo rituali iyo. sruliad araesTetikur-arahigienuri aqti, rogoric sxvisi

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xelnabani wylis dalevaa, ucxod ar mogveCveneba, Tu qristes mier mravalTa gankurnebis xerxebs gavixsenebT: markozis saxarebis or epizodSi laparakia iesos mier sakuTari furTxiT yrus, enablusa da brmis gankurnebaze (markozi 7, 32-35; 8, 23). imaves wavawydebiT ioanes saxarebaSic (ioane, 9,6). ramdeni komentaric unda daiweros, rom Zvelad adamianis furTxs gansakurni miznebiTac iyenebdnen, am aqtis esTetizeba, albaT, ver moxerxdeba, magram bibliur samyaroSi esTetizebas arc aravin iTxovs: Svelas iTxoven da rwmeniT eZlevaT. Cvens teqstSi daculi xelnabani wylis dalevisa da amis Sedegad gankurnebis epizodi, SesaZloa, am logikiT ganvWvritoT: epifane wminda mRvdelmsaxuria. is sakuTari xeliT exeba RvTis sisxlsa da xorcs. misma xelnabanma wyalma SesaZloa gankurnos yrumunjic ki. Sinagani hidroTerapiis es xerxi, romelic uZvelesi droidanve cnobilia, amjerad ziarebis kidev erT plastad gvevlineba. monazonTa meroWikeobas anu ulufis Txovnas saero pirebisadmi yovelTvis rodi mohqonda Sedegi. mTxrobels aqac saswauli Semohyavs scenaze, romlis wyalobiTac Zunwi da xarbi eriskacebi Wkuas swavloben (qarTuli proza 1981:282-283). qalTan, rogorc uwmindurobis wyarosTan, urTierTobis akrZalva yvela samonazvno koloniis markeria, da am mxriv, arc Cveni teqstia gamonaklisi: qarTveli berebi mefeTa (da, albaT, sxva socialur fenaTa warmomadgenlebis) midrekilebas siZvis diacebisadmi sastikad ebrZodnen. sabawminduri tipikoni qalis monasterSi Sesvlas krZalavda (alimovi). Tumc, tao-klarjeTSi arsebobda sakuTriv qalTa monastrebi, sadac mRvdels xanZTidan niSnavdnen. monazoni qalebi didi siqveliT gamoirCeodnen da maTTan megobrobas TviT grigolic ar Takilobda. isini aqtiurad monawileobdnen wminda mamaTa dadgenil saqmeTa realizebaSi. magram TviT monazoni qalebic rom ,,qalebi arian, sulTmobrZav berebsac ki ar aviwydebaT: mRvdeli matoi didad mouZlurda da Tavis mixedva aRar SeeZlo. Tumc, verc monazon dedaTa mier mis msaxurebas Seegua:

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,,daRacaTu nebisa RmrTisani arian dani ese, xolo uweso ars monazonisa xeliTa dedaTaiTa msaxurebai (qarTuli proza 1981: 270). meres dekanozs, Temestias uTqvams, ormoci wlis dekanozobis ganmavlobaSi matois CemTvis sacecxluri xelidan ar gamourTmeviao (iqve, 269). ase unda daecva WeSmarit bers Tavisi ubiwoeba ,,ara xolo xorciTa oden, aramed suliTa da sityviTa, sasmeneliTa da TvaliTa . magram am sakiTxebis amgvarma pedalirebam SeiZleba gvafiqrebinos, rom ubiwoebis problema marTlac problema iyo da bers bevri sacTurisTvis Tavis arideba evaleboda. axerxebdnen Tu vera amas qarTveli berebi, teqstSi araferia naTqvami. qarTvel berebs mowafeebi hyavT, romlebic sasuliero codniT maragdebian - gamocdili TanamoZmeni maT ,,sityvaTa sulisa cxovrebisaTa etyodian (iqve, 265). teqstSi araerTi wminda mama moixsenieba, romlebic grigolis axsna-ganmartebebs iReben da Tavi mis Segirdebad miaCniaT (iqve, 265-266). * amgvarad, qarTvel berTa yoveldRiurobis im ramdenime elementidan, romelTa mikvlevis saSualeba mogvca giorgi merCules ,,grigol xanZTelis cxovrebam da romelTa analizic dRes vitvirTeT, kidev erTxel dagvarwmuna, rom Cvens winaSe arian adamianebi da ara - sqemebi; gvwams, rom yoveldRiurobis miRma Cans cocxali portretebi da ara - Zeglebi; maTTan daaxloeba, maTi Secdomebisa da sulmdablobis, maTi tkivilisa Tu sixarulis, maTi rwmenis gacnobiereba gvafiqrebinebs, rom maT ise unda SevxedoT, rogorc adamianebs, oRond gansxvavebuli idealebis mqoneTa da maRiarebelT. raSi Segviwyobs aseTi damokidebuleba xels? uwinaresad, imaSi, rom Zveli qarTuli literatura xelmeored wavikiTxoT, axali rakursiT SevxedoT mas, raTa imaze gagvces pasuxi, rac Tanamedrove adamians ainteresebs. es adamiani, SesaZloa, mkvlevaric iyos, romlis naazrevi kidev erT fers Sematebs Zveli saqarTvelos mkvidrTa rekonstruirebul samyaros suraTs.

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literatura .

(-V .), http://www.gumer.info/bogoslov_Buks/History_Church/Mulen_lifeMon ah_index.php). i. javaxiSvili, Txz. 12 tomad, t. me-2, Tbilisi qarTuli proza, 1, Tbilisi ,

, http://www.perspektivy.info/history/istorija_povsednevnosti_kak_n apravlenije_istoricheskih_issledovanij_20100316.htm i. lotmani, semiosfero, moazrovne samyaroTa SigniT, Tbilisi . , http://lib.eparhiasaratov.ru/books/01a/alimov/lecture/111.html

goCa kuWuxiZe

monazonTa gza
`wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebaSi~ `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebaze~ dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom X s-ze adreul periodSi unda iyos igi Seqmnili da rom masze uSualo zegavlena aqvs moxdenili `wmida ninos cxovrebas~, rac ganamtkicebs mecnierebaSi gamoTqmul mosazrebas, rom wmida ninosadmi miZRvnili nawarmoebi, aseve, X s-ze gacilebiT adre unda iyos dawerili (revaz siraZe, mariam CxartiSvili, sxva araerTi mkvlevari, IV sukunes miakuTvneben mas). `cxovrebaSi~ naCvenebia is gza, romelsac monastrebSi damkvidrebamde gadian berebi. vfiqrobT, miniSnebebiT naCvenebia, rom maTi mimosvla wmida ninos saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli. `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad (`b~ redaqcia, _ Zeglebi 1964), ioane mcxeTis maxloblad SuamdinareTidan Semovida qarTlSi, udabnoSi daesaxla, iq mihyavdaT masTan sneulebi gansakurneblad. erTbaSad TiTqos ver bedavs ioane mcxeTis siwmideebTan miaxlebas, TiTqos

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verc zedazenis mTaze damkvidreba gadauwyvetia, _ RvTisgan gamocxadebas elodeba. Semdeg ioanesa da misi mowafeebis gza qveynis mTavari siwmideebisaken miemarTeba: `warmoemarTnes queyaniT TsiT da winamZRurebiTa sulisa wmidisaTa miiwivnes qalaqsa mcxeTas da Sevides da Tayuanis-sces wmidasa suetsa mas, romeli aRhmarTa RmerTman da ara kacman~. pavle mociqulis am sityvebis gameorebis Semdeg (ebr. mim. 8,2) avtori wers: `rameTu RonisZiebaman xuroTaman da TT mefeman simravliTa erTa uricxuTa ver SeuZles aRmarTebad sam dRe~ (Zeglebi 1964: 199). gadmocemulia `wmida ninos cxovrebiseuli~ istoria sveticxovelis aRmarTvis Sesaxeb, moTxrobilia, Tu rogor ver aRmarTes xuroebma sveti, rogor aRiwia wmida ninos locvis Semdeg sveti haerSi da `Camovida neliad da daemtkica safuZvelsa zeda~ (Zeglebi 1964: 200)... naTqvamia, rom `friadi eri moiqca da naTel iRes saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa~ (Zeglebi 1964: 200). Semdeg Txroba isev sveticxovelTan ioanes misvlas ubrundeba: `amas cxovelsa suetsa winaSe miiwia wmidamama~... naTqvamia, rom ioanem `aRamaRlna elni da Tualni zecad aRixilna, da cremlni gardamoadinna da madloba Sewira RmrTisa~. ufali uCvenebs, Tu saiT unda waremarTos ioanes Semdgomi gza: `xolo RmerTman uCuena mas mTaerTi maxlobelad mcxeTas da cxovelsa juarsa CrdiloT kerZo da auwya, raTa aRvides wuersa zeda mis mTisasa~. ioanem `wiaR vlo arag juarisa patiosnisa~ (iqve). da aRvida Tayuanis-cemad

amis Semdeg ki ioanes gza zedazenis mTisken miemarTeba. aSkaraa, rom sveticxovelis aRmarTvis istoria `wmida ninos cxovrebis~ erT-erTi redaqciidan aris gadawerili

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(sayuradReboa, rom avtors `wmida ninos cxovrebis~ iseTi redaqciiT usargeblia, romelSic wmida svetis sami dRis ganmavlobaSi veraRmarTvis Sesaxeb yofila saubari). Tu Cven `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ adreuli saxis aRdgenaze vimsjelebT, unda iTqvas, rom sveticxovelisa da jvari patiosanis Tayvaniscemis epizodebi sakvanZo momentebia da safiqrebelia, rom isini wmida ioane zedaznelisadmi miZRvnil da Cvenamde vermoRweul nawarmoebSi aucileblad iqneboda. Cvens xelT arsebul `cxovrebaSic~ warmoCenilia da winare teqstSic, rogorc Cans, naCvenebi iyo, Tu rogor miemarTeboda wmida ioanes gza, sanam zedazenis mTaze daeyudeboda. iqmneba SesaZlebloba, warmovidginoT, daaxloebiT rogori unda yofiliyo winare nawarmoebis siuJeti, romelic `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ CvenTvis cnobili redaqciis Seqmnamde (X s) gacilebiT adre Cans dawerili (am sakiTxebze vrclad vmsjelobT calke werilSi, _ kuWuxiZe 2005). sanam zedazenis mTaze avidoda da iq damkvidrdeboda, ioane, cxadia, jer mcxeTaSi Sevidoda da wmida svetsa da jvari patiosans scemda Tayvans, amis Sesaxeb mis adreul `cxovrebaSi~ aucileblad iqneboda saubari. SeuZlebelic ki aris imis warmodgena, ioanes mier zedazenis mTaze damkvidrebaze moeTxroT da mcxeTa da misi mTavari siwmideebi ar exsenebinaT. aqedan gamomdinare miviCnevT, rom winare teqstSi, aseve, mcxeTasTan, _ wmida ninos mier daarsebul siwmideebTan dakavSirebulad iqneboda wmida ioanes gza warmodgenili... vfiqrobT, adreul teqstSi naCvenebi iyo, rom ioane antioqiidan Semovida qarTlSi da jer mcxeTis maxloblad dasaxlda, Semdeg ki mowafeebTan erTad udabnoSi daeyuda, sadac mraval saswauls axdenda... mas Semdeg, rac RmerTma uCvena, rom mcxeTis jvari patiosanis `CrdiloT kerZo~ unda dasaxlebuliyo, ioane jer mcxeTis jvari patiosanze avida, Tayvani sca mas da mxolod amis Semdeg damkvidrda zedazenze. aseTia misi gza, romelzedac RmerTma waiyvana da romelic adreul redaqciaSi, vfiqrobT, amgvari saxiTve iqneboda warmodgenili.

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yuradRebas iqcevs is faqti, rom Sio mRvimelis erT-erTi metafrasuli `cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, ioane zedaznelma mowafeebi sxvadasxva mxareSi wmida ninos brZanebiT daagzavna (qrestomaTia 1946: 115; kekeliZe 1980: 537). cxadia, igulisxmeba, rom ioane bers gamocxadeba hqonia. safiqrebelia, rom metafrasul `cxovrebaSi~ Zveli werilobiTi tradiciis kvalia SemorCenili. yuradRebas Semdegi garemoebac iqcevs: `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebidan~ vxedavT, rom mcxeTis siwmideebisadmi Tayvaniscemis Semdeg ioane zedazenze rCeba, mowafeebi ki sxvadasxva mxareSi miemarTebian: `waravlinna [...] romelnime kaxeTiT da romelnime kuxeTiT da sxuani zena sofliT, xolo netari daviT garejisa udabnosa, da sxuani garemo qalaqsa Cuensa~ (Zeglebi 1964: 207). `wmida ninos cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, jvari patiosanis aRsamarTavad mokveTil da eklesiis samxreTis karTan dasvenebul jvrebs RamiT varskvlaviT dagvirgvinebuli jvari daadga Tavs, `ganTiad riJu-raJus oden~ misgan gamodis varskvlavebi, romelTagan erTi dasavleTiT, _ TxoTis mTisken midis da mis zemoT Cerdeba, meore daba bods daadgeba Tavze, varskvlaviT dagvirginebuli jvari ki `neliad-neliad gandgis mier kerZo aragusa~ da `daadgris borcusa zeda kldisasa, zemo kerZo, axlos wyarosa mas, romeli-igi aRmoadines cremlTa wmidisa ninosTa, da muniT aRmaRldis zecad~ (Zeglebi 1964: 148-149). am miniSnebebis safuZvelze, wmida ninos brZanebiT, erT eklesias TxoTis mTaze aaSeneben, meores ujarmaSi, _ imitom, rom bodi mirian mefes winaaRmdegobas ar gauwevs gaqristianebis gzaze. teqstze dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom zedazenis mTaze ioanes misvla da, aseve, Semdgomi moRvaweoba wmida ninos cxovrebaSi aRweril movlenebTan aris dakavSirebuli. wmida ioane zedaznelisadmi miRvnil nawarmoebSi `wmida ninos cxovrebaze~

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aris miniSneba, qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblis cxovrebis momTxrobi wigni zegavlenas axdens `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebaze.~ `wmida ninos cxovrebis~ epizodi, romlis Tanaxmad, wmida svetTan damdgari da Semdeg mcxeTis mTaze gaCerebuli naTlis jvridan dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTisaken varskvlavebi gamodis, `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ zemoT warmodgenil epizodSi gvaxsenebs Tavs. zedazenis mTa jvari patiosanTan uSualod aris dakavSirebuli, igi faqtiurad jvari patiosanis sauflo adgilia. es aris jvari patiosanis `CrdiloT kerZo~ mdebare mTa, romelic samonastro cxovrebiT gabrwyinebas saWiroebs (sityva `CrdiloeTi~ mxolod geografiuli termini ar aris, _ igi imaze mianiSnebs, rom mxares gabrwyineba sWirdeba. `CrdiloeTis~ simbolikasTan dakavSirebiT ix. _ alibegaSvili 1994: 44; 5). zedazenis mTidan ioane zedazneli, romelic wodebulia rogorc `varskulavi ganTiadisa~, `garemo qalaqsa Cuensa~ mowafeebs agzavnis. iovanes mier samonastro cxovrebis dasawyisis aRwera, mowafeTa wargzavnis epizodi, mcxeTidan irgvliv varskvlavTa ganfenis epizods gvagonebs, SeiZleba iTqvas, _ wmida ninos dros gamoCenili varskvlavebi zecaze naTel gzebad gadaiSalnen da Semdeg am naTel gzebze miemarTebian wmida berebi... vfiqrobT, ioane zedaznelisa da mis mowafeTa mier samonastro moRvaweobis dasawyisis aRwera wmida ninos dros mcxeTidan irgvliv varskvlavTa ganfenis epizods ukavSirdeba da konteqsti imaze mianiSnebs, rom berebis gza wmida ninos cxovrebasTan aris dakavSirebuli. wmida ninos dros gamoCenilma varskvlavebma zecaze is gzebi gadafines, romelzec wmida ninosa da mefe mirians samoRvaweo asparezic daisaxa da `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovreba~ ki ise daiwera, rom es naTeli gzebi berTa samomavlo moRvaweobis ragvarobaze mimaniSnebel saSualebadac warmomoCeniliyo. `ioane zeadaznelis cxovrebis~ avtori `ninos cxovrebaSi~ aRwerili istoriis erTgvari `gamgrZelebelia~,

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Txroba isea agebuli, rom warmoCndes, _ asurel mamaTa SemosvliT wmida ninos dros dawyebuli saqme grZeldeba, vxedavT, rom qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblis dros dasaxul gzebze Seudgnen wmida berebi svlas. avtorma es ori nawarmoebi organulad daakavSira erTmaneTTan. vfiqrobT, `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovreba~ `wmida ninos cxovrebaze~ miniSnebiT aris dawerili, naCvenebia, rom ioanem ninos dawyebuli saqme ganagrZo da misi moRvaweoba wmida ninos dros momxdar movlenebSi ukve iyo nawinaswarmetyvelebi (saerTod, asureli mamebi rom wmida ninos saqmis gamgrZeleblebi iyvnen, es revaz siraZes aqvs aRniSnuli, _ siraZe 1992: 44), ioane zedazneli axal simaRleTaken waremarTa, _ ukve samonastro cxovrebis doneze ganagrZo qarTlSi qristianuli moRvaweoba. wmida ninom Tu mTis ZirSi locviT aRmoacena wyali, ioane zedaznelma sxva simaRleebisken gadaiyvana procesebi, _ xalxs `mTasa mas zeda aRmoucena wyali tkbili.~ migvaCnia, rom wmida berebis samoRvaweo gzis aRwera `wmida ninos cxovrebiT~ mravalwilad aris ganpirobebuli, _ wmida ioane zedaznelisa da sxva berTa cxovreba ise Cans gadmocemuli, rom `wmida ninos cxovrebas~ organulad ukavSirdebodes. `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ Cvenamde moRweul redaqcias sxva Zegli rom marTlac uZRoda win, am mosazrebas sxvadasxva Taobis araerTi mecnieri iziarebs... korneli kekeliZe werda: `warmoudgenelicaa, rom oTxi saukunis ganmavlobaSi raime ar Caweriliyo am mamaTa Sesaxeb~ (kekeliZe 1980: 162). mas ioane zedaznelis, Sio mRvimelisa da evagresadmi miZRvnili `cxovrebebi~ (xelnaw. F199) arsen PII-is (X s) mier SeqmnilPerT mTlianad nawarmoebad miaCnda (kekeliZe 1980: 532537). es azri gaiziarebes ilia abulaZem, enriko gabiZaSvilma... xsenebul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, aseve, yuradRebas iqcevs `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ Semdegi sityvebi: `xolo mraval arian saswaulni, romelni mun aRweril arian~ (F199 _ Zeglebi 1964: 198, _ e. w. `b~ redaqcia). cxadia, ZeglSi, rac ilia abulaZis gamocemaSi warmodgenilia rogorc `b~ redaqcia

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(Zeglebi 1964), miniSnebulia `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ Cvenamde mouRwevel im adreul teqstze, romelSic ioane zedaznelis mier moxdenil saswaulebze yofila moTxrobili. rogorc Cans, arsen II iseTi nawarmoebiT sargeblobda, romelSic wmida Siosa da evagres, sxva mowafeTa Sesaxeb wmida ioane zedaznelisadmi miZRvnil nawarmoebSi iyo moTxrobili da im Zeglze dayrdnobiT Tavisi nawarmoebis Seqmnisas arsenma calke gamoyo Siosa da evagresadmi, ise wilknelisadmi miRvnili Tavi. es Cans iqidan, rom am Tavis bolos ioanes Sesaxeb Txroba isev grZeldeba da swored masSia moTxrobili ioanes aRsasrulis Sesaxeb (am sakiTxze yuradReba gamaxvilebuli aqvs enriko gabiZaSvils, _ gabiZaSvili 1982), naTqvamia, rom ioane `daberda quabsa mas Sina~ (Zeglebi 1964: 227) da `mouwoda mowafeTa romelTame da TaTas, romeli iyofeboda queSe mTasa mas, da elia diakons~ (Zeglebi 1964: 227). ioanem damoZRvra mowafeebi, `miapyrna Tualni viTar megobarTa~ da ganuteva suli da Sehvedra ufalsa~ (Zeglebi 1964: 227). Semdeg moTxrobilia, rom mowafeebma ioane im adgilas dakrZales, sadac wmida mamas ar ewada (sxvaTaSoris, amgvarad moqcevas apirebdnen wmida ninos SemTxvevaSic). amis gamo iyo `Zvrani~ da mowafeebma ioane Tavis SerCeul adgilas gadaasvenes. SeiZleba iTqvas, _ wmida ioane zedaznelis gza am qveynidan misi aRsrulebis Semdegac grZeldeba. Semdeg naCvenebia, Tu rogor iRvwodnen ioanes mowafeebi samonastro aRmSeneblobisaTvis... amrigad, vfiqrobT, gasaziarebelia Sexeduleba, rom winare redaqciebSi ioane zedaznelze mis mowafeebTan erTad iqneboda moTxrobili, Semdeg ki, Cans, mis aRsasrulze iyo naTqvami; gasaziarebelia Sexeduleba, rom ioane zedaznelisadmi miZRvnili nawarmoebi da `Siosa da evagres cxovreba~ erTi nawarmoebis

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Semadgeneli nawilebia (kekeliZe 1982: 159; gabiZaSvili 1982: 6167...), erTi nawarmoebis Semadgenel nawilebad aRiqmeba isini dRes da, aseve igrZnoba, rom ioane zedaznelisa da mis mowafeTa Sesaxeb adreul periodSic erTi mTliani nawarmoebi arsebula da arsen kaTolikosma am nawarmoebSi Semdeg gamohyo calke Tavi Siosa da evagres, ise wilknelis Sesaxeb. mariam CxartiSvilis aRniSvniT, `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ teqstebis `arqetipi, savaraudoa, rom iovanes Sesaxebac Seicavda cnobebs warmodgenilT wm. Siosa da evagres `cxovrebis~ saxiT~ (CxartiSvili 1997: 22). `Siosa da evagres cxovrebaSi~ antimazdeanuri polemikis kvali igrZnoba. Sio mRvimeli cecxls imorCilebs: `daiyara nebsa zeda Tssa~ cecxli... `xolo sakumeveli igi aRemarTa viTarca sueti da merme dadrka dasavaliT kerZo qedsa mis da Cadga adgilsa erTsa, viTarca sueti evsa mas Sina~ (Zeglebi 1964: 220). Sio mRvimelze naTqvamia, rom igi `cecxlsa daimorCilebs~, rom `icis cecxlmanca ridoba RmrTis mcnobelTa~ (Zeglebi 1964: 161). safiqrebelia, rom aq aRwerili cecxlis sveti sveticxovelis agebis simbolikasTan aris dakavSirebuli (am da `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ saxismetyvelebis Sesaxeb ix. siraZe 1992: 32-60; 109-135; metreveli 2005), oRond, cxadia, adamianis mier cecxlis damorCilebaze saubrisas nawarmoebSi antimazdeanuri polemika, aseve, aSkarad SeiniSneba (am sakiTxis Sesaxeb ix. kuWuxiZe 2004: 96-99); antimazdeanuri nawarmoebia `abibos nekreselis wameba~. antimazdeanuri polemika `Siosa da evagres cxovrebaSi~ cxadad ukve veRar aris SesamCnevi, imis warmoCenas, rom aq mazdeanobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli teqstia, specialuri dakvirveba sWirdeba. es ki imas gvafiqrebinebs, rom adreul teqstSi polemika ufro gamokveTilad iqneboda naCvenebi, _ iseve, rogorc es `abibos nekreselis wamebaSia~ (qarTlSi asurel mamaTa Camosvlis erT-erTi mTavari mizezTagani, SesaZloa mazdeanobisagan dasacavad qarTvelTa ganmtkicebac iyo). ramdenadac `Siosa da evagres cxovrebaSi~ antimazdeanuri polemikis Sesaxeb calke werili gvaqvs miZRvnili, amjerad sityvas aRar gavagrZelebT, mxolod erTs davZenT:

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antimazdeanuri polemikis gamarTva X s-Si araviTar saWiroebas ar warmoadgenda, amitom safiqrebelia, rom Tavdapirveli varianti `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebisa~, romelSic, rogorc Cans, Siosa da evagres, aseve, _ ise wilknelis cxovrebac iyo moTxrobili, swored mazdeanobis aRzevebis periodSi unda iyos Seqmnili. mazdeanobis mZlavrobis periodSi aRmocenebuli unda iyos sami nawarmoebi: `cxovreba ioane zedaznelisa da misTa mowafeTa~, `cxovreba da wameba abibos nekreselisa~, `cxovreba daviT garejelisa~... es unda iyos sami Tavdapirveli nawarmoebi, romelTaganac Semdeg sxva mowafeTa `cxovrebanic~ gamoiyo da axali teqstebi Seiqmna... rogorc sakiTxis kvleva gvafiqrebinebs, ioane zedaznelisa da misi mowafeebis sakiTxavi mazdeanobis periodSi unda iyos Seqmnili da misi erT-erTi ZiriTadi paradigma ki `wmida ninos cxovrebaa~, wmida asureli mamebi wmida ninos gzis gamgrZeleblebad arian warmosaxulni. es faqti kidev erTi mimaniSnebelia ganmanaTlebelze Seqmnili nawarmoebis siZvelisa. qarTvelTa

literatura

abulaZe 1955: ilia abulaZe, asurel wignTa Zveli redaqciebi, Tb., 1955.

moRvaweTa

cxovrebis

alibegaSvili 1994: giorgi alibegaSvili, `wminda ninos cxovrebis~ ramdenime paradigmuli modeli, _ konf. qristianuli civilizacia da saqarTvelo, arq. kvlevis centri (moxsenebaTa Sinaarsebi), Tb., 1994. gabiZaSvili 1982:Genriko gabiZaSvili, asureli moRvaweebis `cxovrebaTa~ e. w. arqetipebis urTierTmimarTebisaTvis, _ macne, enisa da literaturis seria, # 4, 1982.

