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1 BY ORDER OF THE COMMANDER 25th Virtual Fighter Squadron

25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011 25 VFS OPERATING INSTRUCTION 07-A-10 25 Jul 2011 Combat Operations A-10C Ground Weapon Employment

COMPLIANCE WITH THIS PUBLICATION IS MANDATORY ______________________________________________________________________________ OPR: 25 VFS, Snoopy Certified by: Raven6 Pages: 58 Distribution: 25 VFS ______________________________________________________________________________ This operating instruction (OI) provides Guidance on Ground Weapon Employment in the A-10 Thunderbolt II. SUMMARY OF CHANGES None, Document based on AFTTP 3-3, Combat Aircraft Fundamentals, A-10. 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this document is to provide guidance and training for ground weapon employment in the A-10C and will be used within the 25th VFS. 2. INTRODUCTION: The A-10s primary mission is close air support (CAS). This OI provides the fundamental tools to build precise weapons delivery skills essential to CAS: fundamentals of bomb theory, conventional range patterns and development of tactical delivery references, computed bomb deliveries, manual bomb deliveries, and forward firing deliveries. 3. Weapons Delivery Terminology. In order to understand the discussion on free-fall weapons delivery, be familiar with the following terms and definitions: (See Figure 7.1, Bomb Triangle.) Aim-off distance (AOD)A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if the pilot did not recover) in a dive delivery. Aim-off point (AOP)The point on the ground, long of the target, at which the aircraft must fly to during the weapons delivery pass. The AOP provides a ground reference to fly the aircraft to until a track reference can be set. Angle of attack (AOA)The angle between the zero sight line (ZSL) and the relative wind. Ballistic trajectoryThe path of a munition from release to impact. This trajectory is a result of release velocity, release angle, release height above the target, gravity, and weapon drag characteristics. Bomb range (BR)The horizontal distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact. Bomb trail (BT)The horizontal distance between the aircraft and the bomb impact. Combat offsetAdjusting the RAP by a certain distance to correct for a previous miss. DB dive bomb. Dive angleThe angle of dive for weapons delivery.

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Gun bore line (GBL)Represents the initial bullet muzzle velocity vector extended to infinity. This is the depression from the ZSL where the bullets initially come out of the gun. The A-10 GBL is at 33.7 mils depression. The GBL is sometimes used to approximate the aircraft vector on roll-out because the total velocity vector (TVV) lags the actual aircraft flight path. HADB high altitude dive bomb. HARB high altitude release bomb. HAS high angle strafe. HATRhigh angle tactical rocket Initial Pipper Placement (IPP)Angle between the target to the total solution in mils at track altitude. Initial HUD Placement (IHP)IHP is the angle at track altitude between the ZSL and the target, in mils. IHP can be derived from the total mil setting and the value for IPP. Total Mils = IHP + IPP. Initial Aim-off Angle (IAA)IAA is the angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. Initial Target Placement (ITP)ITP is the position of the target relative to a pitch ladder at track altitude. LALDlow-angle low drag. MilA term commonly used by A-10 pilots as an abbreviation for milliradian (1/1,000th of a radian). Mils are used to measure sight depression or relative positions and sizes of objects as seen through the HUD. One mil is equal to 1 foot at a range of 1,000 feet, and 1 degree equals 17.45 mils. Relative windThe speed and direction of the air mass relative to the aircraft. It is opposite in direction to the aircrafts velocity vector through the air mass. Release aimpoint (RAP)The wind-corrected point on the ground where the pipper must be placed at release for the munition to strike the target. Release aimpoint extended (RAPE)The point on the ground on which the aircraft track reference is set. This point is corrected upwind from the RAP. Release altitudeThe altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished. Roll-in Target Placement (RTP)A cockpit reference used to establish an aim-off angle for the aircraft. Total sight setting (TSS)The depression from the ZSL to the target at release altitude for the planned release conditions. Deviations from planned release parameters such as airspeed, dive angle, altitude, or G-loading will have an effect on the planned total sight setting. Track referenceA position or point in the HUD that is used to maintain or correct the aircraft to the planned wire. Some common track references used in weapons delivery are IHP, IAA, IPP, and the desired release cue (DRC). TrackingA portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft sighting systems with the target. The amount of time associated is referred to as wingslevel or tracking time. Zero sight line (ZSL)A basic reference line extending through the fuselage of the A-10 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. All sight depressions are referenced from the ZSL.

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Figure 7.1 Bomb Triangle. 4 Preparation. 4.1. General. Weapons delivery training in the A-10 requires a thorough understanding of training rules, weapons delivery theory, head-up display (HUD) symbology, aircraft systems knowledge and basic range layout and administration. (See Figure 7.2, A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface.)

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Figure 7.2 A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface. 5. Range Administration. 5.1. Range Entry and Exit. Written procedures and guidance can be found in command directives, applicable supplements, and local directives. Normally, entry to the controlled range as accomplished from a basic or tactical formation, depending on weather and/or spacing desired. 5.2. In-Flight Checks. Weapons delivery in-flight checks encompass nearly all systems on the A-10. They include fuel checks, weapons system checks, wind checks, estimated vertical error (EVE) checks, and a needle/ball check. 5.2.1. Fuel Checks. These are normally initiated and executed on the primary range frequency. At an absolute minimum, fuel checks are required prior to range entry, once while on the range, and once upon exiting the range. NOTE: Be extremely careful not to become distracted and drop them out of the cross-check. 5.2.2. En Route Checklists. There are certain checks that need to be accomplished before reaching the target area; these are collectively known as a firepower, emitters, navigation, communications, and electronic countermeasures (FENCE) checks. A FENCE check simply groups the items that need to be covered and is generic to any aircraft. Perform a FENCE check prior to weapons employment, including weapons switches set for the first pass. For training missions, do not place the Master Arm to ARM until entering the range and cleared by lead. A common A-10 acronym is listed in Figure 7.3, FENCE Checks, along with the items covered in

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a generic FENCE check. The FENCE check is an ongoing process. Start with a pre-takeoff FENCE check and accomplish another one for each phase of flight. Before arriving at the IP, the aircraft must be ready for combat. Once in the target area, your focus must be on finding and attacking the proper target. 5.2.3. Weapons System Checks. The Weapons portion of the FENCE check requires amplification to correctly set up weapons for employment. Disciplined weapons system checks are critical to mission success. When directed by the flight lead (FL) perform a Weapons System Check. Reference Figure 7.4, Common Weapons System Checks, for two common Weapons System Check acronyms. 5.2.4. Wind Checks. Analyzing winds is critical for accurate and consistent weapons delivery. Analyze winds by using your EGI readings (i.e., select STR INFO page on EGI) and visual indications provided by dust or smoke. Winds affect every aspect of the weapons delivery pattern and should be accounted for in flight. F-E-N-C-E Fire control systems set. Weapon system checks.. Gun armed. EO power on. Target identification set. Electronic warfare systems. CMS set. Navigation. EGI, map, and TACAN ready. Wind checked. Communications. Frequencies set, Emitters (reduce or select). TACAN set. External lights OFF. C-W-L-I-T-T-E-R Chaff/flare. CMS set to appropriate settings.

Weapons. Conduct weapons system checks Lights. OFF. N/A for DCS A-10C TACAN. Set to receive only or off.

N C E

L I T

Tape. DVADR running. T ECM as appropriate. E RWR as briefed. R Figure 7.3 FENCE Checks. S-P-A-D-E-S A-P-E-S Switches Set. Arm. A Profile Selected. Profile, DSMS. P Altitude Source. Elevation source. E DSMS quick-look (for stations and SOI, SPI. S profile settings). Elevation set as briefed. SOI and SPI set as briefed. Figure 7.4 Common Weapons System Checks.

S P A D E S

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5.2.3. Radio Transmissions. Standard and expected radio transmissions while operating on the conventional range may vary; however, the basics remain the same. (See Figure 7.5, Conventional Pattern and Methodology, for example radio calls.) 5.2.3.1. All radio transmissions while in the range pattern will be made on the respective range frequency. 5.2.4. Spacing. Spacing will be established by the Flight Lead. Typical two-ship spacing in the container pattern is on opposite corners, or 180 out. For example, when Number One is rolling in on final, Number Two is turning crosswind to downwind. (See Figure 7.5, Conventional Pattern and Methodology.) For a four-ship, the standard spacing is one aircraft on each of the four corners. Establishing a contract for when flight members turn crosswind will aid in maintaining spacing. Corrections to pattern spacing, for both a two-ship and a four-ship, should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind by varying the point at which the turn is made.

Figure 7.5 Conventional Pattern and Methodology.

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5.2.5. Contingencies. Contingencies that could be encountered on the range must be briefed. The basic rules apply: maintain aircraft control, climb away from the ground while analyzing the problem, and call a KNOCK IT OFF if required on the range frequency. 5.2.5.1. Lost Sight. The most common contingency is losing sight of one or more flight members. If blind on the preceding aircraft, immediately request the aircraft position. An example in a four-ship formation, if Warthog Three loses sight of Two: DRAGGIN TWO, SAY POSITION. Number Two should respond immediately with twos position in the conventional pattern. Number Three then has two responses, CONTINUE or KIO. The continue call is made when Number Three picks up a visual on Number Two or determines that there are no deconfliction problems in the pattern. If positive separation cannot be immediately ensured, then Number Three should KIO (with altitude, as a technique) to ensure safety of flight. It is important to remember that if a SAY POSITION call is made, particularly within a four-ship, all aircraft must remain silent until the aircraft being addressed responds with its position and the requesting aircraft confirms the response with CONTINUE or KIO. 5.2.5.2. Lost Comm. If NORDO on range, then continue to fly the briefed range pattern. However, on final (DRY) rock wings to indicate to the RCO and fellow flight members of the NORDO condition. Expect a rejoin followed by RTB. If NORDO with emergency, then rock wings on final then turn opposite direction to normal range traffic. Expect a rejoin and be prepared to communicate problems with HEFOE visual signals. 5.2.5.3. Weapon Malfunction. Inform lead of any suspected weapon malfunctions, then follow local range procedures. 5.2.6. Conventional Pattern. Since much of basic weapons delivery training will be performed on a conventional range, familiarity with the mechanics of flying the patterns are discussed next. 5.2.6.1. Crosswind. When turning crosswind, be careful not to turn inside the preceding aircraft. For collision avoidance purposes, it is critical that each aircraft fly their turn from final to crosswind as briefed by FL. A typical technique for high release altitude deliveries is to turn crosswind at track altitude. After accomplishing the safe escape maneuver, visually reacquire the preceding flight member by first clearing the crosswind to downwind corner, then clearing the downwind to base corner. Additionally, expect the range control officer (RCO, or ranger) to report the last event score while on crosswind, or making the turn to downwind. Acknowledge this transmission IAW local guidance and the flight brief. 5.2.6.2. Downwind. All pattern corrections to flight spacing should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind. This will minimize variations and adjustments to the base leg turn. Due to aircraft potentially turning crosswind at different points, the turn from crosswind is the most dangerous portion of the pattern, and is known as the coffin corner. Ensure positive visual contact with previous flight member to ensure deconfliction. If ever in doubt of the position of the previous flight member, follow the procedures outlined in paragraph 5.2.5, Contingencies. The displacement from the target (downwind spacing) is not exact and is typically flown 2 to 3 NM from the target. Downwind displacement should be wide enough to allow for adequate wings-level time while on the base leg. Plan to be at base altitude no later than when making the

