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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologiis akademiuri kursi


daefuZna besarion jorbenaZis programa-prospeqts `qarTuli enis morfologia~, romelic gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi Seiqmna (gamosca `mecnierebam~ 1995 wels). kursi `qarTuli enis morfologia~ ivaraudeboda erT nawilad mravaltomeuli sistemuri kursisa `qarTuli ena~. es sistemuri kursi daigegma arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutSi. morfologiis kursis dawinaurebas mravaltomeulidan imJamad hqonda safuZveli. b. jorbenaZis udroo gardacvalebam es gegma Seaferxa... 2008 wels Cven SesaZleblad miviCnieT winamdebare proeqtis Seqmna da Cveni ZalebiT misi ganxorcieleba. sabednierod, 2009-2011 wlebSi es proeqti dafinansda rusTavelis fondis mier. gacnobierebuli gvqonda, rom tvirTi mZime iyo, magram aseTi kursis saWiroebis SegrZnebam gvaiZula, SevWidebodiT mas. Teoriul enaTmecnierebaSi ZiriTadad ganixilaven gramatikis sxvadasxva tips: mecnieruls, aRweriTs, normatiuls... akademiuri gramatika garkveulwilad aerTianebs am yvela tipis gramatikas: igi, erTi mxriv, enobriv sistemas Seiswavlis erTiani Teoriuli koncefciis safuZvelze, aRwers enobriv movlenebsa da faqtebs da axdens Sefasebas enobrivi variantebisa, ayalibebs wesebs. winamdebare proeqti qarTuli enis morfologiis amgvari akademiuri kursis Sedgenas isaxavda miznad... is faqti, rom Cven xelTa gvaqvs umdidresi memkvidreoba Cveni klasikosebisa _ akaki SaniZisa, arnold Ciqobavasi, varlam Tofuriasi da sxvaTa _ erTi mxriv, saqmes gviiolebda; xolo, meore mxriv, gvirTulebda mdgomareobas: advili ar aris, Tavmoyra, Sejereba, ama Tu im Tvalsazrisis wina planze wamoweva... da, miT umetes, metad rTulia arsebuli memkvidreobis safuZvelze axali interpretaciebis warmodgena, movlenaTa axleburi gaazreba...

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

am ramdenimewlianma muSaobam kidev erTxel dagvarwmuna im WeSmaritebaSi, rom, rac ufro meti keTdeba, gasakeTebeli ufro meti Cans... Tu rogor SevZeliT Cveni amocanis Sesruleba, amas obieqturi mkiTxveli Seafasebs. koleqtiur naSroms erTi principuli Tavisebureba isic aqvs, rom xSirad TanaavtorTa Sexedulebebis Tanxvedrac ar aris; arc kompromisia ioli. yovelnairad vecadeT, es problema mogvexsna, Tumca, yovelTvis albaT ver movaxerxeT; ra da rogor SevZeliT, amasac mkiTxveli gansjis. winaswari madlierebis grZnobiT veliT keTilmosurneTa SeniSvnebs, azrs... ramdenadac winamdebare kurss safuZvlad daedo besarion jorbenaZis programa-prospeqti, b. jorbenaZe SeiZleba am wignis Tanaavtoradac moviazroT; es gansakuTrebiT iTqmis morfologiis pirvel nawilebze. Tanamedrove qarTuli ena rTuli fenomenia: igi aris erToblioba qarTuli saliteraturo enisa da qarTuli enis Tanamedrove dialeqtebisa. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, saliteraturo enasa da dialeqtebs ganixilaven saerTo-erovnuli enis nairsaxeobebad; maTi urTierTmimarTeba _ urTierTgavlena da urTierTSepirobebuloba _ gardauvali aucileblobaa. winamdebare gamocema Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologiis erT _ ZiriTad _ nawilad moiazreba. meore nawili _ qarTuli dialeqtebis morfologia _ Sesaqmnelia. am ori nawilis erToblioba mogvcems Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologiis srul kurss, risi Seqmnis aucileblobac mwvaved igrZnoba.

arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti Arnold Chikobava Institute of Linguistics

SoTa rusTavelis erovnuli samecniero fondi


Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia


saliteraturo ena

giorgi gogolaSvilis saerTo redaqciiT

Tbilisi 2011

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proeqti _ Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologiis akademiuri kursi (A-06-09) _ ganxorcielda SoTa rusTavelis erovnuli samecniero fondis finansuri mxardaWeriT. winamdebare publikaciaSi gamoTqmuli nebismieri mosazreba ekuTvnis avtors da SesaZloa ar asaxavdes fondis Sexedulebebs.

The Project An Academic Course of the Morphology of Present-day Georgian Language (A-06-09) has been made possible by financial support from the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation. All the ideas expressed herewith are those of the author, and may not represent the opinion of the Foundation itself.

giorgi gogolaSvili avTandil arabuli murman suxiSvili mariam manjgalaZe nino WumburiZe nino jorbenaZe
asistenti rusudan landia

redaqtorebi: giorgi gogolaSvili

avTandil arabuli

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa rusudan grigoliasi teqnikuri redaqtori levan vaSakiZe

nawili I.

morfologia _ zogadi sakiTxebi

I. 1. morfologiis sagani. gramatika enaTmecnierebis dargia, romelic Seiswavlis enis agebulebas. igi ori nawilisagan Sedgeba. morfologia aris nawili gramatikisa. gramatikis nawilia agreTve sintaqsi. morfologia swavlobs sityvas, sityvis agebulebas, sityvis formacvalebas. sintaqsi Seiswavlis sityvaTa urTierTmimarTebas. gramatikis dayofa morfologiad da sintaqsad zogjer pirobiT xasiaTs iZens: morfologiuri sakiTxebis garkveva sintaqsuri urTierTobebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe ar moxerxdeba iseve, rogorc sintaqsuri problemebis garkveva _ morfologiis sakiTxebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. amitomac zogjer enaTmecnierebi saubroben morfosintaqsis sakiTxebze, morfosintaqsur kategoriebze. sxvagvari ganmartebiT, morfologia aris enaTmecnierebis dargi, romelic Seiswavlis enobriv formas missave dinamikaSi; sityvis formas da am formis cvlilebis kanonzomierebebs; sityvis struqturas da am struqturis Semadgenel elementebs. Cveulebrivi gagebiT, morfologiis Seswavlis sagania sityvis yovelgvari cvla: amgvari gagebiT sityvawarmoebac isevea morfologiis sagani, rogorc formawarmoeba. I. 2. sistema da struqtura. paradigmatika da sintagmatika. sistema da qvesistema. ena sistemaa. es niSnavs: ena aris enobrivi niSnebis, enobrivi erTeulebis mowesrigebuli simravle; erToblioba im mimarTulebisa da kavSirebisa, romlebic aris enobriv elementebs Soris. es niSnavs, rom enaSi yvelaferi aris urTierTSepirobebuli da urTierTgansazRvruli. Sesabamisad, nebismieri enobrivi faqti Tu movlena, yoveli elementi enobrivi sistemis wevria; is ar SeiZleba sistemis gareT idges; yvela maTgans aqvs Tavisi adgili da funqcia sistemaSi. amitomac enobrivi gamonaklisi (`sistemidan amovardnili faqti~) mxolod pirobiTi cnebaa: gamonaklisi arsebobs ara eno-

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

brivi sistemis doneze, Cveni codnis doneze; enobrivi faqti gamonaklisad rCeba manam, sanam misi adgili moiZebneba sistemaSi. `gamonaklisi aris gaWirvebis axsna~ (v. Tofuria). x-ar, x-val formebi piris niSanTa sistemis TvalsazrisiT gamonaklisad iTvleboda manam, sanam gairkveoda `xanmetobis~ saidumlo. rogorc Cans, x-ar, x-val Zveli sistemis kanonzomieri wevrebi iyo; am sistemaSi igi naSTia Zveli sistemisa. ram Seuwyo xeli am formaTa SenarCunebas, rogor aRmoCndnen isini axal sistemaSi, _ es kiTxva pasuxgasacemia; arada, es orive forma rogorc Zveli, ise axali qarTulisaTvis kanonzomieri formebia... sistemis wevri romelime enobrivi erTeulis (enobrivi faqtis) cvla iwvevs am sistemis sxva elementTa Sesabamis cvlas. anu, sistemis romelime elementis cvlilebis Sedegad sistema ar irRveva; sistemis calkeul elementTa cvla xdeba, magram Sesabamisoba, sistemis erTianoba daculia. sistemis wevrebi (enobrivi erTeulebi) qmnian Tavisebur struqturas, agebulebas. `aseTi struqtura SegviZlia amovicnoT misi raRac nawilis mixedviT iseve, rogorc, magaliTad, SegviZlia avagoT samkuTxedi, Tu mocemulia misi erTi gverdi da ori kuTxe (isini samkuTxedis danarCen elementebs erTmniSvnelovnad gansazRvraven)~ (T. gamyreliZe). enobrivi erTeulis mimarTeba sistemis wevr sxva erTeulebTan SeiZleba iyos sintagmaturi da paradigmatuli: `sintagmatur mimarTebas erTeuli amyarebs mimdevrobaSi winamaval an momdevno erTeulebTan; paradigmatuli mimarTeba gvaqvs, rodesac mocemuli erTeuli raRac TvalsazrisiT upirispirdeba sxva erTeulebs sistemaSi (da ara mimdevrobaSi). zogadad, Tu sistemaSi gvaqvs raRac [aktu], [agtu], [antu] gamosaxulebebi, maSin [k] elementi sistemur mimarTebaSia a, t, u elementebTan da paradigmatul mimarTebaSi _ [g], [n] elementebTan, romlebic imave garemocvaSi (poziciaSi) gvxvdeba~ (T. gamyreliZe). swored paradigmatul mimarTebaTa arseboba ganapirobebs imas, rom enobriv erTeulTa simravle aris ara ubralo simravle, aramed _ sistema. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, enobrivi sistema aris paradigmatuli monacemebis erToblioba. enobrivi struqtura ki aris sintagmaturi monacemebis erToblioba.

I. morfologia _ zogadi sakiTxebi

struqturis Semadgeneli elementebi formobrivad urTierTSepirobebulia. magaliTad, struqturaSi _ tyem moisxa foToli _ TiToeuli elementis forma sxva elementebis mixedviT aris gansazRvruli; romelime maTganis formis cvla struqturas daarRvevs (SeuZlebelia am struqturaSi formaTa _ tye, tyes, tyis... _ Canacvleba...). magram am struqturis erTi elementi SeiZleba CavanacvloT imave formis sxva elementiT ise, rom struqturis wevrTa Soris formaluri mimarTeba ar dairRves: tyem moisxa foToli. xem moisxa foToli. xem moisxa nayofi. e. i. struqturas qmnis formaTa garkveuli mimarTebani. Tu es formobrivi mimarTebebi ar Seicvala, Semadgenel elementTa cvla struqturas ar daarRvevs; yvela varianti struqturulad identuria. struqturis elementebs aqvT TavianTi ganawilebis wesebi. `faqtobrivad struqtura warmoadgens garkveul adgilTa mimarTebas da es adgilebi molaparakes survilisamebr SeuZlia Seavsos sxvadasxva konkretuli erTeuliT. mocemuli sasruli raodenobis struqturebiT SegviZlia SevadginoT winadadebaTa usasrulo raodenoba~ (T. gamyreliZe). sistema da qvesistema. ena erTiani sistemaa. am erTiani sistemis yoveli calkeuli nawili, romelic TavisTavad, aseve sistemuri agebulebisaa, SeiZleba moviazroT, rogorc am enobrivi sistemis qvesistema. roca vsaubrobT qarTuli enis sistemaze, misi TiToeuli ubani, vTqvaT zmna, saxeli, qmnis qvesistemas, Tumca zogjer saubroben zmnis sistemaze, saxelis sistemaze. aseve: roca saubroben enisa da dialeqtis urTierTmimarTebaze, dialeqts ganixilaven erTiani enobrivi sistemis nairsaxeobad _ qvesistemad. aseve: ramdenadac qarTuli ena aris erTiani sistema, misi istoriuli nairsaxeobani _ Zveli qarTuli, saSuali qarTuli, axali qarTuli _ moiazreba qvesistemebad. Tumca zogjer terminebi _ sistema, qvesistema _ pirobiT xasiaTs iZens. ramdenadac sistema moiazreba erTmaneTTan mizez-Sedegobrivad SekavSirebul erTeulTa erTobad, zmnaze saubrisas

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

msjeloben zmnis sistemaze, saxelze msjelobisas _ saxelis sistemaze. Sesabamisad, am `sistemis~ nawili gaiazreba qvesistemad; mag., piris niSanTa qvesistema. Tumca, roca msjelobisas sagania piris niSnebi da ara mTlianad zmna, saubroben `piris niSanTa sistemaze~, `subieqturi mesame piris niSanTa sistemaze~ da a. S. rogorc Cans, morfologiuri analizisas am pirobiTobas ver avcdebiT. am SemTxvevaSi sistemiT saxeldeba enobrivi elementebisa gulisxmobs, rom ganxilvis sagania sistemurad SekavSirebuli enobrivi erTeulebi sxva rigis elementTa gauTvaliswineblad; qvesistemad saxeldeba elementTa erTobisa xdeba maSin, roca es erToba ganixileba sxva rigis enobrivi faqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sxva magaliTi: megruli aris qvesistema (nairsaxeoba) zanuri enobrivi sistemisa, magram i. yifSiZis monografiaSi (`megruli enis gramatika~) igi sistemad moiazreba, radgan ar xdeba am sistemis warmodgenisas gaTvaliswineba sxva qvesistemisa (am SemTxvevaSi Wanurisa). arn. Ciqobavas monografiaSi (`Wanuris gramatikuli analizi~) Wanuri ganixileba rogorc qvesistema (nairsaxeoba) erTiani enobrivi sistemisa _ zanurisa, ramdenadac xdeba am sistemis sxva qvesistemis (megrulis) gaTvaliswinebac.
I. 3. morfologiis ZiriTadi cnebebi. morfologiis erTerTi ZiriTadi cneba aris sityva, romelic aucileblad aris warmodgenili raime formiT. sityva aris leqsikuri mniSvnelobis mqone umciresi enobrivi erTeuli. enobriv movlenaTa ierarqiaSi sityvaze mcire erTeuli aris morfema, ufro msxvili erTeuli _ winadadeba. sityva Sedgeba morfemebisagan; Tavis mxriv, sityva Sedis winadadebis SemadgenlobaSi. sityva SeiZleba daiSalos Semadgenel morfemebad. morfema aris gramatikis ZiriTadi erTeuli, romelic morfologiur doneze ar daiyofa _ is umciresi morfologiuri elementia. formalur struqturaSi garCeulia gramatikuli da leqsikuri (Zireuli) morfemebi. gramatikulia morfema, romelic gamoxatavs srulmniSvnelobian sityvebs Soris mimarTebebs, gramatikul kategoriebs, an awarmoebs axal sityvebs. gramatikuli

I. morfologia _ zogadi sakiTxebi

morfemebi _ igive afiqsebi _ damoukideblad ar arseboben; maT damokidebul morfemebsac uwodeben. gramatikuli morfema sityvaSi SeiZleba nulovani saxiT (nulovani alomorfiT) iyos warmodgenili (ar iyos gamoxatuli). sityvis birTvs qmnis Zireuli morfema. masTan aris dakavSirebuli sityvis leqsikuri mniSvneloba. morfema morfologiuri struqturis agebaSi monawileobs rogorc damoukidebeli elementi. igi xasiaTdeba sakuTari formobrivi TvisobiTa da qmedebis unariT. morfemis Tvisoba _ morfemiseuli xmovnis fonetikuri cvlis unari. mag.: xat-av-s _ xat-v-a, -av aris morfema, romlis Tvisobac aris gaxmovanebis nulTan monacvleoba; awv-en-s _ daawv-in-a, en morfemis Tvisoba e- xmovnis i-sTan monacvleobaa. akeT-eb-s _ -eb morfemis Tvisobaa gaxmovanebis ucvleloba. morfemis qmedeba _ morfemis unari, cvalos im morfemis (Zireulis Tu afiqsuris) gaxmovaneba, romelsac daerTvis: movkal _ mo-kl-a -a morfemis qmedebis Sedegia winamavali morfemiseuli xmovnis reduqcia. morfemis Tvisoba da qmedeba vlindeba sxva morfemebTan mimarTebisas. gramatikuli morfema igivea, rac formanti anu afiqsi (qarTuli terminiT _ sarTi). afiqsebi Zireul morfemasTan mimarTebiT sami saxisaa: prefiqsi anu TavsarTi, sufiqsi anu bolosarTi da infiqsi. prefiqsia sityvis birTvis _ Zireuli morfemis _ win mdgomi afiqsi; sufiqsia _ Zireuli morfemis momdevno afiqsi. v-i-keT-eb-T formaSi v- da i- prefiqsebia (anu TavsarTi); -eb, -T sufiqsebia (anu bolosarTi). infiqsi _ afiqsi, romelic gaTiSavs da CaerTvis Zireul morfemas, zogadad araa damaxasiaTebeli qarTulisaTvis. ramdenime SemTxvevaSi metaTezisis Sedegad fuZeSi gadanacvlebuli sufiqsuri elementi SeiZleba infiqsad ganvixiloT: x-v-n-a : xnav-s xn-v-a xvn-a; na-v-x-e v-nax-e da sxv. saxelur sityvawarmoebaSi gamoiyofa prefiqs-sufiqsuri warmoeba, roca prefiqssa da sufiqss cal-calke funqcia ar gaaCnia _ saerTo funqcia aqvs: me-xuT-e, u-did-es-i... si-yvar-

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

ul-i... m-Seneb-el-i... prefiqs-sufiqss erTad konfiqss (an cirkumfiqss) uwodeben. fuZe _ morfologiis ZiriTadi cnebaa. fuZe Cveulebriv ganimarteba ori TvalsazrisiT: leqsikuri mniSvnelobiT da formobrivi mniSvnelobiT. pirveli TvalsazrisiT, fuZe aris sityvis is Semadgeneli nawili, romelTanac dakavSirebulia leqsikuri mniSvneloba. formobrivi TvalsazrisiT, fuZe permanentulad cvladi monacemia; igi ganimarteba, rogorc sayrdeni formaTa sistemisaTvis. Sesabamisad: erTi da imave sityvis sxvadasxva formobrivi sistemisaTvis fuZe sxvadasxva SeiZleba iyos. mal-av-s u-mal-av-s u-mal-av-d-a u-mal-av-d-e-s yvela safexurze xazgasmuli monakveTi fuZea; TiToeuli maTgani sxvadasxva formobrivi sistemisaTvis aris sayrdeni: pirveli safexuri _ mal-av- awmyos mwkrivis formobrivi sayrdenia; meore _ sayrdenia imave mwkrivis saobieqto qcevis formaTaTvis, mesame _ uwyvetlis formaTaTvis da a. S. saxelis SemTxvevaSi viTareba ufro martivia: vsaubrobT mxolobiTis fuZeze (kac-i, mama...) da mravlobiTis fuZeze (kaceb-i, kac-n-i...). morfologiuri analizis miznis Sesabamisad, rogorc iTqva, fuZe SeiZleba sxvadasxva iyos, magram yvela SemTxvevisaTvis saxelisaTvis fuZeSi ar Sedis brunvis niSnebi (kac-i, kac-ad...); zmnisaTvis _ pirisa da ricxvis niSnebi (v-ar-T, x-ar-T, ar-i-an...). saxelisaTvis fuZe SeiZleba iyos martivi: kac-i, kedel-i, mama, wyaro... warmoqmnili: kac-ur-i, sa-kac-e, u-mam-o, mam-obriv-i... rTuli: deda-kac-i, Zal-gul-ovan-i... fonetikuri struqturis mixedviT _ sruli da arasruli (SekumSuli an Sekvecili): srulia _ kedel-i, mama... arasrulia _ kedl-is, mam-is... zmnisaTvis _ martiv fuZes vuwodebT im nawils zmnuri formisas, romelic saerToa zmnis sruli paradigmis yvela wevrisaTvis: xat-av-s _ xat-av-d-a _ da-xat-a _ da-u-xat-av-s... martivi fuZe _ pirobiTi terminia: SedgenilobiT igi SeiZleba iyos warmoqmnili an rTuli _ a-gul-ian-eb-s, did-kacob-s; an etimologiurad ar iyo martivi dr-ek-s _ (Sdr. Zv.

I. morfologia _ zogadi sakiTxebi

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qarT.: Sev-der-k...). zmnuri sistemisaTvis yvela es varianti (gulian-, didkac-, drek-) martivad gaiazreba, ramdenadac zmnis sruli paradigmis yvela wevrisaTvis saerTo sayrdeni monacemia. zmnisaTvis _ rTulia yvela is varianti fuZisa, romlis martivi fuZec garTulebulia zmnuri sityva- Tu formawarmoebiTi elementiT xat-av-s, xat-av-d-e-s, da-u-xat-av-s... zmnis fuZec SeiZleba iyos sruli da arasruli. srulia _ mo-v-kal, gav-Wer, dav-wer-e, arasrulia _ mokl-a, ga-Wr-a, da-wer-a ( da-wer-e-a) fuZis im nairsaxeobas, romelic sayrdenia I an II seriis formaTaTvis, Tema hqvia (terminic da cnebac a. SaniZes ekuTvnis); zmnas aqvs I seriis Tema (a-keT-eb-s, drek-s...) da II seriis Tema (a-keT-a, mo-drik-a...). Tu I seriis fuZe (e. i. Tema) gansxvavebulia II seriis fuZisagan (Temisagan), aseT zmnebs orTemianebs vuwodebT. warmodgenili orive zmna orTemiania; erT SemTxvevaSi erTmaneTs upirispirdeba rTuli da martivi Tema (keT-eb _ keT), meore SemTxvevaSi _ sxvadasxva gaxmovanebis fuZeebi (drek _ drik); aris erTTemiani zmnebic _ roca orive seriaSi erTgvari Tema gvaqvs (wer...). (Temis sakiTxi specifikuria III seriaSi. amis Taobaze qvemoT visaubrebT). erTi mwkrivis formaTaTvis sayrden fuZes mwkrivis fuZes uwodeben; mwkrivis fuZea keTdebode-s (I kavSirebiTisaTvis) an xat-o-s (II kavSirebiTisTvis)... gramatikul literaturaSi gamoiyeneba cneba Zirisa. `Ziri ar ganekuTvneba enis realuri funqcionirebis sferos; e. i. Ziri uSualod ar funqcionirebs enaSi da funqcionirebas iwyebs mxolod mas Semdeg, rac igi fuZis SemadgenlobaSi Seva. enisaTvis moqmedi (`cocxali~) elementi fuZea da ara Ziri. Ziri abstrahirebuli cnebaa, im rigis wminda monacemia, romelic mxolod `laboratoriuli wesiT~ miiReba~ (b. jorbenaZe). amgvari gaazrebiT zustad ar SeiZleba ganisazRvros Ziris raoba: igi zogjer emTxveva fuZes, sxvadasxva gagebiT warmodgenils (mag.: keT, wer...), zogjer mxolod `istoriuli monacemia, Teoriulad dasaSvebi SesaZlebloba da ara Tanamedrove enis faqti. ase magaliTad, a-naT-eb-s formaSi Zirad ivaraudeba -T-, xolo naZirs mixorcebuli prefiqsia. es -T- ki arc klasikur da arc Tanamedrove qarTulSi araviTar urTierTmimarTebaSi ar Sedis da,

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

bunebrivia, arc raime leqsikuri mniSvneloba moepoveba. igi wminda abstraqcias warmoadgens; elements, romelic gamoyofilia da ganyenebuli naT-el-i _ a-Ten-eb-s _ a-Tev-s _ gan-Ti(v)ad-i (*gan-Tev-ad-i) formebis Sedareba-Sepirispirebis safuZvelze~ (b. jorbenaZe).
I. 4. morfemaTa funqciuri klasifikacia. funqciuri TvalsazrisiT morfemebi SeiZleba daiyos sam jgufad: a) morfemebi, romlebic monawileoben fuZis formobriv SenebaSi (moqmedi afiqsebi arian), magram ar cvlian sityvis mniSvnelobas arc gramatikuli da arc leqsikuri TvalsazrisiT. am tipis morfemebad SeiZleba ganvixiloT e. w. Temis niSnebi: Cex-a da Cex-av-s -av morfemas formaSi ara aqvs arc gramatikuli da arc leqsikuri mniSvneloba. SesaZlebelia, istoriulad mas hqonda amgvari mniSvneloba, anda dResac aqvs CvenTvis SeumCneveli funqcia, magram dRevandeli morfologiuri analizis doneze CvenTvis misaRebia Tvalsazrisi, rom ar visaubroT am SemTxvevaSi sufiqsis gramatikul Tu leqsikur mniSvnelobaze.

b) meore jgufSi SeiZleba gaerTiandnen morfemebi, romlebic cvlian sityvis gramatikul mniSvnelobas. es iqneba saxelisaTvis brunvisa da ricxvis niSnebi: kac-i, kac-ma, kac-s... kac-eb-i, kac-n-i... zmnisaTvis _ piris niSnebi, ricxvis niSnebi, mwkrivis niSnebi... mag.: v-wer, wer-s, wer-en... v-wer-e v-wer-o... g) mesame jgufSi Seva morfemebi, romlebic cvlian sityvis leqsikur mniSvnelobas: kac-ur-i kac-i sa-kac-e kac-oba zmnisaTvis es jgufi gacilebiT rTuli iqneba: aq Semova qcevis, gvaris, kontaqtis... niSnebi: a-keTebs, i-keTebs... akeTeb-inebs... keT-d-eba... (Tumca am afiqsTa funqciebis Sesaxeb arsebobs gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisebi).

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I. 5. morfemaTa ganawilebis Tanrigebi. imisda mixedviT, Tu rogoria afiqsuri morfemis mimarTeba Zireul morfemasTan, SeiZleba gamoiyos afiqsur morfemaTa sami Tanrigi: a) morfemebi, romlebic uSualod mierTvian Zireul morfemas (`martiv fuZes~): saxelebSi _ ricxvis niSani, sityvaTwarmomqmneli afiqsebi... mag.: kac-eb-i, kac-n-i... kac-ur-i, sa-kac-e zmnebSi _ xmovanprefiqsebi, e. w. gvaris niSnebi _ -d, -n -en (Zveli qarTulisaTvis)... mag.: a-keT-eb-s, u-keT-eb-s... keT-d-eb-a... gan-Wapuk-n-eb-is mimRebisa Tu masdaris mawarmoeblebi: na-tex-i, sa-wer-i... da misTanani.

b) morfemebi, romlebic uSualod ar mierTvian Zireul morfemas: Tandebulebi: dedas-Tan, ded-is-ken... uwyvetlis mwkrivis niSani: v-wer-d-i, v-tir-od-i... nawilakebi: deda-s-a-c, kac-i-Ra da misTanani. g) morfemebi, romlebic mierTvian rogorc Zireul morfemas, aseve afiqsur morfemebs. anu: romelTaTvisac sayrdeni SeiZleba iyos rogorc Zireuli, ise afiqsuri morfemebi: brunvis niSnebisaTvis sayrdenia rogorc Zireuli (kac-i, kac-ma, kac-s...), ise sufiqsuri morfemebi (kac-eb-i, kac-eb-ma, kaceb-s...) aseve: kac-ebr-i da kac-isebr-i. zmnisaTvis _ v-wer da v-a-wer, v-i-wer; anda: wer-s da werd-e-s da misTanani.
I. 6. morfemaTa daniSnuleba da mniSvneloba. daniSnulebis mixedviT SeiZleba gamoiyos morfemaTa sami jgufi: mimarTebiTi, warmomqmneli da damazustebeli morfemebi. a) mimarTebiTi morfemebia is morfemebi, romlebic gamoxataven mimarTebas winadadebis romelime wevrisadmi. saxelis sistemaSi mimarTebiTi morfemebia brunvis niSnebi: kac-i, kac-ma, kac-s...

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

zmnis sistemaSi mimarTebiTad ganixileba pirisa da ricxvis niSnebi: wer-s, wer-en (isini). mimarTebiTad ganixileba e. w. deiqturi xmovani prefiqsebi: a-q, i-q, a-ase, i-se... am rigis movlenasTan aTanabreben zmnur xmovanprefiqsebs a-wers, i-wers, u-wers (b. jorbenaZe). b) warmomqmneli morfemebia is morfemebi, romlebic warmoqmnian axal fuZes da ar arian damokidebuli winadadebis sxva wevrebis formasa Tu mniSvnelobaze. warmomqmneli morfemebi cvlian sityvis leqsikur an gramatikul mniSvnelobas. leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvlis magaliTebia: wigni _ wign-ian-i, wign-ier-i, u-wign-ur-i... balaxi _ a-balax-eb-s. balax-ob-s... g) damazustebel morfemebad miiCneva Tandebulebi, nawilakebi: saxli _ saxl-Tan, saxli-c... morfemebma SeiZleba icvalon daniSnuleba: erT SemTxvevaSi samimarTebo morfema sxva SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba warmomqmnel morfemad mogvevlinos: kac-ad maSin xar saqebi... -ad samimarTebo morfemaa. eri gul-ad-i, pur-ad-i... -ad warmomqmneli morfemaa _ leqsikur mniSvnelobas awarmoebs. mniSvnelobis mixedviT morfemaTa klasifikacia ufro rTulia da mravalferovani. saxelis sistemaSi daniSnulebis mixedviT mimarTebiTi morfema mniSvnelobis mixedviT SeiZleba iyos brunvis niSani, ricxvis niSani; warmomqmneli morfema mniSvnelobis mixedviT SeiZleba iyos mqoneblobis, uqonlobis da sxva. zmnis sistemaSi mimarTebiTi daniSnulebis morfemebi mniSvnelobiT SeiZleba iyos piris niSani, ricxvis niSani... warmomqmneli morfemebi _ qcevisa, gvarisa... mag.: kac-ma; -ma daniSnulebiT mimarTebiTi afiqsia, mniSvnelobiT _ moTxrobiTi brunvis niSani. wer-s _ s- daniSnulebiT mimarTebiTi afiqsia, mniSvnelobiT _ mesame subieqturi piris niSani.

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gul-ian-i _ -ian daniSnulebiT warmomqmneli afiqsia, mniSvnelobiT _ mqoneblobisa. awer-in-eb-s _ -in daniSnulebiT warmomqmneli afiqsia, mniSvnelobiT _ kauzativisa... faqtia, sxvadasxva morfemas sxvadasxva mniSvneloba aqvs: kac-s uTxra da kac-iT amayobs _ am magaliTebSi -s da -iT morfemebi sxvadasxva mimarTebebs gamoxataven, magram SesaZlebelia moxdes maTi mniSvnelobebis damTxveva: dila-s movida da dil-iT movida _ am SemTxvevaSi -s da -iT morfemaTa mniSvnelobebi neitralizebulia. msgavsi magaliTebi zmnur sistemaSic SeiZleba daiZebnos (waxd-en-a da waxd-om-a...).
I. 7. morfemoidebi anu modaluri elementebi. morfologiis ZiriTadi cnebebia, rogorc iTqva, sityva, morfema... enaSi gvxvdeba agreTve damoukidebeli mniSvnelobis mqone is formebic, romlebic sxvadasxva konkretul SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnen Tandebulebis, nawilakebis an meSveli zmnis daniSnulebiT. win damoukidebeli mniSvnelobiT ixmareba: megobrebo, win, win gaswiT!... Tandebulis mniSnelobiT gamoiyeneba: saxlis win Caiara... aseve: unda, aris formebs damoukidebeli mniSvneloba aqvs: mas unda TamaSi; igi aq aris... nawilakis (an meSveli zmnis) daniSnulebiT gamoiyeneba igive sityvebi: unda gavakeTo... is Cemi megobari aris (megobaria)... morfemis daniSnulebiT gamoyenebuli warmoSobiT aramorfemuli (damoukidebeli mniSvnelobis mqone) elementebi iwodeba morfemoidebad. morfemoidebad gaiazreba agreTve modaluri elementebi: unda, iqneb, xolme, Turme... unda wavide... iqneb movides... ambobs xolme... Turme dauweria...

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I. 8. sityvis daSla. sityvis analizis mizniT SeiZleba sityva davSaloT. yovelgvar analizs aqvs Tavisi mizani _ risi dadgena gvsurs, risTvis vaxdenT daSlas. sityvis daSlisas unda gamoiyos fuZe da mawarmoebeli morfemebi. ramdenadac fuZe permanentulad cvladi monacemia, analizis dros vsaubrobT im fuZeze, ra saxis analizsac vaxdenT. Tu vsaubrobT ama Tu im mwkrivis formaTa Sesaxeb, fuZed miviCnevT am mwkrivisaTvis sayrden fuZes: v-a-keT-eb-d-e; am SemTxvevaSi gamoiyofa fuZe keTebd da formanti -e. zmnuri formis mdgomareobs analizisas gamoiyofa fuZe mdgomare da morfemebi -ob da -s. TavisTavad mdgomare rTuli Sedgenilobis monacemia, magram analizis am konkretuli miznisaTvis igi erTi morfologiuri odenobaa, iseve rogorc kac formisaTvis _ kac-ob-s. Sesabamisad, Tu Cven vsaubrobT mdgomare mimReobis Sesaxeb, am SemTxvevaSi sawarmoebeli (sayrdeni) fuZe iqneba dgom, m-are mawarmoebeli afiqsebi; masdaris analizis SemTxvevaSi daiSleba dgoma formac _ dg-om-a. viTvaliswinebT imas, rom morfologia swavlobs formis cvlilebas. formobrivi cvlilebis Sedegad, rogorc viciT, icvleba sityvis an gramatikuli, an leqsikuri mniSvneloba. swored es gansazRvravs morfologiuri analizis mizans. magaliTad: saanalizo formaa cxenosani. Tu Cveni mizania gramatikuli mniSvnelobis cvlilebis gamorkveva, am SemTxvevaSi fuZed gamoiyofa cxenosan, mawarmoebelia -i. am SemTxvevaSi igi Seudardeba brunvaTa sxva formebs (cxenosan-ma, cxenosan-s...). Tu analizis mizania leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvlilebis Seswavla, igive forma ase daiSleba: cxen-osan-i da Seudardeba cxen fuZisagan warmoqmnil sxva sityvebs: cxen-ian-i, u-cxen-o... I. 9. morfemaTa relacia. yovel morfemas Tavisi statusi aqvs. morfemaTa statusis dadgena sxva morfemebTan mimarTebis mixedviT xdeba. erTsa da imave formaSi erTsa da imave elements SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva statusi hqondes imisda mixedviT, Tu ra paradigmis wevria. magaliTad: formaSi Sind-is -is formantis

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funqcia formawarmoebiTia (brunvis niSania), roca igi paradigmaSi miemarTeba (da enacvleba) brunvis niSnebs _ -i, -ma, -s... Sind-i Sind-ma Sind-s Sind-is -is morfemis funqcia sityvawarmoebiTia, roca igi miemarTeba sityvawarmoebiT -el, -ur morfemebs: Sind-is-i Sid-el-i (// Sind-is-el-i) Sind-ur-i (// Sind-is-ur-i) semantikuri analizis dros SesaZlebelia visaubroT morfemaTa semantikur relaciaze, magaliTad: mqonebloba _ uqonloba wign-ian-i _ uwign-o: sagnobrivi, fizikuri mniSvneloba. wign-ier-i _ uwign-ur-i: Tvisobrivi, Sinagani mniSvneloba.
I. 10. fuZis Senebis (agebis) ori principi. vTqviT, fuZe (formobrivadac da funqciuradac) unda ganimartos im urTierTmimarTebaTa mixedviT, romlebsac igi amyarebs struqturis Semadgenel sxva elementebTan. aqedan gamomdinare, unda dadgindes is urTierTmimarTebani, romlebic fuZis statuss qmnian. ramdenadac fuZe permanentulad cvladi monacemia, Cveulebrivi movlenaa erTi romelime fuZisagan axali fuZis warmoqmna. erTi da imave martivi fuZisagan (am SemTxvevaSi Zirisagan) SeiZleba vawarmooT mravali fuZe: a-keT-a _ a-keT-eb-s _ ga-keT-eb-ul-i _ sa-keT-eb-el-i da sxva... imisda mixedviT, Tu rogoria urTierTmimarTeba erTi da imave martivi fuZisagan warmoebuli fuZeebisa mizez-Sedegobrivi TvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba visaubroT fuZeTa warmoebis or principze: 1) SesaZlebelia, erTi fuZe iyos amosavali (sayrdeni) meorisaTvis, meore _ mesamisaTvis da a. S. anu: erTi fuZe srulad ganmeordes meore fuZeSi, meore _ mesameSi da a. S.: a-keT-a a-keT-eb-s a-keT-eb-d-a

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aseTi jaWvuri principiT erTmaneTze agebuli fuZeebi enaSi xSirad sakmaod mravalricxovania. fuZeTa warmoebis am princips vuwodebT fuZeTa warmoebis xazovan princips. arsebobs fuZeTa warmoebis meore principi _ Canacvlebis principi. am SemTxvevaSi erTi fuZe ki ar aris sayrdeni (amosavali) meore fuZisaTvis, aramed orive maTgans aqvs saerTo sayrdeni fuZe: ga-keT-eb-ul-i a-keTeb-s sa-keT-eb-el-i akeTebs da gasakeTebeli, erTi mxriv, akeTebs da sakeTebeli _ meore mxriv xazovani principiT miemarTeba erTmaneTs, xolo gakeTebuli da sakeTebeli _ Canacvlebis principiT. erTi da imave martivi fuZisagan (am SemTxvevaSi Zirisagan) warmoebul formaTa sqemaze fuZeebi Cveulebriv an erTi principiT miemarTeba erTmaneTs, an _ meore principiT. magaliTi erTi zmnuri ZirisaTvis: m-keT-eb-el-i ga-keT-eb-ul-i a-keT-eb-d-a a-keT-eb-d-e-s a-keT-a a-keT-eb-s ga-a-keT-eb-in-a a-keT-eb-in-eb-s ga-keT-d-a keT-d-eb-a keT-d-eb-od-a... keT-il-i u-keT-ur-i a-u-keT-ur-eb-s

horizontaluri mimdevrobiT warmodgenili fuZeebi erTmaneTs xazovani principiT miemarTeba, vertikaluri rigebiT warmodgenili fuZeebi _ Canacvlebis principiT. am sqemis mixedviT akeTebdes da keTdeboda erTimeores uSualod ar miemarTeba. am sqemidan formaTa ganviTarebis dinamika ase SeiZleba gamovweroT: a-keT-a a-keT-eb-s a-keT-eb-d-a a-keT-eb-d-e-s ga-keT-d-a keT-d-eb-a keT-d-eb-od-a...

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SeniSvna: am SemTxvevaSi zmniswinsa da xmovanprefiqsebs mwkrivis fuZis elementad ar ganvixilavT. sqemebSi warmodgenili yvela fuZe aris sayrdeni formaTa garkveuli sistemisaTvis: mwkrivis paradigmisaTvis (mag.: akeT-a, akeTebd-a...), an brunebis paradigmisaTvis (mag.: sakeTebel-i...) SeiZleba Segvxvdes SemTxvevebi, rom esa Tu is safexuri fuZeTa ganviTarebis dinamikaSi ar Candes sayrdeni konkretuli paradigmisaTvis... mag.: dg-om-a m-dg-om-i deg dg-om sa-dg-om-i na-dg-om-i mesame rigis formebi urTierTCanacvlebadi fuZeebia; maTTvis saerTo amosavali (sayrdeni) fuZe aris dg-om, Tumca es fuZe damoukideblad ar aris sayrdeni formaTa sistemisaTvis. dg-om tipis fuZes faruli fuZe ewodeba.
I. 11. `faruli fuZis~ principi. e. i. faruli aris fuZe, romelic uSualod ar aris sayrdeni formaTa sistemisaTvis; misgan iwarmoeba axali fuZe, romelic ukve sayrdeni xdeba formaTa sistemisaTvis. enaSi gvaqvs iseTi SemTxvevebi, roca romelime warmoebuli forma amosavlad varaudobs garkveul formas (fuZes), romelic damoukidebliv enaSi ar aris realizebuli (ar ixmareba). magaliTad, sa-dgur-i amosavlad varaudobs dgur- fuZes, romelic damoukidebliv enaSi ar ixmareba. aseve: `modernizebuli~ agebulebiT mimReobaa, nazmnari saxelia, daiSleba ase: modernizeb-ul-i, sadac -ul mimReobis mawarmoebelia. mimReoba amosavlad zmnur fuZes varaudobs, aseTi fuZe unda yofiliyo a-moderniz-eb-s (a- dieqturi nawilaki, formanti, moderniz- nasesxebi Ziri, -eb Temis niSani), magram qarTulisaTvis ucnobia amgvari zmnuri fuZe. igi mxolod `saSen masalad~ aris gamoyenebuli. `dg-ur~, `moderniz-eb~ monacemebs pirobiTad farul fuZeebs vuwodebT. wesi aseTia: faruli fuZe aucileblad monawileobs ama Tu im formis agebaSi, magram damoukidebliv enaSi ar aris xmarebuli.

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I. 12. gramatikuli mniSvneloba da leqsikuri mniSvneloba. sityva icvleba orgvarad: leqsikuri mniSvnelobiT da gramatikuli mniSvnelobiT. leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvlis SemTxvevaSi icvleba sagnobrivi mimarTeba: kac-i da sa-kac-e ori sxvadasxva sagania; anda: kac-ur-i _ Tviseba aRiniSneba... bar-i _ bar-av-s _ ori sxvadasxva movlenaa. leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvlis dros xdeba sityvawarmoeba. gramatikuli mniSvnelobis cvlis dros icvleba enobriv monacemTa Soris urTierTmimarTeba; sagnobrivi mimarTeba ucvleli rCeba:

kac-i kac-ma kac-s anda: v-xatav xatav xatav-s

(xatavs), (daxata), (dauxatavs)...

(me mas), (Sen mas), (is mas)...

gramatikul mniSvnelobaTa cvlis dros xdeba formawarmoeba.


I. 13. gramatikul mniSvnelobaTa gamoxatvis saSualebani. gramatikuli mniSvnelobis gamoxatvis ramdenime saSualeba arsebobs; igi SeiZleba gamoixatos: a) specifikuri formantiT (morfemiT): kac-i, kac-ma, kac-s... _ brunvis gramatikuli mniSvneloba gamoixateba brunvis niSnebiT _ -i, -ma, -s... v-wer, wer-s... _ piris gramatikuli mniSvneloba gamoixateba piris niSnebiT _ v-, -s... b) yalibiT: magaliTisaTvis: moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebs ara aqvT specialuri mawarmoeblebi (arsebobs aseTi gagebac), magram maTi uRlebis paradigmaTa Sedareba dagvanaxebs, rom funqciuri sxvaoba gamoixateba gansxvavebuli yalibebiT:

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moqmedebiTi v-a-Tb-ob v-a-Tb-ob-d-i v-a-Tb-ob-d-e (ga)-v-a-Tb-e (ga)-v-a-Tb-o (ga)-m-i-Tb-ia (ga)-m-e-Tb-o (ga)-m-e-Tb-o-s

vnebiTi v-Tb-eb-i v-Tb-eb-od-i v-Tb-eb-od-e ga-v-Tb-i ga-v-Tb-e ga-v-mTbar-var ga-v-mTbar-iyavi ga-v-mTbar-iyo

b) fuZis gaorkecebiT: vkece, vkece... iara, iara da... g) supleturi formebiT (Zireuli morfemebis) monacvleobiT: me _ Cven Sen _ Tqven zis _ sxedan ambobs _ ityvis aris _ iqneba _ iyo... d) konteqstiT (morfosintaqsuri saSualebiT): kargi wera warmoCenilia masdaris zmnuri funqcia kargad monaberi _ gamosvliToba sarkmliT damSvenebuli _ Wurviloba rom mosuliyo dawerda _ pirobiToba... adgeboda, dawerda _ xolmeobiToba... e) aRweriTad, modaluri elementebis gamoyenebiT: unda gavakeTo _ valdebuleba; gauqmebul iqna _ gauqmda... v) fonologiurad (morfonologiuri saSualebiT) _ fuZis gaxmovanebis cvliT: v-drek _ v-drik-e, v-Tl-i _ v-Tal-e... warmoCenilia masdaris saxeladi funqcia

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z) gramatikuli mniSvnelobis gansxvavebis funqcia zog SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba itvirTos intonaciam: _ me gavakeTe. _ Seen? (CakiTxva) _ is mova. _ Sen? (kiTxva _ ar moxval?) gramatikul mniSvnelobaTa gamoxatvis es mravalferovani SesaZleblobani SeiZleba dayvanili iqnes sam ZiriTad saxeobaze: 1. wminda morfologiuri; 2. morfonologiuri; 3. morfosintaqsuri. Tumca enaSi am saxeobaTa ase mkveTrad gamijvna ar xdeba. xSiria SemTxveva, roca formaTa erTmaneTisagan ganmasxvaveblad erTdroulad ramdenime gramatikuli saSualeba SeiZleba iqnes gamoyenebuli: v-drek _ v-drik-e am SemTxvevaSi dapirispireba xdeba morfologiuri (-e) da morfonologiuri (xmovanmonacvleoba) saSualebebiT.
I. 14. mniSvnelobis morfologiuri gamoxatvis nairsaxeobani. enaTmecnierebaSi ZiriTadad gamoyofen enaTa sam morfologiur tips, esenia: maizolirebeli, fleqsiuri da aglutinaciuri. Tanamedrove interpretaciiT es tipebi ase ganisazRvreba: `maizolirebelia enebi, romlebSic advilad xorcieldeba s e g m e n t a c i a, anu gamonaTqvamTa danawevreba morfemad, magram Znelia k l a s i f i k a c i a, anu sityvaTa paradigmatuli klasebis gamoyofa. `fleqsiuria enebi, romlebSic advilia k l a s i f i k a c i a, magram Znelia s e g m e n t a c i a. `aglutinaciuria enebi, romlebSic advilad xorcieldeba rogorc s e g m e n t a c i a, ise k l a s i f i k a c i a~ (T. gamyreliZe...). segmentacia da klasifikacia Rrma lingvisturi azris Semcveli procedurebia: segmentacia gulisxmobs imas, Tu rogor Seesabameba erTmaneTs morfemebi da is mniSvnelobebi, romlebic maT miewereba; anu _ erT morfemas erTi gramatikuli mniSvneloba Seesabameba Tu ramdenime.

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`klasifikacia gulisxmobs imas, Tu ramdenad qmnian gamoyofili morfemebi dapirispirebaTa Sinagan sistemas, rogoria maTi paradigmatuli urTierTmimarTebani~ (T. gamyreliZe). qarTuli ZiriTadad aglutinaciuri tipis enaa. amitomac, upiratesad, gramatikuli mniSvnelobis gamoxatva aglutinaciurad xdeba: erT morfemas erTi gramatikuli mniSvneloba Seesabameba, anda erTi gramatikuli mniSvneloba formaSi Sesabamisad erTi morfemiT gadmoicema: kac-eb-i _ ricxvis gramatikul mniSvnelobas -eb formanti gadmoscems, brunvis gramatikul mniSvnelobas _ -i formanti. v-wer-T piris gramatikuli mniSvneloba v- prefiqsiT gadmoicema, ricxvis gramatikuli mniSvneloba _ -T sufiqsiT. Tumca qarTulSi araa iSviaTi gramatikuli mniSvnelobis gadmocema fleqsiurad, roca erTi formanti ramdenime gramatikul mniSvnelobas iTavsebs: kac-T(a) _ T(a) formanti gamoxatavs rogorc mravlobiT ricxvs, ise _ irib brunvas; wer-en _ -en sufiqsi mianiSnebs rogorc subieqtur mesame pirze, ise subieqtis ricxvze (mravlobiTi).
I. 15. paradigma. formaTa simravle SeiZleba dajgufdes da dalagdes sxvadasxva principiT gansazRvruli wesiT. swored gansazRvruli wesiT dalagebul formaTa simravle qmnis paradigmas. paradigma SeiZleba iyos semantikuri da gramatikuli. erTi da imave semantikis mqone sxvadasxva fuZis mqone sityvaTa garkveuli wesiT SekavSireba-dalageba qmnis semantikur paradigmas. ambobs _ ityvis _ Tqva aris _ iqneba _ iyo gramatikuli aris paradigma, romelic erTi da imave Zireuli morfemebisagan sxvadasxva gramatikuli saSualebebiT warmoebul formaTa simravles qmnis: wers _ werda _ werdes... kaci _ kacma _ kacs... gramatikulad rTuli forma SeiZleba iyos miRebuli derivaciiT (anu warmoqmniT) da fleqsiiT (anu mimoxriT). Sesaba-

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

misad, gramatikuli paradigma SeiZleba iyos derivaciuli da fleqsiuri. dervaciuli paradigmaa: kac-i sa-kac-e kac-ur-i kac-oba... fleqsiuri paradigmaa: kac-i kac-ma kac-s kac-is...
I. 16. morfemaTa gamoyofis principebi. tradiciulad morfemis gamoyofa xdeba ori pirobis dacviT: a) sityvis cvladi da mdgradi monakveTebis urTierTSefardebiT: kac-i kac-i kac-ma qal-i kac-s qar-i... pirvel SemTxvevaSi kac-i ucvlelia, cvladia -i, -ma, -s... Sesabamisad, gamoiyofa kac- fuZe (fuZiseuli morfema) da -i, -ma, -s... morfemebi. meore SemTxvevaSi cvladia kac-, qal-, qar-... ucvlelia -i. amis mixedviTac gamoiyofa kac-, qal-, qar- fuZeebi da -i morfema. b) gamoyofil elements unda hqondes an leqsikuri, an gramatikuli mniSvneloba. morfema, romelsac leqsikuri mniSvneloba aqvs, fuZiseuli morfemaa, oden- gramatikuli mniSvnelobis mqone morfema _ Cveulebrivi morfema, formanti, afiqsi. morfema morfologiuri odenobaa, amitomac upirveles yovlisa misi morfologiuri (formobrivi) Tvisebani unda warmoCndes. qarTulSi xerxdeba gamoyofa ramdenime principisa, romliTac SesaZlebeli xdeba morfemis morfologiuri (wminda formobrivi) daxasiaTeba. esaa flagitaciis, dispoziciis, dizunqciis principebi.

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I. 17. flagitaciis principi varaudobs morfemaTa iseT urTierTobas, roca erTi romelime morfema SeeTavseba (ramdenime SesaZleblidan) mxolod erT morfemas (da araviTar SemTxvevaSi _ sxvas). amrigad, flagitacia (laT.: flagitatio `daJinebiTi moTxovna~) erTi morfemis mier meore morfemis daJinebiTi moTxovnaa, anu: erTi morfema meore morfemis aucilebel povnierebas Seapirobebs. magaliTad, Sedegobis gamomxatvel (namyo drois saobieqto) mimReobas ori sufiqsi awarmoebs -il da -ul. semantikurad maT Soris araviTari gansxvaveba ar aris, maTi ganawileba wminda formobriv princips emyareba. Sdr.: Reb-av-s Se-Reb-il-i a-R-eb-s ga-R-eb-ul-i anu: Tu zmnur formaSi gvaqs -eb Temis niSani, mimReobis sufiqsur mawarmoebelTagan mas mierTveba mxolod da mxolod -ul. Tu fonetikurad imave Sedgenilobis -eb fuZiseuli gamounawevrebeli elementia, maSin mimReobis mawarmoebeli iqneba -il. ena zustad asxvavebs am or sxvadasxva -eb elements (Sdr.: ga-Reb-ul-i da Se-R-eb-il-i, an: Se-kreb-il-i...) (b. jorbenaZe). flagitaciuri mimarTebaa -i da -od morfemebs Soris uRvlilebis paradigmaSi (mRer-i-s _ mRer-od-a, Sdr.: mRer-s _ mRer-d-a). flagitaciis principi moqmedebs moqmedebiTisa da vnebiTis formaTa urTierTimarTebisas: a-naT-eb-s naT-d-eb-a a-nT-eb-s i-nT-eb-a yalibi a + fuZe + eb SeiTavsebs sufiqsian vnebiTs, Tu fuZe marcvlovania, prefiqsian vnebiTs _ Tu fuZe umarcvloa. I. 18. dispozicia Tanamimdevrobas, Tanaganlagebas gulisxmobs. is faqti, rom nebismier morfemas Tavisi mkacrad gansazRvruli adgili aqvs struqturaSi, dispoziciis principis moqmedebis Sedegia. es gansakuTrebiT naTlad warmoCndeba materialurad identuri, magram semantikurad gansxvavebuli morfemebis Sedarebisas: vnebiTiseuli -d yovelTvis sayrden fuZesa da Temis niSans Soris moeqceva (Sen-d-eb-a), xolo uwyvetlis -d yovelTvis uSualod mosdevs Temis niSans (a-Sen-eb-d-a). dispozici-

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

as Tavis mizezi aqvs. am SemTxvevaSi dispoziciis mizezi nairgvari sayrdeni fuZis mqoneblobaa: Sen-d-eb-a formisTvis amosavalia wyvetilis fuZe: a-Sen-d-a Sen-d-eb-a. bunebrivia, -eb moeqceoda -d elementis Semdeg. meore SemTxvevaSi sayrdenia awmyos fuZe: a-Sen-eb-s a-Sen-eb-da.
I. 19. dizunqciis principi gulisxmobs SemTxvevebs, roca erTi da igive morfema ixamebs xan erT, xan meore morfemas, magram urTierTSenacvlebis gareSe. magaliTad, -av TemisniSniani zmna Sedegobis mniSvnelobis gamomxatvel mimReobas ikeTebs xan -il, xan -ul morfemiT: mal-av-s da-mal-ul-i, magram: nayav-s da-nay-il-i; dauSvebelia da-mal-il-i, ar gvxvdeba danay-ul-i. amgvar ganawilebas Tavisi istoriuli mizezi aqvs: is -av TemisniSniani zmnebi, romlebic mimReobas -il morfemiT iwarmoeben, istoriulad uTemisniSnoni iyvnen: nay-s, xoc-s, rek-s... amrigad, am SemTxvevaSi istorias eweva angariSi, sinqroniulad ki dizunqciis principis moqmedebaze SegviZlia laparaki.

SeniSvna: aq saliteraturo enis monacemebzea saubari. dialeqtur nairsaxeobebs Tavisi mizezi da axsna aqvs. zemoxsenebuli principebi SesaZloa kombinaciuradac moqmedebdnen. magaliTad, ga-R-eb-ul-i _ -eb Temis niSani flagitaciis prinicipis Sesabamisad ixamebs -ul morfemas, magram TviT -ul ki ukve dizunqciurad exameba ara mxolod -eb, aramed, -av, -am da -em Temis niSnebsac.
I. 20. konfiqsi TavsarT-bolosarTis (prefiqsisa da sufiqsis) erTdrouli gamoyenebaa erTi konkretuli mniSvnelobis gamosaxatavad. m-Seneb-el-i, m-dum-are, si-Tb-o, si-xar-ul-i, sa-Coxe, sa-jar-o... _ konfiqsebiT (m-el, m-ar, si-o, si-ul, sa-e, sa-o...) nawarmoeb formebad miiCneva. formaTa martivi Sepirispireba naTels xdis, rom konfiqsur warmoebas sul sxvagvari kvalifikacia SeiZleba mieces. Sdr., magaliTad:

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a-m-Seneb-el-i a-sa-Seneb-el-i a-u-Seneb-el-i am formebisaTvis saerTo mawarmoebelia -el; samive mimReobaa, nazmnari zedsarTavi, atributivi. imave formebs ganasxvavebs sami sxvadasxva prefiqsis mqonebloba (m-, sa- da u-). bunebrivia, davaskvnaT: a) saerTo mniSvnelobas gamoxatavs saerTo elementi _ sufiqsi -el. b) gansxvavebul mniSvnelobebs gamoxataven gansxvavebuli elementebi m-, sa- da u-. anu: -el awarmoebs mimReobis (nazmnari zedsarTavis) fuZes. igive -el gvaqvs arqaul `mimGeobebSi~ vrc-el-i, Tx-el-i, grZel-i... formebSi. m-, sa da u formantebs sxva, damatebiTi mniSvneloba SeaqvT imave fuZeSi; kerZod, m- gamoxatavs moqmeds, sa_ daniSnulebas, u- _ uaryofas. analogiurad daismis sakiTxi sxva konfiqsebis mimarTac...
I. 21. morfemaTa semantikuri informaciulobis sakiTxisaTvis. morfema, rogorc wesi, garkveul semantikur informacias gamoxatavs. qarTulSi, rogorc aglutinaciuri tipis enaSi, umetesad advilad xerxdeba morfemaTa gamoyofac da maTi mniSvnelobebis dadgenac. v-mal-av-T: v- I subieqturi piris morfemaa, -T _ imave piris mravlobiTobis gamomxatveli, mal- fuZiseuli morfemaa, -av _ Temis niSani (I seriis fuZis mawarmoebeli). asea mravlisagan mraval SemTxvevaSi. SevudaroT axla erTmaneTs ori forma: i-xrC-ob-a _ i-xrC-v-eb-a -v fuZiseuli elementia. naTelia, rom -ob aq utoldeba ara -eb morfemas, aramed -v-eb kompleqss, romelSic -v amosavali fuZis kuTvnilebaa, anu: -ob `difuzurad~ gamoxatavs im semantikas, romlis gamoxatvac sxva SemTxvevaSi -v-eb kompleqss akisria. amave rigisaa -o i-y-o formaSi *i-yav-a.

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aqedan gamomdinare, rogor davSaloT `ixrCoba~ an `iyo~ tipis formebi? -ob, -o elementebSi Serwymulia morfemaTa zRvari, es elementebi erTdroulad gvawvdian informacias rogorc fuZiseuli elementebis, aseve sakuTriv morfemis Sesaxeb. morfologiuri analizis dros unda gaTvaliswinebul iqnes es momenti. aqve dadgeba sakiTxi mniSvnelobagauCinarebuli formebis gamoyofis Sesaxebac. rogor unda daiSalos formebi `dRisiT~ (Sdr. `Ram-iT~), wign-i(v)-an-i, gon-i(v)-er-i, om-i(v)-an-oba? dR-is-iT _ ras mivakuTvnoT -is _ fuZes (dRis-), Tu morfemas (-isiT)? ratom warmogvidgeba -ian morfemad? -i -iv xom fuZis mawarmoebeli elementia, iseve, rogorc -ier morfemis -i -iv! e. i. gvaqvs warmoebuli fuZe *wign-iv- (faruli fuZe), romelsac erT SemTxvevaSi mierTvis -an, meore SemTxvevaSi -er morfema. marTalia, wign-iv- damoukideblad ar ixmareba, magram: a) damoukideblad ar ixmareba arc om-ian-i, arc qal-aC (Sdr. qalaC-una)... b) gvaqvs formebi, sadac -iv produqtiuli mawarmoebelia: mxr-iv, damoukidebl-iv. Semdeg: ra klasifikacia unda mieces -ier formants, Tuki viciT, rom garkveul garemocvaSi igi iqceva -ivr monacemad: gon-ivr-ul-ad? gamoiyos Tu ara -ir elementi stv-ir-i formaSi, Tuki arsebobs stv-en-s? -ir araproduqtiulia, magram es ar niSnavs, rom igi morfema ar aris.
I. 22. araproduqtiuli morfemebi. zemoxsenebuli svams sakiTxs araproduqtiuli morfemebis Sesaxeb, romlebic or jgufad nawildebian: a) iSviaTi xmarebis morfemebi: -iv (mxr-iv), -av (ficxl-av), -ir (stv-ir-i, xS-ir-i, Sdr.: si-xS-o), ne- (ne-rwyv-i, Sdr.: rwy-avs) da misT. b) morfemebi, romlebic mxolod fuZis an sxva morfemebis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis, magram formaTa Sedarebisas mainc calke elementebad gamoiyofa (Sdr.: qal-i _ qal-aC-un-a da kac-un-a)...

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I. 23. nasesxebi morfemebi. nasesxeb morfemaTa gamoyofis principi: morfema gamoiyofa maSin, Tuki damoukidebliv iqna gamoyenebuli sxva fuZesTan. magaliTad, -ist gamoiyofa imitom, rom dasaSvebia ful-ist-i. magram fostalion-i formaSi ar gamoiyofa -lion elementi, radgan igi mTlianad nasesxebia sityvasTan erTad. amasTan dakavSirebiT gasarkvevi xdeba: a) nasesxeb sityvaTa klasifikaciis principi: sesxeba sityvis enaSi Semosvlis faqtia, magram moxvdeba ra enaSi, igi ukve am enis kuTvnileba xdeba Tavisi fonetikuri da gramatikuli iersaxiT. `sesxeba~ _ wminda enaTmecnieruli kvalifikaciaa, ontologiurad (sakuTriv enaSi) nasesxebi sityva arafriT gamoirCeva sxva, aranasesxebi, sityvebisagan. b) fosta da fostalion-i _ orive nasesxebi sityvaa, magram fonetikurad ise cvlili, rom arsebiTad gansxvavdeba Tavisi pirvandeli saxisagan. `fosta~ aSkarad gaqarTulda (iseve, rogorc, vTqvaT, `lursmani~ arab.: `musmar~) da es gaqarTulebuli forma aris sityvaSi fosta-lion-i. gvaqvs ki SesaZlebloba nasesxebi sufiqsis kvalifikacia mivceT am SemTxvevaSi -lion elements?.. nasesxebi formantebi qarTulSi sakmaodaa: magaliTad, -nair (am-nair-i...), zogi kninobiTi sufiqsi, -ist, anti- (maristi, antisaxelmwifoebrivi) da sxva.

I. 24. fonetikuri da morfologiuri faqtorebis urTierTmimarTebisaTvis. morfologiis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas gverds ver avuvliT fonetikas, fonetikur cvlilebebs; iseve, rogorc ver moxdeba sintaqsuri faqtorebis ignorireba (zog SemTxvevaSi sintaqsuri principi morfologiur faqtTa klasifikaciis safuZveli xdeba; mag., metyvelebis nawilTa tradiciuli klasifikacia, brunebis problemebis ganxilva _ raoba, dalageba; seriebad dayofa mwkrivebisa da sxva). morfologia da sintaqsi enaTmecnierebis erTi dargis ori nawilia da amiT SeiZleba aixsnas es Sepirobebuloba; fonetikafonologia ki calke dargia enaTmecnierebisa. miuxedavad amisa, imdenad mWidroa kavSiri fonetikasa da morfologias Soris, rom zogjer gramatikis kursSi fonetikac SeaqvT, rogorc aucilebeli nawili (ix. mag.: a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZ-

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vlebi, Tb., 1953, gv. 7-30). cxadia, aq igulisxmeba mxolod fonetikuri sistema qarTuli enisa da ZiriTadi fonetikuri procesebi; Tumca aqvea miTiTeba, rom fonetika da gramatika sxvadasxva dargia enaTmecnierebisa (gv. 1). sityvaSi fonetikuri cvlilebebis mosaxdenad aucilebelia Sesabamisi garemo _ pozicia da cvlilebis momxdeni faqtoris mqonebloba. cxadia, amaTgan erT-erTi faqtoris arseboba ar iqneba sakmarisi fonetikuri cvlilebebisaTvis, magram fonetikuri cvlileba SeiZleba ar moxdes maSinac, roca es orive piroba arsebobs _ pozicia da cvlilebis momxdeni faqtoric; amis mizezi SeiZleba iyos is, rom fonetikurma cvlilebam morfologias gauwios angariSi. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, fonetikuri procesi morfologiurad unda iyos nebadarTuli, ar unda iyos morfologiurad akrZaluli. ramdenime konkretuli magaliTi: fuZeTa erTi nawili zmnis sistemaSi dasturdeba sxvadasxva gaxmovanebiT: s-dev-s / s-di(v)-a, Tvlem-s / Ca-Tvlim-a, i-lxen-s / moi-lxin-a. isini ganixileba erTimeoris fonetikur variantebad: i xmovniani fuZe aris reducirebuli variantebi e-xmovniani fuZisa. roca gvaqvs i- xmovniani varianti, aucileblad gveqneba e > i fonetikuri procesis gamomwvevi momdevno xmovani (cvlilebis momxdeni faqtori). wesi piruku ar moqmedebs. SeiZleba fuZes daerTodes xmovani (cvlilebis momxdeni faqtori), magram e gaxmovanebiT iyos warmodgenili: m-dev-ar-i, m-Tvlem-are, mo-lxen-a... am da msgavs magaliTebSi fuZiseuli xmovnis sareduqcio poziciac aris da mareducirebeli faqtoric, ra xdeba? saqmeSi morfologia Caeria: e/i xmovanTa dapirispirebis morfologizacia moxda. zmnaTa ZiriTad nawilSi I da II seriis fuZeTa dapirispirebisaTvis Temis niSani aris gamoyenebuli. amave morfologiuri daniSnulebiT enam am tipis zmnebSi e/ i xmovanmonacvleoba gamoiyena. e-xmovniani fuZe I seriis kuTvnilebad iqca, i-xmovniani _ II seriisa (xmovanTa dapirispirebam itvirTa is funqcia, rac aqvs Temis niSans rTul da martiv TemaTa dapirispirebisas); amis gamo fonetikuri cvlileba aikrZala I seriaSi (Sdr.: s-dev-en, Tvlem-en, i-lxen-en...). es morfologiuri statusi SenarCunebulia nazmnar saxelebSic: rogorc cnobilia, nazmnari saxelebis sayrdeni awmyos fuZea.

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amgvar SemTxvevaSi e/i procesi morfonologiur procesad unda iqnes gaazrebuli; mas ver miviCnevT wminda fonetikur procesad, Tumca fuZeebs ganvixilavT, rogorc erTimeoris fonetikur variantebs. Slis / Sla, Tlis / Tla SeiZleba aseve ganvixiloT, rogorc fonetikuri variantebi erTi da imave fuZisa, magram mas ver ganvixilavT moqmed fonetikur procesad; moxda fonetikuri procesis morfologizacia _ II seriaSi srulxmovani fuZe damkvidrda, miuxedavad fonetikuri cvlilebis mosaxdenad aucilebeli poziciisa da cvlilebis momxdeni faqtoris mqoneblobisa. wminda fonetikur (moqmed fonetikur) procesad miviCnevT iseT fonetikur variantebs, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, mov-kal _ mo-kl-es: Tu aris fonetikuri cvlilebebis mosaxdeni pozicia da cvlilebis momxdeni faqtori, xmovani yovelTvis reducirebulia (kl-av-s, mo-kl-av-s, mo-kl-uli...), ganurCevlad misi morfologiuri statusisa. aq unda mivaqcioT yuradReba imasac, rom garkveuli morfologiuri faqtebi SeiZleba iqnes ganxiluli istoriuli fonetikuri procesebis Sedegad, vTqvaT S3 -o (a), S3 -n (en), magram dRevandel viTarebaSi isini damoukidebeli morfologiuri odenobebia. I. 25. morfemaTa identurobis sakiTxisaTvis. roca vsaub-

robT morfemaTa identurobaze, gavarCevT ori saxis identurobas _ funqciursa da formobrivs.


funqciurad identurni arian is morfemebi, romlebic erTsa da imave sistemaSi erTsa da imave funqcias asruleben. mag., saxelTa mravlobiTi ricxvis mawarmoeblebi -n da -eb (kac-ni / kac-eb-i), e. w. Temis niSnebi -av (xat-av-s), -am (dg-am-s), -eb (akeT-eb-s), -ob (gm-ob-s) da misTanani. formobrivi identifikaciis sakiTxi ufro rTulia. am SemTxvevaSi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes: a) materialuri Sedgeniloba, b) qmedebis unari, g) Tvisoba, d) pozicia struqturaSi.

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mxolod materialuri igiveoba ar aris sakmarisi morfemaTa identurobis dasadgenad. magaliTad: a-keT-eb-s da gaa-keTeb-ina _ materialurad da geneturad erTi da igive odenoba eb ver CaiTvleba morfologiurad identurad, ramdenadac pirvel SemTxvevaSi igi Temis niSania (mxolod I seriis formebSi gvaqvs), meore SemTxvevaSi ki igi fuZis gamounawevrebeli elementia srul paradigmaSi: awmyo: a-keT-eb-s a-keT-eb-in-eb-s wyvetili: a-keT-a a-keT-eb-in-a akeT-eb-in-eb-s formis meore -eb elementi aris akeT-eb-s formis -eb elementis identuri formobrivadac da funqciuradac. aseve -av elementi cur-av-s da i-cur-av-a formebSi. pirveli cur-av-s _ icura paradigmis wevria, meore _ cur-a{v}-ob-s _ icur-av-a paradigmisa. masalobrivi da funqciuri igiveoba -i elementisa wyvetilis formebSi mov-kal-i da gavSr-i ar aris sakmarisi maTi morfologiuri identurobis samtkiceblad _ gansxvavebulia maTi qmedebis unari: I SemTxvevaSi -i-s ar Seswevs Zala fuZiseuli xmovnis reduqciisa (Tumca a reducirebadi xmovania: mo-kl-a), meore SemTxvevaSi fuZiseuli xmovnis reduqciis mizezi (Sr Ser) -i elementi Cans. aseve ar SeiZleba visaubroT -e elementis identurobaze wyvetilis iseT formebSi, rogorebicaa v-wer-e da va-q-e; erT SemTxvevaSi paradigmaSi e S3 piris niSans -a-s Seixamebs, meore SemTxvevaSi _ -o-s; rogorc irkveva, am gansxvavebis safuZveli maTi geneturi sxvaobaa: erT SemTxvevaSi -e TavisTavadi, damoukidebeli sufiqsia (v-wer-e), meore SemTxvevaSi _ -ev sufiqsidan momdinare (va-q-e < *va-q-ev). Cven Tvisoba ganvsazRvreT, rogorc morfemiseuli xmovnis fonetikuri cvlis unari. am ori magaliTis mixedviT _ Tvl-em-s da sc-em-s _ ver visaubrebT -em elementis identurobaze, radganac erT SemTxvevaSi e xmovani monacvleobs i-sTan (Tvl-em-s _ CaTvl-im-a), meore SemTxvevaSi igi imave viTarebaSi cvlilebas ar ganicdis (sc-em-s _ sc-em-a)... gansxvavebulia maTi sxva morfemebTan Sexamebis unaric: erTi ixamebs -il sufiqss (CaTvlem-il-i), meore -ul-s (gamocem-ul-i) da sxva.

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ar SeiZleba morfologiuri igiveobis niSani daisvas or formaSi _ va-Sen-eb da v-Sen-d-eb-i _ gamovlenil -eb elements Soris: isini gansxvavdebian uRvlilebiT, sxvadasxva poziciiT struqturaSi, morfemebTan SexamebiT da a. S. magram, meore mxriv, garkveul morfologiur identurobaze SeiZleba visaubroT masalobrivad gansxvavebul odenobebs Soris. magaliTad, -av da -am Temis niSnebze. maTi qmedeba, Tvisoba, pozicia struqturaSi, uRlebis Taviseburebebi (-av da -am TemisniSniani zmnebisa) emTxveva erTmaneTs. es maTi identifikaciis safuZvels qmnis. I. 26. morfemaTa identifikaciis principisaTvis. Tu ma-

salobrivad gansxvavebul or morfologiur elements erTnairi gramatikuli datvirTva aqvs, erTgvarad iqceva paradigmatuli Tu sintagmaturi TvalsazrisiT, saqme gvaqvs morfologiur identifikaciasTan. magaliTad: -av da -am Temis niSnebi morfologiurad identurni arian.
morfologiuri identifikacia ar unda avrioT tavtologiaSi. tavtologia iqneba imis aGniSvna, rom -av elementi malav-s formaSi da igive elementi gor-av-s formaSi erTi morfologiuri odenobaa. I. 27. morfemis struqtura. qarTulSi gvaqvs samgvari Sedgenilobis morfema: xmovani, Tanxmovani da xmovan-Tanxmovnis kombinacia. xmovani an Tanxmovani morfema SeiZleba iyos prefiqsulic da sufiqsuric (a-keTebs / keTeb-a, i-keTebs / Wr-i-s... m-xatav-s, da-g-xato-n...). Taviseburebas avlens xmovan-Tanxmovnis kombinaciiT Sedgenili morfemebi. Tavkidura poziciaSi ZiriTadad gvaqvs Tanxmovanxmovani (na-, sa-, ma-...), xolo bolokidura poziciaSi _ xmovanTanxmovani (-as, -an, -eb...). saubroben simetriis principzec: na-texi da mtkiv-an sa-naTi da pir-as si-lurje da lurj-is

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cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi saubaria zogadad morfemaTa struqturul Taviseburebaze da ara simetriul morfemaTa raimegvar funqciur igiveobaze. I. 28. mniSvnelobis gavlena formawarmoebaze. formawarmoebis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas yuradReba unda mieqces mniSvnelobis gavlenas formawarmoebaze. magaliTad, s-cem-s is mas: iseT konteqstSi, rogoricaa `deda Svils scems~, zmnuri forma srul paradigmas qmnis (scems, scemda, scemdes, scema, scemos, ucemia, ecema, ecemos), xolo mniSvnelobiT `Tma koWebamde scems~, zmnas ewarmoeba mxolod I seriis 3 mwkrivis formebi (scems, scemda, scemdes). sxva magaliTi: adidebs formas mniSvnelobiT `didad xdis~ ewarmoeba Sesabamisi sufiqsuri vnebiTi (oTaxs adidebs _ oTaxi diddeba), magram mniSvnelobiT `xotbas asxams~ moqmedebiTma SeiZleba prefiqsuli vnebiTi gaikeTos (samSoblos adidebs _ samSoblo idideba viGacis mier).
I. 29. determinaciis principi. enis yoveli forma, yoveli struqtura, yoveli sistema Tu qvesistema mkacrad determinirebulia, gansazRvrulia sxva formiT, struqturiT, sistemiTa Tu qvesistemiT da Tavadac ganmsazRvrelad evlineba sxva formas, struqturas, sistemasa Tu qvesistemas. determinizmi gulisxmobs enobrivi faqtebis urTierTSepirobebulobas, da ara mxolod amas, aramed moqmedi sistemisa Tu struqturis farglebSi am elementTa Soris mizez-Sedegobriobis dadgenasac. morfologiur kvleva-Ziebas swored es unda daedos safuZvlad: enobrivi formebis determinizmi _ mkacri mizez-Sedegobrivi urTierTgansazRvruloba enobrivi elementebisa da amis safuZvelze urTierTmimarTebaTa dadgena. ras gulisxmobs enobriv formaTa determinizmi da rogor vlindeba igi konkretul enobriv sistemaSi, amis konkretul nimuSad aseTi magaliTi mohyavT: aviRoT wyvilebi: 1. a-TeTr-eb-s _ TeTr-d-eb-a 2. bar-av-s _ i-bar-eb-a || i-bar-v-i-s (b. jorbenaZe)

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tradiciuli ganmartebiT TiToeuli wyvilis Semadgeneli erTeulebi erTmaneTs upirispirdeba rogorc gvaris konversiuli formebi: moqmedebiTi (aTeTrebs, baravs) da vnebiTi (TeTrdeba, ibareba). es am formaTa funqciuri, Sinaarsobrivi daxasiaTebaa. wminda formobrivi analizis safuZvelze xdeba formis Semadgeneli elementebis segmentacia, irkveva TiToeuli formis Semadgenel elementTa funqcia rogorc paradigmul, ise sintagmur formebTan, maTi urTierTmimarTebebi. `determinizmis principi ki varaudobs zemoaRniSnul formebs Soris mizez-Sedegobrivi urTierTgansazRvrulobis dadgenasac, imis gamokvlevas, Tu romeli forma romliTaa pirobadebuli. amgvari midgoma Cvens SemTxvevaSi maSinve gaarkvevs, rom e. w. moqmedebiTi gvaris a + fuZe + eb awmyoseul yalibs, rogorc wesi, vnebiTSi sufiqsiani formebi Seesabameba (yalibi: fuZe + d + eb), xolo fuZe + av yalibis mqone formebi e. w. prefiqsian vnebiTebs SeiTavseben (yalibi: i||e + fuZe + ebi, an: i||e + fuZe + v + i). rasakvirvelia, gamonaklisebi aris (...), magram es gamonaklisebi, jer erTi, ukeT warmoaCenen mTeli sistemis elementebis mkacr urTierTSepirobebulobas da, garda amisa, dasvamen axal sakiTxs: ra aris mizezi amgvari `gadaxrisa~, sad unda veZioT misi safuZveli? es ki SegvaZlebinebs axali kuTxiT SevxedoT arsebuli lingvisturi principebis safuZvelze ukve TiTqosda kargad cnobil da dadgenil sakiTxebs~ (b. jorbenaZe). rac ufro Rrmaa analizi, rac ufro Rrmad CavixedavT movlenis arsSi, `determinizmis aSkara qmedebis ufro farTo, SeiZleba iTqvas, globalur ares dagvalandinebs da naTlad dagvanaxebs enobriv formaTa mizez-Sedegobriv urTierTdamokidebulebis ucilobel faqts, rac agvaxsnevinebs kidec Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebaSi arsebiTad ufro apriorulad SeniSnul, vinem faqtobriv dasabuTebul movlenas, rom yoveli cvlileba enis romelime monakveTSi arsebiTi xasiaTis Zvrebsa da cvlilebebs iwvevs TiTqosda savsebiT dacilebul formebsa da struqturebSi~ (b. jorbenaZe). morfologiuri analizis dros enobrivi monacemebis Semadgenel elementebad danawevrebisaTvis (segmentaciisaTvis), cxadia, arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs am elementTa urTierTdeterminirebis faqtors. `determinacia enobrivi dinamikis TvalsazrisiTaa fa-

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seuli, enis Sinagani bunebiT gamowveul cvlilebaTa gamosaZieblad da ara enis abstrahirebuli statikuri sqemebis warmosadgenad~ (b. jorbenaZe). arsebobs determinaciis ori saxeoba: a) warmoqmniTi determinacia _ roca urTierTSepirobebuli formebidan erT-erTi formobrivad aris warmoqmnili meorisagan: a-keT-eb-s ga-keT-eb-ul-i; meore formisaTvis formobrivad sayrdenia pirveli. b) saurTierTo determinacia: roca erTi forma gulisxmobs meoris arsebobas da _ piriqiT, magram formobrivad erTi meorisagan warmoqmnili ar aris; magaliTad: TrT-i-s TrT-od-a: awmyoSi -i elementiani warmoeba gulisxmobs uwyvetelSi -od sufiqsian warmoebas da _ piriqiT: saubroben agreTve formobriv da funqciur determinaciaze. a) cur-av-s m-cur-av-i: forma m-cur-av-i formobrivadac da funqciuradac Sepirobebulia cur-av-s formiT. b) Can-s m-Cin-ar-i: forma m-Cin-ar-i funqciurad isevea Sepirobebuli Can-s formisagan, rogorc wina magaliTSi meore forma pirvelisagan, magram formobrivad m-Cin-ar-i Cin fuZis mqone formasTan (gamo-a-Cin-a) aris dakavSirebuli. aseT SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs mxolod funqciuri determinacia; wina magaliTSi _ formobriv-funqciuri determinacia.
I. 30. metyvelebis nawilebi. enaSi arsebuli sityvaTa maragi _ leqsikur erTeulTa raodenoba _ ganusazRvrelia. sityvebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba gramatikuli (morfologiuri da sintaqsuri), leqsikologiuri, semantikuri TvalsazrisiT. swored am niSanTa safuZvelze xdeba sityvaTa dajgufeba klasebad, romelTac metyvelebis nawilebs uwodeben. qarTulSi tradiciulad gamoyofen 10 metyvelebis nawils: 1. arsebiTi saxeli: kaci, saxli, ocneba, daviTi, rioni... 2. zedsarTavi saxeli: didi, patara, qudiani, uqudo... 3. ricxviTi saxeli: erTi, aTi, milioni, mravali, cota... 4. nacvalsaxeli: me, Sen, igi... yvela, TiToeuli... 5. zmna: wers, xatavs, dgas, dafrinavs...

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6. zmnizeda: guSin, xval, aq, ase... 7. Tandebuli: -viT, -Tan, -ze... mier, gamo... 8. kavSiri: da, Tu, magram, xolo... 9. nawilaki: ar, vera, ho, diax... 10. Sorisdebuli: eh! vai! yoCaR!.. tradiciul klasifikacias, rogorc klasifikacias, bevri nakli aqvs: irRveva saklasifikacio principi (monacvleobs morfologiuri, sintaqsuri, semantikuri da leqsikuri principebi) (arn. Ciqobava); magram miRebuli Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, `miuxedavad amisa, aseTi dayofiT tradiciulad SemuSavebul terminebs SeiZleba dResac hqondes teqnikuri gamoyeneba mecnierul gramatikaSi, radganac TviTeuli `metyvelebis nawili~ garkveuli gramatikuli niSnebis matarebelia, morfologiurisa an sintaqsurisa, da raime niSnis mixedviT gansxvavebuli danarCenebisagan~ (a. SaniZe). morfologiis winamdebare kursis Sedgenisas Cven vemyarebiT b. jorbenaZis qvewarmodgenil Tvalsazriss: tradiciul klasifikaciaSi morfologiuri TvalsazrisiT gamoiyofa ori jgufi metyvelebis nawilebisa: formacvalebadi da formaucvleli metyvelebis nawilebi. pirveli xuTi _ arsebiTi saxeli, zedsarTavi saxeli, ricxviTi saxeli, nacvalsaxeli da zmna _ aris formacvalebadi nawilebi; momdevno xuTi _ zmnizeda, Tandebuli, kavSiri, nawilaki da Sorisdebuli _ miCneulia formaucvlel metyvelebis nawilebad. gramatikuli TvalsazrisiT metyvelebis nawilTa am jgufis gamoyofa gaumarTlebelia: Tandebulisa da nawilakis metyvelebis nawilad gamoyofa ver egueba sityvis enaTmecnierul gansazRvras; faqtobriv, Tandebuli da nawilaki (da Zveli qarTulisaTvis _ nawevari) arsebiTad aris morfema (nawevari ki _ morfemoidi). Sorisdebuli leqsikologiuri cnebaa da amitomac leqsikologiaSi unda iqnes ganxiluli, xolo morfologiurad igi an saxelis fuZed iqceva (vais gaveyare, uis Seveyare...), an _ zmnisa (viSobs, vaglaxebs...). kavSiri sintaqsuri cnebaa da sintaqsSi unda iqnes ganxiluli. zmnizeda zmnis msazRvrelia; rogorc msazRvreli, igi zmnas brunvaSi ver SeuTanxmdeba, amitomac tovebs formaucvleli sityvis STabeWdilebas. calke aRebu-

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li zmnizeda TavisTavad formacvalebadi sityvaa: misTvis damaxasiaTebelia rogorc sityvawarmoeba, aseve _ formawarmoeba: a) zmnizedisagan iwarmoeba msazRvreli (zedsarTavi): dRes _ dRevandeli weRan _ weRandeli... b) zmnizeda ibrunvis; marTalia, sxva saxelebTan SedarebiT misi bruneba SezRudulia, magram morfologiurad mainc angariSgasawevia misi formacvaleba: arsebiTi saxeli dRe dRe-m dRe-s dR-is dR-iT dRe-d zmnizeda _ _ dRe-s dRe-is (Semdeg) dRe-id-an dRe-mde

sax. moTxr. mic. naT. moq. viT.

am sakiTxis Sesaxeb ufro dawvrilebiTi saubari iqneba kursis Sesabamis monakveTebSi (saxelTa bruneba, saxeluri sityvawarmoeba). morfologiuri TvalsazrisiT sityvaTa formacvaleba ori saxisaa: a) bruneba b) uRleba sityvebi swored amis mixedviT unda dajgufdes; sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, amis Sesabamisad unda gamoiyos: saxelebi da zmna metyvelebis nawilebi. yvela brunebadi sityva _ aris saxeli; yvela uRlebadi sityva _ aris zmna. formobrivi TvalsazrisiT saxelebi SeiZleba orad gaiyos: a) arsebiTi saxeli (anu substantivi); b) msazRvreli saxeli (anu atributivi). tradiciuli zedsarTavi, ricxviTi da nacvalsaxeli (nawilobriv) am meore jgufSi Semova. TiToeuli am jgufis saxelTa semantikuri daxasiaTebisas pirobiTad tradiciuli terminebis gamoyeneba SesaZleblad migvaCnia.

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faqtia isic, rom substantivebsa da atributivebs Soris mkacri semantikuri mijna ar aris: kargi eqimi _ eqimi aq substantivia; eqimi CxeiZe _ eqimi aq atributivia... formobrivi TvalsazrisiT sxvaoba gvaqvs: brunebis principia gansxvavebuli (ix. saxelTa bruneba). substantivebis semantikuri Taviseburebebi (rac tradiciulad sxvadasxva metyvelebis nawilad gaiazreboda) asaxvas povebs formawarmoebaSi. msazRvrel saxelebSi, anu atributivebSi, gamoiyofa ori jgufi: saxelis atributivi (zedsarTavi, ricxviTi...) da zmnis atributivi (zmnizeda). formobrivad es ori jgufic gansxvavebulia. `nacvalsaxelebi calke metyvelebis nawilad ar gamoiyofa, radgan nacvalsaxeli, romelic cvlis substantivs, rogorc metyvelebis nawili _ substantivia (misi ganzogadebuli saxeoba); nacvalsaxeli, romelic cvlis atributivs, rogorc metyvelebis nawili _ rCeba atributivad; rac Seexeba I da II piris nacvalsaxelebs, sinamdvileSi isini arc arian nacvalsaxelebi: `me~ aris mosaubre piris saxeli, misi saxeldeba da ara romelime saxelis Semcvleli; `Sen~ _ saubris adresatis saxeli (da ara nacvalsaxeli). ena solifsisturi sistemaa da misi es Tavisebureba Sesabamisad unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli. vuwodoT `me~ da `Sen~ formebs nacvalsaxeli, es igivea, `givi~, `daviTi~ formebis mimarT `kaci~ gamovacxadoT nacvalsaxelad~ (b. jorbenaZe). tradiciuli sistemis farglebSi saxelzmnis (sawyisisa da mimReobis) adgili sadavo iyo. mas damoukidebel metyvelebis nawiladac miiCnevdnen. aq warmodgenili klasifikaciis mixedviT, sawyisi da mimReoba substantivisa da atributivis jgufebSi ganawildeba. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT zemoTqmuls da mkacrad gavatarebT morfologiur princips, tradiciuli sistema metyvelebis nawilebisa gamartivebuli saxiT warmogvidgeba; gveqneba ori metyvelebis nawili: substantivi 1. saxeli saxelis atributivi atributivi

zmnis atributivi

2. zmna

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I. 31. saxelzmna metKvelebis nawilTa sistemaSi. metyvelebis nawilTa tradiciul klasifikaciaSi garkvevas saWiroebs saxelzmnis adgili. Cveulebriv qarTul saenaTmecniero literaturaSi araa erTgvarovani Tvalsazrisi. a. SaniZe saxelzmnas zmnis sistemaSi ganixilavs, arn. Ciqobava _ saxelis sistemaSi. SeniSvnebs orive Tvalsazrisi iwvevs. saxelzmna brunebadi sityvaa; Tu zmnaa, maSin brunva zmnis kategoriac yofila. Tu saxelia, ramdenadac saxelzmnas moepoveba drois, gvaris da a. S. gageba, gamodis, rom es kategoriebi saxelisac yofila... swored amgvari midgomis gamo daisva sakiTxi imis Taobaze, rom saxelzmna damoukidebeli metyvelebis nawilia (a. daviTiani). amgvari midgomac ver moxsnis problemas... b. jorbenaZis klasifikaciiT saxelzmna saxelis sistemaSi unda iqnes ganxiluli: ZiriTadi gansxvaveba zmnasa da saxels Soris formacvalebis saxeebia; zmna iuGvlis, saxeli _ ibrunvis. esaa morfologiuri daxasiaTeba am ori jgufisa. amgvari gaazrebiT, saxelzmna brunebadi sityvaa, e. i. saxelis sistemaSi unda iqnes ganxiluli. mimGeoba rom dros ganarCevs, es semantikis sferoa: warsuli drois semantika iseve ilandeba nawerSi, rogorc naqalaqarSi; erTi nazmnari saxelia, meore warmoqmnili saxeli... gvaris gageba mimGeobaSi da gvaris gageba zmnur formebSi araa erTgvarovani movlena... amis Taobaze ufro vrclad qvemoT gveqneba saubari. I. 32. gramatikuli kategoriebi. kategoria `mecnierebisa da filosofiis uzogadesi cnebaa. igi asaxavs universalur obieqtur kavSirmimarTebebs~. zogadad kategorias ganixilaven, rogorc `logikur cnebas, romelic ganzogadebul formebSi asaxavs obieqturi sinamdvilis ama Tu im mxares, maT urTierTkavSirsa da mimarTebas~ (qegli). mecnierebis yovel dargSi mecnieruli codna kategoriaTa sistemebSia moqceuli, amitom kategoriaTa dadgena-dazustebas mecnierebis nebismier dargSi arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWeba; asea enaTmecnierebaSic, kerZod, gramatikaSi. specialur literaturaSi gramatikul kategoriaTa ganmartebisas araa erTgvarovani Sexeduleba. rig SemTxvevaSi gramati-

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kuli kategoria gaigivebulia morfologiur kategoriasTan. magram, ramdenadac morfologia ganixileba rogorc nawili gramatikisa (sintaqsTan erTad), morfologiuri da sintaqsuri kategoriebis erToblioba qmnis gramatikul kategorias. ase rom, morfologiuri kategoria aris gramatikuli kategoria, magram gramatikuli kategoria ar udris morfologiur kategorias. es aris safuZveli imisa, rom xSirad ar imijneba gramatikuli da morfologiuri kategoriebi. gramatikul kategorias `gramatikuli formisa da gramatikuli Sinaarsis erToblioba qmnis~ (v. gaki). gramatikuli (morfologiuri) kategoriisaTvis gramatikuli (morfologiuri) niSnis mqonebloba miiCneva arsebiTad. `morfologiuri kategoria saTanado afiqsebiT unda iqnes warmodgenili da ara fuZis mniSvnelobiT~ (arn. Ciqobava). ama Tu im enobrivi faqtis morfologiur kategoriad miCnevas `morfologiuri niSnis qonauqonloba wyvets~. morfologiur niSnad ganixileba, erTi mxriv, morfologiuri inventari _ afiqsebi da, meore mxriv, morfologiuri yalibi. magaliTad, piris morfologiuri kategoria afiqsebiT gamoixateba, gvaris formaTa ZiriTadi ganmasxvavebeli morfologiuri niSani formobrivi yalibebia. metyvelebis nawilTa formacvaleba gramatikuli kategoriebis mixedviT xdeba. b. jorbenaZe: TviT gramatikuli kategoria unda ganimartos rogorc gramatikuli sistemis agebis wesi (kanonzomiereba). magaliTad, wer-s forma enaSi imave fuZis mraval formasTan amyarebs kavSirs: i-wer-eb-a u-wer-s wer-s wer-en wer-a wers forma marjvena rigis sxvadasxva formasTan Sewyvilebuli sxvadasxva gramatikuli sistemis wevri aGmoCndeba: wer-s wer-s wer-s wer-s _ _ _ _ i-wer-eb-a erTi sistemaa (gvaris kategoria), u-wer-s meore sistemaa (qcevis kategoria), wer-en mesame sistemaa (ricxvis kategoria), wer-a meoTxe sistemaa (mwkrivis kategoria)...

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TiToeuli sistemis agebisas moqmedebs erTi zogadi wesi: Sewyvilebuli formebi mxolod erTi gramatikuli niSnis mixedviT arian gansxvavebuli; sxva gramatikuli niSnebi maT saerTo aqvT. magaliTad: pirvel wyvils (wer-s _ iwereba) yvela gramatikuli niSani (yvela kategoria) saerTo aqvT, garda erTisa _ gvaris kategoriisa; meore wyvils (wer-s _ u-wer-s) formebi imis mixedviT gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan, Tu vis ganekuTvneba moqmedeba _ qcevis kategoria; mesame wyvils (wer-s _ wer-en) yvela kategoria saerTo aqvT, garda erTisa _ gansxvavebulia subieqtis ricxvi _ ricxvis kategoria; meoTxe wyvils (wer-s _ wer-a) gansxvavebuli aqvs mxolod mwkrivis kategoria... formaTa Sepirispireba SeiZleba gagrZelebuliyo... faqtia, is erTaderTi niSani, rac ganasxvavebs Sewyvilebul formebs, xdeba kidevac maTi Sepirispirebis mizezi; am niSnis mixedviT aigeba sistema. amgvarad agebul sistemas saxeli erqmeva imis mixedviT, Tu ra niSniT moxda misi ageba, rac warmoadgens kidec gramatikul kategorias. gramatikuli kategoriis gansazGvrisas daculi unda iqnes ramdenime piroba: a) gramatikuli kategoria efuZneba ori an meti formis Sepirispirebas; b) Sepirispirebul formaTa Soris (erTi kategoriis formaTa Soris) sxvaobas mxolod erTi gramatikuli niSani unda qmnides; g) Sepirispirebis principi niSandoblivi unda iyos yvela Sepirispirebuli formisaTvis. magaliTad, Sin da wer-s ver Seqmnian gramatikul sistemas; Sesabamisad, es ori forma ar aris erTi da imave gramatikuli kategoriis ori wevri... wer-s da uwer-s orive formisaTvis niSandoblivia qcevis semantika (moqmedebis gankuTvnis TvalsazrisiT gansxvavdebian isini erTmaneTisagan), amitom es ori forma qmnis sistemas. sistema SeiZleba aigos semantikurad dapirispirebuli sityvebiT, magram am sityvaTa Soris ar iyos formobrivi sxvaoba; sxvagvarad: sxvaobas ar qmnides morfologiuri niSani. aseT SemTxvevaSi saqme gveqneba semantikur kategoriasTan. qarTulSi semantikuri kategoriebia dro, kilo da sxva...

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33. metKvelebis nawili da gramatikuli kategoria. sxvadasxva metyvelebis nawils sxvadasxva SesaZlebloba aqvs formacvalebisa. swored formacvalebis SesaZleblobazea damokidebuli gramatikuli kategoriebis raodenoba; erT metyvelebis nawils Cveulebriv ramdenime kategoria moepoveba, magram sxvadasxva metyvelebis nawils kategoriaTa gansxvavebuli raodenoba SeiZleba hqondes. qarTul enaSi saxeli gramatikul kategoriaTa raodenobiT Garibia, zmna _ gacilebiT mdidari. saxels moepoveba brunvisa da ricxvis kategoria; zmnas _ piris, ricxvis, gvaris, qcevis, mwkrivis da a. S. kategoriebi. morfologiuri kategoriebi SeiZleba dajgufdes Semdegi niSnis mixedviT: a) kategoriebi, romlebic saerToa saxelisa da zmnisaTvis, b) kategoriebi, romlebic mxolod saxelebs axasiaTebT, g) kategoriebi, romlebic mxolod zmnebisTvisaa niSandoblivi.
I. 34. qarTuli enis morfologiuri analizis mizani da amocanebi. Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologiuri analizis ZiriTadi mizani da amocanebi aris sityvis formis analizi, sityvis formacvalebis kanonebisa da kanonzomierebaTa gamovlena da Seswavla. srulyofili morfologiuri analizisaTvis aucilebeli aris: a) formis sintaqsuri funqciisa da b) formis semantikis gaTvaliswineba. sintaqsuri da semantikuri faqtorebi moqmedeben formawarmoebaze. ramdenime konkretuli magaliTi:

a) zmnur formebs SeiZleba erTnairi morfologiuri yalibi hqondes, magram sintaqsuri funqcia _ gansxvavebuli: mef-ob-s _ is Tavdeb-ob-s _ is mas... b) formebs morfologiuri yalibi da sintaqsuri funqcia SeiZleba erTnairi hqondes, semantika _ gansxvavebuli: mef-ob-s is _ `mefea, flobs, batonobs~ nadir-ob-s is _ `nadirs iWers, klavs~...

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g) formebs SeiZleba erTnairi morfologiuri yalibi hqondes, magram sintaqsuri funqcia da semantika _ gansxvavebuli: mef-ob-s is _ `mefea...~ mkurnal-ob-s is _ `mkurnalia~; is mas _ `kurnavs~; myofadi: umkurnalebs; is Tavs _ `(samkurnalod) eqimis pacientia~; `kurnavs Tavis Tavs~ _ myofadi: imkurnalebs... sxva magaliTi: vaWr-ob-s vaWaria (myofadi ara aqvs) yidis (`wigniT vaWrobs~ _ wigns yidis): myofadi _ ivaWrebs, wyvetili _ ivaWra.

saxelis SemTxvevaSi: kac-is x-is qorwineb-is saxli

sintaqsurad samive SemTxvevaSi marcxena rigis sityvebi msazRvrelia; morfologiurad _ naTesaobiTi brunva, magram mkveTrad gansxvavebulia semantika: kacis _ kuTvnilebas gamoxatavs, xis _ masalas, qorwinebis _ daniSnulebas... erTi da igive sityva sxvadasxva semantikuri mniSvnelobiT formawarmoebis sxvadasxva SesaZleblobebs avlens: s-cem-s _ am zmnas, mniSvnelobiT `deda Svils scems~ eqneba sruli paradigma uGlebisa; mniSvnelobiT `Tma koWebamde scems~ _ eqneba mxolod pirveli seriis formebi... amgvarad, morfologiuri analizisaTvis aucilebelia sintaqsuri da semantikuri faqtorebis gaTvaliswineba.

nawili II.

saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategriebi. deiqsisis gamovlena saxelisa da zmnisformawarmoebaSi

II.1. saxelisa da zmnis formawarmoebis Sinagani urTierTkavSiri araerTgzis aris aRniSnuli. amas warmoaCens saxelis bruneba (anu saxelTa warmodgena aqtantebad), zmnis pirianoba (anu moqmedebaSi monawile saxelebis asaxva zmnaSi), saxelis ricxvis asaxva zmnaSi da misT. aRniSnul kavSirebs ufro metad warmoaCens formawarmoebis istoriuli viTarebis warmodgena. magaliTad, xelSesaxebad vlindeba masalobrivi Sexvedrebi, erTi mxriv, brunvis niSanTa konsonantur -s, -n, -d elementebsa da, meore mxriv, S3 piris niSanTa arqaul formantebs Soris (-s, -n, -d) (arn. Ciqobava, v. Tofuria); sainteresoa Tanxvedra S1 v- niSnisa vi-n nacvalsaxelis Zireul elementTan, anda O1 m- prefiqsisa -me nacvalsaxelTan da misT. igulisxmeba, rom saxelis morfologiuri potencia zmnis formawarmoebaSic tovebda kvals, ramdenadac moqmedi Tu `samoqmedo~ saxelis raimenairi warmoCena zmnis pirianobis aucilebeli piroba iyo. rac ufro vSordebiT gramatikuli kategoriebis Camoyalibebis istorias, miT ufro fermkrTaldeba da nakleb xelSesaxebi xdeba aRniSnuli Sinagani kavSirebi, magram es mimarTebebi morfologiisa Tu semantikis (leqsikologiis) doneze sinqroniuli analizis farglebSic SeiZleba iqnes danaxuli da kvalificirebuli. II. 2. ricxvis gramatikuli kategoria. aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT yvelaze TvalsaCino suraTs iZleva ricxvis gramatikuli kategoria. miRebulia, rom ricxvi aris saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategoria; amave dros, es kategoria aris erTaderTi, romelic saxelisa da zmnis gramatikul SeTanxmebas ganapirobebs. amave dros, ricxvis kategoria damoukideblad damaxasiaTebelia mxolod arsebiTi saxelisaTvis, ramdenadac arsebiTi saxe-

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li gamoxatavs (aRniSnavs) saganTa klass, saganTa klasi ki, TavisTavad, raodenobasTan aris dakavSirebuli. zmna, misi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, damoukideblad ricxvis gamoxatvasTan, raodenobasTan ar aris dakavSirebuli. man SeiZleba asaxos mxolod ricxvi aqtantebisa. is, rac zmnaSi ricxvis formantebis saxiT vlindeba, aris gamoZaxili saxelis Sesabamisi morfologiuri kategoriisa. amitomac aris, rom ricxvis gamoxatva zmnaSi pirianobasTan aris ZiriTadad dakavSirebuli. II. 3. orgvari mravlobiTi. arsebiTi saxeli orgvar mravlobiTs iwarmoebs: -eb-ians da narTanians; es ori mravlobiTi gansxvavebuli tipologiisa da funqcionaluri datvirTvisaa. -eb-iani mravlobiTi iyenebs mxolod -eb sufiqss da formas awarmoebs aglutinaciuri principiT: jer fuZe, Semdeg -eb, xolo Semdeg _ brunvis niSani: skam-eb-i skam-eb-ma skam-eb-s skam-eb-is skam-eb-iT skam-eb-o -eb formants saxelis morfonologiaSi iseTive Zala aqvs, rogoric -VC struqturis brunvis niSnebs (-is, -iT, -ad), anu ganapirobebs Sesabamisi saxeluri fuZis kumSvasa da kvecas (cxadia, yvela brunvaSi): mgl-eb-i Zm-eb-i m g l - e b - ma Z m - e b - ma da a. S. SeniSvna: -eb fuZis e xmovans ar kvecs: xe-eb-i... Tavad -eb formanti mosalodnel morfonologiur procesebs ar eqvemdebareba: is ucvlelia yvela poziciaSi (saxl-eb-is...). gansxvavebuli bunebisaa narTaniani mravlobiTi. gamoiyeneba ori sufiqsi: -n da -T(a). -n gamoiyeneba saxelobiTsa da wodebiTSi da misi gamoyeneba aglutinaciur princips icavs: kac-n-i (Sdr. kac-eb-i) kac-n-o (Sdr. kac-eb-o)

II. saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategoriebi

47

-T(a) daboloebiani forma asrulebs yvela danarCeni brunvis rols da misi gamovlena fleqsiuri xasiaTisaa: -T(a) iTavsebs brunvisa da ricxvis gramatikul Sinaarsebs. Sdr.: qal-Ta dRe _ qal-eb-is (dRe) narTaniani mravlobiTis morfonologia, Sesabamis sufiqsTa struqturidan gamomdinare, aqtualuri araa: arc ricxvis niSnebi iwveven fuZis cvlilebas, arc Tavad es niSnebi icvlebian: Zval-n-i, Zval-Ta (Sdr.: Zvl-is, Zvl-eb-i). II. 4. orgvari mravlobiTis funqciuri ganawilebisaTvis. sazogadod, -eb da -n(-T) sufiqsebi, rogorc morfologiuri elementebi, TiTqmis yovel fuZesTan Tanabari uflebamosilebiT arian aRWurvilni _ awarmoon mravlobiTi ricxvi. Tumca narTanian mravlobiTs upiratesad arqaulobis garkveuli stilistikuri elferi axlavs. funqcionaluri TvalsazrisiT ZiriTadi adgili -eb formants ukavia. mainc rogoria maTi gavrcelebis zogadi suraTi? a) sazogado saxelebSi SeiZleba ugamonaklisod Segvxvdes rogorc erTi, ise meore saxis mravlobiTi, oRond -eb ufro bunebrivi, Cveulebrivi metyvelebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli, xolo -n(-T) sufiqsTa gamovlena markirebulia raime saxis stilistikuri niuansiT. b) moqmedebis saxelebSi (masdarebSi) -n(-T) sufiqsia gabatonebuli, oRond am SemTxvevaSi xelSesaxebia Sesabamis formaTa met-naklebi terminologiuri datvirTva: sja-n-i, cdan-i, tanjva-ni, galoba-n-i... g) -eb da -n(-T) TiTqmis Tanabrad aris gavrcelebuli substantivis rolSi myofi Tu gasubstantivebuli zedsarTavi saxelebis mravlobiTis warmoebaSi. Sdr.: did-eb-i da patar-eb-i da `...mogrovdiT yvelani, did-n-i, mcire-n-i~... Tumca igive zedsarTavi, gasubstantivebuli Tanamedrove terminologiuri SinaarsiT, mxolod -eb-s moiTxovs: TeTr-eb-i, wiTl-eb-i, mwvane-eb-i, Sav-eb-i... am SemTxvevaSi aSkaraa sufiqsis terminologiuri datvirTva. d) ricxviTi saxeli msazRvrelad Tu substantivis rolSi mxolod -n(-T) sufiqsebs iTavsebs: `Svid-n-i gurjanel-n-i~, `as-n-i

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rad unda dedasa~... magram cifrebis (niSnebis) aRniSvnisas -eb gamoiyeneba: or-eb-i, xuT-eb-i... e) nacvalsaxelTa erT nawilSi narTaniani warmoeba erTaderTia... isi-n-i, ima-T... yvela-n-i... meore rigis nacvalsaxelebSi n-(-T) upiratesobiT aris aRWurvili: zog-n-i (Sdr. zog-eb-i), ra-n-i, sxva-n-i... mesame rigSi -eb sufiqss aqvs upiratesoba: Cven-eb-i, Taviseb-i... viRac-eb-i, raRac-eb-i... v) terminologiur (nomenklaturul) SesityvebebSi, faqtobriv, erTaderTia -Ta daboloeba: mweral-T-a kavSiri, mwvaneT-a moZraoba... gza-T-a saministro... z) mravlobiTebi, sazogadod, kisrulobs zogi specifikuri Sinaarsis gamoxatvas; magaliTad: _ sakuTar saxelebs, gvarebis garda, simravlis gamoxatva ar sWirdeba, magram garkveul (`ganzogadebis~) SemTxvevaSi amisi saWiroeba vlindeba: `akakiebi, bakakiebi...~ `naTiebo, leilebo...~ gvarsaxelebi TavisTavad gulisxmobs simravles da erTi gvaris warmomadgenelTa aRsaniSnavad mravlobiTic gamoiyeneba: burdul-eb-i, burdul-n-i... magram am or formas Soris gansxvaveba is aris, rom -eb-ians SeuZlia gamoxatos rogorc konkretuli raodenoba (vTqvaT, `ori burduli~), ise mTeli gvaric, xolo -n sufiqsiani gvaris mTel simravles gulisxmobs. _ nivTierebaTa saxelebi, sazogadod, mravlobiTs ver iguebs, magram romelime saxeldebuli nivTierebis nairgvarobis (formobrivi an Tvisobrivi nairsaxeobis) SemTxvevaSi mravlobiTis formebi aqtiurdeba: mineraluri wylebi... xorcebi daaglijes... `suls miuZRvis xorcT naqmari...~ am jgufSic mravlobiTis formanti terminologiur datvirTvasac iRebs: maril-eb-i, cil-eb-i... _ aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac mravlobiTis forma arsebiTad imaves aRniSnavs, rasac TviT sityvis fuZe, anu formanti funqciurad neitralizebulia; Sdr.: kar-i _ kar-eb-i, Tma _ Tm-eb-i, saTval-e _ saTvale-eb-i...

II. saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategoriebi

49

_ zogi sityva sabolood mravlobiTi formiT damkvidrebula, rac ucxoenovan gavlenas unda mieweros: gastrol-eb-i, ardadeg-eb-i, memuar-eb-i... II. 5. saxelis simravlis asaxva zmnaSi. rogorc iTqva, zmna asaxavs saxelis mravlobiTobas. ufro davazustoT: zmnaSi aisaxeba mxolod im saxelis mravlobiToba, romelic zmnasTan pirad aris Sewyobili, Sesabamisi moqmedebis aqtantia; metic SeiZleba iTqvas: daCndeba im saxelis ricxvi, romlis piric asaxulia zmnaSi. amave dros, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Sewyobil pirTa mravlobiTis asaxvis TvalsazrisiTac erTgvarovneba ar aris: a) subieqturi piris mravlobiToba aisaxeba samsave pirSi: subieqturi wyoba: 1 2 3 moqmedebiTi v-xatav-T xatav-T xatav-en vnebiTi v-rCebi-T rCebi-T rCebi-an e. w. saSuali v-kankaleb-T kankaleb-T kankaleb-en

amgvarad: I-II pirebSi aglutinaciuri principia daculi: calke _ piris niSani, calke _ ricxvis niSani: 1. v _ T 2. _ T III piri sxva princips gviCenebs _ pirisa da ricxvis gagebas erTi sufiqsuri formanti iTavsebs: -en, -n, -an. III piris mravlobiTobis gamoxatva, piris aGniSvnis msgavsad, sxvadasxva sufiqsiT xdeba: -en (xatav-en) -an (rCebi-an) -n (xat-o-n), (darC-n-e-n) -nen (xatavd-nen), (darC-nen) -es (daxat-es) ..... subieqtis mravlobiToba, Sesabamisi potenciis SemTxvevaSi, erTnairad aisaxeba zmnaSi, ganurCevlad imisa, -eb-iania saxeli Tu narTaniani; oRond gasaTvaliswinebelia: III piris mravlobiToba, Cveulebisamebr, ar aRiniSneba, roca subieqti usulo sagania: xe-eb-i dga-s saxl-eb-i Sendeb-a

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

SeniSvna: 1. es wesi moqmedia -eb-iani mravlobiTis SemTxvevaSi, magram ricxvSi SeTanxmeba amoqmeddeba usulo sagnis narTanian mravlobiTTan: xe-n-i dgan-an. SeniSvna: 2. -eb sufiqsiani usulo arsebiTi saxelis mravlobiTi aseve aisaxeba zmnaSi Sesabamisi subieqtis personifikaciis SemTxvevaSi, an roca am subieqts gansakuTrebiT aqtiuri moqmedeba miewereba: foTlebi CurCuleb-en... `xeebi rokviT daiZrnen qarSi...~ `mTebi TavCaCqnianebi fiqrs miscemian mwaresa...~ SesaZlebelia subieqti obieqturi piris niSnebiT iyos gamoxatuli (inversiis SemTxvevaSi). subieqtis mravlobiToba am SemTxvevaSic samive pirSi gamoxatulia (obieqturi wyobis tipologia ix. qvemoT): 1. da-gv-ixatav-s a-gv-iSenebi-a gv-iyvar-s 2. da-g-ixatav-T a-g-iSenebi-a-T g-iyvar-T 3. da-u-xatav-T a-u-Senebi-a-T u-yvar-T b) obieqturi piris mravlobiToba aisaxeba zmnis I-II pirebSi; am poziciaSi ZiriTadad iribi (uSualo) obieqti igulisxmeba, magram aseve aisaxeba imave poziciaSi mdgomi pirdapiri obieqti; III piris obieqti mxolod tendencias amJRavnebs zmnaSi mravlobiTobis gamoxatvisas (usmen-T is maT, aZageb-T is maT _ aranormatiuli tipi), riTac mkveTrad gansxvavdeba inversiuli obieqturi wyobisagan. obieqturi wyoba: 1 2 3 moqmedebiTi gv-xatav-s g-xatav-T xatav-s vnebiTi gv-emaleb-a g-emaleb-a-T emaleb-a saSualo gv-gav-s g-gav-T h-gav-s

am SemTxvevaSic sruliad aSkaraa tipologiuri gansxvaveba I da II obieqtur pirTa mravlobiTobis gamoxatvisa zmnaSi: Tu II pirSi aglutinaciis principi moqmedebs (g _ T), rac gulisxmobs pirisa da ricxvis damoukidebeli elementebiT gamoxatvas, I pi-

II. saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategoriebi

51

ris gv- prefiqsi sinTezuri gramatikuli Sinaarsisaa, is, ricxvTan erTad, piris gagebasac iTavsebs; Sdr.: 1. gv-aqv-s 2. g-aqv-T II piris -T sufiqsis win S3 -s sufiqsis dakargvis mizezi (is bolo dromde SemorCa am poziciaSi: g-aqv-s-T), cxadia, ara gramatikuli, aramed morfonologiuria (TanxmovanTa Tavmoyra). III pirSi subieqturi da obieqturi pirebis mravlobiTobis damTxvevisas upiratesoba eniWeba subieqtur pirs: isini Tqven g-ixatav-en (Sdr. moZv. da kuTx. g-ixatav-en-T) (Sdr. erTi mxriv: is Tqven g-ixatav-T meore mxriv: isini Sen g-ixatav-en) obieqtur pirTa mravlobiTobasTan dakavSirebiT cnobilia agreTve sxvadasxva pirTa damTxveva: me Tqven Cven Sen Cven Tqven is Tqven

g-xatav-T

g) p i r T a m r a v l o b i T o b i s g a m o v l e n i s m o u l o d n e l i S e m T x v e v e b i: SesaZlebelia zmnis II piris mravlobiTobis gamomxatveli -T sufiqsi gamovlindes sruliad Seuferebel poziciaSi, ara zmnasTan, aramed sxva metyvelebis nawilebTan: saxelTan, zmnizedasTan, SorisdebulTan, nawilakTan... bodiSi-T! kargi-T! Cqara-T! su-T! ariqa-T!... igulisxmeba, rom Sesabamis frazaSi saTanado zmnis forma Cavardnilia da saWiro `piris gageba~ (mimarTebiToba) mimarTvis formas SeuTavsebia: Cqara-T! ( Cqara modi-T) da misT. II. 6. simravlis gamoxatvis leqsikuri saSualebani. garda morfologiuri inventarisa, enas aqvs SesaZlebloba (warmomavlobiT albaT ufro adrindelic ki), rom Sinaarsobrivi opozicia _ `e r T i~ _ `m r a v a l i~ leqsikuri masaliTac gamoxatos.