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kekeliZe 1956: korneli kekeliZe, etiudebi, I, Tb., 1956. kekeliZe 1980: k. kekeliZe, istoria, I, Tb., 1980. Zveli qarTuli literaturis

kuWuxiZe 2004: goCa kuWuxiZe, antimazdeanuri polemikis kvali `Siosa da evagres cxovrebaSi~, _ J. `kriteriumi~, #10, 2004. kuWuxiZe 2005: g. kuWuxiZe, `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ uZvelesi saxis aRdgenisaTvis, `literaturuli Ziebani~, XXVI, Tb., 2005. metreveli 2005: saba metreveli, `wmida ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~ saxismetyveleba, literaturuli Ziebani, XXVI, Tb., 2005. siraZe 1992: revaz siraZe, qristianuli kultura da qarTuli mwerloba, I, Tb., 1992 qrestomaTia 1946: Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, I, solomon yubaneiSvilis gamoc., Tb., 1946. CxartiSvili 1997: mariam CxartiSvili, qarTuli hagiografiis wyaroTmcodneobiTi analizi (IV-VII ss. istoriis amsaxveli Zeglebi) (sadoqtoro disertaciis avtoreferati), Tb., 1997. Zeglebi 1964: Zveli Zeglebi, I, Tb., 1964. Zeglebi 1971: Zveli Zeglebi, III, Tb., 1971. qarTuli qarTuli agiografiuli agiografiuli literaturis literaturis

maka vasaZe

robert sturuas saTeatro enis zogierTi maxasiaTeblis Sesaxeb


lingvosemiotikis ganviTarebasTan erTad saxelovnebo mecnierebaSi prioritetuli gaxda `xelovnebis enis~ kvleva. postmodernizmis epoqaSi xelovnebis enas Seiswavlian, rogorc avtorsa da mkiTxvels, mayurebels, msmenels Soris saerTo enis gamonaxvis saSualebas. xelovnebis Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi, imaze dayrdnobiT, rom yovelnairi sistema, romelic or an ufro met adamians Soris komunikaciis saSualebaa, SeiZleba gansazRvruli iyos, rogorc ena, amtkiceben, rom xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargs Tavisi gansakuTrebuli ena aqvs. vinaidan xelovneba Seicavs komunikacias, mas aucileblad aqvs am komunikaciis gansaxorcieleblad organizebuli sistema, anu ena. aqedan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia saubari musikis, ferweris, Teatris, zogadad, xelovnebis enis Sesaxeb. Tanamedrove semiotikaSi yuradReba gadatanili iqna verbaluri niSnebidan araverbalur niSnebze. amis Sedegad mecnierebi yvelafers moiazreben rogorc teqsts, diskurss, xolo mTeli kacobriobis kulturas _ rogorc jams

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teqstebisa, rogorc interteqsts, romelic SeiZleba wakiTxuli iqnas gramatikis Sesabamisi wesebis mixedviT. xelovnebis Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi amtkiceben, rom xelovneba erTgvari (meoradi) enaa, xolo xelovnebis nimuSi _ am enaze Seqmnili teqsti. semiotika enas ganixilavs, rogorc niSanTa sistemas, komunikaciis saSualebas. avtori, Semoqmedi mis mier Seqmnili enobrivi sistemiT gadascems informacias mkiTxvels, mayurebels, msmenels da a. S. swored am enis meSveobiT myardeba kontaqti informaciis gadamcemsa da mimRebs Soris. Teatris semiotika mniSvnelovani da dRemde jer isev naklebad Seswavlili nawilia am rTuli problemisa. Teatri ansambluri xelovnebaa. TeatrSi _ grimiTa da mimikiT dawyebuli da darbazSi mayureblis qcevis normebiT damTavrebuli, Teatraluri salarodan _ ritualizebul `Teatralur atmosferomde~ _ yvelaferi semiotikaa. saTeatro ena, upirveles yovlisa, aris Teatraloba, romelic warmoadgens nakrebs sxvadasxva niSnebisa, kodebisa _ msaxiobTa TamaSi (sxeulis plastika, xmis JReradoba, sivrceSi moZraoba da a. S.), dekoraciebi, Suqi, musika (melodia, tonaloba, ritmi), dumili, siCume, pauza, metaforebi, simboloebi da a. S. yvelaferi es qmnis saTeatro enas. Teatralobis ori koncefcia: pirveli, mayurebelma unda daiviwyos, rom igi TeatrSia da meore, mayurebeli yovelTvis unda grZnobdes, rom igi TeatrSia, es aris ama Tu im saTeatro moRvawis subieqturi midgoma, magram swored igi asaxavs Semoqmedis saTeatro enas. robert sturuas saTeatro enis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebia: montaJis principi, simboluroba da metaforuloba, `dekanonizeba~, `ormagi kodirebis~ principi, ironia, Janrebis aRreva _ stiluri sinkretizmi, karnavaluroba, imanenturoba, Teatraloba, ,,muSaoba publikaze, auditoriis aucilebeli gaTvaliswineba. es niSnebi, sxvasTan erTad, axasiaTebs postmodernizms. am mimdinareobam didi roli iTamaSa reJisoris saTeatro enis formirebis procesSi. ras niSnavs `teqsti~ speqtaklSi? speqtaklis erTiani teqsti igeba, sul cota, sami subieqtisagan: piesis sityvieri

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teqstidan, romelsac qmnian msaxiobebi da reJisori, musikalurmxatvruli gaformebidan da ganaTebidan. robert sturua, upirvelesad, muSaobs teqstze da qmnis teqstis garkveul kompilacias. arsebuli teqstidan is qmnis Tavis teqsts. magaliTisaTvis SeiZleba gavixsenoT: `yvaryvare~ (p. kakabaZis `yvaryvare TuTaberis~ mixedviT) da u. Seqspiris `riCard III~. `yvaryvareSi~ robert sturua qarTuli klasikuri nawarmoebebis axal montaJs gvTavazobs. teqsti zogan Camatebulia, Setanilia polikarpe kakabaZis sxva piesebidan amonakrebi citatebi, sadac yvaryvares variaciuli saxeebia mocemuli (`kaxaberis xmali~, `cxovrebis jara~). darRveulia moqmedebis Tanmimdevroba. ufro metic, reJisorma Caamata scena bertold brextis piesidan A`arturo uis kariera.~ amiT reJisorma zogadi tipaJis konkretuli magaliTi aCvena. `riCard III~-Si reJisori ar mimarTavs sxva piesebidan scenebis gadmotanas, magram aqac vamCnevT teqstualur cvlilebebs, gadaadgilebebs, Camatebebsa da kupiurebs. tragediis sturuaseuli rekonstruqciiT speqtaklSi zogierTi personaJi saerTod gaqra, gaCndnen axali gmirebi, teqsti Seamokles. specialurad am dadgmisTvis zurab kiknaZem Seasrula axali prozauliATargmani, romelSic, nawilobriv, Sevida ivane maCablis Targmani, Caemata axali teqstebi, Seqspiris tragediis xuTi moqmedeba sam aqtamde daiyvanes. rigi scenebi, romlebic SeqspirTan Tanmimdevrulad aris mocemuli, speqtaklSi gaerTianda polifoniur plastebad, amiT naTlad gamoikveTa movlenebis is urTierTSemakavSirebeli xazi, romelic sxva SemTxvevaSi mayureblisaTvis SeiZleba amoucnobi gamxdariyo. magaliTisaTvis gavixsenoT heistingzTan riCardis gamefebaze dasaTanxmeblad migzavnili Suakacebis epizodi, romelic gaerTianebulia riCardisa da misi amalis molaparakebis scenasTan. riCardi TiTqos eswreba heistingzTan Suakacebis dialogs, afasebs mas da iRebs garkveul gadawyvetilebebs. mesame moqmedebaSi robert sturuas Semohyavda jambazi, romelic scenaze mimdinare moqmedebas ironiul, gamosaaSkaravebel komentarebs ukeTebda. reJisorma mas mayureblis `gaucxoebis~ funqcia daakisra. jambazi mayurebels ironiulad esaubreboda tragediis bunebis Sesaxeb. dascinoda scenaze moqmed

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personaJebs. yvelafer amas ki akeTebda imisTvis, raTa mayurebels SesZleboda gaeanalizebina scenaze momxdari ambis saSineli uazroba da Seegno, rom ZalauflebisaTvis, sakuTari gandidebisaTvis brZola klavs adamianSi yovelgvar adamianurs, aqcevs mas sisxlismsmel, ideafiqseTi Sepyrobil meqanizmad. zogjer, robert sturua ar dgams piesiT gansazRvrul yvela suraTs, moqmedebas. gavixsenoT, Tundac, bolo wlebSi dadgmuli samuel beketis `godos molodini~, maqs friSis 2009_2010 wlis rusTavelis Teatris sezonis premiera `bidermani da cecxlis wamkidebelni~. dramaturgiis sferoSi amgvari CareviT ar icvleba nawarmoebis dedaazri, piriqiT, kidev ufro mwvavdeba igi. aseT xerxs, piesis an nawarmoebis teqstis montaJs CvenTan jer kidev marjaniSvili iyenebda, dRes ki reJisorTa umravlesoba mimarTavs CvenTanac da ucxoeTSic. garda imisa, rom teqsts amontaJeben, erT Temaze Seqmnili sxvadasxva avtoris teqstis kompilacias qmnian, cvlian moqmedebis adgilmdebareobasac. magaliTad SemiZlia dagisaxeloT maia kleCevskas `fedra~, eimuntas nekroSiusis `otelo~, `fausti~, `hamleti~; oskaras korSunovasis `romeo da julieta~, `hamleti~, jorjo streleris 1947 wels dadgmuli `arlekini, ori batonis msaxuri~ (aq piesis saTaurSi vxedavT cvlilebas, k. goldonis piesis saTauria `ori batonis msaxuri~) da a.S. es procesi Zalian mniSvnelovania, vinaidan saTeatro nawarmoebi, speqtakli aris cocxali, droSi arsebuli fenomeni, romelsac aqvs dasawyisi da dasasruli. kinoSi procesi erTxel fiqsirdeba. TeatrSi ar xdeba procesis am saxiT dafiqsireba. miuxedavad amisa, am cocxal organizmSi montaJis xelovneba SeaqvT. saTeatro enis erT-erTi safuZvelia scenis mxatvruli sivrce, romelic ZiriTadad or nawilad iyofa: scena da mayurebelTa darbazi. arsebobs dadgmebi, sadac sivrce sam nawilad iyofa: scena, scena-scenaze da mayurebelTa darbazi, rodesac speqtaklSi TamaSdeba `Teatri-TeatrSi~. gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens scenaze dekoracia da rekviziti. TeatrSi sagani, rekviziti simbolos an metaforis rolis matarebelia. robert sturuas `mefe lirSi~ scenuri sivrce gamoirCeoda niSnobrivi gajerebulobiT _ yvelaferi, rac scenazea, iRebs

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tendencias, ganimsWvalos damatebiTi mniSvnelobebiT. dekoracia (mxatvari m. SveliZe) scenaze mayurebelTa darbazis anarekli gaxldaT. warmodgenili iyo scenis ukana `gaSiSvlebuli~ kedeli, scenas rkalad ekra loJebi da iarusebi (mayurebelTa darbazis imitacia), `gaSiSvlebuli~ iyo scenis ganaTebac, sofitebi, proJeqtorebi... scenis centrSi samefo taxti _ saxrCobela idga, romlis Tavze maimuni wamoskupebuliyo. qandaraze ki adamianis fituli SemoesvaT, krebiTi saxe _ mudmivad Tvalyuris madevnebeli scenaze mimdinare movlenebisa, `cxovrebis Teatris~ moTvalTvale, usityvo mowme im TamaSisa, romelic lirsa da mis STamomavlebs gaumarTavT. swored mis indiferentizmSi moiazreboda samyaros tragikuli aRsasruli. scenis siRrmeSi `samSeneblo nagavi~ mimoefantaT. iqve dagebuli iyo viwro liandagi, zed Semdgari vagonetiT. mTeli dekoracia TeatrSi Teatrs imitirebda: `Teatri cxovrebaa~, `cxovreba ki _ Teatri.~ robert sturuas saTeatro enis kidev erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa kostiumebis ekleqtizmi. Seqspiris dadgmebSi istoriuli kostiumebis gverdiT Tanamedroved Cacmul personaJebs vxedavT. sityva `istoriulic~ erTob pirobiTia. amiT reJisori kidev erTxel usvams xazs, rom Seqspiris gmirebi mudam Tanamedroveni, mudam `cocxlebi~ arian. maTi problemebi warsuls ar ekuTvnis. isini cocxloben adamianis fsiqikaSi da qcevaSi. swored amitomac arian ase axloblebi yvela droisa Tu erovnebis mayureblisaTvis. ufro metic, kostiumebs reJisori dramaturgiul datvirTvasac ki aniWebs. magaliTad, `mefe lirSi~ yvela personaJis Cacmuloba, garda kordeliasi, TviT mefe lirisac ki, erTnairi da usaxuri iyo. yvelas uxeSi jvalosagan Sekerili nacrisferi, grZeli anafora ecva. mxolod kordelias Cacmuloba gamoiyofoda siWreliT da feradovnebiT. reJisorma kostiumiTac gausva xazi im faqts, rom erTaderTi adamiani, romelic liris despotizms ewinaaRmdegeba, aris misi nabolara, sayvareli qaliSvili kordelia. misi Cacmuloba eqstravagantuli da mayureblisTvis TvalSi sacemi iyo. liris mier Zalauflebis daTmobis Semdgom ki yvela personaJis Cacmuloba icvleba. liris garemocva TiTqos sulmouTmenlad eloda mis mier gadadgmul nabijs Zalauflebis daTmobisaken. isini momentalurad icvlidnen ier-saxes. maTTvis es erTi

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nabiji sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisaTvis, rom Tavisuflad amoesunTqaT. isini didxans inaxavdnen sakuTar TavSi Zlier vnebebs. lirma ki maT misca saSualeba am vnebebis gamoTavisuflebisa. robert sturuas saTeatro enisTvis damaxasiaTebelia droTa aRreva, mis speqtaklebSi dro ar aris gansazRvruli. robert sturua gvixatavs samyaros, sadac realurobasa da pirobiTobas Soris arsebuli zRvari waSlilia. es paraleluri Sreebia, romlebic erTmaneTSi gadaxlarTula. erTi mdgomareobidan, erTi ganzomilebidan meoreSi gadasvla SeumCnevlad, minimaluri Strixebis gamoyenebiT xdeba. gansakuTrebuli adgili TeatrSi _ ansamblur xelovnebaSi _ musikas ukavia. musika, iseve, rogorc piesa, sareJisoro eqsplikacia, dekoraciebi, mizanscenebi xels unda uwyobdes speqtaklis sicxades, logikurobas, simarTles. robert sturuas saTeatro enisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia, musikas mianiWos iseTive funqcia, rogorsac aniWebs sametyvelo enasa Tu sxeulis, plastikis enas. speqtaklebSi igi iyenebs ramdenime musikalur Temas, TiToeul maTgans Tavisi dramaturgiuli da emociuri funqcia akisria. scenaze situaciis an gmiris ganwyobis Sesabamisad icvleba Temebi. robert sturuas yvela speqtaklsa da maT Soris `riCard III~-Sic didi mniSvneloba eniWeba musikas. umetes SemTxvevaSi, igi sazRvravs speqtaklis plastikur gadawyvetas. amis Sesaxeb robert sturua erT-erT interviuSi ambobs: `piradad me arasdros vdgam speqtaklebs musikis gareSe _ CemTvis igi Zalian mniSvnelovani, SeiZleba ganmsazRvreli komponentia, maSinac ki, rodesac igi ar JRers speqtaklSi~ ( 1981:92). `riCard III~-s dadgmis procesSi robert sturua iyenebda aRmosavlur, iaponur musikas. Semdgom es musika speqtaklidan amoiRes, magram darCa misi gavlena, rac speqtaklis plastikur gadawyvetaSi Canda. `riCard III~-Si reJisorma da kompozitorma stilurad Zalze gansxvavebuli musikaluri nawyvetebi Seitanes. speqtaklSi JRerda reg-taimi, Cernis etiudi, baxi, specialurad am speqtaklisaTvis dawerili g. yanCelis musika da yvelaferi es, isev da isev, speqtaklSi dasmuli problemebis globalur, msoflio masStabebSi gaazrebis mimniSnebeli iyo. robert sturuas saTeatro enisaTvis

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damaxasiaTebelia sxvadasxva detalis aqcentireba. misi ulevi fantazia swored detalebSi vlindeba. magaliTad, hamletisa da ofelias Sexvedris epizodSi, sxvasTan erTad, musikasac didi datvirTva eniWeba. am scenis musikaluri foni erTob sevdiani da amave dros, romantikuli JReradobisaa, romelic Tavisi ritmuli struqturiT Txrobis efeqts qmnis. verbalur dialogs Tan axlavs musikaluri Txroba. robert sturuas Teatris msaxiobebi, SeiZleba iTqvas, universalurebi arian. maT TamaSs ver mivakuTvnebT romelime erT Teatralur stils. es gansakuTrebiT speqtaklis mTavari gmirebis Semsrulebel msaxiobebs exeba. Cven ver vityviT, rom ramaz CxikvaZis liri _ gancdis, gardasaxvis, warmosaxvis, warmodgenis, fsiqologiuri wvdomis da a.S. TamaSis stilia. igive SeiZleba iTqvas robert sturuas da zaza papuaSvilis hamletis Sesaxeb, igi ar aris tradiciuli `keTilSobili ufliswuli~, hamleti ufro qmediTia da mTeli misi `filosofiac~ mis konkretul qmedebebSia. es ar aris ganswavluli, keTilSobili, msoflio sevdiT Sepyrobili axalgazrda kaci, romelic filosofiur monologebs warmoTqvams. igi xan jambazia, ironiiTa da cinizmiT ganmsWvaluli, xan Steria, xan Wkviania, xan sastikia, xan wrfeli da nazia, xan mZvinvare da ficxia da xanac romantikuli. misi qmedebebi Tu emociuri mdgomareoba sxvadasxva situaciaSi sxvadasxva elfers iZens. robert sturuas saTeatro enisTvis damaxasiaTebelia scenuri Txrobis araCveulebrivi dinamikuroba. igi mudam cdilobs informacia, romelsac gadascems mayurebels, mravalplaniani, `mravalxmiani~ gaxados. magaliTad, Tu gmiri monologs kiTxulobs, es monologi sturuasTan iSviaTad aris mxolod monologi, klasikuri gagebiT. zog SemTxvevaSi igi an dialogia, romlis meore wevri an Cumad ismens konkretuli scenis verbalur informacias da Tavisi iq yofniT raRac socialur garemos qmnis, rac TavisTavad raRacas niSnavs da aqvs semantikuri datvirTva, an, igi ar aris mxolod pasiuri msmeneli; Tavisi moZraobiT, sxeulis eniT igi CarTulia am monologSi da Tavis grZnobebsa Tu fiqrebs gadmoscems. monologebis amgvarad gaazreba gansakuTrebul aqcentirebas

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axdens monologis Sinaarsze da amave dros ufro metad qmediTs xdis mas. robert sturuas saTeatro enisaTvis niSandoblivia tragikulisa da komikuris Tanaarseboba, ar xdeba Janrobrivi dayofa. ufro metic, Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom robert sturuas saTeatro enisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ekleqtizmi. aseTi xerxebiT xazs usvams Tavis speqtaklebSi `warmodgenis~, `warmosaxvis~, `fsiqologiuri~ Tu `gancdis~ Teatris Tanaarsebobas. aq yvelafers erTdroulad aRviqvamT _ tragedias, fsiqologiur dramas, farss, komedias da a. S. es erTgvari siWrele msaxiobTa mier personaJTa asaxvagansaxierebiTac gadmoicema da erTgvarad amarTlebs speqtaklis Janrobriv ekleqtizms. imavdroulad, yoveli detali maTematikuri sizustiT aris damuSavebuli. yovel epizods, scenas simarTle udevs safuZvlad, ris gamoc, TiTqosda, erTi SexedviT, Janruli ekleqtizmi erT mTlian kompoziciad ikvreba. yvelaferi es ki reJisors aZlevs saSualebas, Tavisi saTqmeli xan `maRali materiebiT~ gadmosces, xanac _ sakuTari mistikuri xilvebis meSveobiT. amis saukeTeso magaliTia `rogorc geneboT, Sobis meTormete Rame~. mxiaruli, SeiZleba, cinikuri `situaciebis komedia~ robert sturuas interpretaciiT rusTavelis Teatris scenaze tragifarsad iqca. reJisorma speqtakli daiwyo iesos SobiT, rac piesaSi ar aris, xolo, daasrula golgoTis scenis gaTamaSebiT, rac Sokis mdgomareobaSi agdebs mayurebels. speqtaklSi, Suasaukuneebis TeatriT dawyebuli, yvela Janrs amoicnobT: liturgikul dramas, mirakls, misterias, farss, pastorals, `komedia delartesaTvis~ damaxasiaTebel bufonadas... Janruli, gamiznuli ekleqtika, SeiZleba iTqvas, polistilistika am speqtaklSic erT mTlianobadaa Sekruli. qarTuli TeatrisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi, msoflio saTeatro Janrebis da tendenciebis zogierTi maxasiaTeblebi, bertold brextis saTeatro koncefciis da mixeil baxtinis parodiis, groteskuli realizmis, ironiis, karnavalurobis Teoriis transformirebuli saxiT gamoyeneba qmnis robert sturuas `ekleqtur~ Teatrs. msoflio Teatraluri semiotikis Tanafardobisa Tu urTierTSerwymisas reJisorma

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miagno originaluri saTeatro enis Seqmnis gzebs. robert sturuas saTeatro enis ganmsazRvrel cnebas SeiZleba ewodos `polistilistika~. literatura 1981: . ( . ) Dramma der musica , . 2, .: 1981. damuSavebuli literatura gurabaniZe n. reJisori robert sturua, Tb.: xelovneba, 1997. mumlaZe d. (SemoqmedebiTi portreti), robert sturua, Jur. sabWoTa xelovneba #12 1981. bokuCava T. (sadisertacio naSromi) miTosi da qarTuli Teatri www.nplg.gov.ge/dlibrary/.../tamar%20bokuchavas%20dise rtacia.pd... From Modernism to Postmodernism, an Anthology, Edited by Lawrence Cahoone, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Blackwell publishers, 1996. . www.philosophy.ru/library/bahtin/rable.html . , , .: , 2003. . , , . 5/2, .: , 1965. . , .: , 2005.

Tamar lomiZe

klasikuri epistemis cneba da qarTuli anbanTqebebi


anbanTqeba rogorc akrostiqis grafikuli nairsaxeoba gamoiyeneboda jer kidev bizantiur himnografiaSi. anbanTqebis principzea agebuli grigol RvTismetyvelis, romanoz melodosisa da sxva bizantieli himnografebis qmnilebebi. anbanTqebaTa Janri popularobiT sargeblobda XVII-XVIII saukuneebis qarTul mwerlobaSic _ da am axal sistemaSi is, rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, axleburi funqciebiT aRiWurva. anbanTqebaTa nimuSebi Seqmnes am periodis gamoCenilma qarTvelma poetebma _ Teimuraz pirvelma, arCilma, vaxtang meeqvsem, Teimuraz meorem, daviT guramiSvilma, besikma da sxvebma. SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva, ganapiroba Tu ara anbanTqebaTa popularoba qarTul poeziaSi, ubralod, avtorTa survilma, gamoecadaT TavianTi poeturi ostatoba, an, iqneb, am Janris popularoba XVII-XVIII saukuneebis literaturaSi kanonzomieri movlenaa. aseT SemTxvevaSi am Janris ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi unda Seesabamebodes e.w. `klasikuri epistemis~ im niSan-Tvisebebs, romlebic Camoayaliba Tavis saxelganTqmul naSromSi `sityvebi da

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sagnebi (humanitarul mecnierebaTa arqeologia)~ franguli struqturalizmis TvalsaCino warmomadgenelma miSel fukom. Tavdapirvelad davakvirdeT qarTul anbanTqebaTa konkretul nimuSebs. qarTul poeziaSi anbanTqebebi garkveuli formaluri mravalferovnebiT xasiaTdeba: qarTuli anbanis Semadgenel asoebs Tavkiduri pozicia ukaviaT (TanmimdevrobiT) strofebSi, taepebSi an sityvebSi. magaliTad, Teimuraz pirvelis sam anbanTqebaSi _ `adam vaxsenoT pirvelad, TviT RmerTma Seqmna romeli..~, `aRaxven Cemni bageni, RmerTo, samebiT qebulo~ da `aRmarTa mxsnelman jvari golgoTas~ _ TiToeuli strofis taepTa Tavkidur poziciaSi ganTavsebulia erTi da igive aso: adam vaxsenoT pirvelad, TviT RmerTman Seqmna romeli, abel da seiT moyvsiTurT, mTasa wmindasa mdgomeli. abram, isak da iakob, noe simarTlis mdomeli, (1) amaTsa meoxebasa, sulo, me vici rom eli... (`adam vaxsenoT pirvelad...~) Teimurazis meoTxe anbanTqebaSi `ano alvisa, bano brol-vardi~ anbanis asoebi dasmulia sityvebis an sintagmebis Tavkidur poziciaSi, garda amisa, maT win uZRvis TiToeuli asos saxelwodeba. amasTan, anbanis elementebi ganawilebulia yoveli sami taepis sityvebSi, meoTxe taepebi ki am sistemidan amovardnilia: ano alvisa, bano brolvardi, gano gareviT nayofad esxes, dono davswame, vardsa Sevswame, da savedrebelni RvTismSoblisani~ iyenebs anbanTqebis im formas, romelic gamoiyena Teimuraz pirvelma, anu yoveli strofis TiToeuli taepi iwyeba erTi da imave asoTi: aRvaRo bage da guli wmidis RvTismSoblis saqeblad; ar Zalmic, viSiSv, viwiwvi, ras vityvi me mis sameblad?

siturfe, Ture, misgan esesxes... arCil mefe leqsSi `saqebelni

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ars yovlTa arsTa uwminde, RvTismSoblad mwvesawameblad. aha, dedav da qalwulo, Sen meqmen codvis ganmZeblad! bunebaTa uaRresad geqmna Soba-qalwuleba, (2) beri dReTa Sengan Cvilad yrma axali ixilveba, bilwi vnebas xorcielebs, Sens siaxles ar evleba; brZane Cemi Semweoba, romel ZalgiZs Sewyaleba... misave leqsSi `anbanTqeba gamoyenebulia strofuli a formai: axali SemoRebuli~

ar advilia aRkrZalva amoebisa, amosa, ar asagdebad aRmovTqva, amovimowmeb amosa; adridgan arsad arakad asmodes, aha, amosa, aris aseTi ambavi, aravis ar aamosa. brZanebdes batonis basrobas borotebisa; (3) borgdes, bunebiT brdRvinvides barnabe barTlomebisa; bedi bediTi borbali brunevdes bilw beblebisa; bici bWobani badea belier brangv berebisa... anbanTqebaSi `amicanad saTargmanebelni~ arCili mimarTavs axal xerxs: yoveli ori strofis taepebi iwyeba erTi da imave asoTi (strofuli a-s varianti): arsi yovlTa damaarsi, sxva uarso arsad ari, arasi xams Sedareba, ars yovls nivTTa ar-sadari. ar arian uimisod ar Rrubeli, ar sa dari. a, nebaa mis-mieri, gangveSoros arsad ari. (4) ars erTi rame aseTi, vin axsniT, aris saxeli, ara varga ra umisod qalaq, soflebi, saxeli, ar mefe, ara glaxaki, ar brZeni, ara saxeli. amas vin axsnis icodeT, es aris yovlTa saxeli... leqsSi `sulxanis pasuxad~ anbanis asoebi ganawilebulia yvela sityvaze (sityvobrivi forma)ii: bage

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aRvZra bage, guli davdva, es vis ze e, TamaSobdes. icodi, kilom monakvTe, neb or prtyeli Jamad rbodes. (5) sad tom ufros friad qmnila, Rrma yofs Sairs, CurCvnilobdes. cnobiT ZaliT, wmidaT WvretiT xel-rmliT, jvariT, hai, omobdes... aRsaniSnavia, rom k. kekeliZe maRal Sefasebas aZlevda (`Seudarebels~ uwodebda) arCilis poetur ostatobas, romelic `anbanTqebebSi~vlindeba (kekeliZe 1952: 480). vaxtang meeqvsis anbanTqebebSi asoebi strofulad nawildeba (TiToeul strofSi yoveli sityva (an sintagma) iwyeba erTi da imave asoTi _ strofuli b forma): asre aris agebuli, amgebelsa aq aqebdes, amkobdesca, adidebdes, amisTvisve aqa qebdes, amzrzenelsa, aRmSfoTvelsa anacrebdes, aqa qebdes, armurisken amwevelsa almass afTsa aqaqebdes. brwyinvaled baruq brZanebda badvisTvis brZnulis (6) brZaT brwyinvaleba bevrobdes beTlemurisa bagiTa, biwovnebasa banevdes berT biWTa brZnulad bagiTa, borgnilni bilwni baalni borgevden buga bagiTa... an kidev _ gamoyenebulia sityvobrivi formis varianti, romelSic yoveli sityva iwyeba da mTavrdeba erTi da imave asoTi. leqss wamZRvarebuli aqvs minaweri: `es erTi leqsi aris, yovels sityvas Tavbolos anbani uzis~: ara brZaneb giorg dedad, ese viyav zez eTerad, (7) TmiT ikari, kuk, lal, momcem, nebven osoproko Jverad... bagiTa.

Teimuraz meoris anbanTqebaTa strofebSi sityvebi dalagebulia anbanis rigze (taepobrivi b forma): `aRmeZra bage gulis dadebiT, euwya vis zed esreT Tqmuleba? iynose keTil lmoba monisa nacxeb or pirad, Jam ris sxmuleba, trfiali ufro ferovan qmnili, Rirs yovlad Sengan Cans cmeuleba, (8)

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Zevlad wyluleba, Wvretad xeloba, ams javrisagan haioeba... an gamoyenebulia strofuli a forma (`aRivso gulica Cemi...~, `aRvZraT sityva sacnobeli...~, `aris ram ucxod sacnobel...~). daviT guramiSvilis kalams ekuTvnis anbanTqebebi, romlebSic TiToeuli taepis Semadgeneli sityvebi (an sintagmebi) iwyeba erTi da imave asoTi. esaa sityvobrivi formis varianti (`aRdgomis dRes yrmaTagan samRereli~): aRdga qriste da aRmoiyvana adamiani! braleulebi, bnelSigan bmulni, borgliniani! aliluia, aliluia, aliluia! gverd gangmerilman gvapkura sisxli, gvyvna grilovanad, (9) damRerdeT dabdabs, daviTis durduks, did-didroanad; aliluia, aliluia, aliluia!.. an pirveli strofis sityvaTa sawyisi asoebis rigi emTxveva asoTa rigs qarTul anbanSi, meore strofSi ki sityvebi ganlagebulia sapirispiro TanmimdevrobiT _ -dan a-mde: (`anbanzed Tqmuli daviTisagan~) _ sityvobrivi formis varianti: adams brma gveliT da eva vera zogven e Tmenasa, im krulman laxvrad miago nebiT or-piri JRerasa; rac sityva tkbilad urCiva, ferxT-qveS Ralatobs yvelasa, Sig Cans cden Znel wyvlad Wmunvarni, xsnil narcvs jden he iebsa. i hi jojoxeTad den, xvdaT Wra, wyvla Znel cecxlTa CeniT; (10) Sigan yrian RadarT qveSe, fufqavs uyT tba, sulT rjis JeniT, pirs oxrevdin naRvliT misTvis, lxini kvnesiT iwvarTeniT, Tayvans ciT, zenars vedreT, es did gvemiT bma axseniT...

besiki iyenebs anbanTqebaTa stroful b formas:


aTinas aRzrdils aqebdeT alvad avnorCad asulsa, bnel baiaTa bryvilobas, brangv-babaWuad basrulsa! gonjni gugani gaSvenis gaxrilad gverdzed gasrulsa, daxe daRrejiT damCaCuls, dedluris drungiT dasmulsa.