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turn for the base leg. While on downwind, take the time available to assess the last pass and prepare for the next one. 5.2.6.3. Base. Do not adjust the position of the turn from downwind to base leg as it can adversely affect the weapons delivery parameters on the upcoming pass. Anticipate the turn to base and lead it using as little G as possible. As a ROT, the base turn radius will be approximately 3,000 feet. Use known, wind-corrected GEOREFs to start the base turn. Fly a precise base leg to put the aircraft in the best position to roll in and achieve the planned parameters (e.g., airspeed, altitude, and dive angle). Approaching the roll-in point, note the relationship of the target to the canopy rail in order to develop/validate tactical canopy references. 5.2.6.3.1. Known Ground Track. The base leg must be consistent to get the aircraft on the correct wire relative to the target. A geographic reference (GEOREF) is a good starting point for finding the correct base position. The goal is to develop and validate a canopy rail reference on the conventional range that can be applied to a tactical situation without known ground references. 5.2.6.3.2. Canopy Rail Reference. A-10 pilots should use canopy references based on the initial target placement (ITP) for the delivery as the primary method to establish a tactical base position. Although ITP is measured at track altitude, it is an accurate sight picture for target placement at base position. 5.2.6.4. Final Leg. The final is the weapon delivery portion of the pattern, and clearly where the rubber meets the road. A technique to dissect this complicated maneuver is Pull, Center, Set. This phrase leads an attack pilot through each step of the final leg. The actual cross-check and procedures used to put the release aimpoint on the target will vary depending on the delivery and delivery mode. 5.2.6.4.1 Roll-In Timing. For lower angle deliveries (e.g., 30 degrees or less), start with the target about 20 to 30 degrees in front of the wing line (i.e., 10 or 2 oclock position, depending on direction of roll-in). A technique is to start roll-in when the target is just aft of the canopy bow. For deliveries greater than 30 degrees, delay the roll-in until the target is approximately three fists aft of the canopy bow, since most of the turn for these deliveries are made in the vertical. Consider the winds at pattern altitude and adjust the final roll-in point as necessary (i.e. if encountering a headwind while on base, delay the roll-in, similar to perch corrections in the traffic pattern). 5.2.6.4.2. Pull. Mechanically, execute a roll-in by advancing the throttles to MAX, start an unloaded roll to 80 degrees plus the dive angle, and begin a 2- to 3-G turn (normally the steady tone). On a conventional range and attempting to validate tactical delivery references, have a known aim off point for the delivery, and fly the aircraft to the AOP. Dont forget to adjust for winds. 5.2.6.4.3. Roll-In Target Placement (RTP). After developing and validating base canopy rail references, pilots should develop a roll-in target placement to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown. Establishing and using RTP can place the jet on a correct

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wire using a cockpit reference during roll-in, without the aid of aim off distance markers in a tactical environment. This allows pilots to correct for small base position errors in a tactical situation and minimize large track corrections on final. 5.2.6.4. Initial Target Placement. During the roll-in, an opportunity to refine the dive angle exists by cross-checking the pitch ladders. If using ITP as a roll-in (not track) reference, as the nose of the aircraft is halfway around the final turn, use the HUD pitch ladders to estimate if the target will be located at the appropriate angle when the aircraft rolls out. If the expected target placement in the HUD is less than planned, relax back pressure, decrease bank, and adjust the AOP longer than planned. The longer the nose is kept up during the turn (sometimes referred to as floating the turn), the steeper the aircraft will be after setting the AOP at track. Likewise, if the angle in the HUD is greater than expected during the roll-in, increase bank angle and G to adjust the AOP shorter than planned. 5.2.6.5. Roll-Out (Center). Begin to relax G during the roll-in as the top of the HUD approaches the target. For computed deliveries, as the HUD pitch ladders approach the edge of the target, begin an unloaded roll-out. The pitch ladders should bracket the target when the roll-out is complete. If the target is not centered within the pitch ladders, aggressively make an appropriate 3/9 correction to center the target. If the target is within approximately 30 mils of the CCIP pipper (just outside of the reticle), place the PBIL through the target and set a track reference. After roll-out, set the throttle to achieve the planned airspeed at release. 5.2.7. Track References (SET). Regardless of the type of delivery flown (manual or computed) a track reference must be set. These track references are presented below. 5.2.7.1 DRC. The best track reference that may be used for CCIP WD is the DRC. After using one of the valid roll-in techniques, set the DRC at track altitude. The DRC continuously computes and corrects for changes in airspeed, AOA, and G-loading. Setting the DRC corrects the aircraft flight path toward the expected time of fall driving it toward the correct wire. Because weapons employment mils are based on a specific track altitude and airspeed, a technique for using the DRC is to set the DRC on the target at track altitude. Setting the DRC in this manner establishes and refines the AOP for a correct wire, just like setting an IPP does for manual deliveries. Since the aircraft will accelerate on final, the DRC will track down slightly as the pipper tracks up during the pass. Set it and forget it. Hold the AOP and do not make a Banana pass by trying to hold the DRC on the target. Keep the minimum release staple (MRS) in your cross-check as your abort cue. Since the DRC is continuously computed, it is wind corrected and valid at all altitudes during the pass. So if unable to set the DRC at Track, a pilot should still set the DRC as soon as possible. 5.2.7.2 IHP/IPP. IHP is an angular representation (in mils) of the target relative to the ZSL. The depressible pipper is available in CCIP mode before designation. One technique used is setting IHP mils in the depressible pipper. In any case, the pilot needs accurate wind information and then must add/subtract the applicable head/tail wind component. Note that the depressible pipper does not provide crosswind correction on final. Therefore, it is imperative to center the target between the pitch ladders, cross check the target abeam the depressible pipper at track altitude, and continue with a normal track until release. Any HUD reference with a mil depression

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corresponding to the IHP may also be set abeam the target. These references must be used for manual weapons delivery if IHP is used as the track reference; however, IPP is the recommended track reference to use during manual weapons delivery. (See Figure 7.6, Bombing TriangleInitial Head-Up Display Placement and Initial Pipper Placement Triangle, for a visual depiction of this track reference.)

Figure 7.6 Bombing Triangle IHP and IPP Triangle. 5.2.7.3. IAA. IAA is the planned angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. (See Figure 7.7, Bombing TriangleInitial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle, for a depiction of the reference.) Let us look at an example delivery with an IAA of 5 degrees. To set the correct wire, set the TVV 5 degrees long of the target. Regardless of where the aircraft is in relation to the planned wire, this will establish the correct wire. When employing manually, IAA must be corrected for head wind or tailwind. To correct IAA for winds, there are 17.45 mils per degree; therefore, for each 17 mils of wind correction, add or subtract a degree. For example, with a 10 knot headwind, use a 1.7 mil per knot correction factor for headwind/tailwind and add 1 degree to IAA (17 mils). 5.2.8. Confirm the Aircraft Parameters. After setting the track reference at track altitude, confirm aircraft parameters are within abort criteria. Continue to cross check parameters while flying to the release point. 5.2.9. Pipper Track. Fly smooth, coordinated control inputs on final. During the dive, divide attention between the movement rate of the pipper and the aircrafts parameters. Concentrate on letting the sight track to the release aim point (RAP). For computed deliveries, utilize the projected bomb impact line (PBIL) to fly the CCIP pipper to the target or combat offset point. The CCIP pipper will track quickly to the target. Avoid attempting to slow the pipper down by

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bunting the aircraft as this can induce release errors. One technique to help a smooth pipper track is to trim forward one click for each 10 degrees of planned dive. This can be accomplished on base, but will cause a heavy stick. Trim through the roll-in, or after setting track.

Figure 7.7 Bombing TriangleInitial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle. 5.2.10. Pickle. Release the weapon with the aiming reference on the intended release aim point. Combat offset can be used to improve subsequent pass accuracy. If a previous delivery was completed with the aiming reference on the target, and the weapon did not hit the target, perform a combat offset. As a ROT, offset the aimpoint one half the miss distance in the opposite direction of the previous miss. As an example, if the first weapon impacted 50 meters at 2 oclock, on the second pass, release the weapon 25 meters at 8 oclock. 5.2.11. Recovery. Start a recovery after ordnance release, reaching the abort cue, or if you lose SA. For free-fall munitions, the primary concerns during recovery are hitting the ground (or descending below a desired altitude), delivering a weapon with a time of fall below the minimum fuze time (a DUD weapon), or being hit by fragmentation from the ordnance employed. The planned recovery maneuvers for free-fall munitions are the climbing maneuver (CLM) and turning level turn (TLT) safe escape maneuvers (SEM). As a general rule, for low-altitude deliveries, 20 degrees or below, execute a TLT SEM, and for deliveries above 20 degrees, execute a CLM SEM. Computed deliveries use real time safe escape to display an abort cue, and manual deliveries use an abort altitude. 5.2.12. Execution. It is important to understand that when executing the SEM, it must be executed immediately after weapons release. Safe escape maneuvers include the climbing SEM, TLT SEM, and the back-up SEM. Maintaining the minimum aircraft G for the duration of the maneuver is critical in achieving safe escape or safe separation as appropriate.

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5.2.12.1. Common Errors. CLM SEM errors include: insufficient G during the recovery, exceeding 30 degrees of bank prior to 30 degrees nose high, and not completing the maneuver to 30 degrees nose high. TLT SEM errors include: an unloaded roll as the nose approaches the horizon, excessive nose high or nose low during the turn, rolling out prior to completing 60 degrees of turn, and most importantly, not maintaining G on the aircraft until the TLT SEM is complete. 5.3. Pop-Up Pattern. The pop-up is an unmask maneuver used at low-altitude to visually acquire the target. It can be used for free-fall, gun, rocket, and Maverick attacks. The approach (approach course) to the target can be either straight ahead or offset depending on the desired attack axis to the target. However, the approach course is generally 45 degrees offset from the final attack heading when employed from a conventional pattern. A 45-degree offset offers a balance of target acquisition, turning room to reposition for the pull-down, and exposure to threats. When employed tactically, the goal should be to strive for 3 seconds wings-level time. The pop-up point will vary depending on the ordnance to be employed. The tasks associated with each leg of the pop-up pattern are generally the same as the conventional pattern, with the following exceptions and the pop-up maneuver itself. Review the following pop-up specific terms while referencing Figure 7.8, Pop-Up Pattern, and Figure 7.9, Pop-Up Pattern Analysis: Run-in altitudeThe altitude above or below target elevation. Approach courseThe ground track the aircraft flies until reaching the pop-up point (pull-up point [PUP]). Attack headingFinal attack heading. Angle-off (AO)The angular difference between the approach course and attack heading. Pull-up point (PUP)The point along the approach course at which the pull-up to the climb angle is initiated. Fly to the target from the PUP. PUP angle off nose (AON)The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PUP. Climb angleThe angle-of-climb that is to be achieved following the initiation of the pop-up. Pull-down point (PDP)The start point for a maneuver to transition from the climbing to the diving portion of the pop-up delivery. Pull-down target placement (PTP)Sight picture used to initiate pull-down. PDP angle off nose (AON)The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PDP. ApexHighest altitude the aircraft reaches during the pop-up profile. Dive angleThe planned dive angle for weapons delivery. Aim-off distance (AOD)A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if not recovered) in a dive delivery. TrackingA portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft-sighting system with the target. Minimum attack perimeter (MAP)Is a circle centered on the target, which depicts the point at which target tracking is initiated. Using track altitude as a point on the ground, the distance from the target to this point is the radius of the circle. Release altitudeThe altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished.

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Bomb rangeThe distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact.

Figure 7.8 Pop-Up Pattern.