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igulisxmeba SemTxvevebi, rodesac sagnobrivi simravlis semantikas, `erTis~ sapirispirod, damoukidebeli fuZe gamoxatavs. pirvel rigSi, aq igulisxmeba e. w. k r e b i T i saxelebi, romelTa Tavisebureba swored is aris, rom mravlobiTi Sinaarsis gamoxatva maT SeuZliaT morfologiis gareSe _ TavianTi fuZiT isini ukve Seicaven aseT Sinaarss; amisi magaliTebia: xalxi _ kaci (adamiani). fara _ cxvari gundi _ frinveli naxiri _ Zroxa rema _ cxeni kolti _ Rori... e. i. xalxi gulisxmobs `bevr a d a m i a n s ~, naxiri _ `bevr Z r o x a s~... amgvari saxelebi formiT mxolobiTia (mravlobiTis formanti ara aqvT), xolo SinaarsiT _ `mravlobiTi~ (es Cans maTs SemaTanxmebel valentobaSic). arsebobs iseTi krebiTi Sinaarsis saxelebic, romlebic erTi da imave fuZiT warmogvidgenen `erTsac~ da simravlis semantikasac; aseTebia: cxvari, Zroxa, Rori, foToli (`tyem moisxa foToli~...). Sdr.: a) `c x v a r i dakles~ da `c x v a r i ferdobs Seefina~. b) `Z r o x a dakles~ da `mere me Z r o x a vis Cavabaro?!..~ opozicia, `c x e n i _ r e m a~ supletivizms mogvagonebs, Tumca aq fuZeTa supleturoba mxolod moCvenebiTia, sinamdvileSi damoukidebeli fuZeebia semantikurad dawyvilebuli (Sepirispirebuli). sxva SemTxvevaa nacvalsaxelur fuZeTa supleturoba: me _ Cven Sen _ Tqven zmnuri paradigmebi aseve warmoaCens fuZeTa supleturobis SemTxvevebs: daagdo _ dayara dasva _ dasxa dajda _ dasxdnen... `mravlobiTis~ Sinaarsis Semcveli fuZe SeiZleba mxolod leqsikurad gamoxatavdes am kategorias: vard || cviv-: davarda _ dacvivda

II. saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategoriebi

53

SeiZleba leqsikurTan erTad morfologiuri saSualebebic iyos gamoyenebuli, anu Warbi gamoxatvis SemTxveva gvqondes: jed || sxed-: da-jd-a _ da-sxd-nen... sxed- fuZesTan erTad `simravle~ -nen sufiqsiTac aris gamoxatuli. aq gramatika da supleturoba erTad aris warmodgenili. II. 7. `supleturi SeTanxmeba~. mniSvnelovania is, rom SemaTanxmebeli unari supletur fuZeebSic aris gamovlenili. aq pirvel rigSi igulisxmeba iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac saxelis supleturi fuZe zmnisgan aseve moiTxovs supletivizms (`supletur SeTanxmebas~): naxir-i da-cviv-d-a (Sdr. da-vard-a) xalx-i da-sxd-a (Sdr. da-jd-a) aq subieqtis `simravlea~ zmnuri fuZis supleturobis ganmapirobebeli. aseTive viTareba SeiZleba Segvxvdes obieqtis `simravlis~ SemTxvevaSi: xalx-i da-sx-a (Sdr. da-sv-a) xil-i da-yar-a (Sdr. da-a-gd-o) nayof-i a-sx-i-a (Sdr. a-b-i-a) zmnuri supletivizmi aseve SeiZleba Segvxvdes im SemTxvevaSic, roca masTan pirad Sewyobili saxeli gramatikuli mravlobiTiT aris warmodgenili. swored aseTi subieqtis simravlis dros gvxvdeba zmnaSi ormagi _ supleturi da gramatikuli _ gamoxatva: stumr-eb-i da-sxd-nen (Sdr. da-jd-a) ZaRl-eb-i ga-cvivd-nen da misT. zmnaTa supleturobas aseve moiTxovs nacvalsaxelTa supleturi mravlobiTi: `Cven davsxediT~ bavSv-eb-i wamo-cviv-d-nen (Sdr. wamo-vard-a) ZaRl-eb-i mi-s-cviv-d-nen (Sdr. mi-vard-a) magram usulo sagnis -ebiani mravlobiTi zmnas ricxvSi ver SeiTanxmebs, zmna mxolod supleturobiT `exmianeba~ Sesabamisi subieqtis simravles: foTl-eb-i a-sx-i-a (Sdr. a-b-i-a) vaSl-eb-i da-cviv-d-a (Sdr. da-vard-a)...

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nacvalsaxelur fuZeTa supleturi monacvleoba aseve moiTxovs zmnuri fuZeebis supleturobas (`leqsikur SeTanxmebas~). subieqtis simravlis SemTxvevaSi: Cven wamo-v-cviv-d-i-T (Sdr. wamo-v-vard-i) Tqven da-sxed-i-T (Sdr. da-v-jeq-i). obieqtis simravlis dros: Cven da-gv-sx-a (Sdr. da-m-sv-a) Cven (gareT) gamo-gv-yar-a (Sdr. gamo-m-a-gd-(o) SevadaroT arasupleturi nacvalsaxeluri fuZe: isi-n-i da-sxd-nen (Sdr. da-jd-a) isi-n-i da-sx-a (Sdr. da-sv-a)... II. 8. piris nacvalsaxelebi da piris gamoxatva zmnaSi. arsebobs mosazreba, rom im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac zmnas pirebad nacvalsaxeli Seewyoba, saxeli iTanxmebs zmnas piris mixedviT (l. kvaWaZe). saxelisa da zmnis sintagmatikis danarCeni SemTxvevebi ki marTvas gulisxmobs. am mosazrebis safuZveli is aris, rom piris nacvalsaxelebSi `romelobis~ mixedviT pirTa opoziciaa asaxuli. iseve, rogorc zmnis uRlebis dros yoveli mwkrivis farglebSi. Sesabamisad, I piris nacvalsexli `me~ SeiTanxmebs zmnas I pirSi (v-wer), II piris nacvalsaxeli `Sen~ _ II piris zmnas (wer), xolo III piris nacvalsaxeli `is~ _ III pirs, Sesabamisi mravlobiTebiTurT. sakiTxis amgvarad dayenebas xvdeba erTi winaaRmdegoba: rodesac vambobT, rom winadadebis erTi wevri (erTi forma) iTanxmebs meores, aucileblad vgulisxmobT am wevrebs Soris morfologiur `Tanxmobas~. am SemTxvevaSi ki ase ar aris: nacvalsaxelebi leqsikurad gamoxataven pirebs da ara morfologiurad (gramatikuli niSnebiT), xolo zmnaSi pirianoba piris niSnebiT gamoixateba. ase rom, mimarTeba semantikisa (leqsikuri opoziciisa) gramatikul formasTan SeTanxmebis nimuSad ver iqneba miCneuli. sintagmaturi mimarTebis aseTi formaluri principi rom ara, SesaZlebeli iqneboda zmnasTan Sewyobili sxva saxelebic III piris Sinaarsis `farul~ gamovlenad migveCnia. amdenad, es TavisTavad saintereso urTierTmimarTeba (nacvalsaxeli + zmna) metyvelebis nawilTa saurTierTo kategoriad ver miiCneva.

II. saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategoriebi

55

II. 9. deiqsisis gamovlenisaTvis qarTul formawarmoebaSi. d e i q s i s i s cneba (berZ. dixis `miTiTeba, miniSneba~) gamoiyeneba iseTi movlenebis aRsaniSnavad, romelTa drosac gramatikuli (formaluri) sistemis meSveobiT xdeba miniSneba enobriv erTeulTa Sinaarsobriv Tu funqciur datvirTvaze (rolze). aseTi miniSneba SeiZleba exebodes sul sxvadasxva gramatikuli klasis erTeulebs. magaliTad: 1. nacvalsaxelTa da zmnisarTTa sistemaSi: a) TavisTavad deiqturia zemomiTiTebuli Sinaarsobrivi opozicia piris nacvalsaxelTa sistemaSi, ramdenadac aqa gvaqvs ara mxolod garCeva pirTa romelobisa, aramed maTi rolebrivi mimarTeba sametyvelo aqtTan: me _ molaparake (metyveli) Sen _ adresati is _ metyvelebis obieqti b) Sinaarsobrivad deiqturia kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelTa samwevrovani sistema (me, Sen, is... Tavisi...), vinaidan, kuTvnilebasTan erTad, maTSi vlindeba mimarTeba metyvelebaSi monawile pirebTan: Cemi me Seni Sen misi is Tavisi (Tvisi) nacvalsaxelis SinaarsSi erTgvarad neitralizebulia miTiTeba pirTa garCevaze, Tumca aq Semodis sxva opozicia: `moqmedis~ kuTvnili _ `aramoqmedis~ kuTvnili. g) aRniSnuli semantika ufro xelSesaxebi xdeba imgvar SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sistemaSi specialuri deiqturi elementebi iCens Tavs. pirvel rigSi, qarTulSi aseTia CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa samwevrovani sistema, romelsac xmovan elementTa opozicia orwevrovnad warmogvidgens da masSi asaxulia I-II pirTa (`namdvil pirTa~) poziciuri dapirispireba III pirTan (`arapirTan~). e (I-II piri) _ i (III piri): 1. e-s 2. e-g 3. i-s (i-gi) irib brunvebSi es opozicia a_i xmovanTa dapirispirebaSi gadadis, Tumca nacvalsaxelTa sistema mainc samwevrovani rCeba:

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1. a-mas 2. maga-s 3. i-mas igulisxmeba, rom a- II pirsac ekuTvnis, roca I-II piris Sida opozicia ar aris aqcentirebuli. d) analogiuria mimarTeba III piris kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelTa deiqtur sistemaSi: 1. a-misi 2. magisi 3. i-misi e) amosaval CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa sistemas efuZneba deiqturi opozicia momdevno (`atributuli~) CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebisa (e _ i): 1. e-seTi 2. e-geTi 3. i-seTi magram, rogorc Cans, am sistemis Tanaarsebobam, erTi mxriv, CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa irib brunvebze dafuZnebul kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelebTan, romelic a _ i opozicias warmogvidgens: a-misTana, magisTana i-misTana. da meore mxriv, zmnisarTTa aseTive tipis deiqturma sistemam ganapiroba e _ i opoziciis samwevrovan sistemad `koreqtireba~ (pirTa samwevrovani deiqsisi moCvenebiTia): 1. a-seTi 2. e-geTi 3. i-seTi v) pirTa mimarTebis gamomxatveli deiqturi xmovanprefiqsebiT aris agebuli zmnizeduri sistemac, rogorc damoukidebeli: 1. a-q 2. mand 3. i-q ise meoreuli, CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa safuZvelze warmoqmnili (Tavisi `samwevrovnebiTac~ aSkarad meoreuli): 1. a-se 2. e-gre 3. i-se 2. zmna, rogorc zmnuri semantikisa da aqtantTa Tu lokalur mimarTebaTa yvelaze ufro mravalmxrivi gamomxatveli, Tavis

II. saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategoriebi

57

araerT qvesistemaSi Seicavs deiqtur miniSnebebs; magaliTad, pirTa zemomiTiTebuli opozicia, erTi mxriv, I-II, xolo meore mxriv _ III (arapirs) Soris, aSkarad iCens Tavs zmniswinebSi, kerZod `saaqeTo~ (mo-) da `saiqeTo~ (mi-) orientaciis zmniswinTa ganawilebaSi: 1. me mo-v-iwvie 2. Sen mo-iwvie 3. man mi-iwvia SeniSvna: deiqturi xmovanprefiqsebis a_i dapirispireba gaxda safuZveli imisa, rom mo- zmniswinis a xmovniani dialeqturi varianti ma- iqna miCneuli amosavlad (g. deetersi): ma- mi. sazogadod, qarTul zmniswinTa sistema, misi ZiriTadi _ saorientacio _ opozicia swored metyvelze (an moqmedze _ pirebis mixedviT) orientirebiT aris agebuli. iq, sadac moZraobis semantikaa gamoxatuli, mo- zmniswiniT garTulebuli, faqtobriv, yvela zmniswini markirebul `saaqeTo~ opozicias qmnis: saiqeTo awagaSeCagadadasaaqeTo amowamogamoSemoCamogadmodamo-

3. araerT ganxilul sistemaSi gamovlenili msgavsi `orwevrovani~ ganawileba iCens Tavs saobieqto (sasxviso) qcevis prefiqsTa sistemaSi: 1. me m-i-Senebs 2. Sen g-i-Senebs 3. mas u-Senebs Sdr.: 1. me m-i-yvars 2. Sen g-i-yvars 3. mas u-yvars. 4. sazogadod, aRsaniSnavia saerTo deiqturi Sinaarsi zmnuri xmovanTavsarTebisa, romlebic TavianTi pirdapiri grama-

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tikuli mniSvnelobiT sxvadasxva morfologiur sistemaSi nawildebian (kauzativi, gvari, qceva...). maTi gamaerTianebeli deiqturoba ki obieqtur pirTa `povnierebaSi~ mdgomareobs (b. jorbenaZe). Sesabamisi obieqti SeiZleba iribi anu uSualo iyos, SeiZleba _ pirdapiri. am sistemaSi Cajdeba a-, i-, u-, e- xmovanTavsarTebi: a-xvev-s i-xvev-s e-xvev-a u-xvev-s wer-s i-wer-s e-wereba u-wer-s

e-xvev-a

e-wereba

a-prefiqss, romelic sistemaSi ZiriTadad `neitraluria~ qcevis TvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba daekisros e. w. `sazedao situaciis~ (a. SaniZis kvalifikaciiT) gageba. am SemTxvevaSi pirTa viTareba icvleba; Sdr.: a-xvev-s (Zafis gorgals) _ i-xvev-a (gorgali) a-xvev-s (fuTas, Toks) _ e-xvev-a (Toki fuTas) es datvirTva gansakuTrebiT xelSesaxebia im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac neitraluri qcevis forma uniSnoa (-formantiania) da `sazedaos~ warmoqmnas Sesabamisi prefiqsis gaaqtiureba ganapirobebs; Sdr. wer-s (is mas) _ a-wer-s (is mas mas). e-wereb-a orpiriani forma gramatikuli SinaarsiT swored a-wer-s da u-wer-s sampirian formebs miemarTeba.

nawili III.

saxelis morfologia
Tavi I. saxeli. zogadi sakiTxebi

III. 1.1. saxelis adgili formacvalebad sityvaTa Soris. enaSi arsebul sityvaTa mTeli maragi, maTi gramatikuli unaris (potenciis) gaTvaliswinebiT, upirvelesad or gansxvavebul jgufad unda gavyoT: formacvalebadi da formaucvleli sityvebi. SeniSvna: formacvaleba anu formawarmoeba (fleqsia) gulisxmobs sityvis formis iseT cvlas, romlis drosac sityvis leqsikuri mniSvneloba ar icvleba. mag.: a) saxli, saxlma, saxlis... saxlebi... b) wers, werda, dawera, dauweria... aseT SemTxvevaSi sityvis TiToeuli forma warmoadgens fleqsiuri paradigmis formalur wevrs, misi (formis) gramatikuli mniSvneloba mxolod paradigmis farglebSi moiazreba, paradigmis doneze ganisazRvreba TiToeuli formis gramatikuli statusi. romelime formis gasvla paradigmis farglebidan moaswavebs misi leqsikuri statusis Secvlas da axali paradigmis nawilad mis qcevas. magaliTisaTvis movixmoT purad forma: pur-ad (`qva p u r a d gadaiqca~), rogorc morfologiuri erTeuli, pur- sityvis erT-erTi formaa: pur-i, pur-ma, pur-s... pur-ad... magram igive fonologiuri odenoba (SesityvebaSi: `p u r a d kacs~) formalurad (morfologiurad) ukve sxva paradigmis wevria da misi leqsikuri mniSvnelobac da formac gasulia pirveli paradigmis farglebidan: purad-i purad-ma Sdr.: pur-i pur-ma

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purad-s .............. purad-ad SeniSvna:

pur-s .......... pur-ad

viTarebiTi (agreTve _ moqmedebiTi) brunvis formisa da naviTarebiTari (namoqmedebiTari) fuZis garCevis saWiroeba ganapirobebs orTografiul normas, rom aRniSnuli derivaciuli erTeulebi gaformebuli iyos micemiTi brunvis niSniT: purad-s kacs, SromiT-s koleqtivSi... (Sdr.: ferad qsovil-s, uaryofiT ricxv-s...).

afiqsaciis Sedegad miRebuli nebismieri forma TavisTavad aris morfologiuri odenoba, maT Soris _ derivati, axlad warmoqmnili sityvac: lurj-i lurj-a... magram TviT am konkretuli formis gramatikuli statusi ganisazRvreba misi adgiliT fleqsiur paradigmaSi. am SemTxvevaSi axlad miRebuli `forma~ (lurj-a) aRar ganekuTvneba im gramatikul paradigmas (lurj-i...), romlis safuZvelzec is warmoiqmna. formalurad kud-i da kud-a erTeulebs Soris imaze meti gansxvaveba ar aris, vidre kud-i da kud-ad, magram sistemurad kud-a sul sxva enobrivi odenobaa, radgan formiT is aris ara kud-i, kud-ma, kud-s... paradigmis wevri, aramed TviTon qmnis sxva, damoukidebel paradigmas: kuda kuda-m kuda-s... meore mxriv, rac aranakleb mniSvnelovania, axali erTeuli kud-a semantikurad veRar moeqceva kud- fuZis leqsikur SinaarsSi, aramed is gvevlineba damoukidebel leqsikur erTeulad (rogorc `ukudos~ sinonimi). amave dros, am SemTxvevaSi mas ara mxolod leqsikuri Sinaarsi, aramed sakvalifikacio statusic Secvlili aqvs: kuda (xari) _ zedsarTavi saxelia. Tumca, es ukanaskneli cvlileba sityvawarmoebis farglebSi savaldebulo ar aris. amgvarad, unda gavarCioT enobriv formaTa mimarTebis ori saxe:

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a ) f o r m a w a r m o e b a anu fleqsia (laT. flexio `Runva, dreka~): kud-i, kud-ma, kud-s... b) s i t y v a w a r m o e b a anu d e r i v a c i a (laT. derivatio `gadaxra~): kud-i kud-a, kud-ian-i, u-kud-o... gramatikis interesis sagani, upirveles yovlisa, aris formawarmoeba, amitomac morfologia umTavres yuradRebas formacvalebas dauTmobs. formawarmoeba, TavisTavad, erTgvarovani ar aris. qarTul enaSi formacvalebis (fleqsiis) ori ZiriTadi nairsaxeoba, anu formacvalebad sityvaTa ori ZiriTadi jgufi unda gamovyoT: 1. sityvebi, romlebic saganTa moqmedebas an mdgomareobas gamoxataven da romlebic formas icvlian winadadebis Sinaarsisa da masTan dakavSirebuli danarCeni wevrebis karnaxiT. 2. sityvebi, romlebic samyaros sagnobriv (`obieqtur~) gamovlinebaT asaxaven da romlebic formas icvlian wina, (1) kategoriis sityvebTan an urTierTTan kavSiris dasamyareblad. pirveli saxis formacvalebas hqvia u R l e b a; xolo sityvas, romelsac uRleba axasiaTebs, zmna ewodeba. amdenad, zmna u R l e b a d i sityvaa. meore saxis formacvalebas b r u n e b a hqvia; xolo sityvas, romelsac bruneba axasiaTebs, saxeli ewodeba. amdenad, saxeli b r u n e b a d i sityvaa. yovelive aRniSnuli SeiZleba sqematurad gamovsaxoT:
sityvaTa maragi

formacvalebadi sityvebi

formaucvleli sityvebi

brunebadi: saxelebi

uRlebadi: zmnebi

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III. 1.2. saxelis raobisaTvis. tradiciuli klasifikaciis mixedviT warmodgenil metyvelebis nawilebs Soris oTxis dasaxelebaSi Sedis termini saxeli; esenia: arsebiTi saxeli, zedsarTavi saxeli, ricxviTi saxeli, nacvalsaxeli. amis mixedviT, saerTo, gamaerTianebeli cnebaa `saxeli~, xolo TiToeuli klasis TavsiTavadobis warmomCeni, ganmasxvavebeli _ terminis pirveli nawili: `arsebiTi~, `zedsarTavi~, `ricxviTi~, `nacval-~. amdenad, Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT, cneba-termini `saxeli~ aerTianebs sruliad araerTgvarovan ramdenime leqsikur jgufs (Sdr., erTi mxriv _ `s a g a n i~, meore mxriv _ `T v i s e b a~, mesame mxriv _ `r a o d e n o b a~...); am cnebis qveS gaerTianebuli sityvebi arc funqcionaluri TvalsazrisiT aris erTgvarovani: arsebiTi saxeli ubralod miemarTeba aRsaniSns, xolo nacvalsaxeli, SeiZleba iTqvas, sagnobrivi TvalsazrisiT mxolod simboluri xasiaTisaa. maS, ra aris is, riTac cneba `s a x e l i~ am oTxi klasis gamaerTianebeli Sinaarsis matarebelia. cxadia, is, ris gamoc es cnebebi gramatikaSi (morfologiaSi) aris Semotanili (ix. `metyvelebis nawilTa daxasiaTeba~), anu ganmsazRvrelia is gramatikuli kategoriebi, romlebic metyvelebis nawilTa klasifikacias (erTi mxriv, `saxelebis~ gamoyofas, meore mxriv _ `saxelebis~ Sida gamijvnas) udevs safuZvlad. upirveles yovlisa, saerTo (gamaerTianebeli) cneba saxeli unda davaxasiaToT im gramatikuli kategoriis mixedviT, romelic aseve saerTo iqneba am cnebiT warmodgenili saxelTa yvela klasisaTvis. aseTi aris bruneba. amdenad saxelad SeiZleba movixsenioT iseTi sityvebi, romlebic ganarCves b r u n v e b s, anu qmnis b r u n e b i s sistemas. SeniSvna: aq principuli mniSvnelobisaa is, rom yvela saxels axasiaTebs brunebis kategoria, Torem TviT brunebis sistema Tu calkeuli formebi SeiZleba erTgvarovani ar iyos. saxelebisaTvis aseve damaxasiaTebelia gramatikuli r i c x v i s kategoriis mqonebloba; oRondac es kategoria Sinaar-

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seulad arsebiT saxels miemarTeba, xolo danarCen metyvelebis nawilebze gadadis imdenad, ramdenadac isini an msazRvrelis rolSi SeeTanxmebian arsebiT saxels (mTani maRalni, orni Zmani...), anda arsebiTi saxelis rols asruleben (isini, maT, rani da misT.). saxeli, rogorc brunebadi sityva, aseve dairTavs Tandebulebs; oRondac am SemTxvevaSic sivrculi an sxva mimarTebis gamoxatva arsebiTi saxelis prerogativaa; danarCeni metyvelebis nawilebi Tandebulebs miiReben, rogorc arsebiTi saxelis rolSi mdgomi erTeulebi. ramdenime gramatikuli mniSvneloba ufro lokaluri gamovlenisaa (mag. kuTvnilebis gamoxatva da misT.), amitomac maT sagangebod ar SevexebiT. III. 1.3. saxelis jgufebi Sinaarsis (aRsaniSnis) mixedviT. amdenad, cneba `saxeli~ ramdenime leqsikur jgufs aerTianebs: saxelebSi, upirveles yovlisa, moiazreba sityvebi, romlebic garemomcveli sagnobrivi samyaros nominaciur proeqcias asaxaven. yovel sagansa Tu movlenas enaSi aqvs (SeiZleba hqondes) Tavisi saxeli; sagani mravalia da maTi saxeldebis Sedegi, Sesabamisad, mravalferovan suraTs iZleva; sagnis (obieqtis) a r s e b o b a s sagnis saxeli afiqsirebs; amitomac hqvia am klasis sityvebs _ `arsebiTi saxeli~. meore mxriv, cneba `saxeli~ moicavs sruliad gansxvavebuli Sinaarsis sityvebs, im sityvebs, romlebic saganTa (obieqtebis) niSan-Tvisebas gamoxataven. niSan-Tviseba nairgvaria da Sesabamisi sityvebic mravalferovani (isini SeiZleba asaxavdnen materialuri sinamdvilis sul sxvadasxva Tvisebas: fers, formas, sidides, wonas, Sedgenilobas da misT.). es sityvebi iseve `axlavs~ arsebiT saxels, rogorc sagans `axlavs~ esa Tu is Tviseba. am klasis saxelebs hqvia `zedsarTavi saxeli~. kidev erTi Sinaarsobrivi jgufi saxelebisa aris `ricxviTi saxeli~. es aris saganTa raodenobasTan dakavSirebuli sityvebi, romlebic arsebiT saxelTan mimarTebis TvalsazrisiT (anu atributuli SinaarsiTa da funqciiT) ufro zedsarTav saxelTa klass ekedleba.

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kidev ufro gansxvavebulia enobrivi daniSnuleba im ganzogadebuli (arakonkretizebuli) Sinaarsis sityvebisa, romlebic arc konkretul sagnobriv semantikas Seicaven (rogorc arsebiTi saxelebi) da arc gansazRvrul niSan-Tvisebas gadmoscemen (rogorc zedsarTavebi), magram erTi klasis sityvebis Canacvlebac SeuZliaT da meorisac; am `C a n a c v l e b i T i~ daniSnulebidan gamomdinare, maT s u b s t i t u t e b s a c uwodeben (laT. substitutum substitutio Senacvleba, substitucia). am klasis sityvebs qarTulSi aerTianebs termini `nacvalsaxeli~. amdenad, gamoiyofa `s a x e l T a~ oTxi jgufi, romelTa saxelwodebebi maTs saerTosac asaxavs da gansxvavebulsac; saxeldobr: a) arsebiTi saxeli _ klasi srulmniSvnelovan sityvaTa, romlebic garemomcvel s a g n e b s a da m o v l e n e b s asaxaven (mag.: ZaRli, xe, qva, Rrubeli, dardi...); b) zedsarTavi saxeli: sityvebi, romlebic saganTa T v i s e b e b s gadmoscemen (mag.: maRali, mZime, TeTri, keTili...); g) ricxviTi saxeli: sityvebi, romlebic saganTa r a o d e n o b r i v aRricxvasTan (raodenobriobasTan) aris dakavSirebuli (mag.: ori, asi, aTasi, mecxre, meoTxedi...); d) nacvalsaxeli: klasi iseTi sityvebisa, romelTa daniSnulebaa danarCeni (wina sami) jgufis saxelebis C a n a c v l e b a funqcionirebis doneze (Sen, igi, Cemi, ra, romeli, ramdeni...). III. 1.4. saxelis ZiriTadi morfologiuri kategoriebi. rogorc iTqva, yvela saxeli ibruneba, anu brunebadi sityva, sazogadod, aris saxeli. bruneba saxelTa saerTo kategoriaa. saxelebisaTvis aseve niSandoblivia simravlis gamoxatvis unari, anu saxelebs aqvT ricxvis kategoria. ricxvi saxelisa da zmnis saerTo kategoriaa; ufro zustad: zmnaSic aisaxeba saxelis ricxvi. unda iTqvas, rom es kategoriebi umTavresad ekuTvnis arsebiT saxelTa jgufs (ix. arsebiTi saxeli: bruneba, ricxvi), xolo danarCen saxelebs _ imdenad, ramdenadac isini arsebiT saxelTan arian dakavSirebuli.

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III. 1.5. brunebis kategoria. bruneba aris saxelis formacvaleba brunvaTa mixedviT. brunvis forma _ es aris saxelis funqcionirebis forma. rogorc iTqva, saxeli imisTvis icvlis formas, rom gramatikulad daukavSirdes sxva sityvebs (pirvel rigSi _ zmnebs). saxelis fleqsiuri forma anu brunva qmnis gramatikul mimarTebebs (kavSirebs) winadadebis wevrebs Soris. brunvaTa funqciebi dgindeba aRniSnuli sintagmaturi mimarTebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. brunebis kategoria gulisxmobs fleqsiur paradigmas, romlis leqsikuri mniSvneloba ucvlelia, xolo gramatikuli mniSvneloba (sintagmaturi unari) _ icvleba formis cvlasTan erTad. ramdeni formisagan Sedgeba brunebis paradigma? anu: ramdeni forma aqvs saxelis brunebas qarTulSi? zogadad: imdeni, ramdenic saxelis enobrivi (gramatikuli) funqcionirebisaTvis aris saWiro. qarTuli saliteraturo enis brunebis sistema moicavs 7 fleqsiur erTeuls (detalurad _ ix. a r s e b i T i s a x e l i). SeniSvna: brunvis, rogorc gramatikuli erTeulis, arsebobisaTvis aucilebelia damoukidebeli forma da damoukidebeli mniSvneloba. forma, romelsac damoukidebeli gramatikuli mniSvneloba ar amagrebs, brunvad ver miiCneva (magaliTad, saxeli fuZis saxiT [warmodgenil iqna] igive saxelobiTia, radgan mas damoukidebeli gramatikuli mniSvneloba ara aqvs). aseve: mniSvneloba, romelsac Tavisi forma ara aqvs, brunva ver iqneba (magaliTad: TavisTavad mniSvnelovani `adgilobiTi~ mniSvneloba [soflad sazafxulo samuSaoebi daiwyo], magram is damoukidebeli brunva ver iqneba, radgan Tavisi forma ar gaaCnia). III. 1.6. ricxvis kategoria. saxeli morfologiurad (formawarmoebiT) ganarCevs e r T s a da m r a v a l s.

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formaluri (gramatikuli) opozicia, romelic arsebiTi saxeliT gamoxatuli (sagnebis) raodenobriv (erTisa da mravlis) dapirispirebas warmoaCens, aris r i c x v i s k a t e g o r i a. simravlis morfologiur gamoxatvas aRvniSnavT terminiT m r a v l o b i T i r i c x v i, xolo mis sapirispirod _ erTis (calis) gamomxatveli aris m x o l o b i T i r i c x v i. am opoziciaSi mxolod mravlobiTia markirebuli, anu mravlobiTs aqvs Tavisi morfologiuri niSani; xolo mxolobiTi _ aramarkirebulia (Sdr. saxl-i saxl-eb-i...). ricxvis kategoria formalurad asaxulia saxelTa oTxive klasSi, oRond Sinaarsobrivad es kategoria mainc arsebiTi saxelis semantikas ukavSirdeba. SeniSvna: 1. erTisa da mravlis semantikuri opozicia SeiZleba gamoxatuli iyos Zireuli masalis monacvleobiTac (aramorfologiurad), anu supletivizmis gziT. Sdr.: erTi mxriv: adamian-i _ adamian-ebi; xolo _ meore mxriv: adamian-i _ xalxi. supleturoba damaxasiaTebelia garkveuli arqauli fuZeebisaTvis (ix. n a c v a l s a x e l e b i). es SemTxveva, rogorc leqsikuri (aramorfologiuri) saSualeba, ricxvis gramatikul kategoriaSi ver ganixileba. 2. SesaZlebelia saxels mravlobiTi ricxvis forma hqondes, magram is SinaarsiT mxolobiTi iyos (mag., k a r e b i... w y a l n i wavlen da wamovlen...). brunebisa da ricxvis gamoxatva saxelSi urTierTSeTavsebadi kategoriebia. saxelis yoveli forma erTsa da imave dros aris romeliRac brunvisa da romeliRac ricxvis erTiani odenoba (Tumca morfologiurad es SeiZleba erTtipurad ar iyos gamoxatuli; Sdr.: xe-eb-is da xe-Ta...).

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Tavi II. arsebiTi saxeli


III. 2.1. arsebiTi saxelis raoba. ukve warmodgenili klasifikaciis mixedviT, brunebad sityvaTa, anu s a x e l T a, Soris ZiriTadi adgili a r s e b i T s a x e l s uiravs. arsebiTi saxeli im sabazo mniSvnelobebs (semantikas) moicavs, rac adamianis garemomcveli samyaros mravalferovan sagnobriv (arsobriv) Semadgenlobas asaxavs. samyaros enobrivi Secnoba (proecireba) upirvelesad misi sagnobrivi mravalferovnebis saxeldebiT xorcieldeba. arsebiTi saxeli, saerTaSoriso (laTinuri) terminiT _ s u b s t a n t i v i, aris metyvelebis nawili, romelic obieqtur sagnobriv sinamdviles asaxavs. rogorc substantivi aris enobrivi amsaxveli, aGmniSvneli s u b s t a n c i i s a, arsebiTi saxeli aseve asaxavs sagnobriv arss, saganTa arsebobas. `arsebiTi saxeli hqvia sityvas, romelsac sagnobrivi warmodgena axlavs~ (a. SaniZe). sagani am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gavigoT, rogorc ganzogadebuli cneba, romelic moicavs rogorc realur sagnebs, ise imgvar realobebs, romlebic adamianis cnobierebis mier aris gaTanabrebuli sagnebTan. am SemTxvevaSi termini `sagani~ gaigeba rogorc a G s a n i S n i. Sesabamisad: arsebiTia saxeli, romlis a G s a n i S n s a c daesmis kiTxvebi _ `vin?~ da `ra?~ amgvarad, a G s a n i S n i, romelsac arsebiTi saxeli, rogorc a G m n i S v n e l i, miemarTeba, aris s a g a n i an m o v l e n a. sagani gulisxmobs yvela materialur (nivTier) arss, romlis aGqmac grZnobaTa organoebiT aris SesaZlebeli: b a v S v i, k v i c i , i a, m i w a, n i s l i, q a r i, c e c x l i, s x i v i... movlena gulisxmobs, erTi mxriv, ganyenebul (abstraqtul) substanciasa (s u l i, s e v d a, b e d n i e r e b a, s i y v a r u l i...) da, meore mxriv, fsiqikursa Tu fizikur uxilav procesebs (viTarebas) (y i n v a, f i q r i, l a p a r a k i , x a t v a , w v i m a , f r e n a...).

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SeniSvna: SesaZlebelia erTi da igive sityva, semantikur mimarTebaTa mixedviT, sagansac Seesabamebodes da movlenasac (Sdr.: `axalgazrdoba Seikriba~ da `axalgazrdoba bednieri xanaa~. amgvarad: arsebiTi saxeli amoicnoba kiTxvebiT: `vin~ da `ra~; anu: yoveli sityva, romelic `vin~ an `ra~ kiTxvas Seesabameba, a r s e b i T i s a x e l i a. III. 2.2. arsebiTi saxelis Sinaarsobrivi jgufebi. vinaidan arsebiTi saxeli sityvaTa metad mravalricxovan klass warmoadgens da es klasi, rogorc ukve gamoCnda, leqsikur-semantikuri araerTgvarovnebiTac gamoirCeva, formawarmoebis uwinares, yuradGebis miqcevas moiTxovs arsebiT saxelTa Sida Sinaarsobrivi klasifikacia, garkveuli semantikuri jgufebis arseboba gramatikulad erTiani klasis SigniT. miT umetes, rom amgvar dajgufebas garkveuli kavSiri moepoveba arsebiTi saxelis formawarmoebis kanonebTan, semantika raGac gamoZaxils formawarmoebaSic povebs. arsebiT saxelTa Sinaarsobrivi klasifikaciis niSniT gamoiyofa ramdenime leqsikur-semantikuri kategoria: a) `vin~ _ `ra~ opozicia; b) `sulieri~ _ `usulo~; g) `konkretuli~ _ `abstraqtuli~; d) `sakuTari~ _ `sazogado~; e) krebiT saxelTa jgufi; v) nivTierebaTa saxelebi; z) moqmedebis saxeli. davaxasiaToT TiToeuli maTgani: III. 2.2.1. `vin~ da `ra~ opozicia. aGniSnul Sinaarsobriv opoziciaTagan umTavresia adamianis dapirispireba danarCen sagnobriv samyarosTan (sulierTanac da arasulierTanac), rac qarTuli enis erT-erTi specifikaa. vin (anu adamiani) upirispirdeba yvela sxva substancias (cocxalsac da aracocxalsac):

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`vin~_jgufSi Sedis sityvebi, romlebic adamians aGniSnavs arsobrivad Tu rangobrivad (profesiulad): deda, mama, da, Zma, kaci, qali, bii, bavSvi, Tavadi, mebaduri, eqimi... SeniSvna: Tu ukanaskneli tipis saxeli Tavad wodebasa Tu profesias gamoxatavs, is `ra~_jgufSi gaerTiandeba (Sdr.: `r a gamoxval? _ `eqimi~). yvela danarCeni arsebiTi `ra~_jgufs ganekuTvneba _ rogorc sulierTa (cxovelTa), ise usuloTa (mcenareTa, sxva saganTa) aGmniSvneli: cxvari, mtredi, ianvela, muxa, qoxi, Tixa, Tafli... `vin~ _ `ra~ kategoriis siGrmuli semantikuri maxasiaTeblebi qarTulSi mJGavndeba saxelisa da zmnis formawarmoebisa da sityvawarmoebis calkeul ubnebze (Sdr. qalaq-el-i da qalaqur-i...). III. 2.2.2. `sulieri~ _ `usulo~. kategoria `s u l i e r i~ _ `u s u l o~ gulisxmobs saganTa klasis gayofas sicocxlis `mqoneblobis~ mixedviT. oGond es opozicia ar udris `cocxali~ _ `aracocxalis~ dapirispirebas, vinaidan, am opoziciis mixedviT, mcenareebic `cocxal~ klasSi moiqceva, xolo winamaval klasifikaciaSi mcenareebi `usuloTa~ jgufs ganekuTvneba. amdenad, s u l i e r T a qveklasSi gaerTiandeba saxelebi, romlebsac sulieri (mSvinvieri) arseboba aqvs da Tavisi ZaliT gadaadgileba SeuZlia: a) cxovelebi (lomi, xari, ciyvi, dedofala...) b) frinvelebi (arwivi, orbi, mercxali, wiwkana...) d) Tevzebi (selapi, delfini, loqo, kalmaxi, Gorjo...) e) mwerebi da qvewarmavlebi (futkari, krazana, oboba, gveli, xvliki...) u s u l o T a rigs ganekuTvneba yvela danarCeni aGsaniSni: xe, Zeli, qva, kibe, mTa, sila... `sulierisa~ da `usulos~ semantikuri gansxvaveba Tavisebur gamovlinebas povebs gramatikaSic, kerZod, am sxvaobas gviCvenebs saxelis ricxvis asaxva zmnaSi.

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III. 2.2.3. `konkretuli~ _ `abstraqtuli~. kategoria `k o n k r e t u l i~ _ `a b s t r a q t u l i~ ukavSirdeba arsebiTi saxelis aGsaniSnis sagnobriv substancias. `konkretuli~ gulisxmobs iseT sagnobriv arsebobas, romelic adamianis (aGmqmelis) grZnobaTa organoebiT (SexebiT, mxedvelobiT, smeniT, ynosviT, gemovnebiT) aGiqmeba. magaliTad: yvavili, Grubeli, siTbo, suni, simware... ganyenebul (abstraqtul) substanciaTa aGqma grZnobaTa organoebiT SeuZlebelia, radgan maT fizikuri (sagnobrivi) arsi ara aqvs, maTi aGqma mxolod gonebismieria (an grZnobismieria _ misi ZiriTadi mniSvnelobiT): arseboba, sikvdili, siyvaruli, silamaze, mSveniereba, ocneba.. . SeniSvna: am TvalsazrisiT `g r Z n o b i s a ~ da `S e g r Z n e b i s ~ mniSvnelobebi unda gaimijnos: `SegrZneba~ pirveli qvekategoriis gagebas moicavs _ `grZnobaTa organoebiT aGqma~, xolo `grZnoba~ _ upirvelesad abstraqtul gancdas gulisxmobs. Sdr.: q e g l i s ganmarteba: `grZnoba: 1. gancda raime emociisa (sixarulis, mwuxarebis, SiSis, siyvarulis, siZulvilis, kmayofilebis...). 2. raime fizikuri gaGizianebis (sunis, gemos, Sexebis, siTbos, tkivilis...) zemoqmedebis gancda, _ SegrZneba~. III. 2.2.4. `sakuTari~ _ `sazogado~: am opoziciis semantikur Sinaarss qmnis konkretul arsebiT saxelTa mimarTebis Tavisebureba Sesabamis obieqtTan. `sazogado saxels~ cnebiTi Sinaarsi aqvs, rac imas gulisxmobs, rom Sesabamisi arsebiTi saxeliT aGniSnul yovel saganSi moiazreba sxva msgavs saganTa erToblioba. magaliTad, sityva skami gulisxmobs mravalgvar, magram erTfunqciur (`dasajdomi~) aGsaniSns: ufexos, samfexas, zurgians, magars, rbils da misT. `sakuTari saxeli~ SinaarsiT aracnebiTia _ iqneba is erTi `sagnis~ aGmniSvneli, Tu `saganTa krebulisa~. mag.: tite, mcxeTa, aragvi, burduli, leki, sparsi... amdenad, aq gadamwyvetia ara is, rom sakuTari `e r T s~ miemarTeba, xolo sazogado `m r a v a l s~, aramed is, rom sakuTars,

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sazogadosagan gansxvavebiT, cnebiTi Sinaarsi ara aqvs, Tundac is `mravals~ miemarTebodes. Sdr. gvari da jabadari: gvari Sinaarsobrivi cnebaa naTesaobrivi kavSirisa, xolo jabadari am kategoriis kerZoobiTi saxelia. sakuTari saxelebia: pirTa saxelebi (luka, lile...), gvarebi (buaZe, dvali...), cxovelTa Serqmeuli saxelebi (niSa, nikora...), fsevdonimebi (vaJa-fSavela, mTis niavi...), adgilTa (wyneTi, Tergi...), qveyanaTa (dania, erayi...), eTnosTa (Turqi, kolxi...) saxelebi, planetebis (venera, saturni...) saxelebi, periodul gamocemaTa Serqmeuli saxelebi (`droSa~, `lelo~...), obieqtTa, dawesebulebaTa Serqmeuli saxelebi (`merani~, `nakaduli~...)... sakuTari saxelebis Tavisebureba morfologiaSi Tavs iCens saxelTa brunebisas (saxelobiTi, wodebiTi...). III. 2.2.5. krebiTi saxelebi. k r e b i T s a x e l e b s, rogorc ufro mcire, kerZoobiT jgufs, Cveulebisamebr, semantikuri opoziciis gareSe gamoyofen xolme; Tumca aqac igulisxmeba, rom arsebobs opozicia `arakrebiTi~ _ `krebiTi~. pirvelia yvela is aGsaniSni, romelic sagnobriv `calkeobas~ (`erTeulobas~) gulisxmobs. mag.: xe, magida, kalami, kedeli... k r e b i T saxels forma mxolobiTisa aqvs, magram SinaarsiT mravlobiTia; oGond masSi Cans simravle ara im sityvisa, romelic krebiTad warmogvidgeba, aramed _ sul sxva sityvisa; mag.: xalxi (a d a m i a n e b i s simravle), gundi (f r i n v e l T a simravle), fara (c x v r e b i s simravle), rema (c x e n e b i s simravle), xrova (m g l e b i s simravle) da misT. amgvarad, krebiTi saxeli aGniSnavs erTgvarovan saganTa k r e b u l s, erTianobas, `erTmTlianobas~. gvxvdeba iseTi SemTxvevebic, rodesac erTi da igive arsebiTi saxeli, konteqstis mixedviT, SeiZleba `calebrivic~ iyos (mag.: `c x v a r i cxvaria, magram, Tu gacxarda, cxariao~) da krebiTic (mag.: `vxedav mecxvares joxiT mxarzeda, win uZGvis c x v a r s a, midis mTazeda, c x v a r i c bevri hyavs Tavis Tmazeda...~). aseTebia: Zroxa (`wamsve Z r o x a S i me mikres Tavi...~), Rori (`G o r i s mwyemsi~), mtredi (`m t r e d i s gundi~), foToli (`tyem moisxa f o T o l i...~), vaSli (`v a S l i davkrifeT~...), nayofi (`n a y o f i dacvivda~...) da sxv.

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krebiT saxelTa semantikas angariSi unda gaewios ricxvSi SeTanxmebis TvalsazrisiT: maTi krebiTi Sinaarsi ricxvSi gramatikul SeTanxmebas ar moiTxovs (xalxi Seikriba), magram zmnis fuZis supletur monacvleobas ganapirobebs (xalxi dasxda). III. 2.2.6. nivTierebaTa saxelebi. n i v T i e r e b a T a s a x e l e b i s Tavisebureba is aris, rom maT konkretuli sagnobrivi saxe ara aqvT, maTi nivTieri arseboba `amorfulia~, isini raime masis, nivTierebis zogad Sinaarss gamoxataven. rogorc amboben, aseT obieqtebs Tvladi substancia ara aqvT _ an fxvier masas qmnian, an _ Txevads, an _ airovans, an, ubralod, nivTierebas gamoxataven. Sdr.: a) `tyvia gavarda~: aq tyvia konkretuli sagnis saxelia. b) `tyvia madnis saxiT moipoveba~: aq tyvia niavTierebas aGniSnavs. nivTierebaTa saxelebia: rkina, oqro, vercxli, puri (rogorc marcvleuli), wyali, Gvino, Saqari, sila, miwa da sxv. nivTierebaTa saxelebs mravlobiTi ar ewarmoeba, garda im SemTxvevebisa, rodesac Sesabamisi nivTierebebi `dafasoebulad~ aris warmodgenili (Sdr.: Gvinoebi, wylebi, miwebi...). III. 2.2.7. moqmedebaTa saxelebi. m o q m e d e b a T a saxelebi kidev erTi kategoriaa arsebiT saxelTa klasSi, vinaidan es jgufi moicavs iseT Tavisebur saxelebs, romlebic faqtobriv zmnuri Sinaarsisaa. rogorc cnobilia, es erTeulebi formiT (gramatikulad) arsebiT saxelebs ganekuTvneba, xolo semantikurad (warmomavlobiT) zmnebs _ isini nazmnari saxelebia. mag.: xatva masdaria xatavs zmnisa da masSi arsebiTad SenarCunebulia is Sinaarsi, rasac zmna warmogvidgens; magram morfologiuri statusiT xatva brunebadi sityvaa, anu arsebiTi saxelia `ra~_jgufisa. aseTia yvela masdari ugamonaklisod. masdaris es mdgomareoba aris mizezi imisa, rom maTi nawili saboloood gasubstantivda. mag.: Sroma, simGera, ltolva, siyvaruli, swavla, gansja da sxv. rogorc vxedavT, arsebiT saxelTa leqsikur-semantikuri sistema araerTgvarovan suraTs gviCvenebs; miTiTebul kategori-

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ebs Soris aris araTanabari da araTanmimdevruli mimarTebebi. magram mainc SeiZleba am sistemis garkveuli ierarqiuli sqemis saxiT warmodgena:
arsebiTi saxeli

`vin~

`ra~

sulieri

usulo

konkretuli

abstraqtuli

sakuTari

sazogado

krebiTi

nivTierebaTa

moqmedebis

III. 2.3.. arsebiTi saxeli warmoebis mixedviT. arsebiT saxelTa klasSi, bunebrivia, Tavs iyris nairgvari warmomavlobisa (uZvelesi leqsemebi, nasesxobebi, derivatebi, kompozitebi...) da nairgvari enobrivi fenis Semonatani (arqauli, dialeqturi, Jargonuli...) leqsikuri erTeulebi. enis leqsikuri fondis, maT Soris, arsebiT saxelTa, erTerTi Zlieri Senakadi aris axali sityvawarmoeba; derivatebs didi adgili uiravs saxelur feZeebSi.

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warmoebis mixedviT arsebiT saxelTa daxasiaTeba gulisxmobs imas, rom erTmaneTisagan gaimijnos, erTi mxriv, saxeluri semantikis (amosavali) Zir-fuZeebi, xolo meore mxriv, maTgan, agreTve sxva metyvelebis nawilTagan warmoqmnili axali leqsikuri erTeulebi. am TvalsazrisiT arsebiTi saxelebi gaiyofa or ZiriTad jgufad: 1 . p i r v e l a d i saxelebi: xe, mTa, saxli, wyali, miwa, ca, gza, ezo, qali, kaci, deda, mama, yuri, Tvali, puri, rZe, cxvari, Txa... SeniSvna: 1. e. w. pirvelad saxelebSi aGmoCndeba rogorc Zireuli qarTuli (mag. wyali), ise uZvelesi nasesxebi leqsika (mag. puri), rac istoriul-etimologiuri Ziebis saqmea da saxelTa gramatikuli daxasiaTebis TvalsazrisiT ar aris aqtualuri. 2. SesaZlebelia e. w. pirveladi saxeli etimologiuri analizis gziT struqturul segmentacias eqvemdebarebodes (anu misi istoriuli `warmoqmniloba~ dasturdebodes), magram es am saxelis (fuZis) Sesabamisi jgufisadmi gankuTvnilebas ar Secvlis, vinaidan am klasifikaciaSi warmoqmnilad CaiTvleba fuZe mxolod moqmedi derivaciis safuZvelze. 2. m e o r e u l i anu w a r m o q m n i l i saxelebi: arsebiTi saxelis axali fuZis miGeba SeiZleba moxdes nebismieri metyvelebis nawilisagan mravalferovani warmomqmneli (sityvamawarmoebeli) modelebis safuZvelze. TavisTavad warmoqmnili saxelebi or jgufad ganiyofeba: a) afiqsuri sityvawarmoeba; b) kompozicia. arsebiTi saxeli SeiZleba warmoqmnili iyos faqtobriv yvela metyvelebis nawilisagan: _ Tavad arsebiTisagan: xel-i xeloba, saxelo, xelosani... _ zedsarTavisagan: wiTel-i wiTela, rbil-i rbilobi... _ ricxviTisagan: erT-i erToba, sam-i sameba, as-i aseuli...

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_ nacvalsaxelisagan: Tav-i Tavisian-i, Tvis-i Tvisoba; me meoba; urTierT-i urTierToba... _ zmnizeda: aq(a) aqaoba, saaqao, qveS qveSeT-i... _ zmna: kerav-s kerva; rbi-s sirbili, uyvar-s siyvaruli... _ udetrebi: ara araoba, ho hooba, albaT albaToba da sxv. afiqsebi (prefiqs-sufiqsebi), romlebic gamoyenebulia amgvari sityvawarmoebis dros, aseve mravalferovania (ix. s i t y v a w a r m o e b a): kompoziciis gziT warmoqmnili arsebiTi saxelebi adasturebs fuZeTa SeerTebis yvela im SesaZleblobas, rac, sazogadod, kompozicias axasiaTebs da am gziT mravalricxovani saxelebia warmoqmnili: _ reduplikacia: beberi, gorgola, gvirgvini, firfita... _ toladSerwymuli anu orcnebiani kompozitebi: da-Zma, mTa-bari, mter-moyvare... _ erTcnebiani kompozitebi, romelTa miGeba nairgvari fuZiTa da formiT xdeba: Zmiswuli, ciskari, gulTmisani, weliwadi... (detalurad ix. k o m p o z i c i a). SeniSvna: gvaqvs SemTxvevebi, rodesac droTa ganmavlobaSi momxdara warmoqmnili zedsarTavi saxelis gasubstantiveba, sakace, mxatvari, mSobeli, moZRvari, maswavlebeli... III. 2.4. arsebiTi saxelis dajgufebis `zmnuri principi~. gramatikuli sistema egocentruli xasiaTisaa _ gramatikul mimarTebaTa warmmarTvelia metyveli `subieqti~ _ me. es principi zmnuri semantikisa da morfologiis meSveobiT xorcieldeba, magram is vrceldeba saxelebzec, vinaidan saxelebi am mimarTebebSi aqtantebad monawileoben. Sesabamisad, gvaqvs: 1. mosaubre piri _ me 2. saubris adresati _ Sen. 3. saubris obieqti _ is, romelic, Cveulebisamebr, saxeldebulia: GmerTi, kaci, mxeci, xe, suli, ocneba, siyvaruli...

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amdenad, I da II piri _ mosaubre da Tanamosaubre _ realizebulia nacvalsaxelis saxiT, xolo `obieqti~ upiratesad konkretizebulia da is arsebiTi saxeliT (substantiviT) aris gamoxatuli. garda amisa, zmnuri Sinaarsis TvalsazrisiT aqtiuroba-pasiurobis (`subieqturoba~_`obieqturobis~) mxriv arsebiT saxelTa erTgvari Sinaarsobrivi gradacia arsebobs: `subieqtis~ funqcia, bunebrivia, metad aris gamoxatuli `vin~ _ jgufis (adamianTa) saxelebSi, Semdeg danarCen `sulierTa~ klasSi da minimaluria (arsebiTad _ simboluria) `usuloTa~ klasSi; maSin, rodesac `obieqtis~ pozicia sapirispiro suraTs gviCvenebs _ aq funqciurad pirvel adgilze modis usulo saganTa saxelebi... arsebiT saxelTa es semantikuri TavisTavadoba, rogorc iTqva, Tavis gamoxatulebas povebs paradigmatika-sintagmatikaSic. III. 2.5. arsebiTi saxelis bruneba. arsebiT saxels axasiaTebs orgvari formawarmoeba _ bruneba da ricxvis gamoxatva; f o r m a w a r m o e b a gulisxmobs imas, rom yoveli konkretuli formis warmoqmnis dros leqsikuri mniSvneloba igive rCeba, rac hqonda amosaval (an _ saopozicio) formas, xolo gramatikuli mniSvneloba icvleba. b r u n e b i s k a t e g o r i a gulisxmobs imgvar formalur opozicias, imgvar paradigmas, romlis drosac paradigmis wevri TiToeuli damoukidebeli forma gramatikuli (sintaqsuri) funqciiis TvalsazrisiT avtonomiuri odenobaa. brunva _ rogorc erTeuli _ warmoadgens formisa da Sinaarsis (funqciis) ganuyofel erTianobas. SeiZleba iTqvas: brunva aris arsebiTi saxelis funqcionirebis forma. yoveli arsebiTi saxeli brunvebis meSveobiT axerxebs sintagmaturi kavSirebis damyarebas winadadebis sxva formalur wevrebTan. brunebaze SeiZleba visaubroT, Tuki arsebobs minimum ori brunvis forma mainc. Tu saxeli zogadad, an romelime konkretuli saxeli aseTi cvlis unars moklebulia, vityviT, rom am SemTxvevaSi brunvis kategoria ar arsebobs. brunva, rogorc kategoria, formisa da Sinaarsis sinTezs emyareba. damoukidebeli brunvis arsebobisaTvis orives erTdrouli (`sinTezuri~) arseboba aris aucilebeli.

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SeiZleba damoukidebeli forma arsebobdes, magram mas ar hqondes damoukidebeli funqcia da is ver miiCneva brunvis formad. mag.: dGesac arsebobs iseTi forma (nul-forma), romelic Zvel qarTulSi wrfelobiTis saxeliT aris cnobili (`saqarTvelo aRiarebul iqna erTa ligis mier~), magram vinaidan mas ar moepoveba damoukidebeli funqcia, damoukidebel brunvad misi miCneva SeuZlebelia. meore mxriv: SesaZlebelia romelime TavisTavadi gramatikuli mniSvneloba arsebobdes, magram Tu mas ar Seesabameba damoukidebeli forma, misi miCnevac brunvad SeuZlebeli aGmoCndeba. mag.: didi gansxvavebaa masalis gamomxatveli msazGvrelis mniSvnelobasa (`x i s saxli~) da qvemdebarisebr ubralo damatebas Soris (`Z m i s naSenebi saxli~), magram isini sxvadasxva brunvebad ver miiCneva, radganac formis mxriv ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. qarTul enaSi saxelebisaTvis, sazogadod, damaxasiaTebelia bruneba; oGond saxelTa jgufebs Soris am mxriv mniSvnelovani gansxvavebaa _ nacvalsaxelTa nawils es kategoria metad SezGuduli aqvs (mag.: me, Sen, vin...). aseve SezGudulad vlindeba brunebis potenciali zmnizedebSi (aq _ aqiT _ aqamde...) da misT. brunvis kategoria, upirveles yovlisa, arsebiTi saxelisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli; SeiZleba iTqvas, arsebiTi saxeli yvela ibruneba ugamonaklisod; calkeuli Taviseburebebi am saerTo kanonzomierebas ar cvlis. amgvarad: Tuki romelime konkretul arsebiT saxels aviGebT da mas `movTxovT~ icvalos forma enaSi arsebul sintagmatur mimarTebaTa Sesabamisad, miviGebT formalur paradigmas, romelic met-naklebi sisruliT warmogvidgens saxelis brunebas. mag.: SoSiam kvercxi gamotexa. SoSia Tavdapirvelad mxolod pirs aGebda. SoSias Sia! bartyi male SoSiad iqca. xazgasmuli sityvebi, rogorc sintagmaturad ganpirobebuli sistemis wevrebi, ukve warmoadgens garkveul brunebis sistemas:

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SoSiam SoSia SoSias SoSiad amis Semdeg dgeba mxolod sakiTxi, jer erTi, maTi raodenobrivi sisrulisa, da meorec _ brunvis formaTa struqturuli urTierTmimarTebisa, anu _ Tanamimdevrobisa. III. 2.6. brunvis formaTa raodenoba. ramdeni brunvis forma SeiZleba iyos enaSi? zogadad imdeni, ramdengvaradac icvlis formas arsebiTi saxeli am enaSi, raTa amave enisaTvis savaldebulo sintaqsuri mimarTebebi daamyaros. brunvaTa Semadgenloba (da raodenoba) yovel enas Tavisi aqvs; aq erTi universaluri sazomi ar arsebobs: Zvel berZnuls hqonda 5 brunvis forma (nominativi, genitivi, dativi, akuzativi, vokativi); Zvel frigiuls _ 7; Zvel somxurs _ 7 (zogi versiiT 5); Zvel qarTuls _ 9; Tanamedrove germanuls _ 4 (istoriulad _ 5); rusuls _ 6 (istoriulad _ 7). Tanamedrove qarTulis brunebis paradigma 7 erTeuls Seicavs. maTgan sami e. w. pirdapir brunvebs ganekuTvneba (polipersonaluri zmnis subieqt-obieqtebis funqcias asrulebs); esenia saxelobiTi, moTxrobiTi da micemiTi. sami _ iribi brunvaa, romelTa funqciebi kuTvnilebis, masalis, gardaqceviTobis, lokalizaciiis mniSvnelobebs iTavsebs. esenia: naTesaobiTi, moqmedebiTi, viTarebiTi. erTi brunva _ wodebiTi _ calke dgas, ramdenadac misi funqcia oden mimarTvis roliT Semoifargleba da, amdenad, sintagmatur mimarTebaTa unari ukiduresad SezGuduli aqvs. SeniSvna: arsebobs Tvalsazrisi, rom wodebiT brunvas brunebis paradigmaSi adgili ar unda eiros, ramdenadac is funqciiT ar eTanadeba am paradigmis danarCen wevrebs. magram, meore mxriv, wodebiTi namdvilad ganekuTvneba arsebiTi saxelis forma-

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warmoebiT (fleqsiur) sistemas da misi adgili SeiZleba mxolod brunebis paradigmaSi iyos da ara _ sxvagan (ix. qvemoT). III. 2.7. brunvaTa rigi. amgvarad, arsebiTi saxelis brunebis paradigma Tanamedrove qarTulSi brunvis Svid erTeuls, anu Svid damoukidebel formas icnobs. maTi dGemde dadgenili saxelwodebebi da Tanamimdevroba Semdegi saxisaa: 1. saxelobiTi 2. moTxrobiTi 3. micemiTi 4. naTesaobiTi 5. moqmedebiTi 6. viTarebiTi 7. wodebiTi sruliad aSkaraa, rom brunvaTa es Tanamimdevroba ar misdevs indoevropuli enebisaTvis (amosavalSi _ berZnullaTinurisaTvis) miGebul ZiriTad brunvaTa rigs, damkvidrebuls dionise Trakielis `gramatikis xelovnebidan~: 1. nominativus (= saxelobiTs) 2. genetivus (= naTesaobiTs) 3. dativus (= micemiTs) 4. accusativus (= braldebiTs) 5. [vocativus (= wodebiTs)] daismis kiTxva: ram ganapiroba brunvaTa aseTi rigis miGeba qarTulSi, miT umetes, rom am rigis damamkvidrebeli akad. a. SaniZe Tavadve aGniSnavs, brunvebi qarTulSi SeiZleba sxvadasxva rigiT iqnes dalagebulio. brunvaTa amgvari Tanamimdevroba ganpirobebulia sami sxvadasxva faqtoris mixedviTT: a) m o r f o l o g i u r i T: brunvis niSanTa (sufiqsTa) struqturis mixedviT; b) f o n e t i k u r i T (ukeT _ m o r f o f o n o l o g i u r i T ): igulisxmeba brunvis niSanTa da saxelis fuZis urTierTgavlena; g) s i n t a q s u r - f u n q c i o n a l u r i T: aq gaTvaliswinebulia brunvaTa ZiriTadi funqciebi. davazustoT TiToeuli faqtoris specifika:

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brunvis niSanTa ZiriTadi sistema (paradigma) aseTi saxisaa: -i -ma -s -is -iT -ad -o rogorc vxedavT, brunvis niSanTa oTxgvari struqtura dasturdeba: 1. V (oden xmovani): -i, -o 2. C (oden Tanxmovani): -s 3. CV (Tanxmovani _ xmovani): -ma 4. VC (xmovani _ Tanxmovani): -is, -iT, -ad am bolo struqturis (VC) formantebi SemoTavazebul paradigmaSi erTad aris Tavmoyrili da maTs TanamimdevrobaSi xmovniTi erTobac aris gaTvaliswinebuli: jer -is, -iT, Semdeg -ad. am sami brunvis urTierTmimdevrobaSi aseve erTveba funqcionaluri faqtori (ix. punqti g.). aGniSnuli TvalsazrisiT mxolod V struqturis sufiqsebia urTierTisagan gaTiSuli (sax. -i da wod. -o) da es ganpirobebulia wodebiTi brunvis sintaqsur-funqcionaluri TaviseburebiT (ix. punqti g.) b) brunvaTa dalagebis morfologiur faqtors avsebs saxelis brunebis morfofonologiuri Tavisebureba; kerZod, aGweril brunvis niSanTagan mxolod VC struqturis sufiqsebs aqvs saxelis fuZeze mareducirebeli zegavlena, rac garkveuli struqturis fuZeTa Semadgenlobidan bolokiduri marcvlis xmovnis dakargvas ganapirobebs. sxva sufiqsebs amgvari zegavlena ar axasiaTebs (ufro detalurad _ ix. qvemoT, saTanado paragrafSi). meore mxriv, Zireul da afiqsur morfemaTa urTierTzemoqmedebis Sedegad arc brunvis formantebi rCeba ucvlelad, amitomac morfofonologiis TvalsazrisiT brunvis niSanTa poziciuri cvlilebebic unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli. g) rac Seexeba sintaqsur-funqcionalur faqtors, am SemTxvevaSi upirvelesad principuli mniSvneloba enieba imas, e.

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w. pirdapiria romelime konkretuli brunva, Tu _ iribi; kerZod, warmodgenil paradigmaSi TanamimdevrobiT dasaxelebul brunvaTagan pirveli sami (saxelobiTi, moTxrobiTi, micemiTi) subieqtis brunvebia (agreTve _ pirmimarT saxelTa, obieqtTa), xolo momdevno sami (naTesaobiTi, moqmedebiTi da viTarebiTi) _ iribi brunvebi. rac Seexeba wodebiTs, misi sintagmaturi valentoba arsebiTad nulis tolia, is erTob SezGuduli funqcionirebisaa _ mxolod mimarTvis formad gamoiyeneba. swored aman ganapiroba is, rom am brunvam bolokiduri pozicia daikava brunvis paradigmaSi (da ara _ meore, struqturis gaTvaliswinebiT). komentars moiTxovs brunvaTa ori sameulis Sida urTierTganlagebac. kerZod: a) saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi s a x e l o b i T i brunva _ es aris saxeldebis forma, anu arsebiTi saxelis is mdgomareoba, romliTac saxeli erqmeva saxeldebis obieqts (aGsaniSns); sxvagvarad: es aris is amosavali (neitraluri) forma, romelsac arsebiTi saxeli miiGebs im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac miugebs kiTxvas: r a a r i s (e s )? v i n a r i s (e s )? amitomac SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom Sesabamisi gramatikuli Sinaarsis brunva yvela enaSi dgas pirvel adgilas da is bevr enaSi aramarkirebulia, anu fuZis saxiT aris warmodgenili (ase iyo es uZveles qarTulSic). amave dros, rogorc iTqva, saxelobiTis `pirvelobis~ ganmsazGvrelia isic, rom is aris subieqtis erT-erTi ZiriTadi brunva. m o T x r o b i T i: funqcionaluri TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebuli datvirTvis brunvaa _ gvxvdeba mxolod subieqtis brunvad, isic mxolod gardamavali zmnis II seriaSi. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom am brunvas `meore saxelobiTs~ uwodeben (Sesityveba ekuTvnis mose janaSvils). es gamarTlebulia rogorc istoriuli (warmomavlobiTi), ise funqcionaluri TvalsazrisiT. amitomac misi dasma saxelobiTis Semdeg gansakuTrebul dasabuTebas ar moiTxovs.

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m i c e m i T i: es brunva sintaqsur-funqcionaluri TvalsazrisiT erT-erTi yvelaze datvirTuli brunvaa. am mxriv is pirvel rigSi ekuTvnis pirdapir brunvebs, rogorc realuri subieqti (inversiul formebSi) da rogorc _ obieqti (iribi da pirdapiri _ I seriaSi); meore mxriv, is asrulebs ubralo damatebis rols (uTandebulod da TandebuliT), aseve gamoxatavs lokalizacias (uTandebulod an TandebuliTurT). b) naTesaobiTi moqmedebiTi viTarebiTi irib brunvaTagan n a T e s a o b i T z e uTuod gansakuTrebuli datvirTva modis, vinaidan is erTaderTia e. w. substanturi msazGvrelis rolSi; aseve gamoxatavs is ubralo damatebis funqcias. amitomac ukavia mas pirveli adgili irib brunvaTa Soris! m o q m e d e b i T i: aseve iTavsebs ubralo damatebis funqcias, xolo lokalur mimarTebaTa TvalsazrisiT es brunva mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs v i T a r e b i T brunvasTan erTad. maTi urTierTmimdevroba ganpirobebulia aseve morfologiuri (struqturuli) da morfofonologiuri faqtorebiT (ix. zemoT). III. 2.8. brunvaTa saxelwodebani da Sinaarsi. Tanamedrove qarTulSi, tradiciulad, saxelisaTvis Svid brunvas gamoyofen: saxelobiTi, moTxrobiTi, micemiTi, naTesaobiTi, moqmedebiTi, viTarebiTi da wodebiTi. isini erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian formiTa da funqciiT. brunvaTa saxelwodebebis umetesoba naTargmnia berZnulidan an laTinuridan, mxolod oria Seqmnili qarTul niadagze: moTxrobiTi brunva (anton kaTalikosis mier damkvidrebuli termini) da viTarebiTi brunva (akaki SaniZis termini). terminebi: saxelobiTi, moTxrobiTi, micemiTi, naTesaobiTi, moqmedebiTi da sxv. pirobiTi xasiaTisaa. arn. Ciqobava miuTiTebs, rom, mag., naTesaobiT brunvaSi dasmuli saxeli araviTar naTesaobas ar gamoxatavs (xis saxli, vercxlis saaTi, universitetis Senoba...). brunvis saxeldeba xdeboda misi funqciidan gamomdinare.

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termini saxelobiTi (nominativus _ `nomen~ saxeli) romaeli gramatikosebisgan momdinareobs da berZnul gramatikaSi mis nacvlad ixmareboda `orTe~ _ `wrfelobiTi~ (pirdapiri). saxelobiTi sagnis saxelwodebis gamomxatveli formaa. am brunvaSi dasmuli saxeli saleqsikono erTeulia, igi miCneulia pirdapir brunvad, Tumca `irib~ mimarTebasac asaxavs. saxelobiTi brunva Tu moTxrobiT brunvasTan erTad aris warmodgenili winadadebaSi (`kacma saxli aaSena~), igi pirdapir obieqts gamoxatavs, xolo Tu micemiTi brunvis gverdiTaa _ subieqts (`kaci saxls aSenebs~). moTxrobiTi (berZn. ergates _ moqmedi piri) brunva qarTulSi damoukidebel morfologiur erTeuladaa gamoyofili; igi specifikur brunvad miiCneva da gamoxatavs gardamavali zmnis subieqts. moTxrobiTi brunva gamoxatavs im sagans, romlis Sesaxebac xdeba Txroba (romelzec mogviTxroben). moTxrobiTi brunvis qona, anu brunebis es Tavisebureba ganpirobebulia uRvlilebis TaviseburebiT, kerZod, gardamavali zmnis TaviseburebiT. igi miuTiTebs moqmedze, aqtiurze da amitom ixmareba mxolod gardamaval zmnebTan (arn. Ciqobava). micemiTi (dativus) berZnuli `dotike~-s zusti Targmania. termini Tavad miuTiTebs masSi Cadebul Sinaarsze: micemiToba, paciensoba / samoqmedooba. micemiT brunvas `mimarTulebiTic~ ewodeba dionise Trakielis `gramatikis xelovnebaSi~ da, Sesabamisad, gamoxatavs mimarTulebasac. micemiTi brunvis Sinaarsi ar aris mxolod micema, igi gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac vinmes rames aZleven da, im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac arTmeven. termini naTesaobiTi (genitivus), berZnuli `genike~ arasworad iTargmna laTinurad da Semdeg gavrcelda sxva enebSic. `genike~ niSnavs `gvareobiTs~ da ara naTesaobiTs. saTanado brunvis mniSvnelobas berZnuli termini ufro gamoxatavs: xis saxli, vercxlis saaTi... am brunvis erT-erT funqciad miCneulia kuTvnilebis gamoxatva. sintagmebSi: universitetis studenti, mezoblis bavSvi da sxv. naTesaobiTSi dasmuli saxeli kuTvnilebas miuTiTebs. moqmedebiTi brunva (instrumentalis), rogorc ukve aRiniSna, romaelebis mier Seqmnili terminia. igi SeiZleba gamoxatavdes mocileba-daSorebas, gamosvliTobas / ablativs. igi gviC-

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venebs moqmedebis sawyis punqts, dawyebiTobas (`universitetidan wavida~); gviCvenebs dros (`im dRidan daiwyo~) da aRniSnavs iaraRs an saSualebas (instrumentalisi), riTic moqmedeba warmoebs (`bariT muSaobs~, `ToxiT mokla~). viTarebiTi brunva ara gvaqvs evropul enebSi. rogorc arn. Ciqobava aRniSnavs, rom yofiliyo es brunva, qarTulisTvisac gadmoTargmnidnen. brunvis saxelis SerCevisas gramatikebis avtorebi brunvis mniSvnelobas daemyarnen, magram radgan mniSvneloba sxvadasxvagvari iyo, zogma erTi momenti gamoiyena amosavlad, zogma _ meore. Tavad arn. Ciqobava viTarebiTi brunvis aRsaniSnad iyenebs termins `mimarTulebiTi~. am brunvis formas SeiZleba hqondes Semdegi Sinaarsi: mimarTulebis gadmocema (ZiriTadad Zvel qarTulSi); moqmedebis miznis gamoxatva; sivrceSi, droSi sasrulobis asaxva. wodebiTi (vokative) realurad aris saubris adresatisadmi mimarTva, wodebiTis formiT ki xdeba Tavad adresatis dakonkreteba (merab, bavSv-o). wodebiTi (kletike) dionise Trakielis terminia. igi gamoiyeneba daZaxebis, mowodebis, mimarTvis dros, rodesac gvinda im piris yuradReba movipyroT, visac mivmarTavT salaparakod. am funqcias kargad gamoxatavs Tavad termini wodebiTi da amgvari daniSnulebis gamo xSirad gvxvdeba dialogebSi. mas axasiaTebs Zaxilis intonacia da amiT gansxvavdeba kidec yvela sxva brunvisagan. misi adgili winadadebaSi ar aris fiqsirebuli da SeiZleba winadadebis TavSic iyos, SuaSic da boloSic. igi ar imarTvis arc zmnis, arc saxelis, arc Tandebulis mier da winadadebaSi mZimiT an Zaxilis niSniT gamoiyofa (v. Tofuria). CamoTvlili argumentebis mixedviT mkvlevari Semdeg daskvnas akeTebs: praqtikuli mizniT brunvis sistemaSi wodebiTis datoveba ar aris gamarTlebuli. a. SaniZe ar iziarebs v. Tofurias Tvalsazriss, romlis mixedviTac wodebiTi formis adgili sityvawarmoebaSia da igi sxva brunvaTa funqciis gagebas uSlis xels. mkvlevars miaCnia, rom wodebiTis forma rogorc sintaqsuri, ise morfologiuri niSnebiT brunvaTa rigSi dgas da is aris brunvis forma: sintaqsurad mas sxva brunvis formantebTan aerTianebs urTierToba sintagmis wevrebTan, morfologiurad ki _ erTnairi leqsikuri mniSvneloba da mravlobiTi ricxvis warmoeba.

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amdenad, ZiriTad brunvaTa saxelebi qarTulSi berZnuli terminebis marTebuli Tu mcdari TargmaniT aris warmodgenili. es terminebi jer laTinurad iTargmna, Semdeg ki laTinuridan ucvlelad an Targmanis gziT gavrcelda sxva enebSi. III. 2.9. brunvis niSani. amgvarad: brunvis dros saxelis fuZe ucvlelia, xolo daboloebebi icvleba. bruneba qarTulSi sufiqsuria. yovel brunvas sakuTari daboloeba anu b r u n v i s n i S a n i aqvs. b r u n v i s n i S a n i a is morfologiuri elementi, romelic saxelis fuZes saTanado brunvis formas aniebs. rogorc cnobilia, saxelis fuZe leqsikuri mniSvnelobis matarebelia, xolo gramatikuli mniSvneloba brunvis niSans Semoaqvs. sityvis leqsikuri mniSvneloba iseve, rogorc misi fuZe, ucvlelia, erTia, xolo gramatikuli mniSvneloba, brunvis niSnis msgavsad, cvalebadia, yvela formas sakuTari aqvs. imaSi, rom sityva-forma mgel-ma moqmed subieqts gamoxatavs, araviTari wvlili ar miuZGvis sityvis fuZes (mgel-), amisi ganmapirobebelia brunvis niSani (-ma), ufro sworad, Zireul da afiqsur morfemaTa es konkretuli sinTezi. SesaZlebelia brunvis niSani formaSi saerTod ar Candes, magram is paradigmatul sistemaSi mainc asrulebs sakuTar funqcias. aseT dros vambobT xolme, rom brunvis niSani nul-alomorfis saxiT aris warmodgenili; magaliTad, aseTia xmovanfuZianTa saxelobiTi (Zma, Gero...) da misT. faqtobriv, arcerTi brunvis niSani ar gvxvdeba erTaderTi, ucvleli saxiT, brunvis niSani icvleba poziciebisda mixedviT. amitomac brunvis niSnis cneba ganzogadebuli, pirobiTi xasiaTisaa. zog enaSi erTi da imave brunvis niSani sxvadasxva fuZesTan sxvadasxva materialuri saxiTac vlindeba. qarTulSi aseTi ram ar xdeba. saxelis fuZis nairgvarobis mixedviT mxolod brunvis niSanTa poziciuri variantebi dasturdeba. III. 2.10. brunvis niSanTa ZiriTadi sistema. brunebis sistema, Tavisi raodenobiT, rigiTa da saxelwodebebiT, ukve ganisazGvra.

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brunvis niSanTa sistemas, cxadia, brunebis sistema gvTavazobs. Tuki brunvis formaTa paradigmas `CamovacilebT~ maTs saerTo nawils _ fuZes, miviGebT brunvis niSanTa sistemas. magram romeli unda miviCnioT brunebis (Sesabamisad _ brunvis niSanTa) ZiriTad sistemad? amisaTvis ori urTierTdakavSirebuli faqtoriT SeiZleba visargebloT: a) brunvis formantebis sisrule: TiToeuli brunvisaTvis aiGeba morfemis is varianti, romelic ufro srulia. magram am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba miviGoT ara brunvis niSanTa sistema (paradigma), aramed `srul~ brunvis niSanTa `nakrebi~, radgan SeiZleba miTiTebuli `sisrule~ calkeul brunvis niSans sul sxvadasxva paradigmaSi aGmoaCndes. b) morfologiuri `neitraliteti~: brunvis niSanTa sistema `miviGoT~ iseTi struqturis fuZisagan, romelic morfonologiur gavlenas ar axdens brunvis niSnebze. aseTad qarTulSi unda miviCnioT TanxmovniT daboloebuli fuZe. Sesabamisad, Tuki aviGebT TanxmovanfuZiani (ukumSveli) arsebiTi saxelis paradigmas: sax. wign-i moT. wign-ma mic. wign-s naT. wign-is moq. wign-iT viT. wign-ad wod. wign-o brunvis niSanTa ZiriTadi sistema aseTi saxisaa: sax. -i moT. -ma mic. -s naT. -is moq. -iT viT. -ad wod. -o TiToeuli maTgani SeiZleba, amave dros, miviCnioT Sesabamisi brunvis niSnis amosaval saxed, anu _ ZiriTad alomorfad.

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TiToeuli am morfemis nairsaxeoba ganixileba rogorc misi poziciuri varianti. III. 2.11. brunvis niSanTa alomorfebi. nebismieri brunvis niSnis poziciuri nairsaxeoba ganixileba rogorc a l o m o r f i. TviT safuZvlad (ZiriTadad) miGebuli morfema warmodgeba erT-erT alomorfad, ramdenadac morfema, rogorc aseTi, yvela alomorfis SemkreblobiTi saxea. qarTuli brunebis sistema gviCvenebs alomorfTa urTierTmimarTebis sakmaod mwyobr suraTs. ukve miGebuli ZiriTadi sistemis safuZvelze TiToeuli brunvis niSani warmogvidgens ramdenime poziciur nairsaxeobas. ganvixiloT isini TanamimdevrobiT: 1 . s a x e l o b i T i brunvis niSnis alomrfebia: -i, . saxelobiTi brunvis niSnis alomorfTa standartuli sistemuri opozicia aseTia: Tanxmovnian fuZesTan: -i (saxl-i); xmovnian fuZesTan: - (muxa-). amave dros, damatebiT poziciur variantad Tanxmovnian fuZesTan aseve vlindeba alomorfi; kerZod, TanxmovanfuZiani saxeli fuZis saxiT warmodgeba: a) e. w. aGwerilobiTi vnebiTis (erTgvari Sedgenili Semasmenlis) saxelad nawilTan: aRiarebul iqna... b) pirovnebis sakuTari saxelis gamoyenebisas gvarTan erTad: daviT sarajiSvili. SeniSvna: garkveul SemTxvevebSi -i alomorfi literaturul enaSi gamoyenebulia xmovanfuZian saxelebTanac omonimiis daZlevisa Tu stilizaciis mizniT: `jer vsTqvaT is, rom d a i saakaZis colad SeirTo luarsab mefem~ (ilia). `mwyemssa hkiTxa: `romelia qarTlis g z a i?~ (ana). `mis butbuts marto m T a i mdumari dafiqrebuli yurs miupyrobda~ (ilia). 2. m o T x r o b i T i brunvis niSnis alomorfebi: -ma, -m. isini sistemuri poziciuri variantebia: Tanxmovnian fuZesTan: -ma (kac-ma);

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xmovnian fuZesTan: -m (kata-m). amave dros, xmovanfuZian saxelebTan poziciur (emfatikur) variantad gvevlineba -ma: `da-ma da Zma-m~. `ikiTxa arCilis d a m a da Tavisi mariliani Tvalebi miaSuqa giorgisa~ (ilia). `_ ra aris, Svilo, magisTana, _ upasuxa d e d a m a da mswrafl ukuiqca TvaliTgan cremli~ (ilia). `mitom gagvzarda d e d a m a, misTvis gvetyoda nanasa~ (vaJa). amdenad, -ma elementis morfologiuri Girebuleba TanxmovanfuZian da xmovanfuZian saxelebTan sxvadasxvagvarad unda dafasdes, sistemurad isini sxvadasxva Girebulebisaa, arsebiTad omomorfebia. SeniSvna: 1. Tanamedrove qarTulis alomorful erTeulebad ver miiCneva arqauli Cvenebani: moTxrobiTSi - sakuTar saxelebTan: `d a v i T sTqvi: iyavn qalaqni!~ (gr. orb.); aseve -man: `mzis Gimili aGaCina c a m a n~ (ana). 2. alomorfebad ar unda iqnes miCneuli prepoziciuri xmovanfuZiani (aseve _ TanxmovanfuZiani) msazGvrelis SeuTanxmebeli (patara bima) an nawilobriv SeTanxmebuli (celq-i bi-is) variantebi. 3. m i c e m i T i brunvis niSania -s. es erTaderTi morfemaa brunvisa, romelic sxvaobas ar iZleva fuZis daboloebis mixedviT, erTi da igivea TanxmovanfuZianebTanac da xmovanfuZianebTanac; Sdr.: napir-s wyaro-s amave dros, am morfemis poziciuri emfatikuri variantia -sa. es alomorfic erTnairad SeiZleba daerTos rogorc Tanxmovnian, ise xmovnian fuZeebs: napirsa da Suaguls; wyarosa da Geles. `is aqav ewafeba ukvdavebis w y a r o s a (ilia); (avtori) mraval saintereso w y a r o s a da literaturas ixmobs Tavis gamokvlevaSi (`saq. resp.~).

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4. n a T e s a o b i T i brunvis niSnis alomorfebia -is, -s, -sa, -si, -isa. sruli -is morfema vlindeba TanxmovanfuZiansa da kvecad xmovanfuZian saxelebSi: Tav-is (mobruneba) kef-is (Zvali) ukvecel xmovanfuZian saxelebTan neitralur poziciaSi vlindeba -s alomorfi: wyaro-s wyali xolo mis poziciur (emfatikur) variantad gvevlineba -si an -sa (ufro iSviaTad): wyali wyaro-si Sdr.: JorJma yvelafris mkveTri suni... igrZno: miwis, tyis... w y a r o s i da sasuqis (m. javax. Targm.). qorwinebis Semdeg yovelgvari qoneba... warmoadgens colis sakuTrebas, miuxedavad am qonebis formirebis w y a r o s a (`Tbil.~). poziciuri (emfatikuri) varianti -isa moepoveba -is morfemasac. anderZi mam-isa. `zovebi... Camonasxleti m T e b i s a (vaJa). SeniSvna: arsebobs erTi gamonaklisi, rodesac dro sityvis ukveceli fuZe naT. br. niSnis srul alomorfs gamoavlens: dro-is aTvla... `ver mcnobi ama d r o i s a ugunurebas myofia~ (g. tab.). Sdr. `Tqven ki ambobT, viGupebiTo. raGa d r o i s i a ?! (o. il.). 5. m o q m e d e b i T i brunvis niSnis alomorfebia: -iT, -Ti, -Ta. -iT Tanxmovnian fuZeebsa da kvecad saxelebs moudis: bar-iT. qv-iT xolo -Ti da -Ta (iSviaTad) poziciuri variantebia ukvecel fuZeebTan; Sdr.:

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`uxilavs... mtrediseburi GuGuni dedis Z u Z u T i datkbobis dros~ (e. zedg.) `...rom imaT dedis Z u Z u T a vsuqdebi codviliani~ (vaJa). iSviaTad vlindeba am emfatikuri variantebisaTvis amosavali -T alomorfi ukvecel xmovanfuZianTa: `erTi Z u Z u T gamozrdili, erTi dedis ori Svili~ (akaki); `Z u Z u T vaTirebT balGebsa, rZisTvin ro abirdebian~ (vaJa). 6. v i T a r e b i T i brunvis niSnis alomorfebia: -ad, -d. am alomorfTa ganawileba zustad xdeba fuZis daboloebis mixedviT: TanxmovanfuZianebTan _ -ad: kac-ad; xmovanfuZianebTan _ -d: gzad, enZela-d, Gero-d. amave dros, Tanamedrove qarTulSi, cocxali metyvelebis gavleniT, vlindeba am alomorfTa gavrcobili variantebic: `qveyana iqca d u q n a d a~ (vaJa). `f i q r a d a aqvT, miTam Savi navTi gaiyvanon miliTa~ (ilia). `yvelas gulSi d a r d a d a hqonda, rom tfilisi mters eira (v. barn.). `usazGvro z G v a d a sdgas imaT gulSi~ (vaJa). `Cveni `gulis~ burTebi cas Seekedla m z e d a da mTvared (l. bregv.). 7. w o d e b i T i brunvis niSnis alomorfebia: -o, -v, . -o sruli varianti erTaderTia TanxmovanfuZian sazogado saxelebTan: mezobel-o, stumar-o.... `he, m a m u l o , grZnoba Seni movlisa...~ (g. tab.). agreTve, sakuTar saxelTagan _ gvarebTan da adgilis saxelebTan: baraTaSvil-o, Tbilis-o... `bzifo, enguro, alazano, mtkvaro, ioro, ager axlaxans gardacvlilo galaktionoi!~ (m. maav.). xmovanfuZianebTan ZiriTadi da kanonikuria -v alomorfi: samSoblo-v, miwa-v, zeca-v...

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`rarig kargia, s a m S o b l o v , Seni mtkvari da rioni...~ (g. tab.). `mSobliuro Cemo m i w a v!..~ (g. tab.). `c a v , wmindav, varskvlaviano...~ (xalx.). `i g r i a l e , c a v ! wamoGvare eg niaGvari!~ (i. maCab. Targm.). amave dros, erT da ormarcvlian fuZeebTan xSiria -o morfemis gamovlena: `m T a o , rad agre hguldidob...~ (vaJa) `he, c a o , c a o , xatebi Seni jer kidev gulzed maqvs daCneuli!~ (n. baraT.); Sdr.: `d e d a o GvTisav, Seni xvedria es saqarTvelo didirnaxuli...~ (akaki); `d e d a v , ismine qarTvlis vedreba...~ (ilia); qarTvlis d e d a o ! ZuZu qarTvlisa uwin mamulsa uzrdida Svilsa~ (ilia). wodebiTi brunvis niSnis nulovani alomorfi vlindeba pirTa saxelebsa (fuZis daboloebis miuxedavad) da xmovanfuZian gvarebSi: grigol! giorgi! paata! Tebro! tabiZe! menabde! kuprava! brunvis niSanTa alomorfebis gaerTianebuli suraTi aseT saxes miiGebs (Tumca masSi fuZeTa Sida variireba ver gamoCndeba): brunvebi alomorfebi saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi naTesaobiTi moqmedebiTi viTarebiTi wodebiTi -i, - -ma, -m -s, -sa -is, -s, -si, -sa -iT, -Ti, -Ta, -T -ad, -d, -ada, -da -o, -v, -

III. 2.12. brunvis niSanTa gavrcoba (anu e. w. emfatikuri xmovani). TanxmovniT daboloebul brunvis niSnebs (-s, -is, -iT...) zogierT poziciaSi uCndeba xmovani a, romelic s a v r c o b i s an

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e m f a t i k u r i n i S n i s saxeliT aris cnobili gramatikul literaturaSi. brunvis formaTa analizisas zogjer isea warmodgenili, TiTqos es a elementi damoukidebeli morfologiuri niSani iyos. amas, rogorc Cans, ganapirobebs isic, rom am elements Zvel qarTulSi marTlac hqonda Tavisi gramatikuli daniSnuleba (msazGvreli elementis funqcia). Tanamedrove qarTulSi es xmovani SeiZleba miviCnioT brunvis niSnis ganuyofel elementad, romelic Sesabamisi brunvis formis sintaqsur poziciazea damokidebuli. a elements damoukidebeli gramatikuli distribucia aqvs. TanxmovniT daboloebuli nebismieri brunvis niSani (aseve -T ricxvis niSani, agreTve zogi nawilaki) SeiZleba poziciurad iqnes xmovniT gavrcobili. es gavrcoba morfologiurad arasavaldebulo xasiaTisaa (TviT dadgenil farglebSic ki) da is fonologiuri da morfonologiuri moTxovnebiT aris Sepirobebuli. amdenad, marTebulia morfemaTa imgvari aGwera, rodesac xmovniT gavrcobili brunvis niSnebi (ganurCevlad imisa, TanxmovanfuZiani saxelis bruneba gvaqvs, Tu xmovanfuZianisa) alomorfebis saxiT aris warmodgenili (ix. $ III. 2.16.). moT. -ma (xmovanfuZianebTan): deda-ma... mic. -sa (yvela tipis fuZesTan): saxl-sa, dro-sa... naT. -isa (Tanxmovanf. da kvecad xmovanf.): kedl-isa, Zm-isa... -sa (ukvecel xmovanf.): wyaro-sa... moq. -iTa (Tanxmovanf. da kvecad xmovanf.): wyl-iTa, gzi-Ta... viT. -ada (Tanxmovanf.): qvevr-ada... -da (xmovanf.): miwa-da, rko-da... amdenad, warmodgenili alomorfebi iqneba brunvis poziciurad gamovlenili variantebi. analogiurive poziciuri gamovlena axasiaTebs i brunvis niSanTa zemoT warmodgenil alomorfebSi: -si, gvari gavrcoba damaxasiaTebelia ukveceli xmovanfuZiani bis naTesaobiTsa da moqmedebiTSi: gemo-si, gemo-Ti... Sdr.: wyaro-s wyali, magram wyali wyaro-si niSanTa xmovans -Ti. amsaxele-

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SeniSvna: mwerlobaSi dadasturebulia -si, -Ti alomorfebi ara aseT SezGudul poziciebSic. magaliTad, ak. SaniZe miuTiTebs vaJa-fSavelas enis amgvar Taviseburebas: `yvelaze metad uxdebaT Cabalaxebi mglisi-a, spasalars _ vefxvis tyavisa, vezirT _ iuxis Txisi-a~. aSkaraa: rac aris -isa (tyavisa), is aris -isi (Txisi). saerTo wesebTan mimarTebiT es periferiul movlenad CaiTvleba. radganac miTiTebuli alomorfebi brunvis niSanTa poziciur variantebad iqna miCneuli, cxadia, aucilebelia am `savaldebulo~ poziciebis Cveneba. a) upirveles yovlisa, Tanamedrove qarTulSi xazi gaesmis gavrcobili brunvis niSnis sademarkacio daniSnulebas. es funqcia gamokveTilia im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac is konstruqciis (sintagmaturi mTlianobis) Camketad gvevlineba; kerZod: Tu substantiuri msazGvreli prepoziciuria, gauvrcobeli brunva gveqneba, xolo Tu postpoziciuri (Camketi) msazGvrelia, is gavrcobili iqneba; Sdr.: mezobl-is saxli saxli mezobl-isa mag.: `Tofi x i s a, tyvia w y l i s a, xes eca da qva gaiqca~ (gamocana). aseTive daniSnulebisaa konstruqciis Camketi gavrcobili forma striqonisa Tu winadadebis bolos: `mis mTisa Zirsa wyali dis, arad sandomi x i d i s a ~ (rusTaveli); `bnels xevze mohyefs mdinare, gulamGvreuli j a v r i T a~ (vaJa). b) gansxvavebuli funqcia aqvs brunvis niSnis xmovniT gavrcobas brunvis formaze nawilakebis an Tandebulis darTvisas; am SemTxvevaSi a xmovans arsebiTad TanxmovanTgamyaris fonetikuri funqcia aqvs dakisrebuli: wyaro-ma-c, qva-sa-c, baG-isa-ve... saxl-isa-ken, x-isa-gan, gul-isa-Tvis... g) arsebiTad amave rigisaa mavrcobi xmovnis gaCena enklitikur poziciaSi, rodesac ori erTgvarovani wevri da (Tu) kavSiriT aris SeerTebuli da es kavSiri saerTo maxviliT enklitikurad ekedleba wina wevrs. am SemTxvevaSi a xmovani aseTive Tan-

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xmovanTgamyaris rols asrulebs (amave dros, enklitikuri SeerTebis maniSnebelia): dGe-sa da Game-s, kac-isa Tu qal-is, x-iTa Tu qv-iT... `zarsa scemdes, uxaroda ufrossa da Tunda mcirsa~ (rusTaveli). `mova Semyreli yovelTa erTgan dGisa da Gamisad~ (rusTaveli). d) maerTi xmovnis funqciisaa brunvis niSnis gavrcoba zmnis winamaval aqtantebTan Tu zmnizedebTan (aseve nawilakebTan) im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac zmnas zmniswini ara aqvs; am TvalsazrisiT zmniswiniani da uzmniswino formebis garCeva marTlac gamokveTilia. Sdr.: Zmasa hyavs da Zmas mohyavs; dGesa aqvs da dGes moaqvs; aseve: ara aqvs da ar moaqvs... gavrcoba aseve damaxasiaTebelia mravlobiTis -T sufiqsisaTvis, oGond am SemTxvevaSi gabatonebuli pozicia daikava gavrcobilma -Ta variantma da iq is wesebi arsebiTad umoqmedoa, rac brunvis niSnebis SemTxvevaSi vlindeba. marTalia, aseTi dapirispirebac vlindeba: `m T a T orbis frTebi moisxes...~ (ana). `da miaSures lilisfer m T a T a ...~ (ana). magram msazGvrelis poziciaSi Taniani mravlobiTi arsebiTad yovelTvis gavrcobilia: mTaTa erToba, dGeTa srbola, mweralTa kavSiri... Sdr.: `miiswrafodes fiqri rCeuli sakacobrio gzaTa brZolaSi~ (g. tab.). `rbian wuTebi bednier dGeTa~ (g. tab.). III. 2.13. arsebiTi saxelis fuZe. rogorc iTqva, saxelis formawarmoebis (fleqsiis) dros cvlilebas ganicdis (cvladia) sufiqsuri elementi (brunvis niSani), xolo saxelis fuZe (leqsikuri bazisi) ucvlelia: saxl-i saxl-ma saxl-s saxl-is saxl-ad saxl-o

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rac ucvlelia, is f u Z e a, rac cvladi _ brunvis f o r m a n t i. amgvarad: arsebiTi saxelis fuZe aris gramatikuli formis is nawili, romelic formawarmoebis dros ucvlelia rogorc leqsikuri Sinaarsis, ise formis (ZiriTadi fonematuri struqturis) mxriv. rogor gamovavlinoT arsebiTi saxelis fuZe? sazogadod, Tu arsebiT saxels misi neitraluri formiT, saxelobiTi brunvis formiT, aviGebT, Tanamedrove qarTulSi yvela saxeli xmovniT daboloebuli aGmoCndeba; mag.: Zma, mTvare, Taro, ru, wigni... oGond am xmovanTagan -i bolokiduri, Cveulebisamebr, saxelobiTi brunvis niSania, xolo danarCeni xmovnebi _ fuZis organuli nawili.

SeniSvna: SesaZlebelia i xmovanic aGmoCndes fuZis nawili zogierT ucxo warmoSobis sityvaSi: taqsi, Cai, tramvai...
amdenad, saxelobiT brunvaSi Zneli dasadgenia fuZis viTareba. amisaTvis iseTi brunvis forma unda aviGoT, romelSic brunvis niSans ar gaaCnia fuZeze zemoqmedebis unari, anu is brunvis niSani, romlis darTviTac saxelis fuZe (fuZiseuli xmovani) ucvlelad SenarCundeba, xolo brunvis -i morfema Canacvldeba. amisaTvis umjobesia arsebiTi saxeli CavsvaT moTxrobiT brunvaSi; brunvis niSnis Canacvlebis (gamoyofis) Semdeg darCeba saxelis sruli fuZe. saxli saxl-ma kedeli kedel-ma mTvare mTvare-m wyaro wyaro-m fanjara fanjara-m taqsi taqsi-m arsebiTi saxelis fuZe daboloebis mixedviT orgvaria: a) fuZe, romelic Tanxmovanze bolovdeba, anu _ T a n x m o v a n f u Z i a n i: saxl-, kedel-, bavSv-.

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b) fuZe, romelsac xmovani aboloebs, x m o v a n f u Z i a n i : biZa, rZe, wyaro, ZuZu... sabolood, qarTuli arsebiTi saxelis formawarmoeba martivia, erTtipuri; misTvis e r T f u Z i a n o b a a damaxasiaTebeli. zemoT fuZis ZiriTad fonematur struqturas imitom gaesva xazi, rom brunvis formantTa zemoqmedebis Sedegad fuZeSic SeiZleba moxdes iseTi fonetikuri cvlileba, romelic fuZis fonematuri struqturis mTlianobas arsebiTad ar Secvlis (ix. qvemoT). fuZe, romelic daboloebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad cvlilebas ar ganicdis, s r u l i fuZea, xolo is, romelic cvlilebas ganicdis _ a r a s r u l i (r e d u c i r e b u l i). amdenad, fuZe SeiZleba iyos rogorc u c v l e l i, ise c v a l e b a d i. magaliTad saxl- ucvlelia, kedel- cvalebadi (kedl-is); wyaro ucvlelia, muxa cvalebadi (mux-{is}). kedel-/ kedl-, muxa/ mux-, TavisTavad, fuZis, rogorc m o r f e m i s , a l o m o r f e b i a. SeniSvna: fuZeSi SeiZleba ormagi cvlilebac xdebodes; mag.: qarxana qarxn-.

III. 2.14. fuZisa da afiqsTa urTierTqmedeba. formawarmoebis (brunebis) procesSi arsebiTi saxelis fuZe da brunvis niSnebi urTierTmoqmedeben. am urTierTmoqmedebam SeiZleba erTerT maTganSi fonetikuri cvlileba gamoiwvios. arsebiT saxelTa aRniSnuli ori jgufi _ TanxmovanfuZiani da xmovanfuZiani _ am TvalsazrisiT aseve ar aris erTgvarovani: garkveuli struqturuli mimarTebebi iwvevs cvlilebas fuZesa Tu brunvis niSnebSi, garkveuli _ ara. kerZod, aseTia TanxmovanfuZian saxelTa nawili, romelTa fuZe ucvlelia, anu fuZisa da brunvis niSanTa struqturuli mimarTeba stabiluria. mag.: qar-i gverd-i ZaRl-i qar-ma gverd-ma ZaRl-ma qar-s gverd-s ZaRl-s qar-is gverd-is ZaRl-is qar-iT gverd-iT ZaRl-iT qar-ad gverd-ad ZaRl-ad qar-o gverd-o ZaRl-o

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arsebiTad yvela sxva struqturul mimarTebaSi cvlilebas ganicdis erT-erTi morfema _ Zireuli an sufiqsuri. amave dros, morfemaTa struqturuli urTierTmimarTebis dadgenili kanonzomierebebi SeiZleba yovelTvis ar xorcieldebodes erTgvarovnad, kerZod, cvlileba xdebodes aramosalodnel struqturaSi (mag., RmerT-i), da piriqiT, ar xdebodes mosalodnel dros (mag., Sdr.: xanjal xanjl-is, magram: gunjal-is). sazogadod, saxelis fuZisa da brunvis niSanTa urTierTmimarTeba rTul morfofonologiur kanonzomierebaze Cans damyarebuli. morfologia fonologiis gareSe ar arsebobs; ar SeiZleba arsebobdes, radganac calkeuli morfemebic da maTi kavSirebic mxolod fonologiis bazaze iqmneba. kvlevebiT dadasturebulia, rom morfemaTa agebuleba, maTi struqtura fonologiuri kanonebiT aris pirobadebuli; calkeul morfemaTa bgeriTi Sedgeniloba warmoaCens garkveul fonologiur wesebsa da akrZalvebs, romelTa gaTvaliswinebis gareSe morfemebis ganxilva arasrulyofili iqneboda. morfemaTa sinTezi warmoqmnis morfologiur mTlianobas anu formas. morfemaTa urTierTdakavSireba ganapirobebs axali fonologiuri kombinaciebis warmoSobas, romelTa nawili, TavisTavad cxadia, SeiZleba aRmoCndes am enis saerTo fonologiuri kanonebidan da wesebidan amovardnili; anu: calkeul morfemaTa SeerTebis Sedegad SeiZleba uSualo mezoblobaSi aRmoCndes arahomogenuri an arahomorganuli bgerebi; magaliTad, iseTi cnobili SemTxvevebi, rogorebicaa: saxl-s-Si an qalaq-iT-gan... amdenad, fonologiuri struqturis msgavsad, morfotaqtika fonotaqtikis wesebze aris damokidebuli da fonetikuri procesebi swored amis safuZvelze warmoiqmneba, raTa raime gziT mogvardes kolizia fonologiasa da morfologias Soris. arsebiTi saxelis fuZeTa da brunvis niSanTa morfonologiuri urTierTmimarTebis zogadi suraTi aseTia: a) brunvis niSanTa cvlilebas iwvevs fuZis bolokiduri xmovani, romelic Tavad ucvlelia (stabiluria). cvlilebis es saxeoba gaTvaliswinebulia brunebis tipebsa da brunvis niSanTa alomorfebis aRweris dros (ix. Sesabamisi paragrafebi).

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b) saTanado struqturis fuZis cvlilebis gamowveva SeuZlia brunvis niSans, romelsac aqvs daxuruli marcvlis struqtura _ VC. amgvarad, fuZeTa da sufiqsTa urTierTmoqmedi struqturebia: xmovanfuZianebSi: 1. a) # V + V: rko + i rko; b) # V + CV: rko + ma rko-m; g) # V + VC: rko + is rko-s(i);
# V + VC: Zma + is Zm-is...

2.

TanxmovanfuZianebSi:
# VS + VC: kedel + is kedl-is...

SeniSvna: iSviaTad aseT (cvalebad) Tvisebas avlens fuZis VC auslautic: yasab + is yasb-is. III. 2.15. fuZis kumSva. TanxmovanfuZiani saxelis formacvalebis (brunebis, agreTve, ricxvis warmoebis) dros saxelis fuZem SeiZleba dakargos bolokidura (daxuruli) marcvlis xmovani. am movlenas k u m S v a hqvia. sxvagvarad es aris saxelis fuZis bolo xmovnis r e d u q c i a. fuZe, romelsac kumSva axasiaTebs, k u m S v a d i a. saxelis fuZis is nawili, romlis xmovani reduqcias eqvemdebareba, s a r e d u q c i o s e g m e n t i a. kumSvis procesis mosaxdenad aucilebelia saTanado pirobebi: a) VC struqturis sufiqsi, kerZod: brunvis niSnebi: naT. br. -is moq. br. -iT viT. br. -ad mravlobiTis sufiqsi -eb.
simbolo # am SemTxvevaSi gamoyenebulia fuZis pirveli nawilis aRsaniSnavad.

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fuZis auslautis, anu sareduqcio segmentis, struqtura unda iyos VS, anu xmovani plus sonori (agreTve _ v); reduqcias eqvemdebareba sami xmovani: a, e, o. amdenad, sareduqcio segmentis struqturaa: al el ol ar er or an en on am em om av ev ov

SeniSvna: 1. aris ramdenime gamonaklisi, roca VC struqturis auslauti ikumSeba (mag.: kakab-i, nabad-i, yasab-i, beed-i...); 2. VSC struqturis auslautis kumSvis erTaderTi magaliTi dasturdeba: GmerT-i. vnaxoT TiToeuli sareduqcio segmenti: -al: am struqturis fuZeTa mniSvnelovani nawili kumSvadia, Tumca ukumSvelTa raodenobac sagrZnobia: ukumSveli xibali cimbali kanibali Cobali Tagali grigali bungali jirgali bandali dandali vandali skandali feodali kodali yodali ideali areali kumSvadi bali kaxambali kombali xorbali alubali iGbali namgali xangali Cangali fargali qargali gorgali durgali dedali pedali sandali ajafsandali

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festivali narvali mtarvali mwvervali intervali Sturvali saTali moTali bzekali spekali vertikali mkali kankali vokali rkali dalali natamali Simali rvali calTvali yuryumali dgnali signali arsenali sirsvali originali kardinali kriminali finali diagonali samsvali personali mkurnali tribunali Spali zarali brali

Sandali cindali kardali sardali naGverdali Suamavali orTqmavali Tbomavali STamomavali qvewarmavali karnavali dasavali Tavgadasakali Sesavali aGsavali jargvali mZevali mxevali Tvali Sarvali Tebervali mayvali maSvali nacvali sacvali marcvali Zvali vali vagzali sagzali muguzali beiTali samarTali farTali bakali kakali ekali

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integrali liberali minerali morali pastorali kaprali naprali trali magistrali mistrali nasufrali xrali detali metali naSali kapitali portali kristali mzeqali kirkimali beboqali fancqali GanGali yanyali penali CanCali boZali nakrZali winwali forTxali safiqrali naxanZrali xanxali Savxali janjali

odrikali buzankali maankali xinkali barkali kirkali mitkali naperwkali mamali feStamali erkemali tyemali xerxemali x{r}mali sasTumali nawverali generali mwerali waramwerali natirali domxali satirali natusali hospitali kvartali mamfali naterfali dedofali ufali irisufali fiqali sarqali bayali mayali wyali bryali TavSali

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

marSali ferSali naqurCali sagZali rZali wawali fiwali mZaxali mxali msxali xanjali fuZeTa am paraleluri suraTidan ikveTeba zogi kanonzomiereba: 1. ucvlelia oden VS struqturis fuZe: al-i. 2. ar SeikumSeba im marcvlis xmovani, romelsac win xmovani esazGvreba da ara _ Tanxmovani: baal-i, naal-i, bodial-i, filial-i, roial-i, zual-i, ritual-i, areal-i, ideal-i... SeniSvna: 1. es SezGudva, sazogadod, ar Seexeba im fuZeebs, romlebSic xmovnisSemdgomi o nawilobriv reduqcias ganicdis: niori nivris... 2. zog fuZeSi dakargulia arqauli -iv sufiqsis v elementi: noyier-i, gonier-i... aseT fuZeTa nawili reduqcias eqvemdebareba, ris Sedegadac dakarguli v aGdgeba: noyivr-ad... 3. umetesad ar ikumSeba erTmarcvliani fuZeebi, oGond mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac xmovnis wina poziciaSi cali Tanxmovania: bal-i, dal-i, val-i, cal-i, wal-i... magram Sdr. bali, romlis msgavsi SemTxvevebic axsnilia imiT, rom maT ufro rTul fuZeebSi SeiZines msgavsi unari (Sdr. alubal-i). es SezGudva ar Seexeba iseT erTmarcvlianebs, romelSic xmovnis wina pozicia raime TanxmovanTkompleqss ukavia: Tval-i, Zval-i, kval-i, mxal-i, wyal-i... 4. ar ikumSeba reduplicirebuli fuZeebi: dandal-i, kankal-i, xanxal-i, CanCal-i, janjal-i, GarGal-i...

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5. erTgvari SezGudva Cans iseTi ormarcvliani fuZeebis kumSvaSic, romelTa sareduqcio VS marcvlis wina marcvali aseve VC struqturisaa: oval-i, asal-i... magram Sdr.: ekal-i, axali... 6. ikumSeba rogorc Zireuli qarTuli, ise nasesxeb sityvaTa fuZeebi, Tumca meti SezGudva nasesxeb masalaSi Cans (aGal-i, nipel-i...). 7. zedsarTavi saxelis fuZe iseve ikumSeba, rogorc arsebiTi; oGond es xdeba mxolod zedsarTavis damoukideblad gamoyenebisas. prepoziciuri msazGvrelis rolSi, nawilobrivi SeTanxmebis dros, zedsarTavi saxelis fuZe cvlilebas ar ganicdis; Sdr.: maRl-is da maRal-i saxl-is... kumSvad zedsarTav saxelTa magaliTebi: dabal-i, mdabal-i, Tavmdabal-i, sulmdabal-i, mraval-i, mrgval-i, abdal-i, mxdal-i, marTal-i, muxTal-i, wunkal-i, idumal-i, dampal-i, murtal-i, sawyal-i, axal-i, cocxal-i, Tavisufal-i... 8. Sesabamisi struqturis mimGeobaTa fuZeebsac axasiaTebs kumSva, oGond aq meti SezGudva Cans; Sdr. analogiur viTarebaSi: sartyeli _ sartyl-is, magram Semosartymeli _ Semosartymel-is; titveli _ titvl-ad, magram: damxatveli _ damxatvel-ad. nimuSebi: naqurdal-i, saridal-i, momaval-i, SemkrTali, morbenal-i, marCenal-i, naavdral-i, macqeral-i, momGeral-i, momziral-i, satiral-i, natusal-i, aseve e. w. wina viTarebis derivatebi: namwyemsar-i, napural-i, naxanZral-i, nageral-i, naqeral-i... miTiTebuli kanonzomierebebi SeiZleba gavrceldes yvela sxva miTiTebul struqturaze sonoruli auslautiT. -el: am auslautis mqone saxeluri fuZis umetesoba moqmedi mimGeobaa (an warmomavlobiT aris aseTi). aqac mravlad aris rogorc ukumSveli, ise kumSvadi fuZeebi: ukumSveli kabeli tabeli Stabeli gideli kumSvadi sabeli Sesagebebeli damlagebeli sagebeli

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kandeli modeli sazrdeli yrdeli navTsayudeli gansacdeli jeeli veli Taveli gveli mmarTveli nikveli ninveli frinveli samonveli cxoveli qveli yveli mcveli mlocveli meSveli mrewveli ueveli jinveli naxveli mkiTxveli Zaxveli sacexveli fexburTeli ieli zurgieli nakeli jakeli momkeli kankeli saTleli saSleli

qveSsagebeli sakodeli damrigebeli sargebeli mGaGadebeli fuZemdebeli bralmdebeli wunmdebeli sagodebeli gamomZiebeli sanelebeli maswavlebeli saswavlebeli sabralebeli mxlebeli saxamebeli maamebeli sananebeli saberveli mbrZanebeli uxsenebeli maCvenebeli mSenebeli momxmarebeli sakerebeli sacxovrebeli mcxovrebeli mayurebeli SemduGebeli mtacebeli sawebeli mTibeli mezobeli sagalobeli monaTmflobeli axlobeli mdnobeli

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Tameli maxarobeli karameli mpyrobeli meli mSobeli gamzrdeli uSobeli sabmeli (Sdr. sabeli) Grubeli mTqmeli kedeli cmeli mGvdeli flaneli gamdeli msmeneli qumeli mTxovneli Gumeli mliqvneli sakideli gamyidveli sayideli saxvneli mtkaveli mwvrTneli kraveli satkepneli saxveveli burneli mrCeveli mToveli mweveli mxsneli saTxeveli kuneli rTveli mGrGneli soveli mcoxneli yoveli mToxneli sirsveli vimpeli sarqveli sareli naGveli xereli Sveli saxreli meSveli qeduxreli safuZveli Tanaklaseli fxizeli fanteli naTeli kafeli kamaTeli saGerGeli sareTeli celi sanTeli Sniceli saCxrekeli xenceli safxekeli Zeli mameli orZeli gamomcemeli weli sakmeli

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xeli saxeli sasjeli TavTxeli gasaxdeli akvareli

sarkmeli Tirkmeli mzomeli sasmeli sameli tansacmeli safaneli saqoneli weli ureli sawnaxeli gautexeli savarcxeli uGeli sartyeli saCeCeli sareceli circeli furceli muceli sabZeli savarZeli sazepeli wkepeli darbaiseli sakrefeli wifeli safeTqeli kurdGeli beGeli

am ganawilebaSi, cxadia, iCens Tavs kiTxvebi rogorc fuZeTa ukumSvelobis, ise kumSvis TvalsazrisiT, rac mizezia tradiciisa (uzusisa) da struqturuli kanonzomierebebis Tanaarsebobisa. orive jgufSi aseve moipoveba wminda zedsarTavebi an msazGvreli mimGeobebi:

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ukumSveli mTeli xmeli neli Zveli titveli ZirZveli bneli reli wrfeli Zneli kuaTxeli udardeli uzrdeli sacdeli gauxdeli gadauxdeli mouxdeli sagveli mrokveli mxilveli mfarveli sakvirveli sasurveli uSurveli mTesveli metyveli mimbaZveli mxarjveli janmrTeli uswavleli dauTvleli mousvleli mouvleli daubmeli saZebneli gauxedneli

kumSvadi yviTeli wiTeli SiSveli sqeli brtyeli vrceli grZeli Txeli cxeli ficxeli saZageli Sesagebebli Camouyalibebeli maZagebeli amgebeli mosamzadbeli gamadidebeli gadaudebeli gauTavebeli miutevebeli maZiebeli uSvelebeli gaunaTlebeli aucilebeli mamxilebeli SeuZlebeli Seugnebeli daudgromeli dauleveli uZleveli uSromeli autaneli Semadgeneli sayvareli sazareli momxveeli

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mdevneli mpovneli mSovneli mqneli momgvreli xelsayreli ganuyreli ganuxreli ganusjeli

gautexeli

kumSvad zedsarTavebTan erTi Taviseburebaa dakavSirebuli, maTi nawili mxolod viTarebiTSi ikumSeba: sqel-i sql-ad (da ara sql-is, sql-iT); brtyel-i brtyl-ad vrcel-i vrcl-ad cxel-i cxl-ad da misT. -ol: am segmentis Semcveli samiode fuZe ikumSeba: oboli, godoli, foToli. danarCeni saxelebi ukumSvelia, Tumca maTi raodenobac ar aris didi: boli, wboli, boboli, msrboli, goli, rgoli, doli, zoli, kamboli, menToli, ioli, cokoli, protokoli, ololi, moli, gnoli, noli, Joli, roli, paroli, broli, banderoli, horoli, kantroli, nasroli, mqroli, soli, toli, atoli, Tanatoli, fuli, CoCqoli, Goli, damyoli, toli, xrColi, mebrZoli, nawoli, sawoli, konwoli, kowoli, gamoli, oCxoli, xrColi... -am: m sonoriT daboloebul segmentSi, sazogadod, naklebad dasturdeba kumSvadi fuZeebi. -am Semdeg suraTs gviCvenebs: ukumSveli bami nabami dasabami yelsabami dgami nadgami kumSvadi lagami qaTami alami kalami salami salam-qalami

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zesadgami modgami TvalSeudgami Talgami Telgami lami Saltami vami astami gvami moTqvami balzami qrTami kamkami skami ulami Slami Tamami wami Jami wkvarami grami nagrami drami xrami Cqami balGami yami bayami brZami wami wamwami naami xami xamxami mosasxami sisxami

yalami walami elami arami varami erami atami vaxSami lerwami

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Sxami jami filjami -em: am fuZeTa nakleboba TvalSisacemia, miT ufro _ kumSvadis: ukumSveli gemi edemi nagvemi Temi rekviemi aqlemi kremi totemi sacemi gamosacemi mrwemi xemi Txemi jemi kumSvadi iremi uremi

-om: am segmentSi kumSva ar dasturdeba, anu Sesabamisi am struqturis fuZeebi ukumSvelia: omi, gomi, albomi, sadgomi, mskdomi, sandomi, jdomi, najdomi, sazomi, egzomi, Tomi, lomi, diplomi, boqlomi, sindromi, ipodromi, oromi, koromi, xoromi, naSromi, qvemZromi, wromi, tomi, atomi, Tvistomi, naxtomi, Gomi, comi, xomi, borjomi... -an: fuZis am struqturaSi aSkarad arbobs kumSvadoba: ukumSveli bani babani nabani dasabani libani kumSvadi sabani ebani lebani kidobani (Tav)Cobani

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gembani anbani gani uragani nagani bargani abragani organi gabadani bindani bardani Tavani mbGavani intrigani lagvani ugvani Tayvani suzani kviani iGbliani jiSiani TaTmani duSmani banani

ubani gareubani iagani balavani sagani jagani iatagani zegani xuligani ostigani Sigani Cogani argani Caidani madani dedani moedani qedani Cemodani lavgardani Sadrevani qoTani xelTaTmani guTani galavani falavani qaravani mtevani xeivani akvani diakvani bundovani mayvlovani samarovani erqvani

-en: am SemTxvevaSi fuZis ukumSvelobaa upiratesi:

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ukumSveli nakbeni narbeni sarbeni aborigeni zvigeni sadeni namyeni cremldeni ordeni sayrdeni sasveni fsveni samSveni gobeleni xaleni Sagreni Sveulmfreni nayeni brZeni cxeni

kumSvadi Sevardeni javardeni regveni ZGveni yavarjeni wveni yurZeni

-on: aqac upiratesia ukumSveli fuZeebi: ukumSveli iboni goni vagoni gasagoni faetoni bioni pagoni epigoni furgoni kabadoni iadoni bidoni sezoni kumSvadi monazoni mawoni saponi

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gazoni garnizoni liToni orioni drakoni limoni garmoni makaroni mironi koconi -ar: am struqturis fuZeTa sakmaod did raodenobaSi aseve xSiria kumSvadoba: ukumSveli bari xabari nugbari masdari mjdari gvari Gvari saxl-kari sakmari nasaxlari iplari Sxolari jagnari Talari TaGari winkari kumSvadi meZebari sagubari jigari Zirmagari langari mxedari yavari mdevari mawyevari niaGvari jvari laxvari cxvari bazari davTari zamTari futkari sizmari tvifari feiqari bawari inari

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-er: am fuZis matarebel saxelTa raodenoba SezGudulia, maT Soris _ kumSvadebisac: ukumSveli beri wberi geri Cxaveri nafxveri wveri Sveleri Spaleri kumSvadi dedaberi beberi TiTberi mozveri kiseri bokveri bocveri kavaleri saceri mteri mwyeri mewyeri oficeri

-or: am jgufSi kumSvadi fuZe SedarebiT cotaa: godori, mindori, niori, pamidori, kokori, CoCori, qoCori. Sdr. ukumSvelebi: ambori, tbori, gori, koridori, maiori, dubliori, Cikori, lori, Smori, niamori, cimori, donori, wnori, reJisori, ekvatori, inkubatori, indikatori, anatori, avtori, yintori, omfori, fosfori, Zelqori, Tanaswori, monaori, Txori... -av: v auslautis Semcvel fuZeebSi ukumSvelTa raodenoba didad aGemateba kumSvadebs da kumSvadoba mxolod ramdenime -av daboloebian fuZes udasturdeba: ambav-i, nagav-i, karav-i, SalSav-i, nifxav-i... garkveul fuZeebs qarTuli enis sxvadasxva istoriul qvesistemaSi udasturdeba kumSvadi variantebi. mag.: Tav-i (rogorc nacvalsaxeli) Tvis, TviT. erisTav-i gandgomileba e r i s T v i s zurabisa (`qarT. cx.~). sakargav-i: erTi mamuli s a k a r g v a d, uboZa amirbaroba (`vefx.~).