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(`mzeWabuk orbelianzed~); sityvobriv formas: antoni bnelTa ganmkarg dRe erTa viT ze, eTer TviT aris kamkam lmobil mTen nazen. oron pet JamebTYrRvnilT sabek tred ucxoT frTe, qve Rrmad yril STasrulT Cinebul cad Zlevisad, wam WirTa xmiT snis, jildobs hazrTa oobiT. (`antoni kaTalikoszed~) aseTive formas mimarTavs is leqsSi `ars brZen gnomiT...~. leqsSi `an, alva xar tanadobiT~ besiki, Teimuraz pirvelis kvalobaze, mimarTavs anbanTqebis Sereul formas, oRond Teimurazi iyenebs aTmarcvlian sazoms, besiki ki _ maRal Sairs. aq qarTuli anbanis asoebi ganawilebulia taepTa winacezuruli da ukanacezuruli nawilebis pirvel sityvebze, zogjer _ mcire cezuris dasawyisSic da, garda amisa, maT win uZRvis Sesabamisi asos saxelwodeba: an, alva xar tanadobiT, ban, bulbuls migigavs ena, gan, gibrwyinavs pirissaxe, don, daxatuli xar Sena; en, elvare badri mTvare, vin, varskvlavs surs Seni brwyena, (11) zen, zilf-kavo, giSris Tmao, e, aerT daiwye frena, Tan, Turani, in, eraniT sicxovliT dagiwvams Sena... anbanTqebaSi `an~ze siT moxval~ warmodgenilia strofuli b formis varianti: anbanis asoebi dasmulia rogorc taepebis, aseve _ winacezuruli da ukanacezuruli nawilebis (zogjer _ mcire cezuris) pirvel sityvaTaYTavkidur poziciebSi: aTinad brZenTa ganzrdili aziad vmgzavrob aresa, amirbars veyme avTandil amod ra lmobiaresa, alvisa mSvildi SemSvenda israd aryisa mxmaresa arwivs afskasa Sevage hair mofrinvamkmaresa. babiloaniT mrebelman basra vixile, msuroda, baramis Seyra momesma, beJan vemone ymuroda, biisa mSvildo ficxelo, bardis isrisa mZmuro-da, brangvsa Segrtyoce, bayvs eci, vis CveviT sisxli gwyuroda... * * *

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sanam anbanTqebaTa analizs SevudgebodeT, davakvirdeT, ra gansxvavebaa akrostiqsa da anbanTqebas Soris. zedapiruli gansxvaveba maT Soris SemdegSi mdgomareobs: akrostiqi vertikaluri teqstis saxiT Seicavs garkveuli semantikis mqone sityvas an gamoTqmas, anbanTqebaSi ki teqstis strofebis, taepebis an sityvebis Tavkidur poziciebSi anbanis asoebia dasmuli (anbanSi maTi Tanmimdevrobis Sesabamisad). anu, erT SemTxvevaSi, mocemulia garkveuli semantikis mqone teqsti, meoreSi ki, ubralod, anbani, rac teqstTan formalur `TamaSs~, virtuozuli poeturi ostatobis gamovlinebas waagavs. magram es sakiTxi arc arc ise martivia. gavixsenoT, rom poeturi teqsti, prozaulTan SedarebiT, gacilebiT meti mowesrigebulobiT gamoirCeva. am amocanas emsaxureba poeturi teqstis iseTi faqtorebi, rogorebicaa ritmi, riTma, aliteraciebi da a.S. maTi meSveobiT xdeba semantikuri komponentis gauferuleba, misi minimalizeba. rac ufro Zlieria poetur teqstSi zemoxsenebuli faqtori, miT ufro sustdeba teqstis semantikuri Semadgeneli. aseT SemTxvevaSi teqstis sityvaTa semantika erTmaneTs erwymis da warmoqmnis erTgvar difuzur, daunawevrebel mTlianobas. albaT, swored amas gulisxmobda saleqso enis originaluri mkvlevari i. tinianovi, rodesac poetikaSi Semoitana termini `saleqso rigis erTianoba da simWidrove~, rac, rogorc Cans, sityvaTa semantikur urTierTzemoqmedebas niSnavs, am urTierTzemoqmedebis ganmapirobebeli faqtorebi ki swored specifikuri, mxolod leqsiTi teqstebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli faqtorebia. qarTveli poetebis anbanTqebaTa teqstebi gamoirCevian amgvari faqtorebis siuxviT, iseve, rogorc, sazogadod, XVIIXVIII saukuneebis poeturi teqstebi. isini mowesrigebulia ritmuladac da evfoniuradac. magram anbanTqebebSi Semodis teqstis maorganizebeli axali faqtori (romelic, vizualuri aRqmis pirobebSi, Crdilavs sxva elementebis funqciebs) anbanis elementTa rigis saxiT. davaxasiaToT is: 1. Cveulebriv, anbanis Semadgeneli asoebi sityvaSi arafriT gamoirCeva erTmaneTisgan, anu arc erTi maTgani markirebuli ar aris. magram anbanTqebebSi Sesabamisi teqstualuri fragmentebis urTierTSedarebisas poziciurad

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gamoirCeva am fragmentTa Tavkiduri asoebi, rogorc garkveuli sistemis (anbanis) elementebi. am gziT xorcieldeba teqstis garkveuli fragmentebis gamoyofa erTmaneTisgan da maTi gansxvavebulobis xazgasma (stroful a da b formebSi _ strofebisa, taepobriv a formaSi _ taepebisa, xolo taepobriv b formaSi _ sityvebisa). 2. anbanTqebebSi xdeba leqsis teqstisa (romelsac sistemurobas aniWebs specifikuri versifikaciuli faqtorebi) da sxva sistemis _ anbanis _ elementTa interferencia, rac arsebiTad ganasxvavebs anbanTqebebs nebismieri sxva poeturi teqstebisgan. 3. is, rom anbanis elementebi SeiZleba ganawilebul iqnas leqsis nebismier fragmentebSi _ strofebSi, taepebSi, sityvebSi, rom TiToeuli amgvari elementi SeiZleba aerTianebdes nebismieri grZliobis fragments teqstSi, xazs usvams am fragmentebis semantikur difuzurobas, imisda miuxedavad, Tu rogori moculobis fragments (rogori grZliobis semantikur erTeuls) `amWidroebs~ anbanis esa Tu is elementi. 4. amgvari fragmentebis (strofebis, striqonebis, sityvebis) erTianobas da teqstis diskretul nawilebad dayofas ganapirobebs Tavkidur poziciebSi dasmuli asoebi, romlebic aseT SemTxvevaSi teqstis rigiTi elementebi ki aRaraa, aramed teqstis Sesabamisi fragmentebis mawarmoebeli elementebia da ganapirobebs maT Tvisebriobas. (axla SeiZleba davaxasiaToTYZiriTadi gansxvaveba akrostiqsa da anbanTqebas Soris. aSkaraa, rom akrostiqSi vertikaluri teqsti aerTianebs horizontalur teqsts (romelic Sesabamisi nawarmoebis taepebSia asaxuli), axorcielebs mis sinTezs. magaliTad, rodesac vkiTxulobT daviT guramiSvilis iambikos, romelSic vertikaluri teqstia `mamao Cveno, romeli xar caTa Sina...~, bunebrivia, taepebSi gadmocemuli Sinaarsi _ `horizontaluri~ teqsti _ Cveni yuradRebis miRma rCeba da TiToeuli horizontaluri fragmenti kargavs linearulobas, sakuTar semantikas, `wertilovani~ xdeba da `miizideba~ akrostiqis im asos, sityvisa an gamoTqmisken, romelic Sesabamisi taepis Tavkidur poziciaSia mocemuli da akrostiqis Semadgenel nawils warmoadgens.

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anbanTqebaSi ki qarTuli anbanis elementebi diskretulobas aniWebs teqsts, anawevrebs mas. esaa analitikuri operacia teqstze). 5. anbanTqebaSi anbanis asoTa ganawileba teqstSi ganapirobebs im efeqts, rom es teqsti Tvisebriobas icvlis da misi elementebi erTiandebian axal sistemaSi _ aq ZiriTadi teqstia swored anbani, romelsac fonis saxiT axlavs poeturi nawarmoebis teqstis danarCeni nawili. amgvarad, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT anbanTqebaTa teqstebis semantikur difuzurobas, TiToeuli asos `danarTis~ saxiT mocemuli teqstualuri fragmentebis meorexarisxovan Rirebulebas, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maTSi xorcieldeba calkeuli fragmentebis CamoTvla, e.i anbanTqeba warmogvidgeba, rogorc teqstis im elementebis CamoTvla, romlebic markirebulia anbanis asoebiT. arc erT sxva lirikul JanrSi ar gvxvdeba teqstis rogorc sistemis amgvari saxeoba da, ra Tqma unda, arc akrostiqi warmoadgens gamonakliss. 6. sazogadod, SesaZlebelia mxolod gansxvavebulTa CamoTvla, anu anbanis elementTa ganawileba teqstSi ganapirobebs da xazs usvams Sesabamisi teqstualuri fragmentebis gansxvavebas erTmaneTisgan. 7. TiToeuli markirebuli aso, rogorc, zogadad, anbanis elementi (e.i. ara rogorc teqstis nawili, misi mowesrigebulobis ganmapirobebeli elementi) warmogvidgeba, rogorc strofis, taepis an sityvis niSani, anu asosa da im teqstualur fragments Soris, romlis sawyis (Tavkidur poziciaSi dasmul) elementsac warmoadgens es aso, myardeba semiotikuri (paradigmatuli) mimarTeba. isini urTierTSenacvlebadi xdeba. TiToeuli amgvari fragmentis (romlis damoukidebloba mTeli teqstisgan gamZafrebulia leqsis specifikuri struqturis wyalobiT) funqcias da adgils sistemaSi gansazRvravs is, Tu anbanis romeli elementiT iwyeba is. amgvarad, garkveuli gagebiT, icvleba teqstis amgvari fragmentis semantika, magram is ki ar nivelirdeba (rogorc akrostiqSi) aramed specifikuri semantikiT aRiWurveba _ anbanis Sesabamisi elementis aRsaniSnad gardaisaxeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ama Tu im sityvas (taeps, strofs) sxvadasxvagvari semantika aqvs, imisda mixedviT, anbanTqebaSi

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gvxvdeba is, Tu Nan nebismieri sxva Janris poetur teqstSi. Sesabamisad, sustdeba TiToeuli `sityvis~ semiotikuri funqcia samyaros sagnebTan an movlenebTan mimarTebaSi. TiToeuli amgvari sityva, Tavis mxriv, axdens anbanis, rogorc sistemis elementTa reprezentacias. 8. anbanTqebebSi Tavs iCens sintagmaturi semiotikuri mimarTebebic: TiToeuli markirebuli aso (rogorc, zogadad, anbanis elementi) sintagmatur (momijnaveobis, Tu gnebavT, `sinekdoqur~) kavSirSia teqstis Sesabamis fragmentTan _ strofTan, taepTan an sityvasTan. 9. anbanis elementebis aRWurva semiotikuri funqciiT (anbanis TiToeul asos ama Tu im anbanTqebaSi aqvs erTaderTi aRsaniSni) imas niSnavs, rom maT miewereba erTgvari kvazisemantika _ da TiToeuli aso warmogvidgeba, rogorc garkveuli `sityva~, 10. saerTod, Tumca TviT anbani myari sistemaa, romelSic dauSvebelia elementebis gadanacvleba, magram anbanis nebismier elements anbanTqebebSi SeiZleba daukavSirdes sxvadasxva aRsaniSni (magaliTad, (6) SemTxvevaSi). amitom SeiZleba iTqvas, rom anbanis elementebi anbanTqebebSi xasiaTdebian kombinatoruli TavisuflebiT. 11. ra Tqma unda, zogadad, anbanis (rogorc izolirebuli da ara rogorc anbanTqebis maregulirebeli sistemis) elementebs aRniSvnis funqcia ar ekisrebaT. xolo rodesac Cven vsaubrobT teqstSi maTi semiotikuri datvirTvis Sesaxeb (teqstis fragmentebis mimarT), am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba vimsjeloT mxolod aRniSvnis ideis da ara realuri semiozisis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, arCilTan taepSi `arsi yovlTa damaarsi, sxva uarso arsad ari~ a-Ti markirebulia da niSandebulia mTeli taepi, Tumca calke am asos araviTari semantika ara aqvs. mas ekisreba mxolod taepSi, strofSi an sityvaSi xorcSexmuli warmodgenis reprezentacia. sxvagvarad, amgvari elementi ganasaxierebs warmodgenis gamoxatvis ideas. Sesabamisad, anbanTqebebis taepSi, strofSi an striqonSi xorcieldeba ormagi semiozisi: anbanTqebis elementi aRniSnavs teqstis fragments (meore markirebul asomde), xolo TviT es fragmenti, mTlianad, aRniSnavs sinamdvilis ama Tu im movlenas an sagans.

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amgvarad, warmodgena, romelic xorcSesxmulia amgvar fragmentSi, erTdroulad aris semiozisic (`obieqtisadmi~ semiotikuri mimarTebis damyareba) da Tavisi Tavis, rogorc pirobiTi niSnis TviTgamovlenac. axla davakvirdeT im movlenebs, romlebic asaxulia zemoCamoTvlil avtorTa anbanTqebebSi da vikiTxoT: xom ar SeiniSneba raimenairi kavSiri anbanTqebaSi asoTa ganawilebis wessa da Sesabamis teqstebis aRsaniSnebs Soris, anu, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, xom ara aqvs am konkretul Janrs erTgvari `semantikuri oreoli~ (rogorc ityoda m. gasparovi). k. kekeliZe aRniSnavs, rom Teimuraz pirvelis lirika orgvaria _ religiuri da saero. mkvlevari asaxelebs religiuri lirikis nimuSebs da maT miakuTvnebs poetis anbanTqebebs: `adam vaxsenoT pirvelad, TviT RmerTman Seqmna romeli~ (`romelSic Sekowiwebulia wmindanTa saxelebi~(kekeliZe 1952: 445)); `aRaxven bageni Cemi, RmerTo, samebiT qebulo~ (`aq poeti ixseniebs zogierT wmindans, bibliur epizodebs, xolo meore nawilSi dawvrilebiT laparakobs ieso qristes vnebis, aRdgomis, amaRlebisa da meored mosvlis Sesaxeb~(iqve); `aRmarTa mxsnelman jvari golgoTas~ (,,warmoadgens vedrebas RvTis, RvTismSoblisa da wmindanebisadmi~ (iqve). pirvel anbanTqebaSi strofebis pirvel sam taepebSi marTlac `Sekowiwebulia wmindanTa saxelebi~, meoTxe taepebSi poeti gamoxatavs Tavis damokidebulebas am wmindanTa mimarT. am anbanTqebaSi wmindanTa ierarqiis klasifikaciuri principia anbani, anbanuri rigi. amgvarad, aq anbani miCneulia wmindanTa simravlis klasifikaciis safuZvlad. da, poetis meore anbanTqebisa ar iyos, `viT Zaluc kacsa mtkavliTa cisa gazoma srulebiT~, aSkaraa, rom anbanis elementebi aq `mtkavlebi~ ki araa, aramed _ swored zeciuri samyaros mkvidrTa ierarqiis sazomia, anbanTqebebSi `aRivso guli Cemi~ da `aRmarTa mxsnelman jvari golgoTas...~ aRwerilia iesos amqveyniuri cxovrebis umniSvnelovanesi momentebi. Sesabamisad, am teqstebSi naratiuli elementi ufro Zlieria, vidre pirvel anbanTqebaSi. aqac gadaxlarTulia iesos cxovreba da avtoris sulieri gancdebi _ ori sistema, ori biografia. sagulisxmoa, rom mesame anbanTqebaSi (da meoris ramdenime strofSi) yoveli strofis

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pirveli sami taepi eZRvneba qristes cxovrebis ama Tu im epizodis an romelime bibliuri ambis mokle aRweras, meoTxeSi ki (an mesame da meoTxe taepebSi, ramdenime SemTxvevaSi ki _ mTel strofebSi) TviT avtoris vedrebaa gadmocemuli RvTismSoblis mimarT: daagdo tari xelTagan, qalwuli SeZrwundeboda: `da rogor, umamakacod Ze muclad viT medeboda?~ `dagcoso sulman wmindaman~ _ sityvaca ganzrqeldeboda~; (11) damxsen, ufalo, jojoxeTs cecxlimc nu momedeboda!. (`aRivso guli Cemi... ~) zecisa ZalTa mTavarsa kacTaTvis naTel-Rebulsa, zeciT qveyanas Camosuls, RvTaebiT gankacbulsa, ze amaRlebiT jvarzedan sisxliTa gverd SeRebulsa, (12) zenaar, petre Semzide samoTxes kars ganRebulsa... (`aRmarTa mxsnelman jvari golgoTas~) amgvarad, samive anbanTqebaSi bibliur da saxarebiseul ambebs erTvis aluzia avtoris cxovrebiseul Znelbedobaze. ori istoria _ qristesi da Teimurazisa SekavSirebulia erTmaneTTan analogiis meSveobiT _ da orives maregulirebelia anbani _ RmerTisa da adamianis cxovrebis sazomi. meoTxe anbanTqeba, rogorc vTqviT, satrfialo xasiaTisaa da Sereuli formiTaa dawerili: ano alvisa, bano brol-vardi, gano gareviT nayofad esxes, dono davswame, vardsa Sevswame, siturfe Turme misgan esesxes, (13) eno edemsac, vino, vin naxa, zeno zned sWirdes sxvamanc vin esxes, eo, eTeri, Tano Tu masTan, ino is ijdes, Tu gare esxes... aq, rogorc vxedavT, poeti mimarTavs anbanTqebis taepobriv formas. amasTan, yoveli taepis Tavkidur poziciaSi dasmulia anbanis asoTa saxelwodebebi, momdevno sityvebi ki iwyeba imave asoebiT, anu anbanTqebis principi gaZlierebulia,

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xazgasmulia. es gansxvaveba pirvel sam anbanTqebasa da meoTxe anbanTqebas Soris metad arsebiTia. pirvel sam _ stroful _ anbanTqebaSi ZiriTadi maregulirebeli principia mowesrigeba anbanis mixedviT, anu maTSi anbans sagangebo _ konceptualuri _ funqcia ekisreba, meoTxe anbanTqebaSi ki taepebisTvis anbanis saxelwodebebis win wamZRvarebiT poets Semoaqvs erTgvari TamaSebrivi, msubuqi elementi, satrfialo leqsis specifikis Sesabamisad. amgvarad, erTmaneTisgan gamijnulia anbanTqebis ori struqturuli principi: Teimuraz pirvelTan strofuli anbanTqeba, ZiriTadad, gamoiyeneba religiuri Temebis mxatvruli xorcSesxmisas, taepobrivi ki _ saero (satrfialo) motivis asaxvisas. es gamijvna metad arsebiTia da migvaniSnebs imaze, rom anbanTqeba, rogorc vvaraudobdiT, funqciuri lirikuli Janria da ara ubralo, formaluri TamaSi. arCili akrostiqis stroful a formas iyenebs RvTismSoblisadmi mimarTul saxotbo leqsSi `saqebelni da savedrebelni RvTismSoblisani~, romelSic bibliuri metaforuli gamoTqmebiT amkobs RvTismSobels. aq poeti, Teimuraz pirvelis msgavsad, yoveli sami taepis Semdgom (aq SeiZleba vigulisxmoT aluzia samebaze), strofebis (pirveli strofis garda, romelic mTlianad me-metyvelebis nimuSia da gamoxatulia avtoris krZalva RvTismSoblis winaSe da daeWveba imasTan dakavSirebiT, SeZlebs Tu ara is dasaxuli poeturi amocanis ganxorcielebas) meoTxe taepebSi, gamoxatavs sakuTar damokidebulebas xotbis obieqtis mimarT: gigalobs daviT, mTawminda RvTisa poxilad Crdiloda, gimzerda TvaliT winaswar, rokavs mwuxri da diloda, gamoekveTa ufali uxelod Tav-sakidloda, ganmiRe kari wyalobis, uxrwnelo, me Sen giloda! (14) dedoflad dabadebulTa Sen xar winaswar mkobili, dedad gqadages RvTisada, xorod dgen sul ganwyobili. dgaxar marjveniT uflisa, vin aris Seni Sobili, damixsen warwymedisagan satanas laxvar-sobili!...

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strofuli anbanTqebis b forma gamoyenebulia leqsSi `anbanTqeba axali SemoRebuli~. aq pirveli sami da meoTxe taepebi erTmaneTisgan formalurad da semantikurad arafriT ganirCeva. TiToeuli strofi Sinaarsobrivad izolirebulia sxvebisgan anu TiToeul maTganSi calke saTqmelia gamoxatuli. amitom teqstis diskretuloba aq gamZafrebulia (ix., mag., (3)). am anbanTqebis daniSnulebas aaSkaravebs arCilis minaweris bolo strofi: mravalT mefeT daugdiaT umizezod mefobani, sve-dovlaTi, didi Temi, qalaqi an didebani. (15) Cemi rad gkvirsT iZulebiT samyofTa garidebani? magrame maqvs SeukdemaT erTis wadierebani... vinaidan pirvel or strofSi arCili Tavs imarTlebs kritikulad ganwyobil mkiTxvelTa winaSe, amdenad, unda vivaraudoT, rom `mefobis dagdeba~ da `iZulebiT samyofTa garidebani~ niSnavs ara marto samefodan gadaxvewas (aseT SemTxvevaSi gaugebari iqneba, ratom saubrobs arCili samefos datovebaze mas Semdeg, rac mkiTxvels sTxovs, lmobierad moekidos am nawarmoebs: `anbanTqebasa axalsa nu SeuracxyofT sityviTa~), aramed _ poeziis samyaroSi Tavis Sefarebasac. Sesabamisad, es anbanTqeba swored rom poeziasTan `TamaSis~ gamoxatulebaa. `amocanad saTargmanebeli~ leqsi, rogorc aRvniSneT, anbanTqebis strofuli formis erT-erTi variantia, romelSic erTi da imave asoTi dawyebulia or-ori strofi. leqsi Sedgeba amocanebisgan, Sesabamisad, arCili iyenebs anbanTqebis gansxvavebul formas (ar iyenebs stroful a formas, romelic `saqebelSia~ gamoyenebuli). erTstrofian anbanTqebaSi `sulxanis pasuxad~, Teimuraz pirvelis meoTxe _ satrfialo _ anbanTqebisa da sulxan-saba orbelianis anbanTqebis msgavsad, arCili mimarTavs taepobriv b formas. vaxtang meeqvse Tavis stroful b tipis anbanTqebaSi qristes cxovrebis ambebs aRwers, meore anbanTqebaSi ki taepobriv Bb formas iyenebs. Teimuraz meoris stroful a tipis anbanTqebebSi asaxulia: anbanTqebaSi `aRivso gulica Cemi..~ _ sasiyvarulo

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gancdebi mSvenieri qalis, barbare aleqsandres asul buturlinas mimarT; anbanTqebaSi `aRvZraT sityva sacnobeli...~ _ Zveli aRTqmis, anbanTqebaSi `aris ram ucxod sacnobel...~ ki _ axali aRTqmis ambebis Sesaxebaa saubari. erTstrofiani sityvobrivi anbanTqeba satrfialo xasiaTisaa. daviT guramiSvilis taepobriv b tipis anbanTqebaSi `aRdgomis dRes yrmaTagan samRereli~ da anbanTqebaSi `anbanzed Tqmuli daviTisagan~ (anbanis originaluri ganawilebiT sityvebze) religiuri motivebia asaxuli. besikisTvis, romelic mxatvruli formis didostati iyo, anbanTqebas ukve konceptualuri datvirTva ki ara aqvs, aramed _ wminda poeturi. anbanTqeba aq mxolod da mxolod evfoniur funqcias asrulebs da aZlierebs misi leqsis musikalurobas.iii amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom XVII-XVIII saukuneebis qarTul poeziaSi rogorc formalurad, aseve semantikur aspeqtSi erTmaneTisgan gamijnulia anbanTqebaTa ori tipi: strofuli da taepobrivi. stroful anbanTqebebSi (gansakuTrebiT, mis a formaSi) xorcSexmulia anbanis koncefcia _ anbani RvTiuri warmomavlobisaa da amitom misi saSualebiT SesaZlebeli xdeba zeciuri samyaros _ rogorc sistemis _ warmodgena da, Sesabamisad, Semecnebac. anbanis amgvari koncefcia gulisxmobs uwyvet mimarTebas amqveyniur samyarosa (romelSic anbani adamianTa komunikaciis saSualebaa) da imqveyniur samyaros Soris (romlis Semecnebis saSualebasac warmoadgens anbani). anbanis meSveobiT xdeba am ori samyaros SekavSireba. 1966 wels franguli struqturalizmis TvalsaCino warmomadgenelma, filosofosma da mecnierebis istorikosma, miSel fukom gamoaqveyna Tavisi klasikuri naSromi `sityvebi da sagnebi. humanitarul mecnierebaTa arqeologia~. am naSromSi fuko miznad isaxavda im istoriuli aracnobieris gamovlenas, romelmac ganapiroba sami sxvadasxva epistemologiuri velis, anu sami sxvadasxva epistemis funqcionireba. fukos azriT, `amgvari analizi ar warmoadgens ideebis an mecnierebaTa istorias; esaa ufro, kvleva, romlis mizania imis garkveva, Tu ris safuZvelze gaxda SesaZlebeli Semecneba da Teoriebi, wesrigis romeli sivrcis Sesabamisad

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moxda codnis konstituireba; ra saxis istoriuli a priori-sa da rogori pozitiurobis stiqiaSi gaxda SesaZlebeli ideebis dabadeba, mecnierebebis Camoyalibeba, gamocdilebis asaxva filosofiur sistemebSi, racionalurobis formireba, Semdeg ki, SesaZloa, darRveva da gaqroba~. (fuko 1977: 34) cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi fuko ganixilavs TiToeul epistemas rogorc sistemas, e.i. ara diaqroniulad, aramed _ sinqronulad. misi zemomoyvanili gamonaTqvamis parafrazirebisas SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom TiToeul epistemas warmoqmnis epistemologiuri velis (sistemis) elementTa gansakuTrebuli urTierTmimarTebebi ama Tu im istoriul periodSi _ XVI saukuneSi, XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi an Tanamedrove epoqaSi. es epistemebia: 1.renesansuli epistema (XVI saukune _ XVII saukunis Sua wlebi). esaa msgavsebisepistema, rodesac ena jer kidev ar warmoadgens niSanTa damoukidbel sistemas. is gabneulia bunebiT sagnebs Soris. 2. klasikuri epistema (XVII-XVIII saukuneebi) _ warmodgenis (reprezentaciis) epistema. ena iqceva niSanTa avtonomiur sistemad da TiTqmis Tanxvdeba azrovnebasa da codnas. amasTan dakavSirebiT, swored sayovelTao gramatika iZleva saSualebas, gagebul iqnan ara marto sxva mecnierebebi, aramed _ sazogadod _ kulturac. 3. Tanamedrove epistema (XIX saukunis dasawyisidan dRemde) _ sistemebisa da organizaciebis epistema. warmoiqmnebian axali mecnierebebi, romelTac saerTo araferi aqvT adre arsebul mecnierebebTan. ena ukve Semecnebis Cveulebrivi obieqtia. is iqceva formalur elementTa mkacr sistemad, TavisTavzea koncentrirebuli, asaxavs sakuTar istorias da iqceva tradiciebisa da azrovnebis wesebis rezervuarad. Cveni gamokvleva miznad isaxavs imis dadgenas, ramdenad savaraudoa anbanTqebebis Janris aRiareba klasikuri epistemis organul elementad, an, ufro farTod, vlindeba Tu ara XVIIXVIII saukuneebis qarTul kulturaSi klasikuri epistemisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-Tvisebebi. ra Tqma unda, mxolod erTi literaturuli Janris magaliTze dasaxelebul problemaTa gadaWra Znelia, magram SesaZlebelia kvlevis Semdgomi perspeqtivebis dasaxva da misi mizanSewonilobis dasabuTeba.

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vnaxoT, ramdenad Seesabameba anbanis gaazreba qarTul anbanTqebebSi marTalia, klasikur epistemaSi, fukos azriT, `ena aRar emsgavseba amave eniT aRniSnul sagnebs, magram es ar niSnavs, rom is gamijnulia samyarosgan; ena, Tumca sxva formiT, magram kvlav gvevlineba gamocxadebaTa lokusad da Seadgens im sivrcis nawils, romelSic xdeba WeSmaritebis gamovlena da gamoTqma... ena aris xati samyarosi, romelic gamoisyidis Tavis codvebs da miayuradebs WeSmaritebas. swored amitom surda RmerTs, rom laTinuri ena _ misi eklesiis ena _ gavrcelebuliyo mTel dedamiwaze. swored amitomaa, rom msoflios enebi (romlebic cnobilni gaxdnen am monapovris wyalobiT) warmoqmnian, sazogadod, WeSmaritebis xats~. (fuko 1977: 73).iv SesaZloa, swored enis am prioritetulma mdgomareobam da enisadmi upirobo ndobam (`msoflios enebi... warmoqmnian, sazogadod, WeSmaritebis xats~) gansazRvra mibruneba literaturuli diskursis `nulovani safexurisadmi~ _ im safexurisadmi, sadac es diskursi Tvisebrivad maqsimalurad uaxlovdeba Tavis amosaval wyaros (Sesabamisad, WeSmaritebasac) _ anbans, an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, miiswrafvis am miznisken. WeSmariteba ar gulisxmobs mxolod mecnierul WeSmaritebas _ is calmxrivia da SezRuduli. WeSmariteba unda iyos sruli _ yovlismomcveli, da am WeSmaritebis Sesamecneblad saWiroa iseTi instrumenti, romelic wesrigs Seitans _ gasagebobas da Semecnebadobas mianiWebs _ mTel samyaros: xilulsa da uxilavs, amqveyniursa da imqveyniurs. aseT instrumentad klasikur epistemaSi aRiarebulia anbani. gavixsenoT, rom volteris filosofiuri leqsikonis saxelwodeba iyo `goni anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT~. vinaidan anbani RvTiuri warmomavlobisaa, amdenad, adamianebis cxovrebas (da, saerTod, samyaros) klasikur epistemaSi anbanis meSveobiT awesrigebs RmerTi, rogorc `kanonmdeblobiTi gonis funqcia~ (s.s. averincevi). wesrigi, mowesrigebuloba, klasikur epistemaSi samyaros aRqmis formaa. rac Seexeba anbans, misi arsis SemecnebisTvis aseve aucilebelia misi wesrigis, mowesrigebulobis gamovlena. es imas niSnavs, rom anbanis elementebi unda SevadaroT erTmaneTs. magram es amocana sakuTriv anbanis farglebSi ganuxorcielebelia _ esaa garkveuli TviTkmari elementebis

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erToblioba (analogiurad, ricxvTa CamonaTvalSi TiToeuli ricxvi TviTkmaria. Sedareba sxva ricxvebTan SesaZlebelia mxolod ricxvebis Tvisebriobis Secvlisas _ maTi danawevrebisas; aseve, anbanis TiToeuli elementi anbanis farglebSi TviTkmaria, SeuZlebelia sxva elementebTan misi Sedareba, anu msgavsebis an gansxvavebis dafiqsireba _ aq, ra Tqma unda, ar vgulisxmobT grafikul msgavsebebsa da gansxvavebebs). es amocana SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mxolod maSin, rodesac moxmobil iqneba axali sistema, romelSic es elementebi urTierTSedarebadi iqneba. aseTi sistemaa anbanTqebis teqsti (an, Tundac, anbanur rigze gawyobili leqsikoni an enciklopedia), romelSic anbanis TiToeuli elementi axal Tvisebriobas SeiZens _ erTdroulad anbanis elementic iqneba da raRac sxva sistemis elementic (an am axali sistemis elementis niSani _ rogorc es moxda enciklopediaSi, an anbanTqebebSi, an leqsikonebSi). sxvadyofnisas anbanis elementebis Sedareba ukve SesaZlebelia, radgan maTi gansxvavebuloba, romelic anbanis farglebSi ar vlindeboda, axla ukve funqciur gansxvavebulobad warmogvidgeba. anbanTqebebSi esaa anbanis elementebisadmi aRniSvnis unaris miniWeba. rogorc ki amgvari elementi aRiWurveba niSnobrivi funqciiT, is ukve aRar emTxveva Tavis Tavs, rogorc anbanis sistemis komponents. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, aseTi anbani CamoTvladia. fuko aRniSnavs, rom swored klasikur epistemaSi gaxda SesaZlebeli CamoTvla _ `gansaxilveli erTobliobis Semadgeneli elementebis sruli CamoTvlis formiT; im kategoriaTa CamoTvlis formiT, romlebic erToblivad asaxaven mTel sakvlev sferos; bolos, wertilTa gansazRvruli raodenobis analizis formiT, romlebic sakmarisi raodenobiTaa amoRebuli seriidan~ (fuko 1977: 104). amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom anbanis transformacia anbanTqebebSi da maTi CamoTvladoba am Janrs miakuTvnebs klasikuri epistemis literaturas. axal TvisebriobaSi anbanis elementTa gansxvavebis erT-erT saSualebas warmoadgens mis mier aRniSnuli teqstualuri fragmentebis Sinaarsobrivi gansxvaveba da, SesaZloa, maTi gansxvavebuli grZliobac. da, radgan `Semecneba niSnavs gansxvavebas~ (fuko 1977:105), es operacia aucilebeli operaciis saxiT warmogvidgeba.