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Figure 7.9 Pop-Up Pattern Analysis. 5.3.1. SEM and Crosswind. The SEM employed is generally a TLT. Upon completion of the SEM, establish a climbing vector and complete the turn to crosswind. Remember to check the crosswind to downwind corner, and then downwind to base corner, for preceding aircraft. 5.3.2. Downwind. The downwind leg can either be parallel to the run-in leg (45 degrees offset away from the target) or parallel to the final leg. The considerations for actions on downwind are similar to those in the conventional pattern, except the aircraft will typically be 1,500 to 2,000 feet AGL. 5.3.3. Base. The turn from downwind to base is where the pop-up pattern diverges from the standard conventional pattern. During the turn to base the aircraft needs to descend and turn to arrive on the planned range approach course (see local and squadron guidance). Altitude may vary based on terrain, weather, and pilot low altitude category. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low maximum. The G and turn location will depend on the type of Pop-Up pattern to fly (offset or parallel downwind). Be very careful while descending to pilot low-altitude minimums because it is very easy to overshoot your altitude and fixate on the target or PUP. One technique is to level off 200 to 300 feet high and ease the aircraft down to pilot low-altitude minimums during the approach to the PUP. For pop-ups, gain as much energy as practical prior to the pull-up point. As a ROT, plan on depleting approximately 15 knots to 30 knots of airspeed while executing the pop-up attack.

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5.3.4. The Pop. The actual pop-up is performed referencing the target and varies dependent upon the ordnance employed. When on a controlled range, there are specific range references that aid in identifying the pop-up point. These points should be memorized in order to reduce task load on the range. GEOREFs or EGI ranges are the best method for determining the correct pull-up point on a conventional range. With permission study, it is possible to plan an attack heading to fly and identify GEOREFs such as roads, hills, and rivers. The pilot can also reference the distance from the target in the HUD as a back-up if the coordinates are known for the target and entered in the active steerpoint. The pop picture must be developed by flying a mechanical approach course, pull-up and pull down. If the conditions are correct, a baseline sight picture can be developed for use in a tactical environment. First learn the basics then apply the sight picture discussion in the following paragraphs to sharpen pop delivery skills. 5.3.4.1. Pull-Up Point. Flying a mechanical pop-up using planned parameters will aid in developing a sight picture to increase the chance for target acquisition and finding the wire. At the planned PUP, select MAX power and begin a 3-G wings-level pull (G-suit inflates at 2.5 Gs) to the desired climb angle. Pull up to 5 degrees higher than the planned delivery dive angle. PUP distances assume the ground elevation is equal to the target elevation. Increase the PUP distance by 0.1 NM for every 200 feet below planned altitude (For example, a 500-foot AGL run in could be only 300 feet above target elevation. In this case, increase the pull up point by 0.1 NM). 5.3.4.2. Target Acquisition. After setting the planned climb angle, focus on acquiring the target. The typical time to acquire the target from pull-up to pull-down is approximately 5 to 10 seconds depending on run-in altitude. During the climb, the target will move down and aft in the quarter panel. An important visual reference is the angle off the nose (AON) to the target at the pull-up point and pull-down point. Knowing the pull-up/pull-down AONs helps focus the pilots eyes for target acquisition. Calculate the AON using the following ROT: the pull-up AON is approximately one-half the planned angle-off and the pull-down point AON is approximately three-quarters of the planned angle off. For example, a 45-degree angle-off results in the target starting at the 22 degrees AON at pull-up and moving to 32 degrees of AON at pull-down. These are the areas that should be scanned during the climb to find the target. Do not confuse angle off (AO) with angle off the nose (AON). 5.3.4.3. Correct PUP. The correct PUP for a strafe delivery is based upon desired delivery slant range, desired dive angle, and specific range restrictions. As a ROT, pop-up for a low strafe or rocket delivery approximately 1 mile prior to the intended release slant range. When the desired PUP is reached, pull to approximately 5 to 10 degrees nose high and begin a roll and pull to the target. For most conventional range strafe deliveries, the dive angle will be 5 to 10 degrees nose low, assuming a 500-foot AGL run-in altitude. 5.3.4.4. Pull-Down Point. This is the point at which the pull-down is initiated. Normally, it will be done with an unloaded roll followed by a 2- to 4-G pull down to intercept the planned attack wire. Execute the pull-down as the aircraft approaches the correct pull-down visual reference. A baseline sight picture for the pull-down point relates the target placement to a known cockpit reference for bombing deliveries. This point is referred to as PTP (pull-down target placement).

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5.3.4.5. PTP. The pull down point visual reference is determined using PTP. This is the angle from the horizon to the target at the planned pull-down point. The IAA can be used as an approximation of this angle. Since PTP is measured from the horizon it cannot be translated to a sight picture without a known horizon reference. To calculate the PTP, add the IAA to the known horizon reference and equate that distance to a canopy reference. The distance between the center of two grommets (dust covers) is 5 degrees; a visual reference for canopy bow sight picture measurements. 5.3.4.6. Techniques. This is a baseline starting point and is dependent on factors such as sitting height and seat adjustment. Using the grommets (dust covers) for this sight picture affords the pilot both right and left hand roll-in sight pictures. Pilots must determine their specific sight picture from this starting point. Adjust the pull-down sight pictures for different IAAs as they change and add the IAA to the horizon reference for the given climb angle. In a fluid tactical environment with moving targets and inaccurate coordinates, using PTP references will aid target acquisition while maneuvering to the correct wire. 5.3.6. Roll-In and Track References. The roll-in and track references discussed in the diving delivery section above still apply. 5.3.6. Final. The final portion is the same as with any diving delivery. Use RTP cockpit references to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown. As the pull-down is completed, the delivery considerations are those of a normal weapons delivery pass. 5.4. Bump-Up Pattern. The Bump-Up maneuver is primarily used to unmask for forward-firing diving deliveries or level free-fall munitions employment. Like the Pop-Up pattern, it is an unmask maneuver designed to achieve LOS with the target. When employing a bump-up attack on the conventional range, crosswind, downwind, and base leg are identical to the rectangular pattern. Normally, the downwind will be flown at 1,500 to 2,000 feet AGL, necessitating a descent for the base leg. As in the Pop-Up pattern, the pilot should be cautious when descending to pilot low-altitude minimums. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low as a maximum descent rate. 5.4.5.1. Final. On final, the bump-up attack will be executed within 15 degrees of the final runin heading. Instead of using large bank angles and positive G to get the aircraft from a nose-high attitude to an attack position, the bump-up uses a slight climb to acquire the target followed by a negative G pushover to intercept planned release altitude. A common error is to level off higher than planned release altitude which may result in a CCIP consent delivery with a short time on final. Because the target may be in sight while on a controlled range, this can be simulated by pulling up approximately 5 degrees nose high, followed by a pushover to reacquire and track the target. Remember, in the tactical environment the key is to acquire LOS with the target. A shallow climb farther out may be preferred to a steeper climb close in. 6. Computed Free-Fall Munitions Employment. 6.1. Integrated Flight and Fire Control Computer. Bombing with IFFCC simplifies weapons delivery significantly. IFFCC provides a CCIP based on the weapon selected in the current DSMS profile that considers wind, aircraft velocity, AOA, altitude, and attitude. IFFCC provides

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accurate weapons delivery even though the aircraft may be significantly off planned parameters; however, weapons effects may be less than desired. Additionally, flying the aircraft through the planned delivery requires using solid weapons delivery techniques and procedures to include wind analysis. 6.2. Digital Stores Management System. All delivery specific information that IFFCC needs to calculate the correct solution is contained in the profiles created during mission planning and loaded to the DSMS via the DTC. This includes weapon type, delivery mode (CCIP, CCRP), release mode (Single, Ripple Single), Fuzing (type and time), DTOF, minimum altitude and desired safe escape maneuver. See Figure 7.10, DSMS Profile Page. 6.2.1. Delivery Modes. Free-fall bomb deliveries and rockets primarily use CCIP mode while LGBs and IAMs use continuously computed release point (CCRP). It is imperative to know how the CICU, DSMS, UFC and IFFCC all integrate and function prior to weapons employment. (See Figure 7.2, IFFCC Air-to-Surface Cockpit Interface, Figure 7.11 IFFCC HUD SymbologyCCIP).

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Figure 7.10 DSMS Profile Page. 6.3. Altitude Sources. There are three altitude sources for IFFCC WD computations: Radar, Baro, and Delta. The altitude source is selected on the armament HUD control panel (AHCP). 6.3.1. Radar Mode. Radar mode uses the radar altitude directly below the aircraft as the height above target for WD computations. This mode is valid only over flat terrain and is limited to altitudes 5,000 feet AGL and below. 6.3.2. Baro Mode. Baro mode computes a true MSL altitude by starting with the central air data computer (CADC) barometric altitude adjusted by the Kohlsman altimeter setting (shown on the cockpit altimeter) and adjusting it for lag, installation error, and nonstandard air temperatures. The aircraft will take an automatic barometric reference point during takeoff. This function is referred to as a Baro update. At approximately 50 to 60 KIAS, the IFFCC system records the CADC barometric altitude from the cockpit altimeter. This is the starting point for all subsequent

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calculations. From this point on, the Baro update consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude, provided the EVE is less than 50 feet. NOTE: Ensure this is accurate by dialing the cockpit altimeter until the HUD altitude reads touchdown zone elevation prior to takeoff.

Figure 7.11 IFFCC HUD SymbologyCCIP. 6.3.3. Delta Mode. Delta mode, unlike the Baro mode, uses the CADC pressure altitude as a starting point for computing true MSL altitude and calculates its own nonstandard pressure correction (Delta) rather than relying on the altimeter setting. To calculate the nonstandard pressure correction, Delta mode needs a reference altitude. Like Baro, an initial delta update is accomplished during the takeoff roll and assumes that the cockpit altitude (altitude set in HUD) is an accurate reading of true MSL altitude at that point. The rest of the process for correcting the

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pressure/altitude scale is similar to the Baro mode. Remember that the CADC pressure altitude is not effected by the altimeter setting, so changing the altimeter setting in flight does not affect Delta mode altitudes. The main benefit of the Delta mode is that the reference altitude may be changed via a delta update taken closer to the target area so that the corrections are more accurate for the target air mass. Delta updates received from other A-10s or forecast values from mission planning can be entered via IFFCC menus. NOTE: If possible, an inflight Delta should be accomplished at the planned delivery altitude near the target area. NOTE: Delta mode is completely independent of the cockpit altimeter setting except for the initial update on takeoff roll. 6.3.4. Selecting a Mode. Baro provides the most accurate method of WD when EVE is less than 50 feet. This is due to the constant Baro update which consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude. If EVE is greater than 50 feet, then Delta provides the most accurate method of WD. Radar mode may be the preferred mode over flat terrain when the pilot is sure the terrain elevation below the aircraft at release is the same as the target elevation and release occurs below 5,000 feet AGL. 6.4. Elevation Sources. IFFCC provides the ability to select from several different elevation sources through its digital terrain system application software (DTSAS). IFFCC incorporates Level 1 digital terrain elevation data (DTED) which is loaded into the data transfer cartridge (DTC). IFFCC provides hot elevation, passive ranging, look-aside ranging, and coordinate ranging.

Figure 7.12 Delta CAL Submenu.

