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Force (lbs)

Altitude (ft) 0 7000 14000 21000 28000 35000

Lift (lbs) 621 504 404 320 250 193

Drag (lbs) 52 43 35 28 22 17

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 52 0 0 621

Altitude and Lift vs Drag

504 404 320 250 193 Lift (lbs) Drag (lbs)

Inputs: Speed:100 mph Cessna (2412) Angle of Attack: 0 Span: 20 ft Chord Length: 5 ft

43 7000

35 14000 Altitude (ft)

28 21000

22 28000

17 35000

Conclusion: As altitude increases, lift and drag decrease nonlinearly. ( Air density and altitude have a nonlinear realationship, so even though lift/drag has a linear relationship with density, it does not with altitude.) Lift is always higher than drag, which is great when flying. This is true because as altitude increases, pressure decreases, making out lift and drag decrease. * As altitude increased temperature

Velocity (mph) 0 50 100 150 200

Lift (lbs) 0 155 621 1398 2486

Drag (lbs) 13 52 115 200


Force (lbs) 3000 2500 2000

Lift and Drag vs Air Velocity


2486

Inputs: Speed:100 mph Cessna (2412) Angle of Attack: 0 Span: 20 ft Chord Length: 5 ft Conclusion: As air velocity increases, lift and drag both increase exponentially. This makes sense vecause V (velocity) in the lift and drage equation is squared.

1500 1000 500 0 0 155 13 13 52 Air Velocity (mph) 621

1398

Lift (lbs) Drag (lbs)

52 115

115 200

200

X/c -0.512 -0.504 -0.483 -0.45 -0.405 -0.351 -0.287 -0.215 -0.137 -0.054 0.03 0.115 0.198 0.276 0.347 0.407 0.454 0.486 0.499 -0.512 -0.508 -0.49 -0.46 -0.418 -0.364 -0.3 -0.226 -0.145 -0.058 0.032 0.123 0.211 0.293 0.366 0.425 0.468 0.493 0.499

Y/c 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0 0 0 -0 -0 -0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 0 0 0 0

P 14.87 14.739 14.639 14.593 14.576 14.572 14.577 14.588 14.602 14.618 14.635 14.653 14.67 14.686 14.701 14.713 14.723 14.731 14.788 14.87 14.796 14.671 14.622 14.612 14.617 14.63 14.645 14.662 14.678 14.693 14.706 14.718 14.727 14.734 14.738 14.74 14.74 14.788

V 19 88 115 126 130 131 129 127 124 120 116 112 107 103 99 96 93 90 70 19 67 107 119 122 120 118 114 110 105 101 98 94 91 89 88 87 87 70

Cesna 2412 NACA Code Upper Surface


0.1 0.05 0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 -0.05 -0.1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Some Conclusions: The pressure on the upper surface quickly goes down and then goes up. This happens due to the fact that because the max camber is close to the leading edge. On the bottom surface the pressure trend is opposite, because the lower camber line is in line with the max camber line, along with the lower surface, means higher the pressure. Also the pressure on the lower surface is higher than it is on the lower surface at a given x- value.
Lower Surface

Lift and Drag vs. Angle of Attack

Conclusion: Lift increases with angle of attack up to a certain point and then it decreases. For this airfoil we decreased at 15 degrees, which makes since because this is where most planes stall out. Stall is when the air seperates from the wing. Drag has a similar relationship with the angle of attack except it increases with negative angles of attack up to a certain point. The related coefficients have the same realtionship with the angle of attack since lift and drag have a
Lift vs. Wing Area

Conclusion: Lift and drag have a positive linear correlation with wing area and with air density. We expected this because in the lift and drag equation, the area/density are in the opposite side of the equation from the lift and drag equation and they are not raised to any power. When are and density is zero, our lift is also zero, so our graph starts at the origin. This is different from our angle of attack vs. lift and drag graph because even at 0 degrees angle of attack, we have some lift if we have velocity. Note: Altitude did NOT have a linear relationship with lift and drag, but air density does. This is because air density and altitude do not have a

Coefficient vs. Angle of Attack Lift vs. Area Lift vs. Density Drag vs. Area Drag vs. Density