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`imisTvis, _ wers fuko, _ rom aRqmis elementi niSnad iqces,... saWiroa, rom is gamoyofil iqnas elementis saxiT da gaTavisuflebul iqnas saerTo STabeWdilebisgan, romelic mas farulad ukavSirdeba; maSasadame, saWiroa, rom es STabeWdileba danawevrebul iqnas, rom yuradReba koncentrirebul iqnas erTerT (sxvebTan gadajaWvul) momentze, rom saerTo STabeWdilebaSi Semavali es momenti izolirebul iqnas misgan. amgvarad, vlindeba, rom niSani ganuyofelia analizisgan, rom niSani warmoadgens analizis Sedegs, romlis gareSec is ver gaCndeboda. niSani agreTve warmoadgens analizis instruments, radgan, erTxel gansazRvrisa da izolirebis Semdeg, is SeiZleba Seefardos axal STabeWdilebas, romlis mimarTac analitikuri cxauris rols asrulebs~ (fuko 1977: 111). fukos es Sexeduleba zustad Tanxvdeba im transformacias, romelsac ganicdis anbanis TiToeuli elementi specifikur teqstSi _ anbanTqebaSi. is gamoiyofa rogorc elementi da Tavisufldeba im `STabeWdilebisgan, romelic mas farulad ukavSirdeba~ (semiotikuri funqciis ganxorcielebis unaris arqonis Sesaxeb). amgvari niSani-aso analizis instrumenticaa, radgan misi saSualebiT xdeba teqstis danawevreba diskretul nawilebad. axla ganvixiloT fukos gamonaTqvami klasikur epistemaSi niSnis fundamenturi Tvisebis Sesaxeb da davakvirdeT, ramdenad Seesabameba niSnis es Tviseba anbanis funqcias anbanTqebaSi: `aRmniSvneli elementi, rogorc ubralod idea, an xati, an aRqma (romelic sxvas ukavSirdeba an enacvleba), ar warmoadgens niSans. ufro metic, is iqceva niSnad mxolod maSin, rodesac Tavs iCens aRsaniSnTan misi mimarTeba. aucilebelia, rom man reprezentacia ganaxorcielos, magram es reprezentacia, Tavis mxriv, masSi unda iyos warmodgenili. aRmniSvneli idea gaorebulia, radgan idea, romliTac Canacvlebulia meore idea, moicavs, agreTve, ideas reprezentaciis gamoxatvis miseuli unaris Sesaxeb~. (fuko 1977:115) marTlac, anbanis elementis saxiT, asoSi reprezentirebis unari mxolod potenciuradaa warmodgenili. is jer arafers aRniSnavs (aq ar vgulisxmobT mis mimarTebas garkveuli sametyvelo bgerebisadmi, rac semiotikur mimarTebas ar warmoadgens _ yovel SemTxvevaSi, mniSvneloba aseT mimarTebaSi ar warmoiqmneba). asos reprezentirebis unari aqvs mxolod

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sagangebo sistemaSi, sagangebo teqstSi _ anbanTqebaSi, sadac is aRniSnavs teqstis fragments. is ukavSirdeba am fragments da axorcielebs mis reprezentacias. magram, fukos mixedviT, es reprezentacia masSi (anbanis elementSi) unda iyos reprezentirebuli. marTlac, anbanTqebaSi aso iqceva niSnad maSin, rodesac mimarTebas amyarebs Tavis aRsaniSnTan (Sesabamis teqstualur fragmentTan). Tavisi markirebulobis wyalobiT, is am fragmentis reprezentacias axorcielebs. bolos, fuko aRniSnavs, rom klasikur epoqaSi ZiriTadi tropebi iyo sinekdoqe, metonimia da kataqrezisi (fuko 1977: 176). anbanTqebebSi TiToeuli markirebuli aso erTdroulad mTelis (sityvis, taepis, strofis) nawilicaa da misi niSanic. amdenad, is sinekdoqurad ukavSirdeba mTels, iseve, rogorc, zogadad, anbani sinekdoqurad ukavSirdeba anbanTqebis mTel teqsts. amitom SeiZleba iTqvas, rom klasikuri epistemis es niSanic Tavs iCens XVII-XVIII saukuneebis qarTul anbanTqebebSi. amgvarad, SeiZleba pasuxi gavceT im kiTxvaze, romlic davsviT Cveni gamokvlevis dasawyisSi: ra Tqma unda, anbanTqebaTa popularoba qarTul poeziaSi, ar ganapiroba, ubralod, avtorTa survilma, gamoecadaT TavianTi poeturi ostatoba; am Janris popularoba XVII-XVIII saukuneebis literaturaSi kanonzomieri movlenaa. misi ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi Seesabameba e.w. `klasikuri epistemis~ im niSan-Tvisebebs, romlebic Camoayaliba wignSi `sityvebi da sagnebi (humanitarul mecnierebaTa arqeologia)~ miSel fukom.

SeniSvnebi:

qvemoT stroful `a~-s vuwodebT anbanTqebaTa iseT tips, romelSic TiToeuli strofis yvela taepi iwyeba erTi da imave asoTi, stroful `b~-s _ iseTs, romelSic yoveli strofis TiToeuli sityva iwyeba erTi da imave asoTi, ise, rom anbanis asoebi TanmimdevrobiTaa ganawilebuli strofebSi; taepobriv `a~-s _ iseTs, romelSic yoveli taepi iwyeba sxvadasxva asoTi, qarTuli anbanis rigis Sesabamisad; taepobriv `b~-s _ iseTs, romelSic TiToeuli taepis yoveli sityva

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iwyeba erTi da imave asoTi; sityvobrivs _ iseTs, romelSic ama Tu im taepis yoveli sityva (leqsikuri erTeuli) iwyeba sxvadasxva asoTi (qarTuli anbanis rigis Sesabamisad), Sereuls ki _ Teimuraz pirvelis meoTxe anbanTqebis msgavsi struqturis mqones.

am leqsis daweras biZgi misca sulxan-saba orbelianis `anbanTqebam~: almas basri galesuli dahkveTs enaT, vamiT zmnaTa! e TviT ityvis: kmaris lmoba mis naTqvamTa, orpir TqmaTa. Jamad ras sTxovT, tvirTs umZimebT fucviT qmnilTa RirsTa yrmaTa. Slis CiTs ca Zliv wvimiT, WexiT, xe mel jirkTa hai-i-sxmaTa.

ii

rodesac anbanTqebaSi izrdeba anbanis asoTa ganawilebis sixSire, anu rodesac stroful a tips enacvleba taepobrivi formebi (anbanis elementebi ganawilebulia ara strofebze, aramed _ taepebze da sityvebze), maSinve irRveva saleqso rigis erTianoba da, Sesabamisad, sustdeba simWidrovec (anu leqsikur elementTa semantikuri urTierTkavSiri). marTlac, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, akrostiqisgan gansxvavebiT, anbanTqebaSi anbanis elementebi diskretulobas aniWebs teqsts. da rac ufro mcire grZliobis teqstualur fragmentebad nawevrdeba teqsti (taepobriv da, miT ufro, sityvobriv anbanTqebebSi), miT ufro mZafrdeba am fragmentebis izolirebuloba erTmaneTisgan, anu miT ufro sustdeba maTi SemakavSirebeli Zala (am tendenciis maqsimalurad gaZlierebis SemTxvevaSi teqsti iqceva anbanis izolirebuli elementebis qaotur erTobliobad). amitom bunebrivia, rom taepobriv da, gansakuTrebiT, sityvobriv anbanTqebebSi teqstis erTiani sazrisis gamovlena Zneldeba. da, piruku, rac ufro msxvil teqstualur fragmentebs aerTianebs anbanTqebebSi esa Tu is aso, miT ufro mwyobri da naTelia misi Sinaarsi.

iii

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`enis mdgomareoba klasikur epistemaSi, _ wers Tanamedrove franguli filosofiis cnobili mkvlevari Nnatalia avtonomova, _ erTdroulad mokrZalebulicaa da didebulic. Tumca ena kargavs uSualo msgavsebas saganTa samyarosTan, magram is aRiWurveba umaRlesi uflebamosilebiT _ warmoadginos da gaaanalizos azrovneba. azrovnebis Sinaarsis Setana enobriv formebSi anawevrebs da mkafioebas sZens maT....~ (avtonomova 1977: 12)
iv

literatura avtonomova 1977: .. : . ( ). ., 1977 arCili 1999: arCili. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. lolaSvilis, l. kekeliZis, l. ZoweniZis redaqciiT). `merani~, 1999. (iv. Tb.,

besiki 1962: TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli (al.baramiZisa da v.Tofurias redaqciiT). Tb., `sabWoTa mwerali~, 1962 guramiSvili 1955: guramiSvili daviT. TxzulebaTa krebuli. Tb., `saxelgami~, 1955. sruli

vaxtang meeqvse 1975: vaxtang meeqvse. leqsebi da poemebi (al. baramiZis redaqciiT). Tb., mecniereba. Teimuraz pirveli 1934: Teimuraz pirveli. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli (al. baramiZisa da g. jakobias redaqciiT). tfilisi. `federacia~, 1934. Teimuraz meore 1939: Teimuraz meore. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli (g. jakobias redaqciiT). Tb., `federacia~, 1939. kekeliZe 1952: kekeliZe k. Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis istoria. Tb., 1952. fuko 1977: , . ). ., 1977. (

maka laSxia

warmosaxvis cnobierebidan Tavisuflebis cnobierebamde

Jan-pol sartris naSromi warmosaxuli cnobierebis fenomenologiur kvlevas eZRvneba. naSromSi aRniSnulia, rom warmosaxvis umTavresi damaxasiaTebelia is, rom igi pirvel rigSi, saxeobrivi cnobierebaa, romelic gulisxmobs da moiazrebs Tavis obieqts, rogorc ara-yofiers, rogorc spontanurobas. warmosaxva, rogorc saxeobrivi cnobiereba, intencionaluri bunebisaa. misi meSveobiT me gansxvavebulad aRviqvam samyaros, magram gansxvavebulia ara Tavad sagnebi, aramed Cemi cnobierebis mimarTeba maTTan. es xdeba imitom, rom warmosaxva obieqts gaSualebuli saxiT gvaZlevs. warmosaxvis mier aRmocenebuli saxeebi saganTa aslebs warmoadgenen. gamodis, rom adamiani, cnobiereba ukve am aslebTan iwyebs mimarTebas, am aslebs arqmevs saxelebs da uCens adgils am samyaroSi. warmosaxva, TviT grZnobadi aRqmis safexuridan dawyebuli, gaivlis saxeTa dausrulebel mwkrivs, Sesabamisad moicavs adamianis samyarosTan mimarTebis yvela safexurs da daamkvidrebs subieqtis upiratesobisa

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da pirveladobis SegrZnebas faqtobrivi samyaros mimarT. warmosaxva, sartris mixedviT, is cnobierebaa, romelsac unari aqvs, waSalos sazRvari rogorc xelovnebasa da araxelovnebas Soris, aseve warmosaxulsa da realobas Soris. swored es punqti aris Cemi interesis sagani, radgan mas Semdeg, rac sartri, rogorc filosofosi, waSlis zRvars warmosaxulsa da realobas Soris da ityvis, rom mxolod mxatvruli nawarmoebi aris is sivrce, sadac warmosaxvis meSveobiT sakuTari sikvdilis mxolod inscenireba xdeba, iwyeba axali sivrcis konstruireba, sivrcisa, sadac SemoqmedebiTobisaTvis yvela SesaZleblobaa mocemuli. Jan-pol sartris mixedviT, adamianuri realobis samyaroSi yofna es aris yofna situaciaSi. es aris Sexvedra cocxali individualuri cnobierebisa nebismier faqtobriv mocemulobasTan; yofiereba TavisTavad (etre en soi) aris yvelaferi is, ris fonzec adamiani aRmoaCens Tavis Tavs samyaroSi. am samyaroSi aproeqtebs igi Tavis Tavs Tavisi SesaZleblobebisaken da amgvari dagegmviT erT situaciaSi Sekrebs Tavis Tavs da faqtobriv mocemulobas. sartri adamianur realobas uwodebs arsebobas samyaroSi sxvaTa TanaarsebobiT (Sartre 1946:14). konkretulad raSi gamoixateba Cemi yofiereba sxvisTvis (etre pour autrui)? sartri yofiereba sxvisTvis daxasiaTebas sircxvilis fenomenis analiziT iwyebs. sircxvilis struqtura intencionaluria. ufro zustad, igi aris sircxviliseuli gageba raRacisa da es raRac var me(Sartre 1943:265). me mrcxvenia imisa, rac me var. amgvarad, sircxvili axorcielebs me-s intimur mimarTebas me-sTan: misi meSveobiT aRmovaCen Cemi yofierebis erT garkveul aspeqts. sircxvili, sawyisiseulad, refleqsiis fenomeni ar aris, mis Tavdapirvel struqturaSi igi warmogvidgeba sircxvilad raRacis winaSe. me mrcxvenia Cemi Tavis, romelic warmoudgeba sxvas. sartris mixedviT sircxvili Semdegis gacnobierebas niSnavs: me var is, rogorsac mxedavs sxva. me vadareb, rac me var sxvisTvis imas, rac me var CemTvis. me aranairad ar msurs maTi gaigiveba (Sartre 1943:265). amrigad, sircxvili aris sircxvili sakuTari Tavis gamo sxvis winaSe. es ori struqtura mWidrod aris erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli. me mWirdeba sxva, raTa Cemi yofierebis yvela struqturas vwvde. Cemi gamocdilebis miRma me mudam vxedav

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sxvis grZnobebs, ideebs, nebelobas, xasiaTs. cxadia, sxva mxolod is rodia, rasac me vxedav, aramed isic aris, rac me mxedavs. me vxedav sxvas, rogorc gamocdilebis SekavSirebul sistemas, romelic CemTvis miuwvdomelia, romelSic me vfigurireb, rogorc erTi obieqti sxva obieqtTa Soris. sxva, garkveuli azriT, Cemi gamocdilebis radikaluri negaciaa, radgan misTvis me ara subieqti, aramed obieqti var (Foulqui 1979:57). me ki, Cemi mxriv, rogorc Semecnebis subieqti, vcdilob, ganvsazRvro obieqtis saxiT is subieqti, romelic Tavad uaryofs Cems subieqturobas da ganmsazRvravs me, rogorc obieqts. sxva, uwinares yovlisa, Tavs iCens rogorc mzera (regard), da Cemi yofiereba sxvisTvis, uwinares yovlisa, danaxulobaSi gamoixateba. ras niSnavs mzera, xedva, danaxva da, maSasadame, danaxulyofna? me Cemi Tavis, Cemi sakuTari yofierebis usafuZvlobisa da SemTxveviTobis daZlevas, mis dafuZnebasa da gamarTlebas rom miveswrafi, raRac saxiT miznad vsaxav da vaxorcieleb Cems Tavs, Cems sakuTar yofierebas. es imas niSnavs, rom me am miznis mixedviT vxedav, ganvixilav, mniSvnelobas vaniWeb da vewyobi yovelives Cems garSemo. miznis mixedviT raimes xedva da ganxilva Sesatyvisi moqmedebisadmi daqvemdebarebuli obieqtisa da saSualebis mniSvnelobis miniWebas moaswavebs (Descamps 1986:174). maSasadame, Cem mier raimes xedva, imavdroulad, raimesadmi obieqtisa da saSualebis, da amdenad, usafuZvlo da SemTxveviTi yofierebis mniSvnelobis miniWebas moaswavebs. da es rom asea Cems SemTxvevaSi, asevea sxvis SemTxvevaSic. sxva rom xedavs raimes, amiT obieqtisa da saSualebis anu usafuZvlo da SemTxveviTi yofierebis mniSvnelobas aniWebs mas. es debuleba gasagebs xdis, Tu ras niSnavs sxvebis mier danaxuloba, is, rom sxva mimzers da mxedavs me, amiT obieqtisa da saSualebis da, maSasadame, usafuZvlo da SemTxveviTi yofierebis mniSvneloba meniWeba mis mier, anu amiT uariyofa da uqmdeba is, rasac me miveswrafi, saxeldobr _ uariyofa Cemi yofierebis dafuZnebuloba da gamarTlebuloba. me CemTvis var subieqti anu sakuTari yofierebis miznad damsaxveli da Tavad es dasaxuli mizani. amgvarad, me _ dafuZnebuli da gamarTlebuli, Seucvleli da aucilebeli,

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erTaderTi da ara erT-erTi yofiereba, samyaros centri, samyarosadmi sazrisisa da mniSvnelobis mimniWebeli, samyaroul urTierTobaTa kanonmdebeli centraluri instancia var, xolo yovelive sxva CemTvis mxolodRa obieqti da saSualebaa da ara _ miznis damsaxveli instancia da mizani, Sesacvleli da ara Seucvleli da aucilebeli, erT-erTi sxvaTa Soris da ara erTaderTi, periferia da ara _ centri (Sartre 1943:346). mokled, sxva CemTvis ase Tu ise usafuZvlo da SemTxveviTi yofierebaa. magram Cems garemomcvel sxvaTa Soris Tavs iCens sxva, rogorc sxva cnobiereba, rogorc sxva adamiani, romelic mzeras momapyrobs da maqcevs yofierebad-misTvis, rac Cemi rogorc yofiereba-CemTvis, anu rogorc subieqtis da dafuZnebuli da gamarTlebuli yofierebis uaryofas moaswavebs. Cemken mopyrobili sxvisi mzera, anu sxvis mier Cemi danaxulyofna imas niSnavs, rom me ganvixilebi misi yofierebis, rogorc umaRlesi miznis mixedviT da maSasadame, me var ara subieqti anu miznis damsaxveli instancia da Tavad mizani, aramed periferia, ara erTaderTi da Seucvleli, aramed erT-erTi sxvaTa Soris anu swored is, rasac mTeli cxovreba gavurbivar (Louette 1993:34). ,,viRac meubneba gzadmimavali ucnobis mzera, da amiT Cemi uaryofa ukve sisruleSia moyvanili, me ukve obieqtad var qceuli, ukve gasxvisebuli da gaucxoebuli var. mzeraSi cxaddeba sxvisi yofiereba da maSasadame, Cemi yofierebac sxvisTvis, rac Cems yofierebas ki ar Tanxvdeba, aramed uaryofs mas. amitomac sxvisi yofierebis faqti, uwinaresad, usiamovnebad ganicdeba. sxvis mzeraSi ifanteba Cemi transcendenturoba da me viqcevi nivTad (Sartre 1943:342). Cemi gauqmeba sxvis mzeraSi gulisxmobs im samyaros gauqmebas, romlis organizebas da konstruirebasac me vaxden. Cemi mimarTeba samyarosTan iSleba sxvisi mzeris qveS. me sxvisTvis erTdroulad var saSualebac da dabrkolebac. sxvisi mzera magrZnobinebs, rom me aRar var situaciis warmmarTveli. sxvisi mzera aararavebs Cems transcendenturobas da maqcevs saSualebad im miznebisTvis, romelnic CemTvis ucnobia (Sartre 1943:342). amdenad, me var safrTxeSi da es safrTxe SemTxveviTi rodia. is aris permanentuli struqtura Cemi yofirebasxvisTvis. sxvisi mzeris saSualebiT me vxedav Cems Tavs,

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rogorc gayinuls samyaros SigniT, rogorc safrTxeSi myofs( Sartre 1943:343). cnobiereba anu adamianuri realoba, rogorc yofiereba TavisTvis, Tavdapirvelad warmogvidgeba, rogorc gadaulaxavi kontrasti da konfliqti faqtobriobasa da transcendencias anu TavisTavadsa da TavisTvis yofierebebs Soris. xolo cnobierebis cnobierebasTan anu adamianis adamianTan urTierTobis sibrtyeze es kontrasti da konfliqti Tavs iCens TavisTvis da sxvisTvis yofierebebs Soris ganxeTqilebis saxiT. adamianis adamianTan urTierToba, sartris mixedviT, sxva araferia Tu ara TavisTvis da sxvisTvis yofierebebs Soris Tavdapirveli ganxeTqilebis daZlevis amao mcdeloba (Sartre 1943:433). kosmosad gagebuli samyarosTvis TviTganviTareba ucxoa. winaaRmdegoba da ganviTareba mxolod adamianisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. amasTan, adamianis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi wyaro da impulsi samyaros TavisTavadis gamudmebuli uaryofaa im mizniT, rom am yofnisgan Tavisufleba moipovos (Sartre 1943:438). yoveli adamiani cdilobs, gadalaxos is situacia, romelSic is vardeba, radgan es situacia misTvis saxifaToa, radgan masTan erTad yovelTvis aris sxva, sxvisi mzera, romelic mas obieqtad aqcevs, xelidan aclis yvela SesaZleblobas da iluzias, aRiaros sxvisi Tavisufleba. sxvisi Tavisuflebis aRiarebiT Cems Tavisuflebas ukve zRvari daedo, rac CemTvis momakvdinebelia (Sartre 1943:451). sartris mixedviT, Tavisufleba, upirvelesad, moqmedebaSi vlindeba. ufro metic, moqmedeba ukve aris Tavisufleba. Tavisuflebas ara aqvs arseba, masSi arseboba upiratesobs da ganagebs arsebas (Louette 1993:138) me is arsebuli var, romelic cnobs Tavis Tavisuflebas Tavisi moqmedebebis saSualebiT, magram me is arsebulic var, romlis individualuri da ganumeorebeli arseboba temporalizdeba, rogorc droiToba. Tavisuflebis meSveobiTaa, rom cnobiereba yovelTvis sxva ramea, vidre is, ris Tqmac SeuZliaT mis Sesaxeb (Descamps 1986:195). gamomdinare iqidan, rom adamiani sul moqmedebaSia, igi sul Tavisufalicaa. adamians misjili aqvs mudam Tavisi arsebis, Tavisi moqmedebis, mamoZraveblis da motivis miRma iarsebos. is dawyevlilia TavisuflebiT. es ki niSnavs, rom Cems Tavisuflebas ver upovnian sxva sazRvrebs, garda Tavad Tavisuflebisa, anu Cven Tavisufalni varT imisagan, rom

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SevwyvitoT Tavisuflad yofna (Sartre 1943:459). Tavisuflebis uaryofa sxvas arafers niSnavs, Tu ara mcdelobas sakuTari Tavis wvdomisa, rogorc yofierebisa TavisTavSi. adamianuri realoba mudam cdilobs uaryos misi Secnoba, magram es mcdeloba safuZvelSive amaoa, radgan adamianuri realobisaTvis yofiereba sakuTari Tavis arCevas niSnavs (Sartre 1946:23). igi mTlianad mitovebulia raTa yovelgvari yofierebis gareSe Seqmnas sakuTari Tavi umcires detalebamde. amgvarad, Tavisufleba yofiereba ki ara aris, is aris adamianuri yofiereba. sanam adamiani myofobs, sanam moTxovnilebebisa da arCevanis winaSe dgas, is ver Sewyvets fiqrs arCevanis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb (Sartre 1946:31). adamianuri Tavisufleba arsaidan iRebs Tavis mizebs, is maT irCevs da amiT maT transcendentur arsebobas aniWebs. Tavisufleba es aris Cemi Tavis arCeva samyaroSi da imavdroulad, samyaros aRmoCena. es is cnobierebaa, romelic ar gansxvavdeba Cveni yofierebisagan. saWiroa, iyo cnobieri, raTa airCio da saWiroa airCio, raTa iyo cnobieri (Sartre 1946:31). amgvarad, Cven gamudmebiT CarTuli varT Cvens arCevanSi da gamudmebiT gvaxlavs imis cnobierebac, rom Tavad Cvenve SegviZlia SevcvaloT es arCevani, radgan Cven TviTon vgegmavT da wesrigSi mogvyavs sakuTari momavali Cveni eqsistencialuri TavisuflebiT. amgvarad, Cven mudam gvaxlavs Cveni arCevanis gaararavebis, Cveni Tavis sxvagvarad arCevis safrTxe, vidre varsebobT. Tavisufleba, arCevani, gaararaveba, temporalizacia erTsa da imaves emsaxurebian (Tavisufali arCevani uTuod aris dakavSirebuli drosTan. yoveli axali arCevani, imavdroulad, dasawyisicaa da dasasrulic). adamianur realobas SeuZlia airCios sakuTari Tavi, rogorc mas esmis, magram ar ZaluZs, rom ar airCios. mas isic ar SeuZlia, rom xeli hkras yofierebas, radgan TviTmkvlelobac arCevani da yofierebis dadasturebaa (TviTmkvlelobis konteqstSi gakeTebuli arCevani aris absurdi ara imitom, rom usafuZloa, aramed imitom, rom mas ar qonda ararCevanis SesaZlebloba). amgvarad, Tavisufleba aris arCevanis Tavisufleba, magram ara ararCevanis Tavisufleba. amiT Tavisuflebis problema aucileblobaSi monawileobs: mas ar SeuZlia ar airCios, adamianisTvis aucilebelia, rom Tavisufali arCevani gaakeTos

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(Sartre 1946:78). Cven varT Tavisufleba, romelic irCevs, magram Cven ar virCevT Tavisuflad yofnas: Cven dasjili varT TavisuflebiT. Cven araferi dagvrCenia garda imisa, rom sxvisi Tavisufleba Tavisuflad vaRiaroT. es aris is realoba, romelic sartrma adamianisa da samyaros, adamianis adamianTan urTierTobis konteqstSi warmogvidgina. es aris is adamianuri realoba, romelTanac Segueba SeuZlebelia da romlis atana adamianis Zalebs aRemateba. Cven dawyevlili varT TavisuflebiT, Cven sxvebTan yovelTvis da yvelgan konfliqtur situaciaSi varT, radgan sxvebi _ es xom jojoxeTia (Sartre 1947:93). raRa rCeba? realur samyaroSi yofna autanelia adamianisaTvis. Tumca adamianuri cnobiereba, Tavisufleba is momentia, romelic yvelanairi situaciidan gamosavals eZebs. swored am dros iwyebs amoqmedebas saxeobrivi cnobiereba _ warmosaxva, romelic, sartris mixedviT, erTaderTi saSualebaa, rom Cveni realuri mogzauroba droSi ganxorcieldes. werisagan viSvi: sanam weras daviwyebdi, iyo mxolod sarkeebis TamaSi; es xom Cemi Cveulebaa da Tanac Cemi profesia. rwmena davkarge, magram ukan ar damixevia: kvlavindeburad vwer. meti ra saqme maqvs. Nulla dies sine linea, vkiTxulobT sartris sityvebSi. wera yvelaferia frangi eqsistencialistisTvis, radgan igi kulturis erTi mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli aspeqtia, kultura ki is fenomenia, romelSic adamians sakuTari Tavis amocnoba SeuZlia. kulturaSi adamiani Wvrets da cnobs sakuTar Tavs, mxolod am kritikul sarkeSi xedavs adamiani Tavis saxes. amasTanave Tavis motyuebis moZvelebuli dangreuli Senoba xom igive Cemi xasiaTia: nevrozisgan SeiZleba ganikurno, sakuTar Tavs ki versad wauxval (sartri 2011:203). adamianuri realoba gacxadebuli, gamJRavnebuli yofnaa, radgan adamianuri realobis miRma aris yofna, an sxva sityvebiT, adamiani aris is saSualeba, romliTac nivTebi TavianT Tavs aCveneben (Sartre 1949:45). am mdgomareobaSi adamiani pasiuria, radgan is sxvas arafers warmoadgens, garda imisa, rom misi meoxebiT sagnebi warmoCndnen. amas sartri aRqmis mdgomareobas uwodebs. adamianis es pasiuroba, frangi egzistencialistis mixedviT, gadailaxeba Semoqmedebis processa da am procesis uSualo rezultatiT, anu maSin, roca mwerlis mier warmosaxviTi samyaro Seiqmneba. Tumca adamianisaTvis am