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6.4.1. Hot Elevation. In this mode the pilot manually enters a known target elevation into either the HUD via the UFC or the CDU, which will then transfer the elevation to the HUD. IFFCC will use this as the only elevation for solution computations. 6.4.2. Passive Ranging (Data Transfer System [DTS]). IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the gun and bomb or rocket sights simultaneously. IFFCC then uses the calculated elevation for solution computation. This only occurs if DTSAS is on and the pilot selects auto-elevation mode by using the UFC Data and Select switches, or by selecting auto-elevation mode (referred to as DTS by many pilots) as a preference when loading the DTC. When active, the elevation in the HUD is replaced with DTS. 6.4.3. Look-Aside Ranging. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the Maverick reticle or the depressible pipper. This mode is only active in auto-elevation mode (DTS visible in HUD). 6.4.4. Coordinate Ranging (CR). To bomb on CR, use HOT elevation and ensure the current steerpoint while delivering weapons is the target. When enabled in the CDU, CR automatically returns an elevation when the pilot enters coordinates into a Waypoint on the CDU. If autoelevation mode is inactive (numeric elevation visible in the HUD), and the Waypoint under modification is the active steerpoint in the HUD, the elevation returned by CR will automatically transfer to the HUD. 6.4.5. Targeting Pod Elevation. When targeting pod (TGP) is initially selected, the HUD will display T DTS indicating TGP is selected, but DTS will be used until the laser is actually fired. After firing the laser, the HUD will display T XXXX with X representing the elevation provided by the targeting pod. The IFFCC only accepts the last laser ranging information received from the pod. If the TGP laser is set to latched mode, the IFFCC elevation will continuously update as long as the laser is firing. For example, if the TGP LOS has moved to an area with a significantly different elevation and the laser has not been fired, then IFFCC will use the potentially incorrect elevation from the last time the laser was fired. Every time the laser has stopped firing, the T XXXX will flash in the HUD to indicate the new elevation has been accepted. NOTE: If in CCRP mode and using the TGP as an elevation source, the TGP elevation will be used by IFFCC, as opposed to the SPI elevation. If the IFFCC elevation source is set to DTS or HOT elevation, then the SPI elevation will be used. 6.4.6. Selecting the Best Elevation Source. Use auto-elevation mode (DTS) in most cases. On conventional (known target set) ranges, use HOT. If no elevation is known (pop up target) and DTS is not functioning, then use TGP laser elevation. 6.5. Computed Free-Fall Sight Application. 6.5.1. Profile. In order for the IFFCC system to compute accurate release displays, the correct DSMS weapon profile must be selected, delivery parameter data must have been input correctly

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on the ground, and appropriately selected on downwind. Several techniques exist to ensure that all necessary data have been input accurately. 6.5.1.1. Base to Roll-In (Pull). Perform the roll-in and Conventional Pattern, and IAW Pop-Up Pattern. 6.5.1.2. Roll out (Center). Since the center of the pitch ladders show the aircrafts path over the ground in computed HUD modes, centering the pitch ladders over the target result in a smooth PBIL track through the target. The PBIL guides to the desired release point by predicting the future position of the bomb along the ground. Begin roll-out as the pitch ladders approach the target. Since the pitch ladders are wind corrected this will aid in leading a roll out that positions the aircraft upwind of the release aim point. 6.5.1.3. Track (Set). After roll out, fix any PBIL errors with aggressive corrections while setting track. The DRC and MRS are displayed on the PBIL to show how the desired time of fall and abort cue relate to the current aircraft position. Set the DRC. Remember at track that ITP is only an indication of aircraft position, not a track reference. 6.5.1.4. Final. Once track is set, check the parameters and decide if they are within those required for the delivery. Keep the PBIL on the release aim point and allow the pipper to track to it. As the pipper reaches the aimpoint, depress the weapon release button and hold it long enough for the aircraft to release the number of weapons selected. The reticle will flash when enough time has elapsed for all of the weapons to release. After pickling, perform the appropriate SEM. 6.5.2. Solution Options. There are limitations to when a solution can be displayed in the HUD. The HUD projection is round, not square. This creates a problem with high crosswind and deliveries with high mil depressions. The HUD can only display a pipper within a 170-mil radius of the 140-mil HUD center. Therefore, the center of the HUD, defined at 140 mils of depression, is the area capable of displaying the maximum amount of crosswind solution (170 mils). Likewise, the greatest depression available is 310 mils, with no crosswind capability at that depression. HD munitions are very susceptible to this problem. (See Figure 7.13, Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR.) This figure is based on a 4.5-mil per knot crosswind correction (found in the delivery parameters in the Battle Book). A delivery requiring 285 mils can display a solid PBIL out to 20 knots of crosswind (assuming the 4.5 mil/kt correction). IFFCC provides two options for WD solutions: Manual Release and Consent to Release. These depend on which mode is selected in the weapons submenu (or on IFFCC preferences in A/W/E). 6.5.2.1. Manual Release. This option allows the solution to be displayed only if the solution is within the HUD field of view (FOV). When the computed solution is outside the HUD field of view, the PBIL is dashed. In this case, when the pilot depresses the weapons release button, weapons will release IAW the profile, and the pilot cannot accurately deliver weapons. 6.5.2.2. CCIP Consent Release (5 mil & 3/9). The CCIP Consent Release function provides a CCIP weapons release capability when the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV but above 550mils (in level flight).

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Figure 7.13 Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR. 6.5.2.2.1. When the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV the reticle is clamped to the outer edge of the HUD (with the clamped pipper 153 mils from HUD center regardless of bank angle). The PBIL and CCIP reticle are dashed, the analog range bar is removed, and a predesignate timeto-release numeric (TTRN) is displayed inside the dashed reticle if the time to weapons release is less than 20 seconds. (See Figure 7.14, Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology.) The predesignate TTRN is displayed in increments from 0.1 to 9.9 seconds, then 10 to 20 seconds.

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Figure 7.14 Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. NOTE: When the solution is within the HUD FOV the solution and symbology will behave according to Manual Release regardless of IFFCC consent setting. 6.5.2.2.2. To employ the CCIP consent release function, the clamped CCIP pipper is used as the aiming reference to designate the intended target. The pilot rolls in and places the CCIP pipper over the target, and then depresses and holds the Weapons Release button to enter the CCIP Consent Release function. This causes the PBIL and CCIP bomb reticle to become solid, and the CCIP consent symbology to be displayed (Figure 7.15, Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology). The symbology consists of a steering line, a 10-mil diameter solution cue, and the TTRN, in whole seconds.

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Figure 7.15 Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. 6.5.2.2.2.1. After designation, the aircraft is flown to align the CCIP pipper with the solution cue. If 5 MIL was selected from the MAIN MENU, IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper is within 5 mils and passes the 3/9 line of the solution cue, parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane (Figure 7.16, CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release). If the CCIP pipper passes outside of 5 mils, then the release will not be commanded. (Figure 7.18, Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit.)

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Figure 7.16 CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release. If 3/9 was selected from the MAIN MENU, IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper crosses the 3/9 line of the solution cue, parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane), regardless of horizontal range to the solution. (See Figure 7.17, CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery.) The solution will become invalid prior to IFFCC commanded release (and hence aborted) if the Weapons Release button is released prior to actual weapon release, or if there is a fault in the consent system. NOTE: Rockets are always manual release regardless of IFFCC Consent setting. NOTE: LGBs/CBU-97 are always 3/9 regardless of IFFCC Consent setting.

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Figure 7.17 CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery. 6.5.3. Abort Cues. IFFCC calculates and displays an abort cue based on pilot and aircraft data. 6.5.3.1. Real-Time Safe Escape. For free-fall weapons, IFFCC can calculate a minimum TOF for safe escape based on actual aircraft parameters and planned escape maneuver. IFFCC calculates safe escape for fuze, frag or Min Alt and displays the MRS and MRC based on the higher of the three. 6.5.3.2. Selecting NONE. If this SEM is selected in the weapon profile, IFFCC will remove fragmentation as a consideration for the MRS on GP bombs. Selecting NONE in the CBU87/CBU-89/CBU-97 submenus has a slightly different effect on the MRS and MRC than in the MK 82/MK 84 submenus, as explained below: MK 82/MK 84: MRS and MRC does not consider frag and is only based on the values the pilot enters for Min Alt and Fuze. No consideration is given to safe escape/safe separation.

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CBU-87/CBU-89/CBU-97: MRS and MRC represent submunition arming while not considering frag for an intact canister. Only fuzing and function will be considered, not safe escape/safe separation.

Figure 7.18 Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit. 6.5.3.3. Real-Time Safe Escape Cues. If actual flight parameters are outside the boundaries of these tables, IFFCC extrapolates from the tables to calculate a RTSE value. To alert the pilot that IFFCC is extrapolating outside the bounds of RTSE tables, the MRS and MRC will flash. The

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flashing cues are somewhat subtle and are not always obvious on a cluttered HUD. Flashing MRS/MRC should have no affect on the delivery. 6.5.3.4. MRS/MRC with MAN REL. IFFCC uses the inputs minimum altitude, fuze time, and safe escape maneuver to calculate a real time abort cue. IFFCC displays this cue as the MRS and MRC. The MRS is displayed along the PBIL. The MRC is displayed as a caret on the inside of the reticle. The MRC position inside the reticle corresponds to the minimum release slant range for the highest of fuze, frag, or ground. The minimum release point is reached when the analog range bar meets the caret. This will occur at the same time that the MRS meets the pipper. IFFCC displays an X over the pipper if this situation exists and the pilot should abort the pass. If the range bar has not met the caret or the staple is above the pipper when the bomb is released, then the aircraft is outside the minimum slant range computed by IFFCC. 6.5.3.4.1. Valid Solution Indications. When in Manual Release mode, the valid solution indicator (VSI) appears as a small x over either the MRS or the DRC when the IFFCC computer determines (with the present aircraft parameters, namely airspeed, dive angle, and winds) a solution will not be available within the HUD FOV prior to passing the respective TOF. This occurs only when no consent option is selected or available. For high sight depression parameters, the VSI may appear at roll-out but go away as the aircraft accelerates on final. If the VSI is present, make a decision based on wind information and accuracy of parameters to determine whether to continue the pass or abort. 6.5.3.5. MRS/MRC with CCIP Consent. When employing in CCIP Consent Release modes, the MRS is based upon the true CCIP solution, which is outside the HUD FOV. 7. Weapon Employment 7.1. Rocket Employment. 7.1. Conventional Rocket. This delivery is characterized by short slant ranges and generally steeper dive angles (30 degrees or more). Because of the shorter slant range, conventional rockets are more accurate than standoff, tactical, and loft rockets. However, this accuracy is achieved at the expense of threat standoff. 7.1.1. CCIP Rockets. IFFCC CCIP significantly reduces the difficulty in shooting accurate rockets. With a rocket profile selected, the PBIL, MRS, DRC, and MRC are removed from the normal CCIP display. The rocket reticle is not displayed in the HUD unless a solution is available. Slant range, the critical element in shooting rockets, is constantly computed out to the kinematic range of the rocket. This information is displayed by the analog ranging bar inside the reticle, and below the reticle in NM when the slant range exceeds 12,000 feet. In this case, the analog range bar will be locked at the 12 oclock position. On roll-in, place the pipper short of the target, generally a half reticle short. Trim the aircraft to maintain correct G-loading and allow the pipper to track to the target. Avoid the tendency to hold the pipper on the target as this will induce tip off. (See Figure 7.19, CCIP Rocket Reticle.)

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7.1.2. Manual Rockets. Manual rocket deliveries are similar to manual bomb deliveries. Use a depressible pipper with either STBY Pipper, HARS, or Guns. Wind corrections are not as large as for bombs. Linear offset or mil crank may be used to adjust RAP/RAPE for winds. As a rule, headwind and tailwind corrections are negligible at closer slant ranges (less than 12,000 feet) and only the crosswind need be considered if a close mark is required). 7.1.2.1 Tactical Sight Setting. The tactical sight setting is a manual delivery technique using a set mil reference to employ manual rockets at several slant ranges. Additionally, it can be used if wind velocity is not known and/or if there is no time to calculate wind corrections to achieve specific delivery parameters. With the depressible pipper set to 102 mils and dive angles between 5 to 15 degrees, the top of the reticle should be used as the aiming reference for 9K S/R, the pipper for 12K S/R and the bottom of the reticle for 15K S/R shots (it can also be set to 90 mils for a 6/9/12K reference). Crosswind correction must still be applied for accurate delivery (approximately 0.5 mils per knot). This sight setting can also be used with the standby pipper; however, realize that standby pipper is 50 mils in diameter vice 25 mils for the depressible pipper. (See Figure 7.20, Tactical Sight Setting, for additional information.)