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qalisaTa... ganiSora... coli Tsi (xanZT.). u k u m S v e l i a: igavi, saGebavi, mokvdavi, sacodavi, zvavi, svavi, Svavi, ilyvavi, xelxvavi, vavi, xvavi, saxazavi, welkavi, sulTamxuTavi, nemskavi, uTvalavi, niZlavi, saflavi, mfrinavi, nawnavi, saxuravi, mcuravi, mouravi, zGavi, mosavi, naTesavi, sacavi, ivavi, beCavi, ZelSavi, sacavi, cxavi, mlocavi da mravali sxva. -ev: u k u m S v e l i a: devi, naZaladevi, Tanamdevi, nadevi, narkvevi, nadarbazevi, paraskevi, nalevi, naZlevi, narevi, nangrevi, wyalsatevi, qevqevi, uryevi, mosawevi, xevi, narevi, merxevi, nasxlevi da sxv. -ov: u k u m S v e l i a: bovi, zovi, fsovi, naTovi, naTxovi, naqsovi, nawovi. msgavsi struqturis kumSvad da ukumSvel fuZeTa warmoCenis Semdeg SeiZleba garkveuli daskvnebis gakeTeba: Tanamedrove qarTulSi (sinqroniul doneze) saxelis fuZeTa kumSva ufro uzusia (tradiciaa), vidre struqturuli kanonzomiereba. mxolod amiT SeiZleba aixsnas is, rom erTi da imave struqturis fuZeTagan erTi eqvemdebareba reduqcias, xolo meore _ ara. Sdr.: mtarval-i mtarval-is da Sarval-i Sarvl-is... sazogadod, qarTulSi reducirebul fuZeTa gamoyenebis wesi mkacri (kategoriuli) ar aris da alomorfTa variireba SesaZlebelia. magaliTad, ilia avavaZis cnobil striqonebSi _ `m t e r o b a enis aris m t r o b a qveynis, _ mag azrisa varT Tanaxma Cvena...~ _ erTi da igive sityvis fuZe erTad aris gamoyenebuli orive variantiT. marTalia, es sityvawarmoebaa, magram sakiTxis arss ar cvlis. SesaZlebelia, amgvar aramdgradobas ganapirobebs kumSvadobisadmi qarTulis gavrcelebis arealebis gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba (dasavlur arealSi reduqcia `modunebulia~). amitomac aris SesaZlebeli, rom mwerlebi, sairoebis

meZav-i: SesmeniTa m e Z s a

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SemTxvevaSi, Tavisuflad gamoiyeneben kumSvadi (aseve _ kvecadi) saxelebis fuZeucvlel variantebsac; mag.: vinca qmna Tixa u r e l a d, ras uZGvnis xelfasadao (d. guram.); didis GmerTis s a k u r T x e v l i s misTvis Gvivis cecxli gulSi (ilia); aGar SfoToben saflavSi gmirT oflis mGvreli Z v a l e b i (vaJa); m g e l i s a mgeli gamova, batkani vis unaxiao! (andaza); mters damorCilda nebiTa, veGara qmna ra Z a l a T i (d. guram.); p e p e l a s frTebze gamoviZine... (i. griS.). 3. fuZis kumSvis (reduqciis) yvelaze ufro kanonikuri struqtura aseTia: CVCVS, anu TanxmovniT dawyebuli da sonoriT damTavrebuli ormarcvliani fuZe. am fuZeSi C simboloTi aGniSnul poziciaSi SeiZleba TanxmovanTa jgufic iyos. 4. reduqciis SezGudvebi dakavSirebuli Cans: a) fuZis erTmarcvlianobasTan (Tavkiduri cali TanxmovniT): qal-i, cal-i, far-i... b) reduqciis Sedegad warmosaqmnel (potenciur) TanxmovanTkompleqsTan. mag.: dgnal- (mosalodenia: dgnl), napral- (mosalodnelia: prl), nakrZal- (mosalodenia: krZl)... g) araadaptirebul nasesxobebTan: vandal-, skandal-, festival-, Sturval-... d) saxelTa derivaciasTan (mimGeobebi, sxva derivatebi xSirad ufro nakleb eqvemdebarebian struqturul kanonzomierebebs). Sdr.: tansacmel- tansacml-is(a), magram: Casacmelis(a). 5. SeiniSneba, rom kumSva cocxal metyvelebaSi ufro Tavisufalia, vidre saliteraturo enaSi; iq bevri ukumSveli fuZe kumSvadia; mag.: namyn-is, naGb-is, limn-is, bitvn-is... 6. kumSvadi fuZeebi xmovnis reduqcias ganicdian sam brunvaSi: naTesaobiTSi, moqmedebiTsa da viTarebiTSi (agreTve -eb-ian mravlobiTSi).

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SesamCnevia, rom am TvalsazrisiT ufro aqtiuria viTarebiTi brunva (is yvelaze ufro naTlad amowmebs kumSvadobas). ikumSeba fuZis sami xmovani: a, e da o. am xmovanTagan a da e srul reduqcias ganicdis, xolo o, garkveuli poziciebis garda, nawilobriv reducirdeba da gadadis v-Si. am SemTxvevaSi ZiriTadad unda miviCnioT nawilobrivi reduqcia, radganac sruls damatebiTi faqtori ganapirobebs (ix. qvemoT). TiToeuli xmovnis kumSvis TiTo nimuSi: sax. mamal-i _ _ _ _ naT. maml-is moq. maml-iT viT. maml-ad kedel-i _ _ _ _ kedl-is kedl-iT kedl-ad mawon-i _ _ _ _ mawvn-iT mawvn-iT mawvn-ad

-eb-ian mravlobiTSi saxelis fuZe yvela brunvaSi iqneba SekumSuli, ramdenadac -eb uSualod daerTvis fuZes da erTnairad gahyveba yvela brunvas: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. maml-eb-i maml-eb-ma maml-eb-s maml-eb-is maml-eb-iT maml-eb-ad maml-eb-o

o xmovnis sruli reduqcia xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saxelis fuZeSi, sareduqcio segmentis wina poziciaSi, meore labialuri xmovanic dasturdeba; Sdr.: sax. kokor-i _ _ _ naT. kokr-is moq. kokr-iT viT. kokr-ad sapon-i _ _ _ sapn-is sapn-iT sapn-ad

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7. struqturul gamonaklisebad miiCneva kumSvadi fuZeebi arasonoruli (VC) daboloebiT; maTi mcirericxovnobac amaze mianiSnebs: kakab-i, niGab-i, yasab-i, nabad-i, beed-i, somex-i. III. 2.16. fuZis kveca. arsebiT saxelTa (sazogadod, saxelebis) mniSvnelovani nawilis fuZe xmovniT bolovdeba. rogorc ukve iTqva, fuZis daboloebad gvxvdeba yvela xmovani _ a, e, o, u; xolo i _ metad iSviaTad, radgan sazogado saxelebSi is mxolod ramdenime nasesxeb sityvas udasturdeba (Cai, pai, tramvai...). xmovniT daboloebuli fuZec SeiZleba iyos erTmarcvliani (mze), ormarcvliani (saxe), sammarcvliani (samare) da metmarcvliani (gulgatexiloba)... martiv (Ze) da warmoqmnilfuZiani (saZire)... xmovanfuZian saxelTa fleqsia aseve gulisxmobs morfemaTa urTierTzemoqmedebasa da cvlilebebs; saxeldobr: a) -VC struqturis brunvis niSanTa gavleniT SesaZlebelia xmovniT daboloebulma fuZem cvlileba ganicados, kerZod, fuZes bolokiduri xmovani Camoscildes (moekvecos): bade + -is bad-is b) Tavis mxriv, xmovniani fuZe gavlenas axdens brunvis niSnebze, ris Sedegadac warmoiqmneba am niSanTa poziciuri variantebi (gza + -ma gza-m); es cvlileba Seexeba -VC struqturis brunvis niSnebsac im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Tavad fuZe stabiluria, ucvlelia (wyaro + is wyaro + s{i}) (brunvis niSanTa alomorfebis Sesaxeb ix. calke paragrafi). amdenad, xmovanfuZian saxelebSi ori ZiriTadi morfonologiuri tipi gamoiyofa: 1. fuZe ucvlelia, magram fuZis zemoqmedebiT cvlilebas ganicdis TviT brunvis niSani: sax. wyaro moT. wyaro-m mic. wyaro-s naT. wyaro-s(i) moq. wyaro-Ti viT. wyaro-d wod. wyaro-v

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2. fuZe cvlilebas ganicdis, saxeldobr, is bolokidur xmovans dakargavs -VC struqturis brunvis niSanTa zemoqmedebiT: sax. mTa moT. mTa-m mic. mTa-s naT. mT-is moq. mT-iT viT. mTa-d wod. mTa-v rogorc vxedavT, viTarebiTi brunva sruli fuZiT (mTa) aris warmodgenili. ibadeba kiTxva: ratom miviCnevT viTarebiTSi fuZes ucvlelad, anu ratom vSliT formas mTa-d da ara mT-ad, rodesac viTarebiTi brunvis niSani -ad imave struqturisaa, risac -is da -iT da fuZis kumSvisas es brunvis niSnebi erTgvar gamvlenel Zalas avlens. imas, rom viTarebiTi brunvis niSani kvecas ver iwvevs, amtkicebs e xmovniT daboloebuli saxelebi. mag.: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. mTvare mTvare-m mTvare-s mTvar-is mTvar-iT mTvare-d mTvare-v

amgvarad: fuZis bolokiduri xmovnis CamoSorebas brunvis niSnis gavleniT k v e c a hqvia. fuZe, romelic ikveceba, aris k v e c a d i. kveca xdeba or brunvaSi _ naTesaobiTsa da moqmedebiTSi. ikveceba ori xmovani _ a da i; Sdr.: sax. Zma mze moT. Zma-m mze-m mic. Zma-s mze-s

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naT. Zm-is mz-is moq. Zm-iT mz-iT viT. Zma-d mze-d wod. Zma-v mze-v ricxvis niSani -eb iseve iwvevs fuZis xmovnis kvecas, rogorc miTiTebuli brunvis niSnebi. oGond am SemTxvevaSi gamonakliss warmoadgens e xmovanfuZiani saxelebi, romelTa fuZe -eb sufiqsTan ucvlelia. Sdr.: qva qv-eb-i magram: xe xe-eb-i maslaze dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom kveca bevrad ufro Tanamimdevruli morfonologiuri wesia, vidre kumSvis aGwerili suraTi; kerZod: saxelebSi ikveceba yvela bolokiduri a da e xmovani, miuxedavad imisa, erTmarcvliani iqneba fuZe, ormarcvliani, Tu _ metmarcvliani, anda romeli Sinaarsobrivi jgufisa iqneba is. a xmovanfuZiani kvecadi saxelebia: Zma, biZa, gza, qva, tba, Tma, zGva, muxa, rcxila, miwa, Tixa, kefa, ena, loya, guga, iqa, dana, tura, kata, baia, enZela, krazana, wera, kiTxva, Sroma, Seneba, banaoba, ocneba, garToba, mSvidoba, megobroba, daumorCilebloba, mamuliSviloba da mravali sxva. e xmovanfuZiani saxelebia: Ze, xe, bze, mze, klde, tye, rZe, tyve, saxe, siZe, bade, bage, Tone, Gone, bude, maxe, Tavxe, cixe, Gobe, gube, ube, sarke, samxece, sayane, sakartofile, simSvide, silamaze, simamace, sirTule, mepure, meGvine, meCeqme, moene, mobinadre, axalmosaxle da sxv. kvecis saerTo wess ar eqvemdebareba zogi a xmovanfuZiani sazogado saxeli; aq ori SemTxveva unda gamovyoT: a) ar ikveceba zogi derivaciuli datvirTvis (sufiqsuri) a xmovani; mag.: sax. bicola sqelSubla naT. bicola-s(i) sqelSubla-s(i) moq. bicola-Ti sqelSubla-Ti viT. bicola-d sqelSubla-d zogjer aseT fuZeSi sufiqsuroba arc Cans, magram ukveceloba tradiciiT Cans damkvidrebuli:

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sax. naT. moq. viT.

mela mela-s(i) mela-Ti mela-d

damatebiT gasaTvaliswinebelia is, rom aseTi fuZeebi -ebian mravlobiTSi orgvar suraTs gviCvenebs: maTi umetesi nawili mravlobiTSi kvecadia, magram SeiZleba ukveceloba mravlobiTSic gadasdevdes. Sdr.: sax. bicol-eb-i moT. bicol-eb-ma moq. bicol-eb-s naT. bicol-eb-is lurja-eb-i lurja-eb-ma lurja-eb-s lurja-eb-is

es ukanaskneli, rogorc Cans, sakuTar saxelTan aris gaTanabrebuli. `sakuTris~ gageba kvecaze gavlenas axdens ramdenime naTesaobis terminSic (deda, mama, papa, biZa...); kerZod, Tu deda sazogado saxelia, is kvecadebs ganekuTvneba, magram Tu is `sakuTari~ (molaparakis poziciidan _ `Cemi~) mSoblis aGmniSvnelad gamoiyeneba, ukveceli iqneba. Sdr.: `kargi Svili d e d i s gulis vardiao~ (andaza). `Zmebo, miTxariT, raT gvagondeba `d e d a s puri~ da p a p a s qliavi~ (g. leon.). xmovanfuZianTa kvecasTan dakavSirebuli oriode Taviseburebac: 1. ucxouri warmomavlobis a-fuZiani saxelebi, Cveulebriv, eqvemdebareba kvecis wess: problema problem-is, komuna komun-is, anaTema anaTem-is... magram e-fuZiani aseTive nasesxebi sityvebi ukvecelia: sax. kaSne naT. kaSne-s(i) moq. kaSne-Ti viT. kaSne-d

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2. o xmovani, rogorc vnaxeT, kvecad daboloebebSi ar Sedis; magram arsebobs erTaderTi fuZe, romelic o xmovnis kvecas adasturebs _ es aris Rvino: sax. Gvino naT. Gvin-is moq. Gvin-iT viT. Gvino-d Sdr.: mravlobiTi: Gvino-eb-i... am SemTxvevas rom obieqturi safuZveli aqvs, Cans Wigo fuZis nawilobrivi kvecidan kaxur dialeqtSi: igv-is, igv-iT... III. 2.17. kvecad-kumSvadi fuZeebi. xmovanfuZiani saxelebis kidev erT morfonologiur tipad gvevlineba iseTi fuZeebi, romlebSic xmovnis ormagi reduqcia xdeba, anu fuZe kvecasac ganicdis da kumSvasac. am moulodnel procesSi raGac Tanmimdevroba unda iyos daculi. radgan brunvis niSani mxolod uSualo mezobel marcvalze axdens mareducirebel gavlenas, unda vivaraudoT, rom jer kveca xdeba, xolo Semdeg _ kumSva. amitomac unda ewodos fuZis amgvar cvlilebas kvecakumSva. amgvar fonetikur cvlilebas ganicdis fuZeTa sakmaod mcirericxovani jgufi _ aTiode arsebiTi saxeli: qveyana, qarxana, pepela, fanjara, mxare, moyvare... kvecisagan gansxvavebiT, es ormagi fonetikuri procesi xdeba sam brunvaSi, anu viTarebiTSi kumSvasTan erTad kvecac dasturdeba. nimuSebi: sax. fanjara moyvare moq. fanjara-m moyvare-m mic. fanjara-s moyvare-s naT. fanjr-is moyvr-is moq. fanjr-iT moyvr-iT viT. fanjr-ad moyvr-ad wod. fanjara-v moyvare-v kvecad-kumSvadi saxelebi -eb-ian mravlobiTSic iCenen Taviseburebas, kerZod, am SemTxvevaSi e- xmovniani fuZeebic kvecadia (kumSvasTan erTad); Sdr.:

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sax. qarxn-eb-i moT. qarxn-eb-ma mic. qarxn-eb-s naT. qarxn-eb-is moq. qarxn-eb-iT viT. qarxn-eb-ad wod. qarxn-eb-o

moyvr-eb-i moyvr-eb-ma moyvr-eb-s moyvr-eb-is moyvr-eb-iT moyvr-eb-ad moyvr-eb-o

SeniSvna: 1. m x a r e sityvis mravlobiTi sruli (ukvecelukumSveli) fuZiT gvxvdeba: mxare-eb-i, mxare-eb-ma... rogorc Cans, mxari leqsemasTan formaluri omonimiis Tavidan asacileblad. SeiZleba amasve mivaweroT is, rom axal qarTulSi mxare sityva arsebiTad kvecad saxelebSi gadavida. Sdr.: `qali rad ginda ucxo m x r i s ?..~ (xalx.). `gamoqveynda mTvaris ukana m x a r i s fotoebi~ (`Tbil.~). 2. sazogadod, kvecad-kumSvad fuZeTa moSlis tendencia aSkaraa. magaliTad, manqana Zv. qarTulSi kvecad-kumSvadi iyo (manqn-is), dGes oden kvecadia (manqan-is); amitomac ukvecel-ukumSveladac dasturdeba: isaa eSmariti da mSvenieri gamoTqma siyvarulisa m o y v a r i s a d m i (g. tab.). `p e p e l a s frTebze gamoviZine~ (i. griS.). qarSi frialeben p e p e l e b i (m. Cit.). III. 2.18. brunebis tipizaciisaTvis saliteraturo qarTulSi. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis brunebis sistema, erTi SexedviT, sruliad naTel da martiv suraTs warmogvidgens; is faqtobriv erTtipiuria, rogorc arn. Ciqobava aRniSnavs `bruneba qarTulSi erTia: brunvis niSnebi... arsebiTad erTnairia yvela saxelTan~. miuxedavad amisa, brunebis tipebis dadgenis sakiTxi azrTa sxvadasxvaobis mniSvnelovani safuZveli gaxda. gamoyofili tipebis (saxeebis) raodenobac nairgvaria _ ori saxeobidan dawyebu

Tumca ZvelSi q u e y a n i s iyo, dGes ki kvecad-kumSvadia (q v e y n i s).

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li, cametiT damTavrebuli (mivuTiTebT ara qronologiuri, aramed raodenobis matebis principiT): a) ori tipi _ fuZeTanxmovniani da fuZexmovniani saxelebi (l. kvaaZe). b) sami tipi _ brunvis niSanTa cvlilebis gaTvaliswinebiT (a. SaniZe): I (fuZeTanxm.) -m -ma -s -is -iT -ad -o II (fuZexm. kvec.) -i -m -s -is -iT -d -v III (fuZexm. ukvec.) -i -m -s -s(i) -T(i) -d -v

g) aseve sami tipi, oRond, brunvis niSnebis garda, fuZis viTarebis CvenebiT: 1. arc brunvis niSani iwvevs cvlilebas fuZeSi, arc fuZis daboloeba moqmedebs brunvis niSanze (fuZeTanxmovniani ukumSveli); 2. brunvis niSani ucvlis fuZes formas (fuZeTanxmovniani kumSvadi da fuZexmovniani kvecadi); 3. fuZe ucvlis saxes brunvis niSans (fuZexmovniani ukveceli) (arn. Ciqobava). d) oTxi tipi: a) kumSvadi, b) ukumSveli; g) kvecadi; d) ukveceli (a. oniani). e) xuT tips brunebis sistemaSi Cven vicnobT saskolo gramatikidan (a. SaniZis, l. kvaWaZisa da i. imnaiSvilis avtorobiT); esenia (ierarqiulad): fuZeTanxmovniani fuZexmovniani

ukumS.

kumSv.

ukvec.

kvec.

kumSv.-kvec.

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v) es ukanaskneli arsebiTad gamartivebuli saxea v. Tofurias analizisa, romelmac nairsaxeobaTa sruli gaTvaliswinebis Sedegad cameti tipi miiRo (v. Tofuria). aRaravin daobs imaze, rom brunebis tipologiuri klasifikaciisas fuZisa da brunvis niSanTa urTierTqmedeba unda iqnes gaTvaliwinebuli. es ki ZiriTadad im brunvebs exeba, romlebSic e.w. kumSva-kveca momdinareobs. es aris VS struqturis auslautis saxeluri fuZisa da VC struqturis sufiqsebis Sexvedra naTesaobiTSi, moqmedebiTsa da viTarebiTSi (-is, -iT, -ad). amave dros, brunebis tipizaciisas gaTvaliswinebas moiTxovs -eb-iani mravlobiTic, vinaidan, jer erTi, is brunebis iseTsave srul sistemas iZleva, rogorsac mxolobiTi, meorec, rac mTavaria, -eb imave VC struqturis morfemaa da misi zemoqmedeba fuZeze iseve gasaTvaliswinebelia, rogorc brunvis niSnebisa. brunebis mofologiis, kerZod, fuZis viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT rva tipis paradigmas miviRebT:
1 saxl`__` 2 kedelkedl3 mawonmawvn4 wyaro `__` 5 Zma Zm6 xe x-xe 7 Txunela Txunela Txunel8 qarxana qarxn-

Tu paradigmis tipebs mxolod arsebiTi saxelis mxolobiTi ricxvis brunebis mixedviT warmovadgenT, es 8 tipi sakmarisi aGmoCndeba (ramdenime nairsaxeobis an Taviseburebis miTiTebiT); magaliTad: o xmovnis sruli reduqcia me-3 tipSi [kokr-is] an mTeli marcvlis dakargva me-2 tipSi: amb-is da misT.); magram Tu mravlobiTis Cvenebasac gaviTvaliswinebT (rac Znelad gverdasavlelia), am tipebs ramdenime qvetipi miemateba, rogorc es me-6 da me-7 tipebisaTvis aris miTiTebuli (e xmovnis mravlobiTSi ukveceloba da ukvecelis mravlobiTSi kveca). aseTive qvetipobrivi SemTxvevebi iqneba: a) me-2 tipisaTvis: fexsacmel-i fexsacml-is, magram fexsacmel-eb-i

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b) aseve me-2 tipisaTvis: arCevan-i arCevan-is, magram arCevn-eb-i g) me-7 tipisaTvis: lurja lurja-s(i), magram lerja-eb-i d) me-8 tipisaTvis: mxare mxr-is, magram mxare-eb-i SesaZlebelia saxelTa formacvalebis saklasifikacio sqema warmodgenili iqnes sxva principiTac _ fuZis auslautis struqturidan amosvliT. ramdenadac brunebis (saxelTa formacvalebis) nairsaxeobaTa klasifikaciis safuZveli araerTgvarovania, kerZod, gasaTvaliswinebelia fonologiuri, morfologiuri da morfonologiuri aspeqtebi, aseve Sesabamisi struqturuli modelireba arsebiTad amocanebis safexurebriv dasmasa da gadawyvetas moiTxovs, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia Sesabamisi saklasifikacio variantis ierarqiuli (safexurebrivi) sistemis ageba. bunebrivad gamoiyofa imdeni sistemuri safexuri, ramdeni axali parametris gaTvaliswineba Seiqneba saWiro axali saklasifikacio procedurebisaTvis. es saklasifikacio varianti SesaZlebelia SemoTavazebul iqnes Semdegi ierarqiuli (safexurebrivi) sqemis saxiT:

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I ------------------

c#
-vs

v#

II ------------

-vcc

-vc
-/s -//s
.

-//

-/

III -----------

..

IV -----------------------------------------------------

1-.

2-3... .

. .

. .

. .

+
V -------------------------------------------------------------. . .

VI -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

komentarebi sqemisaTvis: amdenad, qarTuli enis fonologiuri da morfologiuri bunebidan gamomdinare, klasifikaciis pirveli safexuri binarulia: I. TanxmovanfuZiani _ xmovanfuZiani. Tu Sesabamisi operaciis safuZvlad aviRebT neitralur brunvas _ saxelobiTs, maSin opozicias Seqmnis i_xmovniani (TanxmovanfuZiani) da a e o u_xmovniani (xmovanfuZiani) saxelebi. is (ucxouri warmomavlobis) saxelebi, romelTa i_auslauti fuZiseulia (taqsi), gamonaklisTa registrSi aisaxeba (xmovanfuZianebSi gadairicxeba). II. Semdeg safexurze TanxmovanfuZian saxelTa klasifikacia kvlav fonematur safuZvelze unda moxdes. kerZod, cnobili simboloebis (C, S, V) meSveobiT aRiwereba fuZis bolokiduri marcvlis struqtura: a) -VCC (igive: -VSC, -VCS, -VSS); b) VC da g) VS xmovanfuZiani saxelebi amgvar kombinatorul midgomas ar saWiroebs, aq fuZis bolokiduri xmovnis mixedviT gamoiyofa ori qvejgufi: a) o, u, i _ auslauti da b) a, e _ auslauti. III. es danawileba SesaZleblobas iZleva saxelebis Semdgomi klasifikacia movaxdinoT fuZeTa cvalebadobis gaTvaliswinebiT. kerZod: TanxmovanfuZianebi: (a) jgufi mTlianad fuZeucvlelia; (b) jgufis ZiriTadi nawili (a)-s miekuTvneba, amitomac SesaZlebelia kumSvadi gamonaklisebis calke registracia moxdes (kakabi, nabadi, niGabi, beWedi, yasabi); nakleb adekvaturi iqneba maTi gaerTianeba (g) jgufSi, vinaidan es niSnavs gamonaklisebis prioritetulad aRiarebas. (g) jgufi gulisxmobs upiratesad fuZecvalebadi (kumSvadi) saxelebis arsebobas, amitomac Semdgom etapze Semova damatebiTi saklasifikacio niSnebi (ix. IV safexuri). xmovanfuZianebi: (a) jgufi ukvecelia (ori gamonaklisiT _ Rvino, dro); (b) jgufi am safexurze or qvejgufad gaiyofa: 1. kvecadebi (gamonaklisebi calke aisaxeba) da 2. kumSvad-kvecadebi (am jgufe-

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bisaTvis damatebiTi niSani brunvis formantTa alomorfuli nairgvarobaa). IV safexuri: TanxmovanfuZianebSi -VS jgufi gaiyofa i, u_xmovnian da a, e, o_xmovnian qvejgufebad, romelTagan pirveli mTlianad ukumSvelia, xolo meore, Cveulebisamebr, kumSvadi. oRondac aq aucilebeli xdeba damatebiTi niSnis Semotana (ix. V safexuri). x m o v a n f u Z i a n e b S i: (a) _ mxolobiTis da mravlobiTis fuZeTa Cvenebis mixedviT daiyofa sam qvejgufad: a) a-fuZiani: fuZe kvecilia mxolobiTSic da mravlobiTSic (mama...); b) e-fuZiani: fuZe kvecilia mxolobiTSi, ukveceli _ mravlobiTSi (xe...); c) a-fuZiani: ukvecelia mxolobiTSi, kvecili _ mravlobiTSi (Txunela...). [am saklasifikacio safexuris sxvagvari versia _ imave SedegiT: kvecadi jgufi gaiyos a-fuZianebad da e-fuZianebad, xolo maTgan pirveli _ or qvejgufad]. SeniSvna: a) calke wesad (da ara _ qvejgufad) unda Camoyalibdes minimalurmarcvlian xmovanfuZian saxelTa qceva wodebiTSi _ orive alomorfis SesaZlebloba (-v/-o). b) kvecad-kumSvad saxelTa mravlobiTSi e-xmovniani fuZec ikveceba. V safexuri: a, e, o xmovanTa Semcveli VS-struqturis auslautis TanxmovanfuZiani saxelebi unda gaiyos marcvlovnobis gaTvaliswinebiT: a) erTmarcvlianebi (romelTa umetesoba ukumSvelia, kumSvadoba _ gamonaklisi); b) erTzemetmarcvlianebi (kumSvadobis upiratesi niSniT). VI safexurze V b) jgufidan calke qvejgufad gamoiyofa oxmovnis Semcveli is fuZeebi, romelnic eqvemdebarebian nawilobric reduqcias: o>v (mawoni _ mawvnis...).

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SeniSvna: srulreduqciani o eqceva a, e xmovanTa rigSi, oRondac gansasazRvri xdeba is kombinatoruli wesi (labialuri garemocva), romelis srul reduqcias ganapirobebs (sapon-i _ sapn-is...). III. 2.19. brunvaTa funqciebi qarTulSi qarTulSi yvela brunvas Tavisi gamokveTili funqcia aqvs. aqedan zogs mxolod erTi funqcia moepoveba, zogs ki _ ramdenime erTad (aseT dros, Cveulebisamebr, gamoiyofa ZiriTadi da damatebiTi funqciebi). gansxvavebuli funqciebis gamoxatvis saSualeba iqmneba brunvis formebze Tandebulebis darTvis drosac. am sakiTxze Tandebulian brunvaTa funqciebis ganxilvis dros iqneba saubari. brunvaTa funqciebi droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleboda: maT xan akldeboda, xan ki emateboda raime mniSvnelobis gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba. brunvis formebi gramatikuli funqciis mixedviT, pirvel rigSi, unda gavyoT pirdapir da irib brunvebad. pirdapir brunvebad miviCnioT zmnasTan Sewyobili pirebis _ subieqtisa da pirmimarTi obieqtebis brunvebi, anu pirveli sami brunva (saxelobiTi, moTxrobiTi da micemiTi); danarCenebi (maT Soris _ micemiTic, roca is subieqts an pirmimarT obieqtebs ar gamoxatavs) _ iribi brunvebi iqneba. amjerad ganvixilavT martiv, uTandebulo brunvaTa funqciebs: III. 2.19.1. saxelobiTi brunva. saxelobiTi brunvis erT-erTi ZiriTadi funqciaa qvemdebaris gamoxatva. aqve unda davakonkretoT, Tu ra viTarebaSi ixmareba saxelobiTi brunvis formiT warmodgenili saxeli winadadebaSi qvemdebared; es xdeba: a) vnebiTi gvaris formebTan dro-kiloTa yvela seriaSi: weril-i iwereba (weril-i daiwera, weril-i dawerila...) kvercx-i wiTlad SeiRebeba. mze alisfrad aelvarda. b) identuri viTarebaa e. w. mediopasiur zmnebTanac:

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kac-i zis (kac-i ijda, kac-i mjdara...) g) xolo moqmedebiTsa da medioaqtivebTan saxelobiT brunvaSi qvemdebare warmodgenilia mxolod pirveli seriis formebSi: bavSv-i xatavs (bavSv-i xatavda... bavSv-i daxatavs, bavSv-i daxatavda... aseve erT-erTi ZiriTadi funqciaa saxelobiTisTvis pirdapiri obieqtis _gamoxatva, oRond es mxolod meore seriis mwkrivebSi: dedam saWmel-i moamzada da a. S. aseve mniSvnelovani funqciaa saxelobiTbrunviani sityvis gamoyeneba Sedgenili Semasmenlis saxelad nawilad: me student-i var, is maswavlebel-i-a... saxelobiTi brunvis forma gamoiyeneba aseve drois garemoebis aRmniSvnelad Semdegi saxis konstruqciebSi: saqarTvelo dRe da Rame iaraRiT xelSi idga (ilia). sruli sami weli vcxovrobdiT Cven erTad (W. lomT). unda aRiniSnos, rom Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi ufro marTebul formebad miCneulia micemiTbrunviani variantebi _ or dRes dayo, sam wels imuSava... III. 2.19.2. moTxrobiTi (igive ergatiuli) brunva. moTxrobiTi (ergatiuli) specifikuri brunvaa, romlis analogic bevr enaSi ar arsebobs; an arsebobs, magram - odnav cvlili gramatikuli mniSvnelobiT... ergativi, zogadad, qarTveluri da iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis brunvaa... sxvadasxvagvari ganviTareba pova moTxrobiTma sxvadasxva qarTvelur enaSi... rac Seexeba sakuTriv qarTuls, moTxrobiTs aq erTaderTi, saukuneebis manZilze ucvleli funqcia aqvs _ gamoxatos gardamavali zmnis subieqti meore seriis formebTan. zmna am dros SeiZleba iyos orpiriani, sampiriani da zogjer _ erTpirianic ki (am dros, rogorc wesi, dakargulia obieqturi piri); mag.: cicunia katao, magre ram dagxatao! (akaki). kibeze viRacam daaxvela (akaki).

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calke aRniSvnis Rirsia specifikuri sityvieri formulebi (warmoSobiT msazRvrel-sazRvruli), romlebic, SeiZleba iTqvas, aseve moTxrobiT brunvas gviCveneben: arc eg aris urigo, Senma mzem! (ilia). dedaSvilobam, bevrs ar gTxov, Sens miwas mimabareo! (akaki) III. 2.19.3. micemiTi brunva. micemiTi brunva gardamavali zmnebis subieqtis brunvaa mesame seriis mwkrivebSi, Tu am SemTxvevaSi inversiis arsebobas vaRiarebT: mweral-s wigni dauweria. subieqtisave brunvaa micemiTi erTpirian (pirdakargul) zmnebTanac: ZaRl-s sicivisgan akankalebs. bavSv-s Sia. micemiTi brunvis ZiriTadi funqciebia obieqtebis gamoxatva: iribi obieqtis: kaci megobar-s werils swers. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom iribi obieqti micemiT brunvaSia yovelTvis (brunvaucvlelia), gansxvavebiT pirdapiri obieqtisagan. pirdapiri obieqtis: kaci weril-s wers (pirdapiri obieqti) pirdapiri obieqti micemiT brunvaSi dgas mxolod pirveli seriis formebTan. meore da mesame seriebSi is saxelobiT brunvaSi gadadis: kacma weril-i dawera. ubralo damatebis: ubralo damatebis funqcia aqvs micemiTbrunvian saxels saxelzmnebTan Semdegi tipis konstruqciebSi: xe-s amofarebuli, kedel-s miyudebuli, jox-s dayrdnobili da sxv. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom am tipis formebs kompozitad qcevisken aqvT midrekileba. drois Sinaarsis gamomxatvel saxelebTan micemiTis forma drois garemoebis mniSvnelobas iZens: or dRe-s davrCebiT; saRamo-s moval.

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im kvira-s Camovdivar. momaval wel-s gakeTdeba... am SemTxvevaSi micemiTi brunvis niSans derivaciuli daniSnuleba aqvs. aseTive viTarebaa maSin, rodesac micemiTi brunvis meSveobiT adgilis garemoebis gamoxatva xdeba. es zedsarTav (iSviaTad _ arsebiT) saxelebze micemiTi brunvis niSnis darTvis dros xdeba: axlo-s movida. Sor-s wavida. mTa-s viyav. Sedgenili Semasmenlis saxeladi nawili, meSveli zmnis drois mixedviT, SeiZleba micemiTi brunvis formiTac iyos warmodgenili: es mzera qals saocrad mimzidvel-s xdida... III. 2.19.4. naTesaobiTi brunva. naTesaobiTi brunvis erTerTi ZiriTadi funqciaa substantiuri anu marTuli msazRvrelis gamoxatva: mz-is sxivi, mTvar-is Suqi, qal-is kaba... kidev erTi specifikuri funqcia, romelic naTesaobiT brunvas aqvs, es ubralo damatebis gamoxatvaa: 1. zogierT specifikur, guneba-ganwyobis gamomxatvel zmnasTan: bavSv-s mgl-is eSinia; 2. sawyisTan: saWml-is keTeba saxl-is dalageba gakveTileb-is momzadeba zeim-is dawyeba sakveb-is gafuWeba 3. mimReobasTan: qal-is gakeTebuli saWmeli col-is moyvaruli kaci Wam-is moZule bavSvi kerZ-is mosamzadebeli qvabi da a. S.

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am SemTxvevebSi, saxelzmnebTan Sexamebisas naTesaobiTSi dasmuli saxeli qvemdebariseburi an pirmimarTdamatebiseburi ubralo damatebaa. garda amisa, naTesaobiT brunva gamoiyeneba mTel rig SemTxvevebSi: 1. asakis aRniSvnisas (zogjer _ Sedgenili Semasmenlis saxeladi nawilad): sami wl-is bavSvi xuTi Tv-is lekvi aTi saukun-is istoria maSin isic am xn-is iyo... 2. raimes Rirebulebis aRniSvnisas: sami lar-is kartofili samasi lar-is produqcia III. 2.19.5. moqmedebiTi brunva. moqmedebiTi brunvis erTerTi ZiriTadi funqciaa moqmedebis iaraRis, masalis gamoxatva. am dros moqmedebiTbrunviani saxeli ubralo damatebis rolSi gamodis: dan-iT puri daWra. Zaf-iT qudi moqsova. nems-iT Sarvali gakera. CaquC-iT lursmani CaaWeda. manqan-iT bavSvi waiyvana. agur-iT saxli aaSena... imave funqciiT moqmedebiTi Sesabamis sawyissa da mimReobasTanac gamoiyeneba: dan-iT puris daWra. Zaf-iT qudis moqsova. dan-iT daWrili puri. Zaf-iT moqsovili qudi. moqmedebiTSi dasmuli saxeli gamoiyeneba aseve adgilis, drois, viTarebisa da mizezis garemoebebis gadmosacemad: a) adgilis garemoeba: dasavleT-iT mze Cadioda. CrdiloeT-iT Rrubeli moCanda. mT-iT barad Camovardeba...

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b) drois garemoeba: dil-iT adre dgeboda. zafxulob-iT zRvaze visvenebT xolme. aq zamTrob-iT didi Tovli icis. g) viTarebis garemoeba: siyvarul-iT miiRo. SiS-iT eloda. sixarul-iT Sexvda. d) mizezis garemoeba: SiS-iT lamis gaTavda. sixarul-iT kinaRam gadairia. moqmedebiTi farTod gamoiyeneba paronomaziul gamoTqmebSi: qals kvlav eZina netaris Zil-iT (ilia). moqmedebiTi brunvis formiani saxelebi gamoiyeneba Tanaobis aRsaniSnavadac: col-iT da bavSveb-iT movida. yvavileb-iT mogvadga karze. moqmedebiTi brunvis forma gamoiyeneba aseve Semdegi saxis konstruqciaSi: me var Tbiliseli, warmoSob-iT _ imereli. moqmedebiTi brunva Tanamedrove qarTulSi farTod gamoiyeneba sityvawarmoebiTi daniSnulebiT, ZiriTadad - specialur terminologiaSi (kiTxv-iT-i winadadeba, memkvidreob-iT-i daavadeba, Tavdacv-iT-i reaqcia...) III. 2.19.6. viTarebiTi brunva. viTarebiTi brunvis erT-erTi umTavresi funqcia gardaqceviTobis gamoxatvaa. am brunvaSi dasmuli ubralo damatebiT gamoixateba cvaleba, gardasaxva, gardaqmna: wyali Rvino-d iqca. gogona qal-ad iqca. baRi walkot-ad aqcia. Cveni Zveli nacnobi siZe-d mogvevlina... Zalian xSiria viTarebiTi brunvis niSniT viTarebis zmnizedebis warmoeba:

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karg-ad moiqca. gemriel-ad miirTmevs... viTarebiTbrunviani saxelebi farTod gamoiyeneba miznis garemoebis funqciiT; rogorc wesi, es myofadis mimReobebTan xdeba: saTevzao-d wavida. saWmel-ad ar varga sananebl-ad ar gagixdes aseve viTarebiTi brunvis forma gamoiyeneba garemoebaTa funqciiT: a) adgilis: am qveyn-ad samarTali aris, gana? sofl-ad cxovreba ufro mdored miedineba... b) drois: aq Zvel-ad eklesia idga. viTarebiTi brunvis forma gvxvdeba specifikur sityvaTSeTanxmebebSi: movida Cveni klaseli, gvar-ad _ abesaZe. wereTeli, saxel-ad _ daviTi... es konstruqcia aSkarad Sedgenili Semasmenlis Sekvecili variantia: gvar-ad iyo, saxelad erqva da a. S. dabolos _ viTarebiTi brunva aqtiurad gamoiyeneba sityvawarmoebiTi funqciiT, axali terminologiis sawarmoeblad (drek-ad-i, marTv-ad-i, tev-ad-i da a. S.). III. 2.19.7. wodebiTi brunva. wodebiT brunvas erTaderTi funqcia aqvs _ mimarTva. sxva brunvebisgan gansxvavebiT, is sityvebis erTmaneTTan damakavSireblad ar gamoiyeneba da arc zmnur konstruqciebSi Sedis. am mxriv wodebiTi brunva mkveTrad emijneba yvela danarCen brunvas. mag.: damiyvave, qar-o, nu xar mkacri! (ana) mxolod msazRvrel-sazRvrulis SeTanxmebis saxiT gvxvdeba: Cem-o karg-o qveyana-v, razed mogiwyenia! (ilia) III. 2.20. Tandebuliani brunvebi da maTi funqciebi. tradiciuli ganmartebiT: `Tandebuli hqvia damoukidebeli mniSvnelobis uqonel sityvas an bgeraTa kompleqss, romelic daerTvis

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saxelis ama Tu im brunvis formas, rom aRniSnos mdebareoba, mimarTuleba, daniSnuleba an sxva raime damokidebuleba dasaxelebul saganTan~ (a. SaniZe). Tandebuli daerTvis arsebiTs, zedsarTavsa da ricxviT saxelebs, nacvalsaxelebs, zmnisarTebsa da saxelzmnas sxvadasxva brunvaSi. sxvadasxva brunvasTan gamoyenebuli erTi da igive Tandebuli zogjer sxvadasxva funqciis mqonea. saxelze Tandebulis darTvisas zogierTma brunvam dakarga brunvis niSani da garegnulad fuZes daemsgavsa: institut-Si, student-Tan, dafa-ze, dRe-mde da sxv. anda urTierTgavlenis Sedegad Seicvala brunvis niSanic da Tandebulic: saxlidan (saxl-iT-gan). Tanamedrove qarTulSi Tandebuli SedarebiT cotaa, radgan brunvis formaTa simravle saSualebas gvaZlevs azri sakmaod zustad gamovxatoT. Tandebuli gamoiyeneba yvela brunvis formasTan, garda moTxrobiTisa da wodebiTisa. Tandebuliani saxelobiTi. saxelobiT brunvas daerTvis oden -viT Tandebuli, isic mxolod TanxmovanfuZian saxelebTan. -viT Tandebuli miuTiTebs msgavsebaze, anu imaves aRniSnavs, rasac zmnizeduri sityva `rogorc~; mag.: bavSviviT, CitiviT, saxliviT... Tandebuliani micemiTi. micemiT brunvas daerTvis oTxi Tandebuli: -viT, -Tan, -ze, -Si. -viT Tandebuli, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, msgavsebaze miuTiTebs; micemiTSi daerTvis rogorc TanxmovanfuZian, ise xmovanfuZian saxelebs. brunvis niSani gavrcobili saxiTaa warmodgenili: bavSv-sa-viT, Sen-sa-viT... -Tan Tandebuli TanxmovanfuZiani saxelis fuZes pirdapir daerTvis, xmovanfuZian saxelTan _ brunvis niSnis Semdegaa warmodgenili (Sdr.: saxl-Tan _ deda-s-Tan). -Tan Tandebulis funqciaa aRniSnos: a) adgili, saganTan siaxlove, axlos, gverdiT yofna, Tanaoba, erTad yofna: saxl-Tan, bavSv-Tan, magidasTan, Sen-Tan... -ze Tandebulis darTvisas micemiTi brunvis niSani dakargulia (gogona-ze, student-ze, saxl-ze, sxven-ze...), is mxolod

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mesame piris nacvalsaxelSia SenarCunebuli (ma-s-ze...). -ze Tandebulis funqciaa: a) gamoxatos sagnis zedapirze myofoba (mkerd-ze, Wer-ze, gza-ze...); b) gadmosces dro (gazafxul-ze, saRamo-ze...); g) SeuZlia gamoxatos xarisxobrivi mimarTeba (Tqvenze ufrosi, qviSaze umravlesi...). -Si Tandebulis darTvisas aseve dakargulia micemiTi brunvis niSani (saxl-Si, ube-Si, wignak-Si, universitet-Si, qalaq-Si...). es niSani SenarCunebulia III piris nacvasaxelTan: ma-s-Si. igi gamoxatavs: a) Sig (SigniT) myofobas (eklesia-Si, skola-Si, WiqaSi...); b) gadmoscems dros (bavSvoba-Si, [ama da am] saukune-Si...); g) gamoxatavs Sinaarss `Soris~ (qaleb-Si, frinveleb-Si, cxoveleb-Si...). Tandebuliani naTesaobiTi. naTesaobiT brunvas daerTvis Semdegi Tandebulebi: -Tvis, -gan, -ken, -ebr, -Tanave, -dami. naTesaobiTi brunvis formaze Tandebulis darTvisas brunvis niSani SeiZleba warmodgenili iyos rogorc gauvrcobeli, ise gavrcobili saxiT: Zmis-gan / Zmis-a-gan, biWis-gan / biWis-a-gan... Tanamedrove qarTulSi upiratesoba gauvrcobel versias aqvs miniWebuli (arn. Ciqobava). -Tvis Tandebuli uCvenebs: a) daniSnulebas, gankuTvnebas: megobris-Tvis, mezoblis-Tvis, stumris-Tvis... b) moqmedebis mizans: sifxizlis-Tvis, Serigebis-Tvis, gayris-Tvis... -gan Tandebuli aRniSnavs: a) daSorebas, dacilebas: megobris-gan, dedis-gan, Zmis-gan... b) masalas: balaxis-gan, qaRaldisgan, Tixis-gan... g) mizezs: vnebis-gan, sixarulis-gan, dardis-gan... -ken Tandebuli aRniSnavs mimarTulebas: saxlis-ken, qalaqis-ken, skolis-ken... -ebr Tandebuli msgavsebas aRniSnavs; zogjer am TandebuliT gadmocemuli Sinaarsi Tanxvdeba -viT TandebuliT gadmocemuls. Tanamedrove qarTulSi nakleb gamoiyeneba es Tandebuli: kacis-ebr, spilos-ebr... -Tanave nawilakiani Tandebulia da is gamoiyeneba sawyisTan drois gadmocemis mizniT: dawyebis-Tanave, wasvlis-Tanave... -dami || -dmi. -dami varianti piris nacvalsaxelebs daerTvis: Sen-dami, Tqven-dami... varianti -dmi arsebiT saxelebs: me-

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gobrisa-dmi, qveynisa-dmi... igi aRniSnavs garkveul damokidebulebas, mimarTebas. Tandebuliani moqmedebiTi. moqmedebiT brunvasTan gamoiyeneba -urT Tandebuli. igi gadmoscems imave Sinaarss, rasac: Tan, erTad, -ianad. mag.: bavSviT-urT, kalmiT-urT... -(i)dan: miRebulia fonetikuri procesis Sedegad: -iT-gan. aRniSnavs gamosvliTobas: saxlidan, qalaqidan... Tandebuliani viTarebiTi. -mde/ -mdis Tandebulis funqciaa gamoxatos `garkveul punqtamde miwevna~ adgilis, drois, raodenobis mixedviT (a. SaniZe). mag.: muxla-mde, yela-mde, Wera-mde, (im) kvira-mde, oca-mde... III. 2.21. arsebiTi saxelis ricxvi. ricxvis gramatikuli kategoria damaxasiaTebelia arsebiTi saxelisaTvis (da, Sesabamisad, misi fardi nacvalsaxelisaTvis); ricxovnoba (raodenoba) saganTa klasebis obieqturi mdgomareobaa da arsebiT saxelTa klasi am viTarebas asaxavs. yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi (zedsarTav saxelebTan, zmnebTan...) ricxvis gamoxatva arsebiT saxelTan SeTanxmebis (mis raodenobriv SinaarsTan Sexamebis) Sedegia: zedsarTavi saxeli (an misi fardi nacvalsaxeli) SeiZleba SeeTanxmos ricxvSi arsebiT saxels (mTani maRalni), an `mibaZos~ mas _ damoukideblad gamoyenebisas (wiTlebi, `mSvidobiT, Cemno~...); zmnaSi aisaxeba masTan Sewyobili arsebiTi saxelis ricxvi (mTebi... Zils miscemian~). ricxvis kategoria arsebiT saxelSi warmodgenilia e r T i s a da m r a v l i s opoziciis saxiT. mravali am SemTxvevaSi gulisxmobs erTze mets, orsac, samsac da metsac; mravlobiTi ricxvi iTavsebs zogad simravlesac (bevri) da konkretulsac (cxra). ricxvi anu simravle enaSi SeiZleba aRiniSnos samgvarad: 1. leqsikurad (mravali gulSematkivari, araerTi arseba...); 2. gramatikulad (krav-eb-i...); 3. supleturad (fuZis monacvleobiT): Sen _ Tqven... fuZis supleturi monacvleoba damaxasiaTebelia garkveuli zmnebisa da nacvalsaxelebisaTvis, arsebiTi saxeli supletivizms

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ar eqvemdebareba, Tu amad ar miviCnevT krebiTi saxelebis mimarTebas erTis gamomxatvel saxelebTan: cxvari _ f a r a, k a c i _ x a l x i... III. 2.22. ori tipis mravlobiTis Tanaarseboba. ricxvis gramatikuli kategoria arsebiT saxelSi orgvar sistemas gviCvenebs: erTs _ wmindad aglutinaciurs (-eb- sufiqsiani mravlobiTi), xolo meores _ Sereuls (-n/ -T sufiqsebiani mravlobiTi). eb sufiqsi aglutinacias ganasaxierebs imdenad, ramdenadac is yvela brunvaSi damoukideblad, brunvis niSnis paralelurad, gamoxatavs simravles (bavSv-eb-ma). narTaniani Sereuli _ fleqsiur-aglutinaciuria, ramdenadac -n sufiqsi iseTsave morfologiur pozicias ikavebs brunvis niSanTan, rogorsac -eb (kac-ni, kac-n-o), xolo T(a) brunvis niSnis funqciasac TviTon iTavsebs (mweral-Ta kavSiri). maTgan ZiriTadi da gabatonebulia -ebiani mravlobiTi; narTanian mravlobiTs ZiriTadad arqauli stilistikuri datvirTva aqvs. ricxvis kategoriis ori saopozicio wevridan erTi _ mxolobiTi _ aramarkirebulia, mas morfologiuri niSani ar moepoveba: xel-i, qva, bavSv-i... morfologiurad markirebulia mravlobiTi; magram mravlobiTi erTgvarovani ar aris, anu mravlobiTis markeri gansxvavebulia rogorc masalobriv, ise tipobriv. III. 2.23. eb-iani mravlobiTi. Tanamedrove qarTulSi arsebiTi saxelis mravlobiTis yvelaze gavrcelebuli (gabatonebuli) formantia -eb-sufiqsi. -eb niSnis gamovlena, rogorc iTqva, wmindad aglutinaciuria. es niSani adgils ikavebs fuZesa da brunvis niSnebs Soris, anu -eb arsebiTad mravlobiTis fuZis mawarmoebeli xdeba. es cxadad Cans saxelis brunebis SedarebiT mxolobiTsa da mravlobiTSi: sax. moT. mic. naT. saxl-i saxl-ma saxl-s saxl-is saxl-eb-i saxl-eb-ma saxl-eb-s saxl-eb-is

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moq. viT. wod.

saxl-iT saxl-ad saxl-o

saxl-eb-iT saxl-eb-ad saxl-eb-o

rogorc vxedavT, mxolobiTisa da mravlobiTis brunebis paradigma (brunvis niSanTa sistema) erTmaneTisagan ar gansxvavdeba da arsebiTad erTmaneTs upirispirdeba ori fuZe, saxl- da saxleb-. amitomac aRniSnavs akaki SaniZe, rom `mravlobiTi ricxvis warmoeba arsebiTad warmoqmnas ekuTvnis~. III. 2.24. eb-iani mravlobiTis morfonologia. -eb sufiqsi, rogorc formanti, erT-erTi yvelaze ucvlelia amgvar elementTa Soris. saqme is aris, rom -eb iseTi morfologiuri elementia, VC struqturiTa da e xmovnis arsebobiT, rom is, wesiT, reduqcias unda eqvemdebarebodes (Sdr. aseTive mdgradoba axasiaTebs -eb Temis niSans). magram ar arsebobs -eb sufiqsis e xmovnis reduqciis arc erTi SemTxveva. samagierod, -eb sufiqss iseTive gavlena aqvs fuZeze (sareduqcio segmentze), rogoric VC tipis brunvis niSnebs (-is, -iT, -ad) axasiaTebs: es ukanaskneli ucvlelia, xolo misi gavleniT reduqcias ganicdis winamavali marcvlis xmovani: mamal- maml-eb-; kedel- kedl-eb... am SemTxvevaSi kumSva, cxadia, fuZes yvela brunvaSi mosdis: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. taZr-eb-i taZr-eb-ma taZr-eb-s taZr-eb-is taZr-eb-iT taZr-eb-ad taZr-eb-o

amgvarad, -eb elementi kumSavs kumSvad fuZes (mgl-eb-i...); is aseve kvecavs kvecad fuZes (gz-eb-i...) da kvecavs da kumSavs kvecad-kumSvad fuZes (pepl-eb-i)... aseve yvela brunvaSi:

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sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod.

gz-eb-i gz-eb-ma gz-eb-s gz-eb-is gz-eb-iT gz-eb-ad gz-eb-o

pepl-eb-i pepl-eb-ma pepl-eb-s pepl-eb-is pepl-eb-iT pepl-eb-ad pepl-eb-o

morfologiis TvalsazrisiT aq yvelaferi kanonzomieria; magram am formawarmoebis erT-erTi yvelaze didi Taviseburebaa e fuZexmovniani saxelebis ukveceloba -eb-ian mravlobiTSi: xeeb-i, mxare-eb-i, dRe-eb-i... ram ganapiroba kvecis pirobebis amgvari darRveva, jerjerobiT amouxsnelia; SesaZlebelia vivaraudoT, rom es aris identuri xmovnebis Tavmoyra; magram es sxva msgavs SemTxvevaSi fuZis es dakargvis damatebiTi faqtoria (Sdr.: sa-ru-e, magram sabZel-i sa-bze-el-i...). SesaZlebelia struqturul analogad aq gavixsenoT identur xmovnebs Soris, morfemaTa sazRvarze, -v- Tanxmovnis gaCenis SemTxvevebi: sar-Ze-v-e... magram v-s CarTvac swored ee mimdevrobis arabunebriobas mianiSnebs. saxelTa formawarmoebis morfologia warmoaCens iseT SemTxvevebsac, rodesac -b formants fuZis mimarT meti gamvleneli Zala aqvs, vidre analogiuri struqturis brunvis niSnebs. kerZod, garkveuli ukveceli saxelebi -eb-ian mravlobiTSi ikveceba. Sdr.: melakuda: melakuda-s(i), magram _ medakud-eb-i nikora: nikora-s(i), magram _ nikor-eb-i yintora: yintora-s(i), magram _ yintor-eb-i yurcqvita: yurcqvita-s(i), magram _ yurcqvit-eb-i boloqanqara: boloqanqara-s(i), magram _ boloqanqar-eb-i. SeniSvna: 1. zogi saxeli, romelic am jgufSi iyo Caricxuli (mag., Zrava _ tradiciuli orTografiiT:

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Zrava-s(i), Zrav-eb-i), vfiqrobT, kvecadTa rigSi gadavida (Zrav-isa, Zrav-eb-i). SeniSvna 2. -eb sufiqisis darTvis SemTxvevaSi fuZis nawilobriv cvlilebas (garTulebas) ganicdis erTaderTi saxeli: xbo, magram xbor-eb-i. III. 2.25. narTaniani mravlobiTi. saxelTa mravlobiTis meore saxeoba, e. w. narTaniani mravlobiTi, arsebiTad gansxvavdeba ganxiluli -eb-iani mravlobiTisagan. is Sereuli tipis warmoebaa, ramdenadac simravlis gamomxatveli ori urTierTmonacvle sufiqsia gamoyenebuli: -n da -T. Tanac es sufiqsebi gramatikuli bunebiT gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. -n sufiqsi mxolod saxelobiTsa da wodebiTSi gamoiyeneba da is struqturulad, -eb-is msgavsad, aglutinaciuri tipisaa: jer _ ricxvis niSani, Semdeg _ brunvisa: sax. kac-n-i wod. kac-n-o -n-sTan monacvle -T sufiqsis gramatikuli buneba gansxvavebulia ormxriv: a) is saerToa yvela danarCeni brunvisaTvis (Cveulebisamebr _ moTxrobiTis, micemiTisa da naTesaobiTisaTvis); b) is iTavsebs rogorc ricxvis, ise brunvis gamoxatvis funqcias. amgvarad, kac-T(a) erTdroulad aris mravlobiTic da erTerTi brunvis funqciis Semsrulebelic: moTxrobiTis, micemiTis an naTesaobiTisa. SeniSvna: 1. Tu romel brunvas ekuTvnis Taniani forma, amisi amocnoba -eb-iani mravlobiTis CanacvlebiT SeiZleba; mag.: `netavi Z m a T a mravalTa!~ (= netavi Zmeb-s: mic.); `p i r T a saZiebeli~ (= pireb-is saZiebeli: naT.). 2. miCneulia, rom Tanian formas moqmedebiTi da viTarebiTi brunvebis gamoxatvis funqcia ara aqvs; Tumca iSviaTma, magram udavo empiriulma

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masalam daadastura, rom aseTi SemTxvevebic realuria (l. kvaWaZe). III. 2.26. narTaniani mravlobiTis morfonologia. -n sufiqsis darTva saxelis fuZeze aranair damatebiT morfonologiur Zvras ar iwvevs (Tu ar gaviTvaliswinebT fuZiseul n-sTan mis Sexvedras: ban-n-i, gvirgvin-n-i...). rac Seexeba -T(a) sufiqss: formaluri TvalsazrisiT iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos -T/ -Ta variantTa mimarTeba iseTivea, rogoric brunvis niSnebis gauvrcobeli da gavrcobili variantebisa. magram sinamdvileSi am niSanTa (alomorfTa) ganawilebis suraTi ar asaxavs im distribucias, rac brunvis niSnebTan emfatikuri xmovnis gamoyenebisas warmoCnda (ix. zemoT `e m f a t i k u r i x m o v a n i...~). aseTi ganawileba pirvel rigSi daculi unda yofiliyo substantiuri msazRvrelis Tanian formebSi; Sesabamisad, unda gvqonoda msazRvrel-sazRvrulis opozicia: adamian-T sevda da sevda adamian-Ta (Sdr.: adamian-is sevda da sevda adamian-isa) sinamdvileSi substantiuri msazRvrelis prepoziciaSi gabatonebulia -Ta sufiqsi (adamian-Ta sevda), xolo -T alomorfi mis garkveul Tavisufal variantad unda miviCnioT. is ZiriTadad frazis ritmis maregulireblad Cans gamoyenebuli: `kac-T ubedoba Tumc ars satire...~ (al. WavW.). -T sufiqsis pozicia ufro myaria danarCen brunvaTa funqciebis Sesrulebisas, Sesabamis saxelTa aqtantebad (ZiriTadad _ subieqtad) gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi: `mTaT miTxres: `nu dagviviwyeb...~ (vaJa); `mTaT orbis frTebi moisxes~ (ana); `SavTa droT vera Sescvales mis guli andamatisa~ (gr. orb.); am SemTxvevaSi ukve SeiZleba laparaki -Ta gavrcobili variantis poziciur gamovlenaze: m T a T miTxres, magram: miTxres m T a T a. mag.: `Rrublebi rokviT daiZrnen qarSi da miaSures lilisfer mTaTa~ (ana). `ra CurCuli esmis CemTa yurTa?~ (ana).

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magram: `mTaTa moixades gvirgvinni mefurni, TvalTa sxivi moswyda elvarebisai~ (ana); amgvarad, -T da -Ta, cxadia, alomorfebad unda iqnes miCneuli, magram maTi poziciuri an funqcionaluri safuZveli ise gamokveTili ara Cans, rogorc brunvis niSanTa gavrcobis SemTxvevaSi. III. 2.27. Taviseburebani mravlobiTis formaTa warmoebasa da funqcionirebaSi. narTaniani mravlobiTis warmoeba da gamoyeneba Tanamedrove qarTulSi SedarebiT SezRudulia. miCneulia, rom misi funqcionirebis asparezi ZiriTadad stilistikuria: gvxvdeba mxatvruli literaturis _ poeziisa da istoriuli prozis _ enaSi. mag.: `sadac didebuls mTasa myinvarsa o r b n i, a r w i v n i ver Sehxebian, sad w v i m a - T o v l n i, yinulad q m n i l n i, mzisgan arodes ara dnebian, uwindels droSi RvTisa m o s a v T a gamouqvabavT mun monasteri...~ (ilia). amave dros, Taniani formebi gabatonebulia garkveul terminologiur SesityvebebSi: mweralTa kavSiri, mecnierebaTa akademia, bavSvTa baga, ministrTa sabWo... SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ricxvis niSani am SemTxvevaSi derivaciuli elementis fardia. sayuradReboa, rom narTaniani daboloeba istoriulad araerT SemTxvevaSi aRmoCnda sityvaTmawarmoebeli formantebis rolSi. amgvari warmomavlobisaa, erTi mxriv: dedani ( deda-ni), locvani ( locva-n-i), Tavni ( Tav-n-i)... meore mxriv: Tekla-T-i, vana-T-i, gomar-Ta, fiWv-Ta, ber-Ta... SeniSvna: 1. erTaderTi pozicia, romelSic narTaniani mravlobiTi erTaderTia (anu masTan -eb formantis Canacvleba ar SeiZleba), aris garkveuli jgufis nacvalsaxelebi: isi-n-i, ma-T, yvela-n-i... 2. garkveuli datvirTva uCans narTanian mravlobiTs wyvilis gamomxatvel formebsa (Tval-n-i, yur-Ta...) da e. w. tolad Serwymul kompozitebSi: da-Zma-n-i, qal-vaJ-Ta... niWi da xelovneba ganuWreli da-Zmani arian (ilia).

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Tavi III. zedsarTavi saxeli


III. 3.1. zedsarTavi saxelis raoba. zedsarTavi saxeli hqvia iseT metyvelebis nawils, romelsac enaSi sagnis niSan-Tvisebis gamoxatva akisria. rogorc vnaxeT, sagans aqvs Sinaarsobrivi mTlianoba, rasac a r s e b i T i s a x e l i gamoxatavs. amave dros, sagani (an movlena) aRWurvilia araerTi (nairgvari) niSan-TvisebiT, risi gamomxatveli sityvebic z e d s a r T a v i s a x e l e b i a. amdenad, erTi aRsaniSnis mimarT arsebiTi saxeli erTia, xolo zedsarTavi saxeli _ mravali (araerTi). ar arsebobs iseTi sagani Tu movlena, romelic mxolod erTi zedsarTaviT daxasiaTdes. termini z e d s a r T a v i, rogorc rTuli warmomavlobis sityva (zed + sarTavi), kalkirebuli warmonaqmnia (Sdr. rus. , romelic, Tavis mxriv, momdinareobs laT. adjectivum-isagan...) da igi Tavisi struqturiT xazs usvams imas, rom Sesabamisi metyvelebis nawili `z e d d a e r T v i s ~ arsebiT saxels (Sdr. termini zmnizeda). zedsarTavi saxeli, misi enobrivi statusidan gamomdinare, metad nairgvaria formobrivadac da Sinaarsobrivadac. III. 3.2. zedsarTavi saxelis Sinaarsobrivi jgufebi. ramdenadac zedsarTavi saxeli sagnis (movlenis) niSan-Tvisebas gamoxatavs, xolo es niSan-Tviseba sakmaod araerTgvarovania, Sesabamisi metyvelebis nawili Sinaarsobrivad mravalferovan suraTs warmogvidgens. SeniSvna: termini n i S a n - T v i s e b a xSirad gamoiyeneba rogorc sinonimuri kompoziti. magram is mosaxerxebelia ufro imitom, rom erTdroulad gamoxatavs (SeiZleba gamoxatavdes) sagnis TvisebiTi gan-

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sazRvris orive aspeqts _ niSnebsac da Tvisebebsac. mag.: vaSli saxelTan mimarTebiT `wiTeli~ niSania, `mwife~ _ Tviseba; biWi saxelTan mimarTebiT `mwiTuri~ niSania, `zarmaci~ _ Tviseba... da misT. Tumca isic unda iTqvas, rom maxasiaTeblebi `niSani~ da `Tviseba~ yovelTvis ase aSkarad gasamijni ar aris. zedsarTavi saxelis Sinaarsobriv jgufebad klasifikacia orgvarad SeiZleba: 1. leqsikur-semantikurad, anu imis mixedviT, ra saxis niSan-Tvisebebs gamoxatavs esa Tu is zedsarTavi saxeli; am mxriv SeiZleba gamoiyos Semdegi Sinaarsobrivi klasebis gamomxatveli zedsarTavi saxelebi: a) sagnis zoma-moculobisa: didi, patar, vrceli, farTo... b) odenobisa: cotaodeni, mravalricxovani... g) wonisa: mZime, msubuqi, mCate... d) formisa: mrgvali, mrude, brtyeli, swori, okrobokro... e) Sedgenilobisa: fxvieri, mSrali, mtkice (naqsovi), xSiri (SeWamandi), mkvrivi... v) ferisa: Savi, TeTri, mwvane, wiTeli, yavisferi... z) gemosi: mware, tkbili, mJave, mwklarte... T) nivTieri xarisxisa: saRi, dabeJili, dampali... 2. Sinaarsobrivi jgufebi aseve SeiZleba ganisazRvros im ramdenime kiTxvis mixedviT, romlebic zedsarTavTa sxvadasxvagvar semantikur mimarTebebs asaxavs: a) r o g o r i ? _ didi, naTeli, tkbili... b) r o m e l i ? _ ganapira, marjvena, Sinauri... g) s a d a u r i ? _ baTumeli, quTaTuri, berZnuli, dasavluri... d) r o d i n d e l i ? _ dRevandeli, SarSandeli, samomavlo... 3. zedsarTav saxelTa tradiciuli dayofa or did jgufad _ v i T a r e b i T da m i m a r T e b i T zedsarTavebad _ pirveladi gagebiT ZiriTad Sinaarsobriv dajgufebas gulisxmobs: v i T a r e b i T i a zedsarTavi, romelic sagnis niSan-Tvisebas

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uSualod gamoxatavs, xolo m i m a r T e b i T i _ romelic amave Sinaarss sxva saganTan (sxva semasTan) mimarTebiT iZleva. magram qarTuli enobrivi monacemebis mixedviT es cnebebi (v i T a r e b i T i _ m i m a r T e b i T i ) ufro zedsarTav saxelTa warmomavlobas (warmoqmnas) daukavSirda da umjobesia am kuTxiT iqnes ganxiluli. III. 3.3. zedsarTavi saxelis jgufebi warmomavlobis mixedviT. zedsarTavi saxeli iseve, rogorc nebismieri metyvelebis nawili, warmomavlobis mxriv erTgvarovani ar aris. zedsarTavTa erTi nawili (raodenobrivad ufro mcire) pirveladi, Zireuli sityvebia; ufro sworad, iseTi sityvebia, romlebic enis funqcionirebis sinqroniul doneze dauSleli odenobaa. aseTebia warmomavlobiT pirveladi, Zireuli sityvebi (xeli, Wyeti, cqviti, ficxi, yifi...). nasesxebi sityvebi (Savi, yomrali, lamazi...) da odindeli derivatebi (TeTri, mJave, tkbili...). swored es monacemebi erTiandeba e. w. v i T a r e b i T i zedsarTavebis jgufSi. viTarebiTi zedsarTavebisaTvis mimarTebebisagan gansxvavebuli ramdenime enobrivi niSania damaxasiaTebeli: 1. x a r i s x i s warmoeba. xarisxis formebi regularulad da sistemurad swored viTarebiT zedsarTavebs ewarmoeba. mimarTebiTi zedsarTavebisaTvis is mxolod gamonaklisis xasiaTs atarebs (ix. $ III. 3.4.). 2. unari aqvs garkveuli zmnizedebi daikavSiros (Zalian xSiri, erTob didi, odnav mJave...), rac mis aqtiur predikaciul unarze mianiSnebs. 3. advilad iRebs zmnizedur formas: nela, Cqara, mcired... 4. Cveulebisamebr, safuZvlad edeba ganyenebul saxelTa warmoebas: wiTeli _ siwTle, mJave _ simJave, Cqari _ siCqare... SeniSvna: viTarebiT zedsarTav saxelTa mniSvnelovani nawili etimologizdeba rogorc warmoqmnili fuZeebi, magram es maT mimarTebiTebad ver aqcevs. unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom `viTarebiToba-mimarTebiToba~

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ganisazRvreba enis funqcionirebis doneze moqmedi (da ara _ istoriuli) paradigmatikiT. m i m a r T e b i T zedsarTav saxelebSi erTiandeba sxvadasxva sityvawarmoebiTi modeliT miRebuli sityvebi. amgvar zedsarTav saxelTa warmoebas safuZvlad udevs rogorc warmoqmna, ise Txzva. warmoqmna xdeba nairgvari saderivacio formantebiT: a) sufiqsebiT: -ian (qoniani, qviSiani...) -ovan (gulovani, kldovani...) -ur/ -ul (mTiuluri, guruli...) -ier (madlieri, Zlieri...) -ad (guladi, pirveladi...) -iT (ricxviTi, weriTi...); b) prefiqsebiT (Cveulebisamebr, mimReoburi warmoebebi): sa- (sarecxi, sakeci, salewi...) u- (uxvedri. utyvi...) na- (naTrevi, natexi...) g) prefiqs-sufiqsebiT: sa_o (saswrafo, saTadarigo...) sa_e (saqare, sanerge...) u_ur (uwignuri, ugemuri, Jamuri...) u_o (uSno, ugono, ubedo...) da sxv. Txzul zedsarTav saxelTa rigSi gamoiyofa reduplicirebuli fuZeebi da nairfuZiani kompozitebi: a) ferad-feradi, Wrel-Wreli, did-didi, giJmaJi... b) tkbil-mware, Sav-TeTri, met-naklebi... g) mzisdari, mtredisferi, kudmokecili, Tavqudmoglejili... SeniSvna: radgan am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT azrTa sxvadasxvaoba arsebobs, calke unda iTqvas, rom yvela saxis mimReoba, rogorc sityvawarmoebis produqti, m i m a r T e b i T i zedsarTavi saxelebis klasSi eqceva: mwuxare, mduRare, mSrali, mSenebeli, aRwerili, namuSevari, saToxni, daulagebeli...

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III. 3.4. zedsarTavi saxelis formawarmoebis sakiTxebi. zedsarTavi, rogorc saxeli, brunebadi sityvaa. oRond, arsebiTi saxelisagan gansxvavebiT, nebismieri zedsarTavi brunvis formiT SeiZleba warmodgenili iyos orgvari paradigmis saxiT _ rogorc sruli da rogorc nakluli paradigma. es gansxvaveba zedsarTavis funqciur araerTgvarovnebas ukavSirdeba. pirvel SemTxvevaSi (anu _ rogorc sruli paradigmis Semqmneli) is funqciurad arsebiTi saxelia, arsebiTi saxelis rolSi gamodis: sax. borot-i moT. borot-ma mic. borot-s(a) naT. borot-is(a) moq. borot-iT(a) viT. borot-ad(a) wid. borot-o am SemTxvevaSi zedsarTavi saxeli misdevs morfonologiis (kumSva-kvecis) imave wesebs, rac arsebiTi saxelebisaTvis aris niSandoblivi. Sdr.: sax. wiTel-i mwvane moT. wiTel-ma mwvane-m mic. wiTel-s(a) mwvane-s(a) naT. wiTl-is(a) mwvan-is(a) moq. wiTl-iT(a) mwvan-iT(a) viT. wiTl-ad(a) mwvane-d(a) wid. wiTel-o mwvane-v SeniSvna: zedsarTav saxels, Cveulebisamebr, ricxvi ar ewarmoeba. amitomac niSandoblivia, rom arsebiTis rolSi Cayenebuli zedsarTavi saxelebi xSirad gamoiyeneba mravlobiTis formiT: wiTlebi, Savebi, maRlebi... zedsarTavi saxelis funqcionirebis bunebrivi formaa misi gamoyeneba arsebiT (an sxva) saxelTan erTad. am SemTxvevaSi misi

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bruneba saliteraturo qarTulSi atributuli msazRvrelis sintagmatikis sabolood Camoyalibebul wesebs eqvemdebareba. III. 3.5. zedsarTavi saxelis paradigmatika. zedsarTavi saxelis, rogorc atributuli msazRvrelis, bruneba erTgvarovan suraTs ar gviCvenebs. zedsarTavis Sesabamisi paradigmatuli unaris aRsawerad aucilebelia gaTvaliswinebul iqnes ori momenti: a) fuZeTanxmovniania Tu fuZexmovniani zedsarTavi saxeli; b) ra pozicia ukavia zedsarTavs arsebiTis mimarT _ prepozicia Tu postpozicia. SeniSvna: rogorc cnobilia, Tanamedrove qarTulisaTvis bunebrivia msazRvrel-sazRvrulis prepoziciuri wyoba, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rac iSviaTia (anu _ postpoziciuri wyoba). am ori pirobis kombinacia oTxi paradigmis SesaZleblobas iZleva (am SemTxvevaSi arsebiTi saxelis fuZis daboloeba mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba, radgan mas zedsarTavis brunebaze gavlena ara aqvs): 1. fuZeTanxmovniani zedsarTavi _ wyoba prepoziciuri: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. maRal-i maRal-ma maRalmaRal-i maRal-i maRalmaRal-o saxl-i saxl-ma saxl-s saxl-is saxl-iT saxl-ad saxl-o

SeniSvna: Tu prepoziciuri msazRvreli gaTiSulia sazRvrulisagan, maSin brunvaSi SeTanxmebac moxdeba; mag.: `W r e l s Cavicomdi k a b a s a (vaJa). 2. fuZeTanxmovniani zedsarTavi _ postpoziciuri:

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sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod.

saxl-i saxl-ma saxl-s(a) saxl-is(a) saxl-iT(a) saxl-ad saxl-o

maRal-i maRal-ma maRal-s(a) maRl-is(a) maRl-iT(a) maRl-ad(a) maRal-o

3. fuZexmovniani _ prepoziciuri: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. patara patara patara patara patara patara patara burT-i burT-ma burT-s burT-is burT-iT burT-ad burT-o

4. fuZexmovniani _ postpoziciuri: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. burT-i burT-ma burT-s burT-is burT-iT burT-ad burT-o patara patara-m patara-s patar-is patar-iT patara-d patara-v

SeniSvnebi: 1. rogorc vxedavT, prepoziciuri wyobis dros fuZexmovniani zedsarTavi formas ar icvlis, fuZis saxiT Seewyoba brunebad arsebiT saxels; fuZeTanxmovniani zedsarTavi ki nawilobriv aris SeTanxmebuli: saxelobiTSi, moTxrobiTsa da wodebiTSi SeTanxmeba srulia, naTesaobiTsa da moqmedebiTSi mxolod brunvis niSanTa xmovniTi elementia SenarCunebuli (romelsac fuZeze zegavlenis unari

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ar gaaCnia), xolo micemiTi da moqmedebiTi fuZis saxiT warmodgeba. 2. postpoziciuri wyobis dros sruli SeTanxmeba gvaqvs orsave SemTxvevaSi, anu fuZis daboloeba aq sxvaobas ar iZleva. 3. sruli SeTanxmebis dros zedsarTavi kumSva-kvecis imave wesebs emorCileba, rasac arsebiTi saxeli. III. 3.6. zedsarTavi saxelis sintagmatika. amgvarad, zedsarTavi saxelis funqcionirebis ZiriTadi asparezi aris misi yofna atributuli msazRvrelis rolSi. msazRvrel-sazRvrulis sintagmaturi urTierToba brunebis doneze ukve iyo wina paragrafSi naCvenebi. rac Seexeba ricxvis kategorias, aq garkveuli Taviseburebebi iCens Tavs: a) prepoziciis dros zedsarTavi saxeli ar reagirebs -ebian mravlobiTSi mdgomi sazRvruli saxelis ricxvze: sax. maRal-i mT-eb-i moT. maGal-ma mTeb-ma mic. maRalmTeb-s naT. maRal-i mTeb-is moq. maRal-i mTeb-iT viT. maRal mTeb-ad wod. maRal-o mTeb-o b) postpoziciis dros ZiriTadad aseTive viTarebaa, Tumca iSviaTad dasturdeba SeTanxmebis SemTxvevebic (ZaRlebi avebi...), gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tu msazRvreli sazRvrulisagan gaTiSulia (`TuSebi miyvaran _ tanad didebi~... _ m. lebaniZe). g) msazRvreli saxelis narTaniani mravlobiTis SemTxvevaSi msazRvreli, wesisamebr, SeeTanxmeba mas (arqauli forma _ arqauli sintagmatika): didTa gzaTa, mTani maRalni... SeniSvna: calke dgas zedsarTavi saxelis, rogorc p r e d i katuli msazRvrelis sakiTxi. rogorc cnobilia, es Taviseburi konstruqcia ZiriTadad dakavSirebulia mimReobebTan da ormag sintagmatur daqvemdebarebas gulisxmobs: msazRvreli sintagmas

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qmnis zmna-SemasmenelTan, magram formis mxriv angariSs uwevs Sesabamis aqtants; Sdr.: melia k u d a m o Z u e b u l i garboda, meliam k u d a m o Z u e b u l m a irbina. melias k u d a m o Z u e b u l s urbenia... III. 3.7. zedsarTavi saxelis xarisxis formebi. zedsarTavi saxeli orgvari SeiZleba iyos: viTarebiTi da mimarTebiTi. viTarebiTi zedsarTavi saxeli pirveladia (lamazi, patara, didi...), mimarTebiTi ki _ nawarmoebi, warmoqmnili (guliani, saxelovani, qalaqeli, sofluri...). sagans aqvs Tavisi niSan-Tviseba, romelic, rogorc wesi, SeiZleba iyos sxvadasxva odenobis, sxvadasxva xarisxis; es met-nakleboba damyarebulia Zireuli, pirveladi da warmoqmnili saxelebis Sedarebaze. qarTul enaSi garCeulia xarisxis sami forma: dadebiTi (didi), ufroobiTi (u-did-es-i), odnaobiTi (mo-did-o). xarisxis formebi ewarmoeba viTarebiT zedsarTav saxelebs, zogjer _ mimarTebiTsac, magram im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mimarTebiToba dakarguli aqvs da viTarebiTad aris qceuli: mag., `gonieri~ forma gvaZlevs ufroobiTi xarisxis formas: u-gonier-es-i; msgavsi formebia: u-bednier-es-i (bednieri), u-Wkvian-es-i (Wkviani), u-patiosn-es-i (patiosani), u-Zlier-es-i (Zlieri), u-mSvenier-es-i (mSvenieri) da sxv. viTarebiT zedsarTav saxels Cveulebriv ewarmoeba xarisxis formebi, romlebic ZireulTan mimarTebiT meti an naklebi odenobiT gamoxataven sagnis Tvisebas: didi _ u-did-es-i, mo-dido; TeTri _ u-TeTr-es-i, mo-TeTr-o. es formebi erTmaneTis mimarT xarisxis formebia. Zireul formas (didi, TeTri) d a d e b i T i xarisxi hqvia, misgan warmoqmnilebs _ u f r o o b i T i da odnaobiTi. dadebiTi xarisxis forma amosavali formaa, misgan miiReba ufroobiTi da odnaobiTi xarisxis formebi. ufroobiTi xarisxis formas awarmoebs u- _ -es TavsarTbolosarTi (konfiqsi) da warmoqmnili forma aRniSnavs sagnis niSan-Tvisebas meti odenobiT, vidre Zireuli zedsarTavi saxeli: did-i _ u-did-es-i, maRal-i _ u-maRl-es-i...

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odnaobiTi xarisxis forma sagnis niSan-Tvisebas gamoxatavs dadebiTTan SedarebiT naklebi odenobiT. misi mawarmoebelia mo- _ -o TavsarT-bolosarTi (konfiqsi): did-i _ mo-did-o, TeTr-i _ mo-TeTr-o... `ufroobiTi xarisxis formis mimarTeba dadebiTisadmi ar aris iseTive, rogorc odnaobiTisa dadebiTisadmi: sagnis niSans ufroobiTi xarisxis forma gamoxatavs meti odenobiT ganusazRvrelad, odnaobiTi ki _ naklebi odenobiT, magram erTgvari gansazRvriT: miaxloebiT, odnav, mag., `u-TeTr-es-i~ aris iseTi, romelic siTeTriT umaRlesi xarisxisaa, `mo-TeTr-o~ ki iseTi, romelic TeTrs uaxlovdeba, romelsac siTeTris niSnebi aqvs, romelic odnav aris TeTri... odnaobiTi xarisxis formebi ufro naklebad aris qarTulSi, vidre ufroobiTisa: zogi zedsarTavisagan ufroobiTi gvaqvs, odnaobiTi ki _ ara~ (a. SaniZe). xarisxis formebi ar ewarmoeba mimReobas, Tu zmnuri gageba ar aris dakarguli da mimReoba zedsarTavad ar aris qceuli (mag., mjobi _ u-mjob-es-i). gvaqvs xarisxis iseTi xelovnuri formebic, rogorebicaa: ukeTilSobil-es-i, u-aRmatebul-es-i... xarisxis formaTa warmoebisas zogierT -el da -il sufiqsian zedsarTav saxels ekveceba es sufiqsebi da xarisxis afiqsebi uSualod pirvandel fuZes daerTvis: grZ-el-i: u-grZ-es-i, mo-grZ-o; sqel-i: u-sq-es-i, mo-sq-o; tkbil-i: u-tkb-es-i, mo-tkb-o. gvxvdeba garkveuli gamonaklisebic: mag., kargi _ ukeTesi (Sdr. keTili). `wiT-el-i~ da `yviT-el-i~ odnaobiTi xarisxis formis warmoebisas fuZis (pirvandeli sufiqsis) xmovans icvlian da -al daboloeba gvaqvs: mo-wiTal-o, mo-yviTal-o. xarisxis warmoebis TvalsazrisiT qarTuli ena gansxvavdeba evropuli enebisagan. evropul enebSic xarisxis sami formaa: dadebiTi, SedarebiTi da aRmatebiTi, magram `metobis~ xarisxi orsafexuriania _ SedarebiTi da aRmatebiTi. qarTuls ki meti odenobisTvis aqvs mxolod erTi _ ufroobiTi xarisxis forma. samagierod, evropul enebSi ar aris odnaobiTi xarisxis forma.

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Tavi IV. ricxviTi saxeli


III. 4.1. ricxviTi saxelis raoba. ricxviTi saxelis semantikur klasSi erTiandeba im rigis damoukidebeli Sinaarsis sityvebi, romlebic saganTa raodenobriv daxasiaTebas (aRweras, aRricxvas) ukavSirdeba. es aris sityvieri (enobrivi) gamoxatuleba imisa, rasac cifrTa sistemaSi arabuli an romauli simboloebiT avsaxavT. Sesabamisad, ricxviTi saxelis mTavari funqciaa saganTa r a o d e n o b i s gamoxatva, xolo Semdeg _ raodenobasTan dakavSirebuli semantikuri mimarTebebis asaxva: r i g i (raodenobriv saTvalavSi) da raodenobrivi n a w i l i. Tavisi SinaarsiTa da funqciiT ricxviTi saxeli yvelaze ufro ekedleba zedsarTav saxelTa klass (atributivebs). amasve adasturebs ricxviT saxelTa paradigmatika da sintagmatika. amitomac zog enaSi is atributivTa klasSia gaerTianebuli. ricxviTi saxelis raodenobrivi Sinaarsi, Cveulebisamebr, garkveulia, zustia. magram enaSi arsebobs raodenobis gamomxatveli iseTi sityvebic, romlebic am Sinaarss zustad ki ara, zogadad gamoxataven. maT g a u r k v e v e l i Sinaarsis ricxviT saxelebs uwodeben: bevri, mravali, cota... es erTeulebi Tavisi SinaarsiT uaxlovdeba, erTi mxriv, krebiT saxelebs (xalxi, fara...), xolo meore mxriv _ amgvarive Sinaarsis nacvalsaxelebs (yvela, yoveli...). ricxviTi saxelis enobriv arss ufro zustad gamoxatavs raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxeli, ramdenadac is saganTa T v l a d sinamdviles Seesatyviseba. Sesabamisi ricxviTi saxelebi adamianma gamoiyena mas Semdeg, rac man sagnobriv erTeulTa aRricxva anu T v l a daiwyo. ivaraudeba, rom manamde igi zogad (martiv) opozicias mimarTavda: erTi (cali) _ mravali cota _ bevri

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Semdgom etapze gaCnda opoziciis ufro konkretuli (diferencirebuli) wevri (`ori~); Sesabamisad, Seiqmna samwevrovani opozicia: kenti _ wyvili (tyupi) _ mravali amis Semdeg azrovneba iwyebs aRricxvas da, bunebrivia, mis enobriv asaxvas: erTi, ori (erTs + erTi), sami (erTs + ori) da misT. enobrivi warmomavlobis TvalsazrisiT qarTul ricxviT saxelTa sistema Tormet damoukidebel leqsikur erTeuls emyareba: erTi _ 1 ori _ 2 aTi _ 10 sami _ 3 oci _ 20 oTxi _ 4 asi _ 100 xuTi _ 5 eqvsi _ 6 Svidi _ 7 rva _ 8 cxra _ 9 SeniSvna: aq mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba gvian Semosuli did ricxvTa saxelwodebani: milioni, miliardi... danarCeni ricxviTi saxelebi am erTeulTagan aris Sedgenili: sam+oci, or+asi, aT+asi, sam+as+oci... rogorc cnobilia, qarTuli Tvlis sistema o c o b i T i a. es niSnavs imas, rom ricxvebis dasaxeleba ocidan asamde (da Semdgom _ aTeulebis rangSi) oceulebad aris dayofili da ara _ aTeulebad; daakvirdiT:
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ oc-i ocdaerTi ocdaori ocdasami ocdaoTxi ocdaxuTi ocdaeqvsi ocdaSvidi ocdarva 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ormoc-i ormocdaerTi ormocdaori ormocdasami ormocdaoTxi ormocdaxuTi ormocdaeqvsi ormocdaSvidi ormocdarTa

60 61

_ samoc-i _ samocdaerTi da a. S.

158
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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ocdacxra ocdaaTi ocdaTerTmeti ocdaTormeti ocdacameti ocdaToTxmeti ocdaTxuTmeti ocdaTeqvsmeti ocdaCvidmeti ocdaTvrameti ocdacxrameti 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ormocdacxra ormocdaaTi ormocdaTerTmeti ormocdaTormeti ormocdacameti ormocdaToTxmeti ormocdaTxuTmeti ormocdaTeqvsmeti ormocdaCvidmeti ormocdaTvrameti ormocdacxrameti

sxva enaTa aTobiT Tvlis sistemasTan qarTulis Sedareba am Taviseburebas ufro naTlad warmoaCens:
qarTuli aTi oci ocdaaTi ormocdaaTi germanuli rusuli

10 20 30 50

zen zwanzig (= `ori-aTi~) dreiig (= `sami-aTi~) fnfzig (= `xuTi-aTi~)

(= -, `ori-aTi~) (= `sami-aTi~) (= `xuTi-aTi~)

III. 4.2. ricxviTi saxelis jgufebi. rogorc iTqva, ricxviTi saxelis enobrivi daniSnuleba pirvel rigSi ukavSirdeba saganTa r a o d e n o b i s gamoxatvas (raodenobriv aRricxvas); am SinaarsTan mimarTebiT yalibdeba mowesrigebul simravleSi (raodenobaSi) r i g i T o b i s semantika (sagnis r i g i T i adgili mravalSi); aseve _ moculobiTi an raodenobrivi mTelis fardobiTi n a w i l i (raodenobrivi g a n w i l v i s mimarTebaTa asaxva). gamomdinare aqedan, qarTuls sami saxis ricxviTi saxeli moepoveba: r a o d e n o b i T i : ori, aTi, asi, milioni... r i g o b i T i : meore, meaTe, mease, memilione... w i l o b i T i : mesamedi, meaTedi, measedi... SeniSvna 1. SeiZleba aseve vilaparakoT `d a y o f i T i~ Sinaarsis ricxviT saxelebze garkveuli saxis gaorkecebis gaTvaliswinebiT: or-ori, sam-sami, as-asi...

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2. garkveuli sityvawarmoebiTi da kompozituri monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba aseve msjeloba m i a x l o e b i T (samiode, asiode...) da d a z u s t e b i T (samadsami, oradori...) ricxviT saxelebze. III. 4.3. raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxeli aRniSnavs saganTa raodenobas da upasuxebs kiTxvas: r a m d e n i ? or-i (vaSli), cxra (Zma), as-i (cxvari)... raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis (da maTgan warmoqmnili Sesabamisi rigobiTi da wilobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis) agebuleba-Sedgeniloba erTgvarovani ar aris. gvxvdeba rogorc martivfuZiani, ise rTuli Sedgenilobis ricxviTi saxelebi; oRondac, Cveulebrivi kompozituri sityvawarmoebisagan gansxvavebiT, rTuli ricxviTi saxelebis nawili Serwymuli ar aris, damoukidebel sityvebad iwereba. amdenad, Sedgenilobis mxriv ricxviTi saxeli samgvaria: a) m a r t i v i : aseTia ricxviTi saxelebi erTidan aTis CaTvliT; oci, asi; agreTve ucxo warmomavlobis erTeulebi: milioni, miliardi... b) r T u l i a : ricxviTi saxelebi TerTmetidan cxrametis CaTvliT, ocdaerTidan oTxmocdacxrametis CaTvliT, agreTve a s e u l T a saxelebi (orasi, samasi... aTasi). rogorc vxedavT, (b) jgufidan pirvelni mxolod warmomavlobis gaTvaliswinebiT miiCneva rTul ricxviT saxelebad (TerTmeti aT-erT-meti, cameti aT-sam-meti da sxv.); aseT rTul fuZeTa istorias naTlad warmoaCens Zveli qarTuli: aT-oTx-meti...); meoreni `da~ kavSiriT SeerTebul kompozitebs ganekuTvneba (ocdaerTi... Sdr.: kardakar...); mesameni ukavSirod SeerTebul kompozitebs udris (orasi... Sdr.: tolfasi...); meoTxeni garkveuli elementis gamoyenebiT aris SeerTebuli: ormoci ( or-meoci...). g) S e d g e n i l i a aTaseulTa (da _ aTiaTaseulTa, asiaTaseulTa...) aRmniSvneli ricxviTi saxelebi (ori aTasi, cxra aTasi, oci aTasi...) da martivi da rTuli ricxviTi saxelebis monawileobiT warmodgenili ricxviTi saxelebis (ricxvTa) rangobrivi struqtura:

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oras xuTi aTas samas sami; xuTi aTas xuTas ormocdaerTi; milion ori aTas samas ocdaxuTi da misT.
III. 4.4. rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli gamoxatavs sagnis rigiT `odenobas~, igi realurad gamoyofs r i g i T e r T s mravlisagan, uCvenebs konkretuli sagnis r i g i T `adgils~ saganTa simravleSi: meore (=rigiTi nomeri erTsa da sams Soris) mecxre (= rigiTi nomeri rvasa da aTs Soris) ocdameaTe (= rigiTi nomeri ocdacxrasa da ocdaTerTmets Soris) orasmeerTe (= rigiTi nomeri orassa da oras ors Soris)... rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli iwarmoeba raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelisagan me _ e konfiqsis meSveobT: or-i xuT-i cxra as-i

me-or-e me-xuT-e me-cxr-e me-as-e da misT.

rogorc vxedavT, fuZeTanxmovnian raodenobiT ricxviT saxels fuZis saxiT gamoiyenebs rigobiTis warmoeba (or-i meor-e...); xolo xmovniT daboloebuli fuZe -e sufiqsis wina poziciaSi kvecas ganicdis: cxra me-cxr-e... warmoqmnili sityva, Cveulebisamebr, iqneba fuZexmovniani: mesame, meTerTmete, aTasmeerTe... rogor aris warmodgenili sxvadasxva Sedgenilobis (martivis, rTulis, Sedgenilis) raodenobiTisagan warmoqmnili rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi? am SemTxvevaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia sityvawarmoebis zogadi principi: warmomqmneli afiqsebiT nawarmoebi nebismieri rTuli sityva (kompoziti) erT sityvad iwereba (mag.: dedaSviloba, daZmuri...). amdenad, nebismieri warmomavlobis rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli erT sityvad unda daiweros: meorase (orasi)

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measiaTase (asi aTasi) asocdamesame (as ocdasami)... amave dros, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom amgvar warmoebaSi meTavsarTi yovelTvis Tavkidur pozicias ar ikavebs. kerZod: a) me- Tavkidur pozicias ikavebs, rodesac rigobiT ricxviT saxels safuZvlad udevs raodenobiTi: erTidan ocis CaTvliT (me-sam-e, me-Tormet-e, me-oc-e...); ormoci, samoci, oTxmoci, asi (me-ormoc-e, me-as-e...); aseulTa saxelebi: orasi, samasi... (me-oras-e...); aTaseulTa saxelebi: ori aTasi, cxra aTasi (me-oriaTas-e...); b) me- TavsarTi bolo komponentis win daerTvis yvela danarCeni rTulfuZiani raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelidan warmoqmnil rigobiTs: ocda-me-Svid-e, samocda-me-cxr-e, as-me-xuT-e... SeniSvna: 1. saganTa raodenoba (Sesabamisad _ rigobiToba) SeiZleba gamoxatuli iyos ricxviTi (cifrobrivi) simboloebiT. rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelis arabuli cifrebiT gadmocemisas gansxvavebuli daweriloba gveqneba miTiTebuli ori jgufis mixedviT. pirvel SemTxvevaSi mxolod me- TavsarTi daerTvis (me-5, me-20, me-100...), xolo meore SemTxvevaSi _ mxolod -e bolosarTi (29-e, 109-e, 1001-e...). rigobiTis romauli cifrebiT gadmocemisas TavsarT-bolosarTebi ar daerTvis: V, X, XX, XXII da misT. 2. erTi-s Sesabamisi rigobiTia pirveli, magram rTul fuZeSi kvlav `erTi~ iqneba: samocdameerTe, asmeerTe...

III. 4.5. wilobiTi ricxviTi saxeli gamoxatavs mTelis (simravlis) ricxobriv (raodenobriv) nawils. is cifrul realobaSi Seesabameba wilads `erTi~ mricxveliT. rogorc cnobilia, aseT dros SegviZlia vTqvaT mxolod mniSvneli (mricxvelis gareSe): mesamedi, measedi....

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

wilobiTi ricxviTi saxeli iwarmoeba rigobiTisagan saderivacio -d sufiqsis darTviT (romelic warmoSobiT viTarebiTi brunvis niSania): mesame _ mesame-d-i mecamete _ mecamete-d-i ormocdamexuTe _ ormocdamexuTe-d-i warmoqmnili sityva, Cveulebisamebr, iqneba fuZeTanxmovniani: mecxred-i, ocdamexuTed-i, meaTased-i... warmoebis danarCeni Taviseburebebi rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelisagan momdinareobs; Sdr.: mexuTe _ mexuTed-i ocdamexuTe _ ocdamexuTed-i asmexuTe _ asmexuTed-i da sxva. SeniSvna: 1. mosalodneli meoredi-s nacvlad gamoiyeneba sityva naxevari. 2. naxevari ricxviT saxelTan erTad daiwereba defisiT: sam-naxevari... aseve aRricxvad arsebiT saxelebTan: lar-naxevari, tona-naxevari... 3. wilobiTis SinaarsiT dasturdeba na_al konfiqsiT nawarmoebi moZvelebuli formebic: dro sicocxlisa Cemisa dGesiTgan Cans n a s a m a l i (rusTaveli); namdidrevma ar ineba arc naxevari da arc n a o T x a l i (saba).

III. 4.6. ricxviTi saxelis paradigmatika. ricxviTi saxeli, rogorc iTqva, zogadi SinaarsiTa da enobrivi daniSnulebiT a t r i b u t T a klass miekuTvneba; amitomac misi formawarmoebac da sintagmaturi unaric ZiriTadad Tavsdeba im TaviseburebebSi, rac zedsarTavi saxelisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli; kerZod: 1. damoukideblad naxmari rcxviTi saxeli iseve ibruneba, rogorc msgavsi fuZis arsebiTi saxeli, ramdenadac is am SemTxvevaSi arsebiTi saxelis rols asrulebs. Sesabamisad, am SemTxvevaSi moqmedebs is struqturuli (morfologiuri da mo-

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rfofonologiuri) kanonzomierebani, rac arsebiT saxelebSi da damoukideblad warmodgenil zedsarTav saxelebSi dasturdeba. a) TanxmovanfuZiani ricxviTi saxeli: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. sam-i sam-ma sam-s sam-is sam-iT sam-ad [sam-o] TxuTmet-i TxuTmet-ma TxuTmet-s TxuTmet-is TxuTmet-iT TxuTmet-ad [TxuTmet-o] Svidas-i Svidas-ma Svidas-s Svidas-is Svidas-iT Svidas-ad [Svidas-o]

SeniSvna: ricxviTi saxelis wodebiTi brunvis forma Zalze iSviaTad dasturdeba. TanxmovanfuZiani ricxviTi saxelis brunebaSi fuZis kumSva ar dasturdeba; es imis gamoa, rom arcerTi ricxviTi saxelis fuZis struqtura ar aRmoCnda sareduqcio segmentis Semcveli; es rom yofiliyo, kumSva uTuod moxdeboda (iseve, rogorc ukve ganxilul zedsarTav saxelebSi); amisi dsturia zogadi (`gaurkveveli~) Sinaarsis ricxviTi saxeli mravali: mraval-i mraval-ma mraval-s mravl-is mravl-iT mravl-ad mraval-o b) xmovanfuZiani ricxviTi saxelebia: rva, cxra, am erTeulebze damTavrebuli rTulfuZiani ricxviTebi (ocdarva, oTxmocdacxra...) da rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi (mesame, ocdameaTe, samasmeerTe...). maTi brunebis dros damoukideblad fuZis bolokiduri xmovani ikveceba: sax. moT. mic. rva rva-m rva-s ocdacxra ocdacxra-m ocdacxra-s meTormete meTormete-m meTormete-s sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod.

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naT. moq. viT. wod.

rv-is rv-iT rva-d [rva-v]

ocdacxr-is ocdacxr-iT ocdacxr-ad [acdacxra-v]

meTormet-is meTormet-iT meTormete-d [meTormete-v]

2. ricxviT saxels Sinaarsobrivad ar sWirdeba m r a v l o b i T i r i c x v i s warmoeba, radenadac is TviTon gamoxatavs gansazRvrul simravles. magram ricxviTi saxelis damoukideblad (arsebiTi saxelis funqciiT) gamoyenebisas (agreTve _ arsebiTTan SeTanxmebisas) mas SeiZleba daudasturdes narTaniani mravlobiTi: xuT-n-i, as-n-i, meore-n-i, as-T(a)... magaliTad: `o r n i arian, tolni arian, erTad midian, miimRerian~ (gamocana); `a s n i rad undan dedasa...~ (xalx.); `b e v r n i bevr rasme ityodes, magram vin mousminebda...~ (d. guram.); `hkiTxe a s T a , hqmen gulisa, ragind ra vin givaziros~ (rusTaveli); `e r T n i werdnen, rom TiTqmis savsebiT gaauqmes qarTuli enis gakveTilebi, m e o r e n i ki _ rom metismetad Seaviwroves es sagani~ (i. gogeb.). SeniSvna: ricxviTi saxeli SeiZleba eb-iani mravlobiTis formiTac gamovlindes, rodesac is cifris an niSnis saxelwodebad aris gamoyenebuli: `modis TavCaqindruli, CanTiT moaqvs o r e b i~ (g. Satb.). Sdr.: ricxviT saxels am SinaarsiT axali derivati Caenacvla (oriani, samiani...): `SimSis triali, Sxeplis zuzuni, aliyurebi; maTi gangrZoba: e r T i a n e b i, o r i a n e b i~ (v. barn.). III. 4.7. ricxviTi saxelis sintagmatika. ricxviTi saxeli, Cveulebisamebr, arsebiT saxels axlavs, rogorc misi msazGvreli wevri: s a m i Z m a, s a m a s i a r a g v e l i, m e s a m e s a k i T x i, m e o T x e d i s a u k u n e... aseT dros ricxviTi saxelis formacvaleba sazGvrulis (arsebiTi saxelis) brunebaze (agreTve _ ricxvis warmoebaze)

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aris damokidebuli da misdevs im wesebs, rasac Sesabamisi fuZis zedsarTavi saxelis formawarmoeba. 1. ricxviTi saxelis bruneba arsebiTTan erTad: a) TanxmovanfuZiani prepoziciurad da postpoziciurad: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. oTx-i oTx-ma oTx oTx-i oTx-i oTx oTx-o weliwad-i weliwad-ma weliwad-s weliwad-is weliwad-iT weliwad-ad weliwad-o weliwad-i weliwad-ma weliwad-s weliwad-is weliwad-iT weliwad-ad weliwad-o oTx-i oTx-ma oTx-s oTx-is oTx-iT oTx-ad oTx-o

b) xmovanfuZiani prepoziciurad da postpoziciurad: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. cxra cxra cxra cxra cxra cxra cxra Tval-i Tval-ma Tval-s Tval-is Tval-iT Tval-ad Tval-o mesame mesame mesame mesame mesame mesame mesame wel-i wel-ma wel-s wl-is wl-iT wl-ad wel-o Tval-i Tval-ma Tval-s(a) Tval-is(a) Tval-iT(a) Tval-ad Tval-o cxra cxra-m cxra-s(a) cxr-is(a) cxr-iT(a) cxra-d cxra-v

g) SeiZleba wilobiT ricxviT saxels msazGvrelad raodenobiTi axldes (wiladis aGniSvnisas); maTi brunebac msazGvrelsazGvrulis brunebis wess daeqvemdebareba: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. or-i or-ma or or-i or-i or [or-o mesamed-i mesamed-ma mesamed-s mesamed-is mesamed-iT mesamed-ad mesamed-o]

d) sxvagvari mimarTebaa Sedgenili ricxviTi saxelebis komponentebs Soris damoukidebladac da arsebiT saxelTan brunebis drosac _ arsebiT saxels brunvaSi SeeTanxmeba mxolod bolo ricxviTi saxeli (isic _ nawilobriv):

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sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod

or-i or-i or-i or-i or-i or-i or-i

aTas-i aTas-ma aTas-s aTas-is aTas-iT aTas-ad aTas-o

or-i or-i or-i or-i or-i or-i or-i

aTas-i aTas-ma aTas aTas-i aTas-i aTas aTas-o

kac-i kac-ma kac-s kac-is kac-iT kac-ad kac-o

magram `milioni~ siityvis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi winamavali komponentic `ahyveba~ brunebis process: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod or-i or-ma oror-i or-i oror-o milion-i milion-ma milion milion-i milion-i milion milion-o kac-i kac-ma kac-s kac-is kac-iT kac-ad kac-o

e) wilobiT ricxviT saxelTan arsebiTi saxeli xSirad aris gamoyenebuli substantiuri msazGvrelis rolSi: vaSlis mesamedi, saukunis meoTxedi... (igulisxmeba, rom TviT ricxviTis sazGvruli dakargulia: mesamedi nawili). aq daculia sazGvrulTan substantiuri msazGvrelis brunebis wesi (msazGvrelis poziciisda Sesabamisad): sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. saukunis saukunis saukunis saukunis saukunis saukunis saukunis meoTxed-i meoTxed-ma meoTxed-s meoTxed-is meoTxed-iT meoTxed-ad meoTxed-o meoTxed-i meoTxed-ma meoTxed-s meoTxed-is meoTxed-iT meoTxed-ad meoTxed-o saukunisa saukunisa-m saukunisa-s saukunisa saukunisa saukunisa(d) saukunisa-v

2. arsebiTi saxelis r i c x v i s asaxva ricxviT saxelSi. rogorc iTqva, ricxviT saxels, misi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, gramatikuli ricxvis gamoxatva ar sirdeba, gind konkretul simravles gamoxatavdes is da gind _ zogads (sami, asi, bevri...).

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ricxviTi saxelis es Sinaarsi ganapirobebs arsebiTi saxelis mxolobiTSi dasmas Sesabamisi sintaqsuri dawyvilebis dros: oTxi weli, cxra Zma... cxra gamoxatavs Zma leqsikuri erTeulis simravles, oGond konkretulad (Zm-eb-i gramatikuli simravlisagan gansxvavebiT); am SemTxvevaSi arsebiTi saxeli (Zma) mxolobiTis formiT rCeba simarvlis leqsikuri gamoxatvis gamo. amave dros, iSviaTi ar aris narTanian mravlobiTSi sruli `SeTanxmebis~ SemTxvevaebSi (sam-n-i da-n-i...): `gadiares c x r a n i m T a n i, meaTeni algeTisni...~ (xalx.); `netavi Z m a T a m r a v a l T a, mze samgniT amouxdeba~ (xalx.). Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT gramatikuli mravlobiTi arbi movlenaa, vinaidan erTmaneTisagan arafriT gansxvavdeba ori Sesityveba: `c x r a Z m a~ da `c x r a n i Z m a n i~. amitomac amgvar `SeTanxmebaSi~ SeiZleba mxolod stilistikuri datvirTva davinaxoT. SeniSvna: `vefxistyaosniseuli~ SeTanxmeba -eb-iani mravlobiTis formiT, cxadia, poeturi Tavisuflebis nimuSia: `avTandil uTxra tariels ese s i t y v e b i o r e b i...~ Tu saxelTa miTiTebul SesityvebasTan zmnis piriani (III piris) formac aris dakavSirebuli, es ukanaskneli angariSs gauwevs arsebiTi saxelis formas, anu _ ara leqsikur Sinaarss simravlisas (gamoxatuls ricxviTi saxeliT), aramed gramatikul mravlobiTs; Sdr.: `serze m i d i s s a m i mgeli~ (xalx.); `erTi Txilis guli c x r a Zmam g a i y o ~ (andaza); `guSin Svidni g u r j a n e l n i sanadirod w a s u l i y v n e n ~ (xalx.); `amazedan m o v i d e n moCivrad samni Z m a n i winaSe mefisa~ (saba); `T q v e s erTxel samTa a n g e l o z T a : `rogor davbadoT kaci yvelaze bednieric da ubeduric?~ (S. niSn.)

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Tavi V. nacvalsaxeli
III. 5.1. nacvalsaxelis raoba. saxelTa klasebs Soris n a c v a l s a x e l s yvelaze Taviseburi adgili uiravs. es Tavisebureba upirvelesad mdgomareobs imaSi, rom mas ara aqvs gankuTvnebili iseTi damoukidebeli semantikuri veli, rogoric arsebiTs, zedsarTavsa da ricxviTs saxelebs; metic, nacvalsaxeli yvela sxva saxelis zogad semantikur monacvled aris gansazGvruli. zogadio, _ vambobT imitom, rom is konkretuli sagnobrivi mimarTebebi, rac danarCeni saxelebis enobriv Sinaarss warmoadgens, nacvalsaxelebSi ganzogadebulad, abstrahirebulad aris miniSnebuli. magaliTad, is, rac arsebiT saxelTa klasSi aris _ x e, q v a, w i g n i, m w e r i, b a t i... _ nacvalsaxelebSi aris mxolod `is~; is, rac zedsarTav saxelebSi SeiZleba iyos _ T e T r i, S a v i, m a G a l i, d a b a l i, m s u b u q i, m Z i m e, t k b i l i, m w a r e, k e T i l i, b o r o t i, a x l o b e l i, S o r e u l i, q a l a q e l i, s o f l e l i...~ _ Sesabamis nacvalsaxelebSi aris _ `rogori, ranairi, romeli, sadauri... iseTi, imnairi, iqauri...~; is, rac ricxviT saxelebSi aris _ e r T i, o r i, s a m i, c x r a, o c i, a s i, o r a s i, a T a s i... _ nacvalsaxeliT gamoixateba rogorc `ramdeni... amdeni~ da misT. aqedan gamomdinare, nacvalsaxelis enobrivi daniSnuleba romelime sxva saxelis rolSi yofnaa; damoukidebeli arseboba mas arsebiTad ar axasiaTebs. aGsaniSnisa da aGmniSvnelis semantikuri mimarTeba aq mxolod pirobiTi Sinaarsisaa (sagnobrivi Sinaarsisagan nacvalsaxeli arsebiTad daclilia). SeniSvna: nacvalsaxelTa saxeldebis ZiriTadi funqcionaluri safuZveli _ `m o n a c v l e o b a~ _ yovelTvis, yvela Sesabamis leqsikur erTeulTan aseTi gamokveTili ar aris, magram es sakiTxis arss ar cvlis.

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nacvalsaxelTa kvalifikaciis zogad funqcionalur aspeqtze yuradGebis gamaxvileba, SeiZleba iTqvas, maTi saerTo stilistikuri daniSnulebis xazgasmas gulisxmobs, ramdenadac, rogorc sxvagvarad aGniSnaven: nacvalsaxelis gamoyeneba (enobrivi gamovlena) romelime sxva saxelis (arsebiTis, zedsarTavis, ricxviTis) gameorebiTi dasaxelebisagan Tavis asarideblad aris gamiznuli. marTlac, teqstis analizi sruliad obieqturad warmoaCens amgvar daniSnulebas. es _ funqcionirebis doneze. magram imave sakiTxis istoriuli Sefaseba ar aris aseTive calsaxa. istoriuli aspeqtiT gairdeboda imis mtkiceba, rom nacvalsaxelTa warmoSoba-Camoyalibeba stilistikur amocanebTan iyos dakavSirebuli... rom e. w. `tavtologia~ enisaTvis TiTqos axali metyvelebis nawilis warmoSobisa da Camoyalibebis safuZveli gaxda... rom funqcionaluri niSani `damxmare~ da `Semcvleli~ enobrivi erTeulis `genetikur~ safuZvelSi idos. Tu movlenas ase davinaxavT, maSin e. w. sagnobrivi Sinaarsis saxelTa uwinaresoba unda vaGiaroT nacvalsaxelebTan mimarTebiT; ase gadariT ki amis Tqma SeuZlebelia, ramdenadac nacvalsaxelebi uZveles enobriv fenas ganekuTvnebian da warmoebis uZveles wesebs avlenen. III. 5.2. nacvalsaxelTa funqciur-Sinaarsobrivi jgufebi nacvalsaxelTa zogadi bunebidan gamomdinare, am kategoriis sityvaTa klasifikaciis dros upirvelesad swored funqcionalur (mimarTebiTs) aspeqts gaesmis xazi da ara _ Sinaarsobrivs (Tvisebrivs), Tumca ganzogadebuli Sinaarsi, rogorc iTqva, maTSic moipoveba. Sesabamisad, nacvalsaxelTa jgufebi gamoiyofa imis Sesabamisad, Tu ra rols, ra `monacvleobiT~ funqcias asruleben isini enobriv erTeulTa funqcionalur mimarTebebSi. am TvalsazriT gamoiyofa TeTrmeti jgufi: III. 5.2.1. piris nacvalsaxeli. es jgufi mniSvnelobiT yvelaze ZiriTadi da warmmarTvelia nacvalsaxelTa saerTo sistemaSi. es jgufi aris enaSi arsebuli piris kategoriis upirvele-

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si leqsikuri gamomxatveli. mas ukavSirdeba adamianis (metyveli subieqtis), rogorc enobrivi arsebis, cnobieri damokidebuleba gare samyarosTan. igi, rogorc metyveli, uaxloes pirad moiazrebs Tanamosaubres, xolo yvelafer danarCens metyvelebis sagnad (`obieqtad~) tovebs. Sesabamisad, misi _ metyvelis _ enobrivi saklasifikacio sistema aseTia: I. me _ pirveli piri anu metyveli `subieqti~, sametyvelo viTarebis `centri~, enobrivi `Teatris~ mTavari `aqtiori~. me _ aris aucileblad m e t y v e l i; me _ aris aucileblad a d a m i a n i. Tu `me~ sxva sagans miemarTeba, es niSnavs imas, rom Sesabamisi `subieqti~ personificirebulia (mag.: `m e yels moviGereb da vinatreb, neta simGera SemeZlos...~ _ ambobs vaJas ia). II. Sen _ meore piri anu meore `subieqti~. sadac aris metyveli, iq aucileblad aris metyvelebis Tanamonawile (realurad an pirobiTad) da metyvelebis procesi, Cveulebisamebr, am ori enobrivi piris rolebriv urTierTmonacvleobas gulisxmobs. amitomac: Sen _ aris aucileblad T a n a m e t y v e l i (Tanamosaubre); Sen _ aris aucileblad a d a m i a n i. yvela sxva SemTxveva sulier Tu usulo saganze Tanamosaubris rolis gadatanas gulisxmobs (mag.: `lurjav, Senc grZnoba gqonia, rogorc kacs, adamiansa...~ _ vaJa). piris nacvalsaxelebs simravlis Sinaarsis warmodgenac Taviseburi aqvs. am SemTxvevaSi iseTi viTareba ar dasturdeba, rogorc sxva sagnobrivi simravlis gamoxatvisas; kerZod, I-II pirTa Sinaarsobrivi simravlis aGniSvnas leqsikur fuZeTa monacvleoba anu supleturoba emsaxureba: I piri: Cven. zedapirulad me _ Cven opozicia `adamiani _ adamianebi~, ufro sworad, `adamiani _ xalxi~ dapirispirebas hgavs; magram siGrmiseulad es ase ar aris: Cven ar aris me + me + me da sxv. `CvenSi~ me iseTive erTia, rogoric me-Si iyo, is ar `gabevrdeba~ (rogorc, magaliTad, adamiani xalxi; xe tye...~). Cven Sinaarsobrivad SeiZleba iyos: a) me + Sen;

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b) me + Tqven; g) me + is; d) me + isini e) situaciis mixedviT aseve SeiZleba iyos: me + yvela (Sen / Tqven da is / isini). aqedan ZiriTadi, rogorc sametyvelo viTarebis uSualo amsaxveli, cxadia, pirveli SemTxvevaa (me da Sen). pirvel or kombinacias (me + Sen / Tqven) i n k l u z i v s uwodeben. momdevno or kombinacias (sadac `arapiric~ Semodis) _ e q s k l u z i v s (me + is / isini). II piri: Tqven. mimarTeba Sen _ Tqven, erTi SexedviT, hgavs im viTarebas, rac `me _ Cven~ mimarTebisaTvis ganvixileT. magram maT Soris xelSesaxebi gansxvavebac aris. `Cven orgvar viTarebas gviCvenebs: a) Tqven, Cveulebisamebr, ar udris Sen + Sen + Sen... (rogorc `Cven~ nacvalsaxelis SemTxvevaSi); b) Tqven SeiZleba udrides Sen + Sen + Sen..., Tu I piri (molaparake) koleqtiurad, Tanamosaubre piris identifikaciis gareSe mimarTavs pirTa jgufs (mag.: T q v e n geubnebiT, Zmebo mgosnebo...~ _ l. asaT.). SeniSvna: calke aris aGsaniSnavi Cven da Tqven nacvalsaxelTa gamoyeneba e. w. T a v a z i a n i mravlobiTis gamosaxatavad, romlis drosac simravlis gamomxatvel fuZeSi realurad erTi `me~ Tu `Sen~ _ igulisxmeba.
III. mesame piris nacvalsexeli: `is~. am pirSi igulisxmeba yvela da yvelaferi is, vis an ris Sesaxebac I da II piri saubroben. am odenobasac `piris nacvalsaxels~ vuwodebT, ramdenadac is enobriv pirTa sistemaSi mesame wevrad `Cajda~, Torem sinamdvileSi, rogorc iTqva, piri mxolod pirveli _ meorea, mesame ki _ `arapiria~ (is pirTa enobriv mimarTebaSi ar monawileobs). Tumca mas Semdeg, rac zmnis gramatikuli sistema Seiqmna da pirTa sistema Camoyalibda, e. w. mesame piri sistemurad namdvil

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pirebs gauTanabrda (Tumca siGrmul gramatikul semantikaSi sxvaoba jerac iCens Tavs). III piris nacvalsaxeli sami saxiT dasturdeba: is, igi, es, eg. es erTeulebi Tanabari enobrivi mniSvnelobisa mainc ar aris. miiCneva, rom `is~ da `igi~ erTimeoris badali sityvebia, sinonimebia~ (a. SaniZe). Tumca maT Soris Tanamedrove qarTulSi funqciuri sxvaoba Camoyalibda. jer erTi, igi faqtobriv ganekuTvna adamianis klass: rodesac vambobT `i g i movida~, ar igulisxmeba arc `Tovli~, arc `manqana~, arc `cxeni~, aramed _ mxolod adamiani. is nacvalsaxeli ki yvela amaT erTnairad miemarTeba. meorec: es _ eg _ is sxvagvar sintagmatur mimarTebaSi aseve warmoadgens CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebi (ix. qvemoT), ris SesaZleblobasac moklebulia igi (`i g i kaci~ dialeqturia); mas mxolod piris nacvalsaxelis funqcia aqvs. es _ eg _ is III piris nacvalsaxelTa Sida opozicia dafuZnebulia kvlav realur (I da II) pirebTan siaxlovis semantikaze: es aris I pirTan (`CemTan~) axlos myofi `is~; eg aris II pirTan (`SenTan~) axlos myofi `is~; is aris I_II pirTan axlos armyofi, anu neitraluri `is~. swored amis gamoa, rom III piris nacvalsaxelad xSirad miiCneva mxolod is; xolo es, eg CvenebiT nacvalsaxelebSi ganixileba; maTSi `CvenebiTobis~ gageba neitralur poziciaSic sagrZnobia, rogorc Cans, realur pirebTan zemoaGniSnuli mimarTebis gamo. magram is nacvalsaxelis ormag funqcionalur bunebaze aravin daobs: saTanado sintagmatikis safuZvelze is aris rogorc piris, ise CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli: piris _ zmnasTan SesityvebaSi: is m o v i d a. CvenebiTi _ saxelTan SesityvebaSi: is k a c i movida. amave safuZvelze SegviZlia ormagi funqcionaluri roliT warmovadginoT es da eg nacvalsaxelebi: es _ piris: `es u m G e r i a papasa...~ (xalx.). es _ CvenebiTi: `es b i i kargad TamaSobs...~ (xalx.).

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Sesabamisad, es, eg iseve SeiZleba iyos piris nacvalsaxelebi, rogorc _ is. III piris nacvalsaxelTa mravlobiTic arsebiTad gansxvavebulia I-II pirTa mravlobiTisagan; aq ukve simravle morfologiurad gamoixateba: ese-n-i, ege-n-i, isi-n-i, igi-n-i. III. 5.2.2.. ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli. am jgufis gamoyofis safuZvelia erTaderTi nacvalsaxeli _ Tavi; Cveulebisamebr, is moqmedebis ukuqcevas gamoxatavs (T a v i moikla, T a v i gamoiCina...). es nacvalsaxeli Tavisi SinaarsiT yvelaze ufro uaxlovdeba piris nacvalsaxelebs; magram, radganac pirTa mimarTebis TvalsazrisiT is neitraluria, mizanSewonilia mis ZiriTad funqciad es saerTo _ ukuqceviToba _ wamovwioT. Sdr.: `T a v s ar moiklavs qarTveli, ara...~ (l. asaT.). `ha, petrev!.. T a v s gaufrTxildi, ar gabriyvde!~ (ilia). `ar T a v i gamiqiqia...~ (rusTaveli). Tavi nacvalsaxeli warmoSobiT, ra Tqma unda, arsebiTi saxelia, romlis ganzogadeba-ganyeneba erTgvari semantikuri universaliaa; erTi da imave sityvis es omonimuri statusi funqcionirebis doneze naTlad Cans; Sdr.: T a v i daibana; T a v i moikla. iSviaTad Tavi nacvalsaxelis adgilas gamoiyeneba misi gaorkecebuli varianti _ TavisTavi: `maimunma T a v i s T a v i sarkeSi rom dainaxa...~ (akaki). III. 5.2.3. CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli. rogorc saxelwodebidan Cans, am jgufis nacvalsaxelTa funqciaa C v e n e b a, m i T i T e b a raimesi. es misaTiTebeli SeiZleba iyos: a) s a g a n i _ es, eg, is; b) T v i s e b a _ aseTi, egeTi, iseTi; g) r a o d e n o b a _ amdeni, magdeni, imdeni... amdenad, es, eg, is, aseTi... amdeni... CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebia; maT Soris, cxadia, ZiriTadia es, eg, is (igi). rogorc ukve iTqva, am nacvalsaxelTa opozicias I-II pirebTan mimarTeba (siaxlove) qmnis:

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es _ I pirTan siaxlove; eg _ II pirTan siaxlove; is _ I-II pirTan armyofi, gare. aseTi funqcionaluri samwevrovani opozicia masalobrivad (struqturulad) Sereuli tipisaa, ori binaruli opoziciis kombinacias warmoadgens: Tanxmovnebis mixedviT: eg _ es, is; xmovnebis mixedviT: eg, _ es _ is. piri-arapiris dapirispirebas, cxadia, xmovniTi (e_i) opozicia gamoxatavs. CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli funqcionarul doneze msazGvreli wevria, Sesabamisi gramatikuli datvirTviT: `es mTa Cemia! e s xe Cemia!~ (i. griS.). `a s e T i dari Tu iyo maSin~ (ana). `vin dargo erTad a m d e n i vazi...~ (t. tab.). CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa formawarmoeba (bruneba) supletivizms efuZneba (es _ ama-n...). III. 5.2.4. kiTxviTi nacvalsaxeli. am jgufis nacvalsaxelebi kiTxvis SinaarsiT (kiTxviTi damokidebulebiT) gamoxataven imaves, rasac pozitiurad aGniSnaven pirisa da CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebi: vin? _ kiTxviTad aGniSnavs imas, rasac piris nacvalsaxelebi: me, Sen, igi da is (rogorc adamiani); ra? _ aGniSnavs imas, rasac piris nacvalsaxeli is (adamianis garda); romeli? _ aGniSnavs imas, rasac CvenebiTi: es, eg, is; rogori? _ ... rasac CvenebiTi: aseTi, iseTi...; ramdeni? _ ... rasac CvenebiTi: amdeni, imdeni...; amdenad, kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebia: vin? ra? romeli? rogori? rarigi? ranairi? ramdeni? agreTve zmnizeduri mimarTebis kiTxviTi sityvebi: sadauri? rodindeli? amaTgan, cxadia, ZiriTadia vin? da ra? axal qarTulSi isini monosemiuria _ mxolod kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebia, riTac mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba Zveli qarTulisagan, romelSic maTi

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kiTxviToba-arakiTxviToba (mimarTebiToba) erTnairad warmoCndeba; Sdr. `vefxistyaosnidan~: `v i n dambada, SeZlebaca manve momca Zlevad mterTad~; `uSenosa patronoba v i s mivando, v i n iqs karga?~ am nacvalsaxelTa did arqaulobas miewereba is, rom maTi formawarmoeba metad SezGudulia: `vin?~ nacvalsaxelis bruneba friad Taviseburia (ix. qvemoT); `vin?~ ricxvi nacvalsaxels faqtobriv ar ewarmoeba, `ra?~ nacvalsaxels ki _ SezGudulad. III. 5.2.5.. kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli. am jgufis nacvalsaxelebi gamoxatavs sagnebis k u T v n i l e b a s piris nacvalsaxelebiT warmosaxuli pirebisadmi. amitom am SemTxvevaSic mTavari orientiri piria (piris nacvalsaxelia): Cemi _ aris is, risi (visi) mkuTvnelia I piri _ `me~; Seni _ aris is, risi (visi) mkuTvnelia II piri _ `Sen~; misi _ aris is, risi (visi) mkuTvnelia III piri _ `is~ (`igi~). amave dros, kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelSic aisaxeba III piris nacvalsaxelis samwevrovani sistema (pirebTan siaxlovis Cveneba): amisi _mkuTvnelia `es~; magisi _ ... `eg~; imisi _ ... `is~. amas emateba kuTvnilebiTi opozicia `Tavisi~ _ `sxvisi~, romelic sxvadasxva jgufis nacvalsaxelTa safuZvelze aris Camoyalibebuli: Tavisi _ ukuqceviTi nacv. `Tavi~; sxvisi _ gansazGvrebiTi nacv. `sxva~. Tavisi nacvalsaxelis gamovlena axal qarTul saliteraturo enaSi SezGudulia _ misi gamoyenebisas mxolod III piris subieqtia mkuTvneli: `mefem T a v i s i mxleblebi daibara~; magram am formis diaqroniuli da dialeqturi gamoyeneba aCvenebs, rom es nacvalsaxeli neitraluri unda yofiliyo pirTa kuTvnilebasTan mimarTebiT (iseve, rogorc pirTa opoziciasTan _ Tavi nacvalsaxeli), anu mas SeeZlo nebismieri piri gamoexata. Tavisi gvxvdeba ufro arqauli formiT _ Tvisi. Tqvan: `aGasrula man T v i s i vali~ (ilia); `Sercxves kaci boroti da

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T v i s Zmis ar gamtani!~ (akaki). iSviaTad dasturdeba Tavisa forma. vTqviT: `gavaCinoT marTali, vin vsjobT T a v i s a mklaviTa~ (rusTaveli); `buneba mbrZanebelia, igiv monaa T a v i s a ~ (vaJa). sxvisi, cxadia, mkuTvnelad III pirs gulisxmobs, magram faqtia isic, rom `sxvisi~ Tanabrad `distancirebulia~ rogorc I-II, ise III pirisagan: `sxvaman s x v i s a ukeT icis sasargeblo saubari~ (rusTaveli). rogorc Cans, sxvisa Tavisufali monacvlea sxvis-i formisa: `rarig kargi coli hyavdes, mainc enatreba s x v i s a ~ (l. asaT.). metic, brunvis formebi aCvenebs pirvelis upiratesobas: `Cemma xelma mokla igi da ara s x v i s a m ~ (ilia). `GmerTis sityvis ar gjera da s x v i s a s daijereb? (n. dumb.). kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi SeiZleba warmoqmnili iyos uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebisaganac: aravisi _ amosavalia aravin; araraisi _ iSviaTi (xelovnuri) forma arara nacvalsaxelisagan. amgvarad, kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebia _ (Sesabamisi mravlobiTis formebiT): Cem-i _ Cven-i Sen-i _ Tqven-i mis-i (amis-i, magis-i, imis-i) _ maT-i (amaT-i, magaT-i, imaT-i) Tavis-i (Tvis-i) _ TavianT-i sxvis-i sxvisa _ sxvebisa (sxvaTa) aravis-i _ ararais-i _ rogorc vxedavT, kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi warmomavlobiT Sesabamisi amosavali nacvalsaxelis naTesaobiTi brunvis formaa _ warmoqmnili an supleturi monacvleobiT (me Cem-i...), an fleqsiuri elementebis gamoyenebiT derivaciul mawarmoeblad (Tav-i Tav-is-i...).

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aseve araerTgvarovania mravlobiTis fuZeTa warmoqmna: supletivizmi (Cem-i _ Cven-i, Sen-i _ Tqven-i), fleqsiuri (mis-i _ maT-i...), specifikuri _ fleqsiur-derivaciuli (Tavis-i _ TavianT-i). III. 5.2.6. kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli. am jgufis nacvalsaxelebi erTgvari gagrZelebaa winamavali jgufisa, ramdenadac aqac wamyvania k u T v n i l e b i s semantika. oGond maT Soris sxvaobaa is, rom es ukanasknelni kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebis safuZvelzea Camoyalibebuli. sxvagvarad: kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi kiTxviTi da kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebis sinTezs warmoadgens: vis-i? _ amosavalia `vin?~; ris-i? risa? _ amosavalia `ra?~ (Sdr. `netav r i s a gaqvs ridi?~ (akaki) _ `aba, r i s i iqneboda imperia!~ (g. tab.). naTlad Cans, rom es nacvalsaxelebic warmomavlobiT Sesabamis kiTxviT nacvalsaxelTa naTesaobiTi brunvis formebia _ naTesaobiTi brunva gamoyenebulia Sesabamis saderivacio fuZed: vi-n? v-is-i? ra? r-is-i? kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelebs Sesatyvisi mravlobiTis formebi ar moepoveba, garda im arqaizebuli SemTxvevebisa, rodesac nacvalsaxeli sazGvrulis narTanian mravlobiTTan aris SeTanxmebuli: `mas rome elva hkrTeboda, fernimca hgvandes r i s a n i?~ (rusTaveli). III. 5.2.7. mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxeli. am jgufis nacvalsaxelTa saxelwodebaSi warmmarTvelia funqcionaluri niSani _ Sesabamisi nacvalsaxelebi m i m a r T e b a s amyareben rTuli winadadebis nawilebs, ufro sworad, Semadgenel winadadebTa urTierTkoordinirebul wevrebs Soris: `r a s a c dasTesav, i m a s moimki~ (andaza).; `r o g o r i c moxval, Tinao, i s e T i waxval Sinao~ (andaza) da misT.

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mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebi warmoqmnilia kiTxviTi da kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebisagan -c(a) nawilakis darTviT (vinc vin? rac ra? romelic romeli?..); Tanamedrove qarTulSi ZiriTadia -c; ca emfatikuri varianti poziciurad vlindeba. Sdr.: `r a c mogiva, daviTao...~; `gicnob, r a c a xar!..~ rogorc a. SaniZe aGniSnavs, -c(a) nawilaki kiTxviT nacvalsaxelebs `kiTxviT Zalas ukargavs da mimarTebiTad aqcevs~. amgvarad mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebia: vinc(a), rac(a), romelic, rogoric, ranairic, rodindelic, sadauric, ramdenic, visic, risac (risic). mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebi upiratesad wevr-kavSiris rols asruleben rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi, mis daqvemdebarebul nawilSi: is, vinc... iseTi, rogoric... da misT. III. 5.2.8. gansazRvrebiTi nacvalsaxeli. am jgufSi erTiandeba sakmaod gansxvavebuli Sinaarsis nacvalsaxelebi; magram maT aerTianebs erTi ram: am rigis nacvalsaxeli gamoxatavs zogad Sinaarsobriv (arsobriv) an r a o d e n o b r i v gans a z G v r u l o b a s. gansazGvrebiTi nacvalsaxelebia: TviT, TviTon, Tavad, TviTeuli (TiToeuli); TiTo, yvela, yoveli, yvelaferi, sxva. vlindeba aseve arqauli varianti yovli, romlis warmoSobis safuZvelia yovel- fuZis kumSvadoba Zvel qarTulSi. mag.: `im saxis sizmrebs Cabarda y o v l i ~ (g. tab.). SeniSvna: a. SaniZe am jgufs miakuTvnebs `mavani~ nacvalsaxelsac; magram Tavisi SinaarsiT is ufro ganusazGvrelobiT nacvalsaxelebs ekedleba (`erTi, zogi~). am nacvalsaxelTa ZiriTadi nawili (TviT, TviTon, Tavad, TviTeuli, TiTo) warmomavlobiT Tav-i ukuqceviT nacvalsaxels

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ukavSirdeba da erTgvar ukuqceviTobis Sinaarssac iTavsebs; Sdr.: erTi mxriv: `T a v i gamoiCini~ da `T v i T gamoCnda~. meore mxriv: `T a v i s i saqme yvelam T v i T o n unda gaakeTos~. nacvalsaxelTa es jgufi formawarmoebis TvalsazrisiT metad araerTgvarovania: zogi nacvalsaxeli saerTod ar ibruneba (mag., TviT, TviTon); zogs ki sruli bruneba aqvs (mag., yvela); aseTive viTarebaa ricxvis warmoebaSi: TviT, TviTon, Tavad, TviTeuli, TiTo, yvelaferi nacvalsaxelebs mravlobiTi ricxvis formebi ara aqvs. yvela mxolod narTanian mravlobiTs iguebs da am dros mas ufro `y o v e l i s~ Sinaarsi enieba: `me da nuradins y v e l a n i qebasa Segvasxmidian~ (rusTaveli)... yoveli Tanamedrove qarTulSi iSviaTad vlindeba narTaniani formiT: `y o v e l n i kacni qveyanaze grZnoben erTgvarad~ (g. tab.); `dideba y o v e l T, dideba mzesa!~ (g. tab.). am jgufis nacvalsaxelebi araerTgvarovnebas gviCvenebs semantikuri da funqcionaluri TvalsazrisiTac. aseTia maTiT gamoxatuli Sinaarsi, erTi mxriv, `erTaderTobis~ (TviT, TviTon), meore mxriv, `TiToobis~ (TviTeuli, TiTo), mesame mxriv _ `yovladobis~ (yoveli, yvela). TviT yoveli da yvela nacvalsaxelebi arsebiTad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, vinaidan pirveli T i T o e u l s gaxazavs `y v e l a~-dan, xolo meore _ T i T o e u l i s e r T i a n o b a s aGniSnavs. funqcionirebis TvalsazrisiT aseve mniSvnelovani gansxvavebaa: TiToeuli, yoveli, sxva upiratesad msazGvrelis rolSi gamodis, TviT, Tavad... _ damoukideblad gvxvdeba. Sdr.: `Tagvebs esmodaT T v i T e u l i sityva ficxelasi~ (vaJa); `y o v e l i drois cilismwameblebs kargad scodniaT, rom... (k. gams.); `vecadoT, rogorme ukvdavyoT erTmaneTis suli: Tqven Cemi, me sxvisi, s x v a m sxvisi... (n. dumb.).

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`zGvisferi gaqvs Tvalebi da T a v a d gams.);

hgavxar zGvas~ (k.

III. 5.2.9. ganusazRvrelobiTi nacvalsaxeli. nacvalsaxelebi, romlebic am jgufSia gaerTianebuli, aGniSnaven imas, rom Sesabamisi obieqti (piri Tu sagani), anda raime niSan-Tviseba u c n o b i a, g a u r k v e v e l i a, g a n u s a z G v r e l i a; am saxelebiT swored `ganusazGvrelobaa~ xazgasmuli. roca molaparake ambobs: `v i n m e movides~, an _ `v i G a c a movida~, es imaze migviTiTebs, rom is a r g a n s a z G v r a v s, vin unda movides, anda _ misTvis g a n s a z G v r u l i a r a r i s, vin movida. ganusazGvrelobiT nacvalsaxelTa jgufSi upirvelesad yuradGebas iqcevs is Zireuli leqsikuri erTeulebi, romlebic sxva metyvelebis nawilTa transpoziciis gziT aris miGebuli. aseTebia erTi da kaci. erTi ricxviTi saxelis ganzogadebiT (ganyenebiT) Camdgara nacvalsaxelTa rigSi. `gzaze erTi k a c i midioda~ gaxazavs ara am kacis raodenobas, aramed imas, rom `gzaze v i G a c midis~. kaci ufro iSviaTad gamoiyeneba nacvalsaxelis funqciiT, magram roca gamoiyeneba, is `erTs, mavans~ aGniSnavs. mag.: `k a c i sacxoneblad wavida da wawymedili movidao~ (andaza); `k a c s Tavs sridnen da _ muwuki ar matkinoTo~ (andaza). Zireuli sityvaa agreTve zogi, romelic mniSvnelobiT `erTi~ nacvalsaxels uaxlovdeba. es siaxlove ganapirobebs imas, rom maTi SerwymiT warmoiqmna kompozituri nacvalsaxeli _ zogierTi. danarCeni ganusazGvrelobiTi nacvalsaxelebi warmoqmnilia kiTxviT nacvalsaxelTagan -me da -Rac(a) nawilakebis darTviT; Sdr.: kiTxviTi nacvalsaxeli vin? ra? romeli? rogori? ganusazGvrelobiTi nacvalsaxeli vin-me viGac(a) ra-me raGac(a) romeli-me romeliGac(a) rogorme rogoriGac(a)

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amgvarad, ganusazGvrelobiTi nacvalsaxelebia: zogi, erTi, zogierTi, kaci, vinme, rame, romelime, viRac(a), raRac(a), romeliRac(a), rogoriRac(a). III. 5.2.10. urTierTobiTi nacvalsaxeli. am jgufSi Sedis rTuli fuZeebi: erTurTi, erTmaneTi, urTierTi, erTimeore. es nacvalsaxelebi warmoSobiT `erTi~ nacvalsaxels ukavSirdeba da misi reduplikaciiT (erTurTi, erTmaneTi) an sxva fuZesTan Serwymis gziT (erTimeore) aris miGebuli. es nacvalsaxelebi oris (an metis) u r T i e r T m i m a r T e b a s gamoxataven, amitomac Sinaarsobrivad isini minimum `ors~ gulisxmoben; aqedan gamomdinareobs maTi funqcionaluri Tavisebureba: isini zmnas mravlobiTSi `SeiTanxmeben~: `erTni mivikiTxeT~; erTimeores gadaxedes~... specifikuri isic aris, rom zmnasTan orive Tanabar (`morigeobiT~) subieqtad gamodis (Sdr.: e r T m a m e o r e s gadaxeda...). urTierTobiT nacvalsaxelebs SezGuduli formawarmoeba aqvs: mravlobiTis formebi ar moepoveba; xolo brunvis paradigma naklulia (ix. qvemoT). III. 5.2.11. uaryofiTi nacvalsaxeli. uaryofiTi nacvalsaxeli u a r y o f s imas, ris arsebobasac varaudobs kiTxviTi nacvalsaxeli; amave dros, uaryofiToba g a n u s a z G v r e l o b i T Sinaarssac sZens imas, ris g a n s a z G v r u l o b a s a c gulisxmobda kiTxviTi nacvalsaxeli. Sdr.: `v i n [movida]~ _ Seicavs molodins, rom dasaxeldeba is erTi, vinc movida, anu gulisxmobs `g a n s a z G v r u l e r T s~; `a r a v i n ~ _ gulisxmobs ara im mosalodneli `erTis~ uaryofas, aramed `g a n u s a z G v r e l a r a e r T s~. uaryofiTi nacvalsaxeli miiGeba uaryofiTi nawilakebis mierTebiT `vin?~ `ra?~ kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebis Tavkidurad. es uaryofiTi nawilakebia: ar(a), ver(a), nu. amitomac TiToeul kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelisagan miiGeba samwevrovani uaryofiTi nacvalsaxeli:

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vin?

ara-vin (arvin) vera-vin (vervin) nu-vin ara-ra arra) vera-ra (verra) nu-ra

ra?

SeniSvna: vinaidan ara, vera nawilakebi mokle formiTac dasturdeba, uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebis frCxilebSi warmodgenili variantebic (arvin da misT.) realuria, Tumca _ ufro iSviaTi: `a r v i n Seukravs kubosa...~ (vaJa); `cocxali a r v i n ar miikara~ (l. asaT.); `Sin Semovida stumari, mis naxvas a r r a sjobia!~ (akaki; `rom sxvisi v e r r a iswavlon, Tavisic daaviwydesTo~ (akaki). amas emateba feri fuZe, romelic nacvalsaxelur safuZvlad aris miGebuli (Sdr. yvela da yvelaferi) da romelic aseve iZleva uaryofiT nacvalsaxelebs: arafer-i verafer-i nurafer-i rogorc vxedavT, am sameulis mesame wevrad gvevlineba ara nu, aramed nura uaryofiTi nawilakiT, romelic zemoT damoukidebel uaryofiT nacvalsaxelad iyo warmodgenili: nura (nuvin). ase rom, bolo sameulSi nura (nura + feri) uaryofiT nawilakTa rigSi Cadga, ramac gamoiwvia `paradigmis gasworeba~ pirvel or sameulSic, anu nuvin, nura nacvalsaxelTa paralelurad gaCnda (da ZiriTadi adgilic daikava) variantebi: nuravin, nurara (agreTve xelovnuri _ nurvin). amdenad, uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebia: aravin (arvin), veravin (vervin), nuvin, nuravin (nurvin); arara (arra), verara (verra), nura (nurara); araferi, veraferi, nuraferi. amas unda daematos is, rom `arara~ rigis uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebis rolSi SeiZleba mogvevlinos e. w. mokle formebi, anu mxolod uaryofiTi nawilakebi: ara, vera, [nura]. oGond

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es moxdeba ara saxelobiTSi, aramed danarCen brunvebSi (wodebiTis garda); magaliTad: `Seni qali a r a d minda, gaaTxove, gamaride!~ (rusTaveli). `ugangebod v e r a s mizmen, Se-ca-mebnen xmelTa spani~ (rusTaveli). `micema da a r a s Suri, Cuqebisa ar-mowyena~ (rusTaveli). `...qarTvelebs a r a d miaCniT ubedureba...~ (n. baraT.). `TviTon sikvdili a r a d miaCnda~ (g. leon.). `yvavilni a r a s metyvian...~ (vaJa). `qorwilze a r a s amboben...~ (m. leb.). SeiZleba aseve vivaraudoT, rom es `mokle~ uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebi ara brunvis formiT warmodgenili nawilakebi, aramed arra, verra nacvalsaxelur variantTa gamartivebis (ori sonoris Serwyma) Sedegia: arra ara, verra vera. III. 5.3. nacvalsaxelTa sistema genezisis mixedviT. nacvalsaxelebis saklasifikacio aGweram warmoaCina sakmaod araerTgvarovani Sinaarsobriv-funqcionaluri suraTi im enobrivi erTeulebisa, romlebic istoriulad nacvalsaxeluri daniSnulebiT Camoyalibebula. kidev ufro rTulsa da mravalferovan suraTs warmogvidgens calkeul nacvalsaxelTa (Tu mTeli nacvalsaxeluri jgufebis) genezisis gaTvaliswineba, romelic amjerad aucilebelia imis gasaazreblad, Tu rogor yalibdeboda da urTierTmimarTebaTa ra logika daedo safuZvlad nacvalsaxelTa Tanamedrove mozaikas. erTi SexedviTac sruliad aSkaraa, rom nacvalsaxelTa nawili uZvelesi warmomavlobisaa (ramdenime fuZe saerToqarTvelur donezec ki aGdgeba), nawili ki droTa ganmavlobaSi Sematebia am klass derivaciuli Tu semantikuri (maT Soris _ transpoziciuri) procesebis Sedegad. I. siZvelis TvalsazrisiT upirvelesad piris nacvalsaxelebi iqcevs yuradGebas: me, Sen, is (igi). am nacvalsaxelTagan erTi genezisuri xazi CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebisaken miemarTeba, meore _ kuTvnilebiTisaken. kerZod, rogorc vnaxeT, mesame piris nacvalsaxelebi igive CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebia: es, eg, is (Tavisi formawarmoebiT).

184

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

maTi garCeva mxolod funqcionaluria. am SemTxvevaSi sakmaod Znelia gadariT Tqma, romels mienios diaqroniuli upiratesoba. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom am samwevrovan sistemaSi wamyvania pirTa mimarTeba (deiqturoba), SesaZlebelia III piris nacvalsaxelebSi istoriuli upiratesoba swored `CvenebiTobas~ mivanioT; magram, meore mxriv, Tu imas gaviTvaliswinebT, rom pirebze miTiTebis sistema meoreulia da am erTeulebSi amosavalia `piri _ arapiris~ opozicia, bunebrivia, maTSi uwinares is davinaxoT, rac am nacvalsaxelebs piris kategoriasTan akavSirebs. aseTive saorofo viTareba ar aris kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelTa mimarTebis ganxilvis dros piris nacvalsaxelebTan. sruliad naTelia, rom kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli warmoSobiT piris nacvalsaxelis naTesaobiTi brunvis formaa: aseTia I piris nacvalsaxelis supleturi naTesaobiTi. rogorc cnobilia, I piris ubrunveli nacvalsaxeli mxolod naTesaobiTSi icvlis fuZes, anu mas naTesaobiTi ukeTdeba supleturad: me _ Cem (Cemken, Cem gamo...); aqedan _ Cem-i kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli, romelsac damoukidebeli funqcia da paradigma aqvs. analogiuria, Tumca ara supletivizmis safuZvelze, II piris nacvalsaxeli Sen, aseve ubrunveli. misi naTesaobiTis Sinaarsi saxelobiTi brunvis formiT iZleva meore piris kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxels _ Sen-i. zustad igive sistema moqmedebs I-II piris nacvalsaxelTa mravlobiTSi _ kuTvnilebiTi, rogorc damoukidebeli nacvalsaxeli, aqac piris nacvalsaxelis saxelobiTad gaformebiT realizdeba: I p. mr. Cven Cven-i II p. mr. Tqven Tqven-i rac Seexeba mesame piris, aq kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelis warmoSobis safuZveli fleqsiuria: piris nacvalsaxelis naTesaobiTi brunvis forma iqceva kuTvnilebiTis fuZed _ mxolobiTSi: is m-is (Sesaxeb) mis-i mravlobiTSi: isini ma-T (Sesaxeb) maT-i amgvarad, piris nacvalsaxeli, erTi mxriv, ukavSirdeba CvenebiT nacvalsaxels, xolo, meore mxriv, saTaves udebs kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelTa jgufs. sqematurad:

III. saxeli. saxelTa morfologia

185

piris nacvalsaxeli me Sen is (es, eg)

kuTvnilebiTi

kuTvnilebiTi

CvenebiTi

Cem-i

Sen-i

es, eg, is

II. ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli Tav-i TavisTavad meoreuli warmomavlobisaa, ramdenadac is Sesabamisi arsebiTi saxelis ganzogadebis Sedegs warmoadgens (rac erTgvari semantikuri universaliaa). TavisTav-i misi gaorkecebis Sedegia. Tav-i, rogorc nacvalsaxeli, naTesaobiT brunvis formiT gvaZlevs kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxels Tavis-i (Sdr. Tav-is gamodeba _ Tavis-i saqme) da, SekumSuli saxiT _ Tvis-i. meore mxriv, Tav-i nacvalsaxeli moqmedebiTi da viTarebiTi brunvis formebiT xdeba safuZveli ramdenime gansazGvrebiTi nacvalsaxelis warmoqmnisa: moqmedebiTi brunvis formiT (SekumSviT): TviT, TviTon ( TviT + man), TviTeul-i. viTarebiTi brunvis formiT (SeukumSavad): Tavad. amgvarad: Tav-i

kuTvnilebiTi Tavis-i, Tvis-i

gansazGvrebiTi TviT

TviTon TviTeul-i III. nacvalsaxelTa Sida genezisuri kavSirebis kidev erT gansakuTrebul bloks qmnis kiTxviTi nacvalsaxeli. `vin?~ `ra?~ kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebi erT-erTi uZvelesi formaciis erTeu-

186

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

lebi Cans qarTulSi, miT ufro, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom `kiTxviToba~ maTSi sulac SeiZleba ar iyos pirvandeli. es ZiriTadi kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebi safuZvlad daedo oTx sxva damoukidebel nacvalsaxelur jgufs: a) am nacvalsaxelTa naTesaobiTi brunvis forma daedo safuZvlad k i T x v i T - k u T v n i l e b i T nacvalsaxelebs (arsebiTad _ kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelTa qveklass): vi-n _ vi-s(i) vis-i ra _ r-is ris-i b) kiTxviT nacvalsaxelze -c(a) nawilakis darTviT (SezrdiT) warmoiqmna m i m a r T e b i T i nacvalsaxelebi: vin vinc ra rac g) kiTxviTi nacvalsaxeli udevs aseve safuZvlad g a n u s a z R v r e l o b i T nacvalsaxelTa im nawils, romlebic -me da -Rac(a) nawilakebis darTviT aris warmoqmnili: vin vinme, viRac(a) ra rame (raime), raRac(a) d) u a r y o f i T i nacvalsaxelebi uaryofiTi nawilakebisa da kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebis SerwymiT aris miRebuli: aravin, veravin... amgvarad, kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelis `genealogiuri~ suraTi aseTia: kiTxviTi nacvalsaxeli vin? ra?

kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi

mimarTebiTi

ganusazGvrelobiTi

uaryofiTi

vis-i, ris-i

vinc, rac

vinme, rame aravin, arara... viGac(a), raGac(a)

III. saxeli. saxelTa morfologia

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IV. kidev erTi nacvalsaxeli, romelic nacvalsaxelTa klasSi metyvelebis nawilTa sxva jgufidan gadmobargebula, aris erT-i. amosavalSi is, cxadia, ricxviTi saxelia. Zvel qarTulSi cnobilia, rom is ganusazGvreli nawevris rolSi gvevlineba (kaci e r T i). es imas niSnvs, rom am droisaTvis mas ukve damkvidrebuli aqvs nacvalsaxeluri Sinaarsi (aGniSnavs imaves, rasac `vinme~). erT-i, rogorc ganusazGvrelobiTi nacvalsaxeli, daedo safuZvlad e. w. urTierTobiT nacvalsaxelebs; sami maTgani erTfuZis gaormagebiT aris warmoqmnili (am gaormagebis dros sxvadasxvagvari fonetikuri cvlilebiT): erTmaneTi (erTman + erTi), erTurTi, urTieTri. xolo erTimeore miGebulia erTi nacvalsaxelis SerwymiT meore rigobiT ricxviT saxelTan (rogorc Cans, masSic unda vigulisxmoT garkveuli nacvalsaxeluri semantika). amgvarad, erT-i, rogorc nacvalsaxeli, gvaZlevs:

ganusazGvrelobiTi erT-i

urTierTobiTi erTurTi, erTmaneTi, erTimeore... ramdenime kerZo nacvalsaxelis warmomavloba aseve sainteresoa (mag.: kaci, zogi...). magram amjerad gvainteresebs ara calkeul nacvalsaxelTa istoria, aramed nacvalsaxelebis semantikur-funqcionaluri jgufebis genezisuri urTierTmimarTeba. yovelive aGniSnulis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia davaskvnaT: nacvalsaxelTa istoriuli gantotva-ganawileba funqcionaluri niSniT klasificirebul jgufebad dakavSirebulia or ZiriTad nacvalsaxelur sawyisTan _ p i r i s a da k i T x v i T nacvalsaxelebTan, rac kargad Cans Semajamebel sqemaze:

188

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

nacvalsaxeli

piris

kiTxviTi

CvenebiTi

kuTvnilebiTi

kiTxviTkuTvnilebiTi

uaryofiTi

mimarTebiTi

ganusazGvrelobiTi

danarCen SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, Tavad warmomavlobiTi sawyisebi ar aris nacvalsaxeluri (Tav-i, erT-i, kac-i).

III. 5.4.

nacvalsaxelTa brunebis Taviseburebani

nacvalsaxelis formawarmoeba (rogorc bruneba, ise ricxvis gamoxatva) araserTi TaviseburebiT gamoirCeva. es gansakuTrebiT iTqmis nacvalsaxelTa brunebis Sesaxeb. brunebis is sistemuri simwyobre (erTtipuroba), romelic damaxasiaTebelia arsebiTi saxelisaTvis da romelic TiTqmis mTlianad gadadis zedsarTavsa da ricxviT saxelebze, TiTqmis mTlianad kargavs saanalogio (`saetalono~) Zalas nacvalsaxelTa ZiriTad jgufebSi. calkeuli jgufis nacvalsaxelTa brunebis Tavisebureba dakavSirebuli Cans, erTi mxriv, warmomavlobiT (genezisur) bunebaze, xolo meore mxriv _ semantikur-funqcionalur faqtorebze; kerZod, sruliad aSkaraa, rom Zireuli nacvalsaxelebis brunebis sistema mniSvnelovani anomaliebis Semcvelia, xolo, am jgufebis specifikidan gamomdinare, nacvalsaxelTa paradigmatika metad aris damokidebuli sintagmatikaze, vidre es sematikurad damoukidebeli saxelebis formawarmoebis dros SeiniSneba. amgvarad, nacalsaxelTa formawarmoebis SesaZleblobebi sruliad araerTgvarovania: erTi mxriv, gvxvdeba faqtobrivi ubrunveloba (me, Sen, TviT...), meore mxriv _ nakluli bruneba (vin, aravin...), mesame mxriv _ fuZis supleturi monacvleoba (me

III. saxeli. saxelTa morfologia

189

_ Cem, igi _ ma-n...), meoTxe mxriv _ sruli bruneba (Cemi, yoveli...). paradigmatul TaviseburebaTa TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva piris, CvenebiTi da kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebi; sxvagvari Taviseburebebi iCens Tavs meoreuli warmomavlobis nacvalsaxelebSi (mimarTebiTi, ganusazRvrelobiTi...). sruliad aSkaraa, rom nacvalsaxelTa brunebis miniSnebuli Taviseburebebi ufro konkretul warmoCenas moiTxovs. III. 5.4.1. piris nacvalsaxelTa formawarmoeba. I da II piris nacvalsaxelebi me, Sen (agreTve maTi supleturi `mravlobiTebi~ _ Cven, Tqven) brunvaTa mixedviT ar icvleba, anu ubrunveli sityvebia. erTaderTi, rac enobrivi gamoyenebis dros me nacvalsaxelisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli, es aris axali fuZis Canacvleba naTesaobiTSi: Cem (piris nacvalsaxelis naTesaobiTi am fuZeze Tandebulis darTviT gamoixateba: Cemgan, Cem gamo... uamisod is ukve kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelia); danarCen fuZeebs (Sen, Cven, Tqven) esec ar axasiaTebs. amdenad, am nacvalsaxelTa amgvari `paradigmis~ warmodgena _ sax. me Sen moT. me Sen mic. me Sen naT. Cem (+Tand.) Sen (+Tand.) moq. _ _ viT. _ _ wod. _ Sen (Se) gaumarTlebelia formaluradac da meTodologiuradac: brunebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli formacvaleba aq ar aris da amgvari suraTis Seqmna mcdar warmodgenas ayalibebs TiTqosda piris nacvalsaxelTa brunebis Sesaxeb. rac Seexeba me, Sen erTeulebis calkeuli brunvebisadmi kuTvnilebis amocnobis xerxs sxva saxelis CanacvlebiT (Sen, anu adamian-s gxedav), is gamarTlebuli meTodia da, TavisTavad, Sesabamisi nacvalsaxelis formaucvlelobas usvams xazs). miRebulia, rom I-II piris nacvalsaxelebs moqmedebiTi da viTarebiTi brunvebis gamoxatva ar SeuZliaT; magram Tu naTesaobiTis specifikas gaviTvaliswinebT, ueWvelia, rom meoreuli

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

brunvis formiT SeiZleba am (moq. da viT.) brunvaTa gagebac Segvxvdes (Sdr.: `C e m i T amayoben~, `igi S e n a d warmomidga~...). magaliTebi: `aRar vargxar Sen aw C e m a d dasadoblad~ (rusTaveli). `wamosrulxar C e m a d Zebnad~ (rusTaveli). `ra movagvaro, ra mijobs salxenad C e m a d da misad~ (rusTaveli). `tirodes gedi S e n i T v e mkvdari~ (g. tab.). `gza C e m i T ver gavigeni~ (g. tab.). `me S e n i T vqmnidi ganTiadis, Zlevis simReras, S e n i T vxatavdi elvarebas usazRvro cisas~ (g. tab.). `Sexvedra Cumi me S e n a d mergo~ (g. tab.). sazogadod, Tandebulian piris nacvalsaxelebs Sesabamisi brunvis funqcia akisriaT; rogorc Sen-gan aris naTesaobiTi, aseve Sen-ze _ micemiTi, Sen-idan _ moqmedebiTi da Sen-amde _ viTarebiTi; aseve iqneba supleturobis SemTxvevaSi: rogorc Cemgan aris naTesaobiTi, aseve Cem-ze iqneba micemiTi, Cem-idan _ moqmedebiTi da Cem-amde _ viTarebiTi. amave dros, raki -gan Tandebuli daerTvis or brunvas (rac nacvalsaxelebSi reliqturad aris SemorCenili), Cemgan SeiZleba gulisxmobdes naTesaobiTs (mag.: `C e m g a n magas ver gaigeb~) da SeiZleba SinaarsiT iyos moqmedebiTi (mag.: `igi bolos C e m g a n wavida~; Sdr.: `mivdivar samSoblodan... mSvidobiT, Cemo... samSoblov! mivdivar Sengan ara imitom, rom ar miyvardi...~ _ mitr. d. kaWaxiZe). III piris nacvalsaxels (mis oTxive erTeuls: igi, es, eg, is) sakuTari fuZis mxolod saxelobiTis (neitraluri) forma moepoveba; danarCeni brunvebi damyarebulia supletur fuZeze (ma-, ima-, maga-), romelic kvecadia. wodebiTi ar gaaCnia. asevea mravlobiTSi (ix.: `nacvalsaxelTa ricxvis warmoebis Taviseburebani~). piris nacvalsaxelTa brunebis paradigma: igi es eg is sax. ma-n ama-n maga-n ima-n moT. ma-s ama-s maga-s ima-s mic. im-is naT. m-is am-is mag-is moq. im-iT m-iT am-iT mag-iT viT. ima-d [ma-d] ama-d maga-d

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191

III. 5.4.2. CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa bruneba. CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli, rogorc ukve vnaxeT, igive mesame piris nacvalsaxelia, gamoyenebuli zogad (miTiTebiT) msazRvrelad. amitomac CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelis bruneba ganixileba _ rogorc msazRvrelisa sazRvrulTan erTad. Sesabamisad, CvenebiTis damoukideblad bruneba piris nacvalsaxelis brunebas gulisxmobs. CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli, rogorc msazRvreli, Cveulebisamebr, prepoziciuria da supleturi fuZe Sesabamis brunvebSi ucvlelia. CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa (rogorc msazRvrelis) brunebis paradigma: es am am am am am am qal-i qal-ma qal-s qal-is qal-iT qal-ad eg mag mag mag mag mag mag kac-i kac-ma kac-s kac-is kac-iT kac-ad is im im im im im im bavSv-i bavSv-ma bavSv-s bavSv-is bavSv-iT bavSv-ad

CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTan sazRvruli saxeli, Cveulebisamebr, -eb-ian mravlobiTSi gamoiyeneba da mas nacvalsaxeli mxolobiTis formiT Seewyoba: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. es am am am am am am qal-eb-i qal-eb-ma qal-eb-s qal-eb-is qal-eb-iT qal-eb-ad is im im im im im im bavSv-eb-i bavSv-eb-ma bavSv-eb-s bavSv-eb-is bavSv-eb-iT bavSv-eb-ad

CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli Tanamedrove qarTulSi, rogorc wesi, postpoziciur msazRvrelad ar gvxvdeba, anu bunebrivi ar aris wyoba: qali es, bavSvi is... magram Tu raime mizezis gamo CvenebiTi aseT poziciaSi aRmoCnda, is srulad SeTanxmebuli msazRvrelis rolSi mogvevlineba: sax. moT. mic. qal-i qal-ma qal-s es ama-n am-s bavSv-i bavSv-ma bavSv-s is ima-n ima-s

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

naT. moq. viT.

qal-is qal-iT qal-ad

am-is am-iT am-ad

bavSv-is bavSv-iT bavSv-ad

im-is im-iT ima-d

danarCeni (atributuli) CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebi (aseTi, egeTi, iseTi; amnairi...; amisTana...; amdeni...) iseve ibruneba, rogorc Sesabamisi fuZis Cveulebrivi msazRvreli (Sesabamis poziciaSi): sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. aseT-i aseT-ma aseTaseT-i aseT-i aseTqal-i qal-ma qal-s qal-is qal-iT qal-ad egeT-i egeT-ma egeTegeT-i egeT-i egeTkac-i kac-ma kac-s kac-is kac-iT kac-ad iseT-i iseT-ma iseTiseT-i iseT-i iseTbavSv-i bavSv-ma bavSv-s bavSv-is bavSv-iT bavSv-ad

sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT.

amisTana amisTana amisTana amisTana amisTana amisTana amisTana

qal-i qal-ma qal-s qal-is qal-iT qal-ad

magnair-i magnair-ma magnairmagnair-i magnair-i magnair-

kac-i kac-ma kac-s kac-is kac-iT kac-ad

amden-i amden-ma amdenamden-i amden-i amden-

bavSv-i bavSv-ma bavSv-s bavSv-is bavSv-iT bavSv-ad

III. 5.4.3. kuTvnilebiT da kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelTa bruneba. kuTvnilebiTi (aseve _ kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi) nacvalsaxeli, Cveulebisamebr, msazRvrelis rolSi gvevlineba da misi bruneba ganixileba Sesabamis sazRvrulTan erTad. es nacvalsaxelebi TanxmovanfuZiani msazRvrelebia da brunebisas, poziciisda Sesabamisad, ZiriTadad eqvemdebarebian aseTi msazRvrel-sazRvrulis brunebis saerTo wess. gansxvavebas iCenen kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi, vinaidan prepoziciis SemTxvevaSi isini micemiTsa da viTarebiTSic gaiCenen brunvis niSans (viTarebiTSi, Cveulebisamebr, micemiTisave -s sufiqss). magram mesame piris piris nacvalsaxeli am brunvebSi fuZis saxiT warmodgeba: mis-, magis- (uTuod ori s-s damTxvevis gamo); Sdr.:

III. saxeli. saxelTa morfologia

193

sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod.

Cem-i Cem-ma Cem-s Cem-i Cem-i Cem-s Cem-o

kalam-i kalam-ma kalam-s kalm-is kalm-iT kalm-ad kalam-o ricxvi:

Sen-i Sen-ma Sen-s Sen-i Sen-i Sen-s _ _

ni-i ni-ma ni-s ni-is ni-iT ni-ad _ _

mis-i mis-ma mismis-i mis-i mis_ _

Svil-i Svil-ma Svil-s Svil-is Svil-iT Svil-ad _ _

mravlobiTi sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. Cven-i Cven-ma Cven-s Cven-i Cven-i Cven-s Cven-o

kalam-i kalam-ma kalam-s kalm-is kalm-iT kalm-ad kalam-o

Tqven-i Tqven-ma Tqven-s Tqven-i Tqven-i Tqven-s _ _

ni-i ni-ma ni-s ni-is ni-iT ni-ad _ _

maT-i maT-ma maT-s maT-i maT-i maT-s _ _

Svil-i Svil-ma Svil-s Svil-is Svil-iT Svil-ad _ _

kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi, TavianTi struqturis gamo, mesame piris (mx. r.) nacvalsaxels emsgavseba sazRvrulTan SeTanxmebis mxriv: vis-i vis-ma visvis-i vis-i viskalam-i kalam-ma kalam-s kalm-is kalm-iT kalam-ad ris-i ris-ma risris-i ris-i risni-i ni-ma ni-s ni-is ni-iT ni-ad

magram mesame piris kuTvnilebiTi da kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi damoukideblad brunebisas orfuZianobas gamoavlenen; SeiZleba iTqvas, upiratesobac ki eniWeba moTxrobiTsa da micemiTSi nanaTesaobiTari fuZis gavrcobil formas (misa, visa, risa): sax. moT. mic. mis-i mis-ma misa-m mis-s misa-s vis-i vis-ma visa-m vis-s visa-s ris-i ris-ma risa-m ris-s risa-s

194

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

naT. moq. viT. wod.

mis-is(a) mis-is(a) mis-ad misa-v

vis-is(a) vis-iT(a) vis-ad visa-v

ris-is(a) ris-iT(a) ris-ad risa-v

III. 5.4.4. gansazRvrebiT nacvalsaxelTa bruneba. gansazRvrebiT nacvalsaxelTa jgufSi formacvalebis TvalsazrisiT arcTu erTgvarovani erTeulebi iyris Tavs. kerZod: TviT, TviTon, Tavad ubrunveli nacvalsaxelebia; konteqsturad isini saxelobiTi an moTxrobiTi brunvis Sinaarss Seicaven. TiToeul-i (TviTeul-i), yovel-i, yvela, sxva dasturdeba rogorc damoukideblad, ise msazRvrelis rolSi, brunebis Sesabamisi wesebiT. cxadia, gasaTvaliswinebelia, TanxmovanfuZiania nacvalsaxeli Tu xmovanfuZiani. warmovadginoT isini cal-calke: TiToeul-i (TviTeul-i) raime Taviseburebas ar warmoaCens. yovel-i imiT aris saintereso, rom mas udasturdeba rogorc ukumSveli, ise SekumSuli (arqauli) fuZis alomorfebi (yovel-is//yovl-is). aman ganapiroba is, rom gaCnda damoukidebeli fuZe yovl-i (dasturdeba `vefxistyaosanSi~: `mteri y o v l i Calad giCans...~). sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. TiToeul-i TiToeul-ma TiToeul-s TiToeul-is TiToeul-iT TiToeul-ad [TiToeul-o] yovel-i yovel-ma yovel-s yovel-is yovl-is yovel-iT yovl-iT [yovel-ad] yovl-ad yovel-o

Sdr. g. tabiZe: `aris mxolod y o v e l i s mpyrobeli~ _ `mwams y o v l i s SemZle... evropa~. `me Tavs viqcevdi wuTiT y o v e l i T~... `yovel-ad~ mxolod poetur frazaSi dasturdeba: `SesTvala: Seni siaxle kma Cemad lxinad y o v e l a d ~ (rusTaveli). msazRvrelis rolSi:

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sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod.

TiToeul-i TiToeul-ma TiToeulTiToeul-i TiToeul-i TiToeul[TiToeul-o]

yovel-i yovel-ma yovelyovel-i yovel-i yovelyovel-o

bavSv-i bavSv-ma bavSv-s bavSv-is bavSv-iT bavSv-ad bavSv-o

yvela da sxva nacvalsaxelebs erTgvari daboloeba aqvs, magram maT Soris arsebiTi gansxvavebaa _ yvela ukvecelia, sxva _ kvecadi. prepoziciuri msazRvrelis rolSi orive ucvlelia, magram postpoziciurad da damoukideblad brunebisas aRniSnuli gasaTvaliswinebelia: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. yvela yvela-m yvela-s yvela-s(i) yvela-Ti yvela-d yvela-v sxva sxva-m sxva-s sxv-is sxv-iT sxva-d sxva-v

III. 5.4.5. kiTxviT nacvalsaxelTa bruneba. vin nacvalsaxeli brunebisas mniSvnelovani TaviseburebiT gamoirCeva, mas mxolod ori forma aqvs sakuTari fuZisa: vi-n da vi-s(a). es nacvalsaxeli struqturulad warmoaCens iSviaT -n morfemas moTxrobiTi brunvisaTvis (ma-n nacvalsaxelTan erTad). ivaraudeba, rom moqmedebiTi da viTarebiTi brunvis formebi gaqvavebuli saxiT SemorCa zmnizedebSi: viT da vid[re]. am brunvebSi SeiZleba gamovlindes ormagi brunvis formebi nanaTesaobiTari (kuTvnilebiTis) fuZiT: vis-iT, vis-ad. paradigma:
sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. vi-n vi-n vi-s(a) vi-s(a) [vis-iT] [vis-ad]

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ra nacvalsaxeli misdevs kvecadi saxelis brunebis tips: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. ra ra-m ra-s(a) r-is(a) r-iT(a) ra-d

ra nacvalsaxeli SesaZlebelia msazRvrelis rols asrulebdes da `romeli~ an `rogori~ nacvalsaxelebis mniSvnelobas gamoxatavdes (mag.: `komble ra kaciao?~ `ra sakiTxi ganixileba?~). am SemTxvevaSi is ibruneba rogorc xmovanfuZiani msazRvreli:
sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. ra ra ra ra ra ra sakiTx-i sakiTx-ma sakiTx-s sakiTx-is sakiTx-iT sakiTx-ad

danarCeni kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebi (romel-i, rogor-i...) gamoiyeneba msazRvrel wevrad da ibruneba sakuTar sazRvrulTan erTad Cveulebrivi TanxmovanfuZiani msazRvrelis wesiT (prepoziciuradac da postpoziciuradac). mag.: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. romel-i romel-ma romelromel-i romel-i romelsakiTx-i sakiTx-ma sakiTx-s sakiTx-is sakiTx-iT sakiTx-ad

damoukideblad brunebis SemTxvevaSi, cxadia, bruneba sruli iqneba da imoqmedebs is morfonologiuri wesic, romelic Sesabamis fuZes Seefereba. mag.:

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sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT.

romel-i romel-ma romel-s roml-is roml-iT roml-ad

III. 5.4.6. mimarTebiT nacvalsaxelTa bruneba. mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebi (vinc, rac, romelic...) zustad mihyveba imave wess, rac dasturdeba kiTxviT nacvalsaxelebSi, anu Sesabamisi kiTxvis nacvalsaxelis Sesabamis brunvis formas daerTvis nawilaki -c(a). amisi mizezi is aris, rom am SemTxvevaSi nawilaki fuZes ar Sexorcebia da brunvis formamac avtonomiuroba SeinarCuna. erTi nimuSi:

sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT.

ra-c ra-ma-c ra-sa-c r-isa-c r-iTa-c ra-da-c

III. 5.4.7. uaryofiT nacvalsaxelTa bruneba. uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebi (aravin, veravin... arara... araferi...), ramdenadac kiTxviT nacvalsaxelebs emyareba, imdenadve misdevs am ukanasknelTa formacvalebas. gansxvaveba is aris, rom arara, verara... ukveceli iqneba Sesabamis brunvebSi. nimuSebi: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. aravi-n aravi-n aravi-s(a) aravi-s(a) [aravis-iT] [aravis-ad] arara arara-m arara-s(a) arara-s(i) arara-Ti ararad arafer-i arafer-ma arafer-s arafr-is arafr-iT [arafer-o]

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arafer-i SeiZleba msazRvreli wevris rolSic mogvevlinos; mag.: `a r a f e r i codva ar miqnia Cems sicocxleSi~ (vaJa). am SemTxvevaSi is, cxadia, ibruneba rogorc msazRvreli. III. 5.4.8. ganusazRvrelobiT nacvalsaxelTa bruneba. ganusazRvrelobiT nacvalsaxelTa ZiriTadi nawili warmomavlobiT meoreuli (nawilakiani) fuZis Semcvelia (viGac{a}; vinme...); amitomac maTi formawarmoeba calke aris ganxiluli (ix. $ `nawilakian saxelTa bruneba~). meore nawili amjgufis nacvalsaxelebisa (zogi, zogierTi, erTi, kaci) TanxmovanfuZian saxelebs ganekuTvneba da Sesabamisi wesiT ibruneba damoukideblad Tu msazRvrelis rolSi; Sdr.: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. zogierT-i zogierT-ma zogierT-s zogierT-is zogierT-iT zogierT-ad zogierT-o zog-i zog-ma zogzog-i zog-i zogzog-o kac-i kac-ma kac-s kac-is kac-iT kac-ad kac-o

III. 5.4.9. urTierTobiTi nacvalsaxelis formacvaleba. urTierTobiTi nacvalsaxeli Taviseburi warmomavlobisaa (kompoziciis pirobad brunvis formebs gulisxmobs), amitomac garkveuli SezRudvebi mohyveba formawarmoebaSi: SezRudulia moTxrobiTi, faqtobriv ara aqvs viTarebiTi, ara aqvs wodebiTi. nimuSad: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. erTmaneT-i [erTmaneT-ma] erTmaneT-s erTmaneT-is erTmaneT-iT [erTmaneT-ad] erTimeore [erTimeore-m] erTimeor-s erTimeor-is erTimeor-iT [erTimeore-d]

III. 5.5. nawilakian saxelTa bruneba. saxelis formawarmoebasTan mimarTebiT gasaTvaliswinebelia e.w. Serwymuli nawilakebi (-me, -ve, -Ga, -a).

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nawilaki SeiZleba nebismier saxels daerTos. am dros is, Cveulebisamebr, mzamzareul fleqsiur formas daerTvis da arsebiTad ar cvlis im viTarebas, rac brunvisa Tu ricxvis formas hqonda (da aqvs) nawilakis gareSe. es debuleba, pirvel rigSi, kanonieria arsebiTi saxelebisaTvis, romlebSic nawilaki mxolod da mxolod brunvis (an ricxvis) formis momdevno pozicias ikavebs: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. saxl-i-c saxl-ma-c saxl-sa-c saxl-isa-c saxl-iTa-c saxl-ada-c bi-eb-i-Ga bi-eb-ma-Ga bi-eb-s{a}-Ga bi-eb-is{a}-Ga bi-eb-iT{a}-Ga bi-eb-ad-Ga

aseTive suraTi iqneba zedsarTavi da ricxviTi saxelebis formawarmoebis dros, Tu amisi sairoeba Seiqmna (wiTel-i-ve, meore-ma-c da misT.). magram sruliad gansxvavebuli viTareba gvaqvs maSin, rodesac ricxviT saxels -ve nawilaki daerTvis: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. xuT-i-ve xuT-i-ve-m xuT-i-ve-s xuT-i-ve-s(i) xuT-i-ve-Ti xuT-i-ve-d xuT-i-ve-n-i xuT-i-ve-T ` _ ~ ` _ ~ ` _ ~ ` _ ~

rogorc vxedavT, aq ori Taviseburebaa: pirveli is, rom nawilakiani brunebis (ricxvis warmoebis) fuZed aGebulia saxelobiTi brunvis forma (xuT-i); meore is, rom fuZes jer nawilaki daerTvis, xolo Semdeg _ brunvis niSnebi, anu nawilakma aq erTmaneTisagan gaTiSa fuZe da brunvis (ricxvis) niSnebi. aseT brunebas Sexorcebul variants uwodeben. igulisxmeba, rom nawilaki Seuxorcda fuZes, raki man brunvis niSnebi, fuZis uSualo elementebi, mTlianad gamijna fuZisagan. aseTi Sexorcebuli bruneba Zalze damaxasiaTebelia da ZiriTadia nawilakdarTuli nacvalsaxelebisaTvis. am metyvelebis

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nawilakTan (Cveulebisamebr, kiTxviT nacvalsaxelebTan) Sexorcebulad gvevlineba -me, -ve, -Ra, -Raca nawilakebi. brunebis nimuSebi nawilakebis mixedviT: -me: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. -Ra: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. -Raca: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. viGaca viGaca-m viGaca-s viGac-is viGac-iT viGaca-d raGaca raGaca-m raGaca-s raGac-is raGac-iT raGaca-d viGac-eb-i viGac-eb-ma viGac-eb-s viGac-eb-is viGac-eb-iT viGac-eb-ad raGac-eb-i raGac-eb-ma raGac-eb-s raGac-eb-is raGac-eb-iT raGac-eb-ad viGa viGa-m viGa-s viGa-s(i) viGa-Ti viGa-d raGa raGa-m raGa-s raGa-s(i) raGa-Ti raGa-d vinme vinme-m vinme-s vinme-s(i) vinme-Ti vinme-d rame rame-m rame-s ram-is ram-iT rame-d (raime) (raime-m) (raime-s) (raime-s{i}) (raime-Ti) (raime-d) romelime romelime-m romelime-s romelime-s(i) romelime-Ti romelime-d

ukanaskneli paradigmis msgavsad ibrunvis viRac-viRacebi, raRac-raRacebi (da ara _ raGac-raGaceebi). -ve nawilaki SeiZleba daerTos CvenebiT nacvalsaxelebs; maTi damoukideblad brunebis dros Seuxorcebeli variantia ZiriTadi (Tumca Sexorcebis tendencia aqac iCens Tavs): sax. esve (eseve) moT. amanve mic. amasve egve (egeve) maganve magasve igive imanve (manve) imasve (masve)

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naT. moq. viT.

amisve amiTve amadve

magisve magiTve magadve

imisve (misve) imiTve (miTve) imadve (madve)

magram msazGvrelis saxiT maTi brunebis dros nawilaki pirdapir fuZeze iqneba darTuli: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. igive imave imave imave imave imave (egeve) (magave) (magave) (magave) (magave) (magave) sakiTx-i sakiTx-ma sakiTx-s sakiTx-is sakiTx-iT sakiTx-ad

xolo igive forma nacvalsaxelur SesityvebaSi `erTi da igive~ gamoyenebisas Sexorcebuli brunebis saxiT iqneba warmodgenili: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. erT-i da erT-ma da erT-sa da erT-isa da erT-iTa da erT-(sa) da igive imave-m imave-s imave-s(i) imave-Ti imave-d

III. 5.6. Taviseburebani saxelur formawarmoebaSi. 1. sruliad aSkaraa, rom brunebisa da ricxvis warmoebis TaviseburebaTa didi wili nacvalsaxelze modis. isini TviT nacvalsaxelebis jgufobriv Tu kerZoobiTad warmodgenil formawarmoebaSia ganxiluli; radganac aq sistema upiratesad Taviseburebazea (anomaliazea) agebuli da ara wesebrivze, ZiriTadi am SemTxvevaSi TaviseburebaTa paradigmaa da ara is, rac saxelTa saerTo sistemas qmnis. 2. arsebiTi saxelis formawarmoeba, rogorc ukve iTqva, sakmaod mwyobr sistemas warmogvidgens, Taviseburebani aq naklebad iCens Tavs; Tumca ramdenime gamonaklisi aqac aris aGniSnuli; aGvnusxoT isini anbanis mixedviT:

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

ambavi: am saxelSi kumSvis poziciaSi (naT., moq., viT. da ebian mravlobiTSi) mTeli marcvali ikargeba: ambav-i amb-is . . . . amb-eb-i mizezi amisa is aris, rom a xmovnis reduqciis Sedegad bagismier TanxmovanTa kompleqsi Cndeba [mbv], rac v-s dakargvas iwvevs. dro: saxeli fuZeukvecelia da mosalodnelia, rom brunvis niSnis xmovani ar SenarCundes: naT. dro-s(i), moq. dro-Ti. magram ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba sruli brunvis niSniT (arqauli formiT): dro-is (d r o i s uqonlobis gamo), dro-iT (am d r o i T visargeble). Sdr.: `foTlebi d r o s T v i s gvidarebia~ (g. tab.) _ `magram es sxva d r o i s T v i s...~ (g. tab.). `magram es mefeni d r o T i erTmaneTzed Zlier daSorebulni arin! (iv. javax.). _ `am d r o i T isargebla da... vulkanis mwvervalze avida~ (n. kurdG., Targm.). Sdr.: zmnizedad droiT formiT damkvidrda: `d r o i T jobia mainc~ (d. kld.). lursman-i: saxeli fuZekumSvadia: lursmn-is. SeiZleba daikargos bolokiduri n sonoric: lursm-is, lursm-iT. mizezi amisa kvlav TanxmovanTkompleqsi Cans: rsm. mag.: `qaCaCSi l u r s m i s natexi damrCa da igi amoiGeo!~ (saba). `is ficari erTi didi l u r s m i T totze mivaede~ (p. guguS.). qalaman-i: saxeli fuZekumSvadia: qalamn-is, qalamneb-i. magram gvxvdeba agreTve qalm-is, qalm-eb-i. amis mizezi is aris, rom fuZidan winamavali a xmovanic ikargeba da kvlav `dasaZlevi~ TanxmovanTkompleqsi iqmneba: lmn, rac n-s dakargvas ganapirobebs. ori xmovnis erTdrouli kumSva fuZeSi mosalodneli ar aris. unda vivaraudoT, rom am SemTxvevaSi amosavalia periferiuli qalman- fuZe. Sdr.: sabas Cab redaqciaSi qalman-i uweria. Rvino: rogorc iTqva, erTaderTi kvecadi o xmovanfuZiani saxelia: Rvin-is, Rvin-iT, magram _ Rvino-eb-i. SemTxveviTi ar

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aris, rom vlindeba ukveceli saxiTac: Rvino-s(i), Rvino-Ti. `am laboratoriaSi gasinjuli iyo 133 aSniki sxvadasxva G v i n o s i~ (ilia). `amivseT Tasi wiTel G v i n o T i!~ (t. tab.). RmerTi: wesisamebr, kumSvadi fuZea da mas, rogorc kumSvads, ori fuZe udasturdeba: arqauli sruli _ RmrT da axali _ damatebiT cvlili fonetikurad: RvT. amgvarad, kumSvis Sedegad: RmerT RmrT, TanmxmovanTkompleqsis gamartivebis Sedegad: RmrT RmT RvT. amave dros, arcTu iSviaTad dasturdeba es sityva fuZeukumSveli saxiT: RmerT-is... xolo mravlobiTSi (araorTodoqsuli gagebiT) mxolod ukumSvelia: RmerT-eb-i, RmerT-eb-ma... mag.: `didis G m e r T i s sakurTxevlis misTvis Gvivis cecxli gulSi...~ (ilia). amgvarad, am umniSvnelovanesi sityvis Tavisebureba samwevrovania: sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT. wod. GmerT-i GmerT-ma GmerT-s GmerT-is GmerT-iT GmerT-ad GmerT-o GmerT-i GmerT-ma GmerT-s GmrT-is GmrT-iT GmrT-ad GmerT-o GmerT-i GmerT-ma GmerT-s GvT-is GvT-iT GvT-ad GmerT-o

xucesi: es sityva ori fuZiT dasturdeba: sruliT (xucesis...) da bolokveciliT (xuc-is, xuc-eb-i...). ivaraudeba, rom Zvelad fuZe ikumSeboda da meore fuZe amis safuZvelze gaCnda (v. Tofuria). rogorc Cans, am sityvis `mokle~ varianti (rac albaT xarisxis warmoebis wesiT aris ganpirobebuli _ Sdr. udidesi da udide) Zvel qarTulSive dasturdeba. aqedanvea warmoqmnili xuceba; sulxan-sabas leqsikonSi dasturdeba nawarmoebi fuZe naxucar-i (na-xuc-ar) `xucesyofili~. xbo: am saxelis alternatiuli fuZe xbor- eb-ian mravlobiTSi udasturdeba: amdenad, Tanaarsebobs mravlobiTis ori kanonieri forma: xbo-eb-i, xbo-eb-ma... da xbor-eb-i, xbor-eb-ma...

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3. calke Taviseburebad iqna warmoCenili nawilakian saxelTa bruneba. oGondac aq mxolod fuZesTan nawilakTa `Sexorcebis~ SemTxvevebi igulisxmeba, ramdenadac, sazogadod, nawilaki araviTar gavlenas ar axdens fleqsiur formaze, is mxolod mza formas daerTvis: kac-i-c kac-eb-i-c kac-n-i-c kac-ma-c kac-eb-ma-c kac-Ta-c . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . magram nawilakis Sexorcebis SemTxvevaSi es suraTi sruliad icvleba da aseT mcirericxovan saxelTa (ricxviTTa da nacvalsaxelTa) jgufi calke moiTxovs daxasiaTebas (ix. paragrafi `nawilakian saxelTa bruneba~). 4. tradiciulad zmnizeda formaucvlel metyvelebis nawilTa qveklass aris mikuTvnebuli. amas ganapirobebs is, rom zmnizeda, rogorc zmnis SinaarsTan dakavSirebuli sagaremoebo sityva, funqcionirebs rogorc ucvleli odenoba (zmnuri fleqsia mis formaze ver zemoqmedebs). magram zmnizedas Taviseburi, SezGuduli formacvaleba mainc axasiaTebs; am mxriv is saxelebs ekedleba. kerZod, radganac zmnizedebis umetesoba sivrcul da droul lokalizaciasTan aris dakavSirebuli, swored lokaluri brunvebi da Tandebulebi ukeTdeba (zmnizedebis nawilic warmomavlobiT gaqvavebuli formaa romelime brunvisa: micemiTisa, naTesaobiTisa, moqmedebiTisa an viTarebiTisa). magaliTad, moqmedebiTsa da viTarebiT brunvebs (TandebuliT an uTandebulod) regularulad iwarmoeben adgilisa da drois zmnizedebi: aq _ aq-iT _ aq-a-mde mand _ mand-id-an (mand-iT-gan) _ mand-a-mde xval _ xval-idan _ xval-a-mde da misT. sagulisxmoa Semdegi: im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac zmnizeda formobriv (fuZiT) emTxveva arsebiT saxel, Tavs iCens paradigmatuli gansxvaveba, rac pirdapiri dasturia aGniSnulisa. Sdr.:

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sax. moT. mic. naT. moq. viT.

saxeli dGe dGe-m dGe-s dG -is dG -iT dGe-d

zmnizeda dGe _ _ dGe-is dGe-idan dGe-mde

SeniSvna: micemiTi brunvis forma am paradigmaSi ver Cajdeba, radganac is damoukidebeli zmnizedaa: dRes. aseve damoukidebelia Zv. dRis[i], ax. dRiT da ormagi sufiqsaciiT _ dRisiT. SeadareT aseve saxeluri da zmnizeduri formebi: `Game d G e s uTenebia~ _ `d G e s kargi amindia~; `am d G i s bolos~ _ `d G e i s amas iqiT~; `Game d G i T Seicvala~ _ `d G e i d a n daTbeba~. zmnizedis aGniSnul brunvacvalebas masTan mdgomi msazGvrelic warmoaCens: axlandel dGes axlandeli dGidan axlandel dGemde III. 5.7. nacvalsaxelTa ricxvis warmoebis Taviseburebani. nacvalsaxelebis formawarmoebiTi Tavisebureba da araerTgvarovneba ricxvis warmoebasac Seexeba. sruliad aSkaraa, rom nacvalsaxelTa klasSi gramatikuli (morfologiuri) sirTuleebi ricxvis gamoxatvaSic iCens Tavs. kerZod: a) nacvalsaxelTa nawili saerTod ver iwarmoebs mravlobiT ricxvs (mag.: vin, TviT, TviTon, Tavad, erTmaneTi, erTimeore...). b) zogi nacvalsaxeli mxolod supletur fuZemonacvleobas gviCvenebs simravlis gamosaxatavad, anu gramatikuli mravlobiTis warmoebis unars esec moklebulia (Cven, Tqven, Cveni...). g) zogi fuZe erTdroulad avlens mravlobiTis rogorc supleturi, ise morfologiuri gamoxatvis unars (ma-T, maga-T...).

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d) zog nacvalsaxels mxolod narTaniani mravlobiTi moepoveba (isi-n-i, yvela-n-i, yovel-T{a}...). e) zogs _ -eb-iani (viGac-eb-i, raGac-eb-i...). v) xolo zogsac orivenairi mravlobiTis warmoeba SeuZlia (sxv-eb-i, sxva-n-i, sxva-Ta...). SevCerdeT zogierT Taviseburebaze: 1. simravlis supleturi gamoxatva. rogorc cnobilia, fuZeTa supletivizmis moTxovna raime kategoriis gamoxatvis dros formawarmoebis SezGudulobis (ararsebobis) niSania da amgvari SemTxveva leqsikuri opoziciisa da `mravlobiTis~ gamosaxatavad uZveles movlenas warmoadgens. piris nacvalsaxelTa formawarmoebiTi SezGuduloba ara mxolod brunebaSi iCens Tavs, aramed _ ricxvis warmoebaSic. aseTia `erTis~ da `mravlis~ opozicia I da II piris nacvalsaxelebSi: me _ Cven Sen _ Tqven amave dros, isic ukve aGiniSna, rom Cven, Tqven fuZeebs Cveulebrivi mravlobiTis gageba Sinaarsobrivad ara aqvs: Cven ar aris `mravali me~ da Tqven _ `mravali Sen~ (iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda). I-II piris nacvalsaxelTa supletivizmi Taviseburad gadadis kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelebSic, kerZod, aq Sinagani `mravlobiTi~ (mkuTvnelis `mravlobiTi~) supleturia (Sdr. Cem-i _ Cveni, Sen-i _ Tqven-i), xolo garegani, SeTanxmebuli mravlobiTi _ morfologiuri (Sdr.: Cven-i _ Cven-n-i, Tqven-i _ Tqven-Ta). rac Seexeba III piris nacvalsaxels, aq supleturoba, gamovlenili brunebis paradigmaSi (es _ ama-s, eg _ maga-s, igi _ mas...), mravlobiTSic gadahyveba, oGond TviT simravle narTaniani mravlobiTiT gamoixateba: ese-n-i ege-n-i isi-ni [igi-n-i] ama-T maga-T ima-T ma-T SeniSvna: igini faqtobriv aGar gamoiyeneba, xolo maT Cveulebrivia.

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2. nacvalsaxelTa formawarmoebiTi arqauloba vlindeba narTaniani mravlobiTis dominantobaSi (faqtobriv _ erTaderTobaSi) ZiriTad jgufebSi: a) aseTia pirisa da CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebi: ese-n-i ege-n-i ama-T maga-T rogorc cnobilia, -T(a) sufiqsiani forma am SemTxvevaSi asrulebs moTxrobiTi, micemiTi da naTesaobiTi brunvebis rols, xolo wodebiTi am nacvalsaxelebs ar moepoveba. b) kiTxviT nacvalsaxelTagan vin nacvalsaxels Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi mravlobiTi ar ewarmoeba (vin-eb-i dialeqturia), xolo ra narTanian mravlobiTs ikeTebs (ra-eb-i dialeqturia): ra-n-i ra-T(a) g) gansazGvrebiTi nacvalsaxelebi yvela da yoveli aseve narTaniani iqneba: yvela-n-i yovel-n-i yvela-T(a) yovel-T(a) yvela-n-o yovel-n-o mag.: `Zvelo GmerTebo! da Tqven y v e l a n o _ Seupovarno Zeno GmerTebis!~ (n. mgel. Targm.); `ai, iseTi, andaluzelno da saerTodac y v e l a n o, Zmebo, cuds da miSvebuls rom eZaxian!~ (g. doC.). d) mavan-i, aseve, mxolod narTanian mravlobiTs iguebs: mavan-n-i mavan-T(a) mag.: `igi iyo is, visac m a v a n n i Seudgnen~ (`arili~); `jer kidev vapireb `axlebis~ weras... miuxedavad m a v a n T a qirqilisa~ (g. alxaz.). 3. -eb-iani mravlobiTi, romelic Tanamedrove qarTulSi, sazogadod, gabatonebulia, nacvalsaxelebSi aSkarad mokrZalebul poziciebs ikavebs; mas upiratesad narTanianis Tanabrad (an _ periferiul monacvled) gamoiyeneben. magaliTad:

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a) sxva nacvalsaxelTan es ori mravlobiTi TiTqmis Tanabrad monacvleobs: sxvan-i sxv-eb-i sxva-T(a) sxv-eb-ma _ _ _ _ _ _ sxva-n-o sxv-eb-o b) zog-i nacvalsaxelTan saliteraturo upiratesoba unda mivanioT narTanian warmoebas: zog-n-i zog-eb-i zog-T(a) zog-eb-ma _ _ _ _ _ _ zog-n-o zog-eb-o SeniSvna: am nacvalsaxelis wodebiTi iSviaTia, Tumca amis gamo ver gamovricxavT; mag.: `Cemno ymano, gamzrdelno da z o g n o zrdilno~ (rusTaveli). g) kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelebTan -ebian mravlobiTs ufro dialeqturi elferi aqvs; Sdr.: Cem-n-i Cem-T(a) _ _ Cem-n-o Cem-eb-i Cem-eb-ma _ _ Cem-eb-o Cven-n-i Cven-T(a) _ _ Cven-n-o Cven-eb-i Cven-eb-ma _ _ Cven-eb-o Sen-n-i Sen-T(a) _ _ _ _ Sen-eb-i Sen-eb-ma _ _ da sxv.

Sdr.: `mSvidobiT, C e m n o, TvalSi cremliT garidebiT Tvalsa~ (ilia). `C e m e b i arian levianebi, radgan Cemia yvela pirmSo~ (ricxv. 2,13). d) -eb-iani mravlobiTi gabatonebulia an erTaderTia zogierT nacvalsaxelTan. mag.: viGac-eb-i viGac-eb-ma viGac-eb-s viGac-eb-is viGac-eb-iT viGac-eb-ad _ _ _ rame-eb-i rame-eb-ma rame-eb-s rame-eb-is rame-eb-iT rame-eb-ad _ _ _ roml-eb-i-c roml-eb-ma-c roml-eb-sa-c roml-eb-isa-c roml-eb-iTa-c roml-eb-ada-c _ _ _

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Sdr.: `bolnisidan r a m e e b i unda Camovutanovo~ (g. tab.). _ `aris ubadloTa r a m e T sul ubralod aTviseba (g. tab.). `es ferebi, r o m l e b i c enTebian da iGvrebian~ (g. tab.). _ `gamohyavT tyveebi, r o m e l T a c aravin gamoisyidis~ (g. tab.). III. 5.8. nacvalsaxelTa sintagmatika. nacvalsaxelTa sintagmatikas ganapirobebs is ZiriTadi funqcionaluri datvirTva, rac maT, rogorc nacvalsaxelebs, enobrivi gamoyenebisas ekisreba. nacvalsaxeli ki, sazogadod, romelime sxva saxelis monacvled gamodis SesityvebaSi (winadadebaSi). Sesabamisad, Tu nacvalsaxeli arsebiT saxels enacvleba, mas substantiuri datvirTva aqvs, xolo Tu zedsarTavsa da ricxviT saxelebs enacvleba, funqcia atributuli iqneba. swored es gansxvaveba gansazGvravs nacvalsaxelebis adgils SesityvebaSi. substantiuri funqciiT aGurvili nacvalsaxeli zmnasTan uSualod qmnis sintagmis (me vTamaSob, vin ukravs? TviTon airCie!..), xolo atributuli Sinaarsis nacvalsaxelTa sintagmaturi urTierToba msazGvrel-sazGvrulis mimarTebebSi Tavsdeba (erTi kaci, Cemi saxli, yoveli qarTveli...). aqedan gamomdinare, sintagmaturi potenciis TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba or ZiriTad jgufad davyoT: (1) uSualod zmnasTan Sesityvebis unaris mqone da (2) atributuli daniSnulebis matarebeli. amave dros, am gayofas nacvalsaxelTa jgufebis mixedviT ver movaxdenT, ramdenadac SeiZleba erTi da imave jgufis nacvalsaxelebi sul sxvadasxva sintagmaturi unaris aGmoCndes (mag. Sdr.: ra? da romeli? TviTon da TiToeuli...); zogi nacvalsaxeli ki SeiZleba orive funqciiT mogvevlinos (Sdr.: `y v e l a GmerTs exveweboda, waldi _ kikosao~ _ `y v e l a melas Tavisi kudi moswonso~). amgvarad, zmnasTan SesityvebaSi Semavali, aqtanturi sintagmatikis nacvalsaxelebia: me, Sen, igi, Tavi, vin, ra, vinme, rame, TviT, TviTon, Tavad, aravin, arara, araferi, erTmaneTi, erTimeore...

ra nacvalsaxeli SeiZleba `romeli, rogori~ nacvalsaxelebis funqciiTac mogvevlinos: `komble r a kaciao?~ (xalx.).

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es imas niSnavs, rom aseTi nacvalsaxeli SeiZleba mogvevlinos zmnis subieqtad an obieqtad. atributuli sintagmatikis nacvalsaxelebia: es, eg, is, Cemi, Seni, misi, visi, risi, Tavisi, TavianTi, yvela, yoveli, TiToeuli, romeli, viGac, raGac... es imas niSnavs, rom aseTi nacvalsaxeli romelime sxva saxelis msazGvrelad gamodis (es saqme, Cemi wigni, visi brZaneba? yoveli kaci da sxv.). rogorc iTqva, zogierTi nacvalsaxeli ormag sintagmatur unars avlens. aseTia, magaliTad, es, eg, is nacvalsaxelebi, romlebic Sesabamis jgufs swored am unaris mixedviT miekuTvneba: substantiuri datvirTvis _ piris nacvalsaxelebs, atributulisa _ CvenebiTs (Sdr.: `eh, ar mjera me e g raGac!~ _ g. tab. _ `maS, gareke e g cxenebi!~ _ g. tab.). aseTive ormagi funqciisa: yvela, viRaca, raRaca (Sdr.: `v i G a c mGeris mTaSi~... _ g. tab. _ `aq ganisvenebs v i G a c mdidari~ _ g. tab.) da sxv.

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Tavi VI. sitKvawarmoeba


III. 6. sityvis cvlileba orgvaria: cvlileba, romelsac Sedegad mohyveba gramatikuli mniSvnelobis cvla (fleqsia) da cvlileba, romlis Sedegia leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvla (derivacia). sityvawarmoeba meore saxis cvlilebas gulisxmobs. sityvis leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvlis gamo saxelTa warmoeba leqsikologiis Seswavlis sferoa, mawarmoebeli afiqsebis raobisa da maTi gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT ki _ morfologiisa. saxeli, romlis fuZisganac sxva sagnobrivi mimarTebis saxeli iwarmoeba, aris Zireuli. mis fuZeze mniSvnelobis mcvleli afiqsebis (derivaciuli afiqsebis) darTviT miiReba axali fuZe, romelic pirvelad (Zireul) fuZeze metia. fuZeze darTvis adgilis mixedviT mawarmoebeli afiqsebi sami saxisaa: prefiqsebi, sufiqsebi da prefiqs-sufiqsebi anu cirkumfiqsebi (infiqsuri warmoeba qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ar aris). amis Sesabamisad nawarmoebi saxelebic sami saxisaa: prefiqsuli (romelic Zalze iSviaTia: u-srul-i, u-ricxv-i, ara-erTi...), sufiqsuri (kac-oba, saxel-ovan-i, imer-ul-i...), prefiqsul-sufiqsuri (me-or-e, si-keT-e, u-Tav-o...). derivaciuli afiqsebidan zogi mxolod erTi funqciiT gvxvdeba (mag., kninobiTobis mawarmoebeli -ik), umetesoba ki _ sxvadasxva funqciiT. sityvawarmoebiTi modelebi enaSi produqtiulia an araproduqtiuli. produqtiuli sityvawarmoebiTi modelis magaliTia u _ o konfiqsiani uqonlobis saxelebi (ukac-o, u-lamaz-o, u-Cem-o), araproduqtiulisa ki _ -ed-sufiqsiani mqoneblobis saxelebi (kar-ed-i, Sto-ed-i). enis ganviTarebis manZilze sityvawarmoebiTi modelebi icvleba. zogi mawarmoebeli metad aqtiuri xdeba, zogi, piriqiT, naklebad gamoiyeneba. zogi mawarmoebeli mxolod arqaul formebSi SemogvrCa da axal fuZeebs veRar awarmoebs, zogma Seicvala mniSvneloba.

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saxelTa warmoeba ZiriTadad gulisxmobs substantivisa da atributivis warmoebas. ufro xSirad substantividan atributivia miRebuli (kaci _ kac-ur-i, wver-i _ wver-ian-i) da atributividan _ substantivi (lamaz-i _ si-lamaz-e, axalgazrda _ axalgazrd-oba); ufro iSviaTad substantividan substantivi miiReba (mxeci _ sa-mxec-e, gora _ gor-ak-i), an atributividan _ atributivi (wiTel-i _ mo-wiTal-o, lamaz-i _ u-lamaz-es-i). zogjer substantividan miRebuli atributivis fuZe axali substantivis sawarmoebel fuZed aris gamoyenebuli (qal-i _ qalur-i _ qal-ur-oba). masubstantivebeli da maatributivebeli formantebis ganawileba mkacrad daculi ar aris. erTi da igive formanti erT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba masubstantivebeli iyos, meore SemTxvevaSi _ maatributivebeli (mag. -eul krebiTobas gamoxatavs da masubstantivebelia aseT SemTxvevaSi: bewv-eul-i, xolo maatributivebeli funqcia aqvs da mqoneblobas gamoxatavs Semdeg magaliTSi: fas-eul-i). Sinaarsobrivi, semantikuri TvalsazrisiT gamoiyofa nawarmoebi saxelebis Semdegi jgufebi: qonebis, uqonlobis, daniSnulebis, xarisxis, warmomavlobis, abstraqtuli, xelobis, rigobiTi, wilobiTi, adgilis, geografiuli, wina viTarebis, kninobiTsaalerso da sxv. ganvixilavT nawarmoeb saxelebs am jgufebis mixedviT. III. 6.1. qonebis saxelebi. warmoqmnili saxelebis erTi jgufi gamoxatavs vinmes an raimes yola-qonebas. am Sinaarsis gamosaxatavad gamoiyeneba sufiqsebi: -ian, -osan, -ovan, ier, -ed, -a. -ian sufiqsi mqoneblobis mawarmoebelTagan yvelaze gavrcelebulia. igi daerTvis erT-, or- da mravalmarcvlian fuZeebs, rogorc martiv, ise nawarmoeb saxelebs: arsebiTebs (qud-iani, Svil-ian-i, sadarbazo-ian-i...), zedsarTavebs (mwvan-ian-i, wiTlian-i...), nacvalsaxelebs (Cem-ian-i, Tqven-ian-i...), ricxviT saxelebs (or-ian-i, aTas-ian-i, aTasxuTas-ian-i...). -ian daerTvis rogorc qarTuli warmoSobis saxelebs, ise ucxo enidan nasesxeb sityvebs: parik-ian-i, svastik-ian-i, tuberkuloz-ian-i...

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-ian mawarmoebeli gvxvdeba gvaris daboloebad dasavleT saqarTveloSi: yif-ian-i, rat-ian-i, lipartel-ian-i. -ian sufiqsis funqcia, rogorc Cans, Zvelad iyo vinmesgan warmomavlobis aRniSvna, rasac ukavSirdeba gageba kuTvnilebisa da visime mimdevrobisa. Zvel qarTulSi -ian sufiqsi visime mimdevrobasac gamoxatavda: qrist-ian-i, mahmad-ian-i.... Tanamedrove qarTulSi -ian sagnobrivi yola-qonebis gadaazrianebis niadagze gamoxatavs Tvisebis mqoneblobasac: Wkv-ian-i, madl-ian-i, sevd-ian-i...; agreTve vinmesadmi mikuTvnebas: Cven-ian-i, Tavis-ian-i...; Semcvelobas: Svidian-i, litr-ian-i, kilo-ian-i... kidev ufro farTod gamoiyeneba -ian sufiqsi dialeqtebSi. am mawarmoeblis gaaqtiurebam sxva sufiqsTa gamoyeneba SezRuda. -osan, -ovan, -ier sufiqsebi mqoneblobas ufro xSirad garkveuli semantikuri gadaxriT gamoxataven. -ian warmoSobiT rTuli sufiqsia, romelic miRebuli unda iyos -iv-an-isagan: -iv-an > -i-an. SesaZloa ian-is miRebis meore gzac: -ev-an > -ean > -ian. -iv formanti moqmedebiTi brunvis uZveles niSnad ivaraudeba. igi naSTis saxiT SemogvrCa zog formaSi: marjvn-iv, marcxn-iv, TvalnaTl-iv, uklebl-iv. -iv mawarmoeblis variantebi unda iyos -ev, -ov, romlebic -evan, -ovan sufiqsebSia warmodgenili. -ev, -av gaqvavebuli saxiT daculia kid-ev, kul-av, ficxl-av formebSi (n. mari). -iv, -ev, -ov sufiqsebs SemdgomSi daerTo -an da -er sufiqsebi, romlebic damoukideblad arsebobdnen enaSi da miviReT -ian, -ovan, -ier mawarmoeblebi. -osan sufiqsi aRniSnavs raimes mqones an matarebels: cxenosan-i, mandil-osan-i, wver-osan-i, Sav-osan-i, gvirgvin-osan-i... Zvelad -osan-s ufro farTo gamoyeneba hqonda. igi aRniSnavda ZiriTadad suliers, romelsac hyavs an aqvs esa Tu is sagani: kaparW-osan-i, laxvr-osan-i, tvirT-osan-i, rq-osan-i, mandilosan-i... am saxelTa nawili SemorCenilia Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi, nawili ki -ian sufiqsianma warmoebam Secvala: Zv. qarT.: cul-osan-i, xrml-osan-i, Surdul-osan-i, borkil-osan-i... _ ax. qarT.: cul-ian-i, xml-ian-i, Surdul-ian-i, borkil-ian-i... Tanamedrove mwignobrul metyvelebaSi -osan sufiqsi axali terminebis Sesaqmnelad gamoiyeneba da romelime sagnis arsebiTi

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Tvisebis maCvenebelia: friad-osan-i, Cliq-osan-i, park-osan-i, frT-osan-i...; -osan awarmoebs profesiis, xelobis, raime mimarTulebis mimdevrobis aRmniSvnel saxelebs: zRva-osan-i, kalmosan-i, niCb-osan-i, Zal-osan-i, jvar-osan-i, xalx-osan-i...; -osan iSviaTad gvxvdeba zedsarTav saxelebTan: Cqar-osan-i, mZle-osan-i... -osan gamoiyeneba, roca zedsarTavi an ricxviTi saxeli gaarsebiTebulia: Sav-osan-i, or-osan-i... ucxo warmomavlobis fuZeebTan es sufiqsi Zalze iSviaTad gvxvdeba: torped-osan-i, kulturosan-i. -osan mawarmoebeli naklebad gvxvdeba dialeqtebSi da raime specifikuri Tavisebureba misi gamoyenebis mxriv ar SeiniSneba. -osan sufiqsi mqoneblobas ZiriTadad garkveuli semantikuri gadaxriT gamoxatavs. es kargad Cans -osan da -ian sufiqsiani formebis Sedarebisas. am mawarmoebelTa gamoyeneba erTsa da imave ZirTan TvalsaCinos xdis maT Soris sxvaobas. Sdr.: frTiani da frTosani, sxiviani da sxivosani, kalmiani da kalmosani da a.S. -osan sufiqsiani formebi vinmes an raimes ZiriTadi Tvisebis mqoneblobas gamoxatavs da mwignobruli metyvelebis kuTvnilebaa, -ian mawarmoebliani saxelebi ki vinmes, raimes qona-yolis gamomxatvelia da gvxvdeba rogorc sasubro metyvelebaSi, ise mwignobrulSi. gasarkvevia -osan sufiqsis genezisis sakiTxi. Cans, rom -osan rTuli Sedgenilobisaa: os-an, magram bundovani da gaurkvevelia -os elementis etimologia, -an formanti ki igivea, rac -i(v)-an, -ov-an rTul sufiqsebSia warmodgenili (b. jorbenaZe, m. kobaiZe, m. beriZe). -ovan sufiqsi daerTvis arsebiT saxels da aRniSnavs: raime sagnis, niSan-Tvisebis mqoneblobas (kld-ovan-i, saxel-ovan-i, gul-ovan-i, fer-ovan-i...); raime saganTan msgavsebas (xaverd-ovan-i, kld-ovan-i, yinul-ovan-i, cecxl-ovan-i, haer-ovan-i...). -ovan Zvel qarTulSi qonebis aRmniSvnel saxelTagan yvelaze aqtiuri mawarmoebeli iyo. igi daerTvoda arsebiTi saxelebis garda zedsarTav saxelebsac da gamoxatavda raime Tvisebis, mdgomareobis, feris, sagnis mqoneblobas: SfoT-oan-i, gem-ovan-i, keTr-ovan-i, mwvan-ovan-i, gumbaT-ovan-i... xSirad gamoiyeneboda

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mcenareTa saxelebTan: naZ-ovan-i, finik-ovan-i, zeTisxil-ovan-i, maRnar-ovan-i... -ovan da -ian sufiqsebiT nawarmoeb saxelTa Soris semantikuri gansxvaveba Zvel qarTulSive aRiniSneboda: -ovan sufiqsi raime sagnis met simravleze miuTiTebda. axal qarTulSi -ovan sufiqsiani formebi ZiriTadad Zveli qarTulidan SemorCenili formebia. -ovan axal fuZeebTanac gamoiyeneba terminTa Sesaqmnelad, raime cnebas aRniSnavs da ama Tu im Tvisebis, Taviseburebis mqoneblobis gamomxatvelia: xrtil-ovan-i, cil-ovan-i, sokovan-i, xm-ovan-i, waxnag-ovan-i... gvxvdeba rTul fuZeebTanac: mravalwaxnag-ovan-i. rTulyvavil-ovan-i, naxSirwyl-ovan-i... -ovan iSviaTad gvxvdeba ucxo warmomavlobis fuZeebTan: nul-ovan-i, pigment-ovan-i, valent-ovan-i... -ier sufiqsi (disimilaciiT -iel) gamoxatavs vinmes damaxasiaTebel Tvisebas, sulier mdgomareobas: gon-ier-i, zom-ier-i, Ron-ier-i, madl-ier-i, kanon-ier-i, bedn-ier-i... umetesoba -ier sufiqsiani saxelebisa Zveli qarTulidan gvaqvs SemorCenili, axal fuZeebTan ki -ier iSviaTad gvxvdeba. semantikuri gansxaveba -ier da -ian sufiqsiT nawarmoeb erTi Ziris saxelebs Soris aSkaraa: nayof-ian-i _ nayof-ier-i, wign-ian-i _ wign-ier-i, xorcian-i _ xorc-iel-i... Zvel qarTulSi -ier sufiqsi ufro farTod gamoiyeneboda: awarmoebda qona-yolis saxelebs: col-ier-i, qmr-iel-i, maty-ier-i, fas-ier-i...; gamoxatavda ama Tu im sagnis raobas, Sedgenilobas: guam-ier-i, sul-ier-i, xorc-iel-i, nivT-ier-i... gvxvdeboda zmnur ZirebTan: mS-ier-i, cb-ier-i, kadn-ier-i...; aRniSnavda warmomavloba-sadaurobasac: evrop-iel-i, c-ier-i, Sor-iel-i... mkvlevarTa azriT, swored warmomavlobis gamoxatva iyo am sufiqsis Tavdapirveli funqcia, mqoneblobis gamoxatvis funqcia ki man Semdgom SeiZina. -ier sufiqsis Camoyalibebis procesi, mkvlevarTa azriT, aseTia: iv-er > ier (a. SaniZe, T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani). -iv igive formantia, rac -i(v)-an, -ov-an rTul sufiqsebSi gvaqvs, -er ki damoukideblad arsebobda enaSi da gamoxatavda warmomavlobas, mqoneblobas, msgavsebas. am mawarmoebels gamoyofen am-eri, im-er-i, xap-er-a, keJ-er-a da zog sxva formaSi (al. manjgalaZe, b. jorbenaZe, m. kobaiZe, m. beriZe, n. WoxoneliZe).

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-ed sufiqsi mqoneblobis funqciiT gvxvdeba ramdenime arqaul sityvaSi: Saravand-ed-i, varskvlav-ed-i, kar-ed-i... am saxelebSi -ed mawarmoebeli gaqvavebuli saxiT aris warmodgenili da misi gamoyofa SesaZlebeli xdeba etimologiuri kvlevis Sedegad. igi uZvelesi sufiqsia, magram ukve Zvel qarTulSic naklebad gamoiyeneboda, zog saxelSi ki gaqvavebuli saxe hqonda. -a sufiqsi mqoneblobis mawarmoebel afiqsTagan erT-erTi produqtiuli afiqsia Tanamedrove qarTulSi. igi qonebis gamomxatvelia garkveuli tipis saxelebSi, rogoricaa: wiTelperang-a, sqelkiser-a, calTval-a, samfex-a... aseTi saxelebi kompozitad qceuli msazRvrel-sazRvrulia, romelsac -a sufiqsi mqoneblobis saxelad aqcevs. -a sufiqsiani warmoeba qonebis gamosaxatavad gvxvdeba martivfuZian saxelebTanac: perang-a, ulvaS-a, qoCor-a... -a gamoiyeneba agreTve msgavsebis aRsaniSnavad: abreSum-a, Txil-a, TiTistar-a, beWed-a, kitr-a...; Tvisebis, mqoneblobis gamosaxatavad gvxvdeba -a sufiqsi masdaris fuZeebTan: barbac-a, zozin-a, dudRun-a, laqlaq-a, CaxCax-a da a. S. -a daerTvis agreTve mimReobaTa fuZeebs da aqac Tvisebis mqoneblobas gamoxatavs: maxrCobela, mcivan-a, mtiral-a... am tipis saxelebi semantikurad didad ar gansxvavdebian amosavali mimReobebisagan, -a-s ki masubstantivebeli funqcia akisria. bevri -a darTuli mimReoba terminad aris qceuli: sanTebel-a, safrTxobel-a, maRviZar-a da sxv. -a masubstantivebel funqcias asrulebs, roca daerTvis nawarmoebi saxelis fuZes. ormagad nawarmoeb saxelSi kargad Cans winamavali afiqsis ZiriTadi funqcia, -a ki masubstantivebelia: cvr-ian-a, mtvr-ian-a, u-fex-ur-a, sa-Tbur-a, adr-eul-a, na-bol-ar-a da sxv. rig SemTxvevebSi -a-s gamoyofen a-ze daboloebul saxelebSi istoriuli analizis Sedegad. es saxelebia: mela, kiborCxala, Txunela, yvinCila, WianWvela, wifela da mravali sxva (a. SaniZe, al. manjgalaZe). maT paralelurad Zvel qarTulSi gvqonda TanxmovanfuZiani formebi: mel-i, kiborCxal-i da a. S. TanxmovanfuZian da -a-daboloebian formebs Soris semantikuri sxvaoba ar arsebobs. -a-s msgavsad gamoiyofa e da o xmovnebic, romelTa funqciis gamorkveva SesaZloa erT aspeqtSi moxerxdes (al. manjgalaZe). zogjer a-, o- da e-boloxmovniani saxelebi erTmaneTis

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paraleluradac gvxvdeba: gverda/gverdo, lega/lego, flate/flato, Rrante/Rranto da a. S. am saxelebSi bolokiduri xmovani SesaZloa masubstantivebeli sufiqsi iyos, Tumca es sakiTxi damatebiT kvlevas saWiroebs. qonebis saxelebSi, rogorc vxedavT, Sedis qonebis, mgavsebis, Tvisebis mqoneblobis gamomxatveli nawarmoebi saxelebi, romelTa umetesoba gamWvirvale agebulebisaa da maTi etimologiuri analizi Zneli ar aris. gvxvdeba iseTebic, romelTa segmentacia an sufiqsTa daniSnulebis garkveva rTuldeba. yvelaze gavrcelebuli qona-yolis mawarmoebelia -ian da -a sufiqsebi. danarCenebi ki qonebas sxvadasxva semantikuri gadaxriT gamoxataven da xSirad gaqvavebuli saxiT arian warmodgenili. III. 6.2. uqonlobis saxelebi. uqonlobis gamomxatveli saxelebi aRniSnaven uqonlobas Zireuli fuZiT aRniSnuli sagnisas an Tvisebisas. am Sinaarsis gadmosacmad gamoiyeneba u-, u_o, u_ur / u_ul, u_ar afiqsebi. Tanamedrove qarTulSi u- prefiqsiani warmoeba mxolod oriode saxelSi gvxvdeba: u-ricxv-i, u-srul-i. maT SeiZleba mivamatoT o-ze daboloebuli ramdenime saxelic: u-Sno, u-Rvino, u-samSoblo, u-saxelo (=saxelos gareSe)... mxolod u- prefiqsiani warmoeba gvxvdeba mimReobebSi: ucnob-i, u-naxav-i, u-val-i... (uaryofiTi mimReobebi gamoxataven raime Tvisebis uqonlobas an raime qmedebis uaryofas). amgvari mimReobebi bevrad meti iyo Zvel qarTulSi: u-SiS-i, u-Sur-i, udeb-i, u-Rvaw-i, u-Wm-i, u-mwy-i... SemdgomSi amgvari formebi konfiqsiT nawarmoebi formebiT Seicvala da miviReT: u-SiS-ar-i, uSurv-el-i, u-Wm-el-i da a. S. mxolod u- prefiqsi sufiqsis gareSe Zvel qarTulSic naklebad gvxvdeba da Tanamedrove qarTulSic, magram geneturad swored u- prefiqsia uqonlobis semantikis gamomxatveli, masTan erTad gamoyenebul sufiqsebs ki Tavdapirvelad sxva funqcia unda hqonodaT da uqonlobis semantikis gamoxatva u-sTan erTad Semdgom daekisraT. amis dasturia zogi u_o konfiqsiani saxeli, romelic Zvel qarTulSi oden u- prefiqsiani iyo: u-zom-o _ Zv. qarT. u-zom-i, u-zav-o _ Zv. qarT. u-zav-i... garda amisa, sufiqsebi sxvadasxvaa, u- prefiqsi ki konfiqsis aucilebeli Semadgeneli nawilia.

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u_o mawarmoebeli rogorc Zvel, ise axal qarTulSi, uqonlobis yvelaze gavrcelebuli mawarmoebelia. am konfiqsiT iwarmoeba yovelgvari saxelis fuZe, rogorc martivi, ise nawarmoebi da Txzuli, agreTve nawilakebi da Tandebulebi (u-wign-o, u-ded-o, u-lamaz-o, u-dav-o, u-sasyidl-o, u-Tanaswor-o, u-Cem-o, u-Tu-o, u-ebr-o...). analogiurad iwarmoeba uaryofiToba, roca amosavalSi msazRvrel-sazRvruli ivaraudeba: u-CitisrZe-o-d, ubavSTabaR-o-d... saintereso warmoebisaa nacvalsaxelebis Semcveli uaryofiTi zmnisarTebi: u-magnatifxm-o-d, u-magSenTval-o-d... am SemTxvevebSi mTeli gamoTqma erT erTeulad aris miCneuli (m. suxiSvili). miuxedavad imisa, rom u_o konfiqsiani warmoeba Zalian gavrcelebulia, is naklebad gamoiyeneba zedsarTav saxelebTan. axal qarTulSi aRar gvxvdeba Zvel qarTulSi arsebuli formebi: u-did-o, u-magr-o, u-berw-o, u-xSir-o, u-Smag-o... SesaZlebelia es ganapiroba iman, rom axal qarTulSi Zalian gavcelda ara- nawilakiani formebi: ara-swori, ara-wminda, ara-normaluri, ara-damajerebeli, ara-bunebrivi da a. S. aseTi zedsarTavebi Tanamedrove qarTulSi bevrad metia, vidre Zvel qarTulSi gvqonda. gansakuTrebiT inergeba aseTi warmoeba samecniero da teqnikur terminologiaSi. SesaZlebelia, am warmoebis aseT gaaqtiurebas xeli Seuwyo rusulis gavlenam, sadac analogiuri, uaryofiTnawilakiani warmoeba Zalian gavrcelebulia. u_ur (disimilaciiT u_ul) konfiqsi mxolod arsebiTi saxelebis fuZeebs erTvis da u_o konfiqsian formebTan SedarebiT naklebad gvxvdeba: u-gem-ur-i, u-dRe-ur-i, u-Zl-ur-i, u-wverul-i, u-xerx-ul-i... am gziT arsebiTTagan zedsarTavebia nawarmoebi, oRond zogi zedsarTavi arsebiTad aris qceuli (ufskruli, uJmuri). u_ur daerTvis ZiriTadad erTmarcvlian Zirebs, igi ar gvxvdeba ucxo enebidan Semosul saxelebTan. zog fuZesTan gvxvdeba rogorc u_o, ise u_ur konfiqsiani warmoeba. erTsa da imave fuZesTan sxvadasxva mawarmoeblis darTvisas gvaqvs semantikuri sxvaoba: u_o sagnis uqonlobas gamoxatavs, u_ur ki _ niSan-Tvisebis uqonlobas: uwigno _ uwignuri, ukaco _ ukacuri, usaxo _ usaxuri, udabno _ udaburi... paraleluri formebis Sedareba gviCvenebs, rom -ur su-

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fiqsian uqonlobis saxelebSi Tavs iCens am sufiqsis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba (aRniSnos Tviseba saTanado saganTan mimarTebiT). Zalze iSviaTad gvxvdeba u_ar konfiqsiT nawarmoebi uqonlobis saxelebi: u-SiS-ar-i, u-Cum-ar-i, u-wvim-ar-i, u-wyin-ar-i, umec-ar-i... uaryofis, uqonlobis Sinaarsis gamoxatva rogorc zmnur, ise saxelur fuZeebTan dakavSirebulia pirvel rigSi u- prefiqsTan, romelic am semantikis gamomxatveli uZvelesi formantia, sufiqsebis funqcia ki Tavdapirvelad sxva unda yofiliyo. III. 6.3. daniSnulebis saxelebi. erTi jgufi warmoqmnili saxelebisa gamoxatavs daniSnulebas an gankuTvnebas. am saxelebis sawarmoeblad gamoiyeneba sa- prefiqsi da masTan erTad -e, -o, ur(-ul), -ar(-al) sufiqsebi: sa-qaTm-e, sa-yur-e, sa-qveyn-o, sa-sadil-o, sa-ganZ-ur-i, sa-mkerd-ul-i, sa-bud-ar-i da a. S. sa-, sa_e, sa_o, sa_ur, sa_ar mawarmoebelTagan saerTo TavsarTia sa-, romelTanac unda iyos dakavSirebuli daniSnuleba-gankuTvnebis Sinaarsi. igi g. axvledians myofadTa saerTo mawarmoeblad miaCnia. samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnaven msgavsebas daniSnulebis saxelebsa da momavali drois vnebiTi gvaris mimReobebs Soris, rogorc Sinaarsobrivad, ise formobrivad. damoukideblad sa- prefiqsi gamoiyeneboda Zvel qarTulSi: sa-yurZen-i, sa-civ-i, sa-xel-i (= sa-xel-o), sa-yur-i (= sa-yur-e), sa-barkal-i, sa-fardul-i, sa-dil-i...zogi aseTi formis paralelurad Zvel qarTulSive gvaqvs prefiqs-sufiqsiani warmoebac: sa-mxar-i / sa-mxr-e, sa-yur-i / sa-yur-e, sa-isar-i / sa-isr-e. Tanamedrove qarTulSi sa- prefiqsi damoukideblad veRar awarmoebs daniSnulebis saxelebs. masTan erTad yvelaze xSirad gamoiyeneba -o sufiqsi, ufro iSviaTad -e, xolo -ur sufiqsi ZiriTadad Zveli warmoebis saxelebSia SemorCenili. sa_e, sa_o, sa_ur konfiqsebiT nawarmoebi saxelebi zedsarTavebia, romelTagan zogi arsebiTad aris qceuli: sa-yur-e, sa-Tval-e, sa-yel-o, sa-krebul-o, sa-siZ-o, sa-fex-uri da a. S. zogi saxeli, konteqstis mixedviT xan arsebiTad gamoiyeneba, xan _ zedsarTavad: sapatarZlo (=patarZali) da sapatarZlo kaba, sasadilo da sasadilo oTaxi...

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T. Jordanias azriT, sa_o da sa_e mawarmoebelTa Soris sxvaobaa funqciuri TvalsazrisiT: sa_e-Ti nawarmoebi saxeli daniSnulebis gamomxatvelia, adgilSemcvelobis aRmniSvnelia da sxvas ar miewereba, sa_o mawarmoebliani ki gankuTvneba-Tvisobis aRmniSvnelia da mudam damokidebulia sxva sityvisagan. T.zurabiSvilis azriTac, am afiqsTa gaigiveba umarTebuloa, TviT am afiqsTa sxvadasxvaoba miuTiTebs maT gansxvavebul funqcia-mniSvnelobaze, romelic mkrTalad, magram dResac igrZnoba, m. tuskias azriT ki sa_e da sa_o konfiqsTa dapirispireba arasistemuria da misi ganzogadebis safuZveli ar arsebobs; gaarsebiTebis tendencia aramxolod sa_e-Ti nawarmoeb saxelebs aqvT, aramed saerTod, daniSnulebis saxelebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. zogjer sxvadasxva mawarmoebeli erTsa da imave fuZesTanac gvxvdeba: Zvel qarTulSi: sa-arv-e / sa-arv-o, sa-banak-e / sa-banak-o, sa-yan-e / sa-yan-ur-i, axal qarTulSi: sa-ulvaS-e / sa-ulvaS-o, sabalax-e / s-balax-o, sa-mizn-e/ sa-mizn-o... aseTi SemTxvevebi iSviaTia. Cveulebriv, sxvadasxva konfiqsi erTsa da imave fuZesTan semantikur sxvaobas iZleva. umetesad paralelur formaTagan erTerTi konkretul saxels aRniSnavs da terminad aris qceuli, meore ki zedsarTavs warmoadgens; Sdr: sa-ukun-e (drois monakveTi, romelic as wels Seicavs) da sa-ukun-o (samudamo, samaradiso, mudmivi); sa-nawil-e (ekl. WurWeli wminda nawilebis Sesanaxad) da sa-nawil-o (iseTi ram, raSic ramdenime pirs aqvs wili, saerTo, saziaro,sawilo); sa-Tave (1. adgili, sadac wylis dineba iwyeba; 2. dasawyisi, Tavi risame; 3. mizezi, wyaro, safuZvli risame; 4. Sarvalze an qvedatanze mikerebuli sartyeli) da sa-Tav-o (risame TavSi, dasawyisSi arsebuli), sa-barg-o (bargisTvis gankuTvnili) da sa-barg-ul-i (manqanis bargisTvis gankuTvnili adgili), sa-gza-o da sa-gz-ur-i, sa-xel-o da sa-xel-ur-i... daniSnulebis saxelebis mawarmoebelTagan yvelaze xSirad gvxvdeba sa_o. igi daerTvis TiTqmis yovelgvar saxels, Zireul qarTuls Tu ucxouri warmoSobisas da ZiriTadad zedsarTavebs awarmoebs. sa_o daerTvis arsebiT saxelebs, rogorc martiv, ise nawarmoeb da rTul fuZeebs (sa-bavSv-o, sa-patarZl-o, sa-kredito, sa-sulier-o, sa-ukeTes-o, sa-adgilmamul-o...), zedsarTavebs (sa-aSkara-o...), nacvalsaxelebs (sa-Cem-o, sa-imis-o...), saxelzmnebs (sa-ocneb-o, sa-mlocvel-o...); sa_o SeiZleba daerTos ricxviT

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saxels (sa-erT-o), Tandebuls (sa-Tana-o), nawilaks (sa-Tu-o), zmnisarTs (sa-Sina-o). sa_o mawarmoebeli daerTvis zmnur fuZeebsac (sa-rC-o, sa-bW-o...). es konfiqsi xSirad daerTvis eTnonimebs, gvar-saxelebs da awarmoebs toponimebs: sa-qarTvel-o, sa-maCabl-o, sa-guram-o, sa-ingil-o... sa_o daerTvis rogorc erT, ise mravalmarcvlian fuZeebs, nebismieri xmovniT an TanxmovniT daboloebuls. sa_e Cveulebriv daerTvis arsebiT saxelTa fuZeebs: sa-kac-e, sa-Tav-e, sa-nerge... iSviaTad _ zedsarTavebs: sa-tial-e, sa-veran-e... sa_e yvelaze xSirad daerTvis erT an ormarcvlian fuZeebs (sa-yur-e, sa-kac-e, sa-login-e, sa-maril-e...), iSviaTad gvxvdeba igi nawarmoeb an rTul fuZeebTan (sa-sauzm-e, sa-sikvdil-e, sa-piriswaml-e...). sa_ur konfiqsi dRevandel qarTulSi ar aris aqtiuri mawarmoebeli. am mawarmoebliani daniSnulebis saxelebi ZiriTadad Zveli qarTulidan aris SemorCenili. sa_ur daerTvis erTmarcvlian fuZeebs, ZiriTadad arsebiT saxelebs, iSviaTad _ zedsarTavebs: sa-ganZ-ur-i, sa-gz-ur-i, sa-Ta-ur-i, sa-TiT-ur-i, sa-majur-i, sa-am-ur-i... sa_ur ar gamoiyeneba enaSi ucxo enidan Semosul an axlad damkvidrebul sityvebTan da, saerTod, ar awarmoebs axal saxelebs, Tumca zogjer mas mimarTaven terminebis Sesaqmnelad: sazeT-ur-i, sa-barg-ul-i, sa-magr-ul-i, sa-wveT-ur-i... III. 6.4. xarisxis saxelebi. xarisxis saxelebi zedsarTavi saxelisagan iwarmoeba da gamoxatavs sagnis niSans meti an naklebi odenobiT. xarisxis formebi damyarebulia Zireulisa da warmoqmnilis Sedarebaze. qarTulSi ganarCeven xarisxis sam formas: dadebiTs (TeTr-i), ufroobiTs (u-TeTr-es-i) da odnaobiTs (moTeTr-o). zogierT enaSi (mag. berZnulSi, laTinurSi, rusulSi) dadebiTi xarisxis sapirispirod raime Tvisebis meti odenobiT gamosaxatavad ori forma iwarmoeba: SedarebiTi (komparativi) da aRmatebiTi (superlativi), qarTulSi ki (iseve, rogorc arabulSi) _ erTi. esaa ufroobiTi (elatiuri) forma, romelic sagnis raime Tvisebas meti odenobiT gamoxatavs: u-lamaz-es-i, ukeT-es-i, u-axl-es-i da a. S. (a. SaniZe).

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aRniSnaven, rom mimarTeba ufroobiTi formisa dadebiTisadmi iseTi ar aris, rogorc odnaobiTisa imave dadebiTisadmi: sagnis Tvisebas ufroobiTi gamoxatavs meti odenobiT ganusazRvrelad, odnaobiTi ki _ naklebi odenobiT, magram erTgvari gansazRvriT: miaxloebiT, odnav: momJavo-odnav mJave, mocxelo _ odnav cxeli (a. SaniZe). is, rom ufroobiTi xarisxis formebi gamoxatavs met odenobas ganusazRvrelad, ufro Zvel qarTuls exeba, magaliTad, umaRl-es-i niSnavs meoreze ufro maRalsac da yvelaze maRalsac, u-ufro-es-i aris sxvaze ufro metic da uxucesic, yvelaze ufrosi; Tanamedrove qarTulSi ki u_es mawarmoebliani formebi gamoxataven raime Tvisebas yvelaze meti odenobiT. yvelaze lamazi, yvelaze swrafi da amis msgavsi Sinaarsis gadmosacemad gvaqvs u-lamaz-es-i, u-swraf-es-i da a. S. sxvasTan SedarebiT meti odenoba ki gadmoicema ZiriTadad aRweriTad: ufro lamazi, ufro swrafi... u_es konfiqsi ufroobiTi xarisxis saxelebs awarmoebs yvelaze xSirad pirveladi anu viTarebiTi zedsarTavebisagan: uwiTl-es-i, u-magr-es-i, u-mZim-es-i, u-did-es-i... agreTve nazmnari zedsarTavebis, zogi ricxviTi saxelisa da zmnisarTisagan, roca maT viTarebiTi zedsarTavis funqcia aqvT miRebuli: u-mjob-es-i, u-mwif-es-i, u-brwyinval-es-i, u-ganaTlebul-es-i, u-pirvel-es-i, u-mravl-es-i, u-zena-es-i... nawarmoebi zedsarTavebisgan aris miRebuli ufroobiTi xarisxis formebi: u-patiosn-es-i, u-niWier-es-i, u-ugnur-es-i... rTuli fuZeebisagan aris warmoqmnili: u-erTgules-i, u-keTilSobil-es-i... ufroobiTi xarisxis ramdenime formaSi gvaqvs u_os mawarmoebeli: u-fr-os-i, u-mcr-os-i, Zv. qarT. u-tkb-os-i, u-msx-os-i (u-msxv-es-i)... zogjer SeiniSneba u- prefiqsis ormagi gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi, rac gvxvdeba zogjer sasaubro metyvelebasa da mxatvrul literaturaSi: u-u-lamaz-es-i, u-u-did-es-i. aseTi formebi xelovnuria da maT gaZlierebul ufroobiTs uwodeben. xarisxis mawarmoebelTa genezisis sakiTxs rac Seexeba, sayuradReboa, rom Zveli qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo u_e afiqsebiani warmoeba (u-marTl-e, u-naTl-e...), romelic SemorCenilia Tanamedrove qarTulis zog dialeqtSi, kerZod, zemo ime-

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rulSi (u-maRl-e, u-xn-e...). amave dros Zvel qarTulSi gvxvdeboda u_o afiqsebiani warmoebac (u-mcr-o = ufro mcire, u-tkb-o = ufro tkbili). varaudoben, rom xarisxis pirvandeli afiqsebia: u_e, u_o, sufiqsi -is ki warmoSobiT naTesaobiTi brunvis niSania: -e-is > -es (u-did-es-i), aseve: -o-is > -os (u-mcr-os-i). varaudoben, rom oden -e sufiqsiani warmoeba micemiT brunvian saxelTan gvqonda (`ra uarea mamacsa~), -e-is sufiqsiani ki _ naTesaobiTSi dasmulTan (raa uaresi mamacisa) (t. gudava, T. zurabiSvili). rac Seexeba u- prefiqss, iTvleba, rom igi imave warmoSobisaa, rac sasxviso qcevis niSani u- (i. yifSiZe, a. SaniZe). ase rom u-did-e-is nawarmoebia zmnuri u-did-e formisagan. ivaraudeba, rom arsebobda m-i-did-e (Cemze didi), g-i-did-e (Senze didi) formebi. xanmet teqstebSi ufroobiTi xarisxis formebi nawarmoebia xu_eis, haemet teqstebSi ki _ hu_eis/es afiqsebiT. rac Seexeba odnaobiTi xarisxis formebs, isini qarTulSi naklebad gamoiyeneba. zogi zedsarTavisagan ufroobiTi xarisxis formebi gvaqvs, odnaobiTisa ki _ ara. gvaqvs, magaliTad, u-axles-i, u-mSvenier-es-i, magram ara gvaqvs maTi Sesatyvisi odnaobiTi xarisxis formebi. odnaobiTi xarisxis formebs (mo-did-o, mo-mwar-o, wa-yviTal-o...) zogi mkvlevari xarisxad ar miiCnevs, radgan aq ara gvaqvs arc niSanTa iseTi Sedareba da arc iseTi sintaqsuri konstruqcia, rogoric SedarebiTi xarisxisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli (g. rogava, T. zurabiSvili). fiqroben, rom mo-, wa- prefiqsebi warmoSobiT igivea, rac saTanado zmniswinebi (a. SaniZe). Zvel qarTulSi mo_o-sTan erTad iSviaTad gvxvdeba mo_e konfiqsic: mo-TeTr-o/mo-TeTr-e, mo-wiTl-e... -el da -il sufiqsian saxelebs mo_o-s darTvisas SordebaT sufiqsi: mo-msx-o, mo-tkb-o, mo-grZ-o... sasaubro metyvelebaSi mo_o ifarToebs gamoyenebis ares da im pirs aRniSnavs, romelsac cotaTi axasiaTebs zedsarTavis fuZiT aRniSnuli Tviseba an cotaTi aris msgavsi fuZiT dasaxelebuli sagnisa da movlenisa: mo-maRl-o, mo-Ster-o, mo-sulelo, mo-ZvelbiW-o... aseTi formebi gvxvdeba mxatvruli literaturis enaSic.

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wa_o-Ti nawarmoebi saxelebi saliteraturo enaSi Zalze iSviaTia, gvxvdeba aRm. saqarTvelos dialeqtebSi, ZiriTadad feris aRmniSvnel saxelebTan: wa-lurj-o, wa-wiTal-o... qarTulSi ara gvaqvs TanabrobiTi xarisxis formebi, romlebic damaxasiaTebelia megrulisaTvis: ma-Sxv-a=ise msxvili, rogorc... ma-ginZ-a=ise grZeli, rogorc... msgavsi TanabrobiTi zedsarTavebi, g. rogavas azriT, qarTulsac unda hqonoda, romelTa gaqvavebuli formebia m_e konfiqsiani zedsarTavi saxelebi: mwar-e, m-Jav-e, m-laS-e, m-Zim-e, m-Cat-e, m-tkic-e da sxv. TanabrobiTi xarisxis mniSvnelobiT qarTuli zog si_e konfiqsiT nawarmoeb abstraqtul saxels iyenebs, romlebic Sesadarebeli sagnis saxels naTesaobiT brunvaSi moiTxovs: kacis simaRle, TiTis sigrZe da a. S. III. 6.5. warmomavlobis saxelebi. erTi wyeba sufiqsebisa: -el, -ur, -iur, -eul, -del, -mdel aRniSnaven adamianis an sagnis sadaurobas, warmomavlobas. warmomavlobis gamoxatva am sufiqsebis ZiriTadi daniSnulebaa, zog SemTxvevaSi ki isini sxva funqciiTac gvxvdeba. yvelaze xSirad CamoTvlili sufiqsebidan gvxvdeba -el da -ur. pirveli adamianis sadauroba-warmomavlobas gamoxatavs, meore _ araadamianisas. amgvari ganawileba meoreuli gramatikuli movlenaa (arn. Ciqobava, k. dondua). amas adasturebs sxvadasxva dialeqtis monacemebi, toponimebi da anTroponimebi. -el sufiqsi daerTvis adgilis aRmniSvnel saxelebs da gamoxatavs dasaxelebuli adgilis mkvidrs: Tbilis-el-i, Telavel-i, evrop-el-i, german-el-i, qalaq-el-i, sofl-el-i... igi daerTvis rogorc martiv, ise rTul fuZeebs: zemoubn-el-i, ucxoplanet-el-i... zog geografiul saxels, romlebic -eT an -is mawarmoebliT aris gaformebuli, -el erTvis pirdapir fuZeze: kax-el-i (Sdr. kax-eT-i), duS-el-i (Sdr.duS-eT-i), wavk-el-i (Sdr. wavk-isi)... aseTi warmoeba damaxasiaTebeli iyo Zveli qarTulisaTvis, axal qarTulSi ki topoformantebi xSirad SenarCunebulia. Zvel qarTulSi gvqonda: Tbil-el-i, quTaT-el-i, Tian-el-i... axal qarTulSi gvaqvs: Tbil-is-el-i, quTa-is-el-i, Tian-eT-el-i...

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vinmes mimdevrobis gamoxatvasTan aris dakavSirebuli -el sufiqsis sxva, gvian SeZenili funqcia _ gamoxatos romelime jgufis warmomadgenloba, vinmes xeloba, saqmianoba: ucxo-el-i, razm-el-i, klas-el-i, skol-el-i, maRaro-el-i, CogburT-el-i, fexburT-el-i, polici-el-i da a. S. etimologiuri kvlevis Sedegad -el sufiqsi gamoyofilia Semdeg fuZeebSi: uR-el-i (Sdr. megruli uR-u), beR-el-i (Sdr. megruli baR-u), maspinZ-el-i (Sdr. aspinZa _ `gzaTa Sesayarze mdebare sastumro, sadguri~). -el sufiqsTan aris dakavSirebuli -del sufiqsi, romlis pirveli nawili, -d, rogorc fiqroben, aris dR-is naSTi (dRel-i > del-i) (a. SaniZe). es sufiqsi ixmareba drois aRmniSvnel sityvebTan: guSin, dRes, weRan, SarSan, uwin da a. S. viRebT: guSin-del-i, dRevan-del-i/dRein-del-i, weRan-del-i, SarSan-del-i, uwin-del-i da a. S. -del daerTvis rogorc martiv, ise rTul fuZeebs: amJamin-del-i, guSinwin-del-i... -el Sedis agreTve -mdel sufiqsSi, romelic -mde Tandebulisa da -el-is SerwymiT aris miRebuli: mde-el-i > mdel-i: revolucia-mdel-i, wveva-mdel-i...TanxmovanfuZian saxelebTan -mde-s win uZRvis -a, romelic viTarebiTi brunvis niSnis naSTia: om-a-mdel-i < om-ad-mdel-i. -mdel sufiqsi gamoxatavs drois TvalsazrisiT warmomavlobas, vin jgufis saxelebTan aRniSnavs asaks, ra jgufis saxelebTan _ gansazRvrul droSi arsebobas: skolamdeli asakis bavSvebi, omamdeli ambavi. warmomavlobis saxelebis mawarmoebelTagan -el sufiqsis msgavsad xSiri gamoyenebisaa -ur sufiqsi, romelic adgilis saxelebs daerTvis da ra jgufis saxelebs awarmoebs: qalaq-ur-i, fSa-ur-i, Tbilis-ur-i, inglis-ur-i... rae-narev fuZeebTan disimilaciiT vRebulobT -ul-s: qarT-ul-i, german-ul-i, amerik-ul-i... adgilis saxelebis garda -ur daerTvis zmnisarTebs da kiTxviT sityvas _ sad: aqa-ur-i, iqa-ur-i, sada-ur-i... zogjer iseve, rogorc -el-is darTvisas, -ur sufiqsi Zveli warmoebis Tanaxmad daerTvis -eT da -is sufiqsebiT gaformebuli saxelebis fuZeebs am mawarmoebelTa gareSe: duS-eT-i _ duS-ur-i, urbn-is-i _ urbn-ul-i...

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aRsaniSnavia, rom -ur sufiqsiani warmoeba zogjer vin jgufis saxelebTanac gvxvdeba. mxolod -ur sufiqsiania zmnisarTebisagan nawarmoebi formebi, romlebic adamianTa warmomavlobasac gamoxataven da araadamianTa warmomavlobasac: aqauri, mandauri, sadauri. aseve -ur vin jgufis saxelebis sadaurobas gamoxatavs zog saxelSi: gur-ul-i, quTaT-ur-i... aseTi formebi damaxasiaTebelia zogi dialeqtisaTvis: afxuSo-ur-i (fS.), garej-ul-i, kakab-ur-i (kax.). es formebi imis maCvenebelia, rom -el da -ur afiqsTa ganawileba vin da ra jgufis saxelebTan gviandeli gramatikuli movlenaa. amas adasturebs mTis dialeqtebSi gavrcelebuli anTroponimebi: zviada-ur-i, Rinj-ur-i, gogoT-ur-i... da gvaris saxelebi: WinWara-ul-i, gabu-ur-i, qeTela-ur-i, gogolaur-i, wikla-ur-i... gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom -ur sufiqsis Tavdapirveli funqcia kuTvnilebis gamoxatva unda yofiliyo, razec miuTiTebs am sufiqsiT nawarmoebi toponimebi: gogola-ur-i, anane-uleb-i... es toponimebi miRebulia adamianTa sakuTar saxelebze -ur mawarmoeblis darTviT da am saxelebiT aRniSnuli adamianebisadmi kuTvnil adgilebs aRniSnavs (g. xornauli). -ur (disimilaciiT -ul) daerTvis rogorc qarTul, ise ucxo warmomavlobis arsebiT saxelebs da saTanado niSan-Tvisebebis gamomxatvel zedsarTav saxelebs awarmoebs: kac-ur-i, bavSvur-i, mxatvr-ul-i, araadamian-ur-i, zedapir-ul-i, giJ-ur-i... kidev ufro gaaaqtiura es sufiqsi mTargmnelobiTma praqtikam. -ur daubrkoleblad gamoiyeneba qarTulSi Semosul ucxo terminebTan: proza-ul-i, gramatik-ul-i, polemik-ur-i, paTetik-ur-i da a. S. -ur sufiqsis -iv moqmedebiTi brunvis Zvel niSanze darTviT miRebulia -iur mawarmoebeli, romelic ramdenime sityvaSia Semonaxuli: amqveyn-iur-i, mz-iur-i, c-iur-i... -iur daerTvis arsebiTi saxelis fuZes da gamoxatavs msgavsebas an raime Tvisebis mqoneblobas: marad-iul-i, miT-iur-i, mSobl-iur-i, wr-iul-i... am sufiqsis Tavdapirveli funqcia, iseve rogorc -ur sufiqsisa, kuTvnileba-warmomavlobis gamoxatva unda yofiliyo, romlis modifikaciis Sedegia msgavseba-Tvisebis gamoxatva. drois aRmniSvnel sityvebze -iur sufiqsis darTva periodulad mimdinare

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movlenebs gamoxatavs: dR-iur-i, wl-iur-i, Tv-iur-i, rac aseve kuTvnilebis funqcias unda ukavSirdebodes. ramdenime saxelSi gamoiyofa -eur _ rTuli Sedgenilobis sufiqsi: -ev-ur > -eur: col-eur-i, yvel-eur-i, xel-eur-i... am saxelebSi -eur sufiqsis funqcia axlosaa gankuTvnebis, warmomavlobis gamoxatvasTan. warmomavlobis, kuTvnilebis gamomxatvelia -eul sufiqsi (ev-ul > eul). igi am funqciiT gvxvdeba Zvel qarTulSi: eSmakeul-i, dil-eul-i... es sufiqsi ufro xSirad sxva funqciiT gamoiyeneboda. igi daerTvoda rogorc saxelur, ise zmnur fuZeebs da gamoxatavda raime sagnis an Tvisebis mqoneblobas (eWueul-i, bral-eul-i, Rirs-eul-i, patiJ-eul-i = sasjeldadebuli, bral-eul-i...). zogi am saxelTagan Tanamedrove qarTulsac SemorCa (sn-eul-i, grZn-eul-i...). zogjer igi gamoxatavda krebiTobas (samarx-eul-i, saxl-eul-i...). Tanamedrove qarTulSic arsebiT saxelTa fuZeze darTuli -eul sufiqsi gamoxatavs krebiTobas erTi niSniT gaerTianebuli sagnebisas da am funqciiT igi gansakuTrebiT aqtiurad gamoiyeneba: xil-eul-i, Tevz-eul-i, bostneul-i, rkin-eul-i, bewv-eul-i... ricxviT saxelebze darTuli -eul gamoxatavs garkveuli sagnebisa da adamianebis Semcvelobas, erTianobas: sam-eul-i, as-eul-i, aTas-eul-i. Tanamedrove qarTulSi -eul daerTvis umTavresad naTesaobiTi brunvis formas da kuTvnileba-warmomavlobas aRniSnavs: ded-is-eul-i, qmr-is-eul-i, cxovreb-is-eul-i... igi gamoiyeneba sakuTar saxelebTanac: Tamar-is-eul-i, nino-s-eul-i, merab-is-eul-i... aseve kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelebTan: Cem-eul-i, mis-eul-i, Tqveneul-i. iSviaTad imave Sinaarsis gamosaxatavad -eul daerTvis arsebiTi saxelis fuZes brunvis niSnis gareSec: mamapap-eul-i. SedgenilobiT -eul rTuli sufiqsia: ev-ul > eul. amgvarad, warmomavlobis aRmniSvneli sufiqsebia ZiriTadad -el da -ur, agreTve sxva mawarmoeblebze maTi darTviT miRebuli rTuli sufiqsebi: -del, -mdel, -iur da -eul. warmomavlobis garda isini gamoxataven mqoneblobas, msgavsebas, kuTvnilebas, krebiTobas. am mawarmoebelTa gamoyeneba sxvadasxva semantikuri gadaxriT ar aris daSorebuli misi ZiriTadi funqciisagan.

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III. 6.6. abstraqtuli saxelebi. abstraqtul cnebaTa aRmniSvneli saxelebi iwarmoeba -oba, -eba da si_e, si_o afiqsebiT. isini ganawilebulia sxvadasxva fuZesTan da maTi Canacvleba Cveulebriv ar xdeba. unda aRiniSnos, rom Zveli qarTulis viTareba sxvagvari iyo, sadac -eba sufiqsi gamoiyeneboda, iq Tanamedrove qarTulSi -oba gvaqvs da piriqiT, aseve zog saxelTan rom prefiqs-sufiqsi gamoiyeneboda, dRes sufiqsuri warmoeba gvaqvs. Zvel qarTulSi -eba sufiqsiT da si_e-Ti nawarmoebi formebi ufro produqtiuli iyo, axal qarTulSi ki abstraqtul saxelTa mawarmoeblebs Soris yvelaze xSirad gamoiyeneba oba sufiqsi. Tanamedrove qarTulSi abstraqtulobis mawarmoebeli -oba daerTvis: a) moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris mimReobebs: damajerebl-oba, Semrigebl-oba, vardnil-oba... b) arsebiT saxelebs: kac-oba, Wabuk-oba, amxanag-oba... g) zedsarTav saxelebs: pataraoba, verag-oba, mxne-oba... d) ricxviT saxelebs: erT-oba... e) nacvalsaxelebs: me-oba, vina-oba, ra-oba... -oba SesaZlebelia daerTos zmnizedasa da nawilaksac ki: Sina-oba, ho-oba... -oba sufiqsi garda ganyenebul cnebaTa gamomxatveli saxelebisa sxva funqciiTac gvxvdeba: igi daerTvis arsebiTi saxelebis fuZes da gamoxatavs krebiTobas: student-oba, biWbuW-oba, mezobl-oba, axalgazrd-oba... es saxelebi abstraqtulia Tu krebiTi, amas konteqsti ganarCevs: es kaci axalgazrdobaSi sportsmeni iyo _ am winadadebaSi axalgazrdoba abstraqtuli saxelia, xolo aseT SemTxvevaSi _ aq axalgazrdoba ikribeba, axalgazrdoba krebiTia. -oba-Ti iwarmoeba agreTve religiuri dResaswaulebis, saxalxo dResaswaulebis, ritualebis aRmniSvneli saxelebi: giorg-oba, Tamar-oba, alilo-oba da a. S. -oba warmoSobiT rTuli sufiqsia: -ob Temis niSania, -a ki _ masdaris mawarmoebeli: megobr-ob-s _ megobr-oba, mtr-ob-s _ mtr-oba, mezobl-ob-s _ mezobl-oba... Semdgom moxda -oba-s ganzogadeba. TandaTan igi calke sufiqsad Camoyalibda da daerTo iseT fuZeebsac, romelTa Zirisagan zmna ar iwarmoeba: dReoba, wyaldidoba, batonymoba da a. S. Semdgom ki -oba sufiqsma krebiTobis Sinaarsic SeiZina.

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-oba sufiqsi daerTvis nebismier xmovansa da Tanxmovanze daboloebul fuZes, erTmarcvliansa da mravalmarcvlians. -oba mawarmoebeli daerTvis rogorc qarTul, ise ucxo warmoSobis saxelTa fuZeebs: aqtiv-oba, banalur-oba, popular-oba... igi daerTvis rogorc martiv, ise warmoqmnil fuZeebs: TavSekaveb-uloba, me-patron-e-oba, sa-marTli-ian-oba... -eba mawarmoebelic -oba-s msgavsad Sedgenilia -eb Temis niSnisa da masdaris -a formantisagan. erTvis sagnis Tvisebis an raime maxasiaTeblis gamomxatvel fuZeebs: a) vnebiTi gvaris mimReobebs: mwuxar-eba, valdebul-eba, midrekil-eba... b) zedsarTavebs: borot-eba, Zlier-eba... g) arsebiT saxelebs: RvTa-eba, surnel-eba... d) ricxviT saxelebs: sam-eba, e) nacvalsaxelebs: Tviseba, v) zmnisarTebs: viTar-eba... -eba sufiqsi daerTvis romelime Tanxmovanze an o xmovanze daboloebul fuZeebs, umetesad mravalmarcvlianebs da iSviaTad _ erTmarcvlianebs (Sno-eba, dro-eba...). -eba-Ti nawarmoebia rogorc martivi, ise rTuli fuZeebi (sax-eba, sam-eba, keTilxm-ovaneba, bedn-ier-eba). -eba darTul rTul fuZeTa umetesoba -ian da -ovan mawarmoebliT miRebuli saxelebia. Cveulebriv, -oba sufiqsisa da -eba-s gamoyeneba ama Tu im fuZesTan gansazRvrulia. isini sxvadasxva fuZesTan gamoiyeneba, magram zogjer erTsa da imave fuZesTanac gvxvdeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi Cndeba semantikuri sxvaobis damyarebis tendencia: ars-eba _ 1. rac arsebobs, 2. arsi, buneba da ars-oba _ arsebobisTvis saWiro sazrdo. abstraqtul saxelTa mawarmoebeli si_e da si_o konfiqsebi erTvis ZiriTadad viTarebiT an mimarTebiT zedsarTav saxelTa fuZes: si-cocxl-e, si-keT-e, si-Tb-o, si-tkb-o, si-amay-e... zogjer -il da -ul sufiqsebian zedsarTavebTan gamoyenebisas -il, -ul sufiqsebi fuZes Sordeba da erTvis si_e an si_o konfiqsiseuli -e an -o sufiqsi: grZ-el-i _ si-grZ-e, Tb-il-i _ siTb-o. si_o mawarmoebeli erTvis mxolod ramdenime fuZes, ZiriTadad im fuZeebs, romelTac bolokidurad bagismieri b an umarcvlo u moudiT: si-Tb-o, si-tkb-o, si-lb-o, si-msx-o... si_e da -oba zogjer erTsa da imave fuZes erTvis. aseTia asze meti fuZe: si-yoCaR-e _ yoCaR-oba, si-laR-e _ laR-oba, siZunw-e _ Zunw-oba da a. S. maTgan marTebul formebad umetesad

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miCneulia si_e-Ti nawarmoebi formebi, radgan -oba mawarmoebliani formebi emTxveva amave fuZisagan nawarmoeb sawyisebs. iSviaTia iseTi SemTxvevebi, roca si_e-s paralelurad gvxvdeba -eba: si-borot-e _ borot-eba, si-myudrov-e _ myudro-eba, si-Zlier-e _ Zlier-eba... paralelur formaTagan upiratesoba eniWeba -eba mawarmoeblian saxels. III. 6.7. xelobis (profesiis) saxelebi. erTi jgufi saxelebisa me_e, me_ur(me_ul), mo_e konfiqsebiT aris nawarmoebi da aRniSnavs saxelis fuZiT gamoxatul saganTan an movlenasTan dakavSirebul adamians: me-nav-e, me-anabr-e, me-ocneb-e, me-bad-ur-i, me-zRva-ur-i, mo-val-e... am jgufSi Sesulia Sinaarsobrivad mravalferovani saxelebi: raime saqmianobis mimdevari (me-baR-e, meTevz-e, me-venax-e...), raimes mflobeli (me-duqn-e, me-mamul-e, mewil-e...), raime niSniT gamorCeuli (me-winav-e, me-Zvir-e...). maTgan yvelaze metia saqmianobis, profesiis gamomxatveli saxelebi da amitom am jgufis saxelebs xelobis saxelebs uwodeben. me_e konfiqsi daerTvis ZiriTadad arsebiT saxelebs, rogorc xmovan- ise TanxmovanfuZeebs. me_e ucxouri warmoSobis saxelebsac daerTvis: me-model-e, me-pai-e... me_ur (rae-narev fuZeebTan me_ul) konfiqsiani saxelebi naklebad aris gavrcelebuli. me_ur daerTvis ZiriTadad erTmarcvlian da ormarcvlian saxelebs: me-zRva-ur-i, me-sve-ur-i, me-Ta-ur-i, me-did-ur-i, me-ZuZ-ur-i. maTi nawili Zvel qarTulSivea Seqmnili. Zvelad es konfiqsi saxelzmnebisaganac awarmoebda axal saxelebs: me-sm-ur-i, me-rwy-ul-i, romlebic mimReobur formebs uaxlovdeba. Tanamedrove qarTulSi me_ur konfiqsi naklebad awamoebs axal fuZeebs. zogjer mas mimarTaven terminTa sawarmoeblad: me-rgol-ur-i, me-koSk-ur-i, me-Tof-ur-i... Zalian mcire raodenobiT gvxvdeba mo_e mawarmoebliani saxelebi: mo-nadir-e, mo-zav-e, mo-en-e, mo-Txilamur-e... es saxelebi warmoebiT da mniSvnelobiT imdenad axlos arian saSuali gvaris mimReobebTan (mo-bibin-e, mo-curav-e, mo-cigav-e...), rom saxelisa da zmnisagan miRebuli formebis gamijvna yovelTvis ar xerxdeba (arn. Ciqobava). am mimReobaTa nawili gasubstantivebulia (moyvar-e, mo-nadir-e...), ramac xeli Seuwyo mo_e konfiqsian xelobis saxelTa jgufis zrdas (m. tuskia).

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me_e da mo_e mawarmoeblebi zogjer erTsa da imave fuZesTan gvxvdeba erTi da imave mniSvnelobiT: me-qaravn-e, mo-qaravn-e, me-zar-e, mo-zar-e... zogjer ki paralelur formebs semantikuri gansxvaveba axasiaTebT: me-sazRvr-e da mo-sazRvr-e, me-sakuTr-e da mo-sakuTr-e, me-val-e da mo-val-e... III. 6.8. adgilis gamomxatveli saxelebi. warmoqmnil saxelebs Soris erTi jgufi adgilis gamomxatveli saxelebia. samecniero literaturaSi aseTi saxelebis nawils (mag., -ob sufiqsian saxelebs) zogjer geografiul saxelebTan erTad ganixilaven (m. tuskia), nawil ki (-nar sufiqsian saxelebs) calke jgufad gamoyof mcenareTa krebulis saxelebad (a. SaniZe, m. tuskia). ramdenadac rogorc -ob sufiqsiani, ise -nar-iT nawarmoebi saxelebi adgils aRniSnaven, maT calke gamovyofT adgilis gamomxatvel saxelebad. -nar (r- narev fuZeebTan nal-) daerTvis arsebiTi saxelis fuZes da gamoxatavs adgils, sadac mravlad moipoveba fuZiT aRniSnuli sagani. es sufiqsi gvxvdeba ZiriTadad mcenareTa saxelebTan: mux-nar-i, naZvn-ar-i, kopit-nar-i, vard-nar-i, wabl-nar-i, ary-nal-i, ifn-(n)ar-i, buCq-nar-i, yvavil-nar-i, baR-nar-i... aseTive warmoeba gvaqvs raime sxva sagnis simravliT gamorCeuli adgilis aRmniSvnel saxelebSic: qviS-nar-i, Tix-nar-i, qvav-nar-i... gvaqvs araerTi SemTxveva, roca -nar mawarmoebliT miRebuli saxeli iqca geografiul saxelad: dafnari, bardnala, qvarnala (qval-nara), muxrani (mux-nar-i) da a. S. varaudoben, rom -nar rTuli Sedgenilobis sufiqsia, miRebulia -n mravlobiTobis sufiqsisa da -ar krebiTobis gamomxatveli sufiqsis SerwymiT: n_ar > nar. adgilis saxelTa mawarmoebelia agreTve -ob sufiqsi, romelic gamoxatavs raime niSniT, TvisebiT gamorCeul adgils: maRlob-i, dabl-ob-i, Rrant-ob-i, taf-ob-i, gverd-ob-i, ferd-ob-i... -ob sufiqsiani warmoeba gvxvdeba samecniero terminologiaSi: rbil-ob-i, farT-ob-i, navT-ob-i, qan-ob-i, kuTx-ob-i da a. S. fiqroben, rom -ob-is Tavdapirveli funqcia simravle-krebiTobis aRniSvna unda yofiliyo. samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom -ob sufiqsis cveTiT aris miRebuli -o sufiqsi, romelic adgil-

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mdebareobis gamomxatvel zog saxelSi gvxvdeba: gverd-o, ferd-o, gril-o, lenWy-o, Cer-o, Rrant-o... (i. qavTaraZe, m. tuskia). III. 6.9. geografiuli saxelebi. geografiuli saxelebi qarTulSi sxvadasxva warmoSobisaa: nawils safuZvlad udevs mcenaris, cxovelis, frinvelis, mineralis Tu sxva sagnis saxeli (muxaTi, rkoni, koSkebi, bagebi, qvebi...); nawili ama Tu im gvarisagan aris warmomdgari (kaiSaurni, vaCnaZiani...); gavrcelebulia agreTve msazRvrel-sazRvruliT miRebuli kompozitebi, romelTa meore nawili adgilis aRmniSvneli an sxva sazogado saxelia: qalaqi, daba, sofeli, ubani..., pirveli nawili ki mis msazRvrels warmoadgens (axalsofeli, cixisZiri, lamisyana...). toponimikur saxelTa warmoebis sxvadasxva modeli Seswavlili da gamovlenilia a.SaniZis, al. Rlontis, z. WumburiZis, g. bedoSvilis, T. zurabiSvilis, f. makalaTias da sxva mkvlevarTa mier. rogorc a. SaniZe aRniSnavs, yovelgvari sazogado saxeli SeiZleba miekuTvnos romelime dasaxlebul punqts da iqces geografiul saxelad. ganvixilavT nawarmoeb geografiul saxelebs. geografiul saxelTa sawarmoeblad gamoyenebulia afiqsebi, romlebic sxvadasxva funqciiT gvxvdeba warmoqmnil sazogado saxelebSi, kerZod, mqonelobis -ian, -ovan sufiqsebi (wifliani, vaSlovani...), winaviTarebis na_ar, na_ur, na_ev afiqsebi (nataxtari, nadaburi, navenaxevi...), daniSnulebis sa_e, sa_o, sa_is, sa_ur afiqsebi (sairme, sakerpo, saorbisi, sabaduri...). bevri geografiuli saxeli nagenetivaria (quTaisi, manglisi, Sindisi...). sakuTriv geografiul saxelTa mawarmoeblebia: -eT, -iT, sa_eT, sa_is afiqsebi. -eT bolosarTi yvelaze gavrcelebulia dasaxelebul afiqsTa Soris. igi erTvis sazogado arsebiT saxelebs: tb-eT-i, orb-eT-i, qor-eT-i, Tel-eT-i...; tomobriv da eTnikur saxelebs: xevsur-eT-i, svan-eT-i, tajik-eT-i, somx-eT-i, arab-eT-i...; gvarsaxelebs: simon-eT-i, darCi-eT-i... Zveli qarTulidan cnobilia liparit-eT-i, mariam-eT-a... -eT sufiqsiT toponimebis garda nawarmoebia qveynis mxareTa saxelebi: aRmosavl-eT-i, dasavl-eT-i, Crdilo-eT-i, samxr-eT-i da adgil-samyofelis aRmniSvneli sxva sazogado saxelebi: Suamdinar-eT-i, iatakqveS-eT-i, bnel-eT-i, sul-eT-i, xmel-eT-i, mou-

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savl-eT-i... amgvari formebis analogiiT Seiqmna zogi poeturi licencia, romlebic mxatvrul literaturaSi gvxvdeba: gz-eT-i, (vefx.), smaWam-eT-i, fSav-eT-i, wyl-eT-i (vaJa). saxeli, romelsac -eT daerTvis, SeiZleba iyos nawarmoebi: mousavl-eT-i, an rTuli: Sua-mdinar-eT-i, sma-Wam-eT-i... -eT istoriulad awarmoebda krebiTi mravlobiTis formebs: pavle-eT-i=pavle da misi mimdevarni, es mniSvneloba SemorCenilia zog dialeqtSi, kerZod, raWulSi (biZeeTi=biZaSvilebi). rogorc Cans, -eT sufiqsis Tavdapirveli funqcia unda yofiliyo, aReniSna raimes an vinmes mravlad myofobis adgili (n. mari, arn. Ciqobava). s. janaSia da v. Tofuria -eT mawarmoebels geneturad mravlobiTobis -T(eT) daboloebas ukavSireben. v. Tofurias azriT, geografiul saxelad gvqonda msazRvrel-sazRvruli, romlis pirveli komponenti Taniani mravlobiTis naTesaobiTi brunvis forma iyo da sazRvrulis dakargvis Semdeg toponimad mxolod igi darCa. ramdenime geografiul saxelSi gvaqvs -iT daboloeba, romelic a. SaniZes -eT bolosarTis variantad miaCnia. es saxelebia: somx-iT-i, bor-iT-i, mol-iT-i, beRl-iT-i, xre-iT-i... sa_eT konfiqsiT aris nawarmoebi: sa-berZn-eT-i, sa-frangeT-i, sa-sir-eT-i... sa_eT konfiqsi gvxvdeba ramdenime sazogado saxelSic: sa-giJ-eT-i, sa-mgl-eT-i... sa_eT mawarmoeblis -eT igivea, rac damoukideblad arsebuli -eT, sa- ki daniSnulebis mawarmoebeli prefiqsia. sa- prefiqsTan erTad gvxvdeba sxva sufiqsebic: -is (sa-cxenis-i, sa-orb-is-i...); -e (sa-mcx-e, sa-mSvild-e...); -o (sa-qarTvel-o, sa-megrel-o...). III. 6.10. rigobiTi da wilobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi. rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi iwarmoeba ricxviTi saxelebis fuZeze me_e konfiqsis darTviT: me-or-e, me-aT-e, me-aTas-e... da-Ti dakavSirebul rTulfuZian saxelebSi me- TavsarTi daerTvis da-s Semdeg mdgom saxels: oc-da-me-erT-e, ormoc-da-me-Cvidmet-e da a. S. gansxvavebuli warmoebisaa erTi raodenobiTi saxelis rigobiTi forma pirveli, romelsac fuZed piri saxeli aqvs, pirveli = pirisaken mdgomi (a. SaniZe), me-erT-e ki gamoyenebulia rTul saxelebSi: ocda-me-erT-e, as-me-erT-e...

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wilobiT ricxviT saxelTa sawarmoeblad rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelis viTarebiTi brunvis forma aris gamoyenebuli: me-oTx-e-di, me-aT-e-d-i... ricxviT saxels _ meoredi enacvleba naxevari. Zvel qarTulSi wilobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi iwarmoeboda aRweriTad: mexuTe nawili, an -eul, na_al afiqsebiT: xuT-euli, aT-eul-i... na-oTx-al-i... amgvari warmoeba dRes mxolod dialeqtebSia SemorCenili. Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi -eul mawarmoebliani ricxviTi saxelebi gamoxatavs Semcvelobas: sameul-i = samis Semcveli, aTas-eul-i = aTasis Semcveli... na_al afiqsuri warmoebis ricxviTi saxelebi ki saliteraturo enaSi aRar SemorCa. III. 6.11. wina viTarebis saxelebi. warmoqmnil saxelTa Soris gamoiyofa erTi jgufi saxelebisa, romlebic na_ar (na_al), na_ev (na_eb), na_ur, na- mawarmoeblebiT aris warmoqmnili. es saxelebi gamoxataven raime saxis wina viTarebas, kerZod, gamoxataven a) sagans, pirs, romelic uwin igive iyo, rac ZireuliT aris gadmocemuli: na-col-ar-i, na-ym-ev-i, na-mwyems-ar-i... b) adgils, sadac uwin is sagani iyo, rac ZireuliT aris gadmocemuli: na-qalaqar-i, na-saxl-ar-i, na-tyvi-ar-i... g) sagans, pirs, romelic im adgilas iyo, romelzec Zireuli saxeli miuTiTebs: na-cimbir-al-i, nacix-ar-i, na-front-al-i... d) dros, romelic gamoxatavs, rom ZireuliT gadmocemuli xani ukve Cavlilia: na-SuaRam-ev-i, na-SuadG-ev-i... aseTi saxelebis umetesoba zmnizedurad aris gamoyenebuli: na-saRamo-ev-s, na-sadil-ev-s, na-vaxSm-ev-s... e) raimes nawils, ZireuliT gamoxatuli sagnis narCens: na-sufr-al-i, na-wib-ur-i... na- prefiqsuli warmoeba gamoiyeneba terminTa Sesaqmnelad: na-mxar-i, na-kbili, na-zol-i da sxv. wina viTarebis saxelebi xSirad toponimebad aris qceuli: na-saydr-al-i, na-qer-al-a, na-qalaq-ar-i, na-venax-ev-i, na-darbaz-evi, na-dab-ur-i... zogi wina viTarebis saxeli gaarsebiTebula: napir-i, na-erT-i, na-davl-i... warmoebiT da mniSvnelobiT wina viTarebis saxelebi uaxlovdeba vnebiTi gvaris mimReobebs: na-Cuq-ar-i, na-xn-av-i, na-pob-i da misT. zogjer Zneli gasarCevi xdeba, warmoqmnili saxeli wina viTarebis gamomxatveli afiqsebis darTviT aris miRebuli, Tu nasaxelari zmnisagan nawarmoebi mimReobaa.

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wina viTarebis saxelTa Soris yvelaze Zvelia na- prefiqsiani warmoeba (arn. Ciqobava). zogjer erT ZirTan sxvadasxva warmoeba gvxvdeba: na-zamTr-i, na-zamTr-al-i, na-zamTr-ev-i; nasisxl-i, na-sisxl-ar-i; na-qalaq-ar-i, na-qalaq-ev-i; na-bag-ar-i, nabag-ev-i; na-fex-ar-i, na-fex-ur-i; na-Ram-ev-i, na-Ram-ur-i da sxv. III. 6.12. kninobiT-saalerso saxelebi. kninobiT saxelebs uwodeben im warmoqmnil saxelTa jgufs, romelic gamoxatavs simciris, alersis, damcirebis semantikas. sityvawarmoebis sxva jgufebisagan gansxvavebiT, kninobiT-saalerso saxelebSi mawarmobeli sityvas leqsikur mniSvnelobas ki ar ucvlis, aramed emociurgamomsaxvelobiT iers aZlevs. kninobiTi formebis warmoeba Tanamedrove salteraturo qarTulSi gavrcelebuli ar aris. simciris semantika gamoixateba leqsikurad (knuti, lekvi, CiCqi, juja da a. S.) an aRweriT. iseTi saxelebi, rogoricaa saxli, ezo, baRi, xe, skami, magida da mravali sxva, kninobiT formebs ver awarmoeben da am sagnebis simciris gamosaxatavad ena aRweriT warmoebas mimarTavs: patara saxli, patara ezo, patara baRi da a.S. miuxedavad imisa, rom kninobiTi formebi saliteraturo qarTulSi ise gavrcelebuli ar aris, rogorc, vTqvaT, rusulsa da germanulSi, raodenobrivad mainc bevri mawarmoebeli gamoiyofa, romelTa funqcia kninobiTobis gamoxatvaa. esenia martivi sufiqsebi: -a, -ak, -ik, -ok, -uk, -an, -in, -on -un, -al, -il, -at, -ot, -ut, -ic, -uc, -iC, -uC, -iW, -uW, -ux da maTi SeerTebiT miRebuli rTuli sufiqsebi. mawarmobelTa kombinaciebis mixedviT kninobiT saxelebSi gvaqvs erTsafexuriani, orsafexuriani da samsafxuriani warmoeba. am safexurebis mixedviT es mawarmoeblebi ase SeiZleba warmovadginoT:
erTsafexuriani orsafexuriani -i-a (Zam-i-a) -i-o (wiTl-i-o) -ak-a (Tofr-ak-a) -ik-a (mar-ik-a) samsafexuriani

-ak (wign-ak-i) -ik(bes-ik-i)

-ak-un-a (eSm-ak-un-a) -ik-on-a (ded-ik-on-a) ik-an-a (Wor-ik-an-a)

236

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia -ik-un-a (mam-ik-un-a) -ik-el-a (var-ik-el-a) -ok-in-a (wver-ok-in-a) -uk-an-a (vaWr-uk-an-a) -uk-un-a (vaWr-uk-un-a) -uk-el-a (Zar-uk-el-a) -in-ik-a (cot-in-ik-a) -un-i-a (Tag-un-i-a) -un-el-a (karg-un-el-a) -un-ik-a (daT-un-ik-a) -un-uk-a(cot-un-uk-a)

-uk (buSt-uk-i)

-uk-a (glax-uk-a)

-un (Tam-un-i)

-an-a (yaCaR-an-a) -in-a (cot-in-a) -un-a (Cit-un-a)

-al-a (Cum-al-a) -el-a (giorg-el-a) -il-a (mama-il-a) -il-o (ded-il-o) -ul-a (kunw-ul-a) -ol-i-a (Cit-ol-i-a) -ur-a (gub-ur-a) -at-a (kot-at-a) -it-a (CiCq-it-a) -ut-a (xap-ut-a) -uq-a (bumbl-uq-a) -uC-a (Tikn-uC-a) -uc-a (gog-uc-a) -ew-a (kop-ew-a) -aW (gorgol-aW-i) -aW-in-a (kvar-aW-in-a) a-el-a (fafx-a-el-a) -eW-el-a (qerq-eW-el-a) -iW-a (kviW-iW-a) -uW-an-a (park-uW-an-a) -ux-an-a (bebr-ux-an-a) -ux-un-a (bebr-ux-un-a) -uj-a (axta-uj-a) -a (qal-a)

-ut (kak-ut-i)

-ut-an-a (WuWr-ut-an-a) -uC-un-a (yr-uC-un-a) -uc-an-a (gog-uc-an-a) -uc-un-a (gog-uc-un-a)

-uc(kekl-uc-i)

-eW (qer-eW-i) -iW (kop-iW-i) -uW (ka-uW-i) -ox (gor-ox-i) -ux (kinW-ux-i) -aj (axt-aj-i)

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unda aRiniSnos, rom erTsafexuriani warmoebis saxelebSi kninobiTobis sufiqss (a-s garda) gadmonaSTis saxe aqvs da kninobiTobis gamoxatvis funqcia aRar gaaCnia. orsafexuriani da samsafexuriani warmoebis dros romelime sufiqss emateba -a, romelic kninobiTobis ZiriTadi mawarmoebelia da misi darTva danarCen sufiqsebze saTanado emociur-gamomsaxvelobiT iers sZens sityvas. kninobiTobis gamomxatvel sufiqsTagan zogi mxolod erT formaSia dadasturebuli. warmoqmnil saxelTa umetesoba dialeqturia da ar aris farTod gavrcelebuli. bevr SemTxvevaSi mawarmoeblis gamoyofa mxolod etimologiuri kvlevis Sedegad xerxdeba. sufiqsTa mravalferovnebis mizezi ki is unda iyos, rom kninobiToba mraval semantikur niuanss moicavs, simciris garda gamoxatavs saalerso an damcinav damokidebulebas. am niuansur gansxvavebebs ena sxvadasxva mawarmoebliT gamoxatavs. garda amisa, mawarmoebelTa es simravle imiTac aris gamowveuli, rom xSirad isini erTmaneTis bgerweruli nairsaxeobebia. kninobiTobis warmoebis dros arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWeba fuZis semantikas. Tu fuZis semantika simciris gamoxatvas ver iguebs, masze darTuli kninobiTobis mawarmoebeli damcirebiTi, damcinavi damokidebulebis gamomxatveli xdeba: beberi _ bebrux-an-a, glexi _ glex-uW-a, yru _ yr-uC-un-a... zogjer mawarmoebeli kninobiTobasTan erTad msgavsebis an raime Tvisebis mqoneblobis gamomxatvelicaa, mag., yb-aC-a (didi ybebis mqone adamiani), qal-aC-un-a (qalis Tvisebebis mqone vaJi), yaCaR-an-a (moferebiT yoCaRi da celqi gogo)... zogjer kninobiTobis mawarmoeblis darTva axali leqsikuri erTeulis Seqmnis safuZvelia. aseTia magaliTad, wign-ak-i, kbilan-a, nawil-ak-i, park-uW-i, ka-uW-i da a. S. am SesaZleblobas xSirad mimarTaven teqnikuri terminebis Sesaqmnelad. warmoqmnil saxelTa warmodgenili jgufebi Sinaarsobrivi, semantikuri TvalsazrisiT gamoyofili jgufebia, romlebic SeiZleba kidev gamravldes an dazustdes. derivaciuli afiqsebi qarTulSi am Sinaarsobrivad dajgufebul saxelTa mawarmoeblebiT ar amoiwureba. qarTuli enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli movlenaa brunvis niSnebis, Tandebulebis,

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zmnisarTebis, nawilakebis gamoyeneba sityvawarmoebiTi funqciiT. amave dros gvaqvs sxva enebidan nasesxebi derivatebic. III. 6.13. brunvis niSnebiT warmoqmnili saxelebi. qarTulSi axali fuZis warmosaqmnelad SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas romelime brunvis niSani, kerZod, naTesaobiTi, moqmedebiTi da viTarebiTi. brunvis niSnebia warmoqmnis elementad gamoyenebuli Semdeg saxelebSi: SemTxvev-iTi, uaryof-iT-i, gul-ad-i, fer-ad-i, pur-ad-i da sxv... zogi aseTi saxeli Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi Zveli qarTulidan aris SemorCenili. amave dros am brunvis niSnebis gamoyeneba axal fuZeTa sawarmoeblad xSiria samecniero da teqnikur terminologiaSi. rogorc cnobilia, zogi warmoeba ufro produqtiulia terminologiur sistemaSi, vidre saliteraturo enaSi. swored amgvaria moqmedebiTi da viTarebiTi brunvis niSnebiT axal fuZeTa warmoeba. moqmedebiTi brunvis niSniT aris nawarmoebi: qve-iT-i, Sedegob-iT-i, moculob-iT-i da sxv. gansakuTrebiT bevria sawyisze -iT sufiqsis darTviT miRebuli terminebi: dadeb-iT-i, kiTxv-iT-i, Cveneb-iT-i, uaryof-iT-i, moqmedeb-iT-i, gacvl-iT-i, gazomv-iT-i... viTarebiTi brunvis -ad niSnis darTviT sawyisebze miiReba teqnikuri terminebi: aalebad-i, ganmeoreb-ad-i, daSl-ad-i, kumSv-ad-i, tev-ad-i, feTqeb-ad-i, xsn-ad-i... istoriulad warmoqmnil saxelebad SeiZleba miviCnioT nagenetivari geografiuli saxelebi: quTa-is-i (quTaT-is-i), Tbilis-i (tfil-is-i), urbn-is-i, mangl-is-i, mowam-eT-a, ber-T-a da sxva; TveTa saxelwodebebi: ma-is-i, ivn-is-i, ivl-is-i da sxva; agreTve zogi termini: Tv-is-i, mamasaxl-is-i, merm-is-i da sxva. Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi -is, rogorc warmoqmnis elementi, ar gvxvdeba, samecniero terminologiaSi ki xSirad gamoiyeneba: Tval-is-i, afr-is-i, ujred-is-i, safex-is-i... III. 6.14. TandebulebiT an TandebulTan gaTanabrebuli sityvebiT da nawilakebiT warmoqmnili saxelebi. axali fuZis sawarmoeblad SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas Tandebuli an TandebulTan gaTanabrebuli sxva sityva. es formantebi derivatebad iqcevian da zedsarTavebs awarmoeben. es movlena ufro mkafiod Zvel qarTulSi iyo gamoxatuli. Zvel teqstebSi mawarmoeblis

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funqciiT gvxvdeba: -gan (kacTa-gan-i, mTavarTa-gan-i...); -Tana (misTana-i, Tvis-Tana-i...); -Sina (qalaqis-Sina-i, queyanis-Sina-i...); kerZo (Cem-kerZo-i, mis-kerZo-i...); -mier (Cem-mier-i, RmrTisa-mieri...); -mimarT (kacisa-mimarT-i, RmrTisa-mimarT-i...); -momarT (CemmomarT-i, Cuen-momarT-i...); -ebr (RmrTe-ebr-i, kacisa-ebr-i...); gamo (wuer-gamo-i...); -mdin (ergasiswla-mdin-i...) (a. SaniZe, z. srjvelaZe). saxelTa warmomqmnel afiqsTa funqciiT Tanamedrove qarTulSi gvxvdeba: -gan, -ebr, -ebriv, -ebur, -mier, -Tana, -nair, -gvar, -jer, -mag, -kec, -gzis. -gan daerTis arsebiTi, zedsarTavi, ricxviTi saxelebis Taniani mravlobis formebs an nacvalsaxelebis naTesaobiTi brunvis formebs da gviCvenebs warmomavlobas, mravlidan erTs: kacTa-gan-i, mizez-Ta-gan-i, Zvel-Ta-gan-i, sam-Ta-gan-i, Cven-gan-i... -ebr daerTvis arsebiTi saxelis an nacvalsaxelis naTesaobiTi brunvis formebs da gamoxatavs msgavsebas: lom-is-ebr-i, Sen-ebr-i... -ebr erTvis uSualod fuZesac: lom-ebr-i, kac-ebr-i... es mawarmoebeli xSirad gamoiyeneba terminologiaSi: badis-ebr-i, airis-ebr-i, vardis-ebr-n-i da sxv. -ebr sufiqsis gavrcobili variantebia -ebur da -ebriv mawarmoeblebi. -ebr sufiqsi -ur-is gavleniT gadakeTda -ebur-ad (a. SaniZe). igi daerTvis saxelis naTesaobiTi brunvis formas an uSualod fuZes da gamoxatavs msgavsebas: lomis-ebur-i, Tavisebur-i, Zvel-ebur-i, Sen-ebur-i... Cven, Tqven nacvalsaxelebTan -ebur warmomavlobasac gviCvenebs. Cveneburi `Cvens msgavssac~ gamoxatavs da `Cveni mxrisasac~ (a. SaniZe). -ebriv rTuli sufiqsia: ebr-iv. igi daerTvis saxelis fuZes da gamoxatavs sagnis an movlenis daniSnuleba-ragvarobas: sazogado-ebriv-i, gon-ebriv-i, Cveul-ebriv-i... -mier naTesaobiTi brunvis formas daerTvis da aRniSnavs warmomavlobas (Sdr. Zv. qarT. qristes-mier-i), gamoiyeneba umetesad terminologiaSi: bagis-mier-i, cxviris-mier-i, xorxis-mier-i... -Tana, -nair, -gvar derivatebi msgavsebis gamosaxatavad gamoiyeneba arsebiT saxelTa da nacvalsaxelTa naTesaobiTi brunvis formaze darTviT: kac-is-Tana, am-is-Tana, ded-is-nair-i, Tav-is-nair-i, am-gvar-i, im-gvar-i...

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warmoSobiT -Tana-s ukavSireben sparsul sityvas dana `marcvali~, romelic SeiZleboda msgavsebis aRsaniSnad yofiliyo gamoyenebuli (a. SaniZe), xolo -nair sufiqss ukavSireben arabul sityvas nazir (=Sesaxedavi, msgavsi) (a. SaniZe). -jer, -mag, -kec, -gzis zmnizeduri warmoSobis mawarmoeblebia, ricxviT saxelebTan gvxvdeba da jeradobis gamosaxatavad gamoiyeneba: mraval-jer-i, aT-mag-i, Svid-kec-i, mraval-gzis-i... xSirad sityvawarmoebiTi funqciiT gamoiyeneba ara nawilakmorfemoidi, romelic uaryofa-uqonlobis gamosaxatavad daerTvis saxels. am daniSnulebiT ara gvxvdeba Zvel qarTulSi (araars-i, ara-Jam-i, ara-Rirs-i, ara-wmida da sxv.), Tumca igi xSirad ar gamoiyeneba, Tanamedrove qarTulSi ki sakmaod gavrcelebulia. ara- daerTvis arsebiT saxelebs (arakaci), ricxviT saxelebs (araerTi), zedsarTavebs (arazusti, arasruli, araswori...), nawarmob saxelebsa da mimReobebs (araadamianuri, araamqveyniuri, aragonivruli, aranormaluri, araorganizebuli da sxv.). III. 6.15. ucxo afiqsiani saxelebi. qarTul warmoqmnil saxelTa ganxilvisas calke unda gamoiyos is saxelebi, romlebic sxva enidan nasesxebi afiqsebiT aris nawarmoebi. rogorc cnobilia, ucxo warmoSobis afiqsi nasesxebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos maSin, roca igi damoukideblad aris gamoyenebuli fuZis sawarmoeblad. aseTi SemTxvevebi qarTulSi cotaa. sityvebis sesxeba advilad xerxdeba, ramdenadac enis leqsikuri fondis elementTa raodenoba SeuzRudavia da maT Soris urTierTkavSiri sustia, morfologiuri elementebi da sityvawarmoqmnis meqanizmebi ki myaria da amdenad afiqsTa sesxeba iSviaTia. afiqsis sesxeba mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi, ucxo enis intensiuri moZalebis pirobebSi SeiZleba moxdes: rodesac enaSi didi raodenobiT aris Semosuli erTi da igive fuZe da rodesac erTi da igive afiqsi mravaljer meordeba sxvadasxva fuZeSi. mxolod aseT viTarebaSi aris dasaSvebi, gauCndeT molaparakeebs saTanado ucxo sityvaTa morfologiuri analizis SesaZlebloba (b. foCxua). Cveulebriv, ucxo warmomavlobis fuZeebi maTze darTul afiqsebTan erTad qarTuli enis gramatikis TvalsazrisiT daunawevrebel erTeulebs warmoadgens. qarTulad molaparakeTaTvis

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gacnobierebulic rom iyos ama Tu im elementis afiqsuroba, Tu mas axali fuZeebis sawarmoeblad ar iyeneben, nasesxobaze laparaki ar SeiZleba. didi raodenobiT gvxvdeba ucxo warmomavlobis fuZeebi qarTul samecniero terminologiaSi. maTSi gamoyenebulia: laTinurSi xelobis saxelTa mawarmoebeli sufiqsi -ant: doqtorant-i, praqtik-ant-i, konsult-ant-i...; laTinuridanve momdinare profesiis aRmniSvneli -or: reviz-or-i, direqt-or-i...; Zveli berZnuli -ika sufiqsi, romelic aRniSnavs mecnierebis, xelovnebis dargs: stilst-ika, poet-ika, lir-ika, Jurnalist-ika...; Zveli berZnuli -oid, romelic raime Tvisebis mqoneblobas, raimesTan msgavsebas gamoxatavs: morfem-oid-i, human-oid-i da mravali sxv. bevri sxvadasxva afiqsiT gaformebuli fuZe gvxvdeba samedicino terminologiaSi, qimiur nivTierebaTa saxelebSi, magram es afiqsebi nasesxebad ver CaiTvleba, radgan damoukidebel mawarmoeblad qarTul fuZeebTan ar gvxvdeba. rogorc b. foCxua aRniSnavs, oTxasze meti sityvaa saerTo-saliteraturo qarTulSi iseTi, romelsac daboloebad -acia aqvs (numeracia, punqtuacia, registracia, federacia...) da arcerTi maTgani ar aris qarTulad nawarmoebi, e. i. arc erTi SemTxveva ara gvaqvs iseTi, rom sityva mTlianad (am daboloebianad) ki ar iyos nasesxebi, aramed mxolod es -acia erTvodes qarTul fuZes. maTgan gansxvavebiT gvaqvs ucxo warmoSobis afiqsebi da afiqsoidebi, romlebic qarTul fuZeebTanac gamoiyeneba anu xdeba afiqsis sesxeba. samecniero literaturaSi gamoyofilia ramdenime afiqsi, romlebic sparsuli enidan Semovida da ramdenadme mawarmoeblis Zala SeiZina qarTulSic. esenia: daniSnulebis gamomxatveli -dan (Caidani, yavadani...) imave funqciis -xana (Caixana, yavaxana...) da profesiis mawarmoebeli -dar (daxlidari, xazinadari). -dan imave funqcias asrulebs, rasac sa_e, sa_o. Cai-dan-i, yava-dan-is gverdiT gvaqvs sa-Cai-e, sa-yav-e. yavadani TiTqmis aRar gamoiyeneba Tanamedrove metyvelebaSi, mis nacvlad sayaves paralelurad gvxvdeba uxo warmoSobis sityva jezve. rac Seexeba Caidans, igi niSnavs rogorc Cais dasayenebel WurWels, ise saer-

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Tod WurWels wylis asaduReblad. SeiZleba iTqvas, -dan afiqsi dRes ukve mawarmoeblad aRar aRiqmeba. -xana mawarmoebliani saxelebi naSTis saxiT aris SemorCenili: zarafxana, qarxana... es mawarmoebeli zog Zirs qarTulSic daerTo (ludxana), Tumca axal saxelebTan misi gamoyeneba ironiuli elferis matarebelia. igive SeiZleba iTqvas -dar mawarmoebelTan dakavSirebiTac. ucxo warmoSobis mawarmoeblebi, romlebic umetesad rusulis an romelime evropuli enis saSualebiT aris Semosuli qarTulSi, gvxvdeba qarTul fuZeebTanac. esenia: -izm, -ist, pra-/ pre-, pro-... -izm Zveli berZnuli sufiqsia, aRniSnavs: a) moZRvrebas, mimdinareobas romelime pirovnebis saxelis, raime debulebis, principis mixedviT: bud-izm-i, darvin-izm-i, monarq-izm-i, terorizm-i, bihevior-izm-i...; b) raime ganmsazRvreli, damaxasiaTebeli niSnis mqoneblobas: liberal-izm-i, formal-izm-i, patriot-izm-i, cin-izm-i, kom-izm-i... am funqciiT igi qarTul -oba sufiqss udris (Sdr. liberal-oba, formal-oba, patriot-oba...). es mawarmoebeli qarTul fuZeebTanac gvxvdeba: imer-izm-i (imeruli kilos damaxasiaTebli enobivi molena saliteraturo qarTulSi), zviad-izm-i (am saxels ironiuli elferi aqvs)... -ist warmoSobiT Zveli berZnuli sufiqsia, gamoxatavs romelime moZRvrebis, mimdinareobis mimdevars: bud-ist-i, darvin-ist-i, monarq-ist-i, teror-ist-i..., gamoiyeneba agreTve profesiis, xelobis aRmniSvnel saxelebSi: special-ist-i, traqtorist-i, tank-ist-i, feleton-ist-i... iseve, rogorc -izm sufiqsi, -ist-ic gamoiyeneba qarTul fuZeebTan: kuW-ist-i, Wam-ist-i, aryist-i... es saxelebi ZiriTadad sasaubro metyvelebaSi gvxvdeba da ironiis gamomxatvelia. pra-/ pre- prefiqsi laTinuria da raimes uwinaresobas, winamorbedobas aRniSnavs: pre-fiqsi, pre-ambula... am mawarmoebliT damoukideblad aris nawarmoebi: pra-germanuli... amave funqciiT gvxvdeba meore laTinuri prefiqsi pro-, romelic aseve aRniSnavs raime moZRvrebis mimdevars, momxres, visime magiers... igi awarmoebs saxelebs: pro-afxazuri, pro-qarTuli...

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III. 6.16. afiqsoidebis saSualebiT warmoqmnili saxelebi. ucxo warmomavlobis afiqsebTan erTad terminologiur sistemaSi metad produqtiulia axali terminebis warmoqmna ucxo warmoSobis afiqsoidebis saSualebiT. afiqsoidebad miiCneven im struqturul elementebs, romlebsac damoukidebeli mniSvneloba hqonda (da zog SemTxvevaSi kidev aqvs SerCenili), magram droTa ganmavlobaSi damoukidebloba daukargavs da sityvis mawarmoebeli afiqsis funqcia miuRia. afiqsoidebis saSualebiT sityvaTa warmoqmna mxolod terminologiuri sistemisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli da ara saerTo saliteraturo enisaTvis. sazogadod, mecnierebis enis sityvaTa Sedgenis wesebi mTlianad damyarebulia saliteraturo enis sistemaze, mis gramatikul saSualebebze, afiqsoidebis saSualebiT Seqmnili modelebi ki ganasxvavebs terminologiur sistemas saerTo saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis saerTo gzisagan (r. RambaSiZe). terminTa Sesaqmnelad gamoyenebuli afiqsoidebi, romlebic warmoSobiT ZiriTadad berZnullaTinuria, saerTaSoriso enobriv masaladaa qceuli da TiTqmis yvela enaSia gamoyenebuli, amitom maT saerTaSoriso terminelementebs anu saerTaSoriso afiqsoidebs uwodeben. aseTebia prefiqsoidebi: anti- (antipaTia, antivirusi...), super- ( super-meni, super-marketi), makro- (makro-struqtura, makro-kosmosi...), mikro- (mikro-ekonomika, mikro-klimati...), mono- (mono-grafia, mono-liTi...), kvazi- (kvazistatikuri, kvazi-optikuri...), kontr- (kontr-argumenti, kontrrevolucia...), poli- (poli-gloti, poli-fonia...), sub- (substandarti...), post- (postskriptumi, postpozicia), ultra- (ultrareaqciuli...) da sxv.; sufiqsoidebi: -grafi (anemo-grafi, heliografi...), -skopi (oscilo-skopi, fonendo-skopi...), -metri (fsiqometri, alti-metri...), -logia (eko-logia, orniTologia...), -foni (magnito-foni, foto-foni...) da sxv. es afiqsoidebi sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva terminologiur sistemaSi aris gaCenili da SemdgomSi damkvidrebuli qarTul terminologiur sistemaSi. isini axal saxelTa wamosaqmnelad gamoiyeneba sakuTriv qarTul fuZeebTanac: anti-saxelmwifoebrivi, anti-xalxuri, makro-samyaro, mikro-sesxi, mikro-marcvlovani, mono-baraTi, kvazi-mecnieruli, kvazi-erovnuli, kontr-Seteva,

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kontr-SekiTxva, post-sabWoTa, sub-SenaerTi, ultra-bgera, ultra-iisferi da sxv. maTgan zogi metad aqtiuria, zogi _ naklebad. erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli mawarmoebelia laTinuri warmoSobis afiqsoidi supe-, romelic aRniSnavs aRmatebiT xarisxs. es mawarmoebeli inglisuris gavleniT sul ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba (super-saxelmwifo, super-Tasi...) da _ ara marto terminologiaSi. gansakuTrebiT aqtiurad mimarTaven mas sasaubro metyvelebaSi. igi gvxvdeba rogorc saxelis fuZesTan, ise sawyisTan da mimReobasTan: supersaCuqari, superskola, superbileTi, supermanqana, supermoTxilamure, supermomxmarebeli, superSeiaraReba, supergaTamaSeba... aseTi formebis momravleba sasaubro metyvelebaSi ucxo sityvebiT gatacebis Sedegia. saerTaSoriso afiqsoidebis gverdiT xSirad gamoiyeneba maTi qarTuli ekvivalentebi. sazogadod, saerTaSoriso afiqsoidebis Targmna miRebuli xerxia sxvadasxva enis terminologiur sistemaSi. saerTaSoriso Tu rusuli afiqsoidebis qarTuli ekvivalentebi ZiriTadad damoukidebeli mniSvnelobis armqone morfemebia: gadamet- (gadamet-najeri, gadamet-grexa...), kma- (kma-datenianeba, kma-mJangavi...), Tbo- (Tbo-mavali, Tbo-sadeni...), -badi (Jang-badi, naxSir-badi...), -nagi (ficar-nagi, Sua-nagi...) da sxv. gvxvdeba srulmniSvnelobiani sityvebic, romlebic afiqsoidebis rols asruleben: dabal- (dabalZabviani, dabaltemperaturuli...), maRal- (maRal-wneviani, maRal-aqtiuri...), wvril- (wvrilmasStabiani, wvril-ZarRvi...), -gamtari (wyal-gamtari, cecxl-gamtari...), -Sorisi (RerZT-Sorisi, fazaT-Sorisi...) da sxv. am afiqsoidebiT Seqmnili zogi derivaciuli modeli ar aris moxerxebuli, xelovnuria da verc ikidebs fexs enaSi (mag., gadamet-), zogi ki sakmaod produqtiulia da sul ufro ifarToebs xmarebis ares. afiqsoidebiT nawarmoeb sityvebs samecniero literaturaSi sxvadasxva kvalifikacia eZleva, zogi maT rTul sityvebad Tvlis, zogi ki _ nawarmoeb sityvebad, ramdenadac amgvar sityvaTa Semadgenl erT-erT nawils dakarguli aqvs damoukidebloba da regularulad gamoiyeneba rogorc yalibi sxva derivatebis sawarmoeblad, zogi mkvlevaris azriT ki, afiqsoidebiT nawarmoebi sityvebi erTgvarad gardamaval jgufs qmnian rTulsa da nawarmoeb sityvebs Soris (r. RambaSiZe).

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III. 6.17. sityvawaroebasTan dakavSirebuli fonetikuri cvlilebebi. sityvawarmoebisas pirvelad anu Zireul fuZeze afiqsebis darTvas axlavs saTanado fonetikuri cvlilebebi fuZeSi. amave dros saxelTa warmoqmnisas zogjer fuZeSi iseTi fonetikuri cvlilebebi xdeba, rogoric brunebisas an mravlobiTi ricxvis mawarmoebelTa darTvisas ar aRiniSneba. saxelTa warmomqmneli afiqsebis gavleniT fuZiseuli xmovani reducirdeba, ikumSeba a da e xmovnebi. mareducirebelia TiTqmis yvela sufiqsi da prefiqs-sufiqsi, romlebic saxelTa warmoqmnaSi monawileobs: -ian (qamr-ian-i, Sarvl-ian-i, marcvlian-i), -osan (kalm-osan-i, niCb-osan-i), -ovan (ekl-ovan-i, mayvlovan-i), -ier (Zl-ier-i, xn-ier-i), -el (sofl-el-i), -ur (soflur-i), -eul (bostn-eul-i, sn-eul-i), -eT (mousavl-eT-i), -oba (vaWr-oba, mezobl-oba), -nar (wifl-nar-i), u_o (u-xerxeml-o, uRrubl-o), sa_o (sa-patarZl-o), sa_e (sa-bostn-e, sa-wvn-e), u_es (u-dabl-es-i, u-magr-es-i), na_ar (na-zamTr-al-i) da sxva; gvxvdeba o xmovnis reduqciac: foTl-ian-i, u-foTl-o, u-sapn-o, sa-sapn-e... iSviaTad reducirdeba u da i xmovnebic: u-pativceml-o, u-mcros-i, mo-mcr-o. u da i xmovnis reduqcia, rogorc cnobilia, fuZeze brunvis an ricxvis niSnebis darTvis dros ar xdeba. fuZeze mawarmoebelTa darTvisas, iseve rogorc formawarmomqmneli morfemebis darTvisas, fuZiseuli o an u xmovnis adgilas zogjer Cndeba v Tanxmovani: mindvr-ian-i, Wkv-iani, u-nigvzo, u-nivr-o... rogorc cnobilia, prefiqsi ver iwvevs fuZiseuli xmovnis reduqcias (a. SaniZe), Tumca gvaqvs zogi oden prefiqsiT nawarmoebi fuZe, romlebSic fuZiseuli xmovani dakargulia: na-avdri, na-waml-i... am SemTxvevaSi, zogi mkvlevaris varaudiT, fuZiseuli xmovani prefiqsis gavleniT reducirdeba (g. gogolaSvili), zogi mkvlevaris azriT ki am saxelebSi imave fuZisagan konfiqsiT nawarmoebi saxelebis (na-avdr-al-i, sa-waml-av-i) SekumSuli fuZe ucvlelad gadavida (m. tuskia). Cveulebriv, a da e xmovanze daboloebuli fuZeebi saxelTa warmomqmneli afiqsebis darTvisas ikveceba: kab-ian-i, ty-ian-i, rqosan-i, mwvan-osan-i, frT-ovan-i, kld-ovan-i, miw-ier-i, sax-ier-i, mamapap-eul-i, Zm-oba, mux-nar-i, mo-mwvan-o, u-mam-o, u-sax-o...

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iSviaTad fuZis bolokiduri xmovani SenarCunebulia: Zeoba, mxne-oba, mdelo-ian-i, soko-ian-i, me-zRva-ur-i, u-sufTa-o, ubina-o, u-tye-o, u-mze-o... zog e-sa da o-ze daboloebul fuZesa da mawarmoebel sufiqss Soris Cndeba xmovanTgamyari v: me-rZe-v-e, me-wina-v-e, sa-rZev-e, sa-ezo-v-e, si-marto-v-e, si-mxne-v-e, na-abano-v-ar-i... zogjer mawarmoeblis darTvasTan erTad fuZeSi Cndeba n an r Tanxmovani: bed-n-ier-i, gem-r-iel-i, xvav-r-iel-i, sa-wuT-r-o... es Tanxmovnebi naSTi unda iyos im sufiqsebisa, romlebic fuZes erTvoda da reducirda sxva sufiqsis darTvis Sedegad, naSTis saxiT ki dagvrCa maTi TanxmovniTi nawili (i. imnaiSvili, g. burWulaZe, m. tuskia...). sityvawarmoebis dros fonetikuri procesebis (asimilaciis, disimilaciis, metaTezisis) Sedegad fuZis garda afiqsebic icvlebian. es saxecvlili variantebi warmodgenili iyo warmoqmnili saxelebis Sinaarsobrivi jgufebis ganxilvisas.

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Tavi VII. kompoziti


III. 7. qarTulSi, iseve rogorc sxva enebSi, axali leqsikuri erTeulebis warmosaqmnelad farTod gamoiyeneba kompozicia anu Txzva, rac gulisxmobs ori an meti fuZis (an sityvis) SeerTebas. Tu derivaciis dros axali leqsikuri erTeulebi warmoiqmneba derivaciuli, mniSvnelobis mcvleli, afiqsebis darTviT, kompoziciis dros axali fuZeebi iqmneba damoukidebeli leqsikuri erTeulebis SeerTebiT. maTi Serwymis Sedegad viRebT rTul sityvas anu kompozits. kompozicias miakuTvneben agreTve saxelis fuZis ganmeorebas anu reduplikacias. ase rom, Sedgenilobis mixedviT gvaqvs: 1. kompozitebi, romlebic miRebulia fuZis gaorkecebiT anu reduplikaciiT: TavTavi, drodadro, karikar, or-ori...; 2. kompozitebi, romlebic miRebulia ori an meti sxvadasxva fuZis (an sityvis) SeerTebiT: ded-mama, xelmokle, ocdasami, mzeTunaxavi, Wirisufali, xelfexSekruli... Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT zogi kompozitis mniSvneloba udris misi Semadgeneli komponentebis jams da or an met cnebas moicavs (col-qmari, mTa-bari, wiTel-yviTeli, ori-sami, qarTlkaxeT-imereTi...), zogi rTuli sityva ki semantikur mTlianobad aris qceuli, erTcnebiania, misi Semadgeneli fuZeebis damoukidebeli mniSvneloba daCrdilulia (cisartyela, ciskari, qinZisTavi, xelmokle, gulxeldakrefili...). iSviaTad gvxvdeba iseTi kompozitebic, romlebic erT SemTxvevaSi erTcnebiania, sxva SemTxvevaSi ki _ orcnebiani; mag., xarkameCi erT SemTxvevaSi erTmniSvnelobiania da niSnavs `mamal kameCs~, meore SemTxvevaSi ki orcnebiania (xar-kameCi) da niSnavs `xarsa da kameCs~. orcnebiani kompozitis Semadgenel komponentebs SenarCunebuli aqvT Tav-Tavisi mniSvneloba, maT Soris SeiZleba daisvas da kavSiri. aseTi kompozitebi defisiT iwereba. erTcnebian kompozitSi Semaval wevrebs Soris ki da kavSiri ar igulisxmeba. isini defisis gareSe iwereba.

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kompozitebis Semadgenel komponentebad sxvadasxva metyvelebis nawili gvxvdeba. gvaqvs substantiuri kompozitebi: arsebiTi saxeli + arsebiTi saxeli (mama-papa, navsadguri...), adieqtiuri: zedsarTavi + zedsarTavi (Sav-TeTri, alal-marTali...), numeraluri: ricxviTi saxeli + ricxviTi saxeli (erTi-ori, ormocdaaTi, aserTi...), substantiur-adieqtiuri: arsebiTi + zedsarTavi an zedsarTavi + arsebiTi (gulkeTili, xelmokle, didguli, wiTelkaba...), substantiur-participiuli: arsebiTi saxeli + mimReoba (gulgatexili, wyalwaRebuli...), adverbialursubstantiuri: zmnisarTi + arsebiTi (zedapiri, zekaci...), adverbialur-participiuli (zedgamoWrili) da sxv. komponentebis cvlilebis mixedviT kompoziti SesaZlebelia iyos fuZeucvleli an fuZecvlili. Serwymis Sedegad, morfonologiuri da fonologiuri struqturebis urTierTgavleniT, kompozitis Semadgeneli nawilebi icvleba da xSirad etimologiuri Ziebis gareSe gaurkvevelia aseTi sityvebis komponenturi Sedgeniloba: Tayvaniscema < Tav-yanis-cema, WiSkari < bWis-kari, wisqvili < wylis-fqvili, cameti < aT-sam-meti, patarZali < patara rZali da a. S. III. 7.1. reduplikaciiT miRebuli kompozitebi. reduplikacia kompozitis Seqmnis erT-erTi gavrcelebuli gzaa. gaorkecebulia: 1) sityvis fuZe (TavTavi, erT-erTi...) an 2) damoukidebeli leqsikuri mniSvnelobis armqone marcvali, romelic gaormagebis Sedegad iqceva leqsikur erTeulad (laqlaqi, luRluRi...). reduplikaciis dros kompozitSi Semaval komponentTa dakavSireba sxvadasxvagvaria: a) martivia dakavSireba, roca arsebiT, zedsarTav, ricxviT saxelTa fuZe, zmnisarTi an Sorisdebuli meordeba da Sedegad viRebT saxels an zmnisarTs. aseTi kompozitebi erTcnebianic aris da orcnebianic: TvalTval-i (Tval-Tval-i), maRal-maRali, or-ori, tye-tye, gvian-gvian, viSviSi (viS-viS-i)... martivi fuZis garda, SesaZlebelia gaormagebuli iyos nawarmoebi fuZe (mqoneblobis -a sufiqsiani): qonaqona (qon-a-qon-a). zogjer fuZe meordeba, magram kompozitis pirveli komponenti (iSviaTad _ orive) romelime brunvis formiT aris warmo-

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dgenili: pirispir (pir-is-pir), erTaderTi (erT-ad-erT-i), erTmaneTi (<erT-man-erT-i), karikar (<kar-iT-kar), TavisTavad (Tavis-Tav-ad)... martivi dakavSireba gvaqvs agreTve, roca gameorebulia leqsikuri mniSvnelobis armqone marcvlebi: butbuti, kaSkaSi, kiskisi, xiTxiTi, cimcimi... b) komponentebi SeerTebulia da kavSiris gamoyenebiT, roca gameorebulia arsebiTi saxelis fuZe, zmnisarTi an Tandebuli: drodadro, kardakar, kvaldakval, xandaxan, windawin, maincdamainc, TandaTan... reduplikaciis dros zogjer fuZe ucvlelia, zogjer ki momxdaria fonetikuri cvlileba. es cvlilebebi Semdegi saxisaa: a) kompozitis Semadgenel erT-erT komponentSi dakargulia Tanxmovani: pawawa (< paw-pawa), gogora (< gorgora), beberi (< ber-beri), ko-kori (< kor-kori)... b) kompozitis meore wevrs daerTvis Tanxmovani: alTabalTa (<alTa-balTa), aremare (<are-mare), oRroCoRro (<oRro-CoRro)... g) kompozitis Semadgenel meore komponentSi Secvlilia Tanxmovani: wanwali (< wan-wali), CurCuli (< Cur-Cul-i), waramara (< wara-mara)... d) Secvlilia kompozitis meore wevris Tavkiduri marcvali: kuWmaWi (< kuW-maW-i), qoxmaxi (< qox-max-i)... e) kompozitis erT-erT koponentSi Secvlilia xmovani: abda-ubda, daga-dugi, sxapa-sxupiT, erT-urTi, urTi-erTi, xev-xuvi, bind-bundi, riJ-raJi... v) kompozitis meore wevrs ecvleba xmovani da daerTvis Tanxmovani: ala-bula. III. 7.2. ori (an ramdenime) sxvadasxva fuZis SerwymiT miRebuli kopozitebi. fuZegansxvavebuli kopozitebi sxvadasxva fuZis (sityvis) SerwymiT aris miRebuli. gamoiyofa da kavSiriani da ukavSirod warmoqmnili kompozitebi. da kavSiriT SeerTebuli gansxvavebuli fuZis kompozitebi cotaa. aseTia ZiriTadad ricxviTi saxelebi: ocdaerTi, ormocdaeqvsi, samocdaaTi da sxv. iSviaTad gvaqvs da kavSiriT SeerTebuli arsebiT saxelTa fuZeebi an zmniswinebi: dRedaRam, midamo...

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ukavSiro gansxvavebulfuZiani kompozitebi sxvadasxvagvaria: a) SeerTebulia erTi tipis fuZeebi, romelTa Soris igulisxmeba da kavSiri da, amdenad, es kompozitebi orcnebiania (da-Zma, did-patara, daglejil-dafleTili, kvleva-Zieba...); b) SeerTebulia msazRvrelsazRvrulis tipis saxelebi, romelTa Soris da kavSiri ar ivaraudeba da es kompozitebi erTcnebiania. aseTi rTuli saxelebi yvelaze metia. III. 7.3. sxvadasxva fuZis SerwymiT miRebuli orcnebiani kompozitebi. orcnebiani kompozitebi sakmaod bevria (gvxvdeba orze metcnebiani kompozitebic). maTi Semadgeneli komponentebi, metyvelebis nawilebis mxriv, erTi da igivea. am tipis kompozitebSi Cveulebriv erTiandeba: a)sinonimuri fuZeebi: Zal-Rone, alal-marTal-i, Rarib-Ratak-i, kvleva-Zieba... b)sawinaaRmdego Sinaarsis fuZeebi: dRe-Rame, miwa-wyal-i, ufros-umcros-i, Sav-TeTr-i... g) raime niSniT erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli saxelebi: dedmama, saxnav-saTes-i, sityva-pasux-i, qvriv-obol-i... am tipisaa geografiuli saxelebi: qarTl-kaxeT-i, tao-klarjeT-i, guria-samegrelo... aqve Semodis masdarebisa da mimReobebisagan Sedgenili kompozitebi: misvla-mosvla, miwer-mowera, amvlel-Camvlel-i, wasulwamosul-i... es ukanasknelebi, Cveulebriv, sapirispiro mimarTulebis preverbebiT nawarmoebi formebiT aris Sedgenili. am tipis kompozitebi Cveulebriv ori fuZisagan aris Sedgenili, iSviaTad gvxvdeba orze meti fuZe: qarTl-kaxeT-imereT-i, rZal-mul-dedamTil-i da sxv. III. 7.4. sxvadasxva fuZis SerwymiT miRebuli erTcnebiani kompozitebi. sxvadasxva tipis fuZeebisagan Semdgari erTcnebiani kompozitebi yvelaze metia. aseTi kompozitebis Semadgeneli komponentebi metyvelebis nawilebis mxriv erTi da igivea an sxvadasxva, Tavad kompoziti ki arsebiTi saxelia an zedsarTavi. sxvadasxva fuZis SerwymiT miRebuli erTcnebiani kompozitebi, romlebic arsebiTi saxelebia, Semadgeneli wevrebis mixedviT Semdegnairia: a) pirvel adgilze warmodgenilia arsebiTi saxeli, romelic meore komponentad gamoyenebuli arsebiTi saxelis (iSvia-

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Tad _ sawyisis an mimReobis) msazRvrelis rolSia: vaJkaci (vaJkac-i), dedaqalaqi (deda-qalaq-i), qvamarili (qva-maril-i), kldekari (klde-kar-i)... Cveulebriv, kompozitis pirveli komponenti fuZis saxiT aris warmodgenili, magram SeiZleba saxelobiTi brunvis formiTac iyos mocemuli: qaliSvili (qal-i-Svil-i), vaJiSvili (vaJ-iSvil-i), berikaci (ber-i-kac-i)... aris SemTxvevebi, roca erTi da igive saxeli saxelobiTis formiTac gvxvdeba da fuZis saxiTac: vaJikaci/vaJkaci, glexikaci/glexkaci... kompozitSi arsebiTi saxeliT warmodgenili msazRvreli komponenti zogjer naTesaobiT brunvaSi dgas: xevisberi (xev-isber-i), qinZisTavi (qinZ-is-Tav-i), Tavisufleba (Tav-is-ufleba)... xSirad brunvis niSani an misi TanxmovniTi nawili mokvecilia: TavSali (Tav-is-Sal-i), mamida (mam-is-da)... zogjer msazRvreli komponenti mravlobiTi ricxvis naTesaobiTi brunvis formiT aris: TvalTaxedva (Tval-Ta-xedva), mkaTaTve (mka-Ta-Tve), navsadguri (< nav-T-sadgur-i)... iSviaTad kompozitSi arsebiTi saxeliT warmodgenili pirveli wevri sxva brunvis formiTac gvxvdeba da igi ar aris aseve saxeliT warmodgenili meore wevris msazRvrveli: Tavbru < Tavs-bru, Tavlafi < Tav-s-laf-i, yuradReba < yur-ad-Reba... b) pirvel adgilze warmodgenilia zedsarTavi saxeli, romelic meore adgilze mdgari arsebiTi saxelis atributuli msazRvrelia: avdari, didvaWari, SuadRe, didmarxva... aseTi warmoebis saxelebi xSirad geografiuli saxelebia: axalqalaqi, axaldaba, SuamTa... zogjer msazRvrelsazRvrulis rigi postpoziciuria: adgilze arsebiT saxels mosdevs zedsarTavi saxeli: xorcmeti, Waladidi, ninowminda... g) pirvel adgilze warmodgenilia ricxviTi saxeli, romelic gansazRvravs arsebiTs: orRobe, samfexi... d) arsebiTis msazRvrelad warmodgenilia nacvalsaxeli, romelic mosdevs mas: biZaCemi, mamaCemi, dedaSeni... e) pirveli wevri zmnisarTi an Tandebulia, romelic gansazRvravs arsebiTs: zekaci, zedapiri, Tanadgoma, TanagrZnoba, winaswarmetyveli...

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erTcnebian kompozitebSi, romlebic zedsarTavi saxelis funqciiT gvxvdeba, warmodgenilia sagani da misi romelime Tviseba, oRond mTlianad kompoziti sxva saxelis msazRvrels warmoadgens. aseTi kompozitebi yvelaze xSirad arsebiTi saxelisa da zedsarTavisagan an arsebiTi saxelisa da mimReobisagan aris Sedgenili: didguli (did-gul-i), TavRia (Tav-Ria), TmaTeTri (Tma-TeTr-i), kudaprexili (kud-aprexil-i), enaCavardnili (ena-Cavardnil-i), fexmotexili (fex-motexil-i), frTagaSlili (frTa-gaSlil-i), Tavdadebuli (Tav-dadebul-i) da sxva. am tipis kompozitebi xSirad mravalwevriania: Tavqudmoglejili (Tav-qud-moglejil-i), cxvirpirdamtvreuli (cvir-pir-damtvreul-i), Tavgzaabneuli (Tav-gza-abneul-i), wverulvaSgaTeTrebuli (wver-ulvaS-gaTeTrebul-i), xelpirdaubneli (xel-pirdaubanel-i) da sxv. kompozitSi arsebiTi saxeli da misi msazRvreli (zedsarTavi an mimReoba) SesaZlebelia zmnizediT an sxva raime sityviT iyos daSorebuli: rqa-daRma-dadrekili, Tofeb-maRla-aSverili da sxv. kompozitebSi, romlebic msazRvrelis funqciiT gvxvdeba, xSirad zedsarTavi an ricxviTi saxeli erwymis arsebiT saxels, romelsac mqoneblobis romelime afiqsi aqvs darTuli: TeTrkbileb-a, Sav-kan-ian-i, srul-wl-ovan-i da sxv. zogjer am tipis kompozitebSi msazRvrel wevrad gvxvdeba zedsarTauli mniSvnelobis saxeli, romelic miRebulia masdarze mqoneblobis -a sufiqsis darTviT: xma-wkrial-a, ena-WikWik-a, kudbuTqun-a da sxv. zogjer kompozitis pirveli wevri arsebiTi saxelia, meore ki -ia sufiqsiT nawarmoebi sasubieqto mimReoba: xari-paria, kaci-Wamia, belti-ylapia da sxv. qarTulSi, iseve rogorc sxva enebSi, kompozicia produqtiuli saSualebaa enis leqsikuri Sedgenilobis gasamdidreblad. rTuli sityvebis siWarbe saliteraturo enaSi gamowveulia axal cnebaTa gadmocemis saWiroebiT. araerTi kompoziti (RmrTismetyveli, marTlmadidebeli, TviTmpyrobeli...) sxva enaTa (berZnulis, somxuris da sxv.) rTuli sityvebis kalks warmoad-

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gens da am enebis qarTulTan kulturulistoriuli urTierTobis amsaxvelia. gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia kompozicia terminologiuri sistemisaTvis, ramdenadac igi rTul cnebaTa mniSvnelobis SedarebiT kompaqturad gadmocemis SesaZleblobas iZleva da, amave dros, naTlad warmoaCens sityvis motivaciasac. ar darCenila rTuli sityvebis warmoqmnis arcerTi gza, romelic damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo enisaTvis da ar iyos gamoyenebuli termiologiaSi. kompoziciis gziTaa miRebuli mravali samecniero Tu teqnikuri termini (wyaluxvi, rkinigza, marilmJava, firsakravi, mtversasruti, orlebniani, samkuTxedi da a.S.). sityvawarmoebis erTgvari xerxia agreTve ori an meti sityvis SemoklebiT SeerTeba _ abreviatura. is miiReba sxvadasxva principiT: SesityvebaSi Semavali sityvebis pirveli aso-bgerebis SeerTebiT (aSS _ amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, Sidsi _ SeZenili imunuri deficitis sindromi da sxv.), sityvaTa nawilebis SeerTebiT (gaero _ gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia), sityvaTSexamebaSi Semavali komponentebis nawilebisa da sruli sityvis SerwymiT (sanepidsadguri _ sanitarulepidemiologiuri sadguri). gvaqvs sxva gziT Sedgenili abreviaturebic. maTi Sedgenisas yuradReba eqceva keTilxmovanebis principsac. qarTulSi Semosulia agreTve ucxouri abreviaturebi (nato, iunesko...), romlebic uTargmnelia da yvela enaze erTnairad warmoiTqmis. abreviaturebi arsebiT saxelebad aris qceuli da ibrunvis. qarTulSi, iseve rogorc sxva enebSi, abrevacia farTod aris gavrcelebuli, ramdenadac igi saSualebas iZleva grZeli da mouxerxebeli dasaxelebebi mokle da sxarti formebiT Seicvalos.

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Tavi VIII. saxelzmna III. 8.1. mimReoba. mimReoba nazmnari saxelia (saxelzmnaa), romelic gramatikuli TvisebebiT (bruneba, sintagmatika) saxelebs ganekuTvneba (mimReoba upiratesad zedsarTavi saxelia), magram Zireuli semantikiT SemorCenili aqvs zogi zmnuri kategoriac. aseTebia: gezi, orientacia, aspeqti, kontaqti. gezi (mimarTuli): Ca-kidebuli (Sdr. kidebuli); orientacia (saaqeTo): Camo-gdebuli (Sdr. Cakidebuli); aspeqti (sruli): da-kidebuli (Sdr. kidebuli); kontaqti (SualobiTi): dagdeb-in-ebuli (Sdr. dagdebuli). erTi formis magaliTze: Camogdebinebuli _ es aris mimarTuli gezis, saaqeTo orientaciis, sruli aspeqtisa da SualobiTi kontaqtis forma. rogorc vxedavT, erT mimReobur formaSi gamovlinda oTxi zmnuri kategoria: gezi, orientacia, aspeqti da kontaqti. rogorc wesi, mimReobis warmoebis modeli ganarCevs, Tu zmnis romeli gvaris formisagan (fuZisagan) aris miRebuli esa Tu is mimReoba: 1) konversiul sistemaSi (wers _ iwereba) amosavali moqmedebiTi gvaris awmyos fuZea: wer-s (aqtivi) - i-wer-eb-a (vnebiTi) > da-wer-il-i, da-sawer-i, da-m-wer-i, da-u-wer-i... igive viTarebaa fuZedrekadi zmnebisagan nawarmoeb mimReobebTanac: fxek-s (aqtivi) _ i-fxik-eb-a (vnebiTi) > gada-fxek-il-i, gada-m-fxek-i, gada-sa-fxek-i... es ufro ukeT Cans TemisniSnian zmnebSi (xatavs _ ixateba, aSenebs _ Sendeba): xat-av-s (aqtivi) _ i-xat-eb-a (vnebiTi) > da-xat-ul-i, dam-xat-av-i, da-sa-xat-av-i, da-u-xat-av-i... a-Sen-eb-s (aqtivi) _ Sen-d-eb-a (vnebiT) > a-Sen-eb-ul-i, a-m-Sen-eb-el-i, a-sa-Sen-eb-el-i...

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2) im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac erTi da imave zmnuri Ziris gardamaval da gardauval formebs Soris konversiuli mimarTeba araa, mimReoba TiToeul formas, Cveulebisamebr, damoukideblad ewarmoeba; magaliTad: a-Tb-ob-s (aqtivi) _ ga-m-a-Tb-ob-el-i; ga-Tb-ob-il-i... Tb-eb-a (pasivi) _ ga-m-Tb-ar-i. a-kankal-eb-s (aqtivi) _ a-m-a-kankal-eb-el-i, a-kankal-eb-ul-i... kankal-eb-s (saSuali) - mo-kankal-e. 3) Tavis mxriv, unda ganirCes is SemTxvevebi, rodesac mimReoba sakuTriv zmnuri (sauRlebeli) fuZisgan aris nawarmoebi, aramed nazmnari saxelisagan _ sawyisisagan. amis garCeva maSin aris aucilebeli, rodesac mimReobaTa formebSi Tavs iCens sawyisuri mawarmoeblebi; magaliTad: dg-a-s _ dg-om-a > m-dg-om-i (Sdr.: m-dg-ar-i) wev-s _ w-ol-a > m-w-ol-i qr-i-s _ qr-ol-a > m-qr-ol-i i-brZ-v-i-s _ brZ-ol-a > me-brZ-ol-i TrT-i-s _ TrT-ol-a > m-TrT-ol-i u-ZR-v-i-s _ ZR-ol-a > m-ZR-ol-i i-svr-i-s _ sr-ol-a > m-sr-ol-el-i... aseve masdaris fuZezea damyarebuli `svl-~ Ziris mimReoburi formebi, razec maTSi povnieri `s~ elementi mogvaniSnebs, romelic zmnis pirian formebSi ar Cans. Sdr.: val-s, mi-val, mo-x-val > mo-m-svl-el-i, wa-m-svl-el-i, mi-msvl-el-i... mimReobaTagan bevri droTa ganavlobaSi gasubstantivebula: werili, maswavlebeli, matarebeli... Tumca SeiZleba igive forma moqmedi mimReobac iyos (mag.: `virusis matarebeli~...).

III. 8.2. sasubieqto-saobieqto mimarTebaTa asaxva mimReobaSi. qarTuli mimReobis warmoebaSi Taviseburad aisaxeba subieqtisa da obieqtis mimarTeba zmnuri SinaarsiT gamoxatul moqmedebasTan; kerZod, gardamavali zmnisaTvis sakuTari mimRoba warmoadgens im pirs, romelic pirian zmnaSi subieqtad warmodgeba (Sdr.: axvev-s [is mas] > damxvev-i `vinc axvevs~); aseve, zmnis obieqtur pirs (pirebs) miesadageba ramdenime mimReoburi warmo-

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eba (Sdr.: axvev-s [is mas] > daxveul-i `rac daaxvies~, dasaxvev-i `rasac daaxveven~ da misT. amdenad, aRniSnul Sinaarsobriv mimarTebaTa TvalsazrisiT upirvelesad gamovyofT sasubieqto da saobieqto mimReobebs.

III. 8.2.1. sasubieqto mimReoba. sasubieqtoa mimReoba, romelic aRniSnavs moqmeds, subieqts, anu im pirs, romelic saTanado zmnur formaSi subieqtis niSnebiTaa gadmocemuli. mag.: mwer-al-i (vinc wers), m-Sen-eb-el-i (vinc aSenebs), mo-WikWik-e (rac WikWikebs), mo-TamaS-e (vinc TamaSobs) da a. S. drois TvalsazrisiT sasubieqto mimReoba, rogorc wesi, awmyos (ufro sworad, zogadi drois) SinaarsiT aris datvirTuli, Tumca zmniswins aqvs unari, formas amavdroulad myofadis Sinaarsic mianiWos garkveul konteqstebSi. Sdr.: m-keTeb-el-i (vinc axla an zogadad akeTebs) ga-m-keTeb-el-i (vinc akeTebs an vinc gaakeTebs. Sdr.: amis gamkeTebeli eg ar aris) warsuli drois Sinaarsi aqvs zogi vnebiTi gvaris formisgan m-ar prefiqs-sufiqsebiT miRebul formebsac, romlebic zmniswiniT ixmareba ZiriTadad da swored zmniswini aniWebs mas namyos mniSvnelobas: gamTbari, gamSrali, damdnari... vinaidan sasubieqto mimReobebis umetesi nawili moqmedebiTi gvaris awmyos fuZisaganaa nawarmoebi, mimReobaSi gadmoyolilia Temis niSnebic. aqedan -eb, -ob, -of ucvlelad gadmodis yvela SemTxvevaSi; -av da -am mimReoburi sufiqsebis (-el, -ar...) darTvis SemTxvevaSi ikumSeba, xolo -i, romelsac Temis niSnad miiCneven, mimReobaSi arasodes gamoCndeba, mag.: -eb: a-keT-eb-s > m-keT-eb-el-i -ob: i-pyr-ob-s > da-m-pyr-ob-el-i -of: y-of-s > ga-m-yof-el-i -av: xat-av-s > da-m-xat-av-i; da-m-xat-v-el-i -am: a-b-am-s > da-m-bm-el-i -i: Tl-i-s > m-Tl-el-i sasubieqto mimReobis ZiriTadi mawarmoebelia m- prefiqsi, romelsac SeiZleba xmovniTi elementic axldes (mo-, ma-, me-). m- prefiqsi mimReobas awarmoebs damoukidebladac da sxvadasxva sufiqsebTan erTadac:

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m- (odenprefiqsuli warmoeba): wer-s > da-m-wer-i; tex-s > ga-m-tex-i xatav-s > da-m-xat-av-i ipyrob-s > da-m-pyr-ob-i yof-s > ga-m-yof-i odenprefiqsul mimReobebs gavrcelebis mxriv didi areali ara aqvs da maT gverdiT sufiqsebiT garTulebuli paraleluri variantebi gamoiyeneba: tex-s > ga-m-tex-el-i xatav-s > da-m-xat-v-el-i ipyrob-s > da-m-pyrob-el-i yofs > ga-m-yof-el-i odenprefiqsuli warmoebaa organuli aseve saSuali gvaris ramdenime zmnisTvisac: cur-av-s > m-cur-av-i coc-av-s > m-coc-av-i gmin-av-s > m-gmin-av-i rogorc ukve aRiniSna, dReisaTvis yvelaze gavrcelebulia sasubieqto mimReobis prefiqs-sufiqsuri warmoeba, romlis drosac prefiqsad kvlav m- niSani gvevlineba, xolo sufiqsebad ki sxvadasxva mawarmoeblebi: m - el Tli-s > m-Tl-el-i akeTeb-s > m-keTeb-el-i xnav-s > m-xvn-el-i klav-s > m-kvl-el-i ipyrob-s > da-m-pyrob-el-i... ma - el (rodesac zmnuri fuZe a- xmovanprefiqsiT aris warmodgenili): a-arseb-s > da-ma-arseb-el-i a-erTeb-s > Se-ma-erTeb-el-i a-ioleb-s > ga-ma-ioleb-el-i a-oxreb-s > ma-oxreb-el-i a-uwyeb-s > ma-uwyeb-el-i a-mxneveb-s > ga-ma-mxneveb-el-i a-mkvidreb-s > da-ma-mkvidreb-el-i

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a-msxvileb-s > ga-ma-msxvileb-el-i a-tareb-s > ma-tareb-el-i a-xareb-s > ma-xareb-el-i a-calkeveb-s > ma-calkeveb-el-i Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom zog am formas odenTanxmovanprefiqsiani paraleluri warmoebac moepoveba (mag.: ga-m-xar-ebel-i)... saSuali gvaris formebisagan ramdenime saxis cirkumfiqsiT iwarmoeba sasubieqto tipis mimReoburi formebi: m - e: mo-s-won-s > (Tav) mo-m-won-e aqv-s > m-qon-e mo - ul: xar-ob-s > mo-xar-ul-i u-yvar-s > mo-yvar-ul-i mo - e: WikWik-eb-s > mo-WikWik-e laparak-ob-s > mo-laparak-e TamaS-ob-s > mo-TamaS-e kakan-eb-s > mo-kakan-e qirqil-eb-s > mo-qirqil-e cur-a(v)-ob-s > mo-cur-av-e gor-a(v)-ob-s > mo-gor-av-e rogorc gamoCnda, aRniSnuli warmoeba ZiriTadad saSuali gvaris -eb da -ob TemisniSniani zmnebisgan warmoqmnil mimReobebs axasiaTebs. m - ar-i/ e qux-s > m-qux-ar-i/e duR-s > m-duR-ar-e Rel-av-s > m-Rel-v-ar-e dum-s > m-dum-ar-e aRniSnuli mimReobebi dRes umetesad mxolod -e daboloebiT ixmareba. aqac ZiriTadad saSuali gvaris formebi gvaqvs amosavlad, Tumca msgavsi warmoeba ramdenime moqmedebiTi gvaris formasTan SeiniSneba: xat-av-s > m-xat-v-ar-i wer-s > m-wer-al-i (disimilaciiT -ar > -al)

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SeniSvna: aRniSnuli formebi terminadaa qceuli da xelobaze miuTiTebs. igive warmoeba gamoiyeneba vnebiTi gvaris formebisgan nawarmoeb mimReobebSic: ga-m-Tb-ar-i (`rac gaTba~. Sdr.: gardamavali zmnisagan nawarmoebi saobieqto mimReoba ga-Tb-ob-il-i `rac gaaTbes~). ga-m-tyd-ar-i (rac gatyda) ga-m-Sr-al-i (rac gaSra) da-m-dn-ar-i (rac dadna) sasubieqto mimReobis formebSi unda gavaerTianoT agreTve Zveli warmoebis ramdenime forma, me- da mo- prefiqsebiT nawarmoebi: me-ryev-i me-tex-i mo-Zrav-i mo-kvdav-i mo-zard-i

III. 8.2.2. saobieqto mimReoba. saobieqtoa mimReoba, romelic aRniSnavs samoqmedo sagans anu im pirs, romelic saTanado zmnur formaSi obieqtis niSnebiTaa gadmocemuli. mag.: ga-keTeb-ul-i (rac gaakeTes), a-geb-ul-i (rac aages), sa-keTeb-el-i (rac unda gaakeTon), da-sa-xat-i (rac unda daxaton), a-sa-Seneb-el-i (rac unda aaSenon) da a. S. amavdroulad, ramdenadac, sasubieqto mimReobebisgan gansxvavebiT, saobieqto mimReobaTa nairgvarobaa, aq xdeba warmoebaTa gamijvna drois mixedviT. saobieqto mimReobis forma kompozitis SemadgenlobaSi zogjer sasubieqto mimReobis Sinaarss iZens. rogorc arn. Ciqobava marTebulad aRniSnavs, amas swored obieqtis mimReobis win dasma ganapirobebs. aseTi warmoebaa: xmalamoRebuli (vinc xmali amoiRo) enagadmogdebuli (vinc ena gadmoagdo) saxedaxokili (vinc saxe daixoka)... sasubieqto mimReobis mniSvnelobiT SeiZleba gamoiyenebodes aseve saobieqto mimReobis -il/ -ul mawarmoeblebiT miRebuli zogi forma: ga-qce-ul-i (vinc gaiqca), da-mtvre-ul-i (vinc

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daimtvra), ga-xar-eb-ul-i (vinc gaixara) da sxva... saobieqtodan sasubieqto mniSvnelobisken gadasvla am formebSi TandaTan unda momxdariyo. mizezi amgvari gadasvlisa ki Tavad amosaval zmnebSia: 1) i-qcev-a _ formiT vnebiTi, magram SinaarsiT (zog SemTxvevaSi) _ aqtiuri zmnaa. Sdr.: i-qcev-a _ wyali iqceva (anu daaqcies), magram adamiani ga-i-qc-a (TviTon garbis); meore SemTxvevaSi zmna aqtiuri Sinaarsisaa; aqedan: ga-qce-ul-i (kaci) _ sasubieqto mimReobis mniSvnelobiT (Sdr.: da-qce-ul-i wyali, sadac mimReoba formiTac da SinaarsiTac saobieqtoa); 2) i-mtvrev-a _ aqac zemodasaxelebuli viTarebaa _ zmna formiT vnebiTi, magram SinaarsiT (aseve konkretuli SemTxvevebSi) aqtiuri formaa. amitom gvaqvs da-mtvre-ul-i kaci (sasubieqto mimReobis mniSvnelobiT);

3) ga-xar-eb-ul-i warmoebiT saobieqto formaa, sasubieqto mimReobis savaraudebel variantad `m-(a)-xar-eb-el-i~ forma ivaraudeba, romelsac Semdgom specifikuri (saeklesio) mniSvneloba daukavSirda. amitom ena iZulebuli gaxda sasubieqto mimReobis Sinaarsis sawarmoeblad saobieqto mimReobis forma gamoeyenebina.

III. 8.3. drois gamoxatva saobieqto mimReobebSi. amdenad,


saobieqto mimReobebSi mkveTradaa gamijnuli sxvadasxva drois gamomxatveli formebi, amitom mawarmoebelTa CamoTvlisas swored drouli maCveneblebiT vixelmZRvanelebT.

III. 8.3.1. warsuli drois saobieqto mimReoba: warsuli


drois saobieqto mimReobis sawarmoeblad gamoyenebulia sufiqsebi: -il: (da)-wer-il-i (rac daweres) ga-les-il-i (rac galeses) ga-berty-il-i (rac gabertyes) Se-kreW-il-i (rac an vinc gakriWes) Se-Reb-il-i (rac an vinc SeRebes)...

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-ul: ga-keTeb-ul-i (rac gaakeTes) a-Sen-eb-ul-i (rac aaSenes) Se-kr-ul-i (rac Sekres)... -il, -ul sufiqsTa ganawileba aseTia: -ul moudis: 1) -av, -am, -ev, -eb, -em TemisniSniani formebisgan miRebul mimReobebs (da-mal-ul-i; da-dgm-ul-i; da-bne-ul-i; ga-keT-eb-ul-i; da-cem-ul-i); 2) -il ki _ yvela danarCens, anu uTemisniSno, xmovanmonacvle, aseve -ob, -of da -i TemisniSniani zmnebisgan nawarmoeb mimReobebs (da-wer-il-i; da-Wylet-il-i; ga-Tbob-il-i; ga-yof-il-i; ga-Tl-il-i); SeniSvna: gamonaklisebis axsna xerxdeba: rodesac -av (-am) TemisniSnian fuZeebTan -il gvaqvs, am dros fuZeSi o xmovani SeiniSneba (Se-bol-il-i; ga-zom-ili); an warmoSobiT es formebi uTemisniSno formebia (da-Tes-il-i); warsuli drois saobieqto mimReobebi iwarmoeba aseve na- prefiqsiT, an na - ar/ el prefiqs-sufiqsiT: ga-na-sxl-av-i (rac gasxles) da-na-yof-i (rac dayves) da-na-Tes-i (rac daTeses) na-Cuq-ar-i (rac aCuqes) mo-na-cvl-el-i (rac moicvales). Temis niSnebi am dros xan SenarCunebulia (ga-na-sxl-av-i), xan ki - ara (na-xat-i). aRniSnuli warmoebis mimReobebs gasubstantivebisken mzardi tendencia aqvT. III. 8.3.2. myofadis saobieqto mimReoba. myofadi drois saobieqto mimReobas awarmoebs sa- prefiqsi, romelsac Tanamedrove qarTulSi umetesad -el sufiqsi daerTvis: ga-sa-tex-i (rac unda gatydes, riTac unda gatexon)

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da-sa-wer-i (rac iwereba, riTac daweren) da-sa-xatav-i (rac daixateba, riTac daxataven) ga-sa-keTeb-el-i (rac gakeTdeba) da-sa-klav-i (rac daikvleba)... 3. dasasrul, unda aRiniSnos, rom warsuli drois saobieqto mimReobebs ukuTqmiTi, uaryofiTi formebic gaaCnia. mawarmoeblebad am dros oden u- prefiqsi an damatebiT -el sufiqsi gvevlineba: da-u-xat-av-i, da-u-wer-el-i, ga-u-keTeb-el-i da a. S. SeniSvna: subieqt-obieqtze miniSnebisgan TiTqos Tavisufalia zogierTi, awmyo (zogadi) drois, -ad sufiqsiT nawarmoebi mimReoburi Sinaarsis forma (isini intensiurad gamoiyeneba terminologiaSi): drek-ad-i (vinc idrikeba an rasac dreken) kumSv-ad-i (rac ikumSeba an kumSaven) zogjer aRniSnuli warmoeba mxolod saobieqto mimReobis Sinaarss Seicavs: marTv-ad-i (rasac marTaven)...

III. 8.4. sawyisi sawyisi nazmnari saxelia, romelic funqciurad arsebiT saxels utoldeba; amave dros, mas SemorCenili aqvs bevri zmnuri kategoriac, kerZod: gezi, orientacia, aspeqti, kontaqti. magaliTad: gezi (mimarTuli): Ca-gdeba orientacia (saaqeTo): Camo-gdeba aspeqti (sruli): da-gdeba kontaqti (SualobiTi): gagdeb-in-eba erTi nimuSis mixedviT: sawyisi Camogdebineba gviCvenebs, rom am formiT gamoxatuli moqmedeba aris mimarTuli gezis, saaqeTo orientaciis, sruli aspeqtisa da SualobiTi kontaqtis. amdenad, erT sawyisur formaSi gamovlinda oTxive zmnuri kategoria: gezi, orientacia, aspeqti da kontaqti.

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sawyisis warmoeba I. mawarmoebeli -a. sawyisis ZiriTadi mawarmoebelia sufiqsi -a, romelic, Cveulebisamebr, damoukideblad daerTvis zmnur fuZes; xolo zogjer is sxvadasxva damatebiTi mawarmoebliT aris garTulebuli. ganvixiloT TiToeuli es SemTxveva cal-calke: 1) martivi -a sufiqsi -a sufiqsi, rogorc wesi, daerTvis Sesabamisi zmnis awmyos fuZes. Tu es fuZe uTemisniSnoa, mawarmoebeli uSualod zmnur Zirs daerTvis; mag.: v-wer _ wer-a v-kref _ kref-a v-wyvet _ wyvet-a xolo Tu zmnuri fuZe TemisniSniania, is sawyisSic gadahyveba (anu sawyisSic warmodgenili iqneba Temis niSnebi, -i Temis niSnis garda): a) -eb TemisniSniani awmyo: v-a-Sen-eb _ Sen-eb-a v-a-mzad-eb _ mzad-eb-a b) -ob TemisniSniani awmyo: ga-v-a-Tb-ob _ ga-Tb-ob-a ga-v-a-Sr-ob _ ga-Sr-ob-a g) -av TemisniSniani awmyo: v-xat-av _ xat-v-a v-recx-av _ recx-v-a d) -am TemisniSniani awmyo: v-sv-am _ s-m-a e) -em TemisniSniani awmyo: v-c-em _ c-em-a v) -ev TemisniSniani awmyo: wa-v-a-qc-ev _ wa-qc-ev-a z) -of TemisniSniani awmyo: v-y-of _ ga-y-of-a... rogorc gamoCnda, a-s darTvisas rigi fonetikuri procesebi xdeba, konkretulad: 1. -av da -am Temis niSnebze sawyisis sufiqsis darTvisas TemisniSniseuli xmovani amovardeba:

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xat-av-s _ xat-v-a sv-am-s _ s-m-a 2. -i Temis niSani saerTod ikveceba sawyisis warmoebisas: Tl-i-s _ Tl-a 3. Tuki -av TemisniSniani zmnebis Ziri n, r, l TanxmovnebiT mTavrdeba, xmovnis dakargvis Semdeg TemisniSniseuli v am TanxmovnebTan metaTeziss ganicdis mag.: xn-av-s _ xvn-a, kl-av-s _ kvl-a... aqve SevniSnavT, rom rodesac paraleluri (zmniswiniani da uzmniswino) warmoeba gvaqvs, am dros usruli aspeqtis formebi ufro xSirad zogadi qmedebis gamosaxatavad gamoiyeneba da drois gagebas moklebulia: wera icis; xatva SeuZlia; Seneba advili saqme ar aris... maSin, rodesac sruli aspeqtis formebi konkretul moqmedebasa da konkretul droze miuTiTebs: am saxlis aSeneba momaval wels damTavrdeba; am suraTis daxatva minda; amis dawera xvalisTvis aucilebelia... Tumca, uzmniswino formebmac SeiZleba gamoxatos konkretuli moqmedeba: am saxlis Senebas ar daadga saSveli, amdeni wera ar gamigia da sxv. 2) martivi -a mawarmoebeli garTulebulia -n, -ol, -

om formantebiT.
a) -n formanti damatebiT CaerTvis -a sufiqsis win ramdenime formas (a. SaniZis marTebuli SeniSvniT, umetesad viniT daboloebul fuZeebs): s-Txov-s _ Tx-ov-n-a i-pov-i-s _ pov-n-a b) -om formantiani sawyisebi: dg-a-s _ dg-om-a krT-i-s _ krT-om-a tyd-eb-a _ tyd-om-a skd-eb-a _ skd-om-a g) -ol formantiT garTulebuli sawyisi: qr-i-s _ qr-ol-a Zrw-i-s _ Zrw-ol-a TrT-i-s _ TrT-ol-a aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom am formebidan zogierTs tendencia aqvs fuZis kidev ufro garTulebisa -v Tanxmovnis CarTvis, mag.: qr-i-s _ qr-ol-v-a...

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II. mawarmoebeli -il/ -ul. -il sufiqsi sawyiss awarmoebs damoukidebladac da prefiqsTan erTadac, -ul sufiqsi ki _ mxolod prefiqsTan erTad. warmovadginoT es SemTxvevebi calcalke. a) mawarmoebeli -il: wux-s _ wux-il-i duR-s _ duR-il-i bRav-i-s _ bRav-il-i bzu-i-s _ bzu-il-i... b) mawarmoebeli si - il: es mawarmoebeli moqmedi aRaraa, is Zvelis naSTia (mag. saxelad qceuli: sircxvil-i, sikvdil-i...): rb-i-s _ si-rb-il-i s-Zul-s _ si-Zul-v-il-i (aq damatebiT v Tanxmovania CarTuli) g) mawarmoebeli si _ ul: si-ul mawarmoebelic, rogorc wesi, sawyisebs saSuali da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebisgan awarmoebs: u-yvar-s _ si-yvar-ul-i u-xar-i-a _ si-xar-ul-i e-bral-eb-a _ si-bral-ul-i... d) svla forma arqaul s - a mawarmoebels gamoavlens: val-s _ s-vl-a. zemoT saubari iyo iseT sawyisebze, romlebic zmnebisgan aris miRebuli. garda amisa, qarTulSi arsebobs rigi sawyisuri formebisa, romlebic zmnebisgan miRebulad ver CaiTvleba. saubaria e. w. pirvelad sawyisebze (ase uwoda am formebs arn. Ciqobavam): caxcax-i, kankal-i, WikWik-i, ZigZig-i, xarxar-i, kiskis-i, bragun-i, fxakun-i, kakan-i, WukWuk-i, frial-i, grial-i, Srial-i da sxv. am formaTagan bevri reduplicirebuli fuZisa Cans, xmabaZviTi Sinaarsisa. maTi, rogorc sawyisebis mimarTeba zmnasTan, moCvenebiTia: caxcax-i _ caxcax-eb-s da misT.

nawili IV

zmnis morfologia
Tavi I. zmna. zmnis piri da ricxvi

IV. 1.1. zmnis raoba (zogadi mimoxilva). zmna aris srulmniSvnelovani, formacvalebadi sityva _ metyvelebis nawili. formacvaleba ori saxis aris _ bruneba da uRleba. zmna uRlebadi sityvaa. funqciurad zmna gamoxatavs konstruqciaSi subieqtad warmodgenili piris moqmedebas an mdgomareobas. moqmedeba aris gamoxatuli: wers, xatavs, emaleba, Sendeba... mdgomareoba aris gamoxatuli: wuxs, duRs, dgas, zis... moqmedeba da mdgomareoba aq gramatikul cnebebad gaigeba. qarTul enaSi zmna (saxelisagan gansxvavebiT) metyvelebis rTuli nawilia. sirTules, erTi mxriv, ganapirobebs zmnur kategoriaTa simravle da, meore mxriv, is, rom erTi da imave morfologiuri daniSnulebiT SeiZleba ramdenime afiqsi mogvevlinos da, piriqiT, ramdenime morfologiuri kategoria masalobrivad erTi da imave formantiT gamoixatos. swored am sirTulem aTqmevina Tavis droze platon ioselians: `qarTulisa enisa zmnani yovelnive arian ukanononi~. vTqviT, zmnis sirTulis mTavari mizezi zmnur kategoriaTa simravlea. mniSvnelobasTan mimarTebis TvalsazrisiT zmnis kategoriebi SeiZleba dalagdes or jgufad: uRlebisa da warmoqmnis kategoriebad (a. SaniZe). u R l e b i s k a t e g o r i e b a d moiazreba is kategoriebi, romlebic cvlian zmnis gramatikul mniSvnelobas; aseTebia _ piri, ricxvi, mwkrivi, dro, kilo, gzisoba, aqti, Tanamdevroba... (Sdr.: saxelisaTvis bruneba). w a r m o q m n i s k a t e g o r i e b a d miCneulia is kategoriebi, romlebic cvlian zmnis leqsikur mniSvnelobas; aseTebia gezi, orientacia, aspeqti, gvari, qceva, kontaqti (Sdr.: saxelisaTvis _ sityvawarmoeba).

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SevniSnavT: SesaZlebelia, kategoria erTi jgufidan meoreSi gadairicxos: Zvel qarTulSi aspeqti uRlebis kategoria iyo, axal qarTulSi warmoqmnis kategoriaa. formaluri gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT zmnis kategoriebi iyofa gramatikul (morfologiur) da semantikur kategoriebad. amgvar klasifikacias safuZvlad udevs gramatikuli kategoriis, rogorc morfologiuri kategoriis, tradiciuli gageba; e. i. kategoriisa, romelic gamoixateba morfologiuri saSualebebiT (afiqsebiT, modelebiT...). amgvari gagebiT morfologiuri (gramatikuli) kategoriebia piri, ricxvi, mwkrivi, gvari, qceva, kontaqti... semantikuri kategoriebia dro, kilo, aqti... SevniSnavT: morfologiuri kategoria SeiZleba iqces semantikur kategoriad da piriqiT. magaliTad, gzisoba Zvel qarTulSi morfologiuri kategoria iyo (xolmeobiTs morfologiuri niSani hqonda), axal qarTulSi semantikuri kategoriaa. sruli da usruli aspeqti Zvel qarTulSi formobrivad ar gairCeoda, axal qarTulSi zmniswini ganasxvavebs... qarTuli zmnis erT-erTi ZiriTadi Tavisebureba mravalpirianobaa: erTsa da imave formaSi erTdroulad SeiZleba aisaxos subieqturi piric da obieqturic. pirianobisa da valentobis garCevam es sakiTxi daazusta. zmna formas icvlis (iuRvlis) rogorc subieqturi pirebis mixedviT, ise obieqturi pirebis mixedviT. Sesabamisad gvaqvs subieqturi wyoba da obieqturi wyoba; subieqturi uRleba da obieqturi uRleba. zmnis formacvaleba xdeba sauRlebel erTeulTa _ mwkrivTa _ mixedviT; mwkrivis farglebSi _ pirisa da ricxvis mixedviT. Sesabamisad vsaubrobT uRlebaze farTo mniSvnelobiT da viwro mniSvnelobiT. zmnas moepoveba rogorc organuli, ise aRweriTi warmoeba. sauRlebeli fuZis mixedviT zmnur formaTa dajgufeba xdeba mwkrivebad da seriebad. es erT-erTi urTulesi ubania qarTuli zmnis morfologiaSi: sauRlebel erTeulTa raobisa da raodenobis sakiTxi dRemde problemur sakiTxad rCeba. winamdebare gamocema Seecdeba Seajamos da SeZlebisdagvarad pasuxi gasces problemur kiTxvebs.

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IV. 1.2. zmnis piris kategoria


IV. 1.2.1. zmnis piri (zogadi). piri da ricxvi zmnis umTavresi kategoriebia. isini mWidrod aris erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli. piris kategoria `erT-erTi universaluri semantikuri kategoriaa, romelic sxvadasxva saxiT gamoxatulebas povebs enobriv sistemaSi. igi gamomdinareobs enobrivi komunikaciis aqtidan da aRniSnavs am aqtis monawileTa damokidebulebas enobrivi komunikaciisadmi~ (T. gamyreliZe). zmnis piri ganimarteba rogorc `zmnis forma, romelic gviCvenebs an imas, vinc moubaria, an imas, visac moubari mimarTavs ubnobis dros, an kidev imas, vinc an rac arc moubaria da arc misi mimarTvis sagani, aramed sxva~ (a. SaniZe). piris kategoria uSualo kavSirSia subieqtisa da obieqtis kategoriasTan. ar arsebobs zogadad subieqti an zogadad obieqti: piris kategoriis TvalsazrisiT subieqti yovelTvis aris gansazRvruli: subieqturi pirveli piri (S1), subieqturi meore piri (S2) an subieqturi mesame piri (S3); aseve piris mixedviT aris gansazRvruli obieqtic: obieqturi pirveli piri (O1), obieqturi meore piri (O2) da obieqturi mesame piri (O3). imisda mixedviT, zemodasaxelebul pirTagan romelia nagulisxmevi zmnis formaSi, varkvevT r o m e l o b a s pirisas _ moubari anu I piri, Tanamosaubre anu II piri da is (vinc an rac) ar aris arc moubari da arc Tanamosaubre, aramed sxvaa _ III piri. imisda mixedviT, Tu rogoria esa Tu is piri moqmedebasTan mimarTebiT, vsaubrobT piris r o g o r o b a z e _ moqmedia Tu umoqmedo (an: samoqmedo); anu subieqturia Tu obieqturi. imisda mixedviT, Tu ramdeni piria warmodgenili zmnis erT formaSi, varkvevT r a o d e n o b a s pirTa _ zmna SeiZleba iyos erTpiriani an mravalpiriani. IV. 1.2.2. romeloba pirisa. enobrivi komunikaciis aqti gulisxmobs, erTi mxriv, moubars, `metyvels~, rogorc sametyvelo aqtis avtors; meore mxriv, `msmenels~, Tanamosaubres, sametyvelo aqtis adresats da, mesame mxriv, mas _ `vinc an rac arc mo-

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ubaria da arc `misi mimarTvis sagani~, anu arc `metyveli~ da arc `msmeneli~, aramed _ sxva. Sesabamisad, romelobis mixedviT gamoiyofa sami piri: I piri, romelic `Tavis Tavs me-s eZaxis~, Tu is erTia; da Tu krebulSia, `Cven sityviT aRiniSneba~ (a. SaniZe). sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, I piris forma gvaZlevs warmodgenas `me an Cven sityviT aRniSnuli adamianis an adamianTa moqmedebis Sesaxeb~ (a. SaniZe). II piri msmenels gulisxmobs, romelic Sen (Tu erTia) an Tqven (Tu erTze metia) sityviT aRiniSneba. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, II piris forma gvaZlevs warmodgenas `Sen an Tqven sityviT aRniSnuli adamianis (an aRniSnul adamianTa) moqmedebis Sesaxeb~ (a. SaniZe). III piri, `vinc an rac moubris TvalsazrisiT ar aris arc me an Cven, arc Sen an Tqven, iqneba igi an igini (an is an isini)~. yoveli forma zmnisa, romelic nacvalsaxelebTan Sewyobisas igulisxmebs erT-erT am nacvalsaxelTagans: igi, man, mas, igini (isini), maT mesame pirisa iqneba~ (a. SaniZe). Sesabamisad, TiToeul pirSi ganirCeva mxolobiTi da mravlobiTi: mxolobiTia: me, Sen, is (igi), man, mas mravlobiTia: Cven, Tqven, isini (igini), maT. mravlobiTis SemTxvevaSi gansxvavebulia I da II-III pirebis viTareba. II piris mravlobiTi Tqven gulisxmobs `msmenelTa~ simravles (`mravali Sen~ an erTi an ramdenime `Sen~ da `is~ / `isini~); III piris mravlobiTi igini (isini) gulisxmobs simravles is (igi) formiT gamoxatul pirTa (`mravali is~). I piris mravlobiTi Cven ar gulisxmobs me formiT gamoxatul pirTa simravles (`Cven~ ar udris `bevr mes~); Cven gulisxmobs erT moubars (`me-s) da masTan erTad an meore, an mesame anda II-III pirebs: Cven _ me + Sen (an Tqven) (1) me + is (an isini) (2) me + Sen (an Tqven), is (an isini) (3). Cven formis SemTxvevaSi II piris CarTva-arCarTva ganasxvavebs i n k l u z i u r da e q s k l u z i u r formebs: Tu Cven gulisxmobs II pirsac, forma inkluziuria (I da me-3 SemTxveva); Tu Cven ar gulisxmobs II pirs, forma eqskluziuria (me-2 SemTxveva).

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inkluziuri da eqskluziuri Cven Tanamedrove qarTulSi morfologiurad ar gairCeva. inkluziv-eqskluzivi morfologiuri kategoriaa svanurisaTvis. fiqroben, rom Zvel qarTulSic es kategoria morfologiuri iyo: mo-gu-ec Cuen _ inkluzivi; mo-m-ec Cuen _ eqskluzivi. Tumca, Tu es Tvalsazrisi sarwmunoa, inkluziv-eqskluzivi Zveli qarTulisaTvis mainc naSTi Cans odindeli viTarebisa. IV. 1.2.3. rogoroba pirisa. zmnis piri SeiZleba iyos moqmedi _ subieqti (S) da samoqmedo _ obieqti (O), romliskenac mimarTulia subieqtis moqmedeba. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, zmnis formaSi is warmodgenilia, magram moqmedad ar aris gamoyvanili. subieqti qarTulSi yvela tipis zmnaSi aris warmodgenili. obieqti qarTulSi gramatikuli kategoriaa (gansxvavebiT evropuli enebisa, sadac obieqti oden semantikuri kategoriaa). es imas niSnavs, rom misi piri zmnur formaSi SeiZleba aRiniSnos. gairCeva orgvari obieqti: pirdapiri da iribi. semantikurad pirdapiria is obieqti, romelzec uSualod, pirdapir gadadis subieqtis moqmedeba (aSenebs is mas, xatavs is mas...); iribia is obieqti, romelzec uSualod ar gadadis moqmedeba; igi SeiZleba sxvadasxva funqcias asrulebdes; mas axasiaTeben rogorc adresats (da werils wers Zmas), designats (da davalebas uwers Zmas), egzekutors (da werils awerinebs Zmas), lokatiurs (da quds axuravs Zmas) da sxva. Tumca gramatikulad yvela es SemTxveva erTia _ Zma yvela SemTxvevaSi iribi obieqtis fardi saxelia. gramatikulad pirdapiri obieqti brunvacvalebadi obieqtia _ mwkrivTa mixedviT igi an saxelobiT brunvaSia, an micemiT brunvaSi. iribi obieqti brunvaucvleli obieqtia _ igi yovelTvis micemiT brunvaSia. IV. 1.2.4. pirTa raodenobis sakiTxi zmnis erT formaSi. pirianoba da valentoba. cnobili faqtia, qarTuli zmnis erTerTi ZiriTadi Tavisebureba mravalpirianobaa. Tu evropuli

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enebis zmnaSi morfologiurad SeiZleba mxolod erTi piri aisaxos (subieqti), qarTul zmnaSi subieqturis garda SeiZleba aisaxos obieqturi piric. tradiciulad gramatikebSi saubari iyo erTpirian, orpirian, sampirian (da calkeul SemTxvevebSi oTxpirian) zmnebze. pirianobisa da valentobis gansxvavebam es sakiTxi daazusta. vTqviT, qarTuli zmna mravalpiriania. es niSnavs: erTdroulad zmnaSi SeiZleba aisaxos morfologiurad erTze meti piri. pirianobas gansazRvraven imis mixedviT, Tu ramden piris nacvalsaxels Seiwyobs, anu ramdeni piris Sesaxeb gvaZlevs warmodgenas zmnuri forma: dgas is, xatavs is mas, ukeTebs is mas mas (miWmie Sen me is mas)... Tumca faqtia is, rom amgvarad Sewyobil pirTa gamoxatva ar aris erTgvari; zmnasTan dakavSirebul yvela pirs zmnaSi ar moepoveba Tavisi niSani; sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, erTdroulad yvela ar aisaxeba zmnaSi morfologiurad. faqtia: ar aris Sesabamisoba zmnasTan sintaqsurad dakavSirebul pirTa raodenobasa da zmnaSi morfologiurad gamoxatul pirTa raodenobas Soris. swored am Seusabamobis gamo moxda gamijvna valentobisa da pirianobisa. l. tenieris moZRvrebaze dayrdnobiT valentoba ase ganimarteba: `zmnuri formis unars Seiwyos winadadebis birTvSi subieqt-obieqtur mimarTebaTa gamomxatveli saxelebis (resp. nacvalsaxelTa) anu `aqtantebis~ gansazRvruli raodenoba, SeiZleba zmnis `valentoba~ ewodos~ (T. gamyreliZe). zmnuri forma ara mxolod Seiwyobs winadadebis birTvSi subieqt-obieqturi mimarTebis gamomxatvel saxelebs (rac valentobiT ganisazRvreba), aramed zmnur struqturaSi xdeba am saxelTa Sesabamisi morfologiuri eqsponentis warmodgena; swored es eqsponentebi aris piris kategoriis gamomxatveli. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, am Teoriis mixedviT zmnasTan dakavSirebul saxelTagan pirebad moiazreben mxolod imaT, romlebic zmnaSi morfologiurad aisaxeba.

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gramatikis doneze SeiZleba valentobisa da pirianobis Sesaxeb erTad msjeloba, morfologiis doneze ki _ ara, radganac valentoba sintaqsuri kategoriaa _ zmnuri formis unari Seiwyos winadadebis birTvSi subieqt-obieqtur mimarTebaTa gamomxatveli saxelebis (resp. nacvalsaxelebi) garkveuli raodenoba. pirianoba morfologiuri kategoriaa _ zmnur formaSi masTan dakavSirebul saxelTa (resp. nacvalsaxelTa) piris gamomxatveli morfologiuri niSnis warmodgena. valentobis TvalsazrisiT zmna SeiZleba iyos: nulvalentiani (Tovs, wvims...); erTvalentiani (_ dgas, _ Tbeba...); orvalentiani (_ _ aSenebs, _ _ emaleba...); samvalentiani (_ _ _ uxatavs, _ _ _ ekiTxeba...); oTxvalentiani (_ _ _ _ miWmie...). anu valentobis mixedviT qarTuli zmna moTavsdeba diapazonSi O _ 4 (T. gamyreliZe). arsebobs valentobis sxvagvari gagebac: yvela saxeli, romelic winadadebaSi zmna-SemasmenelTan aris dakavSirebuli (Sesityvebas qmnis) _ igulisxmeba iribi brunvis formiT warmodgenili saxeli (Tandebuliani Tu uTandebulo) _ valentobis ganmsazRvreli SeiZleba iyos (l. enuqiZe). es Tvalsazrisi kidev ufro Sordeba pirianobas... amgvari gagebiT valentobis diapazoni izrdeba. Tumca, rogorc vTqviT, CvenTvis valentoba sintaqsuri kategoriaa; morfologiaSi vsaubrobT zmnis pirianobis Sesaxeb. pirianobasTan dakavSirebiT ki sxva viTarebaa. piris niSnebs zmnur formaSi aCens rogorc subieqti (sxvagvari terminiT _ agensi), ise obieqti (sxvagvari terminiT _ paciensi). zmnaSi SeiZleba aisaxos rogorc pirdapiri, aseve iribi obieqti. qarTuli zmnis erT-erTi ZiriTadi Tavisebureba aris swored is, rom zmnaSi erTdroulad SeiZleba aisaxos rogorc subieqtis piri, ise obieqtis piri: m-xatav-s is me _ formaSi -s subieqtze mianiSnebs, m- obieqtze... Sesabamisad, qarTuli zmna SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc subieqt-obieqturi wyobis zmna, gansxvavebiT im enaTa zmnisagan, sadac zmnaSi mxolod subi-

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eqtis piri aisaxeba da, Sesabamisad, zmnac mxolod subieqturi wyobisa. arsebobs azri, rom qarTuli zmna SeiZleba iyos erTpiriani da orpiriani, radganac erTdroulad zmnaSi SeiZleba aisaxos maqsimum ori piri: subieqturi da erT-erTi obieqti. magram gasaTvaliswinebelia erTi arsebiTi xasiaTis momenti: erTi da imave paradigmis sxvadasxva formaSi morfologiurad SeiZleba aisaxos, vTqvaT, samvalentiani zmnis samive piri:
S Oir. Op.

mi-v-ec me mas

is

(I)

mi-s-c-a man mas is (II) mi-m-c-a man mas me (III) mo-g-ec me Sen is (IV) mi-m-ec Sen mas me (V) mo-m-ec Sen me is (VI) anu erTi da imave samvalentiani zmnis paradigmis sxvadasxva formaSi SeiZleba morfologiurad aisaxos erTi an ori piri, magram erTi piris asaxvis SemTxvevaSi is SeiZleba iyos subieqti (mag., I SemTxveva), pirdapiri obieqti (V SemTxveva), iribi obieqti (VI SemTxveva), anu valentobiT dakavSirebuli samive piri; ori piris asaxvis SemTxvevaSi is SeiZleba iyos subieqti da pirdapiri obieqti (III SemTxveva), subieqti da iribi obieqti (II SemTxveva). ase rom, samvalentiani zmnis SemTxvevaSi samive piri SeiZleba aisaxos zmnaSi. romel SemTxvevaSi romeli an ramdeni piri aisaxeba, damokidebulia pirTa kombinaciebze. aseTi zmna, cxadia, sampirianad unda CaiTvalos. sakiTxi aseve SeiZleba daisvas oTxvalentian zmnaTa Sesaxebac. zmna imdenpirianad unda miviCnioT, ramdeni piris Sesaxebac gvaZlevs warmodgenas zmnuri forma konteqstis gareSe: dam Zmas

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werili gaugzavna _ samvalentiani zmnaa; gaugzavna man mas is _ sampiriani zmnaa. tradiciuli gageba pirianobisa, es aris arsebiTi xasiaTis Tavisebureba qarTuli zmnisa (evropuli zmna konteqstis gareSe mxolod subieqtze gviqmnis warmodgenas; obieqtebis Sesaxeb informacias zmnuri forma ver gvaZlevs, amas konteqsti azustebs. amitomac aris arsebiTi xasiaTis sxvaoba pirianobasa da valentobas Soris evropul enebSi). IV. 1.2.5. pirTa morfologiuri gamoxatva IV. 1.2.5.1. vTqviT: ar arsebobs zogadad subieqturi an zogadad obieqturi piri, arsebobs konkretuli subieqturi an konkretuli obieqturi piri, romelTac morfologiuri gamoxatvis Tavisi wesi aqvT. arsebiTi Tavisebureba pirTa gamoxatvaSi is aris, rom I-II pirTa gamoxatvis principi erTgvarovania da arsebiTad gansxvavdeba III piris gamoxatvis principisagan: a) I-II pirTa niSnebi prefiqsebia (v-ar, x-ar...) III piris niSnebi _ sufiqsebi (wer-s, gaakeT-a...). b) I-II pirTa gamoxatva aglutinaciis princips emyareba _ pirs Tavisi niSani aqvs da ricxvs _ Tavisi (v-ar-T, x-ar-T...). mesame piris SemTxvevaSi fleqsiuri principi moqmedebs: erTi da igive afiqsi pirzec mianiSnebs da ricxvzec (wer-s, weren...). g) I-II subieqtur pirs TiTo afiqsi gamoxatavs (SesaZlo fonetikuri variantebiT); III subieqtur pirSi mawarmoebelTa simravle gvaqvs (-s, -a, -o; -n, -en, -an, -es...), Tumca zog SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia saubari maT istoriul fonetikur variantulobaze. obieqtur pirTa gamoxatvis zogadi principi erTgvarovania: obieqturi piris niSani samive pirSi prefiqsia; ZiriTadad moqmedebs pirTa gamoxatvis aglutinaciuri principi, garda I obieqturi pirisa: am SemTxvevaSi mxolobiT ricxvSi sxva afiqsi (m-) gvaqvs, mravlobiT ricxvSi _ sxva (gv-); sxva SemTxvevaSi obieqturi piris ricxvi -T sufiqsiT gamoixateba (gamoxatvis specifikaze qvemoT visaubrebT).

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IV. 1.2.5.2. I subieqturi piri. pirveli subieqturi piris niSani aris -v prefiqsi. igi zmnaSi yovelTvis aris warmodgenili, garda im SemTxvevisa, roca gvaqvs pirTa kombinacia _ I subieqturi piri / II obieqturi piri. am SemTxvevaSi zmnaSi obieqtis niSania warmodgenili: me Sen g-xatav, me Tqven g-xatav-T... sxva SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa v- prefiqsi fonetikur niadagze iyos gauCinarebuli (o, u xmovnebisa da v Tanxmovnis win); Tumca axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis normaTa mixedviT am SemTxvevaSi v- prefiqsi mainc iwereba: v-omob, v-ukeTeb, v-varjiSob. gamonaklisia val/ved zmna: mo-val (Sdr.: mo-x-val), mo-vedi (Sdr.: mo-x-vedi). I subieqturi piris mravlobiTobas zmnaSi -T sufiqsi gamoxatavs. igi yovelTvisaa warmodgenili: v-ar-T, v-wer-T... maSinac ki, roca S1 piris niSani ar aris mosalodneli: Cven Sen g-locav-T... IV. 1.2.5.3. II subieqturi piri. Tanamedrove qarTulSi meore subieqturi piris gamoxatva Taviseburia: oriode zmnaSi piris niSani aris x- prefiqsi: x-ar, mo-x-val / mo-x-vedi. es aris naSTi xanmetobis droindeli (V-VII ss) normisa. ram gamoiwvia am or zmnaSi prefiqsis Semonaxva, auxsnelia. es faqti dasturdeba saliteraturo enis istoriis yvela etapze da Tanamedrove qarTuli enis yvela dialeqtSi. sxva SemTxvevaSi II subieqturi piris niSani aris h- an misi fonetikuri variantebi. Tanamedrove qarTulSi am variantTa simravle gvaqvs: saliteraturo qarTulSi variantebia h-, s- da . dialeqtebSi ufro metia (amitom maT ganawilebasa da gamovlenis pirobebze qvemoT visaubrebT, ramdenadac obieqturi mesame piris gamoxatva analogiuria subieqturi meore piris gamoxatvisa); SevniSnavT, rom Tanamedrove qarTuli enis normaTa mixedviT subieqturi meore piris niSnis xmareba aucilebeli ar aris. aq mivaniSnebT mxolod imas, rom S2 piris niSani akrZalulia im SemTxvevaSi, roca gvaqvs kombinacia I obieqtur pirTan _ am SemTxvevaSic obieqturi piris niSani aris warmodgenili:

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Sen me m-klav Sen me mas m-Cuqni... IV. 1.2.5.4. obieqtur pirTa gamoxatva. pirveli obieqturi piris gamoxatva sxva pirTagan gansxvavebiT fleqsiur principzea dafuZnebuli: mxolobiT ricxvSi m- prefiqsi gvaqvs, mravlobiTSi _ gv-: me is m-xatavs, m-emaleba, Cven is gv-xatavs, gv-emaleba... meore obieqturi piris gamoxatva aglutinaciur princips efuZneba: piris niSani aris g-, mravlobiTobas -T sufiqsi gamoxatavs: Sen is g-axatavs, g-emaleba Tqven is g-xatav-T, gemaleba-T SevniSnavT: Tu gvaqvs aseTi kombinacia _ O2 mravlobiT ricxvSi da subieqti mesame mxolobiT ricxvSi, roca S3-is niSani aris -s _ subieqtis niSani ikargeba: Tqven is g-xatav-T ( g-xatav-s-T), Sdr.: g-emaleb-a-T... Tu S3 mravlobiTSia, maSin O2-is mravlobiToba ar aRiniSneba: Tqven isini g-xatav-en, g-emalebi-an... moyvanili magaliTebidanac Cans, rom I da II obieqturi pirebis SemTxvevaSi pirdapir da irib obieqts morfologiuri TvalsazrisiT garCeva ara aqvT _ isini erTgvarad gamoixatebian. IV. 1.2.6. h- da s- prefiqsebi qarTul zmnaSi. vTqviT: subieqturi meore piris niSani aris h- da misi fonetikuri varianti s- an (x-s, rogorc gamonakliss, am msjelobaSi ar SemovitanT). igive prefiqsebi aris mawarmoebeli obieqtur mesame pirSi; ganawilebis wesic erTgvaria. amitom SesaZleblad migvaCnia erTad vimsjeloT subieqtur meore da obieqtur mesame (S2O3) piris niSanTa Sesaxeb. am prefiqsTa dRevandeli viTarebis analizisaTvis aucileblad migvaCnia mcire istoriuli eqskursi. S2O3-is niSanTa sistemam qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriaSi rTuli gza ganvlo:

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V-VII saukuneebSi S2O3 gamoixateboda erTi prefiqsiT _ x- (swored am viTarebis naSTia x-ar, x-val / x-ved). am etaps aRvniSnavT terminiT xanmetoba. es prefiqsi gvqonda rogorc xmovniT dawyebul, ise TanxmovniT dawyebul fuZeebTan (Se-x-ewie, Se-x-uabT...). Zvel qarTulSi x prefiqsi gvqonda aseve inian vnebiTebSi (x-iyo, x-iqma...) da zedsarTavi saxelis ufroobiTi xarisxis formebTan (x-udids, x-umjobs...). momdevno etapze (VII-IX saukuneebi) x prefiqss enacvleba h(am etaps aRvniSnavT terminiT haemetoba). xanis haeTi Canacvleba xdeba oTxive funqciis (S2, O3, iniani vnebiTebi da ufroobiTi xarisxis formebi) SemTxvevaSi. momdevno etapze h- prefiqss garkveul fonetikur garemocvaSi misi fonetikuri variantebi Caenacvleba _ s- da . am etaps sannarevi periodi hqvia. h-, s- da prefiqsebis ganawilebas Tavisi wesi aqvs. erTia, radganac xmovanTa win fonetikur niadagze prefiqsi ikargeba, iniani vnebiTebi da ufroobiTi xarisxis formebi prefiqss aGar dairTaven; faqtia, Tu S2O3-is SemTxvevaSi xmovanTa wina poziciaSi vsaubrobT nulovan alomorfebze, radganac am formebSi mxolod nulovani varianti gvaqvs, prefiqsze aRar vsaubrobT. Zvel qarTulSi S2O3 prefiqsebis ganawilebas sakmaod mkacri wesebi hqonda, momdevno periodSi viTareba Seicvala; sakmaod Wreli suraTi gvaqvs axali qarTuli mwerlobis ZeglebSi (XIX saukunesa da XX s-is dasawyisSi). am viTarebas a. SaniZe ase axasiaTebs: `erTaderTi sazomi haesa da sanis xmarebis sakiTxis gadasaWrelad aris TviTeuli mwerlis survili da mowoneba: visac rogor moswons, imgvarad xmarobs saubarSica da weraSic~. situacia qaosur STabeWdilebas qmnis, amitomac saWiro gaxda aseTi normis miReba: `a) ar iqnes xmarebuli h- da s- prefiqsebi II subieqturi piris aRsaniSnavad. b) ixmarebodes h- da s- prefiqsebi III iribobieqturi piris aRsaniSnavad~. wesi zustdeba: `h- datovebul iqnes g, k, q, b, p, f, y TanxmovanTa win. s- III iribobieqturi piris aRsaniSnavad unda ixmarebodes d, t, T, Z, w, c, j, W, C TanxmovanTa win~. Tumca iqve normebSi daSvebulia gamonaklisi iseTi formebis mimarT, rogorebicaaa ga-s-tans, ga-s-wevs, as-wevs, gamo-s-cems, ga-s-cems... daSvebuli gamonaklisebis axsna Wirs...

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miuxedavad sakmaod mkacrad gansazRvruli ganawilebis wesisa, h- da s- prefiqsebis xmarebaSi xSiria normis darRveva: a) prefiqsebi gvxvdeba orpirian gardamaval zmnebSi: mo-hkla, Se-s-Zlo... b) prefiqsebi ara gvaqvs III iribobieqtian formebSi: gamo-kiTxa, mi-wera... g) prefiqsebs dairTavs erTpiriani formebi: s-Cans, h-yvavis... d) dasturdeba ormagi prefiqsebic: hs-Cans, mi-hs-wer... rac mTavaria, amgvari viTareba gvaqvs im klasikos mwerlebTan, romelTac TavianTi enobrivi pozicia aqvT da am prefiqsTa xmarebas principulad moiTxoven orpirian gardamaval zmnebsa da erTpirian formebSi (vaJa-fSavela, k. gamsaxurdia, m. javaxiSvili). aRvniSnavT imasac, rom prefiqsian da uprefiqso paralelur formebs Soris semantikuri TvalsazrisiT sxvaoba araa: gamo-hkiTxa || gamo-kiTxa, mi-swera || mi-wera; mo-h-kla || mo-kla, Se-s-Zlo || Se-Zlo; h-yvavis || yvavis, s-Cans || Cans... es faqti gvafiqrebinebs, rom h- da s- prefiqsebs funqciuri datvirTva ecvleba: konkretul pirze miniSneba aRaraa maTi funqcia. mwerlis komentari _ `ra qarTulia Cans, yvavis, unda iyos s-Cans, h-yvavis~ mianiSnebs imaze, rom prefiqsian formebs sxva funqciuri datvirTva eZleva (aramorfologiuri). Tanamedrove qarTulSi erTi saintereso tendenciac ikveTeba: Tu Zvel qarTulSi II subieqturi piris SemTxvevaSi h-/s- prefiqsTa qona-arqona ganasxvavebda TxrobiTi da brZanebiTi kilos formebs (Txr.: mo-h-kal, da-s-were; brZ.: mo-kal! da-were!...), Tanamedrove qarTulSi SeiniSneba piriqiTi movlena (TxrobiTi: mokali, dawere; brZanebiTi: mo-h-kal! da-s-were). klasikos mwerlebTan amgvari faqtebi dasturdeba. saubroben `keTilxmovnebis~ principze Tu h-/s- prefiqsTa esTetikur funqciaze; magram es aRar aris ukve morfologia. sakiTxi damatebiT kvlevas saWiroebs. h-/ s- prefiqsebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli sirTuleebi ar aris saliteraturo enis Tavisebureba. gacilebiT rTulia mdgomareoba Tanamedrove qarTuli enis dialeqtebSi. qarTuli

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enis dasavlur arealSi aris tendencia am prefiqsTa gaqrobisa; aRmosavlur dialeqtebSi _ garTulebis tendencia SeiniSneba; dasturdeba normis darRvevis SemTxvevebi: h-/s- gvxvdeba garda zemodasaxelebuli Tanxmovnebisa, sxva TanxmovanTa winac II subieqtur pirsa Tu sxva SemTxvevaSi; es prefiqsebi gvxvdeba orpirian gardamaval zmnebSic da erTpirianebSic; aRsaniSnavia isic, rom ormagi prefiqsacia, rac arabunebrivad miiCneoda qarTulisaTvis (h-s-Cans, mi-h-s-wera...), faqtia cocxal metyvelebaSi. dialeqtebSi viTareba aseTia: I sqema:
qarTluri kaxuri ingilouri: fereidnuli xevsuruli mTiuluri moxeuri TuSuri fSauri javaxuri aWaruli imeruli guruli leCxumuri raWuli klarjuli

+ + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + +

h + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

s + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

z S + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

x R + +

+ + +

h + +

s + +

hx + +

hS + +

hs + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ +

II sqema:
h s z S J x
G
h s

akeTeb, aSeneb, ukeTeb, uSeneb... kiTxa, miwera (imer.) gahyva, mohkvdomia... vhfqovdiT (mox.) ahtkivda (aWar.) sZinavs, swydeba, Seswevda, gasTavebia.. movzjardiT (xevs.), zdgebi (kax.), gadazdisa (qarTl.) moSWra, gaSWirebia (qarTl.), SeSWamTo (kax.), gaSCexa (aWar.) Jjobnia, daJjerda (aWar.), JjRvlems (TuS.), daJjerdan (xevs.) daxfaraven (xevs.), davxpatije (mox.), xparavs, xqonda (TuS.), axkidebs (aWar.) waRlalavs (xevs.), gavRlesT (mox.), Rnaxidi (TuS.) wabrZandebi, adgebi (kax.), daTanxmda, dakiTxa (qarTl.) ahyva, gahkra (qarTl.), Cahyo (kax.), dahfqavden (fS.) daswvda, waswyvita (qarTl.), daswverT (kax.)

280
x z S

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia


xyav, xocden, xnavda, gdaxyoliyo (fS.)

gamazZaxs (fS.) daSWyivla, SaSWams, daSWriden (fS.) gafxek ( gahfxek) (mox.) mihsca, avhswoneviT, avhswie (aWar.), mivhscem (ing.) SehSWamda, gahSWra, dahSWirdeba (aWar.), mohSWra (ing.) Cahxyves, mihxvda (aWar.), hxyidi, dahxxura (ingil.)

hs hS hx

sul dadasturebulia 18 fonetikuri varianti. yvelaze meti kaxur dialeqtSia warmodgenili (cxadia, kilokauri TvalsazrisiTac aris sxvaoba); yvelaze naklebi varianti klarjulSi gvaqvs (es SeiZleba imiTac aixsnas, rom es dialeqti (Tu dialeqtTa jgufi) SedarebiT naklebadaa Seswavlili). SevniSnavT imasac, rom yvelaze met dialeqtSi x prefiqsia damowmebuli (h- da s- prefiqsTa Semdeg). x- am SemTxvevaSi fonetikuri variantia h- prefiqsisa da ara _ arqauli movlena. IV. 1.2.7. subieqturi mesame piris niSanTa sistema IV. 1.2.7.1. zogadi viTareba. mTel am sistemaSi (subieqtur da obieqtur pirTa gamoxatva gvaqvs mxedvelobaSi) gansakuTrebul viTarebas qmnis subieqturi mesame piri: pirveli, rogorc iTqva, pirisa da ricxvis niSnebi sufiqsebia da, meore _ mxolobiT ricxvSi sxva niSnebi gvaqvs, mravlobiT ricxvSi _ sxva niSnebi; gavixsenoT: I da II subieqtur pirebSi piris niSani orive ricxvSi erTi da igivea; mravlobiTi ricxvi orive SemTxvevaSi erTi da imave sufiqsiT gadmoicema: v-wer da v-wer-T, s-wer da s-wer-T... Tanamedrove viTarebis gasaazreblad da asaxsnelad saWirod vTvliT sistemis cvlis istoriis gaazrebas. subieqturi mesame piris niSanTa sistema aseT suraTs qmnis Zveli qarTulisaTvis: mx. ricxvi -a -o -s -n -d mr. ricxvi -es -en -an -n -ed

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axali qarTulis varianti ufro martivia: ara gvaqvs mxolobiTSi -n, -d da mravlobiTSi -ed sufiqsebi; samagierod gaCnda -nen sufiqsi. am rTuli sufiqsis Camoyalibeba Cven Tvalwin moxda: meore komponenti n-en sufiqsisa igive -en sufiqsia, romelic mravlobiTis mawarmoebelTa rigSia; pirveli komponenti (n) xmovandakarguli variantia Zvel qarTulSi moqmedi e. w. pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTis -en bolosarTisa (movkal me igi _ movkl-en me igini), romelic Tavs iCens vnebiTis formebSic (davizard-en-iT, daizard-en-iT, daizard-n-es dai-zard-n-en). cnobili faqtia: roca pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTis gamoxatvis saWiroeba aRar iyo qarTul zmnaSi, -en sufiqsis bedi ori gziT warimarTa: a) dasavlur dialeqtebSi e. w. pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTobis aRniSvnis moSlis Semdeg -en ( -n) sufiqsi qreba samive piris formidan; b) aRmosavlur dialeqtebSi igive sufiqsi qreba I-II piris formebSi; xolo III piris formaSi miuxorcda mravlobiTobis -en sufiqss da miviReT n-en: da-v-izard-en-iT da-izard-en-iT da-izard-n-en

da-v-izarde-T da-izarde-T da-izard-en

da-v-izarde-T da-izarde-T da-izard-nen (!)

am procesSi saintereso isicaa, rom paradigmis `sisworis~ TvalsazrisiT wyvetilis niSnis (-e sufiqsis) dakargvis piroba meore SemTxvevaSi ara gvaqvs: ga-izard-a ga-izard-e-a da-izard-en da-izard-e-en aRmosavlur paradigmaSi mesame piris forma Zveli paradigmidanaa aRebuli, I-II piris formebi _ axali paradigmidan. miviReT, ase vTqvaT, Sereuli paradigma: ga-v-izard-en-i-T ga-v-izard-e-T

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ga-izard-en-i-T ga-izard-e-T ga-izard-n-en ga-izard-(e)-en ase rom, nen sufiqsi specifikur viTarebas qmnis. amgvarad, Zveli qarTuli rTuli sistema axal qarTulSi aseT saxes iRebs: mx. ricxvi a o s mr. ricxvi es en an n

Cven Tvals gavadevnebT sistemis gamartivebis gzas. manamde or sakiTxs ganvixilavT: ra mimarTebaa, erTi mxriv, mravlobiTis narian mawarmoeblebsa da, meore mxriv, xmovansufiqsebs (-a, -o) Soris. IV. 1.2.7.2. mravlobiTis narian mawarmoebelTa urTiermimarTebisaTvis. rogorc vnaxeT, qarTulSi subieqturi mesame piris mravlobiTis mawarmoebelTagan sami afiqsi naris Semcvelia: -en, -an, -n. ra mimarTebaa maT Soris? gansxvavebul sufiqsTagan TiToeuls xmarebis garkveuli are aqvs; maT ganawilebas ZiriTadad fonologiuri safuZveli edeba: a) -en sufiqsi gvxvdeba Tanxmovnis momdevno poziciaSi: akeTeb-en, malav-en... b) -n gvxvdeba a, e, o xmovnebis momdevno poziciaSi: mokla-n, gaTbe-n, gaakeTo-n... g) -an sufiqsi gvxvdeba i xmovnis (es i, Cveulebriv, zmnuri sufiqsia) momdevno poziciaSi: tir-i-an, midi-an, ic-i-an... da am naTel ganawilebas erTgvarad arRvevs is SemTxveva, roca -an sufiqsi daerTvis ramdenime statikur zmnas: sxed-an, dgan-an, dum-an, wux-an... erTi SexedviT ganawilebis fonologiur princips morfologiuri `SeeSveleba~... rogorc Cans, is faqti, rom TiToeuli mawarmoebeli garkveul fonetikur garemocvaSi gamovlindeba, gaxda safuZveli imisa, rom isini erTmaneTis fonetikur variantebad iqna gaazrebuli. -en, -an, -n sufiqsTagan amosavlad e xmovniani varianti miiCneva. kerZod, ivaraudeba Semdegi fonetikuri procesebi: -a-en -a-n: mokl-a-en mokl-a-n...

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-e-en -e-n: gaTb-e-en gaTb-e-n... -o-en -o-n: dawer-o-en dawer-o-n... anu, iTvleba, rom xmovanTkopleqsebi ae, ee, oe gamartivda meore komponentis Cavardnis gziT. ee e SemTxvevaSi xmovanTa Serwymasac varaudoben. fonetikuri procesis Sedegad en-is saxecvlil variantad miiCneva -an sufiqsic: i-en i-an (mki-en mki-an). arian Tu ara -en, -an, -n sufiqsebi erTmaneTis fonetikuri variantebi; sxvagvarad, moqmedi fonetikuri procesis Sedegi da, saerTod, aris Tu ara SesaZlebeli amgvari fonetikuri procesebi zmnur formebSi? rogor aRvniSneT, -n sufiqsi miiCneva -en sufiqsis xmovandakargul variantad: en n. sufiqsiseuli xmovnis reduqcia araa ucxo qarTuli enisaTvis, magram roca saubroben am procesze, miuTiTeben momdevno xmovansufiqsis gavlenaze: mokl-n-a mokl-en-a... asea es rogorc zmnebSi, ise saxelebSi. fuZiseul (an sufiqsiseul) da sufiqsiseul xmovanTa Sexvedrisas warmoqmnil xmovanTkompleqsebSi fonetikur procesTa sami SemTxveva gairCeva: a) roca ikargeba kompleqsis pirveli komponenti: e-a a (akeTe-a akeT-a); b) roca xmovnebi gaiTiSeba v TanxmovniT e-a e-v-a (axe-eb-s axe-v-ebs)... da g) warmoiqmneba xmovanTkompleqsi yovelgvari gamartivebisa da xmovanTgamyaris gareSe _ aaxlo-eb-s... SeniSvna: axe-v-eb-s tipis formebSi v-s raobis Sesaxeb ix. $ IV.5.5.8. amgvarad, warmoqmnil xmovanTkopleqsTa gamartiveba momdevno xmovnis dakargvis gziT istoriulad araa damaxasiaTebeli qarTulisaTvis. yovel SemTxvevaSi, msgavsi faqtebi dadasturebuli araa. asea es amJamadac. xmovanTkompleqsebSi fonetikuri procesebi sakmaod gavrcelebulia da rTul suraTs qmnis dRevandel qarTul dialeqtebsa da zanurSi, magram yvela SemTxvevaSi kompleqsis meore wevri daculia _ fonetikuri procesebi mimdinareobs kompleqsis pirveli komponentis cvlis xarjze. yovelive zemoTqmuli eWvqveS ayenebs -en sufiqsiseuli xmovnis dakargvis sakiTxs xmovnis momdevno poziciaSi. amgvari,

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dadasturebuli kanonzomierebis sawinaaRmdego, procesis moqmedebis dasamtkiceblad erTi SemTxveva araa sakmarisi. Cven ar uarvyofT -n da -en sufiqsebs Soris SesaZlo genetur kavSirs; aRvniSnavT mxolod imas, rom sxvaoba maT Sedgenilobas Soris araa momxdari zmnur formebSi. isini ar warmoadgenen erTmaneTis fonetikur variantebs maTi zmnur afiqsebad Camoyalibebis Semdeg. zemoT aRvniSneT, rom -an sufiqsi miCneulia -en-is fonetikur variantad. kerZod, i-s momdevno poziciaSi e disimilirdeba da gvaZlevs a-s. ie ia procesis dros gavlena progresulia da xdeba viwro xmovnis gafarToeba, rac arabunebrivia qarTulisaTvis. gamonaklisis arseboba moqmed fonetikur procesSi dasaSvebia, magram amjerad ar xerxdeba am gamonaklisis axsna, vfiqrobT, arca gvaqvs safuZveli misi daSvebisaTvis. ie ia procesis arsebobis Sesaxeb seriozul eWvs badebs agreTve isic, rom -an sufiqsi dasturdeba Tanxmovnis momdevno poziciaSi da es iseT zmnebTan, romlebic uZvelesi formaciis zmnebadaa miCneuli: w u x -an, d u m -an... Tu es SemTxveva SeiZleba imiT aixsnas, rom am tipis zmnebs i sufiqsi hqondaT da is iyo mizezi en an procesisa, imaves ver vityviT d g a n - an, y v a n - an... tipis formebze, sadac i sufiqsis arseboba arc dadasturebulia da arc Teoriulad savaraudo. saeWvoa agreTve analogiis procesis daSvebac. yuradRebas ipyrobs is faqtic, rom ie kompleqsi ar Cans arabunebrivi qarTulisaTvis. Zvel qarTulSi sakmaod gavrcelebulia ie daboloeba statikuri zmnebis awmyosa da gardamavali zmnebis pirvel TurmeobiTSi: u p y r i e s, h g i e s... d a u w e r i e s, g a u k e T e b i e s... ie kompleqsis ia-Ti Secvla axal qarTulSi (u p y r i a , d a u w e r i a ...) ar Cans fonetikuri procesis Sedegi, aramed aRniSnul formaTa warmoebis tipis Secvlas unda ukavSirdebodes. ie kompleqsis bunebriobas unda uWerdes mxars isic, rom -an sufiqsis adgils rig dialeqtSi iWers -en sufiqsi da warmoiqmneba swored is kompleqsi, romlis gamartivebis Sedegad miRebuladac ivaraudeba -an sufiqsi: m o d i - e n, a r i - e n, t i r i - e n, y v i r i - e n... amgvarad, iseve rogorc wina SemTxvevaSi, vfiqrobT, rom -an

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sufiqsi ar aris -en-is fonetikuri varianti, warmoqmnili misi zmnur afiqsad Camoyalibebis Semdeg. yovelive es ki gamoricxavs -en sufiqsis pirveladobas; igi araa amosavali -an da -n sufiqsebisaTvis zmnur formebSi. warmodgenili msjelobidan gamomdinare, vvaraudobT, rom -n, -en, -an sufiqsebs Soris arsebuli fonetikuri sxvaoba ar unda iyos momxdari zmnur formebSi. Tu maT Soris genetiuri kavSiri arsebobs (vambobT `Tu~-s, imitom rom funqciuri da masalobrivi msgavseba ar unda iyos sakmarisi afiqsTa geneturi kavSiris samtkiceblad...), formobrivi diferenciacia am elementTa zmnur afiqsebad Camoyalibebamdea momxdari. variantTa ganawileba zmnur formebSi warmoqmnil bgeraTkompleqsTa bunebriobis mixedviT unda iyos momxdari. IV. 1.2.7.3. -a da -o sufiqsTa urTierTmimarTebisaTvis. rogorc Zvel, ise axal qarTulSi -o sufiqsis gamovlena uSualodaa dakavSirebuli wyvetilis warmoebasTan, amitom am sufiqsis Taobaze ZiriTadad wyvetilis warmoebisas visaubrebT. Tumca subieqturi mesame piris niSanTa sistemis analizisas mogviwevs zogierTi mosazrebis winaswar `gameoreba~. -o sufiqsi gvxvdeba wyvetilsa da meore TurmeobiTSi: aiRo, aeR-o... am mwkrivebSi S3 pirs gamoxatavs agreTve -a sufiqsi: dawera, daewera... e. i. romel mwkrivSic gvaqvs -o, gvaqvs -a sufiqsic. wesi piruku ar moqmedebs: -a gvaqvs axal qarTulSi awmyosa (Tbeb-a...) da uwyvetelSi (werd-a...) rogorc Zvel, ise axal qarTulSi; swored esecaa safuZveli imisa, rom o sufiqss geneturad akavSireben -a-sTan. -o sufiqsis gamovlenis SemTxvevaTa analizi magaliTebs orad dagvajgufebinebs: erTi mxriv, iyo (agreTve dialeqturi Caico, gamoarTo...) tipis formebi da, meore mxriv, aiRo, gaigo, Seaqo tipis formebi. pirvel SemTxvevaSi o moqmedi fonetikuri procesis Sedegi Cans: v-i-yav i-yav i-yav-a i-yv-a i-yo Ca-v-i-cv-i Ca-i-cv-i Ca-i-cv-a Ca-i-co

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

faqtobriv, aq o-s gamoyofa sufiqsad ar SeiZleba: igi bifonemuri monacemia _ fuZiseuli Tanxmovnisa da S3 -a sufiqsis Serwymis Sedegia... sxva viTarebaa aiR-o tipis formebSi. am tipis zmnaTa SemTxvevaSi -o TavisTavadi sufiqsia da misi gamovlena araa dakavSirebuli v-a kompleqsis arsebobasTan. sxvagvarad: pirvel SemTxvevaSi o fonetikuri procesis produqtia, meore SemTxvevaSi _ TavisTavadi, damoukidebeli sufiqsi. -o sufiqsis gamovlenas qarTulSi (saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis yvela etapze) ori piroba gansazRvravs: a) wyvetilis sayrdeni fuZe unda iyos umarcvlo da b) wyvetilis mawarmoebeli _ e: avi-R-e gava-Tb-e dava-tkb-e ai-R-e gaa-Tb-e daa-tkb-e ai-R-o gaa-Tb-o daa-tkb-o wesi ugamonaklisoa. yvela e. w. gamonaklisi ixsneba (ix. IV. 5.6.4). ase rom, -o Zvel qarTulSi ukve Camoyalibda damoukidebel sufiqsad, -a bolosarTis tolfasad. es ar gamoricxavs imas, rom o miRebuli iyos va/ve/a/e-sagan ufro adrindel periodSi an saerTo qarTveluri fuZe enis diferenciaciamde. -a-s da -o-s ganawilebas fonologiuri safuZveli aqvs. aqedan gamomdinare, S3 piris niSanTa sistemaSi maT damoukidebeli, TavisTavadi adgili uWiravT, Tumca mis meoreulobaze saubari SesaZlebelia. IV. 1.2.7.4. Zveli sistemidan axlisaken. subieqturi mesame piris niSanTa Tanamedrove sistemis gasaazreblad da arsebuli tendenciebis gasarkvevad sairod vTvliT Tvali gadavavloT sistemis ganviTarebis gzas. erTi mxriv, sistemis istoriis gaTvaliswineba da, meore mxriv, sistemis wevrTa urTierTSesabamisoba da ganawilebis principi saSualebas gvaZlevs, sqema Zveli qarTulisaTvis ase warmovadginoT:

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mx. ricxvi a, (o) s n d

mr. ricxvi es en, an, n ed

maTi ganawileba sakmaod rTul suraTs qmnis. es sirTule kidev ufro naTeli gaxdeba, Tu maT davalagebT mwkrivTa mixedviT
awmyo uwyveteli I xolmeobiTi I kavSirebiTi wyvetili II xolmeobiTi II kavSirebiTi Sereuli kavS. I TurmeobiTi II TurmeobiTi III xolmeobiTi III kavSirebiTi (-a), -a mx. ricxvi -s -n -n -s -s -o -n -s -n -s -s -s -n -o -s -s -d -d -d -d -d -d -es -an -n -en, mr. ricxvi -en -an -es -an -an -es -an -an -an -an -n -ed -n -ed -ed -ed -ed -ed

-a

-a

Seqmnili viTareba ubiZgebs enas, moxdes, erTi mxriv, morfologiurad identur afiqsTa sistemis gamartiveba da, meore mxriv, sinonimur afiqsTa funqciuri gadanawileba. mxolobiTisa da mravlobiTis sufiqsebi dawyvildnen: -a (-o) -s -n _ _ _ -es -en, -an, -n -ed

sistemis gamartiveba iwyeba -d sufiqsis dakargvis xarjze; mas mewyvile ara aqvs. am etapze Zalze sainteresod gveCveneba -n _ -ed sufiqsTa dawyvileba: es sufiqsebi, sxva sufiqsTa paralelurad, gamoiyeneboda sxvadasxva mwkrivSi: -n _ awmyoSi, uwyvetelSi, wyvetilSi, II xolmeobiTsa da I TurmeobiTSi;

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

-ed _ awmyoSi, uwyvetelSi, I xolmeobiTSi, wyvetilSi, II xolmeobiTSi, II kavSirebiTSi, I TurmeobiTSi; am mwkrivTagan awmyo, uwyveteli da wyvetili droisa da kilos TvalsazrisiT polifunqciuri mwkrivebia: awmyos mwkrivs drouli TvalsazrisiT SeuZlia gamoxatos rogorc konkretuli awmyo (axlandeli dro), ise zogadi awmyo (awmyo CveulebiTi) _ daclili konkretuli drouli mniSvnelobisagan. uwyvetelsa da wyvetils SeuZlia gadmoscen rogorc TxrobiTi kilo, ise _ brZanebiTi. sxva mwkrivebi, sadac -n da -ed sufiqsebi gvxvdeba, dro-kilos TvalsazrisiT monofunqciuria. enam gamoiyena formobrivi paralelizmis SemTxvevebi da droisa Tu kilos gansxvavebul funqciebs gansxvavebuli formebi miusadaga; awmyos SemTxvevaSi ganasxvava konkretuli da zogadi awmyo: konkretuli awmyo wer-s igi wer-en igini zogadi awmyo wer-n igi wer-ed igini

meore rigis formebs awmyos xolmeobiTi uwodes da damoukidebel mwkrivad aRiares... ramdenadac formobrivi paralelizmi gvqonda mxolod III subieqtur pirSi, amdenad I-II piris formebi (v-wer, s-wer...) itvirTavdnen rogorc konkretuli, ise zogadi awmyos gadmocemas da amitomacaa, rom mkvlevarTa erTi nawili e. w. awmyos xolmeobiTs pirnakl mwkrivad miiCnevs (I-II subieqtur pirs sakuTari forma ara aqvso), meore nawili srul paradigmas warmoadgens _ I-II piris formebi emTxveva awmyosas. awmyo v-wer s-wer wer-s v-wer-T s-wer-T wer-en `awmyos xolmeobiTi~ v-wer s-wer wer-n v-wer-T s-wer-T wer-ed

rogorc iTqva esaa erTi mwkrivis paradigma, sadac formobrivi paralelizmi III pirSi gamoyenebuli iqna funqciuri sxvaobis aRsaniSnavad. wer-n / wer-ed formaTaTvis xolmeobiTis funqciis miniWeba rom meoreulia, isic mianiSnebs, rom amave funqcias warmatebiT

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iTavsebs wers / weren formebi; sakiTxi vrclad ganixileba, magram TiTqos ara Cans iseTi SemTxvevebi, roca wern / wered formebi konkretuli awmyos mniSvnelobiT gamoiyenebodes... nebismier SemTxvevaSi, vfiqrobT, rom am ukanasknel formaTaTvis xolmeobiTis gamoxatva gviandeli funqcia Cans... sakiTxi msgavsadve daismis uwyvetlisa da wyvetilis paralelur formaTa Sesaxeb. uwyveteli da wyvetili Cveulebriv TxrobiTi kilos gamomxatveli mwkrivebia. es mwkrivebi gamoiyeneba warTqmiTi brZanebiTebis gadmosacemad; am SemTxvevaSic enam gamoiyena formobrivi paralelizmis SemTxveva pirTa gamoxatvisas da ase ganasxvava TxrobiTi da brZanebiTi formebi: TxrobiTi v-wer-d-(i) s-wer-d(i) werd-a v-werd-i-T s-werd-i-T werd-es brZanebiTi _ werd-(i) werd-i-n _ werd-i-T werd-ed

II pirSi variantebi _ s-/III pirSi variantebi _ -a/-n, -es/-ed asevea wyvetilis SemTxvevaSic: TxrobiTi v-wer-e s-wer-e wer-a v-were-T s-were-T wer-es brZanebiTi _ were were-n _ were-T wer-ed

cxadia, arc am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba meore rigis paradigmaTa damoukidebel mwkrivebad miCneva. rogorc Cans, amgvari gadanawileba funqciebisa daiwyo Zveli qarTuli enis adreul safexurzeve _ V-VIII s.s.-Si, magram sistemis gamartivebis tendencia ufro Zlieri aRmoCnda da -n _ -ed wyvili asparezidan gadis. es procesi iwyeba Zveli qarTuli enis gviandel safexurze, Sesabamisad qreba e. w. awmyos xolmeobiTi da e. w. brZanebiTebi...

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axali qarTulisaTvis sistema aseT saxes iRebs: mx. ricxvi -a (-o) -s mr. ricxvi -es -en, -an, -n

faqtobriv, mxolobiTSi TanxmovansufiqsTagan gabatonda -s. mravlobiTSi aseTive midrekilebas iCens nariani mawarmoeblebi: Zveli qarTulidan moyolebuli -es sufiqsis gamoyenebis are viwrovdeba: Tu Zvel qarTulSi -es gamoxatavda S3 piris mravlobiTobas uwyvetelsa da wyvetilSi, axal saliteraturo qarTulsa da dialeqtebis umravlesobaSi -es sufiqsi gamoiyeneba mxolod wyvetilSi da isic brunvacvalebadsubieqtian zmnebSi (moqmedebiTi da saSual-moqmedebiTi gvarisa): maT gaakeT-es, iTamaS-es, imef-es... brunvaucvlelsubieqtian zmnebSi nariani mawarmoebeli iWers mis adgils: isini movid-en/nen, gaizard-en/nen... tendencia aSkarad gamokveTilia: -es adgils uTmobs narian mawarmoeblebs. es tendencia dasrulebul saxes iRebs qarTuli enis dasavlur dialeqtebSi (qvemoimerulSi, gurulSi...): wyvetilSi yvela tipis zmnasTan subieqturi mesame piris mravlobiT ricxvs -en sufiqsi gamoxatavs: maT gaakeT-en, dawer-en... isini mevid-en, geizard-en... anu, Zveli qarTulis es sistema: -a (-o) -s -n -d -es -en, -an, -n -ed

sabolood amgvar saxes iRebs: -a (-o) -en, -an, -s -n mxolobiTSi gabatonda (TanxmovansufiqsTagan) sani, mravlobiTSi _ nariani mawarmoeblebi. procesi Zalian xangrZlivi Cans da Cven SesaZlebloba gvaqvs, Tvali gavadevnoT mas. da kidev erTi, friad saintereso faqti: Tanamedrove qarTuli enis dialeqtebSi dasturdeba -es sufiqssa da narian mawarmoebelTa Soris funqciebis gadanawi-

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lebis rTuli da xangrZlivi procesis ganviTarebis sami ZiriTadi etapi: 1. roca -es sufiqsi gamoxatavs subieqturi mesame piris mravlobiTobas uwyvetelsa da wyvetilSi (xevsuruli, TuSuri, moxeuri...); 2. roca -es gvxvdeba mxolod wyvetilSi brunvacvalebadsubieqtian zmnebTan (qarTluri, kaxuri...); 3. roca -es sufiqsi aRar gamoiyeneba, moxda sruli Canacvleba nariani mawarmoeblebiT (qvemoimeruli, guruli, aWaruli...). gamartivebul sistemaSi mravlobiTobis narian mawarmoebelTa ganawilebas, rogorc aRiniSna, fonologiuri safuZveli aqvs; fonologiuri principi edeba safuZvlad -a da -o sufiqsTa ganawilebasac; mosalodneli aris, fonologiuri iyos safuZveli -a (-o) da -s sufiqsTa ganawilebisac. aris ki ase? _ SevecdebiT am kiTxvasac gavceT pasuxi. IV. 1.2.7.5. ia daboloebis a komponentis Taobaze awmyosa da I TurmeobiTSi. sanam dasmul kiTxvas vupasuxebT, erTi sakiTxi unda gairkves: ras warmoadgens ia daboloebis -a komponenti statikuri zmnebis erT nawilsa da gardamavali zmnebis pirvel TurmeobiTSi, subieqturi mesame piris formebSi rom gvaqvs (awer-ia, ukeT-ia... dauwer-ia, gaukeTeb-ia...). a meSvelzmnuri warmoSobisaao (ars a), rogorc amas mkvlevarTa erTi nawili fiqrobs; sxva Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, -a komponenti subieqturi mesame piris niSania. CvenTvis sarwmunoa meore Tvalsazrisi. is faqti, rom aRniSnul zmnaTa paradigmis I-II piris formebi meSvelzmniania (vwer-i-var, s-wer-i-xar...), rac mTavari argumentia pirveli TvalsazrisisaTvis, vfiqrobT, ar unda iyos xelisSemSleli (kontrargumenti) meore SexedulebisaTvis: qarTulSi aris tendencia erTi mwkrivis paradigmaSi I-II piris formaTa warmoebis principis gansxvavebisa mesame piris formisagan. a) statikurma zmnebma awmyoSi meSveli zmna gamoiyenes: v-zi-var zi-xar zi-s v-dga-var dga-xar dga-s

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es procesi dialeqtebSi ufro Sorsaa wasuli: v-fiqrob-var fiqrob-xar fiqrob-s v-icini-var icini-xar icini-s...

b) Cveni azriT, aseTive viTarebaa ia daboloebis SemTxvevaSic: I-II piris formebi meSvelzmniania, mesame pirisa _ ara: v-anTi-var anTi-xar anTi-a... a-v-uSenebi-var a-uSenebi-xar a-uSenebi-a... Sdr.: mo-v-uklav-var mo-uklav-xar mo-uklav-s...

swored es gvafiqrebinebs, rom -ia daboloebis a komponenti kvalificirebuli unda iqnes, rogorc subieqturi mesame piris niSani. IV. 1.2.7.6. subieqturi mesame piris -s, -a, -o sufiqsTa ganawilebisaTvis axal qarTulSi. rogorc viciT, axal qarTulSi subieqturi mesame piris mxolobiT ricxvs sami sufiqsi aRniSnavs: -s, -a, -o. TiToeul maTgans gamoyenebis mkacrad gansazRvruli sfero aqvs. erTi da imave zmnis erTsa da imave formasTan ar xdeba maTi Tavisufali monacvleoba. SevniSnvT: -a da -o sufiqsTa Tavisufali monacvleobis magaliTad asaxeleben darga / dargo, morwya / morwyo tipis paralelur formebs. am tipis zmnebSi paralelizms sxva safuZveli aqvs: isini sxvadasxva paradigmis wevrebi arian (dawvrilebiT ix. aqve, $ IV. 5.6.4.7.). -s, -a, -o sufiqsebi, erTi SexedviT, ganawilebis TvalsazrisiT rTul suraTs qmnian. gavixsenoT isic, rom CvenTvis sarwmunoa mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac -o bolosarTi istoriulad -a-sagan aris miRebuli (amosavali fonetikuri viTareba iyo v's mezobloba), magram Semdeg -o analogiis mixedviT sxva zmnebsac gauCndaT. radgan es asea, visaubrebT -a da -s sufiqsTa ganawilebis safuZvelze da Semdeg SevecdebiT vaCvenoT, ra SemTxvevaSi gamovlindeba -o sufiqsi -a-s adgilas. axali qarTulis martivma sistemam Zveli qarTulis rTuli sistemis adgili daiWira. yovelive es ki uflebas gvaZlevs, gan-

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sxvavebulad mivudgeT am afiqsTa ganawilebis sakiTxs Zvelsa da axal qarTulSi. ra aris safuZveli subieqturi mesame piris -s da -a sufiqsTa ganawilebisa, SesaZlebeli aris Tu ara maTi gamovlenis yvela SemTxvevas Soris raime saerTo niSnis daZebna? vfiqrobT, ki. subieqturi mesame piris -s da -a sufqsTa gamovlenisaTvis arsebiTi mniSvneloba unda eniWebodes sayrdeni morfemis Tvisobas. axal qarTulSi, faqtobriv, subieqturi mesame piris niSnis sayrdeni morfema yvela SemTxvevaSi marcvlovania. sayrdeni morfema SeiZleba iyos rogorc Zireuli (wer-s, drek-s...), aseve sufiqsuri (akeT-eb-s, xat-av-s...). sufiqsuris SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iyos odenxmovniani (gaakeT-o-s...) da xmovnisa da Tanxmovnis Semcvelic (TamaS-ob-s...). roca vambobT, rom arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWeba sayrdeni morfemis Tvisobas, vgulisxmobT sayrdeni morfemiseuli xmovnis nulTan monacvleoba-armonacvleobas. aq, ra Tqma unda, dadgeba sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, rom sayrdeni morfemiseuli xmovnis nulTan monacvleoba-armonacvleoba aris safuZveli sufiqsTa gamovlenisa, Tu TviTon sufiqsebia sayrdeni morfemiseuli xmovnis nulTan monacvleoba-armonacvleobis mizezi. roca vsaubrobT sayrdeni morfemiseuli xmovnis nulTan monacvleoba-armonacvleobaze, vgulisxmobT process erTi paradigmis farglebSi. mag.: -av TemisniSniseuli xmovani SeiZleba saerTod gauCinardes (xat-v-a xat-av-a), magram awmyo-myofadis formebSi yovelTvis sruli saxiTaa warmodgenili axal qarTulSi da, amdenad, am formebze msjelobisas vambobT, rom -av TemisniSniseuli xmovnis Tvisoba ar aris nulTan monacvleoba axal qarTulSi (ZvelSi a monacvleobs nulTan). sayrdeni morfemiseuli xmovnis nulTan monacvleoba-armonacvleobis ZiriTadi sakontrolo saSualeba CvenTvis subieqturi mesame piris mravlobiTis formebia: akeT-eb-en, xat-av-en, TamaS-ob-en, Wr-i-an, y-of-en formebSi sayrdeni morfemiseuli xmovani ar monacvleobs nulTan, sxva SemTxvevaSi igi nulTan monacvlea:

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avaSen-e mov-kal

_ _

aaSen-es ( aaSen-e-es) mo-kl-es

SeniSvna: `movkal~ tipis zmnebSi -i elements ar miviCnevT sayrden morfemad, ramdenadac igi morfologiuri odenoba ar aris. misi Tavisufali monacvleoba nulTan (movkali movkal) am daskvnis gamotanis safuZvels gvaZlevs. gansxvavebul odenobad gvesaxeba is -i elementi, romelic Tavisuflad ar monacvleobs nulTan (avSend-i, gavTb-i...). am TvalsazrisiT sirTules qmnis kavSirebiTis mawarmoebelTa Tvisobis sakiTxi. ara gvaqvs SemTxveva, rom kavSirebiTis -a, -e, -o mawarmoeblebs xmovniT dawyebuli sufiqsi daerTvodes. am SemTxvevaSi sakiTxi sxvagvarad daismis. odenxmovnian sufiqsTa nulTan monacvleoba ar aris tolfasi Tanxmovnis Semcveli sufiqsiseuli xmovnis nulTan monacvleobisa. garkveuli morfologiuri daniSnulebis Tanxmovnis Semcveli sufiqsiseuli xmovnis dakargva ar qmnis saSiSroebas saTanado funqciis miCqmalvisas _ TanxmovniTi elementi (resp. uxmovno alomorfi) am daniSnulebas asrulebs. Sdr.: Zveli qarT. movkl-en / mokl-n-a. sxvagvari viTarebaa odenxmovnian afiqsTa SemTxvevaSi: misma gauCinarebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios saTanado funqciis miCqmalva, radgan aRar gvaqvs formaSi im funqciis matarebeli elementi da dakarguli xmovansufiqsis kompensacia ar xdeba. odenxmovniani sufiqsis nulTan monacvleoba-armonacvleobis ZiriTadi piroba, Cveni azriT, am afiqsTa funqciuri datvirTvaa. odenxmovniani sufiqsi SeiZleba monacvleobdes nulTan im SemTxvevaSi, Tu es monacvleoba formis Sinaarsis cvlas ar gamoiwvevs; xolo Tu xmovnis savaraudo dakargva formis Sinaarsis cvlas gamoiwvevs da dakarguli xmovansufiqsis funqcia gauCinardeba, xmovnis nulTan monacvleoba ar moxdeba: dedofal-a, WriWin-a fuZeTa bolokiduri xmovansufiqsi formawarmoebisas ar ikveceba imitom, rom aRar moxdeboda garCeva dedofal-, WriWin- fuZeTa saTanado formebTan; xolo me-Tevz-e tipis fuZeTa bolokiduri xmovansufiqsi ikveceba, radgan am fone-

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tikuri cvliT miRebuli forma ar gaigivdeba amosaval fuZesTan: me-Tevz-is / Tevz-is... kavSirebiTis mawarmoebelTa dakargva kavSirebiTis funqciis gauCinarebas gamoiwvevda: I kavSirebiTis forma uwyvetelTan gaigivdeboda, meore kavSirebiTisa _ wyvetilTan. wyvetilis mawarmoeblis gauCinarebis SemTxvevaSi es safrTxe ara gvaqvs: ar moxdeba formis damTxveva sxva paradigmis wevrTan... aqedan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, rom kavSirebiTis -a, -e, -o sufiqsTa morfologiuri daniSnuleba da srul paradigmaSi maTi mimarTebani Seapirobebs im faqts, rom isini nulTan ar monacvleoben. ufro sworad, logikurad maTi nulTan monacvleoba gamoricxulia. warmodgenili msjelobidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, rom subieqturi mesame piris -s, -a, -o sufiqsebi ki ar Seapirobeben sayrdeni morfemis fonologiur saxes, aramed sayrdeni morfemiseuli xmovnis Tvisoba nulTan monacvleoba-armonacvleobisa aris ganmsazRvreli piroba am sufiqsTa gamovlenisaTvis, maTi ganawilebis safuZveli. -s da -a sufiqsTa ganawilebis SemTxvevaTa analizi amgvari daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas gvaZlevs: s u b i e q t u r i m e s a m e p i r i s -a s u f i q s i g a m o v l i n d e b a n u l T a n m o n a c v l e x m o v n i s S e m c v e l s a y r d e n m o r f e m a s T a n: mov-kal _ mo-kl-a mo-kal-a gavakeT-e _ gaakeTa gaakeT-e-a. xolo s- s u f i q s i g a movlindeba nulTan aramonacvle xmovnis Sem c v e l s a y r d e n m o r f e m a s T a n: akeT-eb-s, xat-av-s, aaSeno-s... am wesidan gamomdinare, sainteresoa -ia daboloebis mqone statikur zmnaTa awmyosa da gardamaval zmnaTa I TurmeobiTis -a sufiqsis sakiTxi. rogorc aRvniSneT, mkvlevarTa erTi jgufi -a bolosarTs piris niSnad miiCnevs (imave odenobad, rac gaakeT-a formaSia); xolo zogi mkvlevris azriT, a daboloeba ars meSveli zmnis naSTia. Cven gaviziareT pirveli Tvalsazrisi. Tu -a Seupyri-a formaSi piris niSania, maSin mis win xmovani unda iyos gauCinarebuli. asec varaudoben: Seupyrie-a Seupyri-a; I-II piris formebSi e bolosarTis ararsebobis (Sevupyri-var, Seupyri-xar)

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

Taobaze iTqva, safiqrebelia, rom III piris fuZe ganzogadda Semdeg sxva pirebSi. ase rom, es SemTxvevac SemoTavazebuli wesis farglebSi eqceva: -a sufiqsisaTvis sayrdenia -e, romelic monacvleobs nulTan. IV. 1.2. 8. inversia. i n v e r s i a zmnur sistemaSi gaigeba rogorc `piris niSanTa daniSnulebis Secvla~ (a. SaniZe); anu, ganmartebis mixedviT, inversia unda gavigoT rogorc istoriuli kategoria, romelic gulisxmobs mniSvnelovan diaqroniul cvlilebas zmnis pirianobasa (valentobasa) da mis morfologiur gamoxatvas (markirebas) Soris. es istoriuli cvlileba SeiZleba mokled ase iyos formulirebuli: `Tavdapirvelad zmnis TvalsazrisiT obieqti realuradac obieqtad iyo warmodgenili da is, rac zmnaSi subieqtis rols asrulebs, realurad subieqtad iyo dasaxuli, sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, yvelgan pirdapiri an swori wyoba iyo. Semdeg azrovnebis ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebiT Seicvala gageba obieqturi viTarebisa, zmnam ki SeinarCuna winandeli gagebis Sesaferisi agebuleba, erTi sityviT, metyveleba CamorCa azrovnebas, dairRva korelacia azrovnebasa da metyvelebas Soris, da Semdeg miviReT inversiuloba (arn. Ciqobava, Wanuris gramatikuli analizi, gv. 93-94). amdenad, inversiis cneba genezisis TvalsazrisiT istoriuli kategoriaa, magram sakiTxavia: ra adgili uWiravs mas konkretuli enis gramatikaSi, rogorc sinqroniul sistemaSi? am TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba orgvari midgoma arsebobdes: a) inversia ganisazRvreba morfologiuri paradigmatikis doneze; anu: inversia aris subieqtur da obieqtur piris niSanTa urTierTCanacvleba erTi sauRlebeli paradigmis doneze:

awmyo: v-xatav mes mas I Turm.: m-ixatav-s mes is

m-xatav-s is meo v-uxativar mas meo

b) inversia ganisazRvreba valentobisa da pirianobis (sintaqsisa da morfologiis) doneze; anu: inversia niSnavs zmnis

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pirieli potenciisa da misi morfologiuri gamoxatvis `asimetrias~ _ realuri (moqmedi) subieqtisa da realuri (moqmedi) obieqtis Sebrunebul gamoxatvas: subieqts gamoxatavs obieqturi piris niSani da _ piriqiT. am viTarebis aRwera SesaZlebelia ara paradigmis, aramed erTi formis farglebSic: konkretuli enis farglebSi vadgenT konkretuli zmnis pirTa viTarebas (subieqts, obieqt{eb}s) da am viTarebas vamowmebT Sesabamisi zmnuri formis mixedviT. Tu realuri subieqti (obieqti) gamoxatulia zmnuri subieqturi (obieqturi) niSniT, pirdapiri wyobaa, xolo Tu es mimarTeba Secvlilia (subieqtur pirs Seesabameba _ obieqturi piris niSani, xolo obieqtur pirs _ subieqturi), saqme gvaqvs i n v e r s i a s T a n. cxadia, es aucileblad gulisxmobs winaswar dadgenas imisas, romeli niSnebi ganekuTvneba subieqtur pirs, romeli _ obieqturs. sxvagvar SemTxvevaSi piris niSanTa daniSnulebis Secvlaze, rogorc istoriul movlenaze, laparaki SeuZlebeli (obieqturad ganumtkicebeli) iqneboda. warmodgenili orgvari (a) da (b) midgoma inversiis sakiTxisadmi arsebiTad asaxavs qarTuli gramatikuli literaturis or gansxvavebul xazs: erTi inversiulad miiCnevs mxolod gardamavali zmnis III seriis formebs (da-m-ixatav-s) (a. SaniZe); xolo meore, amasTan erTad, aRiarebs gardauval zmnaTa awmyos formebis inversiulobasac (m-iyvar-s) (arn. Ciqobava). rogorc iTqva, amisi mizezi arsebiTad gramatikuli movlenis aRwerisadmi gansxvavebul midgomaSi mdgomareobs. mesamegvari midgomis ramdenime versiac arsebobs. kerZod, subieqturia (savaldebuloa) is piri, romelsac subieqturi piris niSani Seesabameba da _ piriqiT (al. oniani); anda: subieqturi piris niSania is, romelic realur subieqts asaxavs (iqneba is vinis rigisa, Tu manis rigisa) (T. uTurgaiZe, q. daTukiSvili). es midgoma ar iZleva pirTa mimarTebis istoriuli transformaciis danaxvis SesaZleblobas. obieqturad SesaZlebelia (da albaT mizanSewonilic aris) inversiagancdili zmnebi garkveul jgufebad ganvixiloT imisda mixedviT, Tu ra gramatikuli Sinaarsisaa es zmnebi mocemul

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doneze da ra paradigmatuli viTareba aqvs maT (rasac gamoviyenebT kidec qvemoT); magram TavisTavad konkretuli zmnis inversiis (an _ arainversiis) gansazRvra unda moxdes erTi da saerTo kriteriumiT _ zmnis valentobis (subieqt-obieqtebis) realuri viTarebisa da pirTa morfologiis sinqroniuli urTierTmimarTebis safuZvelze. sxvagvari midgoma aucileblad gamoiwvevs interpretaciis nairgvarobas. konkretulad: rodesac vambobT, rom damedo (vali) forma ar aris inversiuli (pirdapiri wyobisaa), vgulisxmobT Semdegs: a) subieqturi piria is (vali), obieqturi piri _ me; b) Sesabamisad, S3 _ o, O1 _ m. anu da-m-e-d-o is me. xolo rodesac vambobT, rom damedo (unda fuli) forma aris inversiuli, vgulisxmobT Semdegs: a) subieqturi piria me, obieqturi piri _ is (fuli); b) magram: S3 _ o, O1 _ m. anu: pirTa viTareba `Sebrunebulia~, piris niSnebi ki igivea: da-m-e-d-o me is gardamaval anu aqtiursubieqtian zmnebSi es procesi ufro gamokveTilia da xelSesaxebi im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom aq subieqtisa da obieqtis Sinaarsi, maTi uflebrivi mimarTeba, ufro mkveTrad aris gamoxatuli (damiweria, amiSenebia... me). xolo, magaliTad, grZnoba-aRqmis zmnebSi Sesabamisi subieqti (e. w. ganmcdeli subieqti) Sinaarsobrivad esoden mkveTrad ar aris gamijnuli obieqtisagan (miyvars, maciebs... me). Sesabamisad, inversiis cnebis mixedviT SeiZleba davaxasiaToT ramdenime tipis zmnaTa jgufi: 1. gardamaval zmnaTa III seriis (samive mwkrivis) formebi. rogorc cnobilia, am mwkrivebSi orpiriani da sampiriani zmnebi gaTanabrdeba, radganac sampiriani zmnac orpiriani xdeba (iribi obieqti e. w. ubralo damatebad iqceva). Sdr.: kveT-s (is mas) _ mo-u-kveTi-a (mas is)

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h-kveT-s (is mas mas) _ mo-u-kveTi-a (mas is {misTvis}) am SemTxvevaSi adgilmonacvle (inversiuli) pirebi realurad SenarCunebulia: (is mas mas is). 2. m-i-pyri-a, m-i-Wirav-s... tipi: es zmnebi, romlebic sxva cnobil, awmyoSive inversiul (statikur) zmnaTagan yvelaze metad ekedlebian da emsgavsebian gardamaval zmnaTa inversiul formebs. am mxriv maT Tundac sruli paradigma gamoarCevs: m-i-Wirav-s m-e-Wir-a m-Weri-a da es gardamaval zmnaTa inversiul formebTan mimarTebaSic Cans; Sdr.: m-i-pyri-a me is Se-m-i-pyri-a me is sxvaTa Soris, es rgoli gansakuTrebiT ganamtkicebs gardamavali inversiuli da statikuri inversiuli zmnebis Sinagan kavSirs. 3. m-i-yvar-s tipis zmnebi, anu statikur zmnaTa is jgufi, romelic mxolod inversiuli formiT aris warmodgenili da romel zmnebsac arsebiTad mxolod awmyos wris mwkrivebi moepoveba: miyvar-s, miyvard-a, miyvarde-s. am SemTxvevaSic inversiaqmnili pirebi (subieqturi da obiqturi) realurad SenarCunebulia: m-i-yvar-s me is

v-u-yvar(var) mas me

4. m-a-kankaleb-s tipis zmnebi, romelnic xelSesaxebad warmoaCenen pirdapiri wyobis gardamavali zmnis inversiul statikur zmnad transformaciis process:

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m-a-kankaleb-s (is [yinva] me) (Sdr. m-a-njRrev-s is me) m-a-kankaleb-s (me) transformirebuli zmna statikurobis arsebiT niSnebsac iZens, Tumca _ nawilobriv (magaliTad, aklia mxolod III seriis mwkrivebi). ufro niSandoblivia is, rom am SemTxvevaSi yofili gramatikuli subieqti (anu potenciuri realuri obieqti) arsebiTad anulirebulia (me ); Sesabamisad: m-a-kankaleb-s (me ) 5. m-a-wuxeb-s tipi, romelic aseve gardamavali zmnis transformaciis Sedegia da amiT emsgavseba makankalebs tips, oRond am SemTxvevaSi SenarCunebulia realuri obieqti (yofili gramatikuli subieqti); Sdr.:

m-a-wuxeb-s (is [mezobeli] me)

m-a-wuxeb-s (me is [sakiTxi]) amave tips dauwyvildeba Semo-m-e-lanZR-a tipi. 6. m-Si-a tipis statikuri zmnebi, romelTac realuri subieqti SenarCunebuli aqvT, magram aSkarad anulirebis tendenciiT. es zmna Tavisuflad gamoiyeneba rogorc orpiriani (me puri) da, aseve _ rogorc erTpiriani (mSia me): m-Si-a me {is} 7. m-civ-a tipi, romelic arsebiTad gagrZelebaa wina tipisa, im arsebiTi gansxvavebiT, rom realuri obieqti mTlianad aris anulirebuli:

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m-civ-a me 8. m-goni-a, Se-m-i-Zli-a... am SemTxvevaSic obieqtis pozicia Seryeulia, is xSirad warmodgenili ar aris; Sdr. ra ggonia? da rogor ggonia? rac Seexeba m{a}xuravs, macvia, maxvevia, mkidia... obieqturi wyobis zmnebs, maTi pirianobisa (valentobisa) da morfologiis mimarTeba inversias realurad ar warmoaCens; albaT mxolod tendenciaze SeiZleba saubari: m-axvevi-a is me es miT ufro xelSesaxebia maSin, rodesac konkretul orpirian zmnas Sesabamisi erTpirianic udgas gverdiT da gramatikuli subieqtis pozicias amgvari opoziciac ganamtkicebs; Sdr.: kidi-a is h-kidi-a is mas

IV. 1.2.9. zmnis ricxvi. vTqviT, ricxvi erT-erTi umTavresi kategoriaa zmnisa. igi mWidrod ukavSirdeba piris kategorias. ricxvi saziaro kategoriaa saxelisa da zmnisaTvis. saxelis SemTxvevaSi viTareba gacilebiT martivia _ SegviZlia visaubroT mxolobiTisa da mravlobiTis formebze: ricxvis niSani (-eb, -n/-T) mxolobiTis formas ganasxvavebs mravlobiTisagan (kac-i _ kaceb-i / kac-n-i / kac-T-a)... principulad gansxvavebuli viTarebaa zmnis SemTxvevaSi: ar SeiZleba visaubroT zmnis formis Sesaxeb, rogorc mxolobiTis an mravlobiTis formis Taobaze: SegviZlia visaubroT mxolod zmnaSi warmodgenili piris (pirebis) ricxvis Sesaxeb. morfologiuri gamoxatuleba simravlisa aqvs swored zmnasTan dakavSirebul konkretul pirs: v-Tbebi (me) _ subieqti mxolobiT ricxvSia; v-Tbebi-T (Cven) _ subieqti mravlobiT ricxvSia;

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m-xatav-s (is me) _ obieqti mxolobiT ricxvSia; gv-xatav-s (is Cven) obieqti mravlobiT ricxvSia. erTsa da imave zmnur formaSi SeiZleba iyos ricxvis mixedviT gansxvavebuli subieqt-obieqtis kombinaciebi: v-xatav (me mas) _ subieqti mxolobiTSia; obieqtic mxolobiTSia; v-xatav-T (Cven mas) _ subieqti mravlobiTSia; obieqti _ mxolobiTSi; v-xatav (me maT) _ subieqti mxolobiTSia, obieqti _ mravlobiTSi (formobrivi damTxvevaa I SemTxvevasTan); v-xatav-T (Cven maT) _ subieqti mravlobiTSia, obieqtic _ mravlobiTSi (formobrivi damTxvevaa meore SemTxvevasTan). sampiriani zmnis SemTxvevaSi ufro rTuli viTarebaa: subieqtis, pirdapiri da iribi obieqtis mxolobiT-mravlobiTis kombinaciaTa raodenoba izrdeba. Sesabamisad, zmnuri formis ricxvze msjelobisas vsaubrobT zmnasTan dakavSirebuli piris (saxelis, resp. nacvalsaxelis) ricxvze da ara zogadad zmnuri formis ricxvze. amitomac ricxvis kategoriaze msjeloba uSualo kavSirSi iqneba piris kategoriasTan. miT umetes, es mimarTeba (pirisa da ricxvisa) specifikuria (araerTgvarovani) sxvadasxva SemTxvevaSi _ zogjer pirsa da ricxvs sxvadasxva morfologiuri niSani gamoxatavs (v-wer-T _ v- piris niSania, -T _ ricxvisa); zogjer erTi da igive morfologiuri elementi pirze mimaTiTebelic aris da ricxvzec (weren _ -en aris subieqturi mesame piris niSani mravlobiT ricxvSi). am Temaze ufro dawvrilebiT saubari gveqneba piris niSanTa analizis dros. IV. 1.2.10. saxelTa mravlobiTobis gamoxatva zmnaSi. zmnaSi Cveulebriv gamoixateba im saxelis mravlobiToba, romlis piric aisaxeba. e. i. subieqtisa da obieqtis (pirdapirisa da iribis) mravlobiToba. subieqtis mravlobiTobis gamoxatva gansxvavebulia I-II da III pirebisaTvis. pirdapiri wKobis dros I-II piris mravlobiToba gamoixateba -T sufiqsiT: Cven v-wer-T

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Tqven wer-T am SemTxvevaSi -T mianiSnebs mxolod ricxvze piris ganurCevlad. III subieqturi piri gamoixateba -en, -an, -n, -es da -nen sufiqsebiT: isini akeTeb-en, modi-an, movid-nen... maT gaakeT-es, gaakeTo-n... mravlobiTobis aGmniSvneli sufiqsebi pirsac gamoxataven... inversiuli wKobis SemTxvevaSi realuri subieqtis mravlobiToba gamoixateba I pirSi gv- prefiqsiT, II da III pirebSi -T sufiqsiT (anu: moqmedebs iribiobieqturi piris mravlobiTobis gamoxatvis principi): pird. wyoba Cven Tqven isini v-wer-T wer-T wer-en inversiuli wyoba Cven Tqven maT da-gv-iweria da-g-iweria-T da-uweria-T

obieqturi pirebis mravlobiToba gansxvavebulad aGiniSneba I da II pirebSi: I pirSi fleqsiurad: gv ricxvis aGmniSvnelic aris da pirisac; II pirSi _ aglutinaciurad: ricxvs -T sufiqsi gamoxatavs. is is is is Cven Tqven Cven mas Tqven mas (p. ob.) (ir. ob.) gv-xatav-s g-xatav-T gv-ixatavs g-ixatav-T

specifikuri viTarebaa III obieqturi piris SemTxvevaSi: rogorc wesi, saliteraturo enaSi III piris obieqtis mravlobiToba aGiniSneba inversiis dros: Cven is Tqven is maT is da-gv-iweria da-g-iweria-T da-uweria-T Cven Tqven maT gv-civa g-civa-T s-civa-T

inversiis SemTxvevaSi es imitom xdeba, rom gramatikuli iribi obieqti realur subieqtad aris gagebuli da SeTanxme-

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basac es gansazGvravs. pirdapiri wyobis SemTxvevaSi Cveulebriv III obieqturi piris simravle zmnaSi ar aisaxeba: me is me mas da-v-xate da-v-emale me isini me maT da-v-xate da-v-emale

Tumca saintereso tendenciebi isaxeba. arsebuli viTarebis gasaazreblad aucilebeli Zveli qarTulis viTarebis gaxsenebaa: Zvel qarTulSi III subieqturi piris SemTxvevaSi nar-Tanian mravlobiTSi dasmuli saxeli yovelTvis iTanxmebda zmnas ricxvSi _ yovelTvis aCenda mr. ricxvis niSans; -eb sufiqsiani saxelobiTi ver iTanxmebda zmnas: `igi sirebi aGfrinda~... `movidoda xarWebica mefisa~... da sxva. axal qarTulSi narTaniani mravlobiTis gamoyenebis sixSire Semcirda saxelebSi, misi sintaqsuri Zala ucvleli darCa. samagierod, gaizarda saxelebSi -eb-iani mravlobiTis gamoyenebis sixSire; gaizarda misi sintaqsuri funqciac: III subieqturi piris Sesabamisi saxeli Tu sulieria, am piris mravlobiToba yovelTvis aRiniSneba: bavSvebi TamaSob-en, Citebi mofrind-nen da a. S. Tu III subieqturi piris Sesabamisi saxeli usuloa, misi mravlobiToba zmnaSi SeiZleba aGiniSnos (mag., mTebi dgan-an da eli-an...) da SeiZleba ar aGiniSnos (mag., saxlebi dga-s, xeebi gaxm-a...). Cveulebriv SeTanxmeba gvaqvs gapirovnebis SemTxvevaSi, Tumca tendencia iseTia, rom sxva SemTxvevaSic SeiZleba aisaxos mravlobiToba (mdinareebi adidda mdinareebi adiddnen...). gansxvavebuli viTareba iyo III obieqturi piris mravlobiTobis gamoxatvasTan dakavSirebiT: zmnaSi aGiniSneboda saxelobiTSi dasmuli obieqturi piris mravlobiToba: man wigni dawera, magram man wignni dawer-n-a. me igi Sen igi man igi mo-v-kal mo-kal mo-kl-a me igini Sen igini man igini mo-v-kl-en mo-kl-en mo-kl-n-a

micemiTSi dasmuli obieqtis simravle zmnaSi ar aGiniSneboda, ganurCevlad imisa, pirdapiri iyo es obieqti Tu iribi: Se-s-Zen-s igi mas/maT mas/maT mo-h-guri-s igi mas/maT mas/maT mo-u-Txrob-s igi mas/maT mas/maT da a. S.

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unebs mas / maT igi h-nebav-s mas / maT igi aqu-s mas / maT igi s-wyuri-s mas / maT igi h-yvand-a mas / maT igi uyuard-a mas / maT igi da a. S. axal qarTulSi mkveTrad gamoixata tendencia micemiTSi dasmuli obieqtis ricxvis aGniSvnisa zmnaSi. inversiul zmnebSi es TiTqmis sistemebr gatarda. rogorc iTqva, amas xeli iman Seuwyo, rom gramatikuli iribi obieqti realur subieqtad aris gagebuli (arn. Ciqobava). Tumca es procesi pirdapiri wyobis zmnebSic ganviTarda. es wesi samwerlobo qarTulSi aGmosavluri kiloebidan Semonatanad iTvleba (arn. Ciqobava): aedevna misdevs ekiTxeba Seuyvira is mas is mas is mas man mas da da da da is maT is maT is maT man maT aedevna-T misdev-T ekiTxeba-T Seuyvira-T

am tendenciis arsi is aris, rom `mesame piris es-T-iani formebi agrZeleben pirveli da meore piris formaTa xazs: micemiTi brunvis obieqti samsave pirSi iTanxmebs zmnas ricxvSi... procesobriv ki mesame piris am formis warmoqmnaSi axali faqtori unda gvqondes: dialeqturi normiT zog qarTul kiloSi (raWulSi, kaxurSi, ingilourSi, fereidnulSi, imerulSi), ixmareba -ye -ke nawilaki. igi miuTiTebs, pirvel yovlisa, obieqtis mravlobiTobaze micemiTSi: aedevna mas _ aedevna-Ke maT.. ekiTxeboda mas _ ekiTxeboda-ye maT... exveweba mas _ exveweba-Ke maT da sxv.~ (arn. Ciqobava). zemowarmodgenil magaliTebSi (aedevna-T, ekiTxeba-T...) -T sufiqsi `-ye nawilakis adgilasaa gamoyenebuli da misi rolica aqvs dakisrebuli _ masala (T sufiqsi) saliteraturo qarTulisaa, funqcia _ dialeqturi~. amgvarad, -eb-iani mravlobiTis ricxvis asaxva zmnaSi, erTi mxriv, da micemiTSi dasmuli obieqtis ricxvis asaxva, meore mxriv, axali qarTulis damaxasiaTebeli tendenciebia, romelic TandaTan Zlierdeba.

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Tavi II. zmniswini


IV. 2.1. zmniswinis raoba. zmniswini ewodeba erT- an ormarcvlian morfemas, romelic win uswrebs zmnis martiv fuZes an fuZis win darTul romelime prefiqss (piris niSans, qcevis niSans, gvaris niSans) da asrulebs sxvadasxva funqcias: gviCvenebs mimarTulebas, awarmoebs momaval dros, srul aspeqts, cvlis zmnis leqsikur mniSvnelobas. zmniswini zmnis piriani formis garda daerTvis sawyiss (daxatva, ga-keTeba, Se-Rebva...) da mimReobas (da-xatuli, ga-keTebuli, Se-Rebili...). Tanamedrove qarTul enaSi gvaqvs Semdegi zmniswinebi: a-, ga-, da-, mi-, mo-, Se-, Ca-, wa-, gada-, amo-, gamo-, Semo-, Camo-, wamo-, gadmo-, mimo-. maTgan Sedgenilobis mixedviT martivi zmniswinebia: a-, ga-, da-, mi-, mo-, Se-, wa-. martiv zmniswinebze mo-s darTviT miRebulia rTuli zmniswinebi: a-mo-, ga-mo-, Semo-, wa-mo-. Tavdapirvelad rTuli iyo, magram fonetikuri cvlilebebis Sedegad martivi saxe aqvs Ca- da gada- zmniswinebs. Ca- miRebulia Se-da-sagan (Se-da- S-da- S-Ta- Ca-), gada- ki miRebulia gar-da-sagan: gar-da- gada-. Ca- da gadazmniswinebsac erTvis mo- zmniswini da viRebT Camo-, gadmo(gada-mo- gadmo-) rTul zmniswinebs. mi- da mo- zmniswinebi zogjer erTdroulad daerTvis zmnas da vRebulobT rTuli saxis mimo-s (mimoixeda, mimoiara, mimosvla...). Zvel qarTulSi gvqonda sxva zmniswinebic: wiaR-, wiaRmo-, uku-/ukun-, ukmo-, ukumo-, mimoda-. Tanamedrove qarTulSi isini aRar gvxvdeba. im zmniswinebidan, romlebic Tanamedrove enaSi gvaqvs, zogi Zvel qarTulSic amave saxiT gamoiyeneboda; esenia: mi-, mo-, Se-, da-, sxvebma ki met-naklebi cvlileba ganicades: Zvel qarTulSi gvqonda: gan-, aR-, war-, STa-, garda-, aRmo-, warmo-. Tanamedrove qarTulSi gvaqvs: ga-, a-, wa-, Ca-, gada-, amo-, wamo-.

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zog zmnasTan zmniswini dResac Zveli saxiT gvxvdeba (gan-azogada, aR-zarda, war-adgina, STa-agona, garda-iqmna...). umetes SemTxvevaSi Zveli da axali saxeobani Tavisuflad enacvlebian erTmaneTs (ga-Tavisuflda da gan-Tavisuflda, ga-meorda da gan-meorda...), an stilistur sxvaobas iZlevian (Sdr.: aasrula da aR-asrula, Ca-unerga da STa-unerga, ga-arida da ganarida...). gvaqvs iseTi SemTxvevebi, roca Zveli da axali formis zmniswinebiT gansxvavebuli leqsikuri mniSvnelobis zmnebi iqmneba (Sdr.: Caagona _ STaagona, adgoma _ aRdgoma, wamateba _ warmateba...). zmniswinebis darTvis mixedviT gamoiyofa sami jgufi: 1. zmnebi, romlebic zmniswins ar dairTaven: swams, uyvars, sZuls, sZinavs... 2. zmnebi, romlebic uzmniswinod ar gvxvdeba: mivida, gavida, Sevida... 3. zmnebi, romelTac SeuZliaT dairTon zmniswini an ar dairTon: daxata / xata, mokrifa / krifa, dagrixa / grixa... romel zmniswins iyenebs esa Tu is fuZe, damokidebulia rogorc zmnis, ise zmniswinis semantikaze. IV. 1.2. zmniswinTa genezisi. zmniswinebi damoukidebeli sityvebisagan momdinareoben, romlebmac droTa ganmavlobaSi dakarges damoukidebloba da daukavSirdnen saxelsa da zmnas. qarTulSi aSkaraa zmniswinebisa da Tandebulebis saerTo warmomavloba: gan Tandebulia saxelTan (xisa-gan), zmniswinia zmnasTan (gan-vida > ga-vida); garda Tandebulia saxelis brunvis formasTan (amas garda, gogonas garda), zmniswinia zmnebSi (garda-icvala, garda-iqmna... garda-s gamartivebuli saxea gada: gada-vida, gadagzavna). geneturad erTi da igivea -Si Tandebuli da Se- zmniswini (saxl-Si, Se-vida); mi- zmniswini da mde, mdis TandebulebSi gamoyofili mi formanti; mo- zmniswini da moaqamomde formaSi gamoyofili mo formanti; aR- zmniswini da wiaR sityvaSi gamoyofili aR formanti. zmniswinebiTa da TandebulebiT sivrceSi myofis adgilis kodirebisas aseTi ganawileba, ra Tqma unda, ar aris SemTxveviTi. Tandebulebi azusteben zmniswinebiT gamoxatul sivrcul mimarTebebs.

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IV. 2.3. zmniswinTa funqciebi. zmniswini polifunqciuri monacemia. igi ramdenime funqcias asrulebs: aRniSnavs mimarTulebas (a-dis, Se-dis, Ca-dis, gada-dis...), gamoxatavs gezsa da orientacias (mi-aqvs _ mo-aqvs, mi-rbis _ mo-rbis), awarmoebs momaval dros (atans _ ga-atans, wers _ da-wers, Wams _ Se-Wams...), gamoxatavs srul aspeqts (akeTa _ ga-akeTa, wera _ da-wera), cvlis zmnis leqsikur mniSvnelobas (xaliCa da-ago, fuli waago, xmali qarqaSSi Ca-ago, saxli a-ago; wyali da-iqca, biWi waiqca, bavSvi ga-iqca...). zmniswinis funqciebidan pirveladia mimarTulebis aRniSvna, romelsac ukavSirdeba gezisa da orientaciis gamoxatva; zmniswinis uZvelesi funqciaa agreTve gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis zmnebis warmoqmna; dasrulebuli saxiT moqmedebis gamoxatva da momavali drois warmoeba ki zmniswinis mermindeli, SedarebiT axali funqciebia. zmniswinis warmoSobis sakiTxi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli zmnis CamoyalibebasTan. zmniswins zmnis ramdenime kategoria ukavSirdeba: gezi, orientacia, dro, aspeqti. maTgan gezi da orientacia mxolod zmniswinis meSveobiT aris gamoxatuli. zogjer zmniswini ramdenime funqcias asrulebs erTdroulad: gamoxatavs gezs, orientacias, momaval dros da srul aspeqts (Seva, micurdeba, gadmoitans...). qvemoT ganvixilavT zmniswinis saSualebiT gezisa da orientaciis gamoxatvas da leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvlas. rac Seexeba zmniswinis sxva funqciebs, maTze msjeloba iqneba Sesabamisi kategoriebis (droisa da aspeqtis) ganxilvisas.

IV. 2.4. mimarTulebis saxeebi da maTi gamoxatva, gezi da orientacia. qarTul enaSi sivrciTi mimarTebebi ZiriTadad zmnis saSualebiT gadmoicema. moZraobis gamoxatvisas yovelTvis igulisxmeba raRac, rac moZraobs (subieqti an pirdapiri obieqti) da is, ris/vis mimarTac moqmedebs vinme an rame. moqmedebis mimarTeba sivrceSi arsebul sxvadasxva punqtTan gansazRvrulia I piris, mosaubris mier. es mimarTeba SeiZleba gamoxatuli iyos zmnis formiT, SeiZleba _ ara. wers, xatavs, Wams, frinavs, qris, curavs, goravs zmnebSi moqmedebis mimarTuleba zmnis formiT

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gamoxatuli ar aris. maTgan gansxvavebiT, mifrinavs, mirbis, Sedis, moaqvs, aitana, gamoaRo zmnebi gamoxataven moqmedebas, romelic garkveuli mimarTulebiT sruldeba, sivrceSi mdebare romelime punqtisaken aris mimarTuli. punqti SeiZleba iyos maRla an dabla, SigniT an gareT, gadaRma an gadmoRma, zedapirze an siRrmeSi, win an ukan. garda amisa, moZraoba, moqmedeba SeiZleba gamoixatos orgvarad: rogorc moubaris anu I pirisaken mimarTuli da mis sawinaaRmdegod mimarTuli. ase rom, TiToeul saxes mimarTulebisas orientaciis mawarmoebeli wyvili zmniswini gamoxatavs: 1) qvevidan zeviT: a- (avida, afrinda...) da amo- (amovida, amofrinda...); 2) zevidan qveviT: da- (davida, dafrinda...) da damo-, romelic Zv. qarTulSi gvqonda (damohkides Zelsa...) da dRes naSTis saxiTRaa SemorCenili (damokidebuli); 3) Signidan gareT: ga- (gavida, gafrinda) da gamo- (gamovida, gamofrinda...); 4) garedan SigniT: Se- (Sevida, Sefrinda...) da Semo- (Semovida, Semofrinda...); 5) dabrkolebis gadalaxviT: gada- (gadavida, gadafrinda...) da gadmo- (gadmovida, gadmofrinda...); 6) zmniswinebi: Ca-, Camo- gamoxatavs mimarTulebas zemodan qvemoT da amave dros _ garedan SigniT (rac am zmniswinebis rTuli Sedgenilobis Sedegia: Se- + da- Sda- Ca-): Cavida, Cavarda, Camovida, Camovarda. SeniSvna: Zvel qarTul saliteraturo enaSi gvqonda zmniswinTa kidev erTi wyvili: wiaR- da wiaRmo-, romelic gada-, gadmo- zmniswinTa msgavsad dabrkolebis gadalaxviT moZraobas gamoxatavda, oRond wyalTan dakavSirebiT: wiaR-da _ wyalze gadavida, wiaR-moda _ wyalze gadmovida. Tanamedrove qarTulSi es zmniswinebi aRar gamoiyeneba. zmnis kategorias, romelic gviCvenebs, rogoria zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedebis mimarTeba sivrceSi mdebare romelime punqtTan, gezi ewodeba. roca zmnis formiT moqmedebis mimarTuleba gamoxatuli ar aris, gvaqvs miumarTavi gezi: wers, xatavs, akeTebs, muSaobs da misT. roca gansazRvrulia moqmedebis mimarTuleba, moqmedeba garkveuli mimarTulebiT sruldeba, gvaqvs mi-

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marTuli gezi: miswera, Caxata, Seagdo, gadaifrina da a. S. mimarTulebis, da Sesabamisad, gezis gamomxatveli zmnaSi aris zmniswini. gezi, rogorc zmnis kategoria, mxolod zmniswinis saSualebiT aris gamoxatuli (a. SaniZe). rogorc aRiniSna, moqmedebis mimarTuleba mosaubris, I piris poziciidan fasdeba da mas ukavSirdeba kidev erTi zmnuri kategoria _ orientacia. orientacia gviCvenebs zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedebis mimarTulebas I piris poziciidan: saiT aris moqmedeba mimarTuli _ mosaubre pirisaken, Tu sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT. amis mixedviT gvaqvs saaqeTo anu maaxloebeli da saiqeTo anu maSorebeli orientacia. orientacia, a. SaniZis gansazRvris mixedviT, saaqeToa, Tu moqmedebis subieqti an pirdapiri obieqti I pirisaken miemarTeba (mogoravs qva, Semoagora qva), xolo saiqeToa, Tu moqmedebis subieqti an pirdapiri obieqti Sordeba I pirs (migoravs qva, miagora qva). a. SaniZis azriT, mosalodneli iyo, rom orientaciis aRniSvnisas enaSi gamoixateboda II piris arec, rogorc es garCeulia CvenebiT nacvalsaxelebsa da zmnizedebSi (Sdr.: es _ eg _ is, aseTi _ egeTi _ iseTi, aq _ mand _ iq...), magram ase ar moxda. II pirTan igive zmniswinebi gamoiyeneba, rac I pirTan. ramdenadac II piri is piria, romelsac mimarTaven, igi I piris sivrceSi moiazreba da masTanac saaqeTo orientacia igulisxmeba. SemdgomSi orientaciis kategoriis gageba dazustda; aRiniSna, rom saaqeTo orientacia gamoxatavs moqmedebas I pirisaken an II pirisaken (ganurCevlad imisa, imyofeba II piri I piris areSi Tu ara; Sdr.: me gamogigzavne werili moskovSi), saiqeTo orientacia ki gvaqvs maSin, roca moqmedeba mimarTulia iqiT, sadac I da II piri ar imyofeba (S. kekelia, a. daviTiani, a. focxiSvili, a. oniani). amdenad, orientaciis mixedviT opoziciis wevrTa raodenoba samia: neitraluri (curavs), saaqeTo (mo-curavs) da saiqeTo (mi-curavs). mosaubris, I piris, poziciidan fasdeba, saiT aris moqmedeba mimarTuli: I an II pirisaken, Tu I an II piris sawinaaRmdegod. Tu moqmedeba mimarTulia im poziciisaken, romelic I an II pirs ukavia, orientacia saaqeToa, Tu moqmedeba I an II piris pozici-

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is sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT sruldeba, orientacia saiqeToa. saaqeTo orientacia gamoixateba mo- zmniswiniT, iqneba is damoukidebeli, martivi saxiT, Tu erTvis sxva zmniswins: amo-, gamo-, Camo-, wamo-, Semo-, gadmo-: mo-vida, amo-itana, Camo-agdo, wamo-iRo, Semo-varda, gadmo-xta... saiqeTo orientacia gamoixateba mi-, a-, ga-, Ca-, wa-, Se-, gada- zmniswinebiT: mi-vida, a-itana, Ca-agdo, wa-iRo, Se-varda, gada-xta, ga-atana... is zmnebi, romlebic zmniswins ar dairTaven, moklebulia rogorc mimarTulebis gamoxatvis saSualebas, ise orientaciisas; meore mxriv ki zmniswinis darTva yovelTvis ar niSnavs am kategoriebis gamoxatvas. mTel rig zmnebSi mi-s da mo-s dakarguli aqvT moqmedebis gezisa da orientaciis gamoxatvis funqcia. aseT SemTxvevaSi mi-sa da mo-s pirTa ganurCevlad iyeneben: mi-viRe, mimaCnia, mo-agona, mo-ifiqra, mo-kla da a. S. (a. SaniZe). IV. 2.5. zmniswinis saSualebiT zmnis leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvla. zmniswinis erTi ZiriTadi funqciaa zmnis leqsikuri mniSvnelobis cvla. zmniswini axali zmnis mawarmoebeli elementia. zmnebis did nawilSi igi swored sityvawarmoebiTi daniSnulebiT gvxvdeba. zmniswinebma SesaZloa: a) gamoxaton moqmedeba gansxvavebuli niuansiT; Sdr.: mokla da da-kla; mo-Sorda da ga-Sorda (cols), Ca-wera da Camowera... b) warmoqmnan antonimebi; mag.: wa-arTva da mi-arTva, wa-ago da mo-igo, ga-iyarnen da Se-iyarnen... g) warmoqmnan axali leqsikuri erTeulebi, mag.: miswera werili, gawera saavadmyofodan, gamowera recepti; gamoiwvevs sacekvaod, miiwvevs stumrad, Seiwvevs saxlSi... gansxvavebuli leqsikuri erTeulebi SeiZleba warmoiqmnas zmniswinis fonetikuri variantebiTac: war-suli da wa-suli; aRdgoma da a-dgoma; gan-dideba da ga-dideba; gan-wyoba da ga-wyoba, garda-texa da gada-texa... is, rom zmniswinebis fonetikuri variantebi mniSvnelobaTa ganmasxvavebeli funqciiT gamoiyeneba, qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli unikaluri movlenaa, romliTac ena garkveul ekonomiurobas aRwevs: minimaluri formobrivi saSua-

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lebebiT mocemulia maqsimaluri semantikuri gamomxatveloba (b. jorbenaZe). imdenad mravalferovania warmoqmnis niuansebi zmniswinTa gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT, rom specialuri gamokvlevis gareSe maTi sruli aRnusxva SeuZlebelia. qvemoT ganvixilavT zmniswinebis gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebis zog SemTxvevas. da- zmniswini gezisa da orientaciis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT upirispirdeba a- zmniswins (a-frinda _ da-frinda, a-iwia _ da-iwia...), magram xSirad is upirispirdeba mi- da mo- zmniswinebsac im TvalsazrisiT, rom Tu es zmniwinebi iqiT da aqeT mimarTulebiT moZraobas gamoxataven, da- gviCvenebs moqmedebas garkveuli mimarTulebis dausaxeleblad. igi gvxvdeba rogorc gardauval, ise gardamaval zmnebSi: da-xtis, da-frinavs, da-aqvs, da-aWenebs.... igi am funqciiT ar daerTvis moZraobis gamomxatvel nebismier zmnas, magram sivrceSi gadaadgilebis gamoxatva garkveuli mimarTulebis aRniSvnis gareSe ZiriTadad da- zmniswinis gamoyenebiT aris SesaZlebeli. amave dros, da- zmniswini SeiZleba daerTos zmnas, romelic moZraobas ar gamoxatavs da es mniSvnelobac SesZinos mas (da-RiRinebs = RiRiniT dadis, dabzuis = bzuiliT dastrialebs...). da- zmniswinis gamoiyenebasTan aris dakavSirebuli agreTve iseTi moqmedebis gamoxatva, romelic mraval obieqtze xorcieldeba, magram ara yvelaze erTad, aramed cal-calke: da-zarda, dagzavna, da-Tala, da-recxa... amgvari funqciiT aRWurvil dazmniswins a. SaniZe `TiToobis da~-s uwodebs. am funqciis gamoxatvis arsi ase ganimarteba: Tu saWiroa erTi subieqtis moqmedeba mraval obieqtze, s a T i T o o unda mihyves: jer erTs mohrCes, mere meores, Semdeg mesames da egre bolomdis~. mag.: fexsacmeli ga-xada, fexsacmelebi da-xada; ficari ga-Tala, ficrebi da-Tala da sxva. -da gardauval zmnebTanac gvxvdeba da subieqtis simravles gamoxatavs: da-izardnen, da-ifantnen, da-ZRnen... subieqtisa da obieqtis simravle da-Ti gamoxatulia sawyissa da mimReobaSic: da-zrda, da-gzavna, da-zrdili, da-gzavnili... amgvari funqciis gamomxatveli da- zmniswini mxolod zogierT zmnasTan SeiZleba iyos. iseTi SemTxvevebi, rogorebicaa _ xeebi moWra, wignebi waikiTxa, cxadia, gulisxmobs saTiTood Sesrule-

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bul moqmedebas, Tumca misi gamoxatva zmniswinTan araa dakavSirebuli... Se- zmniswini gamoxatavs mimarTulebas garedan SigniT, magram zogjer igi gviCvenebs zeviT mimarTul moqmedebas (Se-jda cxenze, Se-dga mTaze...), zogjer ki iseT moqmedebas gamoxatavs, romelic naklebi intensivobiT xasiaTdeba: ga-wiTlda magram Se-wiTlda, da-Tvra magram Se-Tvra, ga-Txelda magram Se-Txelda... arsebobs mosazreba, rom am mniSvnelobiT Se-s gamoyeneba sivrculi mimarTebis gamoxatvasTan aris dakavSirebuli, oRond es mimarTeba warmodgenilia metaforulad: SewiTlda _ siwiTleSi Sevida (v. boederi). Semo- zmniswins Tavisi ZiriTadi mniSvnelobis garda aqvs unari gamoxatos raime sagnis irgvliv, garSemo mimdinare moqmedeba: Semo-akera, Semo-axia, Semo-atara, Semo-Roba... am zmniswins ukavSirdeba agreTve uneblie moqmedebis gamoxatvis funqcia: Semo-exarja, Semo-akvda, Semo-eWama... (a. focxiSvili). saSuali gvaris zmnaTa erTi nawili Tavisi ZiriTadi funqciebiT zmniswins ver iguebs: bejiTobs, sulelobs, zarmacobs, bavSvobs da misTanani. am tipis zmnebis mier gamoxatuli moqmedebis naklebi intensivobiT Sesruleba, `sicotave-simcire~, gamoixateba mo- da wa- zmniswinebTa meSveobiT: mo-ibejiTebs, mo-izarmacebs, mo-isulelebs... wa-iTamaSebs, wa-itirebs... zogjer zmniswinTa gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT gamoyeneba sxva enis gavleniT aris gamowveuli. rusuli enis gavleniT ixsneba gan- zmniswinis gamoyeneba zmnebSi: gan-tvirTva, gan-iaraReba da gada- zmniswinis gamoyeneba Semdeg formebSi: gada-xarjva, gada-tvirTuli, gada-Rlili da sxv. zogadad, zmniswinebis SerCevis sakiTxi damokidebulia rogorc zmnis, ise zmniswinis semantikaze da kompleqsurad unda iqnes Seswavlili. IV. 2.6. zmniswini da zmnuri fuZe. zmniswinisa da zmnuri fuZis kombinacia araa erTgvarovani sxvadasxva zmnis SemTxvevaSi.

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maT Sexamebas, erTi mxriv, zmnis, xolo meore mxriv, zmniswinis semantika gansazRvravs. iSviaTia zmna, romelic Tanamedrove qarTulSi gamoyenebul yvela zmniswins dairTavdes. magaliTad, di-s yvela zmniswins dairTavs: mi-, mo-, a-, ga-, da-, wa- Se-, Ca-, gada-, mimo-, amo-, gamo-, wamo-, Semo-, Camo-, gadmo-; TiTqmis aseTive viTarebaa am zmnis monacvle fuZeebTan: val-, ved. msgavsi viTarebaa fren/ frin zmnur ZirTanac; oRond SevniSnavT _ sxvadasxva qcevisa Tu gvaris viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT. magaliTad, Camo- gvxvdeba mxolod sufiqsian vnebiTTan (Camo-frindeba) da `sasubieqto qcevis~ formasTan (Camo-ifrens); mi- sam SemTxvevaSi: mi-afrens, mi-afrindeba, mi-frindeba; a- xuT formasTan (a-frens, a-ifrens, a-ufrens, a-frindeba, a-ufrindeba). SeniSvna: vsargeblobT qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeulis safuZvelze Sedgenili `zmnuri fuZeebis leqsikonis monacemebiT (g. gogolaSvili, c. kvantaliani, d. Sengelia, 1989). zmniswinaTagan ufro aqtiuri gamoyenebisaa martivi zmniswinebi. magaliTad, Sen fuZesTan gvxvdeba yvela martivi zmniswini; rTuli zmniswinebidan _ mxolod amo- da gamo. Tes zmnuri fuZe dairTavs martivTagan da-, mi-, mo-, Ca-, Se- zmniswinebs; rTulTagan gamo-s (aseve, Zveli formiT gan-s). zmnuri fuZe SeiZleba iguebdes mxolod erT zmniswins (daasaxiCrebs...); or zmniswins (ga-naRmavs, da-naRmavs...); sam zmniswins (ga-fufqavs, da-fufqavs, Ca-fufqavs...) da a. S. es monacemebi SeiZleba icvlebodes: droTa ganmavlobaSi xdeba zmniswinis mier damatebiTi funqciebis SeZena; am mxriv mo-, Se- da wa- zmniswinTa viTarebaa sagulisxmo. sasaubro metyvelebaSi (romelic SeiZleba aisaxos samwerlobo enaSic) sicotave-simciris funqciiT maTi gamoyeneba TandaTan iZens farTo gavrcelebas. rogorc vTqviT, erTsa da imave zmnur fuZesTan (mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs martivi fuZe) gamoyenebul zmniswinTa datvirTva sxvadasxvagvaria; yvela SemTxvevaSi am zmniswinTagan gamoiyofa erTi, romelic ama Tu im zmnis ZiriTad Sinaarss xsnis. pirobi-

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Tad mas SeiZleba neitraluri zmniswini ewodos (c. kvantaliani). magaliTad: wer fuZe iguebs TiTqmis yvela zmniswins, magram neitraluri funqciiT da- zmniswini gamoiyeneba: wers _ da-wers; sxva zmniswinebs raRac damatebiTi semantikuri niuansi Seaqvs: aR-wers, Ca-wers, gada-wers, gadmo-wers, mi-awers, moswers da a. S. sxva zmnur fuZesTan sxva zmniswini SeiZleba Segvxvdes amgvari (neitraluri) funqciiT: akeTebs _ ga-akeTebs, aSenebs _ a-aSenebs, krefs _ da-krefs, xedavs _ Se-xedavs, ikiTxavs _ waikiTxavs, acxobs _ gamo-acxobs, acmevs _ Ca-acmevs... niSandoblivia isic, rom neitraluri zmniswini SeiZleba dairTos ama Tu im zmnis yvela gvarisa da qcevis formam, maSin rodesac imave zmnur fuZesTan sxva zmniswinis darTvis SemTxvevaSi formawarmoebis SesaZleblobebi SezRudulia; magaliTad, keT zmnuri Zirisagan nawarmoebi formebi aseTi sqemis saxiT SeiZleba warmovidginoT (vemyarebiT `qarTuli enis zmnuri fuZeebis leqsikonis~ monacemebs):
fuZe moqm./vneb. zmniswini xmovanprefiqsebi moqm. gv. xmovanprefiqsebi vn. gv.

keT-eb/keT-d-eb

0, ga, gamo amo gada gadmo da, Se mo Semo, Ca wa wamo

a, a a, a a, a, i i

i, u i, u u i

0, u _ 0 0 0, u 0 u 0 0

rogorc aRiniSna, zmniswins oTxi ZiriTadi funqcia aqvs: 1. mimarTulebis Cveneba (gezi da orientacia), 2. momavali drois gamoxatva, 3. sruli aspeqtis warmoeba da 4. axali zmnis warmoeba.

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am funqciaTa gamovlenac damokidebulia zmnur fuZeze; vTqvaT, erTma da imave zmniswinma axali zmna erTi fuZidan SeiZleba awarmoos, meore fuZidan _ ara: agebs _ a-agebs magram Ca-agebs (xmals) aSenebs _ a-aSenebs da Ca-aSenebs... mimarTulebas zmniswini ZiriTadad moZraobis aRmniSvnel zmnebTan gamoxatavs, Tumca arc sxva zmnebTan gamoiricxeba zog SemTxvevaSi mimarTulebis niuansebi. magaliTad, Ca-aSenebs... aspeqtian zmnebSi zmniswiniani forma sruli aspeqtis gamomxatvelia, Tumca Tu zmniswini awmyo drois SemTxvevaSic gamoiyeneba, maSin zmniswinian formas usruli aspeqtis mniSvneloba eqneba: aR-wers... igive iTqmis momavali drois gamoxatvazec, Tumca es calke msjelobis Temaa.

Tavi III. dro-kiloTa sistema


IV. 3.1. dro-kiloTa sistemis analizis mdgomareoba. sauGlebel erTeulTa (mwkrivTa) raodenoba axal qarTulSi Zvelisagan gansxvavebulia. aGvniSneT: praqtikul gramatikebSi (kerZod, antonTan) Zveli qarTulis TiTqmis Kvela forma iKo SemCneuli, magram ver moxerxda Kvela sauGlebeli erTeulis gamoKofa. Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologiis erT-erTi urTulesi ubania dro-kiloTa sistema; kerZod, sauGlebeli erTeulis (mwkrivis) raobisa da Sedgenilobis sakiTxebi. Zveli qarTulisaTvis dro-kiloTa sistemis sqema n. marma daazusta da warmoadgina. axali qarTulis sistema (n. maris sistemaze daKrdnobiT) a. SaniZem SeimuSava 1930 wels gamocemul `qarTul gramatikaSi~. momdevno periodis SromebSi sistemis erTeulTa raodenoba ar Secvlila, terminebi dazustda da sabolood aseTi saxe miiGo sauGlebel erTeulTa sistemam:

1930 w. `qarTuli gramatika~ I seria a) awmKos wre 1. 2. 3. awmKo namKo uwKveteli I kavSirebiTi b) mKobadis wre 4. 5. 6. mKobadi pirobiTi I kavSirebiTi 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3.

1953 w. `qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi~ I seria a) awmKos wre awmKo uwKveteli awmKos kavSirebiTi b) mKofadis wre mKofadi xolmeobiTi mKofadis kavSirebiTi

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II seria 7. 8. 9. namKo wKvetili namKo xolmeobiTi brZanebiTi (II subieqturi pirisa mxolod da isic warTqmiTad) II kavSirebiTi III seria 11. 12. 13. I TurmeobiTi II TurmeobiTi III kavSirebiTi 11. 12. 13. 7. 8. 9.

II seria wKvetili brZanebiTi II xolmeobiTi

10.

10.

II kavSirebiTi III seria I TurmeobiTi II TurmeobiTi III kavSirebiTi

saKuradGeboa is faqti, rom 1930 wlis gramatikaSi terminiT I kavSirebiTi ori mwkrivia aGniSnuli. gavxazavT: or mwkrivs erTi da igive saxeli hqvia. es uxerxuloba 1942 wlis gramatikaSi gamosworda: erTs ewoda awmKos kavSirebiTi, meores _ mKobadis kavSirebiTi, Tumca sqemaSi isev I kavSirebiTi darCa, oGond frCxilebSi mieTiTa: I kavSirebiTi (awmKosi), I kavSirebiTi (mKobadisa) (a. SaniZe). `safuZvlebSi~ sqemas axlavs SeniSvna, rom ori mwkrivi _ brZanebiTi da II xolmeobiTi _ kiloebSia Semonaxuli. Tumca sailustraciod brZanebiTisaTvis saliteraturo qarTulis formebia moxmobili: were (dawere), aSene (aaSene); xolo II xolmeobiTisaTvis _ Zveli qarTulisa: vweri (davweri), vaSeni (avaSeni) (a. SaniZe). momdevno msJelobaSi a. SaniZe SeniSnavs: `mwkrivebs rom gamovakloT II xolmeobiTi, romelic dGevandel qarTulSi iSviaTadGa ixmareba da brZanebiTi, romelsac sxva mwkrivebisagan gansxvavebuli formebi TiTqmis aGar aqvs, 13 mwkrivisagan 11 dagvrCeba~ (a. SaniZe). amgvarad, saKovelTaod gaziarebuli Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, axal qarTulSi 11 mwkrivi gvaqvs. zog SemTxvevaSi sxvaobas mxolod terminologia qmnis (amJerad amas CvenTvis principuli mniSvneloba ara aqvs).

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amjamad miGebuli daJgufeba mwkrivTa sistemisa ZiriTadad sawarmoebeli fuZis principzea agebuli, rac samecniero literaturaSi n. maris danergilad miiCneva. ufro adre msgavsi principiT sauGlebel erTeulTa daJgufeba scades d. CubinaSvilma, k. dodaSvilma da T. jordaniam. Tu sawarmoebeli fuZis principi umtkivneulod SeiZleba gatardes I da II seriaSi, sirTules III seriis mwkrivebi qmnis. am sirTules n. maric grZnobda _ avtori mesame seriis calke Jgufad gamoKofisa. III serias, gansxvavebiT I da II seriisagan, ar gaaCnia saKrdeni mwkrivi. I TurmeobiTis fuZe ara Tu ar aris saKrdeni danarCeni mwkrivebisaTvis, aramed umetes SemTxvevaSi principulad sxvaobs kidec maTgan... am winaaGmdegobis Taobaze n. mari aGniSnavs, rom: `es sami dro erTad unda iKos, radganac isini nawarmoebia erTi da imave wesiT, Tumca vercerT maTgans ver ganvixilavT rogorc saKrdenad xmarebul dros, romlisganac sxvebi arian warmoqmnilni~. es saerTo wesi inversiulobaa; aseve, mesame seriis formebs sintaqsuri konstruqciis erTgvarobac aerTianebs... magram dairGva ZiriTadi principi mwkrivTa daJgufebisa: sawarmoebeli fuZis principi. `amosavali principis cvla klasifikaciis elementaruli wesis darGvevad iTvleba mecnierebis Kvela dargSi; enis movlenaTa aGwerac aq gamonakliss ver Seqmnis. merea-da: wKobis cvla _ sintaqsuri konstruqciis cvla _ axasiaTebs gardamaval zmnebs; gardauval zmnebSi aseTi cvla ara gvaqvs... amrigad, w a r m o e b i s wesi da sintaqsuri k o n s t r u q c i a TurmeobiTis Jgufis gamosaKofad mxolod gardamaval zmnebSi SeuZliaT ixmaron, da aqac igi klasifikaciis ZiriTadi wesis darGvevas niSnavs~ (arn. Ciqobava). aGniSnuli sirTulis daZlevis saintereso cdaa a. SaniZis mier mwkrivis rTul kategoriad miCneva da mwkrivis elementebad aqtisa da Tanamdevrobis CaTvla (piris, ricxvis, droisa da kilos kategoriebTan erTad). avtoris azriT, mesame seriis mwkrivebs saerTo funqcia aerTianebT _ esaa TurmeobiToba (unaxaoba) procesisa. marTalia, III seriis formebs `unaxavi aqtis mwkrivebad~ moixseniebs, magram rogorc vnaxavT, unaxaoba procesisa mainc araa saerTo funqcia III seriis formaTaTvis: III seriis formaTa erT Jgufad gaerTianebis sakiTxze specialurad msJelobs arn. Ciqobava. daskvna aseTia: `TurmeobiTi Jgufis nakvTebi ver gaerTiandeba maTi funqciis mixedviT; ker-

320

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Zod, TurmeobiToba ar aris am JgufisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli: kavSirebiTi mesamisaTvis TurmeobiTis gageba ucxoa. TurmeobiTi meore ar iZleva TurmeobiTis Sinaarss, roca risame pirobaze miuTiTebs; xolo roca TxrobiTi kilos funqcia aqvs TurmeobiT meores, maSin misTvis ganmsazGvrelia sxva drosTan fardoba (e. i. `Tanamimdevroba~)... (arn. Ciqobava). mxolod nawilobriv egueba es Sinaarsi TurmeobiTs meores; TurmeobiTs pirvelSic unaxaoba ar gadmoicema pirvels pirSi, uarKofiTi nawilakebis xmarebisas ki _ sxva pirebSic. sami Jgufis gamoKofa zmnis uGvlilebaSi nawilobriv gamarTlebulia sintaqsuri TvalsazrisiT, nakvTebis warmoeba ki sintaqsis sagani ar aris, igi fuZeTa warmoebas ganekuTvneba da morfologiis sagani unda iKos (im TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, rac am rigis fuZeTa warmoebas axasiaTebs). nakvTebis warmoeba aris fuZeTa warmoeba da, maSasadame, nakvTebis sistemaSi ama Tu im nakvTma is adgili unda daikavos, rac mas ekuTvnis warmoebis TvalsazrisiT~. es vrceli amonawerebi imisTvis moviKvaneT, rom naTeli iKos avtoris Teoriuli pozicia mwkrivTa sistemis daJgufebis sakiTxebze (es pozicia CvenTvisac amosavalia am sakiTxebze msJelobisas). amgvari Teoriuli safuZveli _ formobrivi monacemebis gaTvaliswineba _ arn. Ciqobavas saSualebas aZlevs mwkrivebi or wKebad daaJgufos. ZiriTad mwkrivebad, romelTaganac iwarmoeba Kvela sxva mwkrivi uSualod Tu SualobiT, pirdapiri wKobiT Tu inversiulad, miiCneva awmKo da namKo ZiriTadi. avtori daaskvnis: `amisdakvalad nakvTebis warmoebisas gveqneba ori Jgufi: awmKos Jgufi da namKo ZiriTadis Jgufi. awmKos Jgufi amjamad Kvelaze mravalricxovania~. I. gardamavali zmnis awmKosagan (cvl-i-s) iwarmoeba: a) pirdapiri wKobis nakvTebi: 1. namKo usruli (cvl-i-d-a) 3. kavSirebiTi pirveli (cvl-i-d-e-s). 2. mKofadi (Se-cvl-i-s) 4. mKofadiseuli namKo usruli (Se-cvl-i-d-a). [5. 6. 7. TurmeobiTi I, II, kavSirebiTi III gardauval orpirian zmnaTa ({Se}scvlia, scvloda, scvlodes)].

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b) Sebrunebuli (inversiuli) wKobisa: 8. TurmeobiTi pirveli gardamaval zmnaTa (u-cvl-i-a). II. namKo ZiriTadisagan (cval-a) iwarmoeba nakvTebi: a) pirdapiri wKobisa: 9. namKo ZiriTadis xolmeobiTi (Zvel qarTulSi); (cval-i-s). 10. kavSirebiTi meore (cval-o-s). b) Sebrunebuli (inversiuli) wKobisa: 11. TurmeobiTi meore gardamaval zmnaTa ({Se}ecvala). 12. kavSirebiTi meore gardamaval zmnaTa ({Se}ecvalos). sqemas ramdenime sirTule axlavs: sxvadasxvagvarad warmogvidgeba sistema gardamaval da orpirian gardauval zmnaTaTvis; erTpirian gardauval zmnaTa viTareba ar aisaxeba; araa warmodgenili e. w. mKofadis kavSirebiTi (`pirobiT-kavSirebiTi~ _ avtoris terminiT). garda amisa, Tu cvlis _ ucvlia, akeTebs _ ukeTebia tipis gardamaval zmnaTa I TurmeobiTi am principiT awmKos JgufSi moxvdeba, aqebs _ uqia, aGebs _ uGia tipis gardamaval zmnaTa igive mwkrivi wKvetilis JgufSi Seva (sqemaSi es faqti ar aisaxa). maSasadame, gardamaval zmnaTaTvisac araa mKari warmodgenili sistema. garda amisa, rac mTavaria, sawarmoebeli fuZis principi mainc dairGva: a-a-Sen-a, a-a-Sen-o-s da a-e-Sen-eb-in-a, a-e-Sen-ebin-o-s erT JgufSi moxvda... saerTod: mwkrivis formaTa warmoebis (sauGlebel erTeulTa fuZis) sakiTxebze msJelobisas xmovanprefiqsebis sakiTxi garkvevas moiTxovs. am SemTxvevaSic, TurmeobiTebsa da III kavSirebiTSi xmovanprefiqsi gamoKofilia, sxva mwkrivebTan _ ara... sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom Tu I-II seriis formebSi erTi da igive xmovanprefiqsia warmodgenili Kvela mwkrivSi, gansxvavebulia viTareba III seriis mwkrivebTan: gardamaval zmnebs I TurmeobiTSi sistemebr u- prefiqsi daerTvis, II TurmeobiTsa da III kavSirebiTSi _ e; orpiriani gardauvali zmnebi, romelTac I-II seriaSi e (ezrdeba) an u (ukeTdeba) prefiqsebi aqvT, III seriis formebs uprefiqsod iwarmoebs (ga-zrd-ia, ga-zrd-od-a; ga-h-keT-eb-i-a, gah-keT-eb-od-a). es wesi sistemebraa gatarebuli. zmnuri forma-

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warmoebis sakiTxebze msJelobisas am faqts, albaT, gverds ver avuvliT. es faqti garkveulwilad mxars dauyers mwkrivTa sam seriad daJgufebas da, Sesabamisad, sawinaaGmdego Cvenebad gvesaxeba mwkrivTa or Jgufad warmodgenisas. amgvarad, mwkrivTa sistemis or Jgufad warmodgenas, romelsac saukuneze meti xnis istoria aqvs, ver miviCnevT warmatebul cdad. Tumca, sanam Cven am daskvnas gavakeTebdiT, Tavad avtorma, arn. Ciqobavam, 1984 wels gamoqveKnebul naSromSi mwkrivTa sistema tradiciul sam seriad warmoadgina. faqts dasabuTeba ar axlavs. saerTod, aris ki SesaZlebeli mwkrivTa daJgufebisas formobrivi principis bolomde gatareba? Sesabamisad, mwkrivTa sistemis or Jgufad warmodgena? kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema SesaZleblad migvaCnia im SemTxvevaSi, roca gairkveva rigi sakiTxebisa: ra aris mwkrivi, ra aris mwkrivis fuZe, ris safuZvelze xdeba mwkrivis gamoKofa da, Sesabamisad, rogoria mwkrivTa raodenoba da urTierTmimarTeba warmoebis TvalsazrsiT. IV. 3.2. ra aris mwkrivi? arn. Ciqobavas azriT, `nakvTi teqnikuri terminia da miuTiTebs uGvlilebis erTeulze am erTeulis funqciis aGuniSnavad. amitom nakvTi ver iqneba gramatikuli kategoria (`ufunqcio kategoria~ ar aris kategoria!) iseve, rogorc gramatikul kategorias ar gulisxmoben terminebi `bgera~, `marcvali~, `xmovani~, `fuZe~ (arn. Ciqobava). sakiTxs specialuri gamokvleva uZGvna v. Tofuriam. avtoris azriT, radgan mwkrivs ar gaaCnia gramatikuli kategoriis arc funqcia da arc forma, xolo mwkrivis sawarmoebel niSnebad miCneuli sufiqsebi (-a, -e, -o, -i...) drois, kilosa da Jerobis mawarmoebeli afiqsebia, amitom mwkrivi ar SeiZleba miviCnioT kategoriad. SeniSvna: sinonimuri terminebi `nakvTi~ da `mwkrivi~ sauGlebeli erTeulis aGsaniSnavad ixmareba qarTul samecniero literaturaSi; pirveli maTgani arn. Ciqobavam SemoiGo, meore _ a. SaniZem. rogorc aGvniSneT, TiToeuli maTganis Semo-

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Gebas saTanado cnebebis sxvadasxvagvari gagebac axlda. amitom SeiZleba arc iKos gamarTlebuli am terminTa paraleluri gamoKeneba; ama Tu im avtoris naazrevis moxmobisas zogJer ar moxerxdeba gverdi avuaroT im termins, romelsac igi gamoiKenebs. Cvens SemTxvevaSi paraleluri xmareba am terminebisa amiTaa Sepirobebuli. gansxvavebul Tvalsazriss warmoadgens a. SaniZe. sakiTxs specialuri gamokvleva mieZGvna 1941 wels, romelic safuZvlad daedo mwkrivis Sesaxeb moZGvrebas `qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebSi~. avtoris azriT, mwkrivi gramatikuli kategoriaa. msJelobis Tanamimdevroba aseTia: `aris Tu ara mwkrivi gramatikuli kategoria? swori pasuxi rom gavceT am kiTxvas, unda movigonoT: Kovelgvari gramatikuli kategoria Kalibdeba sapirispiro formaTa arsebobis niadagze. Tu am TvalsazrisiT SevxedavT mwkrivebs, davrwmundebiT, rom erTi romelime Jgufi, romelTac saerTod mwkrivi ewoda, iseT mimarTebaSia danarCenebTan, rogorc sxva romelime _ Kvela danarCenTan, isini erTgvar movlenas asaxaven enaSi, erTmaneTs Tanabrad Seezomebian, TiTqos Kvelas erTi da igive raodenoba aqvT formebisa (sqolioSi: brZanebiTis mwkrivSi formaTa raodenoba naklebia, vidre TxrobiTSi), TviTeul maTganTan garkveuli cnebaa dakavSirebuli da Kvela erTad warmodgenas gvaZlevs, rom isini Seadgenen sapirispiro saxeebs zogadi kategoriisas..., oGond sxva kategoriebi martivia, dauSleli, mwkrivi ki rTulia da Seicavs ramdenime kategorias, elementebad wodebuls, qarTulSi umTavresad drosa da kilos~. sxvagan: `elementebi daerqva mwkrivis farglebSi ucvalebel kategoriebs, romlebic mis xerxemals warmoadgenen. qarTuli mwkrivis elementebia: dro, kilo, gzisoba, aqti, Tanamdevroba~. ase vrclad imitom SevCerdiT aGniSnul Tvalsazrisze, rom, Cveni azriT, zogi ram dazustebasa da garkvevas moiTxovs. Jer erTi: piri, ricxvi, dro, kilo, gzisoba, aqti, Tanamdevroba da mwkrivi uGlebis kategoriebia, avtoris azriT. amaTgan mwkrivis kategoria elementebad Seicavs drois, kilos, gzisobis, aqtisa da Tanamdevrobis kategoriebs. sxvagvarad: uGlebis es kategoriebi elementebia imave uGlebis sxva kategoriisa... msJelo-

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ba TiTqos garkvevas sayiroebs... mwkrivis kategoriis Semadgenel kategoriaTa Sesaxeb msJelobisas miniSnebulia, rom TiToeuli maTgani (dro, kilo, gzisoba, aqti, Tanamdevroba) aris zmnis forma, iseve, rogorc zmnis formad miiCneva ricxvisa da piris kategoriebi. amdenad, elementebad wodebuli kategoriebi morfologiur kategoriebadaa miCneuli; ama Tu im formisaTvis damaxasiaTebel mudmiv, ucvalebel kategoriebad. gavixsenoT: `elementebi daerqva mwkrivis farglebSi ucvalebel kategoriebs, romlebic mis xerxemals warmoadgenen. qarTuli mwkrivis elementebia: dro, kilo, gzisoba, aqti, Tanamdevroba~ (xazi Cvenia _ g. g.). CvenTvis aseTi kiTxva iCens Tavs: aris Tu ara aGniSnuli kategoriebi morfologiuri kategoriebi; Sesabamisad _ ucvalebelni erTi mwkrivis farglebSi. aqedan gamomdinare: SeiZleba Tu ara morfologiurad mwkrivis daxasiaTeba aGniSnuli elementebis mixedviT? SevecdebiT am kiTxvas Semdgom msJelobaSi pasuxi gavceT. VI. 3.3. dro, rogorc zmnis kategoria. gramatikul literaturaSi dros zmnis umTavres morfologiur kategoriaTa Soris ganixilaven. am mxriv azrTa erTgvarobaa; azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs drois kategoriis Semadgenel elementTa raodenobis sakiTxi. vfiqrobT, mTavari kiTxva, romelsac unda gaeces pasuxi, upirvelesad Semdegia: aris Tu ara dro morfologiuri kateg o r i a? mwkrivis formaTa funqciebze msjelobisas droisa da kilos kategoriebs gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba. mwkrivTa saxeldebac ZiriTadad am ori maxasiaTeblis mixedviT xdeba. arc isaa SemTxveviTi, rom praqtikuli gramatikebidan moyolebuli sauRlebel erTeuls asec saxeldebdnen _ `dro~, `dro-kilo~; uRvlilebis sistemas `dro-kiloTa sistemis~ saxeliT movixseniebT dResac. Cveulebriv drosa da kilos morfologiur kategoriebad miiCneven piris, ricxvis... kategoriaTa gverdiT (a. SaniZe, arn. Ciqobava, g. maWavariani...). es sayovelTaod gaziarebuli Tvalsazrisia. ramdenadac dro da kilo morfologiur kategoriebad gaiazreba, aris cda am kategoriaTa morfologiuri niSnis Ziebisa.

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rogorc iTqva, sadavo gaxda drois kategoriis Semadgenel erTeulTa raodenobis sakiTxic. n. mari gramatikul drosa da sauRlebel erTeuls aigivebda. misi azriT, ZiriTadi dro rva aris: awmyo, namyo usruli, natvriTi, aoristi, kavSirebiTi (igive momavali), namyo sruli, winare warsuli, namyo kavSirebiTi. arn. Ciqobavas azriT: `axal qarTulSi gvaqvs erTi awmyo, erTi myofadi da oTxi namyo: namyo usruli anu uwyveti: akeTebda, aSenebda, Sromobda...; namyo ZiriTadi anu namyo wyvetili (aoristi): akeTa, aSena, iSroma...; TurmeobiTi pirveli: ukeTebia, uSenebia, uSromia..., TurmeobiTi meore: ekeTebina, eSenebina, eSroma...~. a. SaniZe xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom `arev-dareva sufevs drois gagebaSi... aseTi mcdari Sexeduleba `drois~ Sesaxeb iqedan momdinareobs, rom specialur literaturaSi gramatikuli drois problema sworad ar aris dasmuli da gadawyvetili. sazogadod drois kategorias reven mwkrivis erT-erT kategoriasTan (kilosTan an TanamimdevrobasTan) an TviT mwkrivTan da es aRreva, romelic Wrelad asaxavs zogadi saenaTmecniero sakiTxis Seswavlis umweo mdgomareobas enis struqturul nawilSi, qarTul niadagzec ukritikod aris gadmotanili. saWiroa da aucilebeli, rom drois kategoria gamoiTiSos sxva kategoriebisagan da mas Tavisi alagi mieCinos da sxvebsac TavTavisi moenaxos~. misi azriT, `gramatikuli dro SeiZleba mxolod sami iyos: exlandeli, warsuli da momavali~. ZirTadad es Tvalsazrisia gaziarebuli. amJamad: drois samwevrian sistemas ganixilaven. safuZvels ki drois kategoriis amgvari gageba antikuri gramatikebidan iRebs. CvenTvis es Tvalsazrisia amosavali. qarTul, samecniero literaturaSi drois kategoriis morfologiur gamoxatvaze mxolod warsulis mimarT saubroben. awmyosa da myofadis morfologiur gamoxatvaze (morfologiur niSanze) araa msjeloba. gamodis: drois samwevriani sistemidan markirebulia erTi, aramarkirebuli _ ori. am winaaRmdegobis moxsnas cdilobs g. maWavariani, romelic drois orwevrovan sistemas gvTavazobs: markirebuli namyo _ aramarkirebuli awmyo zogadi (momavali dro damatebiTi gramatikuli mniSvnelobaa diferencialur niSanTa konisaTvis: awmyo zogadi + grZlivi + sruli aspeqti). warsuli drois morfologiur niSnebad gamoiyo: -d (uwy-

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vetlisa), -e, -i (wyvetilSi), u-i (I TurmeobiTSi), e-in (II TurmeobiTSi). sagulisxmo faqtia, rom dasaxelebuli afiqsebi ZiriTadad sxvagvaradaa kvalificirebuli (zogjer erTsa da imave avtorebTanac!). magram warsuli drois niSnad miCneuli afiqsebis morfologiuri kvalifikaciis sakiTxSi araa azrTa erTgvaroba. arsebobs urTierTgamomricxveli Tvalsazrisebic, CvenTvis amJamad arsebiTi isaa, rom isini ar arian drois gamomxatveli afiqsebi; azrTa aseTi sxvadasxvaobac swored amis mimaniSnebelia. a. SaniZesTan, romlis gramatikul naazrevSic dro zmnis erT-erT ZiriTad kategoriadaa miCneuli, drois morfologiur gamoxatvaze araa saubari. Tu im Tvalsazriss davemyarebiT, rom `morfologiuri mniSvneloba SeiZleba gadmoices afiqsis gareSec~, drois morfologiuri mniSvneloba zmnis saTanado struqturul models dauflebuli mniSvnelobaa (f. erTeliSvili), SeiZleboda drois morfologiur kategoriad miCneva, magram romelime warsuli drois gamomxatvel formaTaTvis _ v-wer-d-i da-v-wer-d-i da-v-wer-e da-m-i-wer-ia da-m-e-wer-a da-m-e-wer-o-s _ gaWirdeba im saerTo struqturuli modelis gamoyofa, romelsac miviCnevdiT warsuli drois gamomxatvelad. aseve iTqmis sxva drois aRmniSvnel formaTa Sesaxebac. amgvarad, im Tvalsazrisze damyareba, rom `morfologiuri kategoria saTanado afiqsebiT unda iqnes warmodgenili~, `ama Tu im faqtis morfologiur kategoriad miCnevas morfologiuri niSnis qona-uqonloba wyvets~ _ dros morfologiur kategoriad ver gagvaazrebinebs. drois gamoxatva morfologiurad ar xdeba. Tu davuSvebT, rom dro morfologiuri kategoriaa, esa Tu is zmnuri forma ama Tu im drois gamomxatvelia, maSin, TavisTavad, unda vigulisxmoT, rom erTi romelime mwkrivis forma

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nebismier konteqstSi mxolod erT droul mniSvnelobas unda gadmogvcemdes. a. SaniZe asec msjelobs: dro mwkrivis elementia; elementebi mwkrivis farglebSi ucvalebelia. aris Tu ara dro ucvalebeli erTi mwkrivis farglebSi? sxvagvarad: erTi mwkrivis formas aqvs Tu ara mxolod erTi drois gageba? samecniero literaturaSi araerTgzis aRniSnula, rom ama Tu im mwkrivis formam, garda ZirTadi drouli mniSvnelobisa, garkveul konteqstSi sxva drois mniSvnelobac SeiZleba gadmosces; magaliTad, aRniSnaven, rom `erTma da imave formam SeiZleba exlandelis gagebac mogvces da momavlisac~. aseTi `polisemiuri formebia: Wams, brZanebs, aswavlis, scems, ganagrZobs, uyurebs, iZinebs, Seadgens, arCens, aTamaSebs da sxv...~ `erTi da igive forma SeiZleba erT SemTxvevaSi droiani iyos, sxva SemTxvevaSi ki _ udroo~ (a.SaniZe). drois mixedviT cvalebadobas a. SaniZe Cveulebriv mianiSnebs mwkrivTa daxasiaTebisas, Tumca amgvar msjelobas ZiriTadi debuleba _ `dro ucvalebeli elementia erTi mwkrivis farglebSi~ _ ar Seucvlia. mwkrivTa drouli mniSvnelobis sakiTxebs ramdenime gamokvleva uZRvna l. geguCaZem. sakiTxis dawvrilebiTma Seswavlam Zalze saintereso suraTi warmoaCina (l. geguCaZe). calkeul mwkrivTa formebis mier drouli mniSvnelobis gadmocemis SesaZleblobis zogadi suraTi aseTia: `awmyos mwkrivs SeiZleba hqondes a x l a n d e l i, m o m a v a l i an e. w. `z o g a d i a w m y o s~ mniSvneloba. namyo uwyveteli mxolod w a r s u l i drois gamomxatvelia. awmyos kavSirebiTi a x l a n d e l an m o m a v a l dros aRniSnavs. myofadis mwkrivi gadmogvcems m o m a v a l an a x l a n d e l dros. SeiZleba hqondes zogadi awmyos gagebac. myofadis xolmeobiTi w a r s u l i drois gadmomcemi mwkrivia, magram SeuZlia SeiTavsos m o m a v a l i drois mniSvnelobac. myofadis kavSirebiTi mxolod m o m a v a l i drois gagebiT gvxvdeba. wyvetilis mwkrivs unari aqvs gamoxatos rogorc w a r -

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s u l i, ise m o m a v a l i dro. II kavSirebiTi m o m a v a l T a n erTad iTavsebs a x l a n d e l i drois mniSvnelobasac. I TurmeobiTi SeiZleba Segvxvdes a x l a n d e l i, w a r s u l i an m o m a v a l i drois funqciiT. II TurmeobiTi ZiriTadad n a m y o dros gadmoscems, magram misi kavSirebiTi kilos funqciiT xmarebisas SefardebiT m o m a v a l s a c gamoxatavs. III kavSirebiTi upiratesad w a r s u l dros iTvaliswinebs, mas SeiZleba hqondes m o m a v a l i drois gagebac~ (l. geguCaZe). cxadia, es analizi amomwuravi ar aris; zogi ram SeiZleba kidev dazustebuliyo. mag.: wyvetilis formam SeiZleba garkveul SemTxvevaSi awmyo drois gagebac gadmosces. radgan `brZanebiToba Tavisi bunebiT iseTi aqtia, romelic SeiZleba awmyoSi an momavalSi xorcieldebodes~ (f. erTeliSvili). aqedan gamomdinare, wyvetilis formisaTvis awmyo drois gagebac ar Cans uCveulo. uzmniswino formebs namyo ZiriTadisas brZanebiTi kilos SemTxvevaSi awmyo drois gageba SeiZleba hqondes: `aqre, sinaTle aqre, me mainc avanTeb mas~ (W. lomT.); `ismine, swavlis mZebnelo~ (d. guram.)... awmyos gagebas Seicavs agreTve zogi zmnis wyvetilis pirveli piris forma msgavs SemTxvevaSi: `elizbari: me wavedi (wamodgeba), miriani: moica~ (a. Cx.); `uceb qalbatoni dora SeCerda da Tqva: `me wavedi~ (T. Wil.); `aba gaviqeci, Torem damagvianda~ (o. mamf.). miaCniaT, rom `me wavedi~, `gaviqeci~ marTlac awmyos gagebas Seicavs mocemul konteqstSi, oRond isini kalkebs warmoadgenen da amave dros maTi gamoyenebis are Zalian SezRudulia (g. kvaracxelia). Cven vsaubrobT enobriv faqtebze, romlebic dasturdeba Tanamedrove mxatvruli literaturis enaSi. maT warmomavlobas amjerad CvenTvis naklebi mniSvneloba aqvs; amgvari warmoSobis araerTi forma dRes bunebriv qarTulad aRiqmeba. mTavari isaa, rom amgvari formebis gamoyeneba ar tovebs arabunebriobis STabeWdilebas. amgvarad, wyvetilis formisaTvis awmyo drois gamoxatvac ar aris ucxo.

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aseve: garda myofadi da awmyo droebisa, II kavSirebiTis mwkrivs warsuli drois mniSvnelobac SeiZleba hqondes. am tipis _ `TiTqos eSinoda, aravis araferi vatkinoo~ (a. papiZe). amgvarad, TiTo dros gamoxatavs mxolod uwyveteli da myofadis kavSirebiTi; sxva mwkrivebi or-ori an meti drois gamomxatvelia. mwkrivi awmyo dro axlandeli momavali zogadi awmyo. warsuli axlandeli momavali momavali axlandeli momavali warsuli momavali warsuli momavali axlandeli momavali axlandeli warsuli axlandeli warsuli momavali warsuli momavali warsuli momavali

uwyveteli awmyos kavSirebiTi myofadi xolmeobiTi myofadis kavSirebiTi wyvetili

II kavSirebiTi

I TurmeobiTi

II TurmeobiTi III kavSirebiTi

SeniSvna: sakiTxis ganxilvisaTvis a. SaniZis mwkrivTa sistemas mivmarTavT. mwkrivTa raodenobis Sesaxeb Cvens Tvalsazriss qvemoT warmovadgenT. TerTmeti mwkrividan mxolod ori mwkrivi gamoxatavs erT

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dros; or dros gamoxatavs xuTi mwkrivi; sam dros _ sami mwkrivi; awmyos mwkrivs sami drouli gageba SeiZleba hqondes (erTi _ zogadi awmyo, anu daclilis konkretuli drouli mniSvnelobisagan). faqti Zalian STambeWdavad gveCveneba. kiTxvas _ aris Tu ara dro morfologiuri kategoria? _ uaryofiTi pasuxi unda gaeces: 1. ar xdeba drois gamoxatva morfologiuri saSualebiT; 2. erTi da igive forma ama Tu im mwkrivisa sxvadasxva konteqstSi sxvadasxva drois gagebas iZens, anu mwkrivis formas droul mniSvnelobas konteqsti aniWebs. konteqstis buneba da xasiaTi, konstruqciaSi Semavali wevrebis mniSvneloba Seapirobeben am formis droul gagebas. miuxedavad imisa, rom specialur literaturaSi orive am momentze gvxvdeba miniSneba, ZiriTadi debuleba _ dro morfologiuri kategoriaa; dro ucvalebeli elementia formisa _ ZalaSi rCeba. roca mianiSneben erTi da imave formis mier sxvadasxva drouli mniSvnelobis gamoxatvis SesaZleblobaze, saubroben ZiriTad droul funqciaze. romelia ZiriTadi drouli mniSvneloba gaakeTe formisaTvis _ warsuli Tu momavali? warsulSi erTgzisi, dasrulebuli moqmedebis gamoxatva Tu momavalSi Sesasrulebel moqmedebaze yuradRebis miqceva? vfiqrobT, orive. II piris warTqmiTi brZanebiTis gamoxatva mxolod am formiT xdeba. riT SeiZleba aixsnas an dasabuTdes, rom frazaSi _ `gibrZaneb, gaakeTe!~ _ ukanaskneli formis drouli mniSvneloba warsulia, magram am SemTxvevaSi momavals gamoxatavs? amgvari msjeloba, vfiqrobT, alogikuric iqneba. pasuxs moiTxovs kiTxvac: Tu gaakeTe formis ZiriTadi drouli mniSvneloba warsulia, ra aniWebs mas am gagebas saTanado konteqstSi, anda ra iwvevs sxva SemTxvevaSi momavali drois mniSvnelobis miniWebas. sxvagvarad: warsuli drois mniSvnelobis gamocvlas? da, saerTod, konteqstis gareSe, izolirebulad, SeiZleba Tu ara zmnuri forma daxasiaTdes drouli mniSvnelobis mixedviT? roca erTi da igive forma sxvadasxva konteqstSi SeiZleba sxvadasxva drouli mniSvnelobiT mogvevlinos, TavisTavad cxadia, konteqstis gareSe droul mniSvnelobaze saubari gaumarTlebeli xdeba.

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SedarebisaTvis: forma kac konteqstis gareSe ar SeiZleba daxasiaTdes rogorc subieqti, an iribi obieqti, an pirdapiri obieqti; sxvadasxva SemTxvevaSi yvela maTganis gamoxatva SeiZleba ikisros: kacs uTqvams _ subieqtia, kacs uTxra _ iribi obieqtia, kacs klavs _ pirdapiri obieqtia. roca vmsjelobT konteqstze, formis gareT arsebuli drouli mniSvnelobis Semapirobebel movlenebze, yuradRebis gareSe ver davtovebT intonacias; magaliTisaTvis: _ moitane. _ pasuxi kiTxvaze: gamoican, movitane Tu ar momitania? _ moitane! _ pasuxi kiTxvaze: movitano? orive SemTxvevaSi wyvetilis forma winadadebis tolfasia. sxvaobas intonacia qmnis. es sxvaoba drouli sxvaobis safuZvelia. am SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva intonacias sxvadasxva kilos gageba Semoaqvs. sxvadasxva kilos gagebis Semotana sxvadasxva drouli mniSvnelobis safuZvelia. am SemTxvevaSi intonacia konteqstis tolfasia. es ukanaskneli magaliTi imis dasturicaa, rom calke aRebul zmnur formaze msjeloba drouli mniSvnelobis gasarkvevad SeuZleblad migvaCnia: formis warmoTqmas yovelTvis axlavs garkveuli intonacia; wyvetils, Cveulebriv, TxrobiTi. es ki qmnis STabeWdilebas, rom formis drouli mniSvneloba warsulia. aseve SeiZleboda msjeloba sxva mwkrivis Sesaxebac. konteqtis gaTvaliswineba yovelTvis iqneba saWiro drois mixedviT polisemantikuri formebis droul mniSvnelobebze msjelobisas. ama Tu im formis `ZiriTad~ da `araZiriTad~ droul mniSvnelobaze msjeloba imis mixedviT, rogoria sixSire ama Tu im mniSvnelobis gamovlenisa, aseve ar Cans gamarTlebuli. faqtia: awmyos mwkrivis formis axlandeli drois mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi gacilebiT Warbobs imave formis momavali drois mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebis SemTxvevebs; iseve rogorc wyvetilis formis SemTxvevSi momavali drois mniSvnelobas _ warsuli drois mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi. niSnavs es imas, rom awmyos mwkrivis formis ZiriTadi drouli mniSvneloba axlandelia, xolo wyvetilisa _ warsuli? vfiqrobT, ara. radgan: aq im faqtoris gaTvaliswinebaa aucilebeli, rom enaSi sixSire im-

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gvar konstruqciaTa, romlebSic saanalizo mwkrivis forma e. w. `ZiriTadi drouli mniSvnelobiT~ gvxvdeba, gacilebiT Warbobs e. w. `araZiriTadi drouli mniSvnelobis~ mimniWebel konstruqciaTa sixSires. daskvna aseTia: d r o a r a r i s m o r f o l o g i u r i k a t e g o r i a, radgan: a) a r x d e b a m i s i g a m o x a t v a m o r f o l o g i u r a d; b) d r o u l i m n i S v n e l o b a c v a l e b a d i a e r T i m w k r i v i s f a r g l e b S i. konteqstis gareSe formis drouli mniSvneloba ver gairkveva; d r o i s g a g e b a s f o r m a s k o n t e q s t i a n i W e b s. is faqtebi, rom uwyvetlisa da myofadis kavSirebiTis formebs mxolod erTi drouli mniSvneloba aqvT, daskvnas ver Secvlis; aRniSnul mwkrivTa formebi ar aris Sesabamis droul mniSvnelobaTa morfologiuri gamoxatva. Cven es problema ase gvesmis: am mwkrivTa formebis drouli mniSvnelobis gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba erTis tolia. aris mwkrivebi, romelTaTvis es SesaZlebloba oris tolia da iseTebic, romelTa SesaZlebloba samis tolia. ufro metic, iseTi formebic gvaqvs, romlebic garkveul konteqstSi daclilia drouli mniSvnelobisagan (e. w. zogadi awmyo). e. i. erTsa da imave zmnur formas SeiZleba hqondes ramdenime drouli mniSvnelobis gadmocemis SesaZlebloba. maTgan konkretul SemTxvevaSi mxolod erT-erTia realizebuli. dro semantikuri kategoriaa. dro unda ganimartos rogorc zmniT gadmocemuli moqmedebis momentis Sefardeba laparakis momentTan. es Sefardeba SeiZleba iyos samgvari: a) moqmedeba xdeba laparakis momentSi _ dro axlandelia (awmyo): akeTebs, wers... b) moqmedeba uswrebs laparakis moments _ dro warsulia: gaakeTa, dawera... g) moqmedeba laparakis momentis Semdeg moxdeba _ momavali dro: gaakeTebs, dawers... zmnis forma zog SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba daclili iyos konkretuli drouli mniSvnelobisagan: roca saubaria iseT moqmedebaze, romelic zogadad aris damaxasiaTebeli subieqtisaTvis: mxatvari xatavs, Tevzi curavs, frinveli frinavs (ara axla, aramed saerTod, zogadad)... aseT SemTxvevebs zogad awmyos vuwodebT. `sjobs sicocxlesa naZraxsa sikvdili saxelovani~, _ wers

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rusTaveli. wers zmnuri forma awmyo drois gamomxatvelia, Tumca realurad saubaria warsulSi momxdar moqmedebaze... msgavsi SemTxvevebis moyvana sxvac SeiZleba... saubroben warsulze momavalSi, da momavalze warsulSi... anda axlo warsulze da Soreul warsulze; axlo momavalze da Soreul momavalze... am SemTxvevaSi saubaria ara absolutur droebze, aramed relatiur droebze: dro am SemTxvevaSi ganisazRvreba ara laparakis momentTan SefardebiT, aramed sxva drosTan mimarTebiT. magaliTad, perfeqti gamoxatavs warsul moqmedebas awmyosTan mimarTebiT; winare warsuli (anu pluskvamperfeqti) _ winare moqmedebas warsulTan mimarTebiT da a. S. drois momentis amgvari gaazreba semantikuri analizis sagania... IV. 3.4. kilo, rogorc zmnis kategoria. zmnis sistemaSi drois tolfas kategoriad miiCneva kiloc. es im faqtidanac Cans, rom mwkrivis aRmniSvnel terminad `dro-kiloc~ ixmareba da, Sesabamisad, uRvlilebis sistemas `dro-kiloTa~ sistemas vuwodebT. kilos Cveulebriv zmnis morfologiur kategoriad ganixilaven. a. SaniZis azriT, igi `mwkrivis elementia~ da `ucvalebeli mwkrivis farglebSi~. kiTxvas am SemTxvevaSic amgvarad vsvamT: aris Tu ara kilo morfologiuri kategoria da, Sesabamisad, ucvalebeli erTi mwkrivis farglebSi? kilo ufro rTul kategoriad gvesaxeba, vidre dro. kilos kategoriasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxTa sirTules isic Seapirobebs, rom jerjerobiT sakamaToa, yovel SemTxvevaSi, azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs am kategoriaSi Semaval erTeulTa raodenoba. a r n. C i q o b a v a s azriT, kilo qarTulSi oTxia: TxrobiTi, brZanebiTi, kavSirebiTi da pirobiTi. ufro adrindel SromaSi amaT natvriTi emateboda. a. SaniZis azriT: `gvaqvs sami kilo: TxrobiTi, kavSirebiTi da brZanebiTi~. sainteresoa is faqti, rom `safuZvlebSi~ Semdgom msjelobaSi ganixileba TxovniTi kilo (mTis dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebladaa miCneuli). kidev ori kiloa gamoyofili `safuZvlebSi~: pirobiTi da SedegobiTi.

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amdenad, kilos kategoriis ganmartebisas sami kilo iqna gamoyofili: TxrobiTi, kavSirebiTi, brZanebiTi. Semdgom msjelobaSi daemata: TxovniTi, akrZalviTi, pirobiTi da SedegobiTi. amaTgan pirveli sami imiT gansxvavdeba danarCenebisagan, avtoris azriT, rom `mwkrivebis SeqmnaSi iReben monawileobas~. mxolod warmodgenili Tvalsazrisebis gacnobac sakmarisia, rom gakeTdes daskvna, ramdenad rTulia da sakamaTo kilos kategoria. samravle da azrTa sxvadasxvaoba kilos kategoriaSi Semaval erTeulTa Sesaxeb praqtikuli gramatikebidan moyolebuli dRemde grZeldeba. saswavlo daniSnulebisaTvis gamiznul gamocemebSi kilos samwevriani sistemaa warmodgenili: TxrobiTi, kavSirebiTi da brZanebiTi. Cveulebriv, es Tvalsazrisia gaziarebuli. kilo zogadad ase ganimarteba: `kilo aris forma zmnisa, romelic gviCvenebs, rom moubris mier dasaxelebuli moqmedeba unda iqnes gagebuli an rogorc ueWveli faqti, an rogorc SesaZlebelsavaraudebeli, an kidev rogorc Sesasrulebeli~ (a. SaniZe). Sesabamisad, TxrobiTia kilo, romelic zmniT aRniSnul moqmedebas warmoadgens rogorc namdvil faqts, romelic xdeba erT-erT droSi (axlandelSi, warsulSi an momavalSi): vwer, davwere, davwer... kavSirebiTia kilo, romelic zmniT aRniSnul moqmedebas warmoadgens ara rogorc faqts, aramed SesaZlebels; romelic SeiZleba xdebodes, moxdes an momxdariyo; kavSirebiTi kilo ZiriTadad rTul konstruqciebSi gvxvdeba da SesaZleblobis semantikis gadmocema `rom~, `Tu~, `raTa~ kavSirebis daxmarebiT xdeba: ... rom gavakeTo, Tu gavakeTe, raTa gavakeTo... brZanebiTia kilo, romelic zmniT aRniSnul moqmedebas warmogvidgens rogorc aucileblad Sesasrulebels. brZanebiToba Tavisi bunebiT iseTi aqtia, romelic SeiZleba xdebodes awmyoSi an momavalSi: were, nu aqcev yuradRebas; dawere!... sagangebod gvinda SevCerdeT erT Tvalsazrisze, kerZod im cdaze, romlis mixedviTac kilos ori saxeoba SeiZleba gamoiyos: realuri kilo da irealuri kilo. `sauRlebel erTeulTa ZiriTadi nawili kilouri TvalsazrisiT or jgufad SeiZleba gaiyos: 1) nakvTebi, romlebic gadmoscemen realuri moqmedebis, realuri kilos Sinaarss da b) nakvTebi, romlebic irealuri ki-

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los Sinaarss gadmoscemen. realuri iqneba kilo, romelSic gamoxatulia mosaubris Tvalsazrisi, _ zmnis moqmedeba gagebul iqnes rogorc faqti, _ Sesrulebuli an Sesasrulebeli. irealuri iqneba kilo, romelSic gamoxatulia mosaubris Tvalsazrisi, _ zmnis moqmedeba gagebuli iqnes rogorc saeWvo, SesaZlebeli savaraudo movlena, irealoba~ (a. papiZe). aq kilos tradiciuli erTeulebi (kavSirebiTi, natvriTi, pirobiTi...) am ori ZiriTadi erTeulis (realuri, irealuri) semantikur jgufSi Semaval erTeulebad ganixileba... amdenad, kilos kategoriis arseboba sadavod ar aris gamxdari. yvela SemTxvevaSi igi morfologiur (gramatikul) kategoriad gaiazreba. kategoriis erTeulTa raodenoba ki sxvadasxva avtorTan mniSvnelovnad meryeobs. mTlianobaSi ki aseTi suraTi gvaqvs _ gamoiyo kilo: 1. T x r o b i T i 2. k a v S i r e b i T i 3. b r Z a n e b i T i 4. T x o v n i T i 5. a k r Z a l v i T i 6. p i r o b i T i 7. S e d e g o b i T i 8. n a t v r i T i da 9. r e a l u r i 10. i r e a l u r i (es ori ukanaskneli wesiT amaT rigSi ar unda CavayenoT, isini gancalkevebiT dganan da moicaven danarCenebs, rogorc TiToeul maTganSi Semaval semantikur erTeulebs). SevniSneT isic, rom saswavlo miznebisaTvis gamiznul gamocemebSi sam ZiriTad erTeuls gamoyofen: TxrobiTs, kavSirebiTsa da brZanebiTs. rogorc drois kategoriis SemTxvevaSi, daisva sakiTxi kilos kategoriis niSnis Ziebisa (cxadia: morfologiur kategorias niSani unda hqondes!). zog avtorTan kavSirebiTis mwkrivebSi gamovlenili -a, -e, -o sufiqsebi kavSirebiTi kilos morfologiur niSnebadaa gaazrebuli. sayovelTaod gaziarebuli Tvalsazrisis mixedviT ki, igive afiqsebi mwkrivis mawarmoebeli formantebia da ara kilosi.

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roca aris msjeloba kilos morfologiur gamoxatvaze, saubaria mxolod kavSirebiTze; TxrobiTisa da brZanebiTis kiloTa morfologiuri gamoxatva ar xdebao. gamodis: kilos samwevriani sistemidan (rogorc iTqva, zogi klasifikaciiT kiloTa raodenoba metia...) markirebulia erTi; es TavisTavad eWvqveS svams sakiTxs a, e, o sufiqsTa amgvari kvalifikaciisas. am winaaGmdegobis moxsnis cdaa kilos orwevriani sistemis daSveba, rac aseve sadavod migvaCnia. SeiZleboda, ar gveZebna kilos kategoriis gamomxatveli morfologiuri elementi da am kategoriis gamomxatvelad ama Tu im mwkrivis forma CagveTvala (formis struqtura, yalibi), rom erTi arsebiTi xasiaTis dabrkoleba ar iyos: Tu davuSvebT, rom mwkrivis forma aris ama Tu im kilos morfologiuri gamoxatuleba, maSin ama Tu im formas mxolod erTi kilouri mniSvneloba unda hqondes. aRniSnaven kidec, rom kilos kategoria erTi mwkrivis farglebSi ucvalebeli kategoriaa (a. SaniZe, l. kvaWaZe...). aris ki ase? mivmarTavT isev specialur literaturas: `...SeiZleba, rom mwkrivi, romelic umTavresad erT kilos emsaxureba, zog SemTxvevaSi sxva kilos gadmosacemad iyos gamoyenebuli~; `damoukideblad (ukavSirod) xmarebuli kavSirebiTi SeiZleba brZanebiTad iqnes gamoyenebuli: wavides! wavideT!~; `brZanebiTi kilos sakuTari formebi ar gaaCnia, iyenebs an TxrobiT, an kavSirebiT kilos formebs~ (a. SaniZe). sxva Tvalsazrisebic SeiZleboda mogvexmo, magram faqtia, rom erTi da igive zmnuri forma sxvadasxva SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva kilouri mniSvnelobis gamomxatveli SeiZleba iyos. sxvagvarad: kilouri mniSvnelobis cvla damaxasiaTebelia ama Tu im zmnuri formisaTvis; kilo araa ucvalebeli kategoria erTi mwkrivis formebSi. samecniero literaturaSi imasac aRniSnaven, rom kilouri mniSvnelobis gamovlenas konteqsti Seapirobebs. gavixsenoT: ukavSirod xmarebuli kavSirebiTis mwkrivi brZanebiTi kilos funqcias iZens (a. SaniZe). gamodis: kavSirebiTis funqcia konteqstiTaa Sepirobebuli. im konteqsturi garemos moSla kilouri mniSvnelobis cvlas iwvevs. anda: `am ori kilos gageba (pirobiTisa da SedegobiTis) Txro-

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biTs formas konteqstSi eZleva~ (l. kvaWaZe). ramdenime magaliTi: wyvetilis formas sxvadasxva konteqstSi sxvadasxva kilos gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba aqvs: kilo TxrobiTia: `am yofiT gavSordi vladikavkazs da piri Cemi qveynisaken vqeni~ (ilia). kilo brZanebiTia: `Sen aasrule, rasac gibrZaneben!~ (akaki). kilo kavSirebiTia: `Tu is imereli waaqcie, rac ginda mTxove~ (m. javax.). magaliTebis gazrda usasrulod SeiZleba. aseve: meore kavSirebiTis mwkrivis formiT SeiZleba gadmoices rogorc kavSirebiTi kilos mniSvneloba, aseve TxrobiTi da brZanebiTi kilos mniSvnelobebi. mag.: `egeb damZiros morevma~ (vaJa) _ kilo kavSirebiTia; `davdgeT iq, sadac qariSxalia~ (galaktioni) _ kilo brZanebiTia; `am Semodgomaze veRar daiWiros Cirikma xelT maWris jami~ (g. leoniZe) _ kilo TxrobiTia (a. papiZe). magaliTebis gazrda yvela SemTxvevisTvisaa SesaZlebeli. warmodgenili msjeloba da faqtebi cxadyofs, rom ama Tu im mwkrivis formas qarTulSi aqvs SesaZlebloba sxvadasxva kilouri mniSvnelobis gamoxatvisa. iseve rogorc drois kategoriis SemTxvevaSi, aqac msjeloben `ZiriTad, amosaval~ da `meoreul, SeZenil~ kilour mniSvnelobaze. Tumca ar Cans pasuxi kiTxvaze: roca erTsa da imave formas ramdenime kilos gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba aqvs, ris mixedviT unda mieces kvalifikacia ZiriTadi da araZiriTadi mniSvnelobisa? sixSiruli monacemi ama Tu im mniSvnelobis gamovlenisa ar unda iyos enobrivi faqtis Sefasebis ZiriTadi kriteriumi; kiTxva, romelic drois kategoriis mimarT daisva, unda gavimeoroT: ra aniWebs mwkrivis formas e. w. `ZiriTad kilour mniSvnelobas~; anda, ra aris is, rac erT konteqstSi gamovlenili `ZiriTadi kilouri mniSvnelobis~ gaqrobas da axali kilouri mniSvnelobis miniWebas iwvevs? faqtia: 1. ar xdeba kilos gamoxatva morfologiuri saSualebebiT. 2. erTi da igive forma ama Tu im mwkrivisa sxvadasxva konteqstSi sxvadasxva kilos gagebas iZens. sxvagvarad: kilour mniS-

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vnelobas ama Tu im mwkrivis formas konteqsti aniWebs. konteqstis saxeoba, konstruqciaSi Semaval wevrTa semantika Seapirobeben formis kilour mniSvnelobas. saerTod, aris ki SesaZlebeli calke aRebuli, konteqstisagan izolirebuli, zmnuri formis kilour mniSvnelobaze saubari? vfiqrobT, ara: rogorc zemoTmoyvanili Tvalsazrisebidan Cans, TiTqmis yvela SemTxvevaSi xdeba gaTvaliswineba konteqstis xasiaTisa, konstruqciis saxeobisa ama Tu im formis kilouri mniSvnelobis daxasiaTebisas. kilouri mniSvnelobis gamovlena rom konteqstzea damokidebuli, amis gamoa isic, rom araa erTgvarovani azri kiloTa raodenobis Sesaxeb. morfologiuri kategoria, formobrivad Sepirobebuli mniSvneloba amgvar sxvadasxvaobas kategoriis Semadgenel erTeulTa raodenobis Sesaxeb ar unda iZleodes. iseve, rogorc drois kategoriis SemTxvevaSi, ama Tu im formis `ZiriTad~ da `meoreul~ kilour mniSvnelobaze msjeloba imis mixedviT, Tu rogoria sixSire romelime kilouri mniSvnelobis gamovlenisa, aseve ar Cans gamarTlebuli. faqtia, wyvetilis formis gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi TxrobiTi kilos mniSvnelobiT ufro xSiria, vidre brZanebiTi Tu kavSirebiTi kilos mniSvnelobiT... es ki Sedegia imisa, rom enaSi imgvar konstruqciaTa sixSire, romelSic wyvetilis formas TxrobiTi kilos mniSvneloba aqvs, Warbobs im tipis konstruqciaTa sixSires, romelSic igive forma sxva kilour mniSvnelobas iZens. aseve SeiZleba iTqvas sxva mwkrivis formaTa Sesaxebac. daskvna aseTia: k i l o a r a r i s m o r f o l o g i u r i k a t e g o r i a, radgan: a) a r x d e b a m i s i g a m o x a t v a m o r f o l o g i u r a d; b) k i l o u r i m n i S v n e l o b a c v a l e b a d i a e r T i m w k r i v i s f a r g l e b S i. konteqstis gareSe formis kilouri mniSvneloba ver gairkveva; k i l o u r m n i S v n e l o b a s f o r m a s k o n t e q s t i a n i W e b s. sakiTxi amgvaradve SeiZleba daisvas gzisobis Sesaxebac (axali qarTulisaTvis). IV. 3.5. gzisoba, rogorc zmnis kategoria. rogorc iTqva, a. SaniZis moZGvrebis Tanaxmad, gzisoba, msgavsad sxva kategoriebisa (dro, kilo, aqti, Tanamdevroba), mwkrivis elementia. gziso-

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ba, iseve rogorc dasaxelebuli kategoriebi, ucvalebelad moiazreba: `elementebi daerqva mwkrivis farglebSi ucvalebel kategoriebs... mwkrivis elementebia dro, kilo, gzisoba, aqti, Tanamdevroba~ (a. SaniZe). ra aris gzisoba da aris Tu ara igi morfologiuri kategoria axal qarTulSi; Sesabamisad _ ucvalebeli kategoria? `gzisoba aris zmnis forma, romelic gviCvenebs, Tu ramdengzis aris moqmedeba Cadenili, erTgzis Tu mravalgzis, anu erTxel Tu mravalJer~ (a. SaniZe). aqve ganmartavs avtori, rom gzisobas ori forma aqvs: erTgzisi da mravalgzisi: `erTgzisia forma, romelic erTxel momxdar moqmedebas aGniSnavs da mravalgzisia forma, romelic ramdenJerme ganmeorebul moqmedebas gamoxatavs. magaliTebi: daJda da daJdis, moitana da moitanis, mokla da moklis da misT.~. gzisobasTan dakavSirebuli zogadi sakiTxebis ganxilvisas, rogorc davinaxeT, a. SaniZe mravalgzisobis magaliTad Zveli qarTulis (Tu Tanamedrove qarTulis mTis dialeqtebis) magaliTebs moixmobs: daJd-i-s, moitan-i-s, mokl-i-s... faqtobrivad, amiT iTqva, rom mravalgzisobis morfologiuri gamoxatva axal qarTulSi ar xdeba. gzisoba, rogorc mwkrivis elementi, ucvalebelia mwkrivis farglebSio, zemoT iTqva. mravalgzisobis gamomxatvel mwkrivTaTvis (uwKveteli, xolmeobiTi) mravalgzisoba ar aris ucvalebeli elementi. amitomacaa, uwKvetlis daxasiaTebisas mwkrivis elementTa mixedviT gzisobaze ar mianiSneben. erTi da igive forma faqtia, gzisobis mixedviT SeiZleba erTgzisic iKos da mravalgzisic: erTgzisia: is rom movida, davalebas v w e r d i. mravalgzisia: sadilis Semdeg davalebas v w e r d i, gakveTilebs v s w a v l o b d i da mere v T a m a S o b d i... Kovelive Tqmuli ki imis dasturia, rom gzisoba cvalebadi kategoriaa mwkrivis farglebSi; e. i. gzisoba ar aris morfologiuri kategoria, axal qarTulSi ar xdeba am kategoriis morfologiuri gamoxatva. Tumca gzisoba, rogorc semantikuri kategria axal qarTul saliteraturo enaSi, udaod sainteresoa. *

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* * moqmedebis mravalgzisobis gamoxatva qarTuli zmnis erTerTi arsebiTi damaxasiaTebeli niSania. erTgzisi (erTxel Sesrulebuli moqmedeba) da mravalgzisi (mravalJer Tu Cveulebriv Sesrulebuli moqmedeba) qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis manZilze gairCeoda erTmaneTisagan; Tumca am garCevas sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva saxe hqonda: organuli warmoeba xolmeobiTisa Cven Tvalwin bardeba warsuls da mis adgils aGweriTi warmoeba iyers. Cven SevecdebiT am tendenciasac gavadevnoT Tvali: ra gziT miemarTeba es cvlileba... vTqviT: mravalgzisoba Zvel qarTulSi organulad gamoixateboda _ iKo sagangebo mwkrivebi: I xolmeobiTi (uwKvetlis xolmeobiTi), II xolmeobiTi (wKvetilis xolmeobiTi) da III xolmeobiTi (II TurmeobiTi xolmeobiTi). axal qarTul saliteraturo enaSi mravalgzisoba organulad aGar gamoixateba. xolmeobiTis organuli warmoebis aGweriTiT Secvla erTerTi principuli xasiaTis gansxvavebaa Zvelsa da axal saliteraturo qarTuls Soris. `mravalgzisobis gamomxatvel organul formaTa moSlis es procesi (ise ki, rom mravalgzisobis funqcia SemogvrCa) enaSi mimdinare formobrivi abstraqciis TvalnaTlivi nimuSia~ (b. JorbenaZe). TavisTavad sainteresoa: ena sayirod miiCnevs funqciurad daapirispiros erTgzisi da mravalgzisi moqmedeba, magram cvlis am dapirispirebis saxes: erT SemTxvevaSi es morfologiurad xdeboda (da xdeba dGesac zog dialeqtSi), meore SemTxvevaSi am dapirispirebas aramorfologiuri saSualebebi axdenen. `formaTa erTi sistemis funqcionirebis gafarToebis xarJze xdeba formobrivi mravalferovnebisa da nairgvarobis nivelireba, morfologiuri dapirispirebis adgils konteqsturi gansxvavebis kriteriumi ikavebs~ (b. JorbenaZe). msgavsi SemTxveva araerTia. gavixsenoT: momavali drois gamoxatvis Zveli qarTulis viTareba rogor icvleba; Tundac aspeqtis gamoxatvis sistema; enaSi rCeba aucilebloba amgvari dapirispirebisa (axlandeli _ momavali _ warsuli; sruli _ usruli), icvleba dapirispirebis saxe... Tumca es ufro zogadi msJelobaa. konkretulad: qronologiurad organuli warmoebis moSla da aGweriTze gadasvla im periods emTxveva, roca qarTulSi `aspeqtis kategoriam aGniSna, ase vTqvaT, didi moxveuli qarTuli sa-

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literaturo enis istoriaSi da amiT garkveuli miJna daido Zvel qarTulsa da axals Soris~ (a. SaniZe); da kidev: `aspeqtis sistemis TandaTanobiT cvlasTan dakavSirebiT daiwKo TxrobiTkiloiani momavali drois gamoxatva awmKos mwkrivisagan gamoKofilis axali mwkrivis saSualebiT, e. i. I seriis mwkriviT, rac Zvel qarTulSi SeuZlebeli iKo... sistemis Secvlis procesi (igulisxmeba aspeqtis sistemisa da masTan dakavSirebiT momavali drois gamoxatvisa _ g. g.) damTavrebulia axal qarTulSi, Tumca magaliTebi Zveli sistemis movlenebisa dGevandel qarTulSic aris naSTis saxiT SemorCenili~ (a. SaniZe). swored am movlenebis gverdiT xdeba xolmeobiTis organuli warmoebis moSla. organuli warmoebis moSlasa da aGweriTze gadasvlas Soris mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri SeiZleba iKos. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT: xolmeobiTis konteqsturad (an leqsikurad, aGweriTad) gamoxatvis SesaZleblobis arseboba SeiZleba gamxdariKo xelisSemwKobi faqtori (da ara mizezi) organuli warmoebis moSlisa da aGweriTi warmoebis CamoKalibebisa. xolmeobiTis, rogorc mwkrivis (mwkrivebis), gaqroba am kategoriis istoriis Tanmdevi procesia. uwKvetel-xolmeobiTis mier am funqciis SeTavsebam ver daakmaKofila enis moTxovna mravalgzisobis gamoxatvisa da amitomac Cndeba xolme nawilaki am funqciiT. i. qavTaraZis azriT, `TviT saliteraturo enaSi da garkveul dialeqtebSic ukve meCvidmete saukunidan sabolood iCens Tavs analogiur formaTa (igulisxmeba Zveli qarTulis I da II xolmeobiTebi _ g. g.) mniSvnelobis dakargva, daviwKeba, risTvisac damatebiTi sakompensacio saSualeba _ `x o l m e ~ nawilaki xdeba aucilebeli. xolmeobiTis cnobil formebze x o l m e s darTva erTgvari aGdgenaa saTanado Sinaarsisa; es nawilaki intensivobis TandaTan gavrcelebuli nawilakia, romelic Semdeg ise farTovdeba, rom araxolmeobiTis formasac xolmeobiTobas aniyebs~ (i. qavTaraZe). e. i. xolmeobiTis formebi kargaven xolmeobiTobis Sinaarss da am Sinaarsis aGdgenas cdilobs ena x o l m e nawilakiT; procesi grZeldeba; xolmeobiTis Sinaarsi ecileba formas, forma ikargeba, magram am Sinaarss SeiTavsebs srulad x o l m e nawilaki. msJeloba sarwmunoa: mravalgzisi forma + x o l m e erTgzisi forma + x o l m e. faqtobrivad, mravalgzisobis gamosaxatavad xolme nawilakiani formebis damkvidrebam gaafarTova SesaZlebloba am mniS-

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vnelobis gamoxatvisa: xolme nawilaki daerTvis TiTqmis Kvela mwkrivis formas. vambobT TiTqmis, imitom, rom ver davadastureT x o l m e nawilaki III kavSirebiTTan, magram Tu imas gaviTvaliswinebT, rom III kavSirebiTi iSviaTi mwkrivia da mas Cveulebriv II TurmeobiTi cvlis, es `TiTqmisoba~ gasagebi iqneba. moviKvanT magaliTebs Tanmimdevrulad, mwkrivTa mixedviT, erTgzis formebTan x o l m e nawilakis gamoKenebisas (magaliTebs vimowmebT i. qavTaraZis naSromidan): awmKo-mKofadi: cremls wKalsaviT vGvriT xolme (ilia); sul egre stKui xolme (iqve); Tvali sul Cemken uyiravs, micinis xolme (vaja); Cemi batoni Semova da daskupdeba xolme (S. aragv.); SiSi muxls mohkveTavs xolmeo, amboben (iakobi); Zalauneburad keTil gzisken gamitacebs xolme (akaki). uwKvetel-xolmeobiTi: sul erTsa da imave simGeras GiGinebda xolme (ilia); saaGdgomod yonaze dadiodnen xolme momGerlebi (akaki); yia-matlebi ereodnen xolme xexilsa (iakobi); pasuxad sul amas metKoda xolme (ilia); gveli rom Segxvedroda? _ davasxvertebdi xolme miwaze (akaki); daviTi advilad da swrafad moinadirebda xolme Kvelas guls (iakobi). I kavSirebiTi: neta sitKvas saqmed vaqcevdeT xolme (ek. gab.); baGis muSaobis drosac amas unda gaistumrebdeT xolme (its. sabuT.); Tqven Tavad sxvas gaimZGvarebdeT xolme (iqve); am Cvengan ganwesebuls wKalobas Cveni saxlTuxucesebi, mdivnebi niadag wels Semosavlebidan unda miscemdeT xolme (iqve). wKvetili: modi, giorgisac daekiTxe xolme (ilia); sxvagan wamsvleli kargad gaCxrikeT xolme (iakobi); egre sTqvi xolme sxvaganac (ilia). II kavSirebiTi: KovelTvis hsurs, rom Tavisi gulispasuxi sxvebsac gadasces, SeatKobinos xolme (akaki);

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ecdebian, sxvebsac dauSalon xolme amgvari ugunuri da mavne moqmedeba (iakobi); egebis aqedan ninos Tvali movkra xolmeo (r. erisT.). I TurmeobiTi (iSviaTia): adre qurcikiviT aurbenia xolme es dakidebuli gza (r. gvet.). II TurmeobiTi (iSviaTia): gayirvebuli kaci gaecacebina xolme macdurs (ilia). uwKvetel-xolmeobiTi rom nawilakis gareSe gamoxatavs mravalgzisobas, esec cnobilia: kneina Tvals gaayKetda, SavardeniviT gadmofrindeboda taxtidam, gadikravda Sublsafensa, zed waikravda CiTmerdinsa, gadicvamda CiTis kabasa _ xandisxan siCqarisagan ukuGma _ SiSvela fexs Seimosavda CustiTa da _ heri biyo _ daeSveboda Calurisaken (ilia). unda gaviTvaliswinoT isic, rom `sagaremoebo sitKvebis gamoKenebiT gangrZobili moqmedebis Sinaarsi uZlierdeba zmnis nakvTis formebs~ (i. qavTaraZe, 1961, gv. 20): is dalocvili mGdeli xSirad marigebda xolme (ilia); saxe mudam erTi gansakuTrebuli sulelobiT ucinoda xolme (akaki); oTaraanT qvrivi Kovel kvira dGes erTi aTiod SoTs da erT badia korkots Tavis xeliT gadautanda xolme (ilia)... amgvari SesaZleblobebi ganusazGvrelia; sagaremoebo sitKvebi x o l m e nawilakis gareSec axerxebs am mniSvnelobis gadmocemas: `kvira ar gavidoda, rom oTaraanT qvrivs ar CamoeGo es iaraGi da guldasmiT ar gaewminda~ (ilia)... bevrJer da bevrJer Sen macdune (ilia); mudam gabutviT dadis (ilia); mravalJer daefrTxos (akaki) da sxva. aGaras vambobT iseT SemTxvevebze, rogoricaa formaTa gameoreba: vkece, vkece, ver davkece... vTvale, vTvale, ver davTvale... iara, iara da miadga... wera, wera da...

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Kovelive amaze imitom vamaxvilebT KuradGebas, rom davinaxoT, Tu ra viTareba Seiqmna axal qarTulSi xolmeobiTis organuli warmoebis moSlis Semdeg: mravalgzisobis gamoxatvis enobrivi SesaZleblobebi gaizada, gamravalferovnda. es TavisTavad am mniSvnelobis gamoxatvisas damatebiTi niuansebis gadmocemis SesaZleblobas iZleva. zmnur formaTa funqciuri analizis dros Kovelive amaze KuradGeba unda iqnes gamaxvilebuli... IV. 3.6. aqti, rogorc zmnis kategoria. `a q t i anu s a q m e aris zmnis forma, romelic gviCvenebs, naxa moubarma zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedeba, Tu ara~. qarTul zmnas aqvs saSualeba, aGniSnos ara marto iseTi moqmedeba, romelsac moubari daswrebia da unaxavs, aramed iseTic, romelsac is ar daswrebia da ar unaxavs. amis mixedviT gvaqvs ori aqti: naxuli da unaxavi (anu daswrebuli da dauswrebeli) (a. SaniZe). aqti mwkrivis elmentad aris miCneuli da iseve, rogorc sxva elementebi mwkrivisa, `mwkrivis farglebSi ucvalebel kategoriad~ moiazreba~. zemoTac aGvniSneT: ucvalebel kategoriad SeiZleba moviazroT is kategoria, romelic aris warmodgenili zmnis ama Tu im formaSi da nebismier konteqstSi xdeba misi gamoxatva anu: nebismier konteqstSi aqvs es mniSvneloba. Tu xdeba cvla am mniSvnelobisa sxvadasxva konteqstSi, unda aixsnebodes am cvlis mizezi; anu: formas ram daukarga am konkretul SemTxvevaSi es mniSvneloba, an ram mianiya sxva konteqstSi sxva mniSvneloba. amis Taobaze drois, kilosa da gzisobis kategoriebze saubris drosac mivaniSnebdi. ra viTarebaa am mxriv aqtis kategoriasTan dakavSirebiT. aqti (unaxavi), rogorc mwkrivis elementi, I TurmeobiTSi aris warmodgenili: `I TurmeobiTSi sami elementia: dro (wars.), kilo (Txr.) da aqti (unaxavi)... unaxavi aqtis moqmedeba gviCvenebs moqmedebas, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia Sedegis mixedviT an sxvisgan aris gagonili~. a. SaniZe unaxav aqts mwkrivis elementad asaxelebs II TurmeobiTSic: `Sedgenilobis TvalsazrisiT II TurmeobiTi I-sagan erTi elementiT gansxvavdeba. es elementia Tanamimdevroba (uwinaresi). mwkrivi gadmogvcems iseT unaxav moqmedebas, romelic sxvas uswrebda~ (a. SaniZe). III seriis mwkrivebs a. SaniZe `unaxavi aqtis mwkrivebs~ uwo-

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debs, Tumca ar Cans, III kavSirebiTsac unaxavi aqtis mwkrivad miiCnevs Tu ara. Tu TurmeobiTebi unaxavi aqtis mwkrivebia, ivaraudeba, rom sxva mwkrivebi naxuli aqtis mwkrivebia. aris Tu ara aqti ucvalebeli kategoria TurmeobiTis mwkrivebisaTvis? sakiTxi sagangebod Seiswavla i. qavTaraZem. misi azriT, `udavoa, rom qarTul enaSi TurmeobiTis nakvTi Zalian xSirad ixmareba iseTi moqmedeba-mdgomareobis gadmosacemad, romelic subieqtma Tavisi TvaliT naxa, daeswro mas, unaxavi moqmedebis gamosaxatavad misi gamoKeneba srulebiTac araa erTaderTi, piriqiT, es ufro gviandeli Cans, roca drois gageba masSi ramdenadme daiCrdila~ (i. qavTaraZe). anu unaxaoba SeiZleba gadmosces sxva formamac da piriqiT... `es imas niSnavs, rom qarTulSi ara gvaqvs unaxaobis kategoriis morfologiuri warmoebis saSualeba, igi araa imgvarad gamoxatuli gramatikuli kategoria, rogoradac dro, qceva da sxva, romelTac moepovebaT specialuri morfema, aglutinaciuri tipis qarTuli enisaTvis Sesaferisi~ (iqve). avtori gaxazavs imasac, rom morfologiurad ar xdeba dapirispireba, magram `dGevandel qarTulSi faqtia aseTi dapirispireba~ (iqve); da kidev: `unaxaobis Sinaarsis gamosaxatavad qarTulSi gvaqvs erTgvari saSualeba (Turme nawilaki da pirveli TurmeobiTi garkveul SemTxvevaSi) da ara gramatikuli kategoria~ (i. qavTaraZe). arn. Ciqobavas azriT, `unaxaoba, saerTod, ar unda iKos niSandoblivi TurmeobiTis SinaarsisaTvis. Kovel SemTxvevaSi, unaxaobas ver vivaraudebT, roca realuri subieqti pirvel pirSia~. avtori eTanxmeba i. qavTaraZes da daaskvnis: `amrigad: TurmeobiTis Jgufis nakvTebi funqciuri TvalsazrisiT ver gaerTiandeba; Turmeobas ar gulisxmobs kavSirebiTi mesame; mxolod nawilobriv egueba es Sinaarsi TurmeobiTs meores; TurmeobTs pirvelSic unaxaoba ar gadmoicema pirvels pirSi, uarKofiTi nawilakebis xmarebisas ki _ sxva pirebSic~. warmodgenili msJeloba da dasaxelebul avtorTa mier Catarebuli analizi cxadKofs, rom aqti ar aris morfologiuri kategoria da, Sesabamisad, ucvalebeli erTi mwkrivis farglebSi. ase rom, am TvalsazrsiT aqti dgeba drois, kilosa da gzisobis gverdiT.

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IV. 3.7. Tanamdevroba, rogorc zmnis kategoria. mexuTe kategoria, romelsac mwkrivis elementad miiCnevs a. SaniZe, aris Tanamdevroba: `Tanamdevrobis saxeliT aGvniSnavT zmnis formas, romelic gvagebinebs, Tu rogoria drouli mimarTeba ori moqmedebisa warsulsa an momavalSi. ori moqmedebis Sefardebisas SeiZleba aGmoCndes, rom orive erT dros mimdinareobs da gvaqvs erTdrouloba moqmedebisa, magram Tu gansxvavebaa droSi, maT Soris iseTi urTierToba iqneba, rom erTi unda uswrebdes, meore mosdevdes. rogorc swreba, ise modevneba xdeba mxolod or gramatikul droSi, warsulsa da momavalSi, magram erTdrouloba mxolod warsulSia gamoxatuli~ (a. SaniZe). `Tanamdevrobis formebi qarTulSi samgvaria: erTdrouloba, uwinaresoba da Semdgomoba~ (iqve). warmodgenili msJelobidan da moxmobili magaliTebidan Cans, rom zmnuri formis mier gamoxatuli moqmedebis Sefaseba xdeba rTul konstruqciebSi; anu zmnuri formis erTdrouloba, uwinaresoba Tu Semdgomoba sxva zmnis mier Sesrulebuli moqmedebis mixedviT gairkveva. es ukve sintaqsis sferoa. roca arn. Ciqobava III seriis gamoKofis safuZvlebze msJelobs da ganixilavs aqtisa da Tanamimdevrobis kategoriebs, aseT daskvnas gvTavazobs: `sami Jgufis gamoKofa zmnis uGvlilebaSi nawilobriv gamarTlebulia sintaqsuri TvalsazrisiT, nakvTebis warmoeba ki sintaqsis sagani ar aris, igi fuZeTa warmoebas ganekuTvneba da morfologiis sagani unda iKos (im TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, rac am rigis fuZeTa warmoebas axasiaTebs)~. amgvarad, Tanamdevroba ar aris morfologiuri kategoria da, Sesabamisad, ar SeiZleba iKos ucvalebeli erTi mwkrivis farglebSi. * * * rogorc warmodgenilma msJelobam gviCvena, erTi mwkrivis formas konteqstisda mixedviT SesaZlebloba aqvs sxvadasxva droisa Tu kilos mniSvnelobis gadmocemisa; aseve erTgzisi da mravalgzisi moqmedebisa; unaxavi an nanaxi aqtisa; aseve erTdrouli, uwinaresi Tu Semdgomi moqmedebis gamoxatvisa... (SevadaroT: brunvis forma da brunvaTa funqciebi). mwkrivis formaTa semantikuri daxasiaTeba SesaZlebeli

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aris am kategoriaTa mixedviT, Tumca rogorc aGiniSna, ar xdeba maTi gamoxatva morfologiurad. Sesabamisad, CamoTvlili kategoriebi ar aris morfologiuri kategoriebi.

IV. 3.8. aspeqti da mwkrivi a. SaniZis moZGvrebis mixedviT. a. SaniZis moZGvrebis mixedviT, aspeqti qarTulSi ar aris mwkrivis elementi, uGlebis kategoria. igi warmoqmnis kategoriaa. `aspeqti Zvelad uGlebis kategoria iKo: is aucilebeli elementi iKo TviTeuli mwkrivisa I-sa da II seriaSi, magram axal sistemaze gadasvliT es kategoria gamovida uGlebidan da warmoqmnaSi daiyira adgili, radganac am gziT man zmnis paralelur formebs (uzmniswinosa da zmniswinians) mwkrivebSi sxvadasxva gramatikuli mniSvneloba misca: grixa _ dagrixa, grixos _ dagrixos, ugrexia _ daugrexia da sxva~. es imas niSnavs, rom mxolod aspeqtiT gansxvavebuli formebi ar CaiTvleba sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad: wera da dawera, weros da daweros erTi da imave mwkrivis formebia. sxvagvari iKo viTareba Zvel qarTulSi: `Zvel qarTulSi aspeqti uGlebis kategoria iKo da mwkrivSi Sedioda, rogorc misi elementi: I seriis mwkrivebi usruli aspeqtiani iKvnen. II serisa ki _ srulisani. zmniswins am sakiTxSi araviTari Zala ar hqonda: is an gezs aGniSnavda, orientaciiTurT, an axali zmnis sawarmoebeli morfema iKo. amitom awmKos mwkrivis exlandel dros zmniswinis darTva momavlisad ver gadaaqcevda, ....samagierod II seriis mwkrivebi Kvela srul-aspeqtiani iKo~ (a. SaniZe). momxdari cvlilebis ZiriTadi Sedegi, a. SaniZis azriT, aris is, rom I seriis formebi or wred gaiKo: `paralelur formaTa gansxvavebuli gamoKenebiT axalma sistemam awmKos Jgufis sami wevrisagan warmoqmna sami axali mwkrivi, gansxvavebuli erTi-meorisagan Sesabamisad ara marto aspeqtis mixedviT, aramed droisa da sxva elementebis mixedviTac~ (iqve). erTi mniSvnelovani Sedegi isicaa, rom `aspeqti SeiZina III seriis formebma da saxelzmnebma~ (iqve). aq KuradGebas gavamaxvilebT im faqtze, rom aspeqtian zmnebSi zmniswini apirispirebs srul da usrul formebs samsave seriaSi da saxelzmnebSi. am faqts kvlavac movubrundebiT. moswrebulad Tqva mecnierma: `zmniswinma zmnas misca aspeqti axal

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safuZvelze, magram am aspeqtma usrulobis SemTxvevaSi zmnas waarTva zmniswini~... (a. SaniZe). Tumca ase erTmniSvnelovnad, rogorc Cans, Znelia saubari. a. SaniZe wers: `eyvi ar aris, rom dGevandeli aspeqti sazogadod warmoqmnis kategoriaa, magram ver vitKviT, rom mas mTlad gawKvetili hqondes kavSiri uGlebasTan~. sxvagan: `daskvna: aspeqts uGlebis farglebidan sul gamosulad ver miviCnevT, mas ramdenadme kidev SerCenili aqvs uGlebis kategoriis niSnebi~. aq Cven im SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme, erTi enobrivi movlenis orgvari kvalifikacia rom xdeba erTsa da imave avtorTan... aspeqti ar aris uGlebis kategoria, amitom dro-kiloTa sistemis agebisas aspeqtiT gansxvavebuli formebi (akeTa _ gaakeTa, akeTos _ gaakeTos, ukeTebia _ gaukeTebia...) ar CaiTvleba sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad. amitom sistema 11 erTeuls (mwkrivs) Seicavs. es ZiriTadi Tvalsazrsia avtorisa, Tumca imasac uSvebs, rom `aspeqts uGlebis farglebidan sul gamosulad ver miviCnevT, mas ramdenadme kidev SerCenili aqvs uGlebis kategoriis niSnebio~. da aq gvTavazobs SemaJamebel paragrafs _ `cxrili~ ($ 343): `dagvrCa erTi: SevaJamoT zemoT naTqvami (igulisxmeba aspeqtisadmi miZGvnili msJeloba) cxrilSi, romelic mokled da TvalsaCinod warmogvidgens aspeqtis viTarebas dGevandel qarTulSi. magaliTebad moKvanilia sami zmna: `texa~ zmnis sruli uGleba subieqturi pirebis mixedviT TiTo seriis TiTo mwkrivSi (I seriaSi orive wrisaTvis), merme ki samive zmnis 1-li sub. piris formebi TviTeul mwkrivSi, garda warTqm. brZanebiTisa, sadac me-2 piris formebia moKvanili~ (a. SaniZe). SeJamebuli saxiT warmodgenili sruli uGleba TiTo seriis TiTo mwkrivSi faqtobriv emTxveva dimitri Kifianis princips, romelsac `gramatikis safuZvlebSi~, swored `cxrilis~ win, sagangebo paragrafi eZGvneba _ `dimitri Kifianis tabula~. d. Kifians orgvari paradigma aqvs _ rTuli da martivi; rTuli _ zmniswinian da uzmniswino dapirispirebul formaTa paradigma _ 16 erTeuli (martivi 8 erTeuliani iKo)... a. SaniZis SeJamebuli cxrili swored d. Kifianis rTuli paradigmis msgavsia. es cxrili garkveulwilad mxars dauyers Cvens Tvalsazrissac. Tumca amis Taobaze mogvianebiT.

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axla srulad warmovadgenT a. SaniZis cxrils, aspeqtTan dakavSirebiT moKvanils. I seria awmKo (u s r u l i) mx. 1.3. vtex 2.3. stex 3.3. texs mr. 1.3. vtexT 2.3. stexT 3.3. texen mKofadi (s r u l i ) ga-vtex ga-stex ga-texs ga-vtexT ga-stexT ga-texen II seria wKvetili (u s r u l i ) vtexe stexe texa vtexeT stexeT texes (s r u l i ) ga-vtexe ga-stexe ga-texa ga-vtexeT ga-stexeT ga-texes III seria I TurmeobiTi (u s r u l i ) mitexia gitexia utexia gvitexia gitexiaT utexia(T) (s r u l i ) ga-mitexia ga-gitexia ga-utexia ga-gvitexia ga-gitexiaT ga-utexia(T) I seria u s r u l i (awmKos wre) awmKo vtex

vaqeb

vmalav

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uwKv. awmK. kavS.

vtexdi vtexde

vaqebdi vaqebde

vmalavdi vmalavde

s r u l i (mKofadis wre) mKofadi ga-vtexe I xolm. ga-vtexdi mKof. kavS. ga-vtexde

Se-vaqeb Se-vaqebdi Se-vaqebde II seria

da-vmalav da-vmalavdi da-vmalavde

wKvet. II xolm. II kavS. brZan.

(u s r.) vtexe vtexi vtexo texe

(s r.) ga-vtexe ga-vtexi ga-vtexo ga-texe

(u s r.) vaqe vaqi vaqo aqe III seria

(s r.) Se-vaqi Se-vaqi Se-vaqo Se-aqo

(u s r.) vmale vmali vmalo male

(s r.) da-vmale da-vmali da-vmalo da-male

I Turm. II Turm. III kavS.

(u s r.) mitexia metexa metexos

(s r.) ga-mitexia ga-metexa ga-metexos

(usr.) miqia meqo meqos

(s r.) Se-miqia Se-meqo Se-meqos

(u s r.) mimalavs memala memalos

(s r.) da-mimalavs da-memala da-memalos

arsebiTi am cxrilSi isaa, rom zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa dapirispireba erT princips emKareba samive seriaSi; paradigmebic erTgvaradaa agebuli samive seriaSi. am faqts kidev gavixsenebT... * * * warmovadgineT arsebuli Tvalsazrisebi. kiTxvaze _ ra aris mwkrivi, rogoria misi struqtura _ pasuxi gasacemia. V. 3.9. mwkrivis raoba da struqtura. mwkrivi aris enaSi zmnis arsebobis, misi funqcionirebis forma. mwkrivi aris erToblioba formebisa, romlebic gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan mxolod pirisa da ricxvis mixedviT; Sesabamisad, erTi mwkrivis formebia: v-xatav me mas v-xatav-T Cven mas

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xatav xatav-s m-xatav-s g-xatav-s m-xatav g-xatav

Sen is is is Sen me

mas mas me Sen me Sen

xatav-T xatav-en m-xatav-en gv-xatav-en gv-xatav g-xatav-T

Tqven isini isini isini Sen me

mas mas me Cven Cven Tqven...

mwkrivi igivea zmnisaTvis, rac brunva saxelisaTvis. Tu brunvis kategorias qmnis brunvis formaTa erToblioba, Sesabamisad, mwkrivis kategorias qmnis mwkrivis formaTa erToblioba. anu: mwkrivis kategoria imden wevriania, ramdeni mwkrivic aris enaSi. SeniSvna: mwkrivi aris saxelwodeba kategoriisac da am kategoriis TiToeuli wevrisa (Sdr.: brunvis kategoria da TiToeuli brunva); gansxvavebiT sxva kategoriebisagan; mag.: r i c x v i s kategoriis wevrebia mxolobiTi ricxvi da mravlobiTi ricxvi... formobrivad mwkrivi rTuli monacemia. mwkrivisaTvis umTavresi morfologiuri odenoba mwkrivis fuZea. mwkrivis fuZe aris is nawili zmnuri formisa, romelsac CamoSorebuli aqvs pirisa da ricxvis niSnebi. SeniSvna: zmniswinisa da xmovanprefiqsebis Taobaze mwkrivis formasTan mimarTebiT calke gveqneba saubari. amTaviTve SevniSnavT: zmniswiniTa da xmovanprefiqsebiT gansxvavebuli formebi sxvadasxva zmnebia leqsikurad; zmniswiniTa da xmovanprefiqsebiT gansxvavebuli gezi da orientacia, aspeqti, qceva, gvari warmoqmnis kategoriebia (a. SaniZe). ga-v-ikeTeb, v-ikeTeb, v-a-keTeb, v-u-keTeb _ sxvadasxva zmnebia... amgvarad: mwkrivis fuZea wer-d-e _ keT-eb-d-e. anu: mwkrivis fuZis struqturas qmnis `martivi fuZe~ (Zireuli morfema _ skolaruli gagebiT), Temis niSani, savrcobi, mwkrivis niSani. SeniSvna: `martivi fuZe~ (`Zireuli~ morfema) pirobiTi terminebia: igulisxmeba is nawili zmnuri formi-

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sa, romelic warmodgenilia yvela mwkrivis formaSi. Sesabamisad: kauzatiur formebSi `martivi fuZe~ iqneba keTebin, donian vnebiTebSi _ keTd. Zireuli am SemTxvevaSi ar udris Zirs etimologiuri gagebiT... martivi fuZe aris is nawili zmnuri formisa, romelic saerToa zmnis sruli paradigmis yvela wevrisaTvis. SeniSvna: skolarul gamocemebSi paradigmis yvela wevrisaTvis saerTo nawils Zirs uwodeben; Tumca Zirad dauSleli nawili gaiazreba, rac ar iTqmis sruli paradigmis saerTo nawilis Sesaxeb. pirobiTia terminic martivi fuZe; SedgenilobiT `martivi fuZe~ SeiZleba iyos `rTuli~ (`Tvalwin gaisigrZegana _ am formaSi sigrZegan `martivi fuZea~). Temis niSani _ aris is nawili zmnuri formisa, romelic ganasxvavebs I seriis rTul Temas II seriis martivi Temisagan. xat-av-as _ xat-a. savrcobi aris is nawili zmnuri formisa, romelic awmyos (myofadis) mwkrivis formas ganasxvavebs uwyvetlis (xolmeobiTis) fuZisagan: xat-av-d-a _ xat-av-s Tl-id-da Tl-i-s tir-od-a tir-i-s mwkrivis niSani aris is elementi zmnuri formisa, romelic or, erTmaneTTan formobrivad dakavSirebul mwkrivis fuZes ganasxvavebs: SeniSvna: erTmaneTTan formobrivad urTierTdakavSirebulad miviCnevT im fuZeebs, romlebic erTmaneTs miemarTebian an xazovani, an Canacvlebis principiT (ix. $ I. 10.). wer-s wer-d-a, erTi mxriv, da da-v-wer-e

IV. zmnis morfologia

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da-v-wer-o _ meore mxriv. sxvadasxva mwkrivs sxvadasxva fuZe unda hqondes. sxvagvarad, ramdenadac zmnur formaTa warmoeba fuZeTa warmoebis sagania (arn. Ciqobava), imdeni mwkrivi gveqneba, ramdeni damoukidebeli fuZec aris mwkrivisa. mwkrivis analizisas gmovyofT mwkrivis sayrden fuZes. mwkrivis sayrden fuZes vuwodebT im nawils mwkrivis fuZisa, romelsac CamoSorebuli aqvs mwkrivis niSani. v-wer-d-e; mwkrivis fuZea werde; mwkrivis niSani -e; mwkrivis sayrdeni fuZe _ werd. mwkrivis formaTa warmoebis xazovani principis SemTxvevaSi erTi mwkrivis sayrdeni fuZe srulad Sedis meore mwkrivis sayrden fuZeSi: v-tir-i v-tir-od-i v-xat-av v-xat-av-d-i SeniSvna: mwkrivis formaTa nulovani warmoebisas (e. i. roca mwkrivis niSani nulovani morfemaa), mwkrivis fuZe da mwkrivis sayrdeni fuZe erTmaneTs emTxveva. mwkrivis formaTa warmoebis Canacvlebis principis SemTxvevaSi urTierTCanacvlebad mwkrivebs saerTo sayrdeni fuZe aqvs: v-wer-d-i v-wer-dv-wer-d-e v-wer-e v-werv-wer-o mwkrivis fuZeze saubrisas mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba moqmedi fonetikuri procesis Sedegad momxdari cvlilebebiT miRebuli gansxvavebani. mag. v-wer-e wer-a

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I magaliTSi mwkrivis fuZea wer-e, meore magaliTSi wer; magram es aris arasruli (mawarmoebelmokvecili) varianti mwkrivis fuZisa: wer-e-a wer-a... funqciuri TvalsazrisiT mwkrivi rTuli monacemia; polisemantikuri monacemia. masSi erTdrouladaa warmodgenili zmnis sxvadasxva funqciuri kategoriebi (odenfunqciuri da formobriv-funqciuri): dro, kilo, aspeqti, gzisoba, aqti... erToblioba am funqciebisa (kombinaciebi am funqciebisa) qmnis mwkrivis semantikas. magaliTad: dro akeTebda wars. akeTa wars. kilo Txr. Txr. aspeqti usr. usr. gzisoba mravalgz. erTgzisi aqti nanaxi nanaxi

formobrivad gansxvavebuli ori erTeuli sxvadasxva mwkrivis formaa, radganac isini funqciur sxvaobasac avlenen. funqciurad gansxvavebuli ori erTeuli ar CaiTvleba sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad, Tu maT Soris araa formobrivi sxvaoba:
dro gaakeTe (TxrobiT konteqstSi) gaakeTe (brZanebiT konteqstSi) warsuli kilo TxrobiTi aspeqti sruli gzisoba erTgzisi aqti nanaxi

momavali

brZanebiTi

sruli

erTgzisi

nanaxi

mwkrivis TvalsazrisiT gaakeTe wyvetilia... formobrivad gansxvavebuli iseTi erTeulebi, rogorebicaa: mo-v-a-swar mo-v-rwy-i i-qn-e-s da-u-xat-av-s da da da da mo-v-a-swr-e mo-v-rwy-e i-qn-a-s da-u-xat-i-a

IV. zmnis morfologia

355

ver CaiTvleba sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad, radganac funqciurad identuri odenobebia: nebismier konteqstSi SeiZleba moxdes maTi urTierTCanacvleba. warmodgenili wyvilebi erTi da imave mwkrivebis formobrivi variantebia. IV. 3.10. mwkrivTa raodenoba axal qarTulSi. rogorc aGiniSna, axal qarTulSi 11 mwkrivi gamoiKofa. pirveli seria 6 sauGlebeli erTeuliTaa warmodgenili: awmKos wre 1. awmKo _ vwer 2. uwKveteli _ vwerdi 3. awmKos kavSirebiTi _ vwerde mKofadis wre 1. mKofadi _ davwer 2. xolmeobiTi _ davwerdi 3. mKof. kavSirebiTi _ davwerde formobrivi TvalsazrisiT dapirispireba vwer _ da-vwer vwerdi _ da-vwerdi vwerde _ da-vwerde imave rigisaa, rogoric vwere _ da-vwere vwero _ da-vwero miweria _ da-miweria mewera _ da-mewera meweros _ da-meweros Tu pirveli seriis zmniswiniani da uzmniswino formebi sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebadaa miCneuli, meore da mesame seriis SemTxvevaSi amgvaradve dapirispirebuli formebi sxvadasxva mwkrivisebad ar gaigeba: vwer _ awmKo magram vwere wKvetili da-vwer _ mKofadi da-vwere rogorc cnobilia, Zvel qarTulSic gvaqvs amgvarive dapi-

356

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

rispireba pirvel seriaSi zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa Soris, magram zmniswiniT gansxvavebuli formebi sxvadasxva mwkrivad ar gaiazreboda. aspeqtis sistemaSi momxdari cvlilebebi awmKos zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa Soris drouli dapirispirebis safuZveli gaxda: uzmniswino formam awmKo drois gadmocema itvirTa, zmniswinianma _ momavlisa. `paralelur formaTa gansxvavebuli gamoKenebiT axalma sistemam awmKos Jgufis sami mwkrivisagan warmoqmna sami axali mwkrivi, gansxvavebuli erTimeorisagan Sesabamisad ara marto aspeqtis mixedviT, aramed droisa da sxva elementebis mixedviTac. es moxda ise, rom garegnulad axali araferi ar Kofila Seqmnili, _ gamoKenebuli iqna arsebuli maragi formebisa, oGond gramatikuli Sinaarsis SecvliT!~ (a. SaniZe). `uzmniswino forma axlandel dros aGniSnavs, zmniswiniani _ momavals. ase miviGeT erTis nacvlad ori mwkrivi: awmKo da mKofadi. aseve gaimiJna maTgan nawarmoebi sxva mwkrivebic: uwKveteli da xolmeobiTi, awmKos kavSirebiTi da mKofadis kavSirebiTi~ (z. yumburiZe). amgvarad, mKofadis damoukidebel mwkrivad gamoKofa drois kategoriis safuZvelze moxda. `mwkrivis elementebis~ mixedviT Tu SevadarebT awmKosa da mKofads, aseT suraTs miviGebT:
awmKo: dro _ kilo _ umetesad axlandeli TxrobiTi mKofadi: dro _ kilo _ momavali TxrobiTi

Tu davuSvebT, rom amgvari dapirispireba sakmarisia wers da dawers formaTa sxvadasxva mwkrivebad miCnevisaTvis, gayirdeba amgvarive safuZvlis moZebna werda _ dawerda formaTaTvis. am formebs ase axasiaTeben: uwKveteli dro _ w a r s u l i kilo _ T x r o b i T i Tanmdevroba _ e r T d r o u l i xolmeobiTi dro _ w a r s u l i kilo _ T x r o b i T i gzisoba _ m r a v a l g z i s i

gaviTvaliswinoT isic, rom Tanamdevrobas `zogJer Seicavs~ da aseve zogJer SeiZleba gamoxatos mravalgzisi moqmedeba (a. SaniZe). rogorc vxedavT, e. w. `uGlebis kategoriaTa~ mixedviT daxasiaTeba uwKvetlisa da xolmeobiTisa identuria. marTalia,

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a. SaniZe uwKvetlis mwkrivis daxasiaTebisas xazgasmiT ar mianiSnebs mravalgzisobaze, magram xolmeobiTis kategoriaze msJelobisas aGniSnavs, `cocxal kiloTa umetesobam da saliteraturo qarTulma es formebi (e. i. mravalgzisobis gamomxatveli formebi _ g. g.) dakarga, samagierod maTi gamoxatva uwKvetelsa da misgan nawarmoeb xolmeobiTis mwkrivs daakisra~ (a. SaniZe). amdenad, `uGlebis kategoriaTa~ mixedviT uwKvetlisa da xolmeobiTis mwkrivebs Soris sxvaoba araa. Tumca xolmeobiTis mwkrivisagan uwKvetlisaTvis ganmasxvavebel niSnad Tanamdevrobac miiCneva: `zogJer is Tanamdevrobasac Seicavs, _ saxeldobr erTdroulobas warsulSi~ (a. SaniZe). araa SemTxveviTi, rom avtori Tanamdevrobas uwKvetlis formisaTvis Cveulebriv damaxasiaTeblad ar miiCnevs (`zogJer is Tanamdevrobasac Seicavs~...). rogorc aGvniSneT, Tanamdevroba, Tuki saerTod SeiZleba CaiTvalos kategoriad, araa morfologiuri kategoria. msJeloba _ `erTdroulia zmnis forma, romelic gvagebinebs, rom erTi moqmedeba sxva dasaxelebul (an nagulisxmev) moqmedebasTan erTad xdeboda~ _ gulisxmobs, rom Tanamdevrobaze mxolod rTul konstruqciebSi SeiZleba saubari. moKvanili magaliTebic amis dasturia: `Sin rom mivedi, Tovda~. `Tovda~ formiT gamoxatuli dro emTxveva Sin dabrunebis dros~. martiv konstruqciebSi xmarebul uwKvetlis formiT gamoxatul Tanamdevrobaze ver visaubrebT. faqtobriv Tanamdevroba gamodis sxvadasxva konstruqciaSi sxvadasxva zmniT gamoxatul moqmedebaTa urTierTmimarTeba drois TvalsazrisiT, rac ama Tu im zmnis morfologiur maxasiaTeblad ar SeiZleba miviCnioT. garda amisa, a. SaniZe uwKvetelsa da xolmeobiTs Soris aspeqtur sxvaobazec mianiSnebs: ufro zustad, uwKvetlisaTvis damaxasiaTeblad usruli aspeqtis gamoxatvas miiCnevs: `zogJer agreTve sruli aspeqtis gadmocema ekisreba~, magram aspeqti, avtoris azriT, warmoqmnis kategoriaa da uGlebis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas, kerZod, mwkrivTa gamoKofisas, mxedvelobaSi ar miiGeba. winaaGmdeg SemTxvevaSi akeTa da gaakeTa sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad CaiTvleboda... gamodis, rom a w m K o - m K o f a d i s g a m o K o f a m o x d a uGlebis erT-erTi kategoriis _ d r o i s _ m i x e d v i T. u w K v e t e l i da x o l m e o b i T i u G l e b i s k a t e g o r i a T a m i x e d v i T

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a r g a n s x v a v d e b a. miviCnevT ki mainc sxvadasxva mwkrivebad awmKosa da mKofadis msgavsad. aseTivea mimarTeba awmKos kavSirebiTsa da mKofadis kavSirebiTs Soris. `awmKos kavSirebiTi. Sedgeba ori elementisagan: droisa da kilosagan. dro exlandelia an momavali, kilo _ kavSirebiTi~ (a. SaniZe). `mKofadis kavSirebiTi. am mwkrivs moepoveba ori elementi: dro (mom.) da kilo (kavS.)~ (iqve). rogorc vxedavT, or mwkrivs Soris arsebiTi sxvaoba araa. Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviGebT imas, rom awmKos kavSirebiTs, rogorc aGniSnaven, SeiZleba zogJer axlandeli drois gagebac hqondes. Tu am faqts davemKarebiT, gamova, rom awmKos kavSirebiTi damoukidebel mwkrivad maSin unda miviCnioT, roca is awmKo drois gamomxatvelia. Tu mas momavali drois gageba eqneba, misi maxasiaTeblebi daemTxveva mKofadis kavSirebiTisas da, amdenad, calke mwkrivad misi gaazreba arc iqneba SesaZlebeli. ra ganasxvavebs arsebiTad uwKvetels xolmeobiTisagan da awmKos kavSirebiTs mKofadis kavSirebiTisagan? sxvaoba aspeqturia: `awmKos wris mwkrivebi usruli aspeqtisaa, mKofadis wrisa ki _ srulisa~ (a. SaniZe). vwerdi da vwerde usruli aspeqtis formebia, davwerdi da davwerde _ srulisa. vimeorebT, s x v a g a n s x v a v e b a z m n i s w i n i a n da u z m n i s w i n o f o r m a T a S o r i s a r a r i s. analogiuri xasiaTis semantikuri dapirispirebaa meore da mesame seriis zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa Sorisac: usruli aspeqti sruli aspeqti vwere da-vwere vwero da-vwero miweria da-miweria mewera da-mewera meweros da-meweros aSkaraa, rom mwkrivTa gamoKofis principi darGveulia: Tu meore da mesame seriis zmniswiniani da uzmniswino formebi erTi mwkrivisebadaa miCneuli, sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad ar unda CaiTvalos werda da dawerda, werdes da dawerdes; anda piri-

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qiT _ sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad unda miviCnioT meore da mesame seriis zmniswiniani da uzmniswino variantebic (rogorc es gaakeTa d. Kifianma). TiTqosda sxvagvaria viTareba awmKosa da mKofadis SemTxvevaSi. marTalia, zmniswinian da uzmniswino formebs Soris aspeqturi sxvaoba aqac iseTivea, rogorc sxva SemTxvevaSi _ awmKos formebi usruli aspeqtisa, mKofadisa _ srulis (a. SaniZe) _ magram maT Soris drouli mimarTebis sakiTxi dgeba gansxvavebulad. aris Tu ara es sakmarisi awmKosa da mKofadis sxvadasxva mwkrivad miCnevisaTvis? vfiqrobT, ara: awmKo-mKofadis formaTa dapirispirebaSi zmniswins gansakuTrebuli roli aqvs miniyebuli; rogorc iTqva, awmKos safuZvelze ori mwkrivis gamoKofa _ awmKosa da mKofadis _ Sedegia zmniswinis mier drouli dapirispirebis funqciis SeZenisa. zmniswins mwkrivTa mawarmoebladac miiCneven: `zmniswins qarTulSi da, saerTod, qarTvelur enebSi, rogorc cnobilia, ramdenime funqcia akisria: mimarTulebis (gezisa da orientaciis) Cveneba, sruli aspeqtis gamoxatva, mwkrivTa warmoeba da zmnis fuZis mniSvnelobis Secvla~ (z. yumburiZe) (xazi Cvenia _ g. g.). miuxedavad imisa, rom mKofadis wris mwkrivTa gamoKofa samecniero gramatikaSi a. SaniZem daamkvidra, mis naazrevSi zmniswinis funqciad mwkrivTa warmoeba araa miCneuli. a. SaniZe miuTiTebs zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa Soris arsebul droul dapirispirebaze awmKosa da mKofads Soris da amis safuZvelze axdens axali mwkrivis gamoKofas. awmKo-mKofadis analogiiT xdeba mKofadis wris sxva mwkrivTa gamoKofac: `paralelur formaTa gansxvavebuli gamoKenebiT axalma sistemam awmKos Jgufis sami mwkrivisagan warmoqmna sami axali mwkrivi, gansxvavebuli erTimeorisagan, Sesabamisad ara marto aspeqtis mixedviT, aramed droisa da sxva elementebis mixedviTac~ (a. SaniZe). rogorc vxedavT, aspeqtis sistemaSi momxdari cvlilebebi iwvevs zmniswinTa funqciebis zrdas, rac safuZvlad edeba mKofadis wris gamoKofas. avtori Tavs aridebs, miiCnios zmniswini mwkrivis mawarmoeblad. es aris safuZveli imisa, rom mwkrivTa warmoebis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas cal-calke ar ganixilavs awmKosa da mKofadis wris mwkrivTa warmoebas; miuTiTebs kidec: `pirvel

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seriaSi ori wris mwkrivebi Semodis, magram formaTa warmoebis TvalsazrisiT arsebiTad erTi romelime wris mwkrivebia sakmarisi (mag., awmKos wrisa), radgan or wred gaKofa erTi seriisa axali sistemis aspeqtis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT moxda da ganaKof mwkrivebs erTnairi niSnebi aqvT~ (a. SaniZe). amitomac, avtori msJelobs awmKos warmoebaze da gulisxmobs mKofadsac... awmKo-mKofadis mimarTebis sakiTxi rom mxolod zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa mimarTebis garkveviT ar gadawKdeba, es, ra Tqma unda, aSkara da naTelia avtorisaTvis da amitomacaa, rom zmniswins mwkrivis mawarmoeblad ar miiCnevs. a. SaniZe xazgasmiT aGniSnavs: `imdenad mravalferovania warmoqmnis nuansebi zmniswinTa gamoKenebis sakiTxSi, rom SeuZlebelia, specialuri gamokvlevis gareSe, Tundac miaxlovebiT, aGinusxos ZiriTadi xazebi am sakiTxSi~ (a. SaniZe). a. SaniZis moZGvrebis safuZvelze Seqmnil naSromebSi ki sxva avtorebTan zmniswini mwkrivis mawarmoebladaa miCneuli (l. kvayaZe; a. kiziria; z. yumburiZe). IV. 3.11. mKofadis wris gamoKofis istoria da marTebuloba. p a s u x i s g a c e m a s s a y i r o e b s k i T x v e b i: aris ki zmniswini is elementi, romelic SeiZleba miviCnioT awmKomKofadis ganmasxvaveblad? sxvagvarad: awmKo-mKofadis formaTa dapirispireba SeiZleba Tu ara miviCnioT, rogorc dapirispireba sxvadasxva sauGlebeli erTeulebisa? saerTod, ra formobrivi safuZveli gvaqvs awmKosa da mKofadis sxvadasxva sauGlebel erTeulebad miCnevisa? axlandeli da momavali droebis gamoxatva, rac awmKosa da mKofadis mwkrivTa sxvaobis safuZvladaa miCneuli, KovelTvis araa dakavSirebuli zmniswinTan. a) moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa umravlesobaSi awmKosa da mKofadis formebs zmniswini ganasxvavebs: awmKo akeTebs aSenebs xatavs wers mKofadi ga-akeTebs a-aSenebs da-xatavs da-wers da mravali sxva.

SeniSvna: roca mKofadis formebSi zmniswinTa Senacvleba

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drouli mimarTebis TvalsazrisiT arafers Secvlis, magaliTebSi mxolod erT-erT maTgans warmovadgenT, ufro neitralurs, zogadi semantikis gamomxatvels. magram zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa dapirispireba am tipis zmnebSic araa KovelTvis erTgvari. Tu zmniswiniani forma, Cveulebriv, mxolod momaval dros gamoxatavs, uzmniswinos Seswevs unari gamoxatos rogorc axlandeli, aseve momavali dro (a. SaniZe). a. SaniZe am tipis magaliTebad asaxelebs zmnebs: vyam, vwer, vaSeneb, vaswavli... magaliTebis dasaxeleba SeiZleba gagrZeldes. faqtia, amgvari formebi konteqstisda Sesabamisad SeiZleba erT SemTxvevaSi axlandel dros gamoxatavdes, sxva SemTxvevaSi, momavals (zogJer SeiZleba drouli mniSvnelobisagan saerTod daclili iKos). formaTa ganawileba drouli TvalsazrisiT aseTi iqneba: axlandeli vyam momavali vyam _ Se-vyam

zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa dapirispireba momavali drois gamoxatvis SemTxvevaSi aspeqturi iqneba, iseTive, rogoricaa II da III seriaSi: usruli aspeqti _ vyam, sruli aspeqti _ Sevyam.

b) aris erTi nawili gardamavali zmnebisa, romlebic `zmniswinis darTvis unars moklebulia~ da `erTi da imave formiT gadmoscems rogorc axlandel dros, ise momavals. ase magaliTad, adGegrZelebs niSnavs rogorc `sadGegrZelos eubneba~, aseve `sadGegrZelos etKvis~ (z. yumburiZe). am tipis zmnebia: aiZulebs, aniSnebs, agemebs, akurTxebs, amcnobs, amxilebs, anacvalebs da sxva. SeniSvna: mKofadis warmoebis sakiTxebi _ warmoebis saSualebebi _ safuZvlianad aris Seswavlili z. yumburiZis monografiaSi `mKofadi qarTvelur enebSi~. Cveni msJeloba ZiriTadad am naSroms emKare-

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ba. aseTivea viTareba mxolod u- prefiqsiani moqmedebiTi gvaris formebSi: uanderZebs, uboZebs, udepeSebs, uTanagrZnobs, uTvalTvalebs, ukarnaxebs da misTanani (z. yumburiZe). zmniswins ar dairTavs agreTve mozrdili Jgufi moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebisa, romelTa umetesoba nasaxelaria da -eb Temis niSniT aris nawarmoebi... `am tipis zmnaTa saarviso qcevis forma gvxvdeba moqmedebiT gvarSi rogorc axlandelis, ise momavali drois gagebiT: abanakebs, (ar) aboginebs, adardebs, adGegrZelebs, avaxSmebs, aTareSebs, aTevzavebs... da mravali sxva~ (iqve). `axlandeli da momavali drois formebi garCeuli araa uzmniswino zmnaTa SualobiTi kontaqtis formebSic, rogoricaa, magaliTad: agebinebs, akurTxebinebs, azGvevinebs, aceminebs, abanavebinebs, Tavs adebinebs da sxva~ (iqve). g) `aris zmnaTa sakmaod didi Jgufi, romelic moqmedebas upiratesad xangrZlivi procesis saxiT warmogvidgens da usruli aspeqtis formiT ixmareba. aseTi zmnebi mKofadSi ufro xSirad uzmniswinod gvxvdeba, ase rom, awmKosa da mKofadis (usruli aspeqtis) formaTa damTxveva am zmnebSi sistematur xasiaTs atarebs. aseTia, magaliTad: abodebs, aTamaSebs, akvnesebs, akivlebs, akotrialebs... da sxvani~ (iqve). Cven is SemTxvevebi warmovadgineT, roca uzmniswino forma gamoxatavs rogorc axlandeli, aseve momavali drois mniSvnelobas. d) `formiT awmKoa da umTavresad axlandeli drois gagebas atarebs, magram amjamad momavali drois gagebiTac SeiZleba Segvxvdes eniani vnebiTis formebi: ealerseba, earSiKeba, ebaaseba, eduduneba, eTamaSeba... zogi amgvari forma mKofadSi zmniswiniTac SeiZleba warmogvidges, riTac gairCeva mKofadis sruli da usruli aspeqti; magaliTad: ealerseba _ moealerseba, earSiKeba _ gaearSiKeba, ebaaseba _ gamoebaaseba da sxvani~ (iqve). e) aris SemTxvevebi, roca zmniswiniani formebi gamoxatavs rogorc axlandeli, aseve momavali drois mniSvnelobasac. `zmnebi, romlebic awmKoSic zmniswiniania, zmniswins ver icileben im Sinaarsobrivi sxvaobis gamo, rac am zmniswinis meSveobiT aris gamoxatuli... magaliTad: mi-brZandeba, mi-agebs... mo-aswavebs, mouwodebs, mo-ixseniebs... da-edgomeba, da-eJereba, da-iSveba... gadmo-

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hKurebs, gadmo-scems... Se-icavs, Se-exeba...~ (iqve). `gansakuTrebiT xSirad gvxvdeba aseT SemTxvevaSi aG-, aGmoda gan-, gamo- zmniswinebi: aG-aSfoTebs, aG-adgens... aGmo-fxvris, aGmo-acenebs, aGmo-cendeba... gan-agebs, gan-agrZobs, gan-avrcobs... gamo-ricxavs, gamo-saxavs... da sxvani...~ `raki es zmnebi awmKoSiac zmniswiniani arian, awmKosa da mKofads veGar ganasxvaveben da orive mwkrivSi erTi formiT warmogvidgebian... saziaro formaTa Soris gansxvaveba konteqstis meSveobiT mKardeba~ (iqve). v) iseTi SemTxvevebic aris, roca zmnas aqvs rogorc uzmniswino, aseve zmniswiniani formebi, magram drouli mniSvneloba mxolod axlandelisa aqvs; aseTi viTareba, Cveulebriv, saSuali gvaris zmnebTan gvaqvs: rbis _ mirbis qris _ daqris xtis _ daxtis da mravali sxva. z) aris SemTxvevebic, roca zmniswinian Tu uzmniswino formebs mxolod momavali drois gageba aqvs: iTamaSebs _ gaiTamaSebs irbens _ gairbens ifrens _ gaifrens ikiTxavs _ gaikiTxavs da misTanani. es ukanaskneli SemTxvevebi sxva mxrivac aris saintereso: Tu zmniswinian da uzmniswino formebs mxolod awmKo drois gageba aqvT, isini imave fuZisagan mKofads ver iwarmoeben; nasesxebi formebiT ivseben naklul mwkrivebs: rbi-s _ irben-s qri-s _ iqroleb-s xti-s _ ixtuneb-s da, Sesabamisad, Tu zmniswinian an uzmniswino formebs mxolod momavali drois gageba aqvT, awmKoSi sxva fuZisagan warmoebuli formebi enacvlebaT: iTamaSeb-s _ TamaSob-s ifren-s _ fren-s frinav-s ikiTxav-s _ kiTxulob-s...

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es imiTaa saintereso, rom am tipis zmnebSi zmniswinebs drouli gageba ar SeaqvT... T) aris sagangebo SemTxvevebic, roca momavali drois mniSvnelobis mqone uzmniswino formebs zmniswinis darTva axlandeli drois mniSvnelobas aniyebs: momavali dro igijebs _ `gijiviT moiqceva~; axlandeli dro

moigijebs _ `cotaTi gijia, mTlad ykviani ar aris~; izarmacebs _ `zarmacobas da- moizarmacebs _ `zarmacis TviseiwKebs, zarmacobas mohKveba~; bebs iCens, odnav zarmacia~; iTavxedebs _ `Tavxedobas gamo- waiTavxedebs _ `cota ar iKos, iCens, Tavxedurad moiqceva~; Tavxedia~; ikoylebs _ `koylobiT ivlis~; moikoylebs _ `odnav koylia~; iavadmKofebs _ `avad iqneba ga- moiavadmKofebs _ `odnav avad rkveuli drois ganmavloaris~; baSi~; iavadebs _ `igivea, rac iavad- moiavadebs _ `igivea, rac moimKofebs~; avadmKofebs~; isulelebs _ `suleliviT, moisulelebs _ `cota sulesulelurad moiqceva, sisulia, mosuleloa~. leles Caidens~ SeniSvna: ganmartebebi aGebulia `qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonidan~. aseve: ibriKvebs da moibriKvebs iavebs da waiavebs ibeJiTes da waibeJiTebs da misTanani. amgvarad, Cven ganvixileT 8 Jgufi zmnebisa, romlebic axlandeli da momavali droebis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT principul sxvaobas iCenen im tipis zmnebisagan, romlebSic axlandel da momaval droebs zmniswini ganasxvavebs. warmodgenili SemTxvevebis ganxilva aSkarad warmoaCens, rom zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa dapirispireba araa mKari safuZveli awmKosa da mKofadis sxvadasxva mwkrivad gamoKofisaTvis; sxvagvarad: awmKosa da mKofadis mwkrivebze msJelobisas ganzogadeba imisa, rom mKo-

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fadis forma iwarmoeba awmKosagan zmniswinis darTviT, ar Cans gamarTlebuli, radgan suraTi aseTia: uzmniswino formas aqvs: 1. mxolod awmKos gageba 2. awmKosa da mKofadis gageba 3. mxolod mKofadis gageba zmniswinian formas aqvs: 1. mxolod awmKos gageba 2. mxolod mKofadis gageba 3. awmKosa da mKofadis gageba da Tu imasac gavixsenebT, rom dro da kilo ar aris morfologiuri kategoria, Sesabamisad: erTi mwkrivis formaTa meorisagan gansxvavebulad ver miviCnevT e. w. `mwkrivis elementebs~. mwkrivis gansazGvra am elementebis mixedviT ar moxerxdeba _ drois kategoriis safuZvelze awmKosa da mKofadis sxvadasxva mwkrivebad CaTvla gayirdeba. amdenad, formawarmoebis TvalsazrisiT formaTa dapirispireba akeTebs _ gaakeTebs akeTebda _ gaakeTebda a k e T e b d e s _ g a a k e T e b d e s imave rigisaa, rogoric a k e T a _ g a a k e T a da sxva. Kvela SemTxvevaSi gansxvaveba zmniswins emKareba. amitom I seriaSi ori wris gamoKofis sakiTxi martivad ver gadawKdeba: gverds ver avuvliT garegnulad amgvaradve gansxvavebul II da III seriis formebs, aq erTi arsebiTi xasiaTis sakiTxia gadasayreli: ramdenadac mwkrivTa sxvaoba fuZeTa sxvaobazea damKarebuli, zmniswinisa da zmnuri fuZis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxi moiTxovs garkvevas. IV. 3.12. Sedis Tu ara zmniswini mwkrivis fuZeSi? sanam am kiTxvas gavcemT pasuxs, gavixsenoT, ra aris fuZe. zmnuri fuZis ganmartebisas KuradGeba pirisa da ricxvis niSnebzea gamaxvilebuli (`fuZe aris is nawili zmnisa, romelsac CamoSorebuli aqvs pirisa da ricxvis niSnebi~). am ganmartebis Sesabamisad, zmniswini, TavisTavad cxadia, fuZis nawilad gaiazreba. pirveli seriis mwkrivTa analizi mxolod am Tvalsazriss uyers mxars:

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zmniswini aq mwkrivebs ganasxvavebs: akeTebs _ ga-akeTebs akeTebda _ ga-akeTebda akeTebdes _ ga-akeTebdes sxvagvaria viTareba II da III seriis SemTxvevaSi: zmniswinis qona-arqona mwkrivis formaTa ganmasxvavebeli faqtori ar aris; erTi da imave mwkrivis formebia: akeTa akeTos ukeTebia ekeTebina ekeTebinos da da da da da ga-akeTa ga-akeTos ga-ukeTebia ga-ekeTebina ga-ekeTebinos

zmniswini am SemTxvevaSi fuZiseulad aGar gaiazreba: winaaGmdeg SemTxvevaSi akeTa da gaakeTa sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad unda iqnes gagebuli (rogorc akeTebda da gaakeTebda), ramdenadac mwkrivTa Soris sxvaobas fuZeTa sxvaoba qmnis. mokled: zmniswinisa da zmnuri fuZis mimarTebis sakiTxi problemuria da rTuli. garkveuli pasuxi kiTxvaze _ zmniswini Sedis Tu ara zmnur fuZeSi (mwkrivis fuZeSi) _ araa gacemuli. metic, es sakiTxi arcaa dasmuli samecniero literaturaSi. Cveulebriv, zmnur fuZeze msJelobisas uzmniswino formebs ganixilaven. ufro metic, Tuki amis SesaZlebloba arsebobs, uGlebis tipebsa da saxeobebze msJelobisas ZiriTadad uzmniswino formebs warmogvidgenen. aris faqtorebi, romlebic zmniswins fuZiseulad gagvaazrebinebs. Jer erTi: calkeuli Jgufis zmnebi ama Tu im mwkrivis formebSi uzmniswinod ar gvxvdeba. mag.: `uzmniswinod doniani vnebiTi (keTda, Senda, Zlierda...) wKvetilSi SeuZlebelia (arn. Ciqobava); isic cnobilia, rom zmniswini zmnas leqsikur mniSvnelobas ucvlis. garda amisa, iseTi zmnebic gvxvdeba, romlebic uzmniswinod ar ixmareba; gvaqvs: mi-vida, mo-vida... magram calke vida amjamad ar mogvepoveba (a. SaniZe). zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa sxvadasxva saleqsikono erTeulebad miCneva (mag., `qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi~) zmniswinis fuZiseulo-

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bas dauyerda mxars da, rogorc iTqva, awmKos wrisa da mKofadis wris mwkrivTa sxvadasxva sauGlebel erTeulebad warmodgena mxolod am Tvalsazrisze daKrdnobiT SeiZleba; zmnaTa umravlesobaSi awmKosa da mKofadis wris mwkrivTa formebis dapirispireba mxolod zmniswinis saSualebiT xdeba. magram zmniswinis fuZiseulad gaazrebas zmnur formawarmoebaSi ramdenime sirTule axlavs. pirvel rigSi, rogorc iTqva, II da III seriis zmniswiniani da uzmniswino formebi (wera _ dawera, an Cawera...) sxvadasxva sauGlebel erTeulebad unda iqnes gagebuli, rogorc es pirvel seriaSia; anda, sxvadasxva zmnis (wers, dawers, Cawers...) _ erTi da imave mwkrivis formebad. magram amgvarad gadawKveta sakiTxisa winaaGmdegobaSi mova pirveli seriis mwkrivTa gamoKofis principTan. Tu zmniswins fuZiseulad gaviazrebT, imdeni fuZe gveqneba erTi da imave zmnuri Zirisagan warmoebuli, ramdeni zmniswiniani variantic gvaqvs ama Tu im SemTxvevaSi. mag.: dawers, Cawers, miwers, mowers, gawers, aGwers, amowers, gadawers, gamowers, Camowers, gadmowers... dGes miGebuli Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, Kvela es forma erTi da imave wers zmnis mKofadis formebia, zmniswiniT gansxvavebuli. sxvadasxva fuZeze an sxvadasxva zmnaze am SemTxvevaSi Cveulebriv ar saubroben. zogadad mieniSneba, rom forma zmniswiniania da nimuSad romelime maTgans (Cveulebriv neitraluri, zogadi semantikuri mniSvnelobisas) warmoadgenen (mag. wers zmnisaTvis dawers formas). Tu zmniswins fuZiseulad gaviazrebT, imden fuZeze unda vilaparakoT, ramdeni zmniswiniani formac gvaqvs. aris kidev erTi arsebiTi xasiaTis faqtori: a. SaniZe wers _ `zmniswini igivea zmnisaTvis, rac Tandebuli saxelisaTvis. erTic da meorec damoukidebeli sitKva iKo erT dros, magram damoukidebloba dakarges da Seezardnen saxels an zmnas. msgavseba amiT ar amoiwureba. zog SemTxvevaSi erTi da igive `sitKva~ (odesGac damoukidebeli) saxelTan Tandebulad aris gamoKenebuli, zmnasTan ki _ zmniswinad)~. tmesis movlena Zveli qarTulisaTvis am Tvalsazrisis naTeli dadasturebaa. savsebiT gasaziarebelia a. SaniZis daskvna, am movlenis ganxilvis Sedegad gakeTebuli: `rogorc magaliTebidan Cans, zmniswins erTgvari damoukidebloba aqvs, is aucileblad mikruli ar aris zmnaze...

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didi ar aris es damoukidebloba, magram mainc gviCvenebs im gzas, romelic zmniswins gauvlia sruli damoukideblobidan srul daqvemdebarebamde da morfemad qcevamde. dGes tmesisa Soreuli mogonebaGa gvaqvs, ramdenadac zmna da zmniswini mainc iKofa pirisa, qcevisa da gvaris niSnebad an mimGeobaTa afiqsebad~. zmnuri formawarmoebis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas Cven am ukanasknel Tvalsazriss daveKrdnobiT; `z m n i s w i n i igivea z m n i s a T v i s, r a c T a n d e b u l i s a x e l i s a T v i s~. es Tvalsazrisi zmniswins fuZiseulad ar gagvaazrebinebs. marTalia, amgvari msJelobis safuZvelze zmniswinis arafuZiseulad miCneva erTgvarad pirobiTia, magram zmnur formaTa warmoebis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas am pirobiTobas aqvs safuZveli: mwkrivis fuZeTa warmoeba araa myidro kavSirSi zmniswinTan; sxvadasxva zmniswinTa monacvleoba erTi da imave mwkrivis formasTan aseve ar qmnis problemas formawarmoebis TvalsazrisiT. Kvela mwkrivis formaTa gaTvaliswinebiT SesaZlebelia zmniswinTa funqciebis ganzogadeba; fuZis semantikidan gamomdinare, zmniswini an mimarTulebas aGniSnavs, an aspeqtur dapirispirebas axdens, an leqsikur mniSvnelobas ucvlis zmnas (awmKo-mKofadis dapirispirebis SemTxvevaSic). ganzogadeba ar moxerxdeba, roca zmniswini droul mimarTebas cvlis, Tumca am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSic ki mxolod drouli mniSvnelobiT dapirispirebas arasodes ar axdens: sxva funqciebic ar gamoiricxeba zmniswinisa. SeniSvna: rogorc iTqva, zmniswinis funqciis ganzogadeba pirvelad d. Kifianma moaxdina. Sedegad gamartivda uGlebis sistema da analizic gaiolda. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, zmniswini polisemantikuri monacemia _ erTsa da imave dros ramdenime mniSvnelobis Semcveli. romelime konkretul zmnur fuZesTan ra mniSvnelobac aqvs mas erT SemTxvevaSi, igive mniSvneloba eqneba amave zmnis sxva mwkrivis formebTan. sxvaobas rig SemTxvevaSi awmKo qmnis (drois faqtori Semodis aq), magram es ar aris zogadi kanonzomiereba awmKo-mKofadis dapirispirebisa da, Sesabamisad, safuZveli imisa, rom awmKo da misgan nawarmoebi mwkrivebi ganvasxvavoT mKofadisa

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da misgan nawarmoebi mwkrivebisagan. amgvarma gadawKvetam gaabundovna zmnur formaTa warmoebis sakiTxi: erTgvari warmoebis SemTxvevebi sxvadasxva mwkrivad iqna aGqmuli: awmKo i-keT-eb-s u-TvalTval-eb-s da-frin-av-s da da da mKofadi i-mef-eb-s u-patron-eb-s da-xat-av-s

ra Tqma unda, es sirTule awmKo-mKofadis dapirispirebaSi SemCneuli iKo. a. SaniZe sakiTxs ase svams: `Tu warmoebas mivaqcevT KuradGebas, isini Kvela awmKos formebia, magram mniSvnelobiT uTuod mKofadis wris zmnebTan erTad arian. awmKoSi maT sxva zmnebi enacvlebian... da, amis mixedviT maT mKofadSi aqvT mopovebuli adgili: `vnaxav~ mKofadis formaa, `vnaKav~ ki _ awmKosi, miuxedavad imisa, rom erTgvarad nawarmoebi formebia~. am SemTxvevaSi, Tu formas orive drois gageba SeiZleba hqondes, zmniswinianebi mKofadSi unda movaTavsoT (mag.: gansazGvravs, aGniSnavs...), xolo uzmniswinoebi _ awmKoSi (mag.: adGegrZelebs, avaxSmebs...) (iqve). gamodis, rom Tu forma polisemiuria dros TvalsazrisiT, angariSs vuwevT mxolod formas da ugulebelvKofT awmKo-mKofadis dapirispirebis semantikur safuZvels; xolo Tu forma araa polisemiuri drois mixedviT, angariSs vuwevT semantikas da ugulebelKofili rCeba awmKo-mKofadis dapirispirebis formobrivi safuZveli. e. i. Tavs iCens winaaGmdegoba. Tu erTsa da imave formas drouli mniSvnelobis sxvaobis mixedviT sxvadasxva mwkrivad miviCnevT awmKosa da mKofadSi, am principiT brZanebiTis mwkrivis gamoKofac iqneboda SesaZlebeli axal qarTulSi; miT umetes, rom am SemTxvevaSi semantikuri sxvaoba ufro mkveTria (kilos mixedviTac gansxvavdeba); vidre awmKo-mKofadis SemTxvevaSi (aq mxolod dro qmnis sxvaobas); magram sruliad samarTlianad `gaakeTe~ da `gaakeTe!~ sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebad ar miiCneva. es faqtic unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli awmKo-mKofadis mwkrivTa sakiTxis gadawKvetisas. rogorc vxedavT, awmKosa da mKofadis damoukidebel mwkrivebad gamoKofis sakiTxi seriozul sirTuleebs awKdeba. upirveles Kovlisa, irGveva zogadi principi. xolo xolmeobiTisa da

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mKofadis kavSirebiTis damoukidebel mwkrivebad miCneva ara marto arGvevs am princips, aramed arsebiTad ewinaaGmdegeba mas. Tu awmKo-mKofadis SemTxvevaSi zogJer SeiZleba semantikuri momenti (drouli dapirispireba) mogveSveliebina, mKofadis wris sxva mwkrivTa SemTxvevaSi esec gamoiricxeba. vimeorebT: mKofadis wris gamoKofis gamarTleba zmniswins fuZiseulad gagvaazrebinebs. maSin, aseve unda gadawKdes II da III seriebis mwkrivTa fuZis sakiTxic _ zmniswins aqac unda gaewios angariSi; amgvari daSvebis SemTxvevaSi aspeqti gamova is semantikuri maxasiaTebeli, romlis mixedviTac zmniswinian da uzmniswino formebs sxvadasxva mwkrivad CavTvlidiT, ase ki sakiTxi Jer ar dasmula da, albaT, arc unda daisvas. rogorc aGiniSna, angariSgasawevia da gasaziarebeli d. Kifianiseuli gadawKveta sakiTxisa: `aucilebelia, unda Semokldes rogorme es uGvlileba... gana ar SeiZleba, erTxel iTqvas da amiT gaTavdes, rom zmnas saxe sruli KovelTvis maSin miecema, rodesac Tavs prefiqsad erTerTi mimZGoli Tandebuli miuJdebao~ (d. Kifiani). am Tvalsazriss isic dauyers mxars, rom, Cveni azriT, dro da kilo, iseve rogorc Tanamdevroba, gezi da orientacia, araa morfologiuri kategoriebi da mxolod drouli da kilouri mniSvnelobebis mixedviT gansxvavebuli formebi damoukidebel mwkrivebad ar unda CaiTvalos. amgvarad, zmnis fuZis ganmartebisas CvenTvis ZalaSi rCeba tradiciuli Tvalsazrisi Semdegi dazustebiT: mwkrivis fuZe aris is nawili zmnisa, romelsac CamoSorebuli aqvs zmniswini, pirisa da ricxvis niSnebi. ramdenadac mwkrivTa gamoKofa da daJgufeba sawarmoebeli fuZis princips emKareba, imden mwkrivze unda visaubroT, ramdeni gansxvavebuli fuZec arsebobs. mwkrivis fuZis amgvari gagebis safuZvelze uGlebis sistema unda gaimarTos im principze, ra principiTac aris warmodgenili II da III seriaSi. es Tvalsazrisi I seriaSi sami mwkrivis gamoKofas varaudobs. amisdakvalad, axal qarTulSi zmnuri formebi daJgufdeba sam seriad da 8 mwkrivad. I seria 1-li mwkrivi (awmKo-mKofadi) _ (z m n i s w.)- a k e T e b s me-2 mwkrivi (uwKveteli-xolmeobiTi) _ (z m n i s w.)- a k e T e b d a

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me-3 mwkrivi (I kavSirebiTi) _ (z m n i s w.)- a k e T e b d e s II seria me-4 mwkrivi (wKvetili) _ (z m n i s w.)- a k e T a me-5 mwkrivi (II kavSirebiTi) _ (z m n i s w.)- a k e T o s III seria me-6 mwkrivi (I TurmeobiTi) _ (z m n i s w.)- u k e T e b i a me-7 mwkrivi (II TurmeobiTi) _ (z m n i s w.)- e k e T e b i n a me-8 mwkrivi (III kavSirebiTi) _ (z m n i s w.)- e k e T e b i n o s SeniSvna: 1. ramdenadac erTsa da imave zmnasTan SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva zmniswinTa monacvleoba, vamJobinebT, pirobiTad mivaniSnoT maTze. 2. terminTa pirobiTobis Taobaze zemoTac iTqva. I seriaSic amJerad tradiciuli terminebis datovebas vamJobinebT. garkveul uxerxulobas SeiZleba qmnides pirveli da meore mwkrivis saxelebi (awmKo-mKofadi, uwKvetel-xolmeobiTi), magram axali qarTulisaTvis msJelobis gasaadvileblad es pirobiTobac dasaSvebad migvaCnia. gansaxilvel problemebTan dakavSirebT saintereso da angariSgasawevia `qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis~ Cveneba. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis komisiam tradiciisagan gansxvavebiT zmnis piriani forma miiCnia ZiriTad saleqsikono erTeulad. upiratesoba mieniya awmKos mesame piris formas: `zmnis leqsikur erTeulad komisiam miiGo awmKos (mKofadis) mesame piri Kvela im warmoebisa, rac zeviT aGvniSneT: Tesavs, iTesavs, uTesavs, aTesvinebs, eTeseba, iTeseba, Tesia, uTesia (TiToeuli maTgani droebs awarmoebs: Tesavda, Tesavdes, Tesa, Tesos, uTesavs, eTeseba, eTesos, magram eseni leqsikur erTeulebad ar miiCneva da leqsikonSi ar Sedis~. isic gavixsenoT, `rac zeviT aGvniSneT~: `zmnis eqspresiuli Zala didia. zmnas SeuZlia, warmogvidginos moqmedeba: rogorc p a s i u r i procesi da rogorc subieqtis a q t i u r o b i s gamovlena: iTeseba da Tesavs; rogorc subieqtisTvis gankuTvnili da rogorc saobieqto (masTan _ aqtiuri, pasiuri): iTesavs, uTesavs, eTeseba; ro-

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gorc subieqtis namoqmedari da rogorc lebuli: Tesavs da aTesvinebs; rogorc tikurs KofaSi: Tesia (e. i. daTesilia; uTesia), da rogorc procesi, dinamika: da sxv.~ (iqve).

sxvisi meSveobiT Sesrum d g o m a r e o b a, stakuTvnilebis aGniSvniT: Tesavs, iTeseba, iTesavs

rogorc vxedavT, gansxvavebul saleqsikono erTeulebadaa miCneuli sxvadasxva gvaris (aqtiuri Tu pasiuri), sxvadasxva qcevis, kauzatiuri Tu arakauzatiuri, statikuri Tu dinamikuri zmnebis awmKos mwkrivis III piris formebi: Tesavs iTesavs uTesavs aTesvinebs iTeseba eTeseba Tesia uTesia xazgasmiTaa aGniSnuli, rom `TiToeuli maTgani droebs iwarmoebs~, e. i. sxvadasxva mwkrivis forma moepoveba. e. i. saleqsikono formaa: T e s a v s misgan nawaremoebi droebia: Tesavda Tesavdes Tesa Tesos uTesia eTesa eTesos rva mwkrivis (drois) formaa warmodgenili: awmKo, uwKveteli, I kavSirebiTi, wKvetili, II kavSirebiTi, I TurmeobiTi, II TurmeobiTi da III kavSirebiTi. qegl-is winasitKvaobaSi araferia Tqmuli e. w. mKofadis wris mwkrivTa formebis Sesaxeb. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, awmKosa da mKofadis erT mwkrivad warmodgenas mxars dauyers qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis monacemebi; principi awmKosa da mKofadis cal-calke mwkrivis formebad gaazrebisa gaumarTlebeli Cans.

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S e v n i S n a v T: mwkrivTa raodenobis sakiTxi mxolod formobrivi principis mixedviT ar gairkveva. gvaqvs paraleluri warmoebis SemTxvevebic: i-Tq-m-i-s Se-v-i-pKar da-v-a-mKn-a da-u-xat-av-s ga-e-keT-a da da da da da i-Tqm-eb-a Se-v-i-pKr-e da-v-a-mKn-o da-u-xat-i-a ga-e-keT-eb-in-a da misTanani.

mxolod fuZeTa sxvaobis principi Tu daedeba safuZvlad sauGlebel erTeulTa gamoKofas, warmodgenil wKvilTa Semadgeneli calebi sxvadasxva fuZis Semcvelni arian; Sesabamisad sxvadasxva mwkrivad unda iqnes gagebuli. sakiTxis amgvarad dasma, TavisTavad cxadia, umarTebuloa imdenad, ramdenadac warmodgenil paralelur formebs erTsa da imave konteqstSi erTi da igive mniSvneloba aqvs. mag.: mxatvars suraTi dauxatavs; mxatvars suraTi dauxatia.

anda: KvelasTan Kvelaferi ar iTqmis; KvelasTan Kvelaferi ar iTqmeba. amgvarad, erTi da imave zmnis sxvadasxva fuZis mqone formebi sxvadasxva mwkrivad CaiTvleba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu nebismier konteqstSi maTi Canacvleba SesaZlebelia; sxvagvarad: erTsa da imave konteqstSi gansxvavebuli fuZis mqone formaTa semantika identuria. am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs mwkrivis formaTa warmoebis TaviseburebebTan, rac calke kvlevis sagania.

IV. 3.13. uGlebis nimuSi axali qarTulisaTvis I seria 1. awmKo (mKofadi)

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(da)-v-wer (da)-wer (da)-wer-s 2. uwKveteli (xolmeobiTi) (da)-v-wer-d-i (da)-wer-d-i (da)-wer-d-a 3. I kavSirebiTi (da)-v-wer-d-e (da)-wer-d-e (da)-wer-d-e-s II seria 4. wKvetili (da)-v-wer-e (da)-wer-e (da)-wer-a II kavSirebiTi (da)-v-wer-o (da)-wer-o (da)-wer-o-s III seria 6. I TurmeobTi (da)-m-i-wer-i-a (da)-g-i-wer-i-a (da)-u-wer-i-a II TurmeobiTi da-m-e-wer-a

(da)-v-wer-T (da)-wer-T (da)-wer-en

(da)-v-wer-d-i-T (da)-wer-d-i-T (da)-wer-d-nen

(da)-v-wer-d-e-T (da)-wer-d-e-T (da)-wer-d-nen

(da)-v-wer-e-T (da)-wer-e-T (da)-wer-es

5.

(da)-v-wer-o-T (da)-wer-o-T (da)-wer-o-n

(da)-gv-i-wer-i-a (da)-g-i-wer-i-a-T (da)-u-wer-i-a-T

7.

da-gv-e-wer-a

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8.

da-g-e-wer-a da-e-wer-a III kavSirebiTi da-m-e-wer-o-s da-g-e-wer-o-s da-e-wer-o-s

ga-g-e-wer-a-T da-e-wer-a-T

da-gv-e-wer-o-s da-g-e-wer-o-T da-e-wer-o-T

IV. 3.14. mwkrivTa daJgufebisa da Tanamimdevrobis sakiTxisaTvis. iTqva, rom mwkrivebi sawarmoebeli fuZis mixedviTaa daJgufebuli. Tu pirveli da meore seriis gamoKofa davas ar iwvevs, amas ver vitKviT mesame seriis mimarT. `TurmeobiTis Jgufs ar moepoveba saerTo fuZe, amosavlad rom gvqondes warmoebisas, amiT gansxvavdeba TurmeobiTis Jgufi awmKos da namKo ZiriTadis (n. maris mixedviT: aoristis) Jgufisagan: awmKos Jgufi awmKos fuZezea damKarebuli, namKo ZiriTadisa _ namKo ZiriTadis fuZeze. Tu mesame Jgufi (TurmeobiTis Jgufi) mainc gaerTianda, es imitom, rom am JgufSi Semavali droebi `erTi da imave wesiT iwarmoeba. marTlac, am JgufSi inversiuli wKoba gvaqvs maSin, rodesac awmKosa da namKo ZiriTadis JgufebSi wKoba pirdapiria...~ pirvel da meore JgufSi `warmoebaa amosavali, mesame Jgufi sxva princips daemKara~ (arn. Ciqobava). is, rac mesame Jgufis Taobaze iTqva, zustia da gamarTlebuli Zveli saliteraturo qarTulisaTvis. mesame Jgufis mwkrivTa warmoebaSi arsebiTi xasiaTis cvlilebebi ganxorcielda da, Cveni azriT, am cvlilebebma saintereso saxe miiGo. amis Taobaze mesame seriis mwkrivTa warmoebisas visaubrebT. Tumca mesame seria axal qarTulSic ZiriTadad ar eTanxmeba mwkrivTa daJgufebis im princips, romelic I da II seriaSi gatarda. rogorc iTqva, I da II seriaSi mkacrad gatarebuli sauGlebeli fuZis principi III seriaSi sxva saxes iGebs. dairGva klasifikaciis erTiani principi. klasifikaciis erTiani principis gatarebis cdam mwkrivTa or Jgufad dalagebis sakiTxi dasva (arn. Ciqobava). Tumca, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es cda warumatebeli aGmoCnda. roca am sakiTxze vsaubrobdiT, kiTxva davsviT: aris ki SesaZlebeli saklasifikacio niSnad sawarmoebeli fuZis principis bolomde gatareba, e. i. mwkrivTa or seriad daJgufeba? ukve, roca gamoikveTa Cveni Tval-

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sazrisi mwkrivis raobisa da mwkrivTa raodenobis Sesaxeb, vfiqrobT, SesaZlebelia am sakiTxze msJelobac. sawarmoebeli fuZis principi gulisxmobs imis garkvevas, warmoebis TvalsazrisiT rogor miemarTeba erTi romelime mwkrivis saKrdeni fuZe meores. gavixsenoT: fuZeTa Senebis or princips gamoKofen _ xazovani principi da Canacvlebis principi. mwkrivTa warmoebaSi xazovani principis magaliTad SeiZleba CaiTvalos awmKo-mKofadisa da uwKvetel-xolmeobiTis mimarTeba: akeTeb akeTeb-d. e. i. xazovania mimarTeba, roca erTi fuZe srulad meordeba meoreSi. Canacvlebis principiT miemarTeba erTmaneTs fuZeebi, Tu maT saerTo saKrdeni fuZe aqvT: akeT-e / akeT-o (b. JorbenaZe). fuZeTa warmoebis am ori principis safuZvelze aris faqtobriv daJgufebuli I da II seriebSi mwkrivebi. Tavad seriebs saerTo fuZe moepovebaT (igive Tema). sworia msJeloba, rom `awmKos Jgufi awmKos fuZezea damKarebuli, namKo ZiriTadisa _ namKo ZiriTadis fuZeze~, magram zogi ram mainc dazustebas moiTxovs: kerZod, rogorc iTqva, unda gairCes mwkrivis fuZe da mwkrivis saKrdeni fuZe. awmKo-mKofadis fuZe vnebiTi gvaris zmnebSi -i elementian formebs varaudobs: v-Tbeb-i, v-berdeb-i, v-izrdeb-i... mwkrivis fuZis kuTvnileba -i elementi mwkrivis mawarmoeblad gaiazreba imitom, rom I seriis sxva mwkrivebSi igi ar gadahKveba. v-Tb-eb-i v-izrdeb-i v-Tb-eb-od-i v-izrdeb-od-i v-Tb-eb-od-e v-izrdeb-od-e I seriis meore da mesame mwkrivSi figurirebs awmKo-mKofadis saKrdeni fuZe _ Tb-eb. awmKo-mKofadis mwkrivis fuZe ki aris Tb-eb-i. ase rom, roca mwkrivTa fuZeebis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxs vsvamT, unda daisvas mwkrivis saKrden fuZeTa urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxi da ara mwkrivis fuZeTa mimarTebis sakiTxi. * * *

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I seriaSi uwKvetel-xolmeobiTisa da I kavSirebiTis saKrden fuZeTa Soris sxvaoba ar aris. es ori mwkrivi erTsa da imave saKrden fuZes gamoiKenebs. sxvaobas maT Soris mwkrivis mawarmoeblebi qmnis. anu am or mwkrivs saerTo aqvT mwkrivis saKrdeni fuZe; gansxvavebuli _ mwkrivis fuZe. saKrdeni fuZe iqneba akeTeb-d; mwkrivTa fuZeebi a-keT-eb-d-i, a-keT-eb-d-e. amgvarad, mimarTeba awmKo-mKofadisa uwKvetel-xolmeobiTTan da I kavSirebiTTan xazovan principzea damKarebuli, xolo wKvetilis II xolmeobiTsa da III kavSirebiTs Soris _ Canacvlebis principze: akeT-eb-d-i _ uwKv.-xolm. awmK.-mKof. _ akeT-eb akeT-eb-d akeT-eb-d-e _ I kavS. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba visaubroT `awmKosagan nawarmoeb namKo usrulze~, magram ar SeiZleba visaubroT `namKo usrulisagan nawarmoeb kavSirebiT pirvelze~ (Sdr.: arn. Ciqobava). anu: I kavSirebiTic iseve iwarmoeba awmKosagan, rogorc uwKvetel-xolmeobiTi: akeT-eb-d-i _ uwKvetel-xolm. awmK.-mKof. _ akeT-eb akeT-eb-d-e _ I kavSirebiTi SeniSvna: uwKvetel-xolmeobiTis i elementis istoriis gaTvaliswineba sakiTxs sxvagvarad ar dagvasmevinebs. -i-s gareSe axal qarTulSi am mwkrivis forma ar gvxvdeba, amitomacaa, rom igi mwkrivis mawarmoeblad kvalificirdeba (a. SaniZe). am mwkrivTa (uwKvetlisa da I kavSirebiTis) mimarTebis sakiTxi aseve daismis Zvel qarTulSic. Tu -d formantian zmnebSi iqmneba STabeydileba, rom akeTebd da akeTebde formebi erTmaneTs xazovani principiT miemarTebian, sxvagvaria viTareba -od formantian zmnebTan: aq mimarTeba Canacvlebis princips emKareba: uwKveteli _ tir-od-e I kavSirebiTi _ tir-od-i es faqti -d sufiqsian formebSi nulovani warmoebis sakiTxs dagvasmevinebs:

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uwKveteli _ a-keT-eb-d-0/ i I kavSirebiTi _ a-keT-eb-d-e am SemTxvevaSic Canacvlebis principze unda visaubroT. II seriis mwkrivebi _ wKvetili da II kavSirebiTi _ erTmaneTs Canacvlebis principiT miemarTebian. saKrdeni fuZe saerToa: wKvetili _ a-keT-e II kavSirebiTi _ a-keT-o amgvarad, I da II seriaSi sami saKrdeni fuZe gamoiKo: akeT _ akeT-eb _ akeT-eb-d, romlebic erTmaneTs xazovani principiT miemarTeba. pirveli maTgani saKrdenia meore seriis mwkrivebisaTvis: akeT-e _ wKvetili akeT akeT-o _ II kavSirebiTi II saKrdeni fuZisagan awmKos mwkrivis fuZe iwarmoeba: akeT-eb _ akeT-eb-0 III saKrdeni fuZisagan _ uwKvetel-xolmeobiTi da I kavSirebiTi. akeT-eb-d-i _ wKvetili akeT-eb-d akeT-eb-d-e _ II kavSirebiTi I-II seriis mwkrivebis daJgufeba saKrdeni fuZis urTierTmimarTebis mixedviT aseT suraTs mogvcems: wKvetili _ akeT-e II kavSirebiTi _ akeT-o

saKrdeni fuZe akeT

awmKo-mKofadi _ akeT-eb-0 _ saKrdeni fuZe akeT-eb uwKvetel-xolmeobiTi _ akeT-eb-d-i saKrdeni fuZe akeT-eb-d I kavSirebiTi _ akeT-eb-d-e

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Tu zedmiwevniT Tanmimdevrulni viqnebiT sawarmoebeli fuZis principis bolomde gatarebaSi, mwkrivebi zemowarmodgenili TanmimdevrobiT unda dalagdes. meore seriad miCneuli mwkrivebis saKrdeni fuZe SedarebiT martivia. I seriis mwkrivTa saKrdeni fuZe rTulia, martivisagan warmoebuli. faqti cnobilia, magram sistemis gadaJgufebis sakiTxi ar dasmula. aq, albaT, tradicias gaewia angariSi. da meorec, rogorc Cans, droul semantikas eweoda angariSi, roca uGlebis erTeulTa dasaxelebas awmKo drois gamomxatveli mwkriviT iwKebdnen... samecniero gramatikaSi am tradiciis darGvevis cdaa a. SaniZis mier adreul naSromSi sauGlebel erTeulTa pirvel (A) Jgufad `namKo srulis Jgufis~ miCneva, xolo meore Jgufad (B) _ `awmKos Jgufis~ warmodgena (a. SaniZe). miGebuli Tanamimdevrobis Secvlis sxva cda ar Kofila. am SemTxvevaSi tradicias angariSi unda gaewios. kidev: rogori unda iKos urTierTCanacvlebul fuZeTa Tanmimdevroba? rogorc iTqva, wKvetili da II kavSirebiTi warmoebis mixedviT araa erTimeoreze damokidebuli mwkrivebi. Tanmimdevrobis Secvla sawarmoebeli fuZis princips ar daarGvevda, magram tradiciul Tanmimdevrobas formobrivi gamarTlebac aqvs: reducirebadi xmovnis Semcvel fuZeebSi wKvetili amosavali xmovniani variantiTaa warmodgenili, II kavSirebiTi _ reducirebuliT: v-kal-i kal v-kl-a amosavali varianti, bunebrivia, win uswrebdes mis meoreul, fonetikur variants. Tumca sagulvebelia, rom tradiciuli TanmimdevrobisaTvis semantikuri momentia amosavali. urTierTCanacvlebul fuZeTagan, orive SemTxvevaSi, erTi upiratesad TxrobiTi kilos gamomxatvelia, meore _ kavSirebiTisa. Tanmimdevrobis sakiTxic, rogorc Cans, am faqtma gadawKvita. gavixsenoT: praqtikuli gramatikebidan moKolebuli (da ara mxolod qarTulSi) Kvela SemTxvevaSi Jer TxrobiTi kilos gamomxatveli formebi ganixileboda, Semdeg _ kavSirebiTisa da a. S.

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rogoria III seriis mwkrivis formaTa fuZis struqtura da aris Tu ara SesaZlebeli sawarmoebeli fuZis mixedviT maTi I an II seriaSi CarTva? SeniSvna: III seriaSi momxdar formobriv cvlilebebs calke Tavi daeTmoba am wignSi. es sakiTxebic iq ufro dawvrilebiT iqneba ganxiluli... rogorc iTqva, `TurmeobiTis Jgufs ar moepoveba saerTo fuZe~ (arn. Ciqobava). msJeloba ar iTvaliswinebs erTpirian gardauval zmnaTa SemTxvevas. es erTaderTi gamonaklisia, roca III seriis samive mwkrivis warmoeba erTgvarovan principzea damKarebuli: I TurmeobiTi II TurmeobiTi III kavSirebiTi _ _ _ gamTbar-xar, gamTbar-iKavi, gamTbar-iKo, gazrdil-xar gazrdil-iKavi gazrdil-iKo

formawarmoebis TvalsazrisiT III seriis mwkrivTa calke Jgufad gamoKofas mxolod am tipis zmnaTa warmoeba dauyerda mxars... magram es sagangebo SemTxvevaa _ aGweriTi warmoeba mimGeobur formaTa gamoKenebiT. es principulad ganasxvavebs am tipis formebs statikur zmnaTa awmKosa da gardamaval zmnaTa pirveli TurmeobiTis warmoebisagan, romlebSic aGweriTi warmoeba zmnur fuZezea damKarebuli: v-zi-var, v-tiri-var (Sdr.: vzi, v-tiri...)... da-uxatav-xar, a-uSeneb-i-xar... sagulisxmoa isic, rom am SemTxvevaSi aGweriTi warmoeba I-II subieqturi piris formebTan gvaqvs; III subieqtur pirSi organuli warmoebaa: zi-s, tiri-s... dauxatavs, auSenebi-a... TviTon is faqtic, rom mesame seriis mwkrivTa warmoebaSi aseTi principuli sxvaobaa, mas gancalkevebiT daaKenebs. Kovel SemTxvevaSi, gamTbarxar tipis zmnaTa I an II seriaSi gadanawilebis sakiTxi ar SeiZleba dadges. Kvela sxva tipis zmnasTan I TurmeobiTis warmoeba sxvaobs II TurmeobiTisa da III kavSirebiTis warmoebisagan. es sxvaoba principuli xasiaTisaa. pirvel Kovlisa, KuradGeba gvinda mivaqcioT xmovanprefiqsTa sakiTxs. mwkrivis fuZis ganmarteba xmovanprefiqss fuZiseul

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elementad warmogvidgens (gavixsenoT: mwkrivis fuZe aris is nawili zmnisa, romelsac CamoSorebuli aqvs zmniswini, pirisa da ricxvis niSnebi), I da II seriis mwkrivTa paradigmebSi xmovanprefiqsi ucvalebeli elementia (vsaubrobT moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebze, prefiqsian vnebiTebsa da orpirian sufiqsian vnebiTebze):
-xatavs, a-keTebs, i-keTebs, u-keTebs, e-zrdeba, -xatavda, a-keTebda, i-keTebda, u-keTebda, e-zrdeboda, -xatavdes, a-keTebdes, i-keTebdes, u-keTebdes, e-zrdebodes, -xata, a-keTa, i-keTa, u-keTa, e-zarda, -xatos a-keTos i-keTos u-keTos e-zardos...

III seria sxvaobs I-II seriisagan xmovanprefiqsTa TvalsazrisiT: gardamaval zmnaTa I TurmeobiTSi I da II seriaSi gamoKenebuli , a, i, u xmovanprefiqsTa monacvled saobieqto qcevis u(/ i) prefiqsi gvevlineba: _ da-u-xatavs -xatavs _ ga-u-keTebia a-keTebs _ ga-u-keTebia i-keTebs _ ga-u-keTebia u-keTebs damTxveva xdeba mxolod saobieqto qcevis SemTxvevaSi. amave tipis zmnebTan sruliad gansxvavebul viTarebas gviCvenebs II TurmeobiTi da III kavSirebiTi: Kvela SemTxvevaSi xmovanprefiqsTa monacvled e- gvevlineba.
-xatavs a-keTebs i-keTebs u-keTebs

_ _ _ _

da-e-xata, ga-e-keTebina, ga-e-keTebina, ga-e-keTebina,

da-e-xatos ga-e-keTebinos ga-e-keTebinos ga-e-keTebinos

xmovanprefiqsTa TvalsazrisiT erTferovania viTareba gardamaval zmnaTa I TurmeobiTSi, gansxvavebuli I-II seriisagan; aseve: erTferovania viTareba II TurmeobiTsa da III kavSirebiTSi, gansxvavebuli, erTi mxriv, I-II seriisagan da, meore mxriv, I Tur-

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meobiTisagan. Tu fuZis warmodgenil ganmartebas gaviziarebT, sawarmoebeli fuZis principis mixedviT III seriis formebi gansaxilvel zmnaTa I da II seriaSi ver gadanawildeba. winaaGmdeg SemTxvevaSi sayiro gaxdeba fuZis ganmartebis Secvla _ xmovanprefiqsTa ugulebelKofa. sakiTxi aseve dadgeba e- prefiqsian zmnaTa mimarTac: zmnebi, romelTac I-II seriaSi e- prefiqsi aqvT, III seriaSi Cveulebriv xmovanprefiqsis gareSea warmodgenili: e-zrdeba _ ga-zrdia _ ga-zrdoda _ ga-zrdodes III seria am SemTxvevaSi erTgvar viTarebas gviCvenebs da gansxvavdeba principulad I-II seriisagan. i- prefiqsian erTpirian zmnebSic viTareba analogiuria: III seriaSi aGweriTi warmoeba gvaqvs da xmovanprefiqsis sakiTxi ar dgas: i-Sleba _ ga-Slil-a ga-Slil-iKo ga-Slil-iKos xmovanprefiqsTa viTarebis gaTvaliswineba mxars dauyers III seriis mwkrivTa calke Jgufad gamoKofas. es iTqmis, pirvel Kovlisa, Kvela tipis vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa Sesaxeb. rogorc iTqva, gardamavali zmnebi am niSnis mixedviT ver gaerTiandeba I an II seriasTan, Tumca maTi erT Jgufad gaerTianebac ar iqneba gamarTlebuli: I TurmeobiTi sxvaobs danarCeni mwkrivebisagan (SevniSnavT imasac, rom a. SaniZe xmovanprefiqss TemaSi ar ganixilavs...). viTarebas ar gaamartivebs xmovanprefiqsTa monacemebis gauTvaliswineblobac. erTpiriani vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa III seriis formebis Sesaxeb ukve iTqva. es Jgufi gancalkevebiT dgas. iseve rogorc xmovanprefiqsebis SemTxvevaSi, fuZis struqturis TvalsazrisiTac Kvela SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxvagvar viTarebas gviCvenebs, erTi mxriv, I TurmeobiTi, xolo, meore mxriv, II TurmeobiTi da III kavSirebiTi. am SemTxvevaSic erTgvaria viTareba am ori mwkrivis warmoebisa. Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviGebT xmovanprefiqsebs, I TurmeobiTis fuZis struqtura erT SemTxvevaSi emTxveva awmKo-mKofadis

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fuZis struqturas; awmKo-mKofadis saKrdeni fuZea gamoKenebuli saKrdenad I TurmeobiTisaTvisac. amgvar viTarebas gviCvenebs erTi nawili gardamavali zmnebisa: awmKo _ xat-av-s dg-am-s a-keT-eb-s drek-s I TurmeobiTi _ da-u-xat-av-s da-u-dg-am-s ga-u-keT-eb-i-a mo-u-drek-i-a

erTi Jgufis gardamaval zmnaTa I TurmeobiTi saKrdenad II seriis fuZes iKenebs: wKvetili _ a-q-o ga-a-Tb-o I TurmeobiTi _ u-q-i-a (Sdr. awmKo _ a-q-e-b-s) ga-u-Tb-i-a (Sdr. awmKo _ a-Tb-ob-s)

Taviseburia viTareba gardauvali orpiriani zmnebisa: I TurmeobiTis saKrdeni fuZe ar emTxveva arc I da arc II seriis fuZeebs: awmKo-mKofadi wKvetili I TurmeobiTi _ _ _ u-keT-d-eb-a ga-u-keT-d-a ga-h-keT-eb-i-a e-zrd-eb-a ga-e-zard-a ga-zrd-i-a u-dn-eb-a ga-u-dn-a ga-s-dn-ob-ia

amgvarad, relatiur gardamaval da gardauval zmnaTa I TurmeobiTi erT SemTxvevaSi I seriis fuZes daemKareba, meore SemTxvevaSi _ II seriis fuZes, xolo mesame SemTxvevaSi gancalkevebiT dadgeba. Tu xmovanprefiqsTa monacemsac gaviTvaliswinebT, SeuZlebeli aGmoCndeba I TurmeobiTis I an II seriis mwkrivebTan gaerTianeba sawarmoebeli fuZis mixedviT. aseTive daskvna gakeTdeba II TurmeobiTisa da III kavSirebiTis formaTa analizis safuZvelzedac; ramdenadac, rogorc iTqva, saKrdeni fuZe am ori mwkrivisa identuria, e. i. es ori mwkrivi erTmaneTs Canacvlebis principiT miemarTeba. mxolod meore TurmeobiTis magaliTs moviKvanT: a) gardamaval zmnaTa erTi Jgufis II TurmeobiTi II seriis fuZes emKareba: awmKo-mKofadi _ xat-av-s a-q-eb-s drek-s

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wKvetili II TurmeobiTi

_ _

da-xat-a da-e-xat-a

Se-a-q-o Se-e-q-o

mo-drik-a mo-e-drik-a

b) II TurmeobiTis saKrden fuZes awmKo-mKofadis saKrdeni fuZisagan -in formanti ganasxvavebs: awmKo-mKofadi II TurmeobiTi _ _ a-keT-eb-s ga-e-keT-eb-in-a a-Sen-eb-s a-e-Sen-eb-in-a...

SeniSvna: am SemTxvevaSi mniSvneloba ara aqvs imas, in daboloeba erTiani sufiqsia, Tu SeiZleba misi daSla _ i-n. g) orpirian gardauval zmnaTa II TurmeobiTis fuZis struqtura gansxvavebulia rogorc I seriis, ise II seriis mwkrivis fuZeTa struqturisagan. gansxvavebas qmnis -od sufiqsi, romelic Kvela SemTxvevaSi gamovlindeba. igive -od uwKvetelSic gvaqvs, magram sxvaobas zog SemTxvevaSi vnebiTobis sufiqsis uqonloba qmnis, sxva SemTxvevaSi _ Temis niSani; suraTi aseTia: uwKveteli u-keT-d-eb-od-a e-zrd-eb-od-a e-mal-eb-od-a u-Sr-eb-od-a u-kvd-eb-od-a II TurmeobiTi ga-h-keT-eb-od-a ga-zrd-od-a da-mal-v-od-a ga-Sr-ob-od-a mo-kvd-om-od-a

Tu am SemTxvevaSic xmovanprefiqsTa viTarebas gaviTvaliswinebT, sxvaoba III seriis mwkrivTa saKrden fuZeebsa da I-II seriis fuZeTa Soris ufro aSkara gaxdeba... is, rac vTqviT III seriis formaTa warmoebis Taobaze, cnobili faqtebia. Cvens mizans ar Seadgens mwkrivTa warmoebis sakiTxebis gamowvlilviTi analizi. gvsurda mxolod zogadi suraTi warmogvedgina da gveCvenebina, rom saKrdeni fuZis struqturis TvalsazrisiT III seriaSi sakmao siyrelea, araa erTgvarovneba, rac gamoricxavs SesaZleblobas sawarmoebeli fuZis principis mixedviT am mwkrivTa I da II seriaSi gadanawilebisas. amgvarad, sirTule da araerTgvarovneba III seriis mwkrivTa formebis warmoebisa Seapirobebs am seriis calke Jgufad ga-

IV. zmnis morfologia

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moKofas. vfiqrobT, Kvelaze optimaluri varianti mwkrivTa daJgufebisa n. mariseuli variantia im naklovanebiT, rac TviT avtorma aGniSna Tavis droze. IV. 3.15. qarTuli zmnis formaTa semantikuri analizisaTvis. sayovelTao aGiarebiT, qarTuli zmnis fleqsiur erTeulTa analizi, gansakuTrebiT, mniSvnelobisa da funqcionirebis TvalsazrisiT, did sirTuleebs awydeba. imdeni sxvadasxvagvari da urTierTgamomricxavi Tvalsazrisi, ramdenic e. w. zmnuri kategoriebis Sesaxeb arsebobs, Znelad rom sxva romelime gramatikul sakiTxs warmoeSvas. vinaidan TvalsazrisTa da terminTa mravalgvaroba Sesabamisi sakiTxebis Seswavlasa da swavlebasac aZnelebs, problemas, wminda mecnieruli, Teoriuli damokidebulebis garda, garkveuli pedagogiuri interesic axlavs. zmnur formaTa ZiriTadi semantikuri maxasiaTeblebis Tanmimdevruli aGwera aucilebeli winapirobaa Sesabamisi sakiTxebis saTanadod gaazreba-aTvisebisa. imisaTvis, rom analizis procesi Tanmimdevruli iyos, ramdenime amosavali wertili unda gavixsenoT. uGlebis _ zmnuri fleqsiis rTuli sistemis _ yoveli wevri (yoveli mwkrivi) aris zmnis arsebobis, misi enobrivi funqcionirebis forma; mwkrivis semantika ki SeiZleba ganisazGvros rogorc zmnuri formis funqcionirebis Sinaarsi. mwkrivi gramatikuli formaa, romlis enobrivi warmodgena mniSvnelobis gareSe ar xdeba. formasa da mniSvnelobas Soris ganuyofeli erTobaa; maTi dacalkeveba mxolod analizis (abstraqciis) doneze aris SesaZlebeli; mniSvnelobis warmodgena ki swored funqcionirebis procesSi xdeba. ramdenadac mwkrivebis analizis procesSi funqcionirebis cnebisa da Sinaarsis Semotana aucilebelia (mniSvneloba funqcionirebaSi vlindeba), ZiriTadi da araZiriTadi, arsebiTi da meorexarisxovani mniSvnelobebis gasamijnavad sairoa funqcionirebis doneebis gansazGvra. formaTa funqcionirebisas unda davadginoT ZiriTadi da kerZoobiTi gramatikuli mniSvnelobebi, TviT formisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli da konteqstidan momdinare mniSvnelobebi. amisaTvis ki, pirvel yovlisa, aucilebelia funqcionirebis sazGvrebis dadgena.

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

zmnuri forma, semantikurad sxvadasxva donis monacemTa rTuli sinTezis Sedegi, erTi ganuyofeli mTlianobaa (am semantikuri mTlianobis SenebaSi monawileobs leqsikuri, gramatikuli da modaluri mniSvnelobebis urTierTdeterminirebuli monacemebi). cxadia, SesaZlebeli rom iyos, sasurveli iqneboda zmnuri forma gansazGvruliyo rogorc realuri erTiani monacemi, rogorc semantikuri mTlianoba. magram rogorc formis, aseve semantikuri struqturis analizisas iZulebuli varT mniSvnelobaTa diferencireba movaxdinoT, raTa Semdgom maTi xelovnuri integraciiT mivuaxlovdeT enobriv sinamdviles, semantikuri struqturis agebis enobriv wess. semantikuri struqturis diferencirebuli analizi erTgvari formaluri (xelovnuri) proceduraa, garkveulwilad morfologiuri analizis moTxovnebiT Sepirobebuli. semantikuri struqturis diferencirebuli aGwerisas korelaciis cnebas Tu movixmobT, am wesiT SevZlebT davadginoT semantikuri erTeulebi (korelatebi) da am erTeulebis urTierTmimarTebis zogadi xasiaTi, semantikuri kategoriebi. korelacia gramatikuli Tu semantikuri kategoriis gamoyofis pirobaa. kategoria urTierTdapirispirebul (korelaciur) gramatikul mniSvnelobaTa sistemad (erTianobad) SeiZleba ganisazGvros. Cveulebriv, enaSi mniSvnelobebi bevrad ufro rTul da mravalferovan mimarTebebs warmogvidgenen, vidre es formawarmoebis struqturul SesaZleblobebSi warmoCndeba (magaliTad, daewera formaSi `Tanamdevrobas~ xedaven, rac, rogorc iTqva, ar aisaxeba morfologiur struqturaSi). mniSvnelobebi bevr iseT niuanssac gamoavlens, romelTa moqceva raime wesisa Tu cnebis farglebSi zogjer arc ki xerxdeba. forma, rogorc semantikuri erTeuli, aris calkeul mniSvnelobaTa rTuli integrirebuli mTlianoba, romelic ar udris calkeul morfologiur elementTa mniSvnelobebis meqanikur jams, aramed warmoadgens myar erTeuls, romelSic calkeul monacemTa SeTavsebadobis xarisxi Zneli gansasazGvria... magaliTisaTvis movixmoT enobrivad SedarebiT `diferencirebuli~, analizuri warmoSobis erTeuli _ daxatulxar forma. rogorc cnobilia, amgvar formebSi leqsikuri mniSvneloba saxeluri elementisa (daxatul-) Senaxulia, xolo misi gramati-

IV. zmnis morfologia

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kuli mniSvneloba iCrdileba; meSveli zmna ki, piriqiT, leqsikur mniSvnelobas kargavs da formantad iqceva. amis Sedegad viGebT perfeqtul mwkrivs, magram es aGwera mxolod sqematurad da meqanikurad asaxavs im rTul process, romelic semantikurad ganuyofel daxatulxar erTeuls iZleva. rogorc iTqva, formis semantikur mTlianobas qmnis leqsikur, gramatikul da, agreTve, konteqstur mniSvnelobaTa urTierTkavSiri. amasTanave, pirveli ori monacemi formaSi ganuyofelia. leqsikuri mniSvneloba xSirad arsebiT gavlenas axdens formis mTlian semantikaze. magaliTad, statikur zmnasTan saerTo I TurmeobiTi Sehfenia (cxvari ferdobs), gaSlila (velebi) drouli TvalsazrisiT arsebiTad awmyoa (Sefenilia, gaSlilia) da maTSi, faqtobriv, ugulebelyofilia namyos moqmedeba (Seefina, gaiSala), romelic dinamikur zmnebSi, piriqiT, win aris wamoweuli; Sdr.: auSenebia, dauweria... aqve isic unda iTqvas, rom absoluturi zmnebis drouli semantika, relatur zmnebTan SedarebiT, metad aris gadmonacvlebuli awmyosaken. es imas niSnavs, rom gardamavlobac zogjer gasaTvaliswinebeli xdeba mwkrivTa mniSvnelobebis analizisas. aseve, gansxvavebuli leqsikuri mniSvnelobis zmnaTa aspeqturi semantikac SesaZloa erTgvar suraTs ar iZleodes; zmnis leqsikuri mniSvneloba da aspeqti erTmaneTTan aris dakavSirebuli. amitomac zmnuri semantikis zedmiwevniTi aGwerisas zmnaTa leqsikur jgufebsac gamoyofen... saerTod ki, mwkrivebis zogadi semantikuri aGwerisas ZiriTadi suraTis warmosadgenad dasaSvebia (aucilebelic ki aris) amgvari monacemebisagan mTavari semantikuri erTeulebis ganyeneba moxdes. rogorc aGiniSna, yoveli zmnuri forma nairgvar mniSvnelobasa da funqcias iTavsebs. amasTanave, ena ar uSvebs identuri semantikis mqone ori formis Tanaarsebobas da amiT icavs yoveli calkeuli formis, rogorc semantikuri mTlianobis (da ara rogorc mniSvnelobaTa meqanikuri jamis), damoukideblobas... amave dros, yovel calkeul mniSvnelobas, rogorc iTqva, SeiZleba ar hqondes damoukidebeli morfologiuri gamoxatuleba, Tavisi formaluri niSani. cnobilia, rom formis morfologiuri struqtura da semantikuri struqtura xSirad ar misdeven erTmaneTs: semantika bevrad ufro rTul da mravalferovan

388

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

mimarTebebs warmogvidgens. amitomac laparakoben ara morfologiur, aramed gramatikul Tu semantikur kategoriebze... Cveulebriv, zogadi enobrivi mniSvnelobebi zmnur formebSi, mwkrivebSi mxolod nawilobriv aisaxeba (es Seexeba drosac, kilosac, aspeqtsac, sxva modalobebsac...), maTi (am mniSvnelobebis) enobrivi ganxorcieleba sul sxvadasxva saSualebebiT xdeba (morfologiuriT, sintaqsuriT, leqsikuriT, konteqsturiT...). roca enobriv mniSvnelobaTa analizs visaxavT miznad, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, albaT umjobesi iqneboda zogadad moxazuliyo ama Tu im enobrivi mniSvnelobis sazGvrebi da Semdgom, Sesabamisad, dadgeniliyo maTi `montaJis~ wesebi, maTi realizaciis SesaZleblobebi formobriv monacemebSi. egeb es gza ufro xelovnuri da sqematuri yofiliyo, magram, samagierod, Tavidan agvacilebda analogiur mniSvnelobaTa gafantvas gansxvavebul enobriv monacemTa mixedviT. magaliTad, Tanamedrove qarTulSi udavod mkvidrad arsebobs e. w. u n a x a o b i s semantika. amasTanave, im mwkrivebisaTvis, romelTa saxeldeba am mniSvnelobis mixedviT xdeba (I da II TurmeobiTebi), rogorc specialur literaturaSia miTiTebuli, unaxaobis gamoxatva garkveulad fakultaturia, gamoxatvis ZiriTadi enobrivi saSualeba leqsikuria (Turme), Tumca arc amiT amoiwureba aGniSnuli semantikis gamoxatvis SesaZleblobebi (Sdr. dialeqturi: minavala, midenila... modaluri saSualebebi: Cans, etyoba...). I TurmeobiTis formis mimarTeba aGniSnul zogad mniSvnelobasTan sqematurad rom gamovsaxoT, am mwkrivs unaxaobis semantikur velTan mxolod nawilobrivi Sexebis are aGmoaCndeba:

I TurmeobiTi Sedeg.uwinaresoba

unaxaoba

xolo es semantikuri veli mTlianad warmodgeba sxvadasxva rigis enobrivi monacemebiT:

IV. zmnis morfologia

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unaxaoba

_____ _____ _____ _____

Turme _ TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivebi I da II TurmeobiTebi minavala, midenila tipis formebi `Cans~, `etyoba~ da sxva modaluri saSualebebi

Tu ufro zust analizze midgeba saqme, e. w. unaxaobis semantika SeiZleba ufro mcire niuansobriv Semadgenlebadac danawevrdes. analogiuri suraTi ganmeordeba mravalgzisobis, SedegobiTobis da sxva semantikuri erTeulebis analizis drosac. amgvari aGwera, cxadia, saintereso suraTs daxatavda, magram mas ver gavyvebiT, roca mizani konkretulia _ zmnis mwkrivTa mniSvnelobebis gansazGvra. erTi sakiTxic: semantikuri analizisas zogjer mosaxerxebelia perifrazirebis, sinonimuri `gardaTqmis~ xerxi, romelic ukeT gamoavlens enobrivi erTeulis Semadgeneli semantikuri komponenentebis struqturas, ramdenadac sinTezur formebSi ufro metad aris xolme abstrahirebuli semantikuri mimarTebebi; analizur perifrazebSi ki am mimarTebebis nawilobrivi ganwilva (diferenciacia) xerxdeba, Tumca amgvari perifrazebic enobrivad mTliani semantikuri erTeulebia; magaliTad: damiweria _ d a w e r i l i m a q v s; sweria _ d a w e r i l i a r i s. roca enaSi garkveuli semantikuri monacemebi sxvadasxva enobrivi saSualebebiT SeiZleba gamoixatos, roca enobrivi perifrazireba xerxdeba, yovelTvis unda vivaraudoT, rom perifrazuli variantebi absoluturi sinonimebi ar iqneba, winaaGmdeg SemTxvevaSi enas isini ar dasirdeboda; magaliTad, Sesityveba `dawerili aqvs~ mTlianad ver faravs `dauweria~ erTeulis mniSvnelobas, Tumca am ukanasknelis SedegobiTobas kargad usvams xazs. am mxriv metadre safrTxilo Cans `perifrazireba~ ucxo enebis masalis safuZvelze, rac zogjer enobrivi specifikis nivelirebas iwvevs. magaliTad, xSirad mimarTaven qarTuli enis TurmeobiTis mwkrivebis morgebas indoevropuli perfeqtis Targze. miuxedavad imisa, rom I-II TurmeobiTebis perfeqtuli buneba

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ueveli faqtia, araTu relatiur zmnaTa sinTezuri formebi, aramed qarTuli enis absolutur zmnaTa analizuri warmoSobis mwkrivebic ki bevrad gansxvavdeba evropuli enebis perfeqtisagan, maTi analizis kriteriumebi yovelTvis ar Tanxvdeba erTmaneTs. yovelive aGniSnuli, cxadia, xels ar uSlis imas, rom mTliani mniSvnelobis semantikur komponentebad daSla da sinonimuri perifrazirebis xerxis gamoyeneba semantikuri analizis erT-erT saSualebad miviCnioT. rogorc ukve aGiniSna, zmnuri formis mniSvnelobebi misi funqcionirebisas warmoCndeba. zmnis funqcionirebis garemo, asparezi aris winadadeba. metic, zmna aris winadadebis birTvi da zmnuri formis warmodgena Sesityvebis gareSe SeuZlebelia, yoveli zmnuri forma ukve TavisTavSi gulisxmobs sintaqss. amitomac, zmnis analizi sintaqsisagan gamocalkevebiT ar xerxdeba. zmnuri Sesityveba, zmnuri sintaqsi ki ufro farTo enobrivi monakveTis _ konteqstis _ monacemebiT aris gajerebuli. Semdegi msjelobisaTvis aq ramdenime samuSao terminis gansazGvra mogvixdeba. zmnur Sesityvebad miviCnevT imas, rac koordinaciis farglebSi Tavsdeba. mas statikuri sintaqsic SeiZleba davarqvaT, magram Semdgom, farTo konteqstTan dapirispirebis Sesaqmnelad, `neitralur konteqsts~ vuwodebT. `neitraluri konteqstis~, anu zmnuri Sesityvebis _ zmnis funqcionirebis umciresi erTeulis _ farglebSi formis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba ar icvleba. amitomac SesaZlebelia zmnuri formis ZiriTadi semantikuri monacemebi, ZiriTadi statusi ganvsazGvroT maqsimalurad neitralur garemocvaSi, `neitralur konteqstSi~, ramdenadac ufro meti gamonawevreba zmnuri formisa `konteqstidan~, meti ganyeneba funqcionirebisagan faqtobriv SeuZlebelia. rac Seexeba konteqts: Sesityvebis birTvis _ zmnis _ mniSvnelobebis kvlevisas konteqstiseulad gaigeba yovelive is, rac konkretuli zmnuri Sesityvebis farglebidan gadis (iqneba es rTuli sintaqsuri konstruqcia, sagaremoebo da modaluri sityvebi da nawilakebi, Tu intonacia).

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zmnuri formebis mniSvnelobaTa kvlevisas am formebis funqcionirebisadmi amgvari midgoma SesaZleblobas iZleva `konstruqciuli~ niSniT Tavidanve or jgufad gavyoT mwkrivebi. pirvel jgufSi Semova is formebi, romelTac unari SeswevT martivi konstruqciebis, `neitraluri konteqstis~ Seqmnisa, meoreSi ki _ isini, romlebic rTuli sintaqsuri konstruqciebis Seqmnas emsaxurebian, dasrulebul martiv konstruqciebs (`neitralur konteqsts~) ver iZlevian. * aq ukve aucilebeli xdeba kilos kategoriis adekvaturi gansazGvra. magram sanam kilos cneba ganimartebodes, mwkrivis ZiriTadi semantikuri maxasiaTeblebi unda gamoikveTos. romeli semantikuri kategoriebia ganmsazGvreli zmnuri formis, rogorc damoukidebeli funqciuri erTeulis, mniSvnelobis SeqmnaSi? tradiciulad, yoveli zmnuri forma, rogorc uGvlilebis sistemis wevri, romelime piris, ricxvis, kilos, droisa da aspeqtis gagebas iZleva. amaTgan yvela elementi erTi rigis semantikuri monacemi ar aris. piri da ricxvi araa ganmsazGvreli kategoriebi zmnur formaTa semantikuri opoziciis SeqmnaSi; isini, ase vTqvaT, mwkrivisSida kategoriebia (TumcaGa formaTa mniSvnelobebis niuansobrivi aGwerisas maTi gaTvaliswinebac zogjer sairo xdeba. aseTebia, mag., brZanebiToba, TurmeobiToba da sxv.). gvrCeba sami kategoria: kilo, dro da aspeqti. yoveli mwkrivis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba SeiZleba daxasiaTdes am sami semantikuri kategoriis gamoyenebiT; maTi kombinacia gvaZlevs mwkrivs _ rogorc funqciur erTeuls. ra mimarTebaa am sam semantikur erTeuls Soris? logikuri iqneba mimarTebaTa dadgenisas im kategorias mienios prioriteti, romelic formaTa ufro zogad korelacias gamoxatavs, mwkrivTa ufro martivi klasifikaciis SesaZleblobas iZleva. mwkrivTa amgvari ZiriTadi (binaruli) dapirispirebis Semqmnelia kilos kategoria, oGond cnebis arcTu mTlad tradiciuli SinaarsiT. kilouri opozicia iZleva zmnur formaTa tradiciuli gamijvnis SesaZleblobas. amiT es kategoria pirveli sa-

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klasifikacio erTeulia dro-kiloTa sistemaSi. dro-kiloTa mTeli sistema enobrivi funqcionirebis dasawyisSive orad ganiyofa: pirvel jgufs Camoayalibebs `neitraluri konteqstis~ Seqmnis unaris mqone mwkrivebi, anu tradiciuli TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivebi, xolo meore jgufs yvela danarCeni _ `neitraluri konteqstis~ Seqmnis unaris armqone mwkrivebi, romelTaTvisac termini kavSirebiTi zedgamorilia. amgvarad, Cven mwkrivebs funqcionirebis pirvel etapze ganvsazGvravT (da vajgufebT) konstruqciuli niSniT: kilo mwkrivis konstruqciuli (resp. funqciuri) unaria. magram aq sairoa kilos tradiciul gansazGvras SevexoT. saqme is aris, rom kilo ganimarteba rogorc semantikurmodaluri kategoria. moviyvanT a. SaniZis ganmartebas, romelic, CvenTvis saintereso kuTxiT, ZiriTadad warmoaCens yvela sxva ganmartebis Girseba-naklovanebebs: `kilo aris forma zmnisa, romelic gviCvenebs, rom moubris mier dasaxelebuli moqmedeba unda iqnes gagebuli an rogorc ueveli faqti, an rogorc SesaZlebel-savaraudebeli, an kidev _ rogorc Sesasrulebeli. amis mixedviT gvaqvs sami kilo: TxrobiTi, kavSirebiTi da brZanebiTi... kavSirebiTia kilo, romelic zmniT aGniSnul moqmedebas ise warmoadgens, rom igi ar aris faqti, magram SeiZleba xdebodes, moxdes, an momxdariyos. rom SevadaroT erTmaneTs es formebi: `vaSeneb~ da `vaSeno~, davrwmundebiT, rom maT Soris is gansxvavebaa, rom erTi faqts gadmogvcems (`saxls vaSeneb~), meore ki iseT moqmedebas gviCvenebs, romelic SesaZlebelia, magram faqti ar aris (`saxli me vaSeno?~)~. Tanamedrove qarTulSi brZanebiTi kilo mwkrivTa doneze aGar arsebobs, misi gamoxatva dGes intonaciuri da leqsikuria, zmnuri formebi ki TxrobiTisa da kavSirebiTisa gamoiyeneba. rac Seexeba or danarCen kilos (TxrobiTsa da kavSirebiTs), maTi opoziciis semantikuri xasiaTi ar aris TavisTavadi, mwkrivTa doneze ganxorcielebuli faqti da masze mxolod saTanado erTeulebis funqciuri unaris gansazGvris Semdeg SeiZleba msjeloba. faqtobriv, aGniSnuli erTeulebi arc aris erTi donis monacemebi imisaTvis, rom maT Soris semantikuri opozicia Seiqmnas. e. w. TxrobiTi kilo semantikurad aris kilos ne-

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itraluri forma, romelsac opoziciis Sesaqmnelad unda daupirispirdes kilos semantikurad markirebuli saxe. magram e. w. kavSirebiTi kilos forma _`vaSeno~ _ ukonteqstod arafers ar gamoxatavs (arc `arafaqts~, arc `SesaZlebel-savaraudebels~), radganac ver qmnis, TxrobiTi kilosagan gansxvavebiT, neitralur Sesityvebas (amitomac gaxda sairo misi kiTxviT winadadebaSi warmodgena). kavSirebiTi formis mniSvneloba gamovlindeba mxolod konteqstiseul garemocvaSi: saxli me avaSeno? iqneb saxli avaSeno! saxli unda avaSeno. saxli ro avaSeno, masala aris sairo. Sercxvenili viyo, Tu saxli ar avaSeno da misT. amgvar funqcionirebaSi gamovlenili mniSvnelobebis Sepirispireba TxrobiTi kilos semantikasTan iqneba am kiloTa opoziciis semantikuri niSani, magram mxolod meore rigis niSani! sxvaTa Soris, TxrobiTi kilos formaTa yvela funqciuri SesaZleblobis aGwera kavSirebiTi kilos formebTan mraval urTierTgadamkveT mniSvnelobas warmoaCens. SeniSvna: istoriulad kavSirebiTis formam ikisra brZanebiTobis gamoxatva: gaakeTos, idges; dial. Camoirbine, moxvidode... rogor warmogvidgeba es procesi? enis istoriuli ganviTarebis procesSi moxda zmnis formis semantikuri rangis Secvla (gadanacvleba), rac swored kavSirebiTobaSi iGebs saTaves: I etapze (minda, ginda) unda, rom gaakeTos. II etapze: unda gaakeTos (unda-s nawilakad qceva zmnis semantikis cvlis niSania). III etapze: gaakeTos! modaluri nawilakis Camocileba dasturia formis brZanebiTad qcevisa (Sdr. raTamca eqmna, qmna _ II TurmeobiTi -mca nawilakTan TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivad iqca). analogiurive meqanizmi unda moqmedebdes ar(a) nawilakTan kavSirebiTis formis brZanebiTad gamoyenebisas (ar gaakeTo).

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amgvarad, Tanamedrove qarTulSi zmnur formaTa funqcionirebaSi realurad monawileobs kilo, rogorc konstruqciuli elementi, zmnur formaTa SexamebiTi unaris ganmsazGvreli monacemi. TxrobiTi kilos funqciaa martivi konstruqciisa da realuri, gansazGvruli semantikis Seqmna. kavSirebiTi kilos formebi rTul konstruqciebis qmnian da enobrivad ganusazGvrel, konteqstiT dasazustebel irealur (ufro swored, sarealizacio, potenciur) semantikas gadmoscemen. kavSirebiTi kilos formaTa tradiciulad aGnusxuli semantikur-modaluri maxasiaTeblebi (survili, miswrafeba, Txovna, gafrTxileba, akrZalva, natvriToba, saevooba, varaudi, valdebuleba, SesaZlebloba, pirobiToba...) kavSirebiTobis funqcionirebis donis kerZoobiTi mniSvnelobebia... sxvaTa Soris, kilos amgvar gansazGvraSi siaxle mxolod movlenebis daxasiaTebis TanamimdevrobaSia. saqme is aris, rom, Cveulebriv, kavSirebiT kilos semantikur-modaluri monacemebiT gansazGvravdnen, magram arasdros ar tovebdnen mxedvelobis gareSe mis konstruqciul SesaZleblobebs. terminologiuradac swored es momenti iqna asaxuli _ Conjunctivus `damakavSirebeli, SemareTebeli~; qarTuli Sesatyvisi termini kavSirebiTi kargad gamoxatavs movlenis arss. TviT termini kilo mniSvnelobis dones asaxavs da albaT ukeTesi iqneboda, formaTa funqciur unars saxelic ufro Sesaferisi mosZebnoda (aq SeiZleboda imis miTiTeba, rom filologiur gramatikebSi kilos daxras eZaxdnen), movlenis semantikur-modaluri daxasiaTebisagan gasarCevad. sakiTxis amgvarad dasmas principuli mniSvneloba aqvs. ukve aGiniSna, rom zmnuri semantikis gamovlena sintaqsis, konteqstis gareSe SeuZlebelia, da simptomuria, rom mwkrivebis pirvelmave arsebiTma saklasifikacio erTeulma moiTxova konstruqciuli sazGvrebis dadgena. am nabijiT Cven zmnuri formebi (mwkrivebi) gamogvyavs raGac TavisTavad arsebuli (abstrahirebuli) kategoriis CarCoebidan da potenciis realizaciis, funqcionirebis SesaZleblobas vaniebT. amiT SesaZlebeli xdeba semantikuri maxasiaTeblebi (kategoriebi) aGvweroT maTs dinamikaSi... * mwkrivTa kilouri klasifikaciis Semdgom sairoa droisa da aspeqtis kategoriebis mixedviT ganvsazGvroT TiToeuli

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jgufis formebi. qarTuli zmnis mwkrivebis semantikuri struqturis ZiriTadi erTeulebi swored dro da aspeqtia. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTuli zmnis uGlebis erTeulebi _ mwkrivebi, semantikurad droul-aspeqturi erTeulebia. amaTgan dro SedarebiT martivi, xolo moqmedebis saxe, anu aspeqti, bevrad ufro rTuli kategoriaa. bunebrivia, rom droul da aspeqtur opoziciebs srulyofilad mxolod TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivebi warmoadgenen, radganac e. w. `neitraluri konteqstebs~ mxolod isini qmnian. kavSirebiTi kilos mwkrivebisaTvis am semantikuri erTeulebis gansazGvrac mxolod konteqsturi funqcionirebis doneze xdeba. a. SaniZis `safuZvlebSi~ aGniSnulia, rom `pirian zmnebSi dro yvela kiloian formas aqvs, magram yvelaze ufro naTlad da srulad es kategoria TxrobiT kiloian formebSia gamoxatuli~. iqve arn. Ciqobavas misamarTiT aris aseTi SeniSvna: `Tu a. Ciqobavas magaliTebs davakvirdebiT, Zneli ar iqneba SevniSnoT, rom `drod~ mas marto TxrobiTi kilos Semcveli mwkrivebi miaCnda, sxva mwkrivebi mas kilod hqonda gagebuli...~ iqve msjelobaa imis Taobaze, rom arn. Ciqobavas (`zogad enaTmecnierebaSi~) kavSirebiTis kilod qceva meoreul movlenad miaCnia. arn. Ciqobavas debulebaSi kargad aris asaxuli zmnuri kategoriebis urTierTSepirobebuloba da isic, rom drouli diferencireba TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivebis specifikaa. aGniSnuli ori semantikuri kategoriidan dro ufro farTo (zogadi) mniSvnelobis cnebaa; is TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivebis ZiriTadi semantikuri saklasifikacio erTeulia, TxrobiTi kilos formaTa semantikuri ganawilebis ZiriTadi safuZveli. amgvari ganawilebisaTvis relevanturia drois tradiciuli samwevrovani kategoria: namyo _ awmyo _ myofadi. rogor ganimarteba drois semantikuri kategoria? a. SaniZe: `gramatikaSi dro ewodeba iseT formas zmnisas, romelic gviCvenebs moqmedebis momentis Sefardebas ubnobis (anu laparakis) momentTan. am Sefardebis mixedviT irkveva, rom zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedeba xdeba an ubnobis momentSi, an sxva dros. drouli gamoxatva imazea damokidebuli, rom yovelgvari ambavi,

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romelic ki momxdara, xdeba, Tu unda moxdes, gadmocemulia moubris TvalsazrisiT da misi ubnobis momentTan SefardebiT~. arn. Ciqobava: `droisaTvis niSandoblivia Sefardeba moqmedebas Soris da moqmedebis aGniSvnas Soris~. amgvari ganmarteba: dro _ moqmedebis momentis Sefardeba ubnobis momentTan (sametyvelo situaciasTan), SeiZleba iTqvas, universaluri ganmartebaa, ubnobis momenti yvelgan aTvlis wertilad aris aGiarebuli. ufro dazustebulia drouli mimarTebebi, rodesac, saubris momentTan erTad, saorientaciod sxva drouli momentic SemoaqvT. magaliTad, rusuli enis akademiuri gramatikis mixedviT, drois kategoria gamoxatavs moqmedebis mimarTebas saubris momentTan an drois sxva romelime momentTan, romelic miGebulia drouli mimarTebebis aTvlis safuZvlad. drois amgvar saxeobas SefardebiTs, relatiur drosac eZaxian (absolutur drosTan mimarTebiT). drois sxva romelime moments xSirad `saubris momentTan erTad~ emyarebian. drois kategoriis amgvar dazustebas moiTxovs II TurmeobiTis (`aeSenebina~) msgavsi enobrivi faqtebi: `me rom mivedi, saqme ukve moemTavrebina da isvenebda...~ `moemTavrebina~ zmnis dro gansazGvrulia `mivedi~-sTan (agreTve `isvenebda~-sTan) mimarTebiT, maTi uwinaresia; magram imisaTvis, vinc drois diferencirebas saubris momentTan mimarTebiT axdens, aGniSnuli drouli mimarTebebis aTvlis wertilic saubris momentia. arsebiTi is aris, rom zmnuri forma ar gamoxatavs moqmedebis momentis Sefardebas ubnobis momentTan; amgvari ram arc morfologiurad gamoixateba da arc semantikurad. ara Cans, rom enobrivi cnobierebisaTvis arsebiTi mizani zmnuri formiT gadmocemuli drois ubnobis momentTan mimarTebis asaxva iyos, aramed koordinacia awmyosTan, yoveli konkretuli enobrivi situaciis arsebobis drosTan, obieqturad mudmivad moZrav erTeulTan. Tu drois zogadi danawevrebis sqematur gamosaxulebas aviGebT, romelSic isari warsulidan (A) momavlisaken (C) moZraobis mimarTulebas gamoxatavs, wertili Tu monakveTi _ `awmyo~ (B) _ mudmivad marjvniv moZravi erTeulia, romelTan mi-

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marTebiTac ganisazGvreba namyoc da myofadic. aTvlis wertili yvela SemTxvevaSi awmyoa.


A B

es gamoxatavs drois ganzomilebebis aSkara anTropocentrulobas. Tumca, sazogadod, unda virwmunoT, rom adamianis cnobiereba da, amdenadve, enac obieqturad asaxavs dros (sakiTxis gaGrmaveba Cvens amocanas scildeba). amitomac drois kategoriis amgvar ganmartebas varCevdiT: drois kategoria asaxavs zmnuri formiT gadmocemuli moqmedebis droul lokalizacias. aTvlis wertilad (awmyod) yovelTvis moiazreba sametyvelo situacia, damatebiTi aTvlis wertili SeiZleba gaxdes romelime sxva drouli situacia, warmodgenil moqmedebaze uwin gansazGvruli. sxvagvarad: gramatikuli dro aris zmnuri formis semantikuri unari enobrivad asaxos sinamdvilis drouli diferencireba. amave kategoriis ufro diferencirebul asaxvas emsaxureba sxva enobrivi saSualebebi (pirvel rigSi, leqsikuri). ramdenime sityva drois gramatikuli kategoriis danawevrebis Sesaxeb. tradiciulad, drois gramatikuli kategoriis danawevrebis safuZvelia drois kategoriis zogadi dayofa. magram cnobilia, rom SesaZlebelia drois gramatikuli kategoria drois zogad kategorias ar Seesabamebodes; SesaZlebelia gramatikuli dro naklebi iyos (magaliTad, gramatikuli myofadi drois kleba iSviaTi ar aris), SesaZlebelia ramdenime namyo da myofadi dro iyos garCeuli gramatikulad. cnobilia iespersenis drouli sqema indoevropuli enebis masalis mixedviT:
A namyo
winarewars. wars. momdevno wars. awmyo

B myofadi
myofadamdeli myofadi myofadi momdevno myofadi

Aa

Ab

Ac

Ca

Cb

Cc

am TvalsazrisiT qarTulSi saintereso suraTs warmogvidgens II TurmeobiTis forma, romlis Zveli saxelwodebebi _ na-

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myo usrulesi da winarewarsuli _ swored am specifikis amsaxveli iyo. ZiriTadad swored am mwkrivis gaTvaliswinebiT gamoyo a. SaniZem Tanamdevrobis kategoria (uwinaresoba da Semdgomoba). mkvlevari wers: `Tanamdevroba axlo dgas drois kategoriasTan, magram imiT gansxvavdeba misgan, rom gramatikuli drois gageba gamomdinareobs ubnobis momentisa da moqmedebis momentis Sefardebisagan, Tanamdevroba ki _ ori moqmedebis erTmaneTTan Sefardebisagan. drois dasadgenad erTi moqmedebaa sairo, TanamdevrobisaTvis ki _ ori, romelTaganac erTi SeiZleba igulisxmebodes~. amgvari drouli mimarTebebis TvalsazrisiT mravalmxriv saintereso suraTs warmogvidgens Semdegi rTuli konstruqciebi: a) `sanam mividodi, Gobe ukve gaemagrebina da axla iSkars kidebda~ (rac amas niSnavs: `rom mivedi, ukve gamagrebuli hqonda Cems misvlamde gaemagrebina~, an: `iSkris dakidebamde gaemagrebina~). b) `simarTle rom m e T q v a, ar m i v i d o d i~, an: g) `imitom m i v e d i, simarTle rom m e T q v a ~ da sxv. da sxv. magram garkveviT unda aGiniSnos, rom amgvar SemTxvevebSi, iseve, rogorc a. SaniZis saTanado magaliTebSi, drouli mimarTebebi, drouli uwinaresoba Tu Tanamdevroba sxvadasxva zmnuri formebiT asaxuli moqmedebebisa mxolod konteqsturad aris Sepirobebuli da qarTuli zmnis mwkrivebis damatebiTi drouli diferencireba realuri ara Cans. aqve isic unda aGiniSnos, rom ZiriTadad analogiuri viTareba Cans iespersenTanac, aGniSnuli sqema sxvadasxva enobrivi saSualebebis gaTvaliswinebiT aris agebuli da ZiriTadad zogad xasiaTs atarebs. sayuradGeboa, rom e. w. rTul droebSi uwinaresobas gamoyofs e. benvenistic, magram aGniSnavs, rom uwinaresobis gamomxatveli formebi ver funqcionireben rogorc damoukidebeli enobrivi erTeulebi, calke isini droul miTiTebas arc Seicaven. amgvarad, qarTulSi drois gramatikuli kategoriisaTvis gamosadegia drois samwevrovani sistema. amaTgan awmyo da myofad droebs TxrobiTi kilos formaTagan neitralur garemocvaSi TiTo erTeuli gamoxatavs (wers dawers), xolo namyo droSi tradiciuli oTxi mwkrivi (Cveni aGweriT _ Svidi forma)

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Tavsdeba: wyvetili, uwyveteli, I da II TurmeobiTi (formebi: dawera, wera, werda, uweria, dauweria, ewera, daewera). saintereso kanonzomiereba SeiniSneba awmyosTan dakavSirebiT. drois skalaze awmyo, Cveulebriv, wertilad warmoidgineba, magram awmyos enobrivi drois sazGvrebi usasrulod SeiZleba ganivrcos. Sdr.: qurdi kars texs bavSvs sZinavs marCieli mkiTxaobs dedamiwa brunavs... amitomac aris ase bunebrivi awmyo drois ganzogadeba (e. w. zogadi awmyo: wers, mkiTxaobs, qurdobs...). funqcionirebis doneze droTa urTierTmimarTebis sxva saintereso SemTxvevebic gamoikveTeba: awmyo myofadis funqciiT, e. w. istoriuli Tu dramatuli awmyo (awmyo warsulSi), Tanamdevroba da sxva mimarTebebi (e. w. relatiuri droebi). amgvari movlenebis ganxilva mwkrivebis semantikuri analizis meore _ funqcionirebis donis _ safexuria. * mwkrivTa drouli ganawilebis Semdeg ukve aucilebelia aspeqtis kategoriis roli ganisazGvros mwkrivTa semantikuri struqturis SeqmnaSi. a. SaniZis mixedviT, `aspeqti anu saxe aris forma, romelic zmnis mier aGniSnul moqmedebas warmoaCens an ise, rom mas bolo ar uCans, an ise, rom mas bolo uCans. pirvel SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs dausrulebeli moqmedeba, meoreSi _ dasrulebuli~. mecnieris azriT, `aspeqtis sawarmoeblad Tanamedrove qarTul enas marto erTi saSualeba moepoveba~ _ zmniswini; uzmniswino zmna usruli saxisaa (imperfeqtulia), zmniswiniani _ sruli (perfeqtuli). aspeqtiani zmnebi droebis mixedviT ase nawildeba: usrulaspeqtian zmnas samive dro aqvs, srulaspeqtians ki _ mxolod ori: usruli: 1. axlandeli: vwer... 2. momavali: (xvalec) vwer... vwero... were... 3. warsuli: vwerdi... vwere... miweria... meweros... sruli: 1. momavali: davwer... davwero... dawere!.. 2. warsuli: davwere... damiweria... damewera... am klasifikaciidan ramdenime momenti unda aGiniSnos: a) dapirispireba sruloba-usrulobis mixedviT myofadSi (vwer _ davwer); b) brZanebiTis formebi; g) ara Cans formebi ramdenime

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

mwkrivisa: II TurmeobiTisa, awmyosa da myofadis kavSirebiTebisa da e. w. xolmeobiTisa, Tumca uGlebisas isinic nawildebian aspeqtebis mixedviT. `safuZvlebSi~ calke aris saubari aspeqtisa da mravalgzisobis mimarTebis Sesaxeb: `usruli aspeqti ramdenadme uaxlovdeba mravalgzisobas, romelic uGlebis kategoriaSi Sedis: `kari vaGe~ niSnavs moqmedebas, romelic SegviZlia wertilebis saxiT warmovidginoT...~ moyvanilia ganmeorebis SemTxveva: `vaGe, vaGe, Zlivs gavaGe...~ iqve aGniSnulia: miuxedavad siaxlovisa, aspeqti da mravalgzisoba mainc sxvadasxva kategoria ariso. cota qvemoT a. SaniZe ganmartavs gzisobis cnebas da aGniSnavs, rom saliteraturo qarTulma xolmeobiTobis formebi dakarga, samagierod, maTi gamoxatva uwyvetelsa da misgan nawarmoeb xolmeobiTis mwkrivs daakisra (aqvea miTiTebuli xolme nawilakze, romlis gamoyeneba aGniSnul mwkrivebTan savaldebulo araa, awmyo-myofadTan ki aucilebeliao). g. maavarianma sruli da usruli aspeqtis tradiciul zmniswinian dapirispirebasTan erTad (manve uaryo usruli myofadis arseboba qarTulSi) Semoitana dapirispireba: usruli (upreverbo) namyo ZiriTadi _ namyo usruli (uwyveteli) da aGniSna, rom namyo ZiriTadi (usrulica da srulic) wyvetis momentiT upirispirdeba namyo usruls, romelic moqmedebas gangrZnobilad warmogvidgens. amasTanave, Semotanil iqna dapirispireba: erTgzisi _ mravalgzisi. am dapirispirebas qmnian, erTi mxriv, e. w. I xolmeobiTisa da usruli aoristis, meore mxriv, sruli aoristis formebi: `sruli aspeqtis forma SeiZleba amave dros uwyveteli (gangrZobiTi) iyos da am SemTxvevaSi is aucileblad mravalgzisic iqneba (e. w. I xolm.). usruli aspeqtis forma SeiZleba uwyvetelic iyos (n. usruli) da wyvetilic (usruli aoristi). Tu wyvetilia, maSin mas SeuZlia mravalgzisi iyos. Tu sruli aspeqtis forma wyvetilia, maSin is mxolod erTgzisi SeiZleba iyos (sruli aspeqtis aoristi)~. bolo dapirispirebis gamoyofisas araerTi tradiciuli nakli iCens Tavs, rasac Semdeg vnaxavT. mkvlevris daskvniTi debulebebi amgvaria: `garda sruli da usruli aspeqtebisa, Tanamedrove qarTulSi garCeulia kidev aspeqtebi: wyvetili (momentob-

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rivi) da uwyveteli (gangrZobiTi, diuratiuli), erTgzisi da mravalgzisi. sruli da usruli aspeqtis dapirispireba, rogorc ukve iyo zemoT aGniSnuli, ZiriTadia dGevandel qarTulSi. danarCeni aspeqtebi SedarebiT mkrTalad aris gamoxatuli da meorexarisxovan rols asrulebs (gansakuTrebiT es iTqmis erTgzisobamravalgzisobis Sesaxeb)~. z. umburiZec aspeqtis ZiriTad (erTaderT) saxeobad Tvlis sisrule-usrulobis mxriv dapirispirebas. amave dros, iziarebs im azrs, rom zmnas SesaZlebloba aqvs agreTve moqmedebis gangrZobiToba-wyvetilobisa da erTgzisoba-mravalgzisobis gamoxatvisa. magram am ukanasknelT miiCnevs `aspeqtis kategoriis garkveul variaciad da maT `moqmedebis saxis~ saxeliT aGniSnavs (germanuli Aktionsart-isa da rusuli -s mixedviT). aspeqtis kategoriis Sesaxeb gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisi aqvs warmodgenili k. relaSvilsac. man SesaZleblad CaTvala dapirispireba erTi niSnis _ grZliobis xarisxis _ mixedviT. tradiciulad ormagi aspeqturi opoziciis Semqmneli sameulidan: namyo sruli aris sruli I aspeqti, namyo usruli _ sruli II, uwyveteli ki _ usruli. miviGeT samwevrovani aspeqturi korelacia. mkvlevris azriT, `es formebi amowuraven qarTuli enis zmnaTa sistemis aspeqtur opoziciebs~; amitomac zmnuri formebi samkuTxedis principiT ganawilda:
B (sruli II)

C (usruli) C: wers, werda, werdes...

A (sruli I)

B: wera, weros, uweria, ewera, eweros... A: dawers, dawerda, dawerdes, dawera, dauweria, daewera,

daeweros. imisaTvis, rom samwevrovani korelacia ganxorcieldes, korelaciis samive wevri erTi niSniT unda daxasiaTdes. rogorc iTqva, es niSani grZliobaa, grZliobis xarisxia. am niSnis geometriuli daxasiaTeba (wertili, monakveTi, wrfe) TiTqos er-

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

Tgvarad STambedavia, magram, rogorc Cans, wevrTa calsaxovani semantikuri daxasiaTeba ar xerxdeba (sruli I da sruli II klasifikaciisTvis arafris mTqmeli ar aris). amitomac mkvlevars dasirda Semoetana oTxi (ufro zustad, ori wyvili) `diferencialuri semantikuri niSani~: 1. momenturoba, 2. procesualoba, 3. diuratiuloba, 4. mTlianoba. am monacemTa dasaxasiaTebeli erTeulebi Semdegi saxiT warmodgeba: dawera (sruli I): mTliani, momenturi, wera (sruli II): mTliani, procesualuri, werda (usruli): diuratiuli, procesualuri. amgvarad, miviGeT ori axali opozicia: mTlianoba _ diuratiuloba (dawera, wera _ werda), momenturoba _ procesualoba (dawera _ wera, werda). amas ki aGniSnuli klasifikacia namdvilad ar isaxavda miznad. rogorc Cans, siZnele aspeqtis aGweris sakiTxSi TviT kategoriis sirTulidan momdinareobs da sistemis gamartivebis cda xSirad ar iZleva sasurvel Sedegs. aq erTi unda aGiniSnos: sagulisxmoa k. relaSvilis Tvalsazrisi, rom wera da dawera erTmaneTs sruloba-usrulobis mixedviT upirispirdebian. saqme is aris, rom moqmedebis procesi orivegan dasrulebulia, oGond wera-s SemTxvevaSi ara Cans _ SedegiT Tu uSedegod; TiTqos es ori momenti _ procesis dasruleba-dausrulebloba da dasruleba SedegiT Tu Sedegis aGuniSnavad _ ireva namyos aGniSnul formaTa daxasiaTebisas. aGniSnulis mixedviT, SeiZleboda namyo drois mocemul formaTa samwevrovani aspeqturi dapirispireba warmogvedgina: dawera _ procesi dasrulebulia Sedegis TvalsazrisiT. wera _ procesi dasrulebulia, Sedegi ara Cans. werda _ procesi dausrulebelia. sqematurad: procesi + Sedegi +

dawera

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wera werda

+ _

_ _

am SemTxvevaSic iZulebuli varT ori momenti SemovitanoT (procesi, Sedegi), Tumca semantikuri maxasiaTebeli erTia (sruloba). amasTanave, amgvari klasifikacia mTel rig damatebiT siZneleebs warmoSobs zmnur formaTa mTeli sistemis analizis dros. kerZod, es dapirispireba zmnis mTel sistemaze unda gavrceldes. maSin aseT suraTs miviGebdiT: usruli werda proc. dasrulebuli wera uweria ewera sruli dawera dauweria daewera

magram SedegobiToba damatebiTs siZneleebs qmnis. amitomac varCevT ZiriTadad tradiciuli klasifikaciis CarCoebSi davrCeT iq, sadac tradiciuli klasifikacia aGwerisas nakleb winaaGmdegobebs Seicavs. ganvixiloT TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivTa sistema am TvalsazrisiT. rogorc aGiniSna, TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivebi sam droul jgufs qmnian: awmyo, myofadi da namyo. amaTgan awmyo da myofad droebs TiTo (Sesabamisive saxelwodebis) erTeuli gamoxatavs (wers _ dawers). es drouli dapirispireba imavdroulad aspeqturic aris: awmyo _ usruli, myofadi _ sruli. TviT am droTa SigniT, mwkrivTa doneze, aspeqturi dapirispireba ar aris relevanturi. Tumca aq sagangebod unda aGiniSnos ori SemTxveva: a) cnobilia, rom awmyos formebi xSirad e. w. zogadi awmyos funqcias gamoxataven. zogad awmyos sakuTari gramatikuli gamoxatuleba ar gaaCnia, amitomac es mniSvneloba awmyos formis erT-erTi semantikaa _ funqciuri semantika, gansazGvrul SemTxvevebSi gamovlenili. amgvari semantikis gamoxatva im leqsikuri jgufis zmnebs SeuZliaT, romlebic Cvevas, Tvisebas, profesias gamoxataven: wers (=mweralia), frinavs (=mfrinavia, frinvelia), swavlobs (=moswavlea)... amitomac, SesaZloa, maTTvis upri-

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

ani iyos udroo formebis saxeli, igive formebi konkretul droul lokalizacias rom ar gamoxatavdnen. b) a. SaniZes, rogorc aGiniSna, myofadSic aqvs Setanili usruli aspeqtis formebi (wers, xatavs [xvale]...). amgvari aspeqturi opozicia myofadSi ar arsebobs. enas SeuZlia awmyos formebiT garkveul konteqstSi gamoxatos momavlis dausrulebeli moqmedebac (miutane da ams; Tu Tavs daanebeb, ams...). magram amgvari aspeqturi (gramatikuli) opozicia enaSi jerjerobiT ar Camoyalibebula (aGniSnuli mniSvneloba oden funqcionirebis donisaa), amitomac marTebulia g. maavarianis Tvalsazrisi, rom usruli myofadi qarTulSi ara gvaqvs. amdenad, Tu gamovricxavT awmyo-myofadis erTdroulad droul-aspeqtur mwkrivebs, aspeqtis kategoria arsebiTad namyo drois mwkrivTa sistemis SigniT iqmneba. ZiriTadad aspeqtur opozicias moqmedebis dasrulebulobis mixedviT qmnis zmniswinis qona-arqona: usruli wera uweria ewera sruli dawera dauweria daewera

am opoziciisagan garkerZoebiT dgas uwyvetlis forma (werda) imiT, rom mas Sesabamisi zmniswiniani mewyvile ar uCans aspeqtur opoziciaSi. uwyvetlis zmniswiniani forma sxva kilos formaa da aspeqtur Sinaars mxolod konteqstSi avlens (rasac kidev SevexebiT). amitomac am mwkrivTan semantikuri opoziciisaTvis (sruloba-usruloba) gamoiyeneba, erTi mxriv, namyo sruli (dawera _ srulia, werda _ usruli). meore mxriv, unda gairkves mimarTeba namyo drois or usrulaspeqtian formas Soris (wera, werda). ori danarCeni forma _ uweria, ewera _ rogorc vxedavT, sxva niSnebiT gamoirCeva. klasifikaciisaTvis yoveli mwkrivi erTi semantikuri niSniT mainc unda gansxvavdebodes yvela danarCenisagan. winaaGmdeg SemTxvevaSi formaTa absoluturi sinonimia gveqneba, rac enobrivad dauSvebelia. wera _ werda mwkrivTa daxasiaTebisas Semodis axali semantikuri cneba _ moqmedebis wyvetiloba; pirvel formaSi mo-

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qmedebis procesi Sewyvetilia, meoreSi _ Seuwyveteli, amitomac werda formis semantikuri niSania u w y v e t o b a, am niSniT upirispirdeba is wera _ dawera formebs, sqematurad: dawera wera werda sruloba + _ _ wyvetiloba + + _

uwyvetelTan mimarTebiT am sqemis or orwevrian opoziciad warmodgenac SeiZleba: a) dawera (sruli) _ werda (usruli); b) wera (wyvetili) _ werda (uwyveteli). gasarkvevi rCeba namyos danarCeni ori wyvili wevris (uweria-dauweria, ewera-daewera) aspeqturi mimarTebis sakiTxi. maTTvis samive semantikuri elementi saerToa: kilo, dro da aspeqti (sruloba-usruloba). raGa ganasxvavebs maT? cnobilia, rom qarTuli zmnis III seriis formebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia SedegobiToba, perfeqtuloba. es semantikuri niSani yovelTvis aGiniSneba I-II TurmeobiTebis daxasiaTebisas da xSirad mwkrivTa saxelwodebebiTac gamoixateba. amitomac aucilebeli xdeba, rom es niSani (SedegobiToba) am mwkrivTa aspeqtur niSnad iqnes Semotanili. niSandoblivia, rom h. fogti qarTuli zmnis III seriis formebis rezultatiurobas aspeqtad miiCnevs. amgvarad, erTi mxriv, wera-dawera, meore mxriv, uweria-dauweria, ewera-daewera formebs Soris opozicia iqmneba SedegobiTobis mixedviT, I-II TurmeobiTis formebi moqmedebis Sedegis warmodgenas emsaxureba. TviT am or perfeqtul formas (uweria _ ewera...) Soris gansxvaveba iqmneba Sedegis warmodgenis drois mixedviT: I TurmeobiTi awmyos SedegobiTia, II TurmeobiTi _ namyosi. am sami rigis semantikuri opoziciiT amoiwureba Tanamedrove qarTulSi TxrobiTi kilos namyo drois mwkrivTa aspeqturi sistema. arsebiTia dapirispireba sruloba-usrulobis mixedviT, masTan aris gadajavuli SedegobiToba-araSedegobiTo-

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

bis opozicia. ramdenadme viwroa mimarTeba wyvetiloba-uwyvetelobis mixedviT. es mimarTebebi Semdeg sqematur gamoxatulebas povebs:
araSedegobiTi SedegobiTi

wera, dawera, werda sruli dawera usruli wera, werda

uweria, dauweria [ewera, daewera] sruli dauweria[daewera] usruli uweria[ewera]

wyvetili wera

uwyveteli werda

SeiZleboda sqemis sxvagvari agebac, kerZod, sruloba-usrulobis pirvel rigSi dasmiT, magram amgvari sqema nakleb Tanmimdevruli da naTeli gamovidoda. Catarebul analizSi aspeqtur mniSvnelobaTa rigidan gamoiricxa gzisobis cneba (opozicia: e r T g z i s i _ m r a v a l g z i s i). es principuli sakiTxia, amitomac pozicia unda gairkves. rogorc cnobilia, aGniSnuli semantikuri opoziciis safuZvels ZiriTadad qmnis e. w. I xolmeobiTis forma (Tumca, gasaTvaliswinebelia zogi sxva SemTxvevac). Cven vfiqrobT, rom e.w. I xolmeobiTi ar aris TxrobiTi kilos forma, is ver iZleva neitralur konteqsts, ris gamoc mas ar ZaluZs Seqmnas raime aspeqturi opozicia TxrobiTi kilos formebTan. qarTul saenaTmecniero literaturaSi am mwkrivis aGwerisas cnebebSi SeuTanxmebloba da aGreva aSkarad gamoikveTeba. a. SaniZe 1930 wlis `qarTul gramatikaSi~ gviandel I xolmeobiTs pirobiTs uwodebda. arn. Ciqobava 1939 w. aGniSnavda, rom `pirobiTisa da natvriTi kilosaTvis gvaqvs kavSirebiTi

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pirveli, meore da mesame, agreTve namyofadari namyo~, qegl-Si ki SeniSnavda: `myofadisagan nawarmoebi namyo usruli pirobiTs kilos udris~ da `pirobiTi kilos funqcia, rogorc wesi, kavSirebiTs (I, II, III) aqvs da namyofadar namyo usruls...~ a. SaniZes `safuZvlebSi~ kiloTa Soris gamoyofili aqvs pirobiTi da SedegobiTi, romlebic uerTmaneTod ar gvxvdeba. mag.: `me rom ar mivSvelebodi, sul lukma-lukma daglejda~. iqve sagulisxmo ganmartebaa: `arc pirobiTs da arc SedegobiTs sakuTari mwkrivis forma ar gaaCnia. amitom isini arc mwkrivebis SeqmnaSi iGeben monawileobas damoukideblad. pirobiTisaTvis qarTulSi II TurmeobiTs viyenebT da SedegobisTvis _ I xolmeobiTs~. a. SaniZe mravalgzisobas ganixilavs I xolmeobiTTan dakavSirebiT, magram sagulisxmoa, rom am funqciis gamoxatvas miawers uwyvetlis mwkrivsac, `xolme~ nawilakTan erTad awmyo-myofadis formebsac. sxvagan ki mravalgzisobis gamomxatvelad namyos usruli aspeqtis formebic iTvleba (vaRe). niSandoblivia aGniSnuli Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare winaaGmdegobrivi msjelobebi: `Tanamedrove qarTul enaSi Cndeba kilos meoTxe forma _ pirobiTi. pirobiTi kilo iseTi formaa, romelic gulisxmobs, rom zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedebis Sesasruleblad raime pirobaa sairo, mag., davxatavdi (fanqari rom mqonoda)... pirobiT kilos sakuTari formebi ar gaaCnia da sargeblobs TxrobiTi kilos formebiT~ (S. kekelia, a. daviTiani). imave mkvlevrebTan xolmeobiTis mwkrivis daxasiaTebas axlavs Semdegi SeniSvnebi: 1. `Tanamedrove qarTulSi SeiniSneba xolmeobiTobis Sesusteba. rig SemTxvevaSi am mwkrivis formebi kargaven mravalgzisobis gagebas da pirobiTi kilos mniSvnelobas iZenen. 2. is faqti, rom xolmeobiTis formebs xolme nawilaks umateben... maCvenebelia imisa, rom am mwkrivs xolmeobiTis gageba Sesustebuli aqvs~... unda aGiniSnos, rom aq SeuZlebelia saubari raGac erTi mniSvnelobis Sesustebaze da meoris SeZenaze, vinaidan aGniSnul mwkrivs arc rodisme hqonia xolmeobiTis, mravalgzisobis gageba. is myofadis wris Camoyalibebamde TxrobiTi kilos uwyvetlis

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

mwkrivi iyo, Semdeg ki kilo Seicvala da sxva funqcionalur sistemaSi gadavida. sagulisxmoa, rom tradiciuli winaaGmdegobebi am mxriv arsebiTad g. maavarianis TvalsazrisSic aisaxa. mkvlevars sruli da usruli aspeqtis suraTis warmodgenisas saopozicio rigSi Semoaqvs agreTve: namyo usruli _ pirobiTi; sqolioSi ki SeniSvnaa: `igive I xolmeobiTi~. iqve: `sruli da usruli aspeqtis garCevasTan zogjer drouli da kilouri gansxvavebac aris dakavSirebuli... akeTebda TxrobiTi kilos nakvTia (namyo usruli), ga-akeTebda pirobiTisa~. sqolioSi SeniSvnaa: `igive nakvTi zogjer iteratiuli (ganmeorebiTi, mravalgzisi) aspeqtis gamosaxatavadac ixmareba~. amas mosdevs vrceli msjeloba, romelic ise miemarTeba, rom erTgzisoba-mravalgzisoba mwkrivTa semantikur niSnad, kategoriad, ar unda gamoyofiliyo, funqcionirebis doneebi rom garCeuli yofiliyo. aGniSnul kategoriaze msjelobisas sruliad marTebuli daskvna gamoitana T. zurabiSvilma: `mravalgzisobis gamosaxatavad Tanamedrove qarTul saliteraturo enas ar moepoveba sakuTari mwkrivi... unda vivaraudoT, rom mas (mravalgzisobas. _ a.a.) uGvlilebis sxva kategoriebis gverdiT aGar daurCeba adgili~. am Tvalsazriss eTanxmeba z. umburiZec, Tumca sabolood xolmeobiTobas mainc `aspeqtis semantikur saxesxvaobad, moqmedebis saxed~ miiCnevs. unda iTqvas, rom yvela SemTxveva, romelSic e. w. I xolmeobiTi mravalgzisobis mniSvnelobas gamoxatavs, konteqstiseuli faqtia, funqcionirebis donis semantika. am mwkrivis ZiriTadi asparezi pirobiT-SedegobiTi winadadebaa, romelic, Cveulebriv, urTierTmimarTebul moqmedebaTa determinirebul mimdevrobas gamoxatavs (`ase rom yofiliyo, ase moxdeboda...~, `Tu amas hkiTxavda, amas upasuxebda~...). aqedan _ mravalgzisobis efeqtic (Sdr.: `Tu moqmedeba meordeba, is SeiZleba Cveulebad gadaiqces. amitom mravalgzisi formebi iseT moqmedebasac gadmogvcems, romlebic Cveulebad aris qceuli. amitom aseT for-

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mebs CveulebiTsac eZaxian. am SemTxvevaSi am mwkrivma SeiZleba sulac dakargos drois kategoria.~ _ a. SaniZe). moqmedebaTa amgvari determinirebuli Tanmimdevroba SeiZleba sintaqsurad gamokveTili iyos, SeiZleba _ miCqmaluli. aman sakiTxisadmi damokidebuleba ar unda Secvalos. Sdr.: gaTendeboda Tu ara, petre adgeboda, tanT Caicvamda da a.S. gaTendeboda, petre adgeboda, tanT Caicvamda... diliT adre adgeboda, Caicvamda... adgeboda, Caicvamda... formaTa semantikis konteqsturi Sepirobebuloba aSkaraa. aseve konteqstis gareSe araviTar ganmeorebul moqmedebas ar gamoxatavs namyo usruli (vwere...). am mwkrivis `mravalgzisobac~ funqciuri semantikaa da mwkrivis semantikur niSnebSi ver Semova. daskvna erTi SeiZleba iyos: Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi gzisoba ar aris ganmsazGvreli niSani mwkrivTa semantikuri (aspeqturi) opoziciis SeqmnaSi, is ar Semodis TxrobiTi kilos mwkrivebis ZiriTad semantikur niSnebSi. * amgvarad, kilo, dro da aspeqti (maTi qvesistemebiT) urTierTierarqiul mimarTebaSi srulyofilad axasiaTebs qarTuli zmnis mwkrivTa, rogorc formobriv-semantikur erTeulTa, sistemas. am sistemis (paradigmis) yvela wevri damoukidebeli semantikuri niSniT warmodgeba. mwkrivis ZiriTad mniSvnelobaSi damoukidebeli semantikuri niSani misi enobrivi arsebobis ganmsazGvreli pirobaa. amitomac yoveli semantikuri niSnis cvla (formis cvlasTan erTad) uflebas gvaZlevs gamovyoT calke zmnuri erTeuli, damoukidebeli enobrivi odenoba. warmodgenili semantikuri klasifikaciis ierarqiuli suraTi aseT saxes miiGebs:

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kilo

TxrobiTi

kavSirebiTi

dro

namyo

awmyo

myofadi

aspeqti

SedegobiTi

araSedegobiTi

sruli

usruli

sruli

usruli

wyvetili

uwyveteli

mTeli paradigmis (uGlebis sistemis) formaluri (fuZisa) da semantikuri (`diferencialur niSanTa~) maxasiaTeblebis gaTvaliswinebiT gadawera amgvar suraTs mogvcems (am SemTxvevaSi, cxadia, mwkrivTa tradiciuli saxelwodebebis gamoyeneba aGar moxerxdeba):
# 1. 2. 3. 4. mwkrivis forma xatavs xatavda xatavdes daxatavs semantikuri (`diferencialuri~) niSnebi TxrobiTi + awmyo TxrobiTi + warsuli + uwyveteli kavSirebiTi + [awmyo] + usruli TxrobiTi + momavali

IV. zmnis morfologia 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. daxatavda daxatavdes xata daxata xatos daxatos uxatavs dauxatavs exata daexata exatos daexatos

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kavSirebiTi + [warsuli] + sruli kavSirebiTi + [momavali] + sruli TxrobiTi + warsuli + usruli TxrobiTi + warsuli + sruli kavSirebiTi + [awmyo/momavali] + usruli kavSirebiTi + [momavali] + sruli TxrobiTi + warsuli + usruli + SedegobiTi TxrobiTi + warsuli + sruli + SedegobiTi kavSirebiTi + warsuli + usruli + SedegobiTi kavSirebiTi + warsuli + sruli + SedegobiTi `_ _ _ _ ~ `_ _ _ _ ~

ramdenime SeniSvna: 1. ZiriTadi funqcionaluri niSnis mixedviT (`neitraluri konteqstis~ Seqmnis unari) kavSirebiTi kilos formebad miviCnevT, erTi mxriv, daxatavda, xolo meore mxriv, _ exata, daexata erTeulebs. istoriuli analizic naTlad warmoaCens, ra gza gaiara Zveli qarTuli II TurmeobiTis TxrobiTi kilos formebma Tanamedrove kavSirebiTis gamoxatvamde. es monacemi ZiriTadi niSnebiT sruliad daemTxva III kavSirebiTis formebs, ramac uTuod ganapiroba is, rom es ukanaskneli Tanamedrove qarTulSi TiTqmis mTlianad aris atrofirebuli (SesaZlebelia, Tanamedrove sistemas bolo ori erTeuli sabolood aGmoCndes CamoSorebuli). 2. kavSirebiTi kilos formebis daxasiaTeba drois niSnebiT sakmaod pirobiTia, vinaidan, maTi bunebidan gamomdinare, am mwkrivebis Sesabamisi maxasiaTeblebi vlindeba mxolod funqcionaluri semantikis doneze da, rogorc araerTgzis mieTiTa, es semantika sakmaod labiluria. 3. sauGlebel erTeulTa zmniswiniT garCeva mxolod zmnaTa nawils axasiaTebs. sxