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Step Task Standard

1 Determine design life


2 Assess actions on the beam BS 6399-1,2,3
3 Determine which combinations of actions apply BS 8110-1-1997-Cl 2.4.3.1
4 Determine loading arrangements BS 8110-1-1997-Cl 2.4.3
5 Assess durability requirements and determine concrete
strength
BS 5328-1-1997-Cl 3.1.5.

6 Check cover requirements for appropriate fire resistance
period
BS 8110-1-1997-Table 3.4

7 Calculate min. cover for durability, fire and bond
requirements
BS 8110-1-1997-Table 3.3
8 Analyze structure to obtain critical moments & shear forces BS 8110-2-1997-Cl 3.4.4.1.
9 Design flexural reinforcement BS 8110-1-1997-Cl 3.4.4.4
10 Check shear capacity BS 8110-1-1997-Cl 3.4.5
11 Check deflection BS 8110-1-1997-Cl 3.4.6
12 Check spacing of bars BS 8110-1-1997-Cl 3.12.11
BEAM DESIGN PROCEDURE

Concrete is strong in compression but weak and unreliable in tension.
Reinforcement is required to resist tension due to moment.
A beam when loads applied,



Concrete at the top resists compression and the steel resists tension
at bottom.
Design is based on the strength of the section calculated from the
stress distribution at collapse.(at ultimate condition, not in
serviceability conditions)
Therefore beam section design for the ultimate state.
An elastic section analysis is later carried out for checking the
serviceability limit states.

Apply load
tension
compression
Assumptions and stress-strain diagrams
1. The strains in the concrete and reinforcement are derived assuming that
plane sections remain plane;

2. The stresses in the concrete in compression are derived using either
(a) the design stress-strain curve with
m
=1.5 or
(b) the simplified stress block where the depth of the stress block is 0.9 of the
depth to the neutral axis
Note that in both cases the strain in the concrete at failure is 0.0035;

3. The tensile strength of the concrete is ignored;

4. The stresses in the reinforcement are derived using
m
=1.05.

5. Where the section is designed to resist flexure only, the lever arm should
not be assumed to be greater than 0.95 of the effective depth.
b
d
0.0035
0.45 f
cu

0

C=k
1
bx
T
k
2
x
0.45 f
cu

0.95 f
y

Neutral Axis
(c)
Stress-strain curve for concrete Stress-strain curve for reinforcement
(b)
(d)
(a)
(a) Section; (b) Strain; (c) rectangular parabolic strain diagram; (d) simplified stress diagram
Moment of Resistance Simplified stress block
According to the beam section and the strain and stress diagrams,
The concrete stress is,
0.67 f
cu
/
m
= 0.67 f
cu
/ 1.5 = 0.45 f
cu


The concrete strain is 0.0035.

The steel stress is
f
y
/ 1.05 = 0.95f
y


According to the simplified stress diagram the internal forces are,

C = force in the concrete in compression
= 0.45 f
cu
x 0.9b x 0.5d
= 0.201 f
cu
bd

For the internal forced to be in equilibrium C = T ;

M
R
= Moment of Resistance
= Cz
= 0.201 f
cu
bd x 0.775d
= 0.156 f
cu
bd
2

Where the constant K=0.156, M
R
= Kf
cu
bd
2



T = force in the steel in tension
= 0.95 f
y
A
s

z = lever arm
= d 0.5 x 0.9 x 0.5d
= 0.775d
START
Carry out analysis of beam to determine
design moments(M)
Determine k from K = M/(bd
2
f
cu
)
Is K< K ?
YES
NO
No compression reinforcement required
Compression reinforcement
required
d
K
d z 95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
(

+ =
45 . 0 ) ( z d x =
z f M A
y s
95 . 0 =
Use following equations to calculate r/f area
Use following equations to calculate r/f area
(

+ =
9 . 0
'
25 . 0 5 . 0
K
d z
45 . 0 ) ( z d x =
) ' ( 95 . 0 ) ' ( '
2
d d f bd f K K A
y cu s
=
' 95 . 0 '
2
s y cu s
A z f bd f K A + =
Check for maximum and minimum reinforcement requirements for tension and compression
reinforcement
Procedure for
determining
flexural
reinforcement
Design of flanged beams

Flanged beams occur where beams are cast integral with and support a continuous floor
slab. Part of the slab adjacent to the beam is counted as acting in compression to form T
and L shape beams







The effective breadth b of flanged beams is given by
1. T-beams web width b
w
+l
z
/10 or the actual flanged width if less
2. L-beams web width b
w
+l
z
/5 or the actual flanged width if less

l
z
is the distance between points of zero moment (which for a continuous beam, may be
taken as o.7 times the effective span)

The design procedure depends on where the neutral axis lies. The neutral axis may lie
in the flange or in the web. If it is in web it needs to check whether the section needs
compression reinforcement.
Neutral Axis is in flange


To satisfy the criteria the actual neutral axis depth (0.9X) should not exceed flange depth h
f
.
The moment of resistance of the section for the case when 0.9X = h
f
,

M
R
= 0.45 f
cu
b h
f
(d- h
f
/2)

If the applied moment M is lesser than the moment of resistance of the flange M
R
neutral axis
lies within the flange.


Neutral Axis is in web

Equation in the code is derived using the simplified stress block with X=o.5d;
depth of stress block = 0.9X = 0.45d




This applies only when X is less than 0.5d.

If otherwise the section should design for the compression reinforcement also.






) 5 . 0 ( 87 . 0
) 45 . 0 ( 1 . 0
f y
f w cu
s
h d f
h d d b f M
A

+
=
START
Carry out analysis of beam to determine
design moments(M)
Find the Moment of Resistance of the
flange section(M
RF
)
Is M > M
RF
?
YES
NO
Design is same as for a
rectangular beam
Find the Moment of Resistance of the
section when neutral axis depth is d/2 -(M
R
)
Is M > M
R


?
YES
NO
Neutral axis is in flange
Neutral axis is in web
Compression reinforcement required
No compression reinforcement
required
) 5 . 0 ( 87 . 0
) 45 . 0 ( 1 . 0
f y
f w cu
s
h d f
h d d b f M
A

+
=
Use following equations to
calculate r/f area
Designing of
beams with
flanged
sections
Shear reinforcement in beams

Action of shear reinforcement

Concrete is weak in tension, and so shear failure is caused by a failure in diagonal
tension with cracks running

at 45
o
to the beam axis.

Shear reinforcement is provided
by bars which cross the cracks, and theoretically either vertical links of inclined bars
will serve this purpose.









Design shear stress in any cross section;



The design concrete shear stress is given in Table 3.8.
After compare the values it can find the form and area of shear reinforcement using Table 3.7
(b)
(a)
(a) Inclined bars and links ; (b) vertical links
d b
V
v
= v
START
Find the design shear stress -
Find the design concrete shear stress -
Minimum links should
be provided in all
beams of structural
importance
Minimum links for
whole length of beam
Provide links or links
combined with bent-up
bars, not more than
50% of the shear
resistance provided by
the steel may be in the
form of bent-up bars
Design shear resistance of beams
START
Basic span/eff. depth ratio(s/d) - TABLE 3.9
If span >10m ; (Table 3.9)x(10/span)
Modification factor for tension
reinforcement(MF
T
) - TABLE 3.10
Modification factor for compression
reinforcement(MF
C
) - TABLE 3.11
Actual span/effective depth ratio
(Act. s/d)
Allowable span/effective depth ratio
(All. s/d = (s/d) x MF
T
x MF
C
)
YES NO
Design is OK Design is NOT OK
Act. s/d < All. s/d
Check for
deflection
of beams
Support conditions Rectangular section Flanged beam with
(b
w
/b < 0.3)
Cantilever 7 5.6
Simply supported 20 16.0
Continuous 26 20.8
For values greater than 0.3, linear interpolation between the values given in Table 3.9
for rectangular sections and for flanged beams with b
w
/b of 0.3 may be used
Table 3.9 Basic span/effective depth ratio for rectangular or flanged beams
Modification factors for tension reinforcement is given in Table 3.10 of the
code. These values were derived from the equation;


0 . 2
9 . 0 120
) 477 (
55 . 0 _
2
s
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ =
bd
M
f
Factor on Modificati
s
b prov s
req s y
s
A
A f
f
|
1
3
2
,
,
=
Where
M is the design ultimate moment at the center of the span or, at the support.


The design service stress(f
s
) in the tension r/f in a member is found by following
equation,
Modification factors for tension reinforcement
Basic span/effective depth ratio
Modification factor for compression reinforcement
is given in Table 3.11

Factor
0.00 1.00
0.15 1.05
0.25 1.08
0.35 1.10
0.50 1.14
0.75 1.20
1.0 1.25
1.5 1.33
2.0 1.40
2.5 1.45
>3.0 1.50
bd A
prov s,
' 100
These values were derived from the equation;
5 . 1
'
3
'
100 1
, ,
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
bd
A
bd
A
prov s prov s
Modification factor for compression reinforcement
Check for the deflection
Allowable span/eff. depth can be calculated by multiplying basic span/eff. depth
from Table 3.9 by the modification factors for tension and compression
reinforcement.
Then it is compared with the actual span-to-effective depth ratio.
If allowable s/d is greater than actual s/d, beam is satisfies the deflection criteria.
If otherwise not