Figure 7.19 CCIP Rocket Reticle. 7.1.3. CCRP Rockets. CCRP is a system delivery that will usually be employed at low-altitude to loft rockets or medium-altitude for level or shallow deliveries. The RAN replaces the TTRN

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and displays a 45 numeric seven seconds prior to the target being in range. During a low altitude run-in, the pilot may perform a 10-, 20-, or 30-degree loft. Start the pull-up when the RAN equals 10 degrees plus the planned loft angle. For example, for a 20-degree loft, the pilot starts a pull-up to 20 degrees when the RAN equals 30. During the loft profile, the pilot uses the same CCRP references discussed previously by applying sufficient G to place the PBRL on the ASL. MAN REL is the only release mode for rocket deliveries; therefore, the pickle button is hot and the pilot must attempt to release the rockets as close to the center of the Solution Cue as possible. Remember, this solution is always calculated based on the SPI. 7.1.4. Illumination Rockets. The Mk-257/278 rockets are illumination rockets. These rockets provide approximately 2 to 3 minutes of illumination. Delivery parameters can vary from lofting nose high to 30 degrees nose low. Illum rocket solutions target a point over the SPI. The delivery of M257/278 rockets is restricted to CCRP mode. The USE CCRP message will be displayed in the HUD.

Figure 7.20 Tactical Sight Setting. 7.1.4.1. The MRC and analog range bar are utilized in a unique way with M257/278 rocket flares. The analog range bar represents the predicted flare ignition height while the MRC represents the desired flare ignition height to mid-burn. For the rocket flare to attain the menuentered desired flare height at mid-burn, vertically maneuver the aircraft to place the analog range bar on the MRC. 7.1.4.2. If the MRC is inside the analog range bar (Figure 7.21, Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar), push the nose of the aircraft down to position the analog range bar over the MRC. If the MRC is outside the analog range bar, pull the nose of the aircraft up to

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position the analog range bar over the MRC. In other words, fly the MRC to the analog range bar. 7.1.4.3. Once the analog range bar and MRC are coincident, maintain that flight path angle until release. 7.1.4.4. If launching the selected rocket flare would cause it to hit the ground before parachute deployment, the PBRL, ASL, Solution Cue, TTRN, analog range bar and MRC will be removed from the HUD and a dashed X will be displayed over the pipper. CAUTION: The HUD symbology for the rocket CCIP is very similar to the gun CCIP. RKT is displayed below the rocket reticle to help distinguish the two. Take care to ensure the proper symbology is being used for the two respective weapons as dangerous miss distances can occur when using opposing symbology.

Figure 7.21 Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar.

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7.2 Gun Employment. The GAU-8/A is the primary weapon of the A-10. With over 1,150 rounds of 30mm high explosive incendiary (HEI) and armor piercing incendiary (API) rounds, combined with a sustained rate of fire of 62 rounds per second, the A-10 pilot is provided unsurpassed staying power and flexibility. The GAU-8/A characteristics of increased standoff, high accuracy, and sustained firepower make strafe the most reliable and effective method for the A-10 to deliver firepower against a ground target. Pilot knowledge of proper strafe techniques and the ability to recognize, analyze, and correct for common pilot errors are critical for employment. 7.2.1. Gun Characteristics. 7.2.1.1 Clearing Cycle. The GAU-8/A goes through a barrel clearing cycle within 0.5 seconds after every firing. The goal, when designing the gun, was to have no unfired or wasted rounds in the barrel. Additionally, the gun can detect a broken firing pin (resulting in a live round). The cockpit gun unsafe light will illuminate if the clearing cycle is not completed in 2.5 seconds. If two broken firing pins are detected, a gun unsafe indication will result. If the clearing cycle is interrupted by safing the gun, a gun unsafe indication will result. 7.2.1.2 Cooling Cycle. The cooling cycle was designed to eliminate increased bullet dispersion due to barrel heating and rotates the barrels under a schedule following trigger release. To cool the barrel, the GAU-8/A will automatically cycle at 24, 60, 100, and 150 seconds after firing. The cycle can be interrupted at any point by squeezing the trigger. Barrel cooling also stops when the master arm or rotate switch is set to the safe position. 7.2.1.3. Dispersion. The GAU-8/A was built with the specifications that 80 percent of the bullets must fall within a 5-mil diameter of the desired aimpoint and 100 percent must fall within 13 mils. Dispersion, however, does increase as the gun heats up. After six to eight passes of 150 rounds each with only 1.5 minutes between bursts, gun dispersion can increase to 30 mils for 100 percent and 18 to 20 mils for 80 percent of rounds fired. Dive angle does not affect dispersion, only the bullet footprint. 7.2.1.4. Harmonization. The GAU-8/A is installed such that bullets pass through the 41-mil depression at 4,000 feet slant range when in 30 degrees of dive with a 36,000-pound aircraft. 7.2.1.5. Rounds Counter. Rounds remaining are displayed in increments of 10 on the DSMS page, and in the HUD when in GUNS mode. It is set in IFFCC by the weapons load crew when the gun is loaded. 7.2.2. Parameters. Strafe deliveries for the A-10 are divided into two broad categories: highangle and low-angle. Low-angle strafe (LAS) and long range strafe (LRS) are generally considered any delivery 15 degrees and below, and HAS is usually 30 degrees and above. Two target strafe (TTS) can be accomplished from either LRS or HAS deliveries. Each specific delivery has its advantages and disadvantages. In general, strafe parameters are dictated by the target, the threat, and the weather.

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7.2.2.1. Low-Angle Strafe. The objective of a LAS delivery is to press into effective kill range for a hard target (tank). Cease fire on a LAS delivery on soft targets at 2,000 feet and 3,000 feet on hard targets. When employing manually and assuming firing at 2,000 to 2,500 feet slant range, the aiming reference is 39 to 40 mils. (See Figure 7.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference.) For LAS passes against hard targets, cease fire no later than 3,000-foot slant range to avoid breaking the 3/9 plane of any target shot at. If an aircraft breaks the 3/9 plane of a hard target after employing on it, the aircraft will likely sustain frag/ricochet damage.

Figure 7.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference. 7.2.2.2. Long-Range Strafe. The objective of a LRS delivery is to standoff using the excellent range of the GAU-8/A to kill or immobilize a target. Realize that if attacking a heavily armored target, the probability of damage (Pd) goes down significantly as the range increases. However, a mobility kill (M-Kill) may still be likely. Refer to the weapons shop and AFTTP 3-1.A10 for specific Pd against targets. If attacking personnel, lightly armored targets (e.g., APCs), or soft skinned vehicles (e.g., trucks and jeeps), this can be an effective delivery. LRS slant range, when employing on a controlled range, is typically 5,000 to 6,000 feet. (See Figure 7.23, Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference, for gun cross elevation with the target at 5,000 to 6,000 feet slant range.) If employing manually, elevate the gun cross to compensate for gravity drop based on slant range. For low-altitude shots, slant range will very nearly equal ground range.

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Figure 7.23 Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference. 7.2.2. 3. High-Angle Strafe. HAS deliveries are less sensitive to elevation and slant range errors than low angle deliveries. Because of the increased dive angle, there is increased bullet density, more vulnerable parts of the target are exposed, and the overall effective target area is increased. HAS deliveries are used from medium-altitude with dive angles greater than 20 degrees. Avoid the 15- to 30-degree dive region for hard targets due to limited weapons effects (obliquity angles may result in ricochet at impact versus penetration). Just as in LRS, the slant range is dependent upon desired weapons effects and target attacked. If employing manually, specific dive angle, altitude, and airspeed parameters must be met to hit the target. Similarly, the gun cross will have to be elevated to compensate for gravity drop at various slant ranges. Reference squadron Battle Books for specific deliveries and their mil elevations. The correct slant range is acquired when employing on a conventional range and firing at the desired altitude, while on the planned dive angle. (See Figure 7.24, Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In, to see how to compute slant range by referencing the target on the canopy rail.) 7.2.2.4 Two-Target Strafe. TTS is shooting two targets with two separate bursts on the same pass. When employed in a low-angle delivery, think of it as a combination of LRS and LAS incorporating the techniques of both. When employing on a controlled range, strafe the nearest target to the range tower first, then move away from the tower to strafe the second target. Tactically, strafe in the direction of egress (left to right off right, for example). As a ROT, targets should be close enough that they are in the confines of the HUD simultaneously when opening fire on the first target. Shoot long then short if the targets are aligned with the run in axis to avoid breaking 3/9 with a target.

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Figure 7.24 Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In. 7.2.3. Strafe Symbology. 7.2.3.1. Guns Attack Modes. Air-to-surface guns can be accomplished in GUNS and CCIP modes. GUNS mode offers CCIP reticle, CCIP guns cross, 4/8/12 reticle, and wind corrected 4,000 foot gun cross. If a fixed sight (wind corrected fixed gun cross or 4/8/12 reticle) is selected in guns, then in CCIP the 4K wind corrected gun cross will be displayed (when the gun is armed). In HARS with the GUN ARMed, a fixed, non-wind corrected 4K GUN CROSS is displayed. No gun cross is available in STANDBY PIPPER. 7.2.3.2. CCIP Gun Reticle. The power-on default sight for the gun is the CCIP gun reticle. The CCIP is corrected for all factors influencing the bullets after the gun has reached full speed (approximately 0.5 second). Some of these factors include deceleration, gravity drop, aircraft angle of attack, gun barrel rotation, and winds. The gun reticle consists of a 1 mil pipper at the center of a 50-mil circular reticle with range marks at the 12, 3, 6, and 9 oclock positions. (See Figure 7.25, Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross.)

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Figure 7.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. 7.2.3.2.1. Analog Range Bar. An analog range bar with a 5-mil tab indicates the slant range to the CCIP gun solution in thousands of feet. (See Figure 7.26, Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric.) The analog range bar is located just inside the reticle and moves counter clockwise from the 12 oclock position as slant range to the target decreases. A hash mark at the end of the analog range bar indicates current slant range in thousands of feet as read from the reticle clock position. For example, with the hash mark at the 6 oclock position, current slant range is 6,000 feet. Slant ranges can be displayed from 0 to 12,000 feet. Outside of 12,000 feet, the range bar remains fixed at the 12 oclock position and an accurate range numeric is presented as long as a valid solution exists. The 2-digit numeric displays the range in nautical miles beginning at 0.1 and increasing in 0.1 increments to 9.9. The numeric then changes to an integer beginning at 10 and increasing to 99. A pilot option is to display the range numeric in kilometers. In this case, a K will follow the range numeric, and the maximum range that will be displayed is 99K. Maximum ranges in excess of 6 NM were observed during flight tests of IFFCC. If there is no solution, the range numeric is removed, the analog range bar is thin, and an X is placed over the pipper. If the pipper is pointed at a target that exceeds the maximum range that IFFCC can calculate, the pipper will clamp at the maximum range solution (with an X over it) and will still be roll stabilized and wind-corrected. This aids the pilot in keeping the pipper near the target for when a solution becomes possible.

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Figure 7.26 Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric. 7.2.3.2.2. CCIP Gun Reticle MTI. The CCIP gun reticle includes two moving target indicators (MTI). (See Figure 7.27 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle Moving Target Indicator.) The two vertical, 5-mil lines to the left and right of the pipper can be used to estimate the lead required for a moving target. These lines expand or contract as the slant range and bullet TOF is changed. The MTI assumes the target is moving perpendicular to the aircraft at a rate of 20 knots. By placing the target under the MTI with the gun pipper in front of the direction of motion, the target and bullets should arrive at the same point at the same time. Use the MTI to estimate movement and deliver a burst of sufficient length and dispersion to increase the probability of a hit. 7.2.3.3. CCIP Gun Cross. (See Figure 7.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross.) The IFFCC CCIP gun cross displays the same computed impact point as the CCIP gun reticle, using more compact symbology. The MRC functions identically to the reticle MRC. The gun cross consists of a 2-mil pipper and a 4-mil gap, and each line segment of the cross is 5 mils long making the cross a total of 20 mils across. The horizontal line at the top of the cross helps to distinguish it from a non-computed gun sight. The horizontal bar will not be present, no range numeric will be shown, and the cross will have an X through it if a solution is not available due to lack of altitude source or a solution outside of the HUD FOV, similar to the CCIP gun reticle.