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samyaroSi arseboba sxva araferia, Tu ara konfliqti da ganxeTqileba, romelic Tavs iCens im momentidan, roca Cems gverdiT gamoCndeba sxvisi yofiereba, rogorc Cemi maararavebeli, Cemi subieqturobis CamomrTmeveli da pirveladobis momxsneli. adamianis swrafva imisken, rom rogorme SeinarCunos sakuTari meoba, mizandasaxuloba, mniSvneladoba da ar gaiTqvifos sxvis yofierebaSi, ar gaxdes erT-erTi obieqti sxva obieqtTa Soris, ar iqces sxvis yofierebis mier dasaxuli miznis misaRwev saSualebad _ sartris literaturuli nawarmoebebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia. Semoqmedebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi motivia, subieqtad igrZno Tavi samyaros mimarT (Sartre 1949:46). mwerali Tavisi SemoqmedebisTvis mudam subieqti, Semqmneli da mwarmoebeli, miznis mimcemi da Semsrulebelia. magram es aramc da aramc ar niSnavs imas, rom Semoqmedis Sesrulebuli samuSaos Sedegi, qaRaldze iqneba es Tu tiloze, obieqts warmoadgendes. es ase araa, radgan personaJebi, maTi cxovreba, gancdebi, survilebi, moqmedebebi, gadawyvetilebebi, imedgacrueba, maTi danaSauli Tu sasjeli es me var Tavad, isini Cemia, _ wers sartri. xelovnebis nawarmoebi mwerlisaTvis yovelTvis misi subieqtobis mamxilebeli da ganmcxadebelia. yoveli personaJis SiSi mwerlis SiSia, misi molodini mwerlis molodini. nawarmoebis personaJebs mwerali Tavisuflad qmnis, Tavisufladve aZlevs maT samyaroSi moqmedebis saSualebas. msgavsi TavisuflebiT andobs mwerali mis mier gaSiSvlebul da Secvlil samyaros ukve mkiTxvels. mkiTxveli molodinia, kmayofilebaa, amosunTqvaa. erTi sityviT, is aris sxva (Sartre 1949:82). Tavisufali arCevanis sazrisi is aris, rom aRmocendes situacia, romelic mas Seesatyviseba da romlis arsebiTi daxasiaTebaa, iarsebos TavisTavadi formis saxiT sxvisTvis. am garemoebas Tavs ver davaRwevT, radgan Tu gvsurs viyoT Tavisufali, unda avirCioT yofna am samyaroSi sxvaTa pirispir, (Sartre 1943:398) rac gulisxmobs sxvaTa Tavisuflebis Tavisufal aRiarebas. sartris cxovrebis mizanic, albaT, swored es iyo: Cemi sigiJisa is miyvars, rom pirveli dRidanve micavda elitisadmi mikuTvnebis cTunebisagan: arasodes mifiqria, bedniereba mxvda wilad, niWi maqvs- meTqi. Cemi erTaderTi

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saqme rwmeniTa da SromiT Tavis daxsna iyo. xelcarieli da jibecarieli viyavi. Cemi gaumarTlebeli arCevani aravisze maRla ar mayenebda: Tavis gadarCenis mizniT _ ase uiaraRod da uxelsawyood, erTianad, uklebliv Sevewire Semoqmedebas. magram ra SemrCa, Tuki Sevigeni, rom xsna ar arsebobs, da butaforiis sawyobSi gadavuZaxe! rCeba mxolod adamiani, warmomdgari yvela adamianisagan, igi mTel kacobriobad, adamianebad Rirs, xolo misi fasi yoveli adamianis fasia (sartri 2011:204).

literatura

sartri 2011 sartri J.-p. sityvebi, Tb.: inteleqti, 2011 Descamps 1986 Descamps, Ch., Les Idees Philosophiques Contemporaines, Bordas, Paris, 1986 Foulqui 1979 Foulqui, P., Lexistentialisme, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1979 Louette 1993 Louette J.-F., Jean-Paul Sartre, Hachette, Paris, 1993 Sartre 1943 Sartre, J.-P., L'tre et le neant. essai d'ontologie phenomologique, Gallimard, Paris, 1943 Sartre 1946 Sartre, J.-P. Existentialisme est un humanism, Nagel, Paris, 1946 Sartre 1947 Sartre J.-P. Huis clos. Gallimard. 1947 Sartre 1949 Sartre J.-P. Qu est ce que la literature? Gallimard. 1949

nino gogiaSvili

Rimilakis konteqsti qarTul eleqtronul sivrceSi


(feisbukis mixedviT)

Rimilaki eleqtronul enobriv sivrceSi TandaTan ufro masStabur datvirTvas iZens da sakomunikacio niSnebisa da enobrivi erTeulebis yvelaze martiv da gasageb simbolod yalibdeba. am emociuri xatebis mniSvneloba da funqcia, SesaZlebelia, winaswarganzraxulze metia da moulodneli: isini, socialuri qselebidan, Catebidan, mobiluri telefonebidan, eleqtronuli fostebidan da skaipebidan pirdapir qaRaldebze, abrebze da, jerjerobiT iSviaTad, magram, - presis furclebzec inacvleben. Rimilakebi arsebobs standartuli, arastandartuli, feradi, - maTi ricxvi da saxe TandaTan izrdeba da saintereso variaciebs gvTavazobs. standartuli Smiley orwertilisa da frCxiliTaa Seqmnili. drois ekonomiis mizniT, xSirad, mas aseTi formiT iyeneben,

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axalgazrda Taobas ki arastandartuli da kreatiuli formis Rimilakebi ufro xiblavs. xatulebis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia azris ufro mkafiod gamoxatva da, amasTan, drois sagrZnobi ekonomia. is saukeTeso saSualebaa emociis zustad da gasagebad gadmosacemad. virtualur samyaroSi, sadac ver vxedavT adamianis vizuals, Jestikulacias, werilobiTi urTierTobisas, roca ver vismenT misi xmis tembrsa da tons, Rimilaki unikaluri kompensaciaa am emociuri vakuumis sapirwoned. Tumca, erTsa da imave Rimilaks, SesaZlebelia, da xSirad asec xdeba, sxvadasxva daniSnuleba hqondes, konteqstidan gamomdinare. yovlad uwyinari da yvelaze gavrcelebuli e.w. pirvelqmnili Rimilaki, romelic grafikulad ase gamoisaxeba ( :-) ), pozitiuri Sinaarsis miuxedavad, xandaxan neitralitets, sevdas, ukmayofilebas da dacinvasac ki aRniSnavs . zogadad, internet sivrcisTvis damaxasiaTebelia Warbad gamoxatuli emociebi. RimilakebTan - guli, kocna, Caxuteba da misTanebi - SedarebiT ubralo Rimilaki xSirad, Zalian ususurad da negatiuradac ki gamoiyureba. magaliTad, rodesac socialur qselSi facebook romelime momxmarebeli ganaTavsebs garkveul informacias da miiRebs mowonebebis (like) da eqspresiuli xatulebis did raodenobas, sxva momxmareblis ubralo Rimilaki xSirad negatiurad aRiqmeba, rogorc ucxo Tvalis, ise TviT am informaciis ganmTavseblis mier. xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac am emociebs ar faraven da pirdapir ekiTxebian: ar mogewona informacia (an musikaluri nomeri, an literaturuli Canaweri)? aucileblad xazgasasmelia is faqti, rom Rimilakis xasiaTi refleqsiuria, anu, momxmarebeli mas iyenebs sakuTari emociis gamosaxatavad, ukeT rom vTqvaT, subieqtis moqmedeba sakuTar Tavs miemarTeba. zogjer saubari miemarTeba meore pirsac, mesame piris emociis gadmocema ki, jerjerobiT, mxolod werilobiTi miniSnebiTaa SesaZlebeli, RimilakTan erTad. Smiley- is warmoSobis istorias vladimer nabokovis enamoswrebul TqmasTan akavSireben: New York Times - is

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Jurnalist alden vitmanis kiTxvaze, Tu sad daayenebda Tavs Tanamedrove da gardacvlili mwerlebis Sedarebisas, man upasuxa, rom Zalian kargi iqneboda, Tu iarsebebda specialuri tipografiuli, Rimilis msgavsi niSani, romelic am kiTxvis pasuxad Caismeboda teqstSi. aRniSnuli interviu 1969 wlis aprilis nomerSi daibeWda. rogorc vxedavT, nabokovis jer kidev irealuri Rimilaki sulac ar niSnavda ubralod Rimils, mas hqonda, iribad, magram mainc, mravalwertilis, ironiis an ubralod - dumilis daniSnuleba. Rimilaki mravalferovani interpretirebis saSualebas gvaZlevs. is SegviZlia gavaerTianoT niSanTa kategoriaSi, radgan xatula aris grafikuli gamosaxuleba, romelic qmnis normebs da sazogadoebriv warmodgenebs, da erTgvarad gansazRvravs virtualur ritualTa Sinaarss. Rimilakebis erToblioba niSanTa mowesrigebuli sistemaa, romelic yovelTvis inarCunebs Sinagan, mdgrad konstruqcias da, miuxedavad amisa, mainc mZafrad reagirebs konteqstze. TvalsaCinoebisaTvis zemoT moyvanili magaliTic gamodgeba. virtualur sivrcesa da socialur qselebSi Rimilaki, SesaZlebelia, xandaxan ufro metad informatiuli da yovlismomcveli iyos, vidre Cveulebrivi werilobiTi mimarTva, vinaidan igi emocias, gancdasa da mdgomareobas aRniSnavs. am grZnobebis asaxva sityvebis meSveobiT virtualur sivrceSi Zalian did drosTanaa dakavSirebuli da, faqtobrivad, aseTi spontanuri teqstebisaTvis miuRebeli meTodic kia. am yvelafers saukeTesod iTavseben emociuri xatebi; isini erTgvar mediatorebad gvevlinebian realursa da virtualur sivrces Soris adamianTa komunikaciisas. Tu pirsis mixedviT, niSani universaluri Suamavalia adamianur gonebasa da samyaros Soris, Cven SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom Smiley universaluri Suamavalia realur da virtualur samyaroebs Soris. nabokovis intervius Semdeg amerikelma harvi belma masaCusetsis saxelmwifo sadazRvevo kompaniisTvis Seqmna logo,

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romelsac unda gamoexata kompaniis keTilganwyoba Tavisi momxmareblebisadmi. es logo vertikalurad asaxavda Tvalebsa da gaRimebul tuCebs, romlebic yviTeli feris wreSi iyo Casmuli. Tumca, inglisuri kompaniis Smiley World-is damfuZnebeli franklin lufrini amtkicebs, rom aRniSnuli simbolo pirvelad man gamoiyena 1971 wels gazeTSi muSaobisas, roca surda saxaliso ambebi vizualurad ganesxvavebina sxva statiebisagan. Semdeg man sakuTari produqcia gaitana asze met qveyanaSi, logod ki Rimilaki gamoiyena. es licenzirebuli kompania awarmoebda tansacmels, sakvebs, aqsesuarebs, avejs da a.S. Tumca, es pirveli grafikuli Rimili teqsturi SetyobinebisaTvis araTavsebadi iyo. oficialuri versiiT ki, pitsburgis karnej-melonis universitetis kompiuterul mecnierebaTa departamentSi profesorma skot falmenma 1982 wlis 19 seqtembers sauniversiteto forumze gagzavna winadadeba, sadac TanamSromlebs urCevda gamoeyenebinaT L ( : - ( ) simbolo, Tu seriozul Temebze werdnen, saxumaro Temebze werisas ki - J ( : - ) ) simbolo, raTa TanamSromlebi sworad garkveuliyvnen Temebis xasiaTSi da gaugebroba ar momxdariyo. dRisaTvis RimilakTa ori tipi gamoiyofa: aRmosavluri da dasavluri, gansxvaveba simbolos weris mimarTulebaSia. arsebobs kidev aRmosavluraziuri stili, sadac xatulebi vertikaluradaa warmodgenili. cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi weris ekonomiurobis momenti gamoricxulia da ZiriTadi aqcenti gadatanilia maqsimalur vizualur msgavsebaze. aris idea, rom Smiley-is kalkirebul versias - Rimilaks axali qarTuli analogi movuZebnoT, Tundac ganwyobis niSnebis, emociuri xatebis an, sulac, mimikebis saxiT. Rimilakebi modernizebuli piqtogramebia, mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom xatulebSi naklebadaa an TiTqmis ar aris piqtogramebis mnemonikuri xasiaTi. isini erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad, cal-calke asaxaven garkveul ganwyobas an emocias, maTi Tanmimdevroba ar cvlis maT mniSvnelobas da arc

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raime wesebisa da xerxebis erTobliobas Seadgens, raTa ukeT iqnas damaxsovrebuli esa Tu is naweri. nebismieri niSani mxolod xandaxanaa simbolos sinonimi. am SemTxvevaSi, Rimilaki niSanicaa da simboloc. modernizebul xatulebs Soris vxvdebiT adamianTa Tu personaJTa saxesimboloebs. magaliTisTvis, arsebobs merilin monrosa da Carli Caplinis Rimilakebi. xandaxan erTi Smiley mTel winadadebas aRniSnavs. magaliTisaTvis, arsebobs fuls kbili mouWire da calybad meRimeba Sinaarsis aRmniSvneli simboloebi. socialur qselebSi xSirad vxvdebiT Semdegi Sinaarsis Canawerebs: gawiTlebis Rimilaki, Zalian gogo xar! -Rimilaki, ra vqna, meti ar SemiZlia! -Rimilaki da a.S. , romlebic, ZiriTadad, naweris bolosaa moTavsebuli da avsebs da emociurad amdidrebs mas. am xerxiT izogeba dro, zustad gamoixateba emocia da, SegviZlia, subieqtis mimika da Jestikulaciac ki warmovidginoT. sainteresoa, xom ar aris saSiSroeba, rom virtualuri sivrcisaTvis momavalSi moigoneben winadadebebisa da ambebis grafikul Sesatyviss da nawers Caenacvleba isev piqtografia uZvelesi drois damwerloba? faqtia, rom dResdReobiT emociuri xatis arseboba sakmaod did komforts uqmnis socialuri qselebis da, zogadad, internet sivrcis momxmareblebs. gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens es simbolo qarTvel internet-momxmarebelSi, specifikuri xedvidan da midgomidan gamomdinare. TiTqos, Zalian martivia momentalurad raime simbolos klaviaturaze akrefa, romelic arc aranair pasuxismgeblobas ganiWebs da arc gansakuTrebul Zalisxmevas moiTxovs. rodesac pirwignakeli megobari moniSvnis saSualebiT gTxovs, gaecno mis Semoqmedebas, garda mowonebis aRmniSvneli like-isa, SesaZlebelia, operatiulad akrifo dadebiTi emociis gamomxatveli xatula da amiT Tavidan aicilo komentari: 1. aragulwrfeli; 2. gulwrfeli, magram udroobis gamo - arasasurveli. amgvarad, Rimilaki universaluri TavisdaZvrenis saSualebacaa

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FacebooksinamdvileSi, Tumca, konteqstidan da zogadi fonidan gamomdinare, yovelTvis ikiTxeba misi faruli mizezi Tu mizani. es simbolo, SesaZlebelia, qameleoniviTaa da fers garemoebebis mixedviT icvlis, magram, sakmaod gamWvirvalecaa da amosacnobic. Smiley virtualuri enobrivi sivrcis semiotikuri niSania da misi definicia kompetenturia internet samyaros masStabiT. Tumca, aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom is ifarToebs moqmedebis areals da, ramdenad paradoqsulic unda iyos, komunikaciis verbalur sferoSi inacvlebs. magaliTad, saubrisas axla xSirad iyeneben: Tavis CaRunvis Rimilaks, rom gamoxaton azri: Semrcxva. Zalian saintereso momentia, rodesac ikonuri xatebi Taviseburad modificirdebian zepir metyvelebaSi da garkveul ukumimarTebas ayalibeben: 1. Rimilakebi Seiqmna imisaTvis, rom virtualur samyaroSi SesaZlebeli yofiliyo emociis grafikulad gamoxatva; 2. uSualo kontaqtisas, adamianebi ubrundebian virtualur simboloebs, raTa Tavisi emocia gamoxaton. Rimilakebis ena virtualuri enis qvetipia, romelic aadvilebs teqstis gagebas da drois sagrZnob ekonomias ganapirobebs. niSani semiotikis mTavari cnebiTi kategoriaa, ris gamoc Cven SgviZlia, visaubroT Rimilakebze, rogorc socialuri qselebisa da virtualuri sivrcis umTavres semiologiur komponentebze. semiologiuri niSnis modeli ki lingvisturs mihyveba da Tavis umaRles mniSvnelobas iZens logikuri azrovnebis farglebSi. Rimilakis-is simbolo saintereso dasamuSavebelia, rogorc pirsis, aseve sosiuris semiotikuri xedvis safuZvelze. Ffeisbukis Rimilakebi, vfiqrobT, winaswarganzraxul funqciebs aWarbebs da gacilebiT did masStabebze acxadebs pretenzias.

SoTa barbaqaZe

suertedemuerte - cxovrebis gza


cxovrebisadmi formaluri midgomiT adamians eCveneba, TiTqos swor gzaze dgas, magram is ki ar icis, ra aris mis iqiT. gza yovelTvis daSorebulia imisgan, rac Cvens Tvalwinaa. rac unda Tvalaxiluli, TvalgamWriaxi, Tvalmaxvili iyo da TvalnaTliv xedavde yvelafers, mainc SeiZleba ankesze wamoego, maxeSi gaeba - radgan warmoudgenelia winaswar ganWvreta imisa, Tu ra mogvelis win. gza Semogvaparebs xolme silogizmebis iseT jaWvs, romelic arsad ar migiyvans; an SeiZleba, samyaro daganaxos sxvaSi da sxva ganzomilebidan. namdvili, WeSmariti, utyuari, ueWveli, auTenturi gzaze araferi gxvdeba. garCeva, gageba, mixvedra gzis mniSvnelobisa Zalian rTulia. aseTia gzis mravalmniSvnelovani, mravalmxrivi, mravalniSna, mravalnairi buneba. Tu kabinetis mecnieri, an kabinetis strategosi darwmunebiT gvaCvenebs gzas, maSin mas Tavad am gzaze siaruli ar ZaluZs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cven Cveni cxovrebis gzebis kontrolis iluziiT varT Sepyrobili. aseT zedmet, metismet, gadametebul, gadaWarbebul optimizms moulodnelobaTa arasaTanadod

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Sefasebisaken mivyavarT. radgan am swrafmdinar, swrafmaval, xanmokle da dromokle sicocxleSi sadac yvelaferi miedineba erTsulovnad, erTpirad, SeerTebuli ZalebiT, maqsimaluri sizustiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom gza gviTrevs Tavisi asociaciuri xilvebis mZlavr nakadSi, romelSic garkveva, gonsmosvla erTob saZnelo saqmea. yofiereba gansazRvravs Segnebas. yvela realoba gadaicema simboloebiT. gza savsea aforizmebiT, damrigeblobiTi, zneobrivi moZRvrebiT, moralis Semcveli, Wkuis saswavlebeli, mravalfurclovani, mravalStoiani yuradsaRebi magaliTebiT. amitom is universaluri simboluri formaa, romelic gamoxatavs yofierebaSi yovelmxriv ganfenas. gzebis TankveTa simboluri gaazrebiT - es aris centri, sayrdeni samyaros mTlianobisa. es universaluri simbolo migviTiTebs, rom samyaroSi erTnairi gza ar arsebobs, mTavaria, gansazRvro, ra ganmasxvavebeli niSaniT gamoirCeva esa Tu is mravalferovani, mravalsaxovani, mravalgvari gza, romlebic erTmaneTs saerTod ar hgvanan cercvis ori marcvaliviT , wylis ori wveTiviT, an gaWrili vaSliviT. gza implicituri - gadaxlarTuli, Cawnuli, aRreuli saidumlos matarebelia. orgvar, orWof, orpir STabeWdilebas qmnis. semiotikur TamaSs gvTavazobs. orazrovani insinuaciebis ostatia. is savsea faruli, maluli, idumali, daklaknili, mixveul-moxveuli mrudeebiT. gzaSi garkveuli, mkafiod gasagebi, iolad misaxvedri niSnebi ar gvxvdeba. amis gamo gzis xsenebaze yovelTvis maxsendeba jeimz joisis romanSi sityva kvarki romelic raRac gaurkvevels, mistikurs, efemeruls, CixSi mommwyvdevs niSnavs. dao (gza) - daosizmis filosofiaSi mTavari cnebaa, yovelive arsebulis saTave da kanonia. amitom gza SeiZleba iyos mqrqali, mRvrie, bundovani da bneli. masze gaivlis dardi, varami, mwuxareba, javri, gaWirveba, ubedureba, faTeraki da xifaTi. aseve gzaze SeiZleba gadaveyaroT bednier SemTxvevas, bedi gvewios da bedma gagviRimos. gza erTgvari kalokairi, kontrastebis samoTxea. mis gamo adamianebi alternativis winaSe dganan. gza mravalnair arCevans qmnis da adamianebic mxolod mastimulirebel, malxinebel gzebze reagireben. gzis sisworis

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gansazRvra ar eqvemdebareba araviTar analizs, araviTar racionalur midgomas, aq sWarbobs darwmunebis argumentacia. radgan yvela Taviseburad xsnis movlenebs da problemis gadawyvetis nair-nair gzebs gvTavazobs. amaSi mdgomareobs zogadad cxovrebiseuli gzebis momxiblaoba da mimzidveloba. swored amitom unda moyve, Tu ra iyo da rogor iyo, ra naxe da ra gamoiare maradiuli gardasaxvis gzaze, romelzec, rogorc naTqvamia, marto xetiali rodi varga - kvlevac unda, sadac mxolod SesaZlebloba gveZleva da ara garantiebi. mTeli Cveni bed-iRbali gzajvaredinia, Sesaferisi gezis gakvleva-amorCeva Zalian Znelia. amitom CavukvirdeT, viTaTbiroT da vTqvaT, saiT mivdivarT. unda vcadoT, rom vicxovroT rTuli gziT, Tu ar gvinda, movkvdeT ise, rom ver gavigoT, ratom vicxovreT. naTqvamia: vinc iara, daitova ukan kvalio. arsebobs erTi gza, romelic iSleba da is mraval gansxvavebul adamians SegaxvedrebT. amitom aris cxovrebis gzebze uamravi TvalTmaqci, fariseveli, TaRliTi, cbieri, pirferi, svebneli, svegamwarebuli, sveubeduri, aseve guladi, mamaci, vaJkaci, gabeduli, mxne, wesieri, rigiani, zrdili, Tavmdabali, mokrZalebuli da Tavaziani - aseve manekeni, fituli, maketi, marioneti, fiqtiuri, viTom adamianebi - es sami ukiduresoba rom xvdeba erTmaneTs, amitom gvmarTebs oTxi Tvalis gamobma (da ar egebis Sinauruli ambebis gaxmaureba, Saraze gamotana) raTa viyoT diplomatiuri, taqtikuri, moxerxebuli da Tavidan aviciloT erTmaneTTan uTanxmoeba, ganxeTqileba, Sexla-Semoxla da mtroba. cxovrebaSi mgzavrobisas aras gvargebs gaSmagebuli, gaxelebuli, gaafTrebuli Tavxedoba, urcxvoba da utifroba. eqspansiuri, TavSeukavebeli da TavdauWereli qcevebi. uadgilo, Seusabamo, Seuferebeli moqmedebebi. umizezo, usafuZvlo, dausabuTebeli, uniadago ybedoba, laqlaqi, enis tartari, vinmes dagmoba, gakicxva, vinmesTvis msjavris dadeba, sayveduris, an samduravis SeTvla. mRelvarebam yovelTvis gza unda dauTmos mSvid gansjas. gza ar unda agvebnes sakuTari brazis labirinTSi. TiToeuli adamianis mizani unda iyos nugeSiscema, damSvideba, dawynareba, moralurad mxaris daWera gzaabneulTa mimarT, da ara - ganxeTqilebis vaSlis rolis Sesruleba. Tqveni cxovrebis gzaze siarulisas iyaviT uangaro, miudgomeli, miukerZoebeli gamoavlineT adamianebTan

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urTierTobaSi sinatife, sifaqize, daxvewiloba - simartive, ubraloeba, sisadave, Torem gza is adgilia, sadac gveqneba realuri SesaZlebloba, gavsinjoT erTi cnobili andazis Tvali Tvalisa da kbili kbilisa wilis - mier damdgari mosavlis gemo. Tu Cveni cxovrebis gzas Tvals mivadevnebT, gavyvebiT mis bilikebs, man SeiZleba migviyvanos dausaxlebel, udabur, ukacriel, mitovebul, migdebul da gaveranebul adgilebSic ki (amerikelebs umaRles donemde aqvT ganviTarebuli sivrcis SegrZneba, radgan isini idgnen ukacrieli gzebis, sivrceebis aTvisebis winaSe). amitom cxovrebis gzaze siaruli aris eSmaksa da Rrma zRvas Sua - or cecxls Sua siaruli. miuxedavad amisa, swored cxovrebis gzaze xdeba gamoCenili adamianis mier Zaxilis, xmobis da mowodebis Semdeg Tanabari rangiT, xarisxiT, mdgomareobiT da uflebiT xalxis Sekreba (aseve jogis, naxiris, faras, brbos - maskaradis, lamazi sanaxaobis, didebuli procesiis, sakarnavalo svlis gamarTva), Segroveba, mogroveba da Tavmoyra. saWirboroto sakiTxebis ganxilva, gansja, garCeva, kamaTi, paeqroba da pasuxismgeblobis aReba xalxis winaSe dadebiTi Sedegis miRwevisaTvis, gza warmoadgens arsebiTad gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisebis paeqrobis asparezs. amitom gzaze Tavis ar gamoCena, ukana planze yofna, SemTxvevis xelidan gaSveba, garemoebis kargad ar gamoyeneba didi sibriyvea. gza yvelgan aris gayvanili da sasiamovno moulodnelobebsac gvpirdeba. magaliTd tyis SuagulSi mimaval gzaze gvesmis Citebis Jriamuli, baRisaken mimaval gzaze bavSvebis titini da tiktiki. taZrisaken mimaval gzaze momlocvelebis butbuti da luRluRi, xeobebisaken mimaval gzaze ki mdinareebis rakraki da CuxCuxi. aseve daRlili adamianis qSinva, qSena da qoSini. vaWrebi gzebs saqonlis momxmareblamde misatanad iyeneben. gzebis raodenobis zrda ki iwvevs maTi mwarmoeblurobis matebas. rai bedenaa gzai? ambobs lelT Runia: igi misTvis vargobs vizec Tvis naSvrel-namuSevar gasatan-gasasyid aqvn. gza aris yvelaze mosaxerxebeli geografiuli placdarmi mTels msoflioze kontrolis dasamyareblad. gzebis ganviTarebam iseve rogorc

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SoTa barbaqaZe

aviaciis Secvala msoflios masStabis proporciebi, dedamiwa mniSvnelovnad mcire gaxda, xolo manZili mokle yvela sityva rodi iwvevs aseT mZafr undoblobas da dapirispirebas, an piriqiT amgvar dadebiT damokidebulebas, agreTve amden alergias Tu absolutur mxardaWeras rogorsac Tavisufali gza romelic niSnavs Tavisufal instituciebs, sindisis Tavisuflebas, politikur Tavisuflebas, samoqalaqo Tavisuflebas, individualur Tavisuflebas, ojaxebis Tavisuflebas, ganaTlebis Tavisuflebas, azris Tavisuflebas, kanonis winaSe Tanasworobas, yvela am Tavisuflebebs aq CamoTvlilT SeuZliaT integracia Tavisufal gzaSi. marTalia mSvenieri programaa magram am romantikul gzas rogorc kacobriobis istoria gvauwyebs misi politikur sferoSi gadatanis unari ar Seswevs. Tavisufali gza Sotlandiur poeziaSi aseTi saxiT aris warmodgenili: im gzas xom xedav, Znelad gasasvlels, metad viwros da ekal-narians, magas simarTlis gzas eZaxian, iqiT mgzavrebi cota arian. morwmune adamianebisgan xSirad msmenia: xelmeored ra gzam warmoSva, warmoqmna adamiani albaT patiebis, mitevebis, Sendobis, Semwynareblobis, aragulRrZoobis gzam romelic taZramde midis. am gzas maSin daadgebiT Tu Tqven RmerTis winaSe iqnebiT gulaxdili, gulRia, gulgaSlili, gulgaxsnili da gulwrfeli. Tu amas SeZlebT rogorc bibliaSia gacxadebuli: daamxobs ufali Tqvens winaSe Tqvens mtrebs, Tqvens winaaRmdgomT; erTi gziT wamovlen Tqvensken da Svidi gziT gaiqcevian Tqvengan. Tu ufals moswons kacis gzebi, mtrebsac ki Searigebs masTan. wrfelia RvTis gza. aRusrule vali, iare mis gzaze, daicavi misi wesebi, misi mcnebani, samarTali, mowmobani, rom xeli mogemarTos yvelaferSi, rasac gaakeTeb da yvelgan, saiTkenac pirs miabruneb. gaxsovdeT uflis gza mowyalebaa. misi brZanebiT sazriani gaxdebi da moiZuleb yovel gzas sicruisas. ixare misi naTqvamiT, viTarca mpovneli uxvi nadavlisa. dReSi Svidgzis aqe

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misi simarTlis samarTlisaTvis. urwmuno adamianebi ki Tavs imarTleben, gaiZaxian sxva gza ar mqonda, gzas avcdi gulubryvilo, miamiti, ueSmako, mimndobi da gamoucdeli adamiani - Slegi, Smagi, Slu, tlu da SeTi viyavi. yvela am Tvisebam gamoiwvia Cemi gzis abneva, dakargva da areva. rasac mohyva Cemi gasvra, gaWuWyianeba, wabilwva, SebRalva da garyvna. romlis Semdegac daiwyo Cemi dacema, daqveiTeba, pativis axda, damcireba, Seuracxyofa, degradacia da gadagvareba. maT gasagonad aucileblad unda iTqvas is rac bibliaSia citirebuli: ar unda ahyolodiT gulsa da Tvals, romlebic gza-kvals gireven Tqven. aseT xalxTa kategoriaSi ZiriTadad meocnebeTa, fantaziorTa, religiur maCanCalaTa uZluri tipebi Sedian. RmerTo uCvene aseT xalxs gza, riTac unda iaron da saqmeebi, rac unda akeTon. nu daacarieleb maT gzebs. ufali ambobs: Zebnas damiwyeb da Semobrundebi Seni ukeTuri gzidan. am citatas kargad ganavrcobs aleqsandre kirleJevi: RmerTi erTia, masTan misasvlel gzas sxvadasxva fsiqologiuri mowyobisa da cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis, kulturisa da socialuri statusis, da bolos sarwmunoebis sxvadasxva xarisxisa da gambedaobis mqone adamianebi sxvadasxvagvarad gadian amitom vevedroT rogorc morwmuneebs miaCniaT wminda mariam RvTismSobels ise rogorc daviT guramiSvili SesTxovda: gza simarTlisa maswave, iesos qristes mSobelo! raTa Semdeg ar Tqvan Cvenze Cacvivdnen codvis morevTa, gza ver scnes madlTa fonisa da swored im gzaze wavidnen saiTac iyo snebao. radgan ar ascildeba dacema ufrTxilod gzazed marebsa. marTalTa gza dilis naTeliviTaa: ufro da ufro naTdeba dRis dadgomamde. boroteulTa gza wyvdiadiviTaa: ar ician, sad waiforxileben. borotni ver miagneben sicocxlis gzas. uRmrToTa gza warixveteba. ufali saukeTeso Tanamgzavria martosulTa gzaze. eamboreT Zes, rom ar ganrisxdes igi da ar daiRupoT gzaSi. (fs.2) miande ufals gzebi Seni. kaci wyvets, RmerTi awesrigebs. kacis guli Tavis gzebs gegmavs, mis nabijebs ki ufali warmarTavs. (bibl.)amitom ambobs ufali: moved Cemda fexTa winaSe muxli moiyare da me gaswavo Sen gzani

