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Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases by K.E. Starling and J.L. Savidge § AGA . Transmission Measurement Committee Report No. 8 yy American Petroleum Institute MPMS Chapter 14.2 cri Gas Research Institute Fon American Gas Association Catalog No. XQ9212 Second Edition, November 1992 2nd Printing July 1994 3rd Printing. November 2003 Disclaimers and Copyright Nothing contained in this publication is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use in connection with any method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent, or as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent. The American Gas Association's Transmission Measurement Committee developed this publication as a service to the natural gas industry and to the public. Use of this publication is voluntary and should be taken afier an independent review of the applicable facts and ‘circumstances. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in this publication; however, the American Gas Association (AGA) makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or from the use of any product or methodology described herein; for any violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this publication may conflict; or for the infringement of any patent from the use of this publication, Nothing contained in this publication should be viewed as an endorsement by AGA of any particular manufacturer's products. Permission is granted to republish material herein in laws or ordinances, and in regulations, administrative orders, or similar documents issued by public authorities. Those desiring permission for other publications should consult the Operating and Engineering Section, ‘American Gas Association, 400 North Capitol Street, NW, 4° Floor, Washington, DC 20001, USA. Copyright © 1992, 1994 and 2003 American Gas Association, All Rights Reserved. PREFACE, This manual is based on research managed and sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GR!) and the Groupe Europeen de Recherches Gazieres (GERG) in cooperation with AG.A. The manual provides all of the technical information needed to compute compressibility factors, supercompressibility factors, and densities for natural gas and related gases. It supersedes the 1985 Version of A.G.A. Report Number 8 and conforms to international Standards Organization Document ISO 12213, Natural Gas - Calculation of Compression Factors. This A.G.A. document includes FORTRAN computer programs and sample calculations which are optimized for efficient microprocessor and flow computer implementation. Supporting computer programs based on the methods in this manual can be obtained on diskette from the A.G.A. This manual was updated in July 1994 for the purpose of: (1) correcting typographical errors identified in the November 1992 edition, (2) improving the computer programs, and (3) achieving computational consistency with GPA 2172-94 and the 1992 edition of A.G.A. Report No. 3, Part 3. No changes were made to the basic equations of state, or to the parameters used to calculate the compressibility factor. Properties calculated from this document will be slightly different from the November 1992 version. The differences in the exampie calculations are caused by changes in the way the gas characterization parameters are obtained from input data. These changes help assure a high level of numerical consistency with other industry standards for flow computer computations. The effects of these changes, however, are expected to be less than 0.01% for typical natural gas found in transmission pipelines and less than 0.03% for typical production gas. This is well within the uncertainty of the experimental data. Therefore no change is required from the November 1992 revision to maintain the stated accuracy.