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Figure 7.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. 7.2.3.4. Minimum Range Symbology for Guns. A minimum range caret (MRC) is available in Guns and CCIP modes for the CCIP reticle and gun cross. This gun MRC defines a minimum recovery altitude that is calculated using the minimum altitude entered in the IFFCC 30 MM submenu. This caret also provides a time-to-go indication before aircraft recovery from guns pass must begin (four Gs in 2 seconds WINGS LEVEL is the assumed recovery). (See Figure 7.26, Minimum Range Cue.) If the min alt is set to what is in the Battle Book, then the recover MUST be a 4G WINGS LEVEL pull to the horizon to recover at or above the min alt. Reference the squadron battle book for pads to add to the min alt setting to allow for a typical climbing safe escape-like maneuver that allows up to 30 degrees of bank during the 4G pull to the horizon. The caret is clamped vertically next to the top of the 12 oclock tick when there are 5 seconds or more until recovery must begin. The caret begins descending vertically when the time-to-go to the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent) decreases below 5 seconds. When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds above the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent), the caret will be displayed below the top of the 12 oclock tick and above the 3 oclock tick. When the aircraft is at the minimum recovery altitude, the caret will be next to the 3 oclock tick. When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds past (or below) the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent), the caret will be displayed below the 3 oclock tick and above the bottom of the 6 oclock tick. The caret will be clamped at the 6 oclock tick when the aircraft is 5 seconds or more below the minimum recovery altitude.

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Setting the minimum altitude in the 30 MM submenu to 0 feet deselects the gun CCIP minimum range cue display.

Figure 7.26 Minimum Range Cue. 7.2.3.5. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle. Toggling the SEL rocker on the UFC or cycling DMS L/R with HUD-SOI will display the 4/8/12 gun reticle. IFFCC corrects for crosswinds and the pilot elevates the sights for slant range. The 4/8/12 gun reticle displays three wind-corrected fixedrange pippers representing 4,000, 8,000, and 12,000 feet slant range solutions; the analog range bar is not present. (See Figure 7.27, 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4,000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross, for more information.) 7.2.3.6. Wind Corrected Gun Cross. The wind-corrected gun sight (WCGS) is similar in appearance to the CCIP gun cross, except it has no horizontal bar at the top and no range numeric. The WCGS is a cross set at 41 mils. Elevation of the gun sight for targets inside or

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beyond 4,000 feet slant range have to be estimated by the pilot. Like the 4/8/12 gun reticle, this sight is useful when target elevation information is unavailable.

Figure 7.27 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4,000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross 7.2.4. Manual Strafe Deliveries. When employing the GAU-8/A manually, elevate the sight for slant range and correct upwind for crosswind. 7.2.4.1. Sight Settings. There are several sight settings for GAU-8/A manual strafe deliveries: Standby Pipper, HARS fixed gun cross, Wind Corrected 4k Gun Cross, and the 4/8/12 Reticle. When using the standby pipper, set the appropriate mils for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds.

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7.2.4.2. Elevate for Slant Range. Elevate the sight for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds. When using the wind corrected 4K gun cross, only elevate for slant range. See the Battle Book for elevation techniques based on delivery (4/6/9K strafe) and sight settings for HAS. When using the 4/8/12 reticle, there are three pippers inside one reticle to aid estimating elevation. The top pipper of the 3 is the 4K pipper and is fixed at 41 mils. 7.2.4.3. Wind Corrections. Strafe wind correction presents a similar problem to that encountered in the delivery of any other type of conventional ordnance. Elevate the gun cross for a headwind and depress for a tailwind. For crosswinds, there are two basic methods to correct for wind once on final: drift/crab or bank. 7.2.4.3.1. The drift method involves using an upwind roll-in point and AOP. Once rolled out on final, the wind will drift the aircraft into its firing position. The same effect can be achieved utilizing the crab method into the wind. Realize that the release aimpoint in both cases will be the same. Neither drift nor crab has an advantage over the bank method other than firing with wingslevel. For direct crosswinds, the standard correction factors are: 0.5.mil per knot of crosswind for most slant ranges or 1-foot per knot of crosswind for every 2,000 feet of slant range. For example, for a 15-knot crosswind at 4,000 feet slant range, place the gun cross 7.5 mils or 30 feet upwind of the target and fire. (See Figure 7.28, Manual Strafe Techniques, for more information.) 7.2.4.3.2. Figure 7.29, Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints, illustrates a technique using a gun cross to TVV ratio against crosswinds to determine the aimpoint when employing with the OPT-C gun cross. As a ROT, use 1:6 ratio against armor (up to 4,000 foot slant range), use 1:4 ratio for long-range strafe (4,000 to 10,000 feet), and use 1:2 ratio for very long-range strafe (slant range greater than 10,000 feet). Mil dispersion will compensate for these ROTs. For example, a 4,000 foot slant range requires the pilot to place the target one sixth the distance from the gun cross towards the TVV.

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Figure 7.28 Manual Strafe Techniques, for more information.

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Figure 7.29 Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints. 7.2.4.3.3. In a strong crosswind, a drifting or crabbing attack will require a considerable offset aimpoint. Avoid using the rudder, uncoordinated flight will cause a lateral trajectory shift error. (See Figure 7.30, Trajectory Shift Error.) Due to bullet velocity and low trajectory angles, headwind and tailwind corrections are minimal in low-angle and long-range strafe (unless they are very strong). High-angle strafe corrections, using the drift or crab method, are the same as for low-angle deliveries. However, during high-angle strafe, headwinds and tailwinds are much more of a factor both for the ground track and the AOP. A ROT for 30 degrees or greater is to use 0.5 mil for every knot of direct headwind or tailwind. 7.2.4.3.4 For LAS/LRS using the bank strafe method, the aircraft drift is countered by banking into the wind. Keep the no crosswind aiming reference for the slant range to be used on the target with bank, and shoot at the appropriate slant range. Since the wind drift has been canceled by bank, the aircraft is flying straight at the target and is pointed at the target. It is similar to flying a wing low approach to the runway. Banked strafe is only valid for crosswinds up to 15 knots and/or slant ranges up to 8,000 feet. (See Figure 7.28, Manual Strafe Techniques, for further information.)

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Figure 7.30 Trajectory Shift Error. 7.2.4.3.5. Mil Sizing a Target. Because a mil in the HUD is a fixed size, it is possible to estimate the range to a target if the size of the target is known. A standard conventional range strafe rag is 16 feet. The standard chassis of most former Soviet Union equipment (e.g., tank, APC, or selfpropelled gun) is approximately 20 feet in length, 10 feet in width, and 10 feet in height. The mil size of a target is simple. See the formula below. This leads to the slant range per mil relationship presented in Figure 7.31, Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship, and must be determined for both head/tail and beam aspects. The aspect must be determined prior to release, and mil relationship used to determine slant range and appropriate aimpoint (i.e., for the standard Soviet tank and 4,000 feet slant range, it would be 5 mils on the beam and 2.5 mils head/tail).

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Figure 7.31 Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship. 7.2.4.4. Common Strafe Errors. These include aimpoint and tracking error, slant range estimation error, and uncoordinated flight error.

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7.2.4.4.1. Aimpoint and Tracking Error. The most common pilot-delivery error in strafe is the failure to place and maintain the aiming reference on the target and not obeying the cardinal rule of track-shoot-track. This error is applicable for both fixed gun sight and computed gunnery. 7.2.4.4.2. Slant Range Estimation Error. The second most prevalent error with non-computed gunnery is firing at the incorrect slant range for the given mil setting. The reverse of this is equally trueusing the wrong mil setting at a known slant range. Pilots must know the mil depressions necessary to hit a target at various slant ranges. 7.2.4.4.3. Uncoordinated Flight. This could be caused by a rudder input or by the rudder being incorrectly trimmed (e.g., needle/ball not centered). When stepping on the left rudder, the nose (and aiming reference) will swing left, but the flight path of the aircraft will not change immediately. The bullets will hit between the aiming reference and the flight path. The exact impact point depends on airspeed and bullet velocity, but in the A-10 it is approximately onesixth of the way from the gun cross to the velocity vector. 7.2.4.5 Shooting Combat Mix (CM). HEI has a lighter, faster muzzle velocity initially but due to higher drag, does not carry speed as long as API. Consequently, at long ranges HEI will land shorter than API. Since the CM setting for bullet type optimizes the CCIP sight for API, notice that HEI impacts short at long ranges. The API will be on target and slightly later than the HEI impacts. This divergence becomes prevalent at slant ranges greater than 12,000 feet in dives of 30 degrees or less; greater than 15,000 feet S/R for 45 degrees of dive and almost negligible in 60-degree HAS. See Figure 7.32, CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected.

Figure 7.32 CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected.

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7.2.4.6. Precision Attitude Control (PAC). When the gun is fired, aircraft vibration, wind variations, and other factors can cause errors in pipper placement that are beyond the pilots ability to see or control through stick inputs. While these errors are small, they are more than enough to cause increased bullet dispersion and a complete miss. IFFCC compensates for these errors through the PAC system. 7.2.4.6.1. PAC Arming. The PAC system is available whenever the EAC is armed, the Gun switch is set to PAC ARM, the Master Arm switch is in ARM or Train, and the air refueling door is closed. PAC is available in both Guns and CCIP/CCRP. PAC-1 is engaged when the gun trigger is pulled to the first detent and PAC-2 is engaged at the second detent. 7.2.4.7. Bullets at Target Altitude. IFFCC also incorporates a valuable training tool for feedback on dry strafe passes. The bullets at target altitude (BATA) is a small flashing circle that appears in the HUD at the point on the ground where the IFFCC computer predicts the bullets will impact. This estimation is based on aircraft altitude above the target and bullet TOF for the calculated slant range. The BATA appears, after the gun trigger is depressed, at the end of the first bullets TOF expiration when Master Arm is not safe. 7.2.4.8. Strafe Delivery Techniques. 7.2.4.8.1. During roll-in, set the sight just short of the target and evaluate the slant range. Approaching the desired slant range (determined by IFFCC cues, ground references, or apparent target size), pull the pipper up to the target, and track the target. Smoothly squeeze the trigger to PAC-1, continuing to track the target. Squeeze the trigger to PAC-2 to shoot. 7.2.4.8.2. A cardinal rule for strafe is to track-shoot-track. If the pipper was on the target before and after firing, it probably was on during firing. Rolling in, set the gun sight to the appropriate aiming reference, stabilize it, and pull to first detent (track), smoothly pull the trigger to the second detent (shoot), continue the track momentarily (track), then recover. Look at the target when tracking and firing, not at the gun cross. Shoot a 2-second burst for tactical situations. 7.2.4.8.3. Combat Offset. Whatever the error from the first attack, learn from that and make a correction (combat offset). 7.3. Maverick. The AGM-65 Maverick missile is a precise, guided, standoff missile. (See Figure 7.33, AGM-65D Maverick Missile.) Its accuracy, effective warhead, standoff parameters, and relative ease of employment can optimize both target destruction and aircraft survivability. The B/H/K-model Mavericks are the electro-optical (EO) version which uses dark and light contrast to lock onto targets. The D/G models are infrared (IR) and use heat signatures for target acquisition. Both Maverick models may also be used in conjunction with other weapons to enhance delivery capabilities of those weapons. The AGM-65D and G models are also extremely useful for night target search when a targeting pod is not available. With the current LAU-117, two Mavericks will be the standard loadout. If LAU-88s are used, a standard loadout of up to six

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Mavericks is possible. For a more detailed discussion on specific Mavericks, see the AGM-65A TV Maverick Operations supplement, the AGM-65B TV Maverick Operations supplement, the AGM-65D Maverick Operations supplement; the AGM-65 G/G2 Maverick Operations supplement, and the AGM-65 H/K Maverick Operations Supplement.

Figure 7.33 AGM-65D Maverick Missile. 7.3.1. Mission Planning. Successful Maverick employment requires thorough mission planning. There are many factors that may be known and planned for such as target, weather and threats in order to determine the appropriate polarity and first lock opportunity slant range. 7.3.1.1. Important target information includes the following: 7.3.1.1.1. Type Target. Know what types of targets are expected for Maverick employment. Be ready to identify them (tank versus truck) in the MAV MFCD, based on size and shape. The size and relative shape will also effect the maximum planned launch envelope based on lock logic for each type of Maverick. 7.3.1.1.2. Target Expectations. Know if the targets are parked or running to aid in polarity decisions for IR Mavericks. For EO Mavericks, ask intel if the enemy is known to use Camouflage and Deception to minimize target ID mistakes. 7.3.1.1.3. Target Area Restrictions. Be familiar with planned fire coordination measures, factor terrain, and threats that might drive specific attack axes. If the enemy is on the move, ask intel in what direction movement is likely to plan attacks along the movement axis (versus perpendicular).

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7.3.1.2.1. Target area cloud cover. Cloud cover could drive lower altitude employment. Cloud cover can also reduce shadows and target area heating. Knowing how high the clouds are will be a consideration when firing missiles with G-bias, as the Mav will lose track if it enters the clouds. 7.3.1.2.2. Sun Azimuth/Elevation. Sun angle will determine how large the shadows are in relation to the targets and in what direction the shadows are located. For EO employment shadows can cause lock logic difficulties. For IR employment, sun direction (and time of day) has an effect on which side of the target will likely be identifiable in the MAV page. 7.3.1.3. The following Maverick numbers are important to know: Time limits: 3-minute EO warm-up; 15 minutes maximum on ground; 3-minute video on per pass for B-models; 30 minutes video total for each missile per mission; 60 minutes total for EO power ON; and 45 seconds between passes for missile realignment (B-model onlymissile should not be called up during this time). 30 x 30 x 30 Rule: 30 degrees maximum bank angle at lock-on; 30 degrees per second roll rate at launch; and 30 degrees maximum bank angle change lock-on to launch. Launch Envelopes: minimum altitudes are 300 feet AGL for EO and 150 feet AGL for IR; 60degree maximum dive angle; G-limits equal +0.5 to +3.0; minimum range equals 10 x KTAS (25 x KTAS for G/G2-model); and TOF equals 1,000 feet per second (3 NM launch equals approximately 18 seconds). To achieve maximum range launches at lower altitudes, bank angle at lock should be less than 10 degrees. Each degree of bank will result in 1 percent loss of range. 7.3.1.4. G-Bias. When launched, the missile will initially climb to extend its range. This climb is referred to as G-Bias. The amount of this climb is based on distance from target when launch occurs. Firing inside of 12,000 feet slant range minimizes the G-bias. 7.3.2. Target Acquisition and Lock Logic. 7.3.2.1. The Keyhole. In order to achieve the good lock logic in a D/G/G2/H/K-model Maverick, the missile seeker must be within the launch window. (See Figure 7.34, D/G Maverick Keyhole.) The launch window is sometimes referred to as The Keyhole. This launch window is one of several considerations to satisfy good lock logic. If the target is inside these limits, the pointing cross will become steady. If not, the point cross will flash. These limits are 10 degrees (radius) around the longitudinal axis of the missile and 15 degrees down from the center. The H/K models have a 10 degree radius keyhole which is not pictured in Figure 7.34, D/G Maverick Keyhole. The B model of the Maverick does not have a keyhole. 7.3.2.2. B-Model Lock Logic. A good lock-on for the B-model is indicated when the four white dots depicting the background gates bound the target and the pointing cross is steady. Lock-on to a target that is too low in contrast or too small to survive missile launch transients (less than 1/2 the tracking window) is sometimes possible, but the pointing cross and scene magnifiers will

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flash if the target is too small, or the angle of the missile seeker head from the boresight exceeds missile limits.

Figure 7.34 D/G Maverick Keyhole. 7.3.3. Contrast Modes. Look at the target and try to determine which of the following contrast modes the Maverick will need for a successful lock-on (this should reduce switchology on final). If tracking the target with an ATP, note the polarity (in charge-coupled devise [CCD] or forward looking infrared [FLIR]) to determine the polarity for the Maverick to minimize one more switch change on final. 7.3.3.1. EO Mavericks. For targets which are lighter than the background, select AFT on the boat switch (polarity switch). For targets which are darker than the background, select forward. 7.3.3.2. IR Mavericks. Is the target hotter or colder than the background? If it is hotter, then the boat switch should be aft. If it is colder than the background, the switch should be forward. 7.3.3.2.1. Detectable, IR heat signatures result from heating (i.e., friction, solar, or chemical) or from basic IR properties of materials. Target aspect may either reveal or mask the heat source. Detection of non-operating targets or of heavy armored targets that have been operating for only a short time (i.e., slow heat build-up) will depend on the solar heating cycle and the targets specific background temperature. Generally, at night, vegetation cools faster than metal objects, and conversely, in early morning, vegetation heats up faster than these same objects. There are many obscurants that will affect IR heat signatures. Besides humidity and precipitation, other factors which can reduce the apparent temperature difference between a target and its background include:

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High winds. Calm water surfaces. Dry ground. Scattered or broken cloud cover which can vary thermal heating. Bare spots on a blanket of snow. 7.3.4. Employment. Ensure a Maverick profile is selected so the missile will fire (Mav will not fire in sensor mode). To get video, either select the MAV page, or use CHINA HATFWD/SHORT with the MAV profile called up and HUD SOI to automatically switch the MFCD to Maverick video and make it SOI. NOTE: Either way, ensure the MFCD is bounded by the green square (MAV is SOI) to prevent switch errors and/or a dry pass prior to exposure to threats. 7.3.4.1. Roll-In. Pull the Maverick symbol to the target. Ensure that the Maverick symbol has a chance to stabilize over the target. A good technique is to roll-in in wide field of view (WFOV) (if available) so that the target area is discernible. In WFOV, at typical employment ranges, the scene in the MAV should correlate to the features in the MAV SYMBOL on the HUD. Tactical reference points (e.g., roads, runways) will help funnel the pilot to the target area. Stabilize the Mav scene: press and hold DMS-FWD/LONG to space stabilize, TMS-AFT/SHORT to ground stabilize, or CHINA HAT-FWD/LONG to SLAVE TO SPI. Compare the scene to expectations from visual indications, ATP use, target description, and mission planning. Once the target area is located and in the center of the MAV page select NFOV. 7.3.4.2. Locking On. 7.3.4.2.1. With a A/B-model Maverick, release the Slew switch and Space Stabilize switch. If the missile stays locked on, confirm proper mil sizing, a steady pointing cross and confirm positive target identification. If these criteria are met, the missile is ready for launch. If the target does not lockup, continue to slew Maverick to target trying for good lock until the pass must be aborted. 7.3.4.2.2. With a D/G/G2/H/K missile, the switchology is almost the same. The biggest difference is in the WFOV versus NFOV. One technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in WFOV. WFOV will allow more of the target area to be seen and to help assess target array. Once acquired, space stabilize (holding the DMS-FWD/LONG while changing the FOV prevents the missile from returning to the boresight position) and go to NFOV by pushing CHINA HATFWD/SHORT. Once in NFOV, lock target. Another technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in NFOV. This improves contrast and allows target locks faster and at greater ranges than WFOV when familiar with the target area, array, or using an ATP to aid in acquisition. 7.3.4.2.3. With a G/K/H/K-model Maverick in Force Correlate mode (i.e., boat switch in the center position prior to commanding lock), the missile will lock onto specified area. Point the crosshairs to the target and release the slew switch. The crosshairs will close, creating solid crosshairs in both the horizontal and vertical axis on the aimpoint in the center of the screen. The scene must have some contrast to establish a lock, and the pointing cross will indicate when good lock logic criteria has been met. Do not use on moving or point targets.

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7.3.4.3. Firing. Ensure the pointing cross is steady for at least 1 second before firing. A flashing pointing cross indicates that the missile may lose lock at or after launch. The pointing cross will flash with a D/G/G2/H/K-model if: The temperature difference (delta T) between target and background is insufficient (scene bounding for H/K Mavericks). Target size is too small. Seeker head exceeds launch angle criteria. If there is not a steady cross but the target is locked up, the missile may be out of gimbal limits; so fly the Maverick towards the flashing cross. For example, if the cross is flashing in the bottom right of the MAV page, make a right-hand descent; to put the cross within the keyhole. 7.3.4.4. Time on Final Considerations. Getting consumed with trying to lockup the target is a very common problem. Consider time on final to avoid threats, ground impact, and unnecessary exposure. The flight lead will establish the time of final criteria. Many use 10 seconds for medium- and high-altitude employment. Set the altitude alert to give a pull off cue on a Maverick pass. 7.3.4.5. Safe Escape Maneuver. The only SEM for Mavericks is to stop the rate of descent and climb back out of the threats, if medium altitude, or remask when low altitude. Do not shoot the Maverick within the minimum safe launch distance: For AGM-65B/D/H, 10 x TAS = Abort slant range (typically 300 knots, so 3,000 feet). For AGM-65G/K, use 25 x TAS = Abort slant range (7,500 feet). 7.3.4.6. Desired Launch Zone (DLZ). A Maverick desired launch zone is displayed in the HUD for AGM-65D/G,G2/H/K model Mavericks when NOT in sensor mode. It will also be displayed in the MAV page when NOT in the sensor mode. The DLZ is not available for B model Mavericks. It is critical that the correct type of Maverick is loaded in DSMS for an accurate DLZ display. 7.3.4.7. Non-IFFCC Considerations. The Maverick is one weapon where the loss of IFFCC does not dramatically affect the delivery process. Losing IFFCC causes two major changes. 7.3.4.7.1. The Maverick reticle will not come up on the HUD. With the loss of the reticle, slant range information will also be lost. 7.3.4.7.2 For a boresight reference, use the depressible pipper. Dial in the proper mil reference for where the missile was boresighted. As with the EO Maverick, a picture should be drawn on the canopy to represent the target-to-pipper relationship. This technique will help expedite target lock-ons. 7.3.5. Medium Altitude Employment. Employing the Maverick from medium-altitude has many advantages. Target acquisition is easier from higher altitudes. These higher altitudes may also allow the pilot to avoid flying into certain threat envelopes. Some key points to consider

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when employing from medium-altitude include establishing base distance and altitude, and target acquisition. 7.3.5.1. Base Distance. Establish base distance and altitude based on the planned slant range for release. Consider the minimum altitude for recovery. See the Battle Book for base parameters and slant ranges. 7.3.6. Low-Altitude Employment. Employing the Maverick from low-altitude is very similar to medium-altitude with a few significant differences. One threat is the ground; its Pk is very large. Budget time spent inside the cockpit and give priority to flying the aircraft. The bottom line is do not get so consumed in shooting the missile that you hit the ground. 7.3.6.1. A good ROT to use for low-altitude Maverick employment is two slews maximum, then come off the pass. Altitude alert should be used to provide minimum altitude abort cues. Another common ROT is no more than 10 seconds on final. 7.3.6.2. The key to success is knowing when, and from where, to unmask from the low-altitude regime in order to acquire and shoot the target. Take all factors into consideration to establish this unmask point. 7.3.6.3. Unmask ranges should be established in the brief by the flight lead, but may change in flight due to actual TDA. Some basic ROTs for unmasking are: 7.3.6.3.1. Target Identification Range. Target identification range is the range where the boresight can be put on the desired target or target area. This range varies with the means of target identification used such as targeting pod, FAC mark, or pilot-acquired visual contact with small point targets. In-flight visibility and other environmental factors play a part in this range. Do not unmask until the boresight is on a confirmed target/target area. 7.4. Laser Guided Bomb Employment. Laser Guided Bombs such as GBU-12s and GBU-10s are normally delivered from level/toss CCRP deliveries much like general purpose bombs. In certain tactical situations, it is also feasible to deliver LGBs from a diving CCIP delivery. The obvious difference when employing laser-guided bombs is that they require laser energy to guide to the target. This laser spot is normally provided by either the employing aircrafts targeting pod (known as Self Lase) or by a pod from another aircraft such as the flight lead or wingman (referred to as Buddy Lase). Laser spots can also be provided by other airborne platforms such as UAVs, helicopters and AC-130 gunships as well as ground forces using hand-held laser designators. The general steps for employing an LGB are listed below. 7.4.1. GBU Laser Codes. Laser Codes are normally briefed by the flight lead or are written in the squadron standards. During the weapons preflight, ensure all LGBs are set to the correct code. Notify maintenance personnel if there are discrepancies. 7.4.2. Employment.

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7.4.2..1 CCRP always targets the SPI. In the target area, enter the target coordinates in a steerpoint and ensure this steerpoint is the current steerpoint in the HUD and also the SPI. A technique for all CCRP deliveries once the target steerpoint is in the HUD is to TMSAFT/LONG to ensure the SPI is set the current steerpoint. Additionally, the SPI type is displayed in the lower-left corner of the HUD steer point (STPT) and well as the DSMS Status Page. The DSMS Status Page also displays the SPI coordinates and elevation and these can be compared to the appropriate target waypoint page on the CDU. 7.4.2.2. Select the appropriate LGB weapons profile using the DMS switch and ensure the correct stations are armed using the DSMS Quicklook (COOLIE-DOWN/LONG). If the LGB profile is set to CCRP, the HUD Mode will automatically change to CCRP when the profile is selected. 7.4.2.3. Confirm that the targeting pod has the correct laser code set. If the TGP laser code is different from the code set on the weapon in the DSMS Inventory, a caution advisory will be provided, however, weapon release will not be inhibited. Ensure the TGP is at the correct target location by either AREA or POINT tracking the desired DMPI or SLAVING to the target steerpoint. 7.4.2.4. Turn the aircraft towards the target using steering symbols in the HUD (SPI Locator Line, captains bars). An additional technique is to roll in a slight dive to confirm the location of the target symbol in the HUD FOV and then pull to wings level. 7.4.2.5. Align the PBRL with the ASL and when the TTRN reads 5 seconds, hold the pickle button down until the weapon is released. CCRP Consent Option is always 3/9 Mode for LGBs. 7.4.2.6. Buddy Lase. After weapons release, maneuver the aircraft in accordance with the briefed geometry. 7.4.2.7. Self Lase. After weapons release, check away approximately 45 to 60 degrees in order to maintain visual and standoff from the target. Normally check left if the targeting pod is loaded on station 10 to minimize TGP masking. Once rolled out, refine the TGP aimpoint and fire the laser until weapon impact. Weapon time-of-fall is displayed on the left side of the HUD and in the lower-right corner of the TGP display. 7.4.2.7.1. It is critical that the laser aimpoint be corrected for winds, specifically the winds between the surface and 4,000 feet AGL, as these have the most effect on the bomb. Adjust the laser aimpoint one foot upwind per knot of wind in this regime. High surface winds may require a laser aimpoint that is completely off the target. 7.4.2.7.2 Laser Guided Bombs require an absolute minimum of 8 seconds of guide time. Guide times less than this may result in the bomb not hitting the desired point. 7.4.2.8 Common Errors. The following lists common errors encountered when employing LGBs:

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Inadvertent HOTAS error that causes TGP laser type to change from laser to IR Marker. Additionally, LGBs will not guide on the Snipers training laser. Not having the TGP on the correct DMPI at release, causing endgame TGP adjustments with a weapon in the air resulting in a moving laser spot, which will cause the bomb to deplete energy, for a guide time below the minimum of 8 seconds. Not correcting the laser spot for winds. Other aircraft firing a laser with the same code into the target area during someone elses self lase attack. This can cause the LGB to guide on the wrong laser. 7.5. Inertially Aided Munitions Employment. . Inertially Aided Munitions include Joint Direct Attack Munitions such as GBU-38s and GBU-31s as well as Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers such as CBU-103. These weapons guide to specific coordinates that can be generated using aircraft sensors or provided in mission planning. The advantages of these weapons include relatively large release windows known as Launch Acceptability Regions (LARs) that provide significant standoff and they can be delivered through the weather. These weapons are employed using level/toss deliveries in CCRP Mode. However, CCRP symbology for these weapons is different than laser-guided and GP bombs. 7.5.1. Joint Direct Attack Munitions. The 500-pound GBU-38 and 2000-pound GBU-31 JDAMs are extremely versatile and accurate weapons that can be used against a variety of targets, especially with the flexibility of cockpit selectable impact, delayed or proximity fuzing with a FMU-152 Joint Programmable Fuze. The JDAM is a coordinate-seeking weapon and the coordinates it guides to is the aircraft SPI. When the pickle button is depressed in a JDAM attack, the current SPI coordinates are sent to the JDAM and the JDAM guides to those coordinates after release. 7.5.1.1. JDAM Release Sequence. A JDAM contains both an inertial measurement unit (IMU), much like an INS as well as a GPS. The weapon does not acquire GPS until after release, but the weapon IMU is aligned to the aircraft EGI. When the pickle button is depressed and the aircraft SPI coordinates are passed to the weapon, the following steps occur: 7.5.1.1.1. When the weapon is released from the aircraft, its own position is known based on its internal IMU. It then begins guidance to the target coordinates. 7.5.1.1.2. The weapon searches for GPS satellites and acquires a 3D GPS solution. If the weapon does not receive a GPS signal, it will guide to the target using only its IMU. 7.5.1.1.3. The weapon will attempt to achieve the desired impact angle and azimuth for hitting the target (see below). The weapon will sacrifice these parameters in order to hit the target. 7.5.1.2 Relative Targeting. The JDAM has two modes of operation: bomb on coordinate (BOC) and relative targeting (RT). In BOC mode, the weapon attempts to guide to the exact coordinates that were passed to it. In RT mode, the JDAM attempts to correct for any errors in its actual location caused by errors present in the navigation solution of the aircraft. When the weapon acquires GPS, it compares what it thinks its location is, derived by its own IMU (which was derived from the aircraft EGI) to the true location that the GPS receiver tells it. If there is a

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difference, the weapon will offset its aimpoint from the passed target coordinates the same amount. This is because the same platform that told the JDAM where it was in space (the aircraft EGI) also generated the target coordinates. In the A-10C, which of these modes to use is automatically determined by the CICU. If the target coordinates were generated by the aircraft, such as a TGP mark or a target designation cue (TDC) designation, RT mode will be enabled and RT will be displayed in the HUD. There are two instances where BOC mode will be used: if the SPI is a steerpoint with preplanned or hand-entered coordinates loaded into or if a hooked datalink symbol on the TAD is the SPI. In the former, the target coordinates may be mensurated coordinates received during mission planning or received over the radio from a joint terminal attack controller (JTAC). In the latter, another aircraft may broadcast a SADL J12.6 target sorting message that contain the appropriate coordinates. In neither case is the EGI in the employing aircraft the source of the coordinates and the JDAM will use BOC Mode and guide to those coordinates without correcting for any location error. 7.5.1.3. Weapon Employment. JDAM employment consists of acquiring target coordinates, ensuring the SPI reflects those coordinates and maneuvering the aircraft to the weapon LAR for release. However, there are some significant factors to consider. 7.5.1.3.1. JDAMs are coordinate-seeking weapons, hence the most important element for successful employment is generating as accurate coordinates as possible. The difference between coordinates generated by an aircraft sensor such as the targeting pod and the actual target location is known as target location error (TLE). 7.5.1.3.2. JDAMs always target the SPI. As with other CCRP deliveries, ensuring the aircraft SPI reflects the desired target is absolutely critical. As with LGBs, the target coordinates should be input in a steerpoint and then that steerpoint should be the current steerpoint in the HUD. There are numerous ways to acquire target coordinates, but the end result should be the same coordinates in a steerpoint that is the SPI: Lase the target with the TGP, take a mark via TMS-RIGHT/SHORT and then copy this mark to next available steerpoint and label in accordance with the briefed contract. If the employing aircraft does not have an operable TGP, a flight member can generate coordinates with a TGP and pass via a J12.6 SADL Message. The pilot then hooks the Donor SPI, copies to a empty steerpoint and renames the point. If SADL is inoperable, the generating aircraft can pass coordinates via voice and then be handentered into a steerpoint. 7.5.1.3.3. A JDAM-specific FENCE check is the STAIR check, as described in Figure 7.35, JDAM STAIR Check. S T A I R Steerpoint TMS-AFT/LONG SLAVE ALL IAM Profile Readback Ensure target steerpoint is current/in the HUD Resets SPI to current Steerpoint Slave all sensors to SPI Correct JDAM Profile selected Confirm/Readback SPI coordinates on DSMS Status Page Figure 7.35 JDAM STAIR Check

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7.5.1.3.4. Once the target steerpoint has been defined and confirmed, maneuver the aircraft to place the aircraft in the LAR. This is easily accomplished by turning towards the target steerpoint and centering the captains bars. The left side of the HUD will show the DLZ and if outside the LAR, the timer will indicate time until max range for the LAR is reached. Once in the LAR, the HUD will display MAN REL and the timer will change to a predicted time-of-fall. Different tactical scenarios will dictate where in the LAR to actually release the weapon. For normal releases, a release range for a specific set of parameters should be calculated and then corrected for winds. Once the Range Numeric next to the caret reads 2.3 NM, release the weapon. A less accurate technique for release in order to achieve desired impact angle is to release at briefed percentage of the LAR, such as 50 percent. When the caret reaches halfway down the staple, release the weapon. These percentage ROTs may not be valid at all altitudes. The JDAM can be released at max range in order to maintain standoff from a collocated threat or if dropping a JDAM in proximity mode where minimizing elevation error with a 90-degree impact angle is not desired or required. CAUTION: The JDAM release sequence can take up to 1.5 seconds to complete, from pickle to weapon release, due to the fact that at pickle the CICU sends the SPI coordinates to the bomb, the JDAM repeats those coordinates back and when the CICU verifies that they are the same, sends the release signal to the JDAM station. If the pickle button is released during this sequence, it can result in a hung weapon that cannot be released. Hold the pickle button down until the HUD and/or DSMS indicate that weapon release sequence is complete. NOTE: JDAMs cannot be released ballistically, unguided or by using a CCIP pipper. 7.5.2. Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers. WCMD weapons such as CBU-103 and CBU104 are delivered using the same HUD symbology and techniques as JDAMs. There are two significant differences between JDAMs and WCMD. 7.5.2.1. WCMD contains an INS only and does not use GPS. 7.5.2.2. Unlike JDAMs, WCMD can be delivered unguided and they act just like their conventional counterparts (CBU-87 and CBU-89). Conventional DSMS profiles can be loaded in additional to the normal guided profiles. In order to drop WCMD in a conventional mode navigate to the specific 1760 station carrying the CBU on the STAT page and turn it off. Then select the desired conventional profile and deliver the weapon in either CCRP mode, using the same CCRP HUD symbology as GP and laser-guided bombs, or by using a CCIP pipper.