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SoTa barbaqaZe

simarTlisani. viwroa gza xsnisaken magram ufali migviZRvis. amis naTeli dasturia Tundac es patara leqsi: gzad migdebuli bavSvi dedisgan, RvTis samyofelSi poulobs binas, ganagebs RmerTi imis bediRbals, Tavis kalTaSi inaxavs Tbilad.

qriste morwmuneTa azriT gzaabneulTa gamosaxsnelad movida. qristes gzas es aris gza wamebisa, jvracmisa, aRdgomisa da amaRlebisa. amis naTeli dasturia elia, ioane, pavle Tebeli da didi antoni, makari, efTvimi, saba da gerasime romelTa vles moswrfaebiT iwro da saWirveli gza mimyvanebeli zecisa qalaqad, romlis xuroT-moZRvari da Semoqmedi RmerTi ars. romelTac ara sityva, aswava, aramed saqmiTa uCvena gzani saukunoisa cxorebisani, samwysoTa TvisTa.ra ars gza cxovrebisa igi? msaxureba RmrTisa mxoloisa, romelman dahbadna yovelni dabadebulni. bevr adamians Tavisi bunebiT sikvdili sdomebia, magram RmerTsa da beds mourCenia, rom borotebis gzaze aRar gauvlia. cxovrebaSi gzis gakafva, gayvana, gakvleva, swori kvalis migneba Zalian rTulia. SesaZloa ubralo, magram mravlis aRmTqmeli dasawyisi, didi imedis momcemi marSuti, mimarTuleba Tu kursi romliskenac Cven aviRebT gezs cxovrebaSi arasando, arasaimedo da sarisko aRmoCndes wamebis, wvalebis da tanjvis meti veraferi vnaxoT Tu ar davicaviT gzaze moZraobis wesebi. Tu winaswar niadagi ar movsinjeT, niadagi ar movamzadeT winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi niadagis uqonloba niadagis fexqveS gamoclas gamoiwvevs. Tu ar davinaxeT mware sinamdvile da Tu ar movismineT Seulamazebeli simarTle.Tu rkinis nebisyofa, rkinis disciplina ar gamovavlineT. rogorc Wabua amirejibi ambobs: cxovrebis gza koridis enaze suerte da muerte - mokvdinebis msvlelobaa da amas axorcielebs, umkacresi espada - garduvaloba! roca adamiani

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iwyebs Tavis gzas, winaswar ver gaigebs, rogor daasrulebs igi am gzas. radgan rogorc adam mickeviCma Tqva: win rodi gvidevs gza gamarTuli ioseb noneSvilic Civis:sadaursa sad waiyvan bedo, sicocxlis gzas sad ar gadauketav. aravin icis sicocxlis gza sad Sewydeba grZeli... amitom vin uCvenebs adamians labirinTidan cxovrebis naTel, civ gzaze gamosasvlel gzas? vin miuTiTebs rom iqneb misi gza ganviTarebisa dasabamiTve mcdari da CixSi momqcevia? icis man saiT mieSureba? saiT midis da sad miiyvans gza? iqneb gzas ikvalavs, ar uwyis mxolod saiTken? xvdeba rom gza aris viwro da duxWiri zedgasavleli? rad ar airCia gza saimedo, netav rad surs sul xetiali? ratom rwmenis meranze ar amxedrda Tu surda gza gaeTela? gaiTvalisiwina rom TiToeuli CvenTagani gansacdelidan gansacdelamde, Secdomidan Secdomamde martodmarto gadis im gzas, rac misTvis aris gakuTvnili rogorc oTar WilaZe ambobs: yvela adamiani Tavisi sakuTari, erTaderTi ganumeorebeli gziT ibadeba da Tavcocxali ver gadauxvevs am gzas. erTi Wkviani kaci ambobs: arwivma icis safreni gzani, qariylapiam Tavisi ormo, gzani navTani uwyian qarTa; xalxi ki veRar gaerkva ukve dRea Tu Rame, dila Tu bindi, ver gaugia ra droa. imitom rom mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis manZilze adamiani gzis amrev moCvenebas dasdevs da mere Cadenili SecdomisaTvis zecas uTvlis samduravs.vuCvenoT gza erTmaneTs. erTmaneTis gzis manaTobeli varskvlavebi gavxdeT. imre kertesis azriT: imas nu uyureb, Tu saiT mihyavxar gzas, uyure imas, Tu saidan modis igi. Sens saval gzaze Suqis da Crdilis garCeva unda SesZlo. rogorc xalixl jibran jibrani ambobs: Tqven gza xarT da mgzavrnic masze. da roca vinme ecema, is ukanmomavalTaTvis ecema dabrkolebis lodze rom mianiSnos. is winmavalTa gamoc ecema mewinaved rom miabijeben Cqara da gamarTulad, magram lodi gzidan ar moaSores. Cvens Zvel gzaze aTqmevinebs erT-erT personaJs oTar WilaZe Tavis waTes wiTel waRebSi balaxi amovida, cxenis nafloqvarSi wyali Cadga da aSmorda. yores ekalbardi Seaxoxda da kedlis bzarebSi jojoebi Casaxldnen. wyarosTvali siliTa da RorRiT amoivso. es gza ki adre Cveni gza iyo, omSic am

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gziT wavsulvarT da qalic am gziT mogviyvania. am gzaze simRerac gagvitania da kuboc. is gza TviTon drom daaZvela da daiviwya. Cven im gzaze erTmaneTisaTvis mxris aqcevac gviWirda, radgan viwroc iyo da moklec. TiTqmis iqve mTvardeboda, sadac iwyeboda. es imas niSnavs rom rogorc linkolni ambobda: Cven ara varT valdebulebi brmad mivdioT winaparTa gzas. ase moqceva niSnavs Tanamedroveobis gamocdilebaTa, progresis uaryofas. iseTi STabeWdileba ar unda iqmnebodes, ambobs xulio kortasari - TiTqos Zvel ukve gakvalul gzaze mivdiodeT, sacodavi mowafeebiviT damtverili, umniSvnelo argumentebis CamoferTxvas rom cdiloben. cxovrebis gzas yvela Taviseburad ganmartavs: mxolod mciredni miswvdebian WeSmaritebas, aTasebi ki ibnevian, gzas ascdebian. ambobs jon miltoni Tavis dakargul samoTxeSi. vinc iltvis erTisken, magram ar ainteresebs meore, mas gza aebneva, ganavrcobs rudolf Staineri. sun ZisTvis aris gzebi romlebiTac ar dadian. jefri CoserisTvis mTavaria gza siyvarulis - gza Zowis da andamatisa, misi azriT usulgulos ki, - gza hqonia jandabamdisac. SoTa rusTaveli gvafrTxilebs:ugzosa vlides laSqarni, ar gaivlides gzobasa. siyvaruli gzad da xidado. siyvaruli gzas gagikafavT zecasa da miwas Soris. migel de unamunos. guli siyvarulSi poulobs Tavis gzas da uTavbolod aRar daexeteba. jorj orueli yovelTvis sxvebTan erTad yviroda da es iyo misTvis usafrTxod yofnis erTaderTi gza. karl gustav iungis miaCnia rom viwroa myudroebisken mimavali gza, es gza ki sulieri tanjviT moipoveba. roca arqtikis mkvlevarebi CrdiloeT polusisken midian, gzadagza, TovlqveS sakvebis marags toveben, radgan SesaZloa, dabrunebisas gamoadgeT. meterlinki gveubneba amaod nu ifiqrebT, rom mosavali, romelic gzaze gamoatares zed gzazeve aiRes. fransua rene Satobrianis azriT mxolod saerTo gzas mivyavarT bednierebisaken. froidisTvis misi cxovrebis triumfi imaSi mdgomareobda, rom didi SemovliTi gzis gavlis Semdeg kvlav ipova sawyisi mimarTuleba. jek londons miaCnia rom sicocxle romelic ar miiswrafvis sicocxlisaken, eZebs gzebs sikvdilisaken. briyvsa da sulels ambobs Sopenhaueri rom Seni Wkua uCveno, mxolod erTi gza gaqvs: xma ar gasce. dimitri yifianis azriT patiosani kaci

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imitom ver miiwevs maRla, rom swori gziT midis.keTilSobili yvelas gzad eRobeba. nicSe gveubneba rom Cven ganvleT gza Wiayelidan adamianamde da bevri Cvengani jer kidev matlia. mas surs axali gzebi... radgan aTasia biliki romliTac aravis uvlia nikolo makiaveli gadaWriT gveubneba adamianebi yovelTvis borotni arian, Tuki aucilebloba ar aiZulebT sikeTis gza airCion. Wkviani adamianebis erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba is gaxlavT, rom isini gatkepnili gzebiT ar dadian. mwignobarTa azriT: erTi wignis wakiTxva aris gza danarCenisken. ar unda dagvaviwydes rom kiTxvas iseT adgilebSi mivyavarT, sadac sxva gziT ver moxvdebiT. finuri eposis kalevalas mixedviT: pirveli nawili gzisa, unda galio nemsebze gavliT, meore nawili maxvilze , xolo mesame nawili culebze gavliT. gza, rogorc klasobrivi gansxavevbis mauwyebeli niSani Semdegnaiarad aris ganmartebuli herodotesTan romlis drosac ar arsebobda terminebi: muSaTa klasi, wvrili burJuazia, msxvili burJuazia, aristokratia, SeZlebuli klasi, memamuleebi, mebatoneebi, miwaTmflobelebi Tumca misi monaTxrobiT rodesac sparselebi erTmaneTs xvdebodnen gzaze, Semdegi niSniT mixvdeboda, kaci, Semxvedrni Tanasworni iyvnen, Tu ara. radgan Tu Tanabarni iyvnen, sityvieri misalmebis magier kocnidnen erTmaneTs tuCebSi, Tu erTi maTgani cotaTi ufro dabla idga, hkocnidnen erTmaneTs loyebze, xolo Tu erTi bevrad ufro dabali warmoSobisa iyo meoreze, mdabio emxoboda meores winaSe da mas Tayvans scemda. sparselebi Tavisi Tavis Semdeg yvelaze metad pativs scemednen maT, vinc yvelaze ufro axlos cxovrobda maTTan, Semdeg pativs scemdnen maT, vinc amaT Semdeg cxovrobda, ise rom pativiscema xdeboda maniZilis mixedviT. amrigad yvelaze naklebad scemdnen pativs maT, vinc yvelaze ufro Sors cxovrobda maTgan. saerTod ar arsebobs swori an araswori gzebi. TiTqmis yovelTvis arsebobs ramdenime gza, romelTagan nebismieri SeiZleba gamodges swori an araswori. garda amisa, cxovrebaSi romelime gzis arCevisas, Tqven ver CaixedavT saxelmZRvanelos boloSi, rom gaigoT sworad moiqeciT Tu ara

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da verc veravin getyviT winaswar, ramdenad marTebulia Tqveni gadawyvetileba. erTaderTi testi Tqvens mier arCeuli gzis marTebulobis dasadgenad - es Sedegia. Tu is kargi aRmoCnda, es imas niSnavs, rom Tqven swor gzas adgixarT. aseve Tqven ver naxavT damTavrebul , dasrulebul, srulyofil da srulqmnil gzebs radgan is ar mTavrdeba. naTqvamia: gzas iqiT, gzaa SoreTi... kars iqiT kidev kario... erTi gza sruldeba iwyeba meore. dasasruli gzas uTmobs dasawyis. unda gwamdeT rom medgrad bolomde gaivliT Tqvens gasavlel gzebs. Seqspiri ambobs: gzas nu aswavli, vinc Tavisi gza airCiao. marTalia radgan SesaZlebelia vinmes mivbaZoT, magram imitatori idealTan, mis namdvil azrTan miaxloebasac ki ver SeZlebs. mTavari mibaZva ki ar aris, romelic adamianSi metamorfozas ar iwvevs da mas ubralo imitators xdis, aramed sakuTari gzebiT - individualur cxovrebaSi sakuTari Tavis realizaciaa. modiT, sakuTari gzebiT viaroT; modiT yvelam avad Tu kargad, visaubroT Cvens naciaze, Cvens literaturasa Tu enaze: isini Cvenia, isini Tavad Cvena varT, da modiT, es vikmaroT.- ambobda herderi. Tu TiToeuli Tavis gzas mihyveba - ar dabrkoldba gzaSi. Tu adamianebi erTmaneTs ar miexlebian, TiToeuli Tavis bilikze ivlis. davutovoT calkeul pirs arCevanis Tavisufleba, akeTos is, rac mas izidavs, rac sixaruls aniWebs, rac sargeblobis momtani hgonia. sakuTari gziT siaruli ar aris amoraluri da samarcxvino aqti, namdvili garyvnileba, avadmyofoba, aranormaluri vneba. gadaxra, codva, sxva pirovnebis Rirsebis Seuracxyofa, kriminali, fsiqologiuri darRveva, Tanamedrove paTologia, sazogadoebisaTvis damRupveli qceva. piriqiT saWiroa crurwmenebis damsxvreva, orxmrivi Sexvedrebisaken swrafva da erTmaneTisTvis daxmarebis xelis gawvdena. saWiroa xeli SevuwyoT gaxsnilobasa da TanamSromlobas. mravalferovneba gvamdidrebs, gansxvavebul Sexedulebebs neba ar unda mivecT gamoiwvion dayofebi Cvens Soris sxvadasva viTarebebSi. yovelTvis gvaxsovdes adamianoba es Znelad savali gzaa, naRdi gzaa, erTaderTi swori gzaa. amas Tu ar daviviwyebT maSin rogorc henrik ibseni ambobs: Tqveni dideba taSis grialiT gaivlis yvela gzasa da biliks. Tu gzad labirinTis bnel talanebSi. mohyeviT maSin umberto ekos unda daujeroT radgan misi azriT labirinTidan

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gamosaRwevad erTaderTi xerxi arsebobs: yovel axal gzasayarze iq, saidanac Sexvedi, sami niSani unda dasva. Tu am gzasayaris romelime gasasvleli ukve moniSnulia, e.i. aq namyofi xar da maSin im gzas, romliTac Sexvedi, mxolod erT niSans daasvam. Tu yvela gasasvleli ukve aRniSnulia, ukan unda dabrunde. magram Tu gzasayarze erTi an meti gasasvleli jer kidev mouniSnavT, erT-erTs airCev da iq or niSans datoveb. Tu im gzas gahyvebi, romelsac mxolod erTi niSani aqvs, mas kidev or niSans daamateb, anu am gasasvlels axla sami niSani eqneba. Tu yvela gza aRniSnulia da arasodes gahyolixar samniSnian gasasvlels, gamodis, rom labirniTis yvela gza gavlili gaqvs. zeciurma RmerTma dagvilocos gza da misi angelozi dagvemgzavros aseT labirinTebSi siarulisas.. Cemi daskvniTi sityva, daskvniTi scena meubneba, rom jani ar mogvklebodes aravis gzaSi siarulisas. gzaSi iWedeba xolme namdvili megobroba da naTlad vlindeba adamianis niWi da unari. mxolod gzaSi SeiZen azrebiT da ideebiT mdidar megobrebs, romlebsac gulze miikrav, gulSi Caixuteb, gulTan axlos miitan maT gaWirvebas. romlebic dabrkolebebis, siZneleebis, CamorCenis daZlevaSi dagvexmarebian. mxolod maT gverdiT xdeba mardi, marjve, mkvircxli, gawafuli adamianis niWis ganviTareba, misi win swrafi nabijiT svla, zrda, gamoCena, gamovlena, gamomJRavneba da daxelovneba. ris Sedegadac gviCndeba gancda, rom veravin, verasgziT, verasodes, veRarsaidan, veRarafers veRar dagvaklebs. sadac maTTan erTad wavalT suyvelaferi, suyvelgan, sulyoveldRe, suyovelTvis kargad iqneba. gzis megobrebi ficis, pirobis Sesrulebas - moTxovnilebis, survilebis, madis dakmayofilebas da saerTo saqmiT, saerTo TanxmobiT, saerTo ZalebiT, saerTo aRSfoTebiT, saerTi mtris ZleviT saerTo jamSi saerTo enis gamonaxvas gvaswavlian. romlebic rac yvelaze mTavaria yvela sazrunavs aqarwyleben, yvela dabrkolebas aioleben - svebednieri, svekmayofili, znedaculi da znekeTili xalxia. vinc ki SeiZleba Segvxvdes am Telil gzebze. amitom rogorc bibliaSia naTqvami: nu wagvyveba simTvrale gzaSi Tanamgzavrad.raTa SevZloT da gavicnoT, SevamCnioT da aRmovaCinoT axali megobrebi. kavSiri davamyaroT,

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saubari gavabaT maTTan. azrebi, grZnobebi, gancdebi gavuziaroT erTmaneTs. mSvidobian, Seuferxebel, daubrkolebel mgzavrobas gisurvebT Tqveni cxovrebis gzebze. visurvebdi TiToeul CveTaganze eTqvaT: man ugrZelesi galia gzebi, uZneles gzebze iara didxans. is mZime tvirTi, mZime sasjeli, mZime Sroma, mZime pirobebi romelic aucileblad Segvxdeba cxovrebis gzaze iolad dagveZlios. tyuilad ki ar uTqvamT: mTa rom ar yofiliyo, gza swori da advilad savali iqnebodao. saqmec is aris, dabrkoleba dasZlios mgzavrma da mTa gadalaxos. es mgzavris moqalaqeobrivi movaleobaa. dRevandeli gza, romelic unda gaviaroT iseTnairad unda gaviyvanoT da movawesrigoT, rom misi gavla gauWirveblad da siamovnebiT SevZloT.

Sorena barbaqaZe

gza siyvarulidan pasuxismgeblobamde


(vergiliusis poemis _ ,,eneida-s mixedviT) antikuri literaturis wiaRSi bevri iseTi personaJi Seiqmna, romelTa mimarT dResac ar cxreba SemoqmedTa interesi. Tu Tvals gadavavlebT e. frenzelis( Frenzel 1976)msoflio literaturis saxeebis leqsikons, vnaxavT, rom msoflio mwerlobis yvelaze popularuli personaJebis umetesoba swored antikur epoqasTan aris dakavSirebuli. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am saintereso da SemoqmedTaTvis mimzidvel saxeebs Soris, romlebic antikurobidan SemogvrCa, aris dido da eneasi, vfiqrob, im erTgvari paradigmatuli modelis wyalobiT, romelic Seqmna vergiliusma Tavis poemaSieneida. siyvaruli da pasuxismgebloba zogjer sxvadasxva sibrtyeze arsebuli, TiTqmis permanentulad SeuTavsebeli, erTmaneTis mimarT opoziciaSi myofi cnebebia. antikuri periodis adamianisaTvis pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba gacilebiT ufro mniSvnelovani iyo, vidre erosi, fileo Tu agape. vergiliusis poema eneidas meoTxe Tavi, romelic

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gansakuTrebuli dramatulobiTa da paTetikurobiT gamoirCeva, siyvarulisa da pasuxismgeblobis prioritetsa da opoziciaze mogviTxrobs. swored aq ejaxeba erTmaneTs es ori grZnoba, rac sabolood didos tragediis erTerTi, Tu mTavari ara, mizezi xdeba. siyvarulsa da pasuxismgeblobas Soris kontrastulobisaTvis araerTgzis miuqceviaT mecnierebs yuradReba. vfiqrob, gansaxilveli poema amis klasikuri magaliTia. poemaSi erTmaneTs upirispirdeba ori opoziciuri sawyisi siyvaruli da pasuxismgebloba didosa da eneasis saxiT.opoziciuroba saerTod poemis am nawilis moqmedebis ganmsazRvreli niSania da igi sxvadasxva doneze vlindeba: qali/kaci; siyvaruli/pasuxismgebloba; erosi (grZnoba)/sofia (azrovnebasibrZne). dido yvela am SemTxvevaSi opoziciis pirvel wevrs ganasaxierebs.Tumca, dapirispireba emociasa da civ gansjas Soris Tavad gmirebis xasiaTSic ikveTeba da es kontrastuloba vergiliusis personaJebis erTerTi umTavresi Taviseburebaa. igi sakmaod kanonzomier princips eqvemdebareba da Tavidan bolomde gasdevs poemis am nawils. ukve is garemoeba, rom epizodis dasasruls dido transformirdeba emociebisagan sruliad daclil da amqveyniurobaze amaRlebul qalad, romelmac aRasrula sastiki SurisZieba (Tundac sakuTari Tavis likvidaciis xarjze) da faqtobrivad, gaacamtvera eneasis e.w. racionalizmi, am kontrastulobis sakmaod reliefuri gamovlinebaa.epizodis analizi gviCvenebs, rom sawyis scenebSi eqsponirebuli ,,sabralo didodan karTagenis uZlieresi dedoflis saxeSi gamudmebiT mimdinareobs kontrastuli monacvleoba or sulier mdgomareobas Soris Zlieri reaqciiT gamoxatul emociurobasa da racioTi marTul iluzorul simSvides, siyvarulisa da pasuxismgeblobis grZnobebs Soris. aseTive Widils ganicdis eneasi, erTi mxriv, sayvareli qalis siyvarulisa da meore mxriv, im did pasuxismgeblobas Soris, rac mas RmerTebma daakisres. am efeqts mwerali mSvenivrad aRwevs im scenebis uwyveti mimdevrobiT, romlebSic gmirebi Zlieri emociebis gamoxatvis yoveli SemTxvevis Semdeg, Cveulebriv, analitikuri gadawyvetilebebis miRebis unars, met naklebad, magram mainc, amJRavneben. vergiliusamde arsebobda legenda didoze. masSi ar figurirebda eneasi. dido Tavs iwvavda koconze imis gamo, rom

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misi xalxi aiZulebda gaTxoviliyo afrikel princze (CixlaZe n. 2003:78). es, qalis azriT, gardacvlili meuRlis xsovnis Seuracxyofa iqneboda. romaelma poetma gamoiyena es legenda da masSi cvlilebaTa Setanis Semdeg didos saxe sabediswerod daukavSirda eneasis beds. eneasis did misias daaarsos italiis saxelmwifo msxverplad ewireba dido. rac mas mouvida, aris istoriaSi meore mxaris (meorexarisxovani personaJis) mier gaRebuli zvarakis Cinebuli magaliTi. sanam poemaSi didos Semoiyvans, vergiliusi gviyveba ambebs qalis warsulidan, raTa garkveuli foni Seqmnas Semdeg misi gamoCenisaTvis.igi aris tvirosis mefis qaliSvili, meuRle umdidresi finikielis, siqevsis, romelic didos Zalian uyvarda da romelic misma Zmam, pigmalionma, oqrosaTvis mokla. maSin xalxis beladoba ikisra qalma. maT xelT igdes pigmalionis simdidre, karTagenSi SeiZines miwebi da iwyes misi mSenebloba. didom aqve aago iunos taZari (vergiliusi 1976:45). igi lamazi, energiuli da yvelasagan pativdebuli karTagenis dedofalia, romelic dianasaviT miuZRveba win xalxs da aRagznebs maT axali qveynis asaSeneblad (vergiliusi 1976:78). eneasisa da didos pirveli Sexvedra xdeba iunos taZarSi, sadac didi misiis Sesasruleblad, erTaderTi gadarCenili troeli gmiri eneasi, RmerTebis nebiT laciumis gzas damdgari, Seisvenebs da didos nebarTvis momlodine, kedlebze gamoxatuli troas omis suraTebis cqeriT tkbeba. ar unda iyos SemTxviTi, rom kedlis aRwerisas vergiliusma iq amaZonTa brZolis suraTebic daafiqsira. amiT poetma amayi da Tavisuflebis brZolis JiniT Sepyrobili dedoflis amaZonebTan msgavsebaze migvaniSna [CixlaZe n. 2003:79]. amgvarad, sanam didosa da eneasis gzebi erTmaneTs gadakveTdnen, orTave iyo aRmatebuli, warmatebuli, sakuTari sazrunaviT Sepyrobili, didi da sasikeTo saqmeebis sakeTeblad SemarTuli. Sevecdebi vaCveno, ra gza gaiares poemis gmirebma, eneasma da didom siyvarulsa da pasuxismgeblobas Soris; rogor ganvlo vergiliusma Tavis gmirebTan erTad am gzaze bewvis xidi; ramdenad swori iyo is gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic misma gmirebma am gzaze miiRes. imisaTvis, rom gavarkvioT, romel gzas irCevs Tavad vergiliusi, raTa Tavis gmirebSi pasuxismgeblobasa da siyvaruls Soris Widili aCvenos, ra

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gradacias ganicdian gmirebi erTi mdgomareobidan meoremde, mizanSewonilad mimaCnia amgvari analizis Catareba: mTel informacias, romelic CemTvis saintereso sakiTxTan dakavSirebiTaa poemaSia moTxrobili, ganvalageb im TanmimdevrobiT, rogorc es siuJetis ganviTarebisaTvis unda yofiliyo bunebrivi. idea siyvarulisa da pasuxismgeblobis opoziciisa warmoCenilia, rogorc vergiliusis koncefciis sailustracio magaliTi. ideis realizaciisaTvis romael epikoss hqonda sami gza. warmovadgenT gzas, romelic gmirebma gaiares jer pasuxismgeblobidan siyvarulamde; Semdeg ki siyvarulidan pasuxismgeblobamde da yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT im momentebze, roca es gzebi gadaikveTeba. gza pasuxismgeblobidan siyvarulamde

sainteresoa, rom didosac da eneassac aqvT msgavsi pasuxismgeblobebi. amis ukeT sailustraciod amgvari informaciis Semcvel winadadebebs Cavsvam CarCoSi da warmovadgen paralelurad. orives aqvs pasuxismgebloba: 1. qveynisa da xalxis a)dido lamazi dido...dedofali, qveyanas marTavs, xalxs samarTals udgens; mters mtrulad xvdeba, moyvares moyvrulad; man aaSena qalaqi, taZrebi da keTildReoba Seuqmna xalxs. maT beladobda, msjavrs udebda da kanonebs, Sromis wils yrida da samuSaos moqalaqeT unawilebda (vergiliusi 1976:78). b)eneasi gmir eneass tevkrTa svel sisxliT marTebs modgmis aRorZineba,/damorCileba samyarosi Tvisi kanoniT(vergiliusi 1976:94). 2. gardacvlili naTesavis xsovnis winaSe: a)dido winaSe:

dido pirvelad visac SeeuRla, ,,man waritana qalis vnebani gza siyvarulidan pasuxismgeblobamde 303 (vergiliusi 1976:89). b)eneasi mama anqize, odes Rame dafaravs miwas,/caze mTiebni dasxdebian manaTobelni,/momevlineba, SemaSfoTebs xolme zmanebiT./askaniussa, pirmSos Zvirfass, xom davukargav/sanukvar velebs da samefos hesperiisa!(vergiliusi 1976:97). 3. axloblebis winaSe: a)dido mamam damlaxvros aCrdilebTan elvaquxiliT,/mkrTal aCrdilebTan eerebusis,vidredavarRvev,/kdemav, Sens kanons (vergiliusi 1976:88). b)eneasi eneasma...yrma askanius gaixsena da imedebi/ memkvidreobis. igi mefed unda gauxdes/ italias da romis miwas (vergiliusi 1976:95). 2. RmerTebis winaSe a)dido morCileba gvmarTebs RmerTebis (vergiliusi 1976:52) b) eneasi ,,sxvaTa samefos mopoveba gvibrZana RmerTma./...iupiteris mogzavnilma RmerTebis macnem,/...mswrafl eTeridan/gadmomca RmerTis ganCineba. naTlad vixile/gadmosvla RvTisa da mesmoda sityvebi cxadliv(vergiliusi 1976:97)... ,,italiaSi apolonma wasvla mibrZana./italiaSi likiusis momixmobs mogvi./iq melis trfoba da mamuli.../sxvaTa samefos mopoveba gvibrZana RmerTma(vergiliusi 1976:97).

mouvlens

magram moulodnelad, didos cxovreba mZime gansacdels eneasis siyvarulis saxiT, roca misTvis ase

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saTayvanebeli ,,Sinagani msajuli pasuxismgeblobis saxiT meore planze gadadis. eneasis Seyvareba Zneli ar iyo (ar Seyvareba iqneboda Zneli), radgan is ,,yvelas sjobnida silamaziT. . . / aseTi aris apolonic. . . /swored mas hgavda ciur siturfiT mozeime saTno eneas (vergiliusi 1976:92). Zlieri dedoflisTvisac ki rTuli aRmoCnda gamklaveboda eneasis apolonisebr momxiblaobas. Tavadac ukvirs, rogor SeiZleboda msgavsi ram mas damarToda, es yvelaferi xom mis principebs ewinaaRmdegeboda:,, de, miwam miyos piri umal da yovlisSemZle/ mamam damlaxvros aCrdilebTan elva-quxiliT, / mkrTal aCrdilebTan erebusis, vidre davarRvev, / kdemav, Sens kanons, zurgs Sevaqcev Ralatiani!(vergiliusi 1976:88), magram sxva fiqrebic Tavs dastrialebs da sakuTar das, anas gulaxdilad eubneba: ...rom ara mZuldes sareceli da sanaTuri, / am erT sisustes me mgonia mivecemodi!/ gamogitydebi, rom siqevsis sikvdilis Semdeg,.../ mxolod man SeZlo Cemi grZnobis Semobruneba(vergiliusi 1976:88). yvelas mjobnma eneasma Tavisi sityvapasuxiTa da garegnobiT dedofali ise moxibla, rom misi guli sazrunavma dasera mwvavem, / ZarRvebs moedo, idumali saxmiliT wvavda./vaJis gmirobam da diadi modgmis didebam/ gamsWvala suli, mkerds moedo gmiris sityvebi(vergiliusi 1976:88); vneba wvavs didos da sigiJe Zvlebamde atans (vergiliusi 1976:90). qali Tavis Tavs veRar akontrolebs, mTlianad grZnobaTa tyveobaSi moeqca, saRad azrovnebis unari dakarga. da maSin, roca dedofali pasuxismgeblobisa da siyvarulis grZnobebs Soris Widils ganicdis, vergiliusi anas metad saintereso argumentebis meSveobiT ,,exmareba didos gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi. aq anas roli TiTqmis gadamwyvetia, mas ar surs misi da ,,daWknes uqorwinod, sevdas mieces Tundac ,,balRTa gareSe da dido nel-nela mihyavs gadawyvetilebamde, - Seiyvaros eneasi: ,, vgoneb, RmerTebis da iunos surviliT qarma/aq mouZeva ilionis xomaldebs bina./ ra samefos da qalaqs naxav, dao, agebuls/ gmirTan qorwiliT! dacva ZaluZs tevkrTa saWurvels/ da punikuri Zlierebis kvlav amaRleba! (vergiliusi 1976:89). ,,Tqva da aRunTo suli, trfobis cecxliT agznebuli, gulSi imedi Causaxa, kdema daTrguna (vergiliusi 1976:89). miuxedavad imisa, rom dedofali ar apirebda kdemis kanonebis darRvevas, mtkiced swamda, rom pirvelad visac SeeuRla, man waritana

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qalis vnebani (vergiliusi 1976:88), saqmeSi aseve CaerTnen RmerTebi da ori RvTaebisagan (afrodite, erosi) Zleuli qali trfobis morevSi CaiZira. aseTive uZluri aRmoCnda gmiri eneasi didos dianasebri momxiblaobisa da Wkuagonebis winaSe. mas imdenad Suyvarda dido, rom romeliRac momentSi sakuTari misiac daaviwyda da qalis nebasac morCilad dahyva, xolo roca RmerTebma wasvla ubrZanes, Tavzari dasca am zmanebam mama eneass,/Tma yalyze dadga, xolo xorxSi sityva gauwyda./...RmerTebis nebiT da brZanebiT gaocebuli./raRa eRona, dedoflisTvis viT gaebeda/mZime saTqmeli?sadRa iyo gamosavali?!/ borgavda gmiri eneasis mkvircxli goneba/ sxvadasxva gzis da amocanis gadasawyvetad(vergiliusi 1976:95); .../bedma imZlavra da CauxSo sikeTe gulSi./msgavsad imisa, viT bermuxas eWidebian/alpebis mTebis boreasni, dauqroleben,/amoTxra surT da erTurTs ZaliT ecilebian; iryeva muxa da foToli maRlidan cviva,/kldes daWdobia da eTerSi rac simaRle aqvs,/imdeni siRrme tartarSi aqvs fesviT gadgmuli.../gmiric aseve Searyia satrfos sityvebma,/diadi guli daesera dards ,xolo azri/ar Seryeula da amao iyo cremlebi (vergiliusi 1976). gza siyvarulidan pasuxismgeblobamde.

siyvarulsa da pasuxismgeblobas Soris Widilis meore etapi iwyeba maSin, roca a) Wori yvela bages moedo samefo daTmes, avxorc vnebas misceso Tavi (vergiliusi 1976:93); b) eneasi, romelsac RmerTebi Seaxseneben mis misias, wasasvlelad iwyebs mzadebas, xolo Seyvarebuli qali pirveli igrZnobs sicrues. a) dido Tu amas iTxovs ganCineba iupiteris,/mainc ewamos da ebrZolos xalxs umamacess,/sazRvriT iltvodes, iulusis xvevnasac moswydes,/RmerTs SehRaRados da ixilos TavisianTa/sazari bolo.ros mSvidobas kvlav eRirseba,/ver datkbes nanatr

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samefoTi,sicocxliT tkbiliT,/uwinamc mokvdes qviSrovanSi daukrZalavad! am locvas vityvi ukanasknels, sisxldanTxeuli...(vergiliusi 1976:104).

,,iupiteris mogzavnilma RmerTebis macnem,/Cemsa da Sens Tavs geficebi-mswrafl eTeridan/gadmomca RmerTebis ganCineba.naTlad vixile/gadmosvla RvTisa da mesmoda sityvebi cxadliv./Tavs nu aRigzneb, mec nu damwvav Seni saxmiliT,/me Cemi nebiT rodi mival italiaSi(vergiliusi 1976:97);,,godebaze Tvalic ki ar daaxamxama,/cremli ar Rvara, satrfo Tvisi ar Seibrala!(vergiliusi 1976:98);,,dedofalo, me ver uarvyof/ Sens madls, romelic SegiZlia CamomiTvalo.../ bedma rom momces Cemi azriT cxovrebis neba, /CemTa saqmeTa sasurveli Semobruneba(vergiliusi 1976:97);,, sanamdis eWvi ara hqonda mSvenier didos / moymis Ralatis, sanam trfobis bzars ar eloda, / mzadeba iwyo eneasma, mswrafl irjeboda,/ xelqveiTebi daariga, yvelam siamiT/ miiRo misi brZaneba da saqmes Seudga(vergiliusi 1976:96) b)eneasi dido sTxovs troel gmirs, uari Tqvas Tundac RmerTebisagan dakisrebul misiaze, yvela pasuxismgeblobaze da darCes karTagenSi. misi argumentebi aseTia: a) sxvaTa qveyana da ucnobi sasaxleebi rom ar geZebna, kvlav rom mdgariyo amayi troa, mRelvare zRvaSi gahyvebodi axal ilions? (vergiliusi 1976:96); b) Sens gamo vZulvar libiis xalxs, numidTa tirans da tvirelebs (vergiliusi 1976:96); g) Sen Semogwire sircxvilnamusi da saxeli, varskvlavT sadari (vergiliusi 1976:96); d) ganSorebamde Camsaxoda netavi bavSvi, Cems sasaxleSi eTamaSa ymawvil eneass, da Seni saxe misgan mainc momgoneboda, Tavs ar CavTvlidi dagmobilad, gawbilebulad (vergiliusi 1976:97). eneasis axsna, rom igi Tavisi nebiT ar midis italiaSi, imsaxurebs didos risxvas: gSoba kldovanma kavkasionma. Cems godebaze Tvalic ar daaxamxama. kaci veravis ver endoba. gaZevebuli me Sevifare, ugunurma, Cems samefoSi, davixseni gemi da mxlebelni

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sikdilisagan! me ar gavaleb, gaswi, eZie italias samefo Seni! didos saxels bevrjer axseneb! (vergiliusi 1976:98). grZnobis ayolisaTvis, pasuxismgeblobis daviwyebisaTvis didom Tavis Tavs TviTonve gamoutana ganaCeni: uaryofil Zvel saqmaroT mivubrunde da qorwili vTxovo? romelnic me daviwune, viT mamakacni? nuTu tevkris survils unda davnebde? amay xomaldze, romca msurdes, vinRa mimiRebs saZulvel qals? movkvde, ase sjobs....maxviliT gangmire tanjva! (vergiliusi 1976:102) dido rom mxolod eneasis siyvarulis dakargvisaTvis ar iklavs Tavs, kargad Cans sityvebSi: siqevsis ferfls erTguleba ver Sevunaxe! (vergiliusi 1976:103) da sikvdilis win warmoTqmul epitafiaSic; me viZie Suri qmrisaTvis da movkali Zma, romelic iyo Cveni mteri. me viqnebodi bednieri, rom troelTa xomaldi arasodes modgomoda Cems qveyanas. Tavs viklav,raTa davwva samgloviaro koconis SuagulSi Cemi siyvarulis narCenebi (vergiliusi 1976:105). avtorma es imiTac migvaniSna, rom sikvdilis win erTi wamiT moalanda didos gardacvlil qmarTan kvlav SeerTeba da vfiqrob, amiT misi moraluri reabilitaciac moaxdina. eneasiT gatacebul didos aviwydeba mTavari Rirebuleba pasuxismgebloba. man Tavisi siyvaruliT Seuracxhyo meuRlis, siqevsis xsovna, medeas msgavsad, dakarga yvelaferi, maT Soris - xalxis ndobac, da Sesabamisad, funqciac, rogorc dedofalma. didos TiTqos fexqveS niadagi gamoecala uRalata kacma, romlisTvisac man yvelaferi daTmo da romlisTvisac ganvlo gza xalxis sayvareli dedoflidan xalxis siZulvilamde, gardacvlili meuRlis xsovnis erTguli qvrividan moRalate colamde; amayi, sasiZoebis damwunebel sarZlodan Sercxvenil, mitovebul qalamde: gana Sen gamo ara vZulvar libiis xalxsa, / numidTa tirans da tvirelebs? Sen Semogwire/ sircxvilnamusi da saxeli varskvlavT sadari!(vergiliusi 1976:96). didos SiSi ipyrobs: ,,raRas velodo? damaqcios pigmalionma, / tyved wamiyvanos iarbasma, getulTa mefem? (vergiliusi 1976:96-97). igi cdilobs, kidev erTxel daarwmunos eneasi misi gadawyvetilebis gadaxedvis aucileblobaSi da isev uxsnis, Tu ras niSnavs didosTvis misi datoveba, miT umetes - sicruiT: ,, gana SegeZlo, moRalatev, mag borotebis / Cemgan damalva, datoveba karTagenisa? nuTu verc trfoba... ver Segakavebs?/...Tu

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ram sikeTe gaxsovs Cemgan, Tu ram giyvarda, /gebralebode, geajebi, saxls nu damingrev,/ Tu gulSi CemTvis SegrCa kuTxe, daTme eg azri!(vergiliusi 1976:96). didosTvis eneasis gareSe cxovreba warmoudgenelia ara mxolod imitom, masTan Zlieri grZnoba akavSirebs, aramed imitomac, rom mas, rogorc dedofals, pirovnebas sWirdeba reabilitacia sakuTari qveynis xalxis, pasuxismgeblobebis, sakuTari Tavis winaSe. am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresod gvixatavs vergiliusi eneasis saxesac. CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT yuradsaRebia misi qmedeba Cveneba-zmanebis Semdeg, roca is iRebs gadawyvetilebas miatovos dido da Sesabamisad, karTagenic. eneasis sulSi mimdinareobs brZola pasuxismgeblobasa da siyvaruls Soris. eneasi xvdeba, rom is unda daemorCilos RmerTebis nebas da Tan acnobierebs, Tu rarig sastikad eqceva didos . man Tavisi piradi bedniereba qveynis, mamulis keTildReobas unda Seswiros, ris aucileblobasac RmerTebi axseneben: eh, dagviwynia samefo da saqmeni Senni!/...Tu diad saqmes Seni suli ar aRugznia,/yrma askanius gaixsene da imedebi/ memkvidreobis. igi mefed unda gauxdes/ italias da romis miwas(vergiliusi 1976:95).eneass RmerTebi axseneben pasuxismgeblobas sakuTari qveynisa da Svilis winaSe, anu masze garedan zemoqmedeben. aristoteles azriT, mxolod maSinaa SesaZlebeli adamians daekisros pasuxismgebloba ama Tu im saqcielze, rodesac misi qceva ar aris iZulebiTi, is Tavadaa Tavisi moqmedebis iniciatori anu rodesac misi moqmedeba nebayoflobiTia da mas sxvagvarad moqmedebac SeeZlo. Tu mas sxvagvarad moqmedeba ar SeuZlia, anu arCevans forsirebulad akeTebs, mas pasuxismgeblobac ver daekisreba. mocemul SemTxvevaSi eneasze RmerTebi zemoqmedeben, Sesabamisad, aristoteles mixedviT, is verafris iniciatori ver iqneba; igi, garkveulwilad, Semsrulebeli da morCilia RmerTebis nebis [Aristoteles 2006:67], magram ara - marioneti! gmiri did Sinagan brZolas da sindisis qenjnas ganicdis mosalodneli gamgzavrebisa da ukve TiTqmis miRebuli gadawyvetilebis gamo: ,,Tavzari dasca am zmanebam mama eneass, / Tma yalyze dadga, xolo xorxSi sityva gauwyda./ . . . RmerTebis nebiT da brZanebiT gaocebuli./ raRa eRona, dedoflisTvis viT

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gaebeda/ mZime saTqmeli? sadRa iyo gamosavali?!/ borgavda gmiri eneasis mkvircxli goneba/ sxvadasxva gzis da amocanis gadasawyvetad (vergiliusi 1976:95). maqs vebers Tu daveTanxmebiT [Weber 2004:70], eneasi e. w. ,,mrwamsis eTikis mimdevaria, rac amas gulisxmobs: misTvis umniSvnelovanesia sakuTari qmedebis zneobriv principebTan Tanxvdoma da ara TviT rezultati, rasac is RmerTebs andobs. xolo dido absoluturad sxva tipaJia: sanam Seuyvardeba, misTvisac sxva zneobrivi principebi arsebobs da moqmedebs, misTvisac umTavresia misi xalxi da qveyana, magram eneasTan siaxlovis Semdeg is savsebiT icvleba da xdeba e. w. pasuxismgeblobis eTikis mimdevari, roca adamiani Tavisi arsiT pasuxismgebelia sakuTari moqmedebis Sedegze. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, pirvelis (eneasis) zneobrivi qcevis Semfasebeli umaRlesi msajuli masSive igulisxmeba sakuTari Sinagani xmis, Sinagani msajulis sindisis saxiT; pasuxismgeblobis eTikis (didos SemTxvevaSi) mixedviT ki, es sazomi mis gareTaa misi moqmedebis Sedegis saxiT. udavoa, rom mrwamsis eTikac pasuxismgeblobas gulisxmobs, oRond ara raime garegnuli instanciis, aramed ukve sakuTari sindisis winaSe. eneasi ,,gulxeldakrefili ar damjdara da udrtvinvelad ar dalodebia Tavis ganaCens, mudmivad cdilobda gamosavali moeZebna, raTa arc samSoblos da arc sayvareli qalis winaSe ,,ukeTuri saqcieli ar Caedina. Tumca, misi mTavari Secdoma, albaT, is iyo rom man Tanamgzavrad sicrue da orguloba airCia: ,, sanamdis eWvi ara hqonda mSvenier didos / moymis Ralatis, sanam trfobis bzars ar eloda, / mzadeba iwyo eneasma, mswrafl irjeboda,/ xelqveiTebi daariga, yvelam siamiT/ miiRo misi brZaneba da saqmes Seudga (vergiliusi 1976:96). siyvaruliT dabrmavebuli dido verafriT ijerebda eneasis Ralats, magram is qvecnobierad safrTxes grZnobda: ,,satrfos vin ras gamoaparebs (vergiliusi 1976:96)uzneo Worma/uTxra mrisxanes, gasaqcevad dganano gemni (vergiliusi 1976:96).avtori cdilobs, TanaugrZnos didos, TiTqos ebraleba yovelive imisaTvis, rac mas Tavs gadaxdenia da imisTvisac, rac momavalSi elodeba. vergiliusi advilad ver

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imetebs Tavis sayvarel personaJs da aCvenebs, rogor cdilobs eneasi, guli ar atkinos qals, eneasis Sinagani samyaros duRils (vergiliusi 1976:97), Sinagan bZolas siyvarulsa da pasuxismgeblobas Soris (vergiliusi 1976:98), magram saboolood masSi mainc racio (winamZRoli, mama, diadi misiis Semsrulebeli) da Sesabamisad, emociaze pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba imarjvebs. miuxedavad amisa, eneasis didosadmi siyvaruli kidev erTxel Tavs Segvaxsenebs poemis Sua nawilSi, roca eneasi sulTa samefoSi xvdeba didos aCrdils da nawarmoebis bolos, roca Tavisi usayvarlesi megobris cxedars gaaxvevs didos xeliT misTvis odesRac moqsovil mosasxamSi, rac imaze migvaniSnebs, rom eneasma didosadmi faqizi grZnobebi bolomde SeinarCuna. amitomac gvxvdeba didos saxeli mTeli moqmedebis ganmavlobaSi ramdenjerme, dasawyisidan dasasrulamde, maSinac, roca eneasi diadi misiis Sesrulebas Seudga da maSinac, roca gmirma Tavisi misia pirnaTlad Seasrula dasabami misca italielTa axal modgmas. SeiZleba CavTvaloT, rom didos eneasisadmi trfoba egocentrulia da mxolod misken aris mimarTuli, anu didos azrebsa Tu qmedebebSi, nebsiT Tu uneblieT, aSkarad dominirebs sakuTar interesebze yuradRebis gamaxvileba, am SemTxvevaSi eneasis, rogorc mmarTvelis, sazianod. is eneasisganac iseTive Tavganwirvas moiTxovs, rogoradac TviTon iqceva. ar fiqrobs im dilemaze, ris winaSec Seyvarebuli eneasi aRmoCnda. eneasic ormagad itanjeba, mas arc Seyvarebul qalTan darCena SeuZlia da arc misi Tan wayvana, is gulSi dards ZaliT ,,ixSobs da Tan sindisis qenjniTac dasZens: ,,dedofalo, me ver uarvyof/ Sens madls, romelic SegiZlia CamomiTvalo.../ bedma rom momces Cemi azriT cxovrebis neba, /CemTa saqmeTa sasurveli Semobruneba...(vergiliusi 1976:97), maSin yvelaferi sxvagvarad iqneboda, ar mouwevda siyvarulsa da qveynis winaSe movaleobas Soris arCevanis gakeTeba da dedofals Semdegs sTxovs,, Tavs nu aRigzneb, mec nu damwvav Seni saxmiliT, me Cemi nebiT rodi mival italiaSi! (vergiliusi 1976:97-98). mas xom iq wasvla apolonma ubrZana: ,,iupiteris mogzavnilma RmerTebis macnem, / Cemsa da Sens Tavs geficebi -mswrafl eTeridan/ gadmomca RmerTis ganCineba (vergiliusi 1976:97). vfiqrob, mmarTveli eneasi savsebiT sworad iqceva, rodesac ucxo miwas saswrafod

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tovebs da Tavisi samefos sakeTildReod moqmedebas iwyebs. meore mxriv, Seyvarebulma eneasma, faqtobrivad, sircxvilis, siZulvilisa da ubedurebisaTvis gawira sayvareli qali. dido nabij-nabij midis gadawyvetilebmde - moiklas Tavi. misTvis sicocxlem, saerTod cxovrebam azri dakarga, ganadgurda ara mxolod rogorc qali, aramed rogorc dedofali, pirovneba. Cemi azriT, dido imitom Semoiyvana poemaSi vergiliusma, rom amiT xazi gaesva eneasis misiis sidiadisaTvis da amavdroulad, eCvenebina,rom didi misiis Semsruleblebsac aqvT tkivilamde misuli siyvarulis niWi. didom ara mxolod eneass miayena Tavisi gardacvalebiT didi tkivili, aramed sakuTar das, anas da mTel samefos. es kargad Cans anas bolo sityvebSi: Tavi daRupe, mec damRupe, mTeli samefoc, /sidonelebic...(vergiliusi 1976:106). vergiliusis gmirebs SeeZloT erTad yofiliyvnen bednierebi, rom ar gadaxlarToda erTmaneTs siyvaruli da pasuxismgebloba. aq isini arCevanis gakeTebisas uZlurni aRmoCndnen. vergiliusis ,,eneida epikuri saxis damuSavebis im etaps warmoadgens, roca eposSi Semovida mTavari gmiri, romelic asrulebs masze RmerTebisagan dakisrebul movaleobas. aseTi gmiris epikur JanrSi Semoyvana sakuTriv vergiliusiseulia. eneasis pasuxismgeblobas qveynisa da xalxis, an Tundac RmerTebis winaSe ewireba misi pasuxismgebloba sayvareli qalis mimarT. mTeli misi moqmedeba emorCileba dakisrebuli misiis ganxorcielebas, Tumca, gmiri yovelTvis ganicdis Widils sasurvelsa da aucilebels Soris. didos tragedia marto is ki ar aris, rom man dakarga didi siyvaruli (mkrexeloba iqneboda aseTi qalis tragedia sareclamde dagveyvana), aramed isic, rom igi aRmoCnda ara Tavisi survilebis baton-patroni, aramed - mona. SeibRala misi saxeli, man dakarga xalxis pativiscema, romelic,misi azriT, mxolod sikvdiliT SeiZleba aRdges. aq sircxvilis gancda sulier tkivils emateba. amdenad, zogierTi mkvlevris azri imis Taobaze, rom dido da eneasi calsaxad ganasaxiereben emociurobasa da racionalizms, siyvarulsa (dido) da pasuxismgeblobas (eneasi),

312

Sorena barbaqaZe

garkveul koreqtivs moiTxovs, radgan racionalizmi da emocia, romelic vergiliusis eneidaSi pasuxismgeblobisa da siyvarulis grZnobebiTaa warmodgenili, orives qmedebaSi sakmaod did rols TamaSobs.

Lliteratura

1.

vergiliusi 1976:,,eneida, Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo,1976. antikur

2. CixlaZe n. 2003: amaZonobis motivi literaturaSi.gamomc.logosi. Tbilisi 2003. 3. 4.

Arethusa: Women in the Ancient World. New York 1984. Aristoteles 2006: Nikomachische Ethik.Stuttgart 2006.

5. Bartlett, Robert C.; Collins, Susan D.(2011). Nicomachean ethics. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.ISBN 978-0-226-02674-9. 6. Claessens,Dieter: Das Fremde, Fremdheit und Identitat. Opladen1991. 7. Fantham E: Literaturisches Leben im antiken Rom. Stuttgart 1998. 8. Frenzel 1976: Stoffe der Weltliteratur.Stuttgart 1976.

9. Pomeroy S. B.: Fraunleben im Klassischen Altertum. Stuttgart 1985. 10. 11. Schweitzer 1923: Kultur und Ethik. Bern 1923. Weber 2004: Politik als Beruf. Stuttgart 2004.

meri nebieriZe

gza, rogorc semiotikuri niSani daviT kldiaSvilis personaJTa metyvelebaSi


qarTuli enis ganmarebiT leqsikonSi vkiTxulobT: `miwis zedapirze gayvanili zoli, romelic gankuTvnilia mimosvlisaTvis~, _ es sityva `gzis~ pirveli mniSvnelobaa. amas garda, amave leqsikonis mixedviT, am sityvas aqvs sami kidev sxva da ori gadataniTi mniSvneloba. aqvea ramdenime idiom, romelTac aqvT pirdapirica da gadataniTi mniSvnelobebic. amasTan aRvniSnav, rom ,,gza, albaT, erT-erTi is niSania, romelsac yvelaze meti Sinaarsi, yvelaze meti konteqsti moeZebneba rogorc saliteraturo, ise dialeqtur formebSi. amas Tavisi mizezi aqvs: niSani `gza~ da misi semantikuri veli Zalian didi da mravalferovania enaSi da amis mizezi mokled SeiZleba ase Camoayalibo: cxovreba moZraobis uwyvetobaa, moZraoba ki gzis gareSe warmoudgnelia. gza aris niSani, romelic aerTianebs SesaZleblobisa da SeuZleblobis, winsvlisa Tu ukusvlis, TviT moZraobis Semadgenel yovel uZrav wertils (monakveTs). gza aris niSani, romelsac SeuZlia daitios sivrciTi vertikalica da horizontalic. amitomacaa, rom SeuZlebelia

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meri nebieriZe

srulyofilad aRwero yvela is forma, romlic `gzis~ semantikur velSi mozreba da Seqmnila. es niSani TiTqos SeuzRudav SesaZleblobas iZleva, rom aRwero, gamoxato, gamoavlino aRsaniSni. am semantikuri niSnis Taviseburebis warmosaCenad ramdenime gamoTqmas Sevexebi. arsebobs gamoTqma: ,,RvTis gzaze midis, romelic CemTvis, rogorc am SemTxvevaSi semiotikis moyvarulisaTvis, im kuTxiTaa damafiqrebeli, rom adamianebisTvis gza Tavisi konkretuli da abstraqtuli mniSvnelobiT erTmaneTTanaa gadajaWvuli. maxsendeba baraTaSvilis sityvebi: `gza uvali, Sengan Telili...~ uvali ukve gzaa? gamodis, rom raxan arsebobs `uvali~, igi savalic aris imTaviTve, oRond jer ar gamouyenebiaT: anu gzaa yvela sivrce, sadac SeiZleba gaiaro, Tanac gaiaro fexiT, fiqriT an emociiT (grZnobiT). swored amitomaa, rom niSans `gza~ amdeni mniSvneloba daukavSirda. gza yvela SemTxvevaSi mimarTuleba. qarTul zRaparSi es niSani imTaviTve arCevanis saSualebacaa, amis SesaZleblobas gamoxatavs: aqeT waxval, iqiT waxval...~ Tumca aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom zRaparSi gza gaurkvevlobasac gulisxmobs da gmirs sinanulisgan ar azRvevs, Tumca is gardauvali ramaa da nebismieri arCevanis SemTxvevaSi elis adamians. gzasTan dakavSirebuli kompozitebis formaTa gaazrebiTac Zalian saintereso daskvnebis gamotana SeiZleba; magaliTad, kompoziti `Tavgzaabneuli~. Tavisa da gzis amgvari dakavSireba albaT imis dadasturebaa, rom gza Cveni arsebobis ganuyreli niSania, TiTqos Tvisebaa es Cveni da TiTqos is erTaderTia, rac maSinve viciT, rogorc ki pirvel nabijs vdgamT, radgan nabijisTvis saWiroa is arsebobdes. gzadagza gvxvdebian adamianebi da gvxvdeba misamarTebi; gzadagza gvaswavlian gzas, gviRobaven, an gvixsnian mas; gzadagza gveSleba gzebi, gveSlebian adamianebi da gveSleba misamarTebi. ,,gza dagviloce! es gamoTqmac imas unda mowmobdes, rom niSani gza cxovrebis sinonimia xSirad, radgan aq araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar igulisxmeba konkretuli gza, qviSiani, an

gza, rogorc semiotikuri niSani...

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asfaltiani, viwro an grZeli. SeRmarTi, aRmarTi Tu daRmarTi; arc mixveul-moxveuli da a. S. es aris subieqturi gza, Tavisi aviTa da kargiT. `gza~ SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc niSani, romlis aRsaniSnic obieqtur da subieqtur mniSvnelobas atarebs. vnaxoT, rogor aris kodirebuli niSani ,,gza im teqstebSi, romlebic am SemTxvevaSi . daviT kldiaSvilis personaJebi yofiT ambebze saubroben, maTi fiqrisa da zrunvis sagani ar scildeba sakuTari `mesa~ da ojaxis sazRvrebs, aq ar figurirebs `sxva~, gverdiT mdgomi vinme, mxolod `me~ aris sazrunavi, Sesabamisad, saubaric ganuwyvetliv dastrialebs mosaubris viwro, mcire samyaros, mis savals. Tumca savals ara didi fiqriT ganWvretilsa da dagegmils; maT gzaze mxolod erTi fiqria: Tavis darCena. `samaniSvilis dedinacvali~; `qamuSaZis gaWirveba~, `soloman morbelaZe~; `darispanis gasaWiri~ is tesebia, romlebidanac Sevkribe sakvlevi masala. am teqstebidan amoikriba 115 epizodi, sadac personaJTa metyvelebaSi semiotikuri niSani `gza~ figurirebs. maTgan 47 SemTxvevaSi semiotikuri niSani gamoyenebulia qarTul ganmartebiT leqsikonSi mocemuli pirveli mniSvnelobiT, xolo danarCen SemTxvevaSi (58) semiotikuri niSani gadataniTi mniSvnelobiTaa naxmari. sainteresoa is garemoebac, rom pirvel SemTxvevaSi niSani konkretul obieqts aRniSnavs: gza, savali zoli, farTo an viwro, atalaxebuli an gamogvaluli, aRmarTi an daRmarTi, mofarebuli an yvelasaTvis dasanaxi, saurmo an sacalfexo da a. S. magram meore SemTxvevaSi suraTi Zalian mravalferovania, Tanac iseTi mravalferovani, rom SeiZleba usasrulod ifiqro maT konteqstsa Tu emociur datvirTvaze. amgvar rameebze fiqris moyvarulma mofiqralma SeiZleba isic ki daaskvnas, rom semiotikuri niSani imis mixedviTac gansxvavdeba, vinaa warmomTqmeli da ra konteqstSi warmoiTqmeba igi. saerTod, sainteresoa semiotikuri niSnis konteqstica da isic, vin warmoTqvams mas, amis mixedviT axdens recipienti am niSnis dekodirebas. magaliTad, sxva gaiazreb gamoTqmas: `sxva gza ar gaqvs~ rodesac amas kldiaSvilis personaJisagan ismen da

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meri nebieriZe

sxvagvaradmagaliTad, aleqsandre yazbegis romelime personaJisagan; sxvadasxva ramis aRmniSvnelia es gamoTqma maSinac ki, roca amas TviT kldiaSvilis sxvadsxva personaJi, vTqvaT, darispani an soloman morbelaZe amboben. masalaze dakvirvebam erTi ram cxadyo: kldiaSvilis personaJTa metyvelebaSi ufro aqtiuri am semiotikuri niSnis swored gadataniTi mniSvnelobebia da maTganac ufro xSirad (umeteswilad) is gamouval, gausaZlis, mZime mdgomareobas aRwers, romelic arsebobis erTaderT formad qceula am personaJTa yoveldRiurobaSi. konteqsti: 1. zenaTi gamwarebulia, aRar icis riT amoiyaros bakulas Tu bakulas Rorebis javri... ambobs: `sadaa mere es sxva gza?~ darispans imedis naperwkali gaukrTa da imis Caqrobas upireben; ambobs: `ras vSvrebi amisTanas, gzas rom mikravT yovel mxridan?..~ solomani realobas droebiT Tvals gausworebs; ambobs: `riTi gamoaqvT Tavi, meti gza rom aRar aqvT? tyuili, tyuili, yovel nabijze tyuili da upiruloba! otia qamuSaZe ki dabejiTebiT eubneba sakuTar `mes~: `ara meti saSveli araa, mec unda avibargo! mec unda Sevexizno iq, sadac yoveli kaci saSvels poulobs sadac imodeni saSovaria da saSualeba; meti gza aRar aris!..~ aristo qvaSaviZe mamidas ase dauxatavs awmyosa da momavals: `gza ar gaqvs, gza, uari Tqva; kai saWmeli, kai sasmeli, ra ginda meti.~

2.

3.

4.

5.

`gza ar gaqvs~; `meti gza ar aris~ _ es gamoTqmebi yvelaze xSirad gaismis imereli yofili aznaurebis metyvelebaSi da yoveli am frazis ukan, yovel jerze sxvadasxva usaSveloba dgas. yovel konteqsts ise bunebrivad aboloebs es gamoTqma, rom roca ar amboben, im SemTxvevebSic es igulisxmeba. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba daaxasiaTo is suraTebi, romlebic gamudmebiT trialeben am adamianebis azrovnebaSi,

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daaxasiaTeb maTi cxovrebis formasac. Tamamad SeiZleba isic iTqvas, rom niSani gza ukavSirdeba gamouval, uimedo situacias, romlidanac gamudmebiT eZeben gamosavals. aqvea ramdenime saintereso gamoTqmac: `gzagougnebeli kacisaTvis~; `sulwasawymed gzas~; `mxsneli gza~; `saSvel gzas~; am gamoTqmaTa arseboba mxolod imas mowmobs, rom niSani `gza~ usasrulod iZleva axali saxeebis (metaforebis?) Seqmnis saSualebas, raTa ukeT gamoxato emocia, grZnoba. cnobili filosofosis, vigenSteinis aseve cnobil wignSi `filosofiuri gamokvlevebi~ vkiTxulobT: `warmoidgino ena, niSnavs, warmoidgino sicocxlis forma~. sicocxles Tavisi forma , romelic pirdapir ukavSirdeba adamianis cnobierebas, msoflaRqmas. Cems emocias me gamovxatav sityvebiT, anu adamiani sakuTar `mes~ gamoxatavs sityvebiT, niSnebiT, metaforebiT, enobrivi konstruqciebiT. Sesabamisad, sainteresoa, ra simboloebi da metaforebi Seqmnila enaSi, romelic sazogadoebasTan erTad cocxlobs, icvleba da yalibdeba. `sicocxlis forma~ - es Sesityvebac metaforaa, romelsac Tavisi ganmarteba aqvs da is sxva metaforebiT unda aixsnas. yoveli adamianis arseboba gansakuTrebulia, Tavisi forma aqvs da Tvali rom miadevno mis sul mcire konturs mainc, erTaderT saSualebas flob: usmino mas, mis enas da mis metyvelebaSi kodirebulis dekodirebas Seecado. aqve Sevexebi erT sakiTxsac: me personaJebis ena SemTxveviT ar avirCie, Cemi dakvirveba mxolod maT gamonaTqvamebs exeba, maT dialogebsa Tu monologebs da ara - avtoriseul frazebs. mimaCnia, rom am SemTxvevaSi ufro naTlad SeiZleba warmoidgino TiToeulis subieqturi gza, romlis traeqtoriac yovelTvis ufro saintereso da idumalia, vidre gza, romelsac, magaliTad, TamaraSenidan qvedureTamde daadgeba vinme, Tundac - platon samaniSvili. `ilaparake, raTa gagicno~ _ am gamonaTqvamis principidan gamomdinare metyvelebis, sityvaTa wyobis mixedviT SeiZleba warmoidgino adamiani. da gansazRvro, rogoria misi `sicocxlis forma~.

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meri nebieriZe

saerToO sociumi, saerTo geografiuli areali, saerTo ganaTlebis done (met-naklebad, magram mainc) da saerTo epoqa _ es aris mocemuloba, foni, romelSic trialeben kldiaSvilis gansxvavebuli Tu msgavsi personaJebi. ratom aris mniSvnelovani es saerTo raRacebi: aucilebelia, radgan TiToeuli am sociumSi, am geografiul arealSi, am epoqaSi cxovrobs da TiToeulis cxovrebis gzas yvelaf gaTvaliswinebiT unda SevxedoT, radgan arc Tu ise iSviaTad, Tavad Segvaxseneben amas: `drom moitana,~ _ am frazas xSirad imeoreben isini. amasve gulisxmobs xSirad sityvebi: `meti gza rom aRaraa~. sainteresoa is savali, romelsac TiToeuli mainc daadgeba xolme, miuxedavad imisa, rom TiTqos ar Cans es gza, an gaurkvevelia momavali. isev vigenStains movixmob: `ena samyaros amsaxveli winadadebisagan Sedgeba. winadadebebi azrebis aRqmadi gamoxatulebebia, xolo azrebi _ faqtebis logikuri suraTebi~. kldiaSvilis personaJebis metyvelebidan unda davinaxoT samyaro, romelic aris maT irgvliv da aris maTSi. anu maTi obieqturi da subieqturi samyaro. amasTan, Zalian sainteresoa is faqti, rom obieqturi samyaros Sesaxeb gareSe pirs yovelTvis SeiZleba sxvagvari Sexedulebebi hqondes da sxvagvard aRweros igi, radgan sxvagvarad warmoidgina, xolo subieqturi samyaro SenTvis mouxelTebeli rCeba, radgan mis Sesaxeb mxolod is ici, rac Tavad personaJma gagimxila. yvelaze xSirad imaze wuwuneben personaJebi, rom gza ar aris, magram mainc sul mas eZeben. am kuTxiT gza da gamosavali, gza da saSveli xSirad ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs: magaliTad: zenaTisa da galaktionis saubari; platonisa da melanos saubari. meti gza rom aRar aqvs, amitomac daadgeba galaktioni gzas `sudisaken~, platoni gzas TamaraSenisaken, xolo gaWirvebuli mama - gzas umisamarTod: keTil naTesaveb, isini ki, RvTis madliT, gzis yovel mxares eguleba.

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am personaJTa arsebobs arCeuli, garantirebuli da cxovrebis formaa, ar aris.

metyvelebaSi kargad Cans erTi ram: ar gamiznuli gza, romlis bolosac Sedegi imedismomcemia. es umiznod siaruli maTi nakarnaxevi im situaciidan, roca meti gza

kldiaSvilis personaJTa metyvelebaSi yvelaze xSirad naxsenebi `meti gza ar aris~ maT obieqtur samyarosac xsnis da subieqtursac. maTi cxovrebis formac gasagebia, arCevanis motivica da aracnobieridan wamosuli impulsebic. sxva saqmea, Tu imsjeleb imaze, SeeZloT Tu ara axali gzis danaxva, romelsac SeiZleba dasdgomodnen. ai kidev erTi sakiTxi: gzis danaxva, romelsac Zala unda, Sinagani Tvali sWirdeba, romelsac yovelTvis sxva Zala da energia kvebavs da romelic subieqturidan modis yovelTvis; subieqturi samyarodan obieqturi samyarosaken. da iqneb yvela gza asea: subieqturidan gamodis. misi Senebaa iqneb yvelaze rTuli, da yvelaze realuri, xelSesaxebi da dasanaxi gzac swored is iyos.

malxaz mayaSvili

komunikacia mdedrebsa da mamrebs Soris


biosemiotika Seiswavlis niSnebs da niSanTa sistemas cocxal organizmebSi molekulur, ujredul da organizmul doneze. winamdebare statia exeba mdedrebsa da mamrebs Soris komunikaciis sakiTxs, kerZod sqesobrivi urTierTobis damyarebisaTvis gamoyenebul komunikaciis saSualebebs. isini metad mravalferovania: dawyebuli mdedrebsa da mamrebs Soris garegnuli gansxvavebiT da damTavrebuli rTuli saqorwino ritualuri qceviT. komunikacia am SemTxvevaSi emsaxureba: 1. sawinaaRmdego sqesis mizidvas da gamravlebas, amgvarad, populaciis (saxeobis) sicoxlisunarianobis uzrunvelyofas da 2. ramdenadac is saxeoba-specifikuria, saxeobis identobis SenarCunebas. adamianSi sawinaaRmdego sqesebs Soris komunikaciis Tavdapirvel, cxovelur safuZvelze daSenebulia urTierTobis rTuli, adamianuri sistema, romlis warmoSoba ZiriTadad verbaluri komunikaciis da socialuri wesCveulebebis rTuli sistemis Camoyalibebas ukavSirdeba. Tumca am sistemis miRma moCans saerTo adamiansa da sxva cocxal arsebebs Soris. antropomorfizmis safrTxis gazviadeba

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da albaT Taviseburi ampartavnebac xandaxan xels gviSlis davinaxoT meti saerTo, vidre ganmasxvavebeli maTTan, vis gverdiTac sakmaod did xans harmoniulad vviTardebodiT. saerTos danaxva, aRiareba da gaTvaliswineba ki aucilebelia isev CvenTvisve sasikeTod. sawinaaRmdego sqesis warmomadgenelTan urTierTobis damyarebisaTvis upirvelesi pirobaa, rom savaraudo partniorebma swrafad amoicnon erTmaneTi. evoluciis procesSi Camoyalibda sqesobrivi dimorfizmi gansxvaveba mdedris da mamris agebulebis TaviseburebaSi. rac ufro mkveTria is populaciis (saxeobis) SigniT, miT ufro swrafad amoicnobs mdedri mamrs, mamri ki mdedrs. sqesobrivi dimorfizmi gamoixateba mdedris da mamris morfologiur gansxvavebulobaSi. sqesobrivi dimorfizmis erTerTi gamoxatulebaa gansxvaveba mdedris da mamris sxeulis zomaSi, magaliTad obobebis zogierT saxeobaSi. sxva SemTxvevaSi, magaliTad peplebSi, mamri da mdedri gansxvavdebian frTebis (an mTeli sxeulis) gansxvavebuli SeferilobiT.

TevzebSi, qvewarmavlebSi xSirad mamris da mdedris gamorCeva SesaZlebelia sxeulze, garkveul adgilas arsebuli mkveTri Seferilobis laqebiT. frinvelebSi, ZuZumwovrebSi xSiria

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malxaz mayaSvili

mkveTri gansxvaveba rogorc sxeulis zomaSi, ise Seferilobasa da formaSi.

biologiuri fenomenis Seswavlisas upirveles yovlisa pasuxi unda gaeces kiTxvas: ra mniSvneloba aqvs am fenomens, ratom ganmtkicda es niSan-Tviseba evoluciis procesSi? ganxilul SemTxvevebSi pasuxi, savaraudod, naTelia: sqesobrivi dimorfizmi xels uwyobs sawinaaRmdego sqesis warmomadgenelis swraf amocnobas, rac xels uwyobs mdedris da mamris Sejvarebas, Sedegad axali Taobis warmoqmnas da maSasadame uzrunvelyofs populaciis sicocxlisunarianobas. meore SekiTxva, romelic pirvel SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis kvaldakval logikurad warmoiSveba, exeba fenomenis warmoSobis meqanizms. Tanamedrove biologiis centraluri problema swored am meqanizmis dadgenaa, bevri ram am mxriv garkveulia, magram es ar aris winamdebare naSromis sakiTxi. sqesobrivi dimorfizmi adamianSic gamoxatulia. sakmarisia mamakacis da qalis amosacnobad. siluetic

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yvela zemoT aRweril SemTxvevaSi, mniSvnelovania ara is, Tu ra zomiT (xarisxiT) aris warmodgenili sqesobrivi dimorfizmi, aramed is, sakmarisia Tu ara es gansxvaveba, raTa mocemuli saxeobis mdedrma da mamrma swrafad amoicnon erTmaneTi. mdedris da mamris sakomunikacio niSanTa sistema ar ifargleba mxolod morfologiuri TaviseburebebiT. feromonebi nivTierebebia, romlebsac organizmi gamoyofs sxva arsebebTan, maT Soris sawinaaRmdego sqesis warmomadgenlebTan komunikaciis mizniT. feromonebi Sor manZilze vrceldeba da aRiqmeba da izidavs cocxal arsebebs. magaliTad, zogierTi saxeobis mdedri mweris mier gamoyofili feromonebi aseuli metris daSorebiT myof mamrebs izidavs mdedrisaken. adamianSi feromonebis arseboba dadgenilia da saubroben maT mniSvnelobaze sawinaaRmdego da agreTve, erTi sqesis adamianebis fiziologiur urTierT zegavlenaSi. magaliTad, qalis feromonebi mimzidvelad moqmedebs mamakacze, miuxedavad imisa, rom feromonis aRqma qvecnobieria (mas arc suni aqvs, arc feri), mamakacis feromonebi sxva mamakacebSi iwvevs agresiuli impulsebis ganviTarebas. saxeobis SigniT msgavsi zemoqmedebiT xasiaTdeba sxva mamri ZuZumwovrebis feromonebic. Tumca sqesobrivi urTierTobisaTvis adamianisaTvis wamyvani mxedvelobiTi da smeniTi niSnebia (verbalur komunikacias, rogorc iTqva, am SemTxvevaSi ar vexebiT). sawinaaRmdego sqesis warmomadgenlebi urTierTobas amyareben xmis saSualebiTac. gamravlebis periodSi bayayebis yiyini, frinvelebis galoba Tu irmebis myviraloba kargad aris cnobili. adamianic qmnida da qmnis samijnuro simRerebs partnioris mosapoveblad. sxvadasxva saxeoba sxvadasxvanairad ixmobs (umReris) erTmaneTs da ucxo hangebi, raoden sasiamovnoc

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ar unda iyos, naklebad gamodgeba partnioris mosazidad. am TvalsazrisiT sakomunikacio sistemis simkacre kargad Cans saqorwino cekvebSic ritualur moZraobebSi, romlebsac asruleben mdedri da mamri Sejvarebis win. es rTuli moZraobebis sistemaa da cekvis Sesrulebisas mniSvnelovani komponentebis amovardna perspeqtiul partniorebs Soris gaugebrobas qmnis. saqorwino cekvebi gansxvavebulia saxeobebs Soris. amgvarad, komunikacia myardeba erTi saxeobis SigniT, radgan saqorwino cekva swored saxeobis SigniT aRiqmeba gamowvevad sqesobri urTierTobisaTvis. adamianSi wyvilis cekva Zlier waagavs cxovelebis (biologiuri TvalsazrisiT ufro sworia Tu vityviT: sxva cxovelebis) saqorwilo cekvebs. adamianSi wyvilis cekva yovelTvis saqorwino ar aris, Tumca safuZvelSi es mainc qalis da mamakacis urTierTobaa.

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aq moyvanili ilustraciebi specialuradaa SerCeuli da SesaZlebelia gaaCinos sruliad gansxvavebuli movlenebis xelovnurad damsgavsebis STabeWdileba. magram Cveni cocxali arsebebis moZraobebi garegnulad msgavsia (gansakuTrebiT naTesaobrivad axlo mdgom klasebSi) radgan msgavsi meqanizmebiT imarTeba, emociis gamoxatvis araverbaluri arsenalic (xmiT, sxeulis moZraobiT, mimikiT) msgavsi gvaqvs. ra simbolur azrs Cadebs yvelafer amaSi adamiani da rogor moaxdens mdedris da mamris komunikaciis humanizacias, es ukve sxva saqmea.

Tamar berekaSvili

identobis problema Tanamedrove samyaroSi


upirveles yovlisa, rogorc Cans, pasuxia gasacemi SekiTxvaze: aris Tu ara identoba problema an Tu aris, ramdenad sayovelTaoa is. imTaviTve minda SevniSno, rom Tu identoba problemaa, is problemaa im calkeuli pirovnebebisTvis, romelTac surT Camoayalibon sakuTari TviToba. aseT adamianTa raodenoba umniSvneloa da, rogorc wesi, maTi es TviToba TiTqmis aravis ainteresebs, an ainteresebs maTi sikvdilis Semdeg, isic maSin, Tu maT am TviTobis warmoCena da gamoxatva moaxerxes. Tu es asea, ratom warmoadgens identoba iseT problemas, romelic SeiZleba saintereso iyos avtoris garda sxvebisTvisac. es xdeba imitom, rom mravali ekonomikuri, politikuri da kulturuli problema ganixileba, rogorc identobis problema. Tanamedrove globalur samyaroSi bevri, odesRac myari da TiTqosda TavisTavad cxadi mocemuloba, rogoricaa, socialuri mikuTvnebuloba, ojaxi, moraluri moTxovnebi, sqesi da zogierTi sxva, sadavo da sagangebod mosapovebeli xdeba. iTvleba, rom

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Tanamedrove adamiani Tavisi Tavis amara rCeba da Tavad unda izrunos Tavis cxovrebaze, magram identobis povna yovelTvis erTeulTa xvedri iyo. dRes SesaZloa am siZneles emateba imis gancda, rom erTi adamiani arafers niSnavs, rac identurobis Camoyalibebis survils kidev ufro akninebs. sakmarisia da ufro sasurvelic ki, Seqmna sakuTari me-s erTgvari garegnuli xati, daaxloebiT is, rasac iungi uwodebda `personas~. aseTi `persona~ yvelas aqvs, magram bevrs aqvs mxolod `persona~. sakuTari identobis Camoyalibeba moiTxovs adamianisgan Zalisxmevas, amasTan es didwilad damokidebulia im konteqstze, romelSic individi arsebobs. identobis Camoyalibeba gare samyarosTan grZnobieri urTierTobis formirebasac gulisxmobs da gansazRvruli ideebisa da idealebis dadgenasac. adamians mudam uxdeba socialuri, politikuri, erovnuli, kulturuli konteqstis gaTvaliswineba. es konteqsti ufro xSirad Zalismierad Tavsmoxveulia. am pirobebSi mniSvnelovania adamians SeeZlos ganeridos dominirebad kulturas da marginalur poziciaSi Caiyenos Tavi, Tuki surs Tavis Tavze `raime gaigos~. amgvarad, identoba ise, rogorc Cven is warmogvidgenia, srulebiTac ar warmoadgens sayovelTao interesis sagans da mizans. Ees gasagebicaa da SesaZloa samarTlianic, vinaidan identobisken svla waagavs im brmebis svlas, romlebic gamosaxulia breigelis cnobil tiloze. Aim gzis bolos, romelsac isini mihyvebian, ufskrulia da rac ufro Sorsaa breigelis naxatze gamosaxuli adamiani, miT ufro uzrunveli da mxiarulia is. identurobis Camoyalibeba SeuZlebelia, Tu adamianma ar dausva Tavis Tavs filosofiuri kiTxva vin var da ra adgili mikavia am samyaroSi? da rogorc filosofia sxva araferia, Tu ara sakvanZo problemebis gadawyvetis SesaZlo gza, aseve identobis povna, Camoyalibeba gansazRvruli gzis gavlas gulisxmobs, adamiani erTaderTi arsebaa, romelsac ZaluZs Tqvas dekartis sityvebiT, `me varsebob~ da daiwyos samyaros gageba da

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masSi moqmedeba. es niSnavs samyaros Tavidan agebas. rodesac adamiani Tavs ar usvams am SekiTxvebs, misi samyaros qmnadobisTvis aucilebeli nabijis gadadgma da is samyaro, romelic man Tavad unda Seavsos SinaarsiT, moaxdinos misi konstruireba, rac formis micemasa da sazRvrebis mocemas niSnavs, carieli da yalbia, is sxvisia da masSi adamianis adgili sxvazea damokidebuli, is eZebs ufross, marCenals, RmerTs. zogjer identobis sakiTxs akavSireben cnobis, aRiarebis procesTan, anu sakmarisi ar aris me CemTvis gaviazro Cemi arseboba, Rirebulebebi, romlebic mominiSnaven gzas, principebi da miznebi, sakmarisi ar aris avago Cemi samyaro, romelSic niSnebs da simboloebs Cemi sakuTari axsna eqneba, Camoviyalibo sakuTari saxe, aucilebelia, is aRiaron sxvebmac; es xati SesabamisobaSi unda iyos garemosTan, sxva adamianebTan, is ar unda arRvevdes Tanaarsebobis pirobebs da misaRebi unda iyos umravlesobisTvis Tu ara, bevrisTvis mainc. cnoba Zalian mniSvnelovania da SesaZloa ufro saintereso umravlesobisTvis, magram Cven TviTidentobis problemiT SemovifarglebiT. sinamdvileSi identobis Camoyalibebisas yovelTvis xdeba `sxvisi~ gadalaxva, metic, imisTvis, rom Cemi me Seiqmnas Tavisi saxeliT da SinaarsiT, romelic SesZlebs yoveldRiur qmnadobas, saWiroa me saerTod usaxelom, marginalma daviwyo fiqri da samyaros gamocanebis, simboloebis amoxsna. martooden am Sromatevad da mZime procesSi ibadeba unikaluri me, viTardeba da yalibdeba Cemi TviToba, me vxdebi samyaros, sazogadoebis Tanaswori wevri, da amavdroulad, rac Zalian mniSvnelovania, Tavad vqmni am samyaros, sazogadoebas. es Tavisuflebis aqtia. yvela, visac Seswevs Zala SekiTxvebi dausvas Tavis Tavs da Tavad upasuxos maT, Tavisufalia da namdvili codnis gzazea, radganac icis, rom ar icis. da mainc rCeba SekiTxva, ramdenad aucilebelia identobis Camoyalibeba da ratom cdiloben zogierTni amas. adamiani mokvdavia, sasruli arsebaa, romelic miiswrafvis Tavisi wuTisoflis gasaxangrZliveblad da gasamaradisebladac. amisTvis is sxvadasxva gzas irCevs. erTni cdiloben cnobilni

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gaxdnen, Tavisi saxelis mravalgzis gaJRerebiT gazardon Tavisi mniSvneloba da iluzia Seuqmnan rogorc sazogadoebas, ise Tavis Tavs, rom ar arian Cveulebrivni, rigiTi momakvdavni da SesaZloa, metis Rirsni arian; sxvebi raRac saqmeebSi iTqvifebian, cdiloben moicvan rac SeiZleba meti sfero, Tavisi sasicocxlo gza gadaaqcion mraval wvril-wvril bilikad da amiT TiTqosda gamravldnen. sainteresoa amis Taobaze joan roulingis mier HHwarmodgenili istoria tom redlis voland de mortis Sesaxeb, romelic mis wignSi hari poterze ZiriTadi boroti personaJia. tom redlma Tavis ukvdavsayofad Tavisi sicocxle ramdenime nawilad dayo da Cado sxvadasxva sagnebsa, Tu arsebebSi, romlebic Znelad mosapovebeli da gasanadgurebeli iyo. Tavisi arsebis gamaradisebis mcdelobisas tom redli gadaiqca siborotis gansaxierebad, is cdilobda samaradiso gaexada is, rac sinamdvileSi ukve aRarc hqonda namdvili sicocxle; sazarel landad qceuli is moklebuli iyo yvelafers, ris gamoc ase gveZvirfaseba sicocxle: siyvaruli, megobroba, sixaruli, aRtaceba, . . . am romanSi bevria laparaki sulis mTlianobaze, rac sxva araferia, Tu ara pirovnebis sisavse, misi ziareba amaRlebulTan, rac martooden Zlieri identobis adamians axasiaTebs, romelic ar xarjavs Tavis sulier energies yalbi da boroti zraxvebis gansaxorcieleblad. is, rac suls, pirovnebas ar amdidrebs, rac ar emsaxureba misi TviTobis srulyofas, is damakninebelia da damRupveli pirvel rigSi Tavad adamianisTvis. sinamdvileSi identoba mudmivi qmnadobaa, es aris mudmivi svla sakuTar gzaze da TiToeuli nabiji adamianis TviTSecnobiskenaa mimarTuli. vin var me, ganisazRvreba ara Cemi niWiTa da unariT, aramed Cemi arCevaniT. arCevani Zalian mniSvnelovani cnebaa filosofiaSi da xSirad Tavisuflebasac arCevanis arsebobas ukavSireben, Tumca es ase ar unda iyos. rogorc wers m. mamardaSvili: `arCevanis problemas araviTari kavSiri ara aqvs Tavisuflebis

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problemasTan. Tavisufleba es fenomenia, romelic aris iq, sadac araviTari arCevani ar arsebobs. Tavisufleba iseTi ram aris, rac Tavis TavSi Seicavs aucileblobas . . . Tavisuflebaa is, rac Tavisi Tavis aucileblobaa. identobis maZiebeli pirovneba Tavisufalia Tavis qmedebebSi, rac imas ar niSnavs, rom is irCevs misTvis boZebuli gzebidan erT-erTs; aseTi pirovneba Tavad poulobs Tavis gzas, SeiZleba iTqvas TviTon aSenebs mas. `nikomaqes eTikaSi~ aristotele mkacrad gamijnavs arCevans (prohairesis) da mis naTesaur cnebebs: survils, mondomebas, grZnobas da nebelobiT gadawyvetilebas. is askvnis, rom arCevani es erTgvari gaazrebuli anu ganzraxuli survilia~ mimarTuli imaze, rac Cven gvZaluZs. aristoteles SexedulebiT, arCevani adamianisTvis saukeTeso gamocdaa, ukeTesi, vidre qmedebebi. rasakvirvelia, arCevanze ar SeiZleba msjeloba zedapirulad. erTi da igive arCevani SeiZleba iyos nakarnaxevi sxvadasxva motiviT, rac kargad aqvs naCvenebi kants, rodesac axasiaTebs ori gamyidvelis patiosan samsaxurs, magram erT SemTxvevaSi patiosneba ganpirobebulia dasjis SiSiT, meore SemTxvevaSi ki, adamianuri keTilSobilebiT. Aamdenad, arCevanze saubrisas ueWvelad igulisxmeba motivi-arCevani. identobis da TviTidentobis aq moyvanili ganxilva srulebiT ar asabuTebs maT aucileblobas adamianisTvis, gansakuTrebiT Tanamedrove samyaroSi, sadac adamianebi atomizirebulebi arian da warmatebisa da keTildReobis mopovebaSi maT, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, sul sxva Tvisebebi exmareba. TviTidentobis qona, TviToba srulebiT ar warmoadgens aucileblobas, metic, SesaZloa xelisSemSlelic gaxdes adamianis xmauriani da warmatebuli karierisTvis. identobis aucileblobis dasabuTebisas dgeba sakiTxi civilizaciis Taobaze. SeuZlebelia arsebobdes maRali da mdgradi, sicocxlisunariani kultura, SeuZlebelia sazogadoeba iyos civiluri, Tu misi Rirebulebebis, ideebis, idealebis matareblebi ar arseboben. aseTi matareblebi ki identobis mqone pirovnebebi arian.

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Kkvlav gavixsenoT dekarti, romelic werda imaze, Tu ramdenad Znelia azrovneba da am azrovnebis SenarCuneba, ramdenadac azrovneba moZraobaa da verasodes viqnebiT darwmunebulni, rom erTi azridan gamova meore. yvela momentSi arsebuli me unda aRematebodes Tavis winamdebare mes, raTa Semdeg momentSi SeinarCunos Tavi. azrovneba ki, es xom swored ukve naxsenebi motivi-arCevania, rasac uzrunvelyofen civilizacia da kultura. civilizaciis da kulturis degradireba, ngreva angrevs moazrovne, identobis mqone adamiansac; meore mxriv, aseTi adamianebis nakleboba an, miTumetes, ararseboba ukve niSnavs, rom civilizacia mkvdaria. civilizacia uzrunvelyofs adamianisTvis gaazrebuli miznebis ganxorcielebas kanonieri gziT; ar SeiZleba ukanonobiT da mrude xerxebiT dafiqsirdes iseTi kvanZebi civilizaciaSi, romlebic mis progress uzrunvelyofs. am SemTxvevaSi mkvidrdeba siyalbe, sicrue, romelSic irRveva individTa Tanasworoba. aseTi viTarebebia aRwerili magaliTad, kafkasTan, muzilTan, filknerTan da sxva. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom zneobrivi damaxinjebebis gamovlenis da gamoxatvis saSualeba ukve pirveli nabijia cocxal, qmnad viTarebaSi dasabruneblad. iq, sadac aseTi saSualebebi ar arsebobs, siyalbe da simrude, saxecvlili zogad simboloebSi sul ufro da ufro Rrmavdeba da kibos daavadebasaviT mTel siRrmiseul sivrces ikavebs. pirovnebas gamosvlac ki ar SeuZlia am gadayiravebuli mentaluri mdgomareobidan da am yalb mimarTebebs rogorc cnobiers, ise grZnobiers, SeiZleba mTeli sicocxle inarCunebdes, amasTan im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac tovebs aseT sazogadoebas. Mmokled moxazuli identobis problema da misi kavSiri civilizebul samarTalTan, civilizebuli arsebobis formebTan naTlad migviTiTebs imaze, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania adamianisa da sazogadoebisTvis sakuTari kulturis sazRvrebSi gaazrebuli da samarTliani, yvelasTvis Tanaswori wesebiT arseboba. Mmagram aseTi wesebis dadgena da Camoyalibeba mxolod Tavisufali arCevanis SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli da am arCevans Tavisi identobis maZiebeli adamianebi unda akeTebdnen. Yyvela

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sazogadoeba ver daikvexnis aseTi adamianebis simravliT, miTumetes, xangrZlivi avtoritaruli, da amasTan yalbi ideologiis da demagogiis mqone reJimis mqone. albaT erTaderTi saSualeba am viTarebidan gamosasvlelad, mdgomareobs bolo saukuneebis yvela simbolos da crurwmenis, yvela sloganisa da SeTxzuli legendis uaryofaSi, viRacis mier mogonili saxelis daviwyebaSi da ucnobi, ucxo me-s winaSe SekiTxvis dasmaSi: vin var? ras niSnavs me? ras niSnavs var?

L Lliteratura

1. . . . 2010. 2. . 8 . : , 1994 . IN 3. . , . -, 1997. 4. .. ' ' : , 1990.

gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19,
E-mail: universal@internet.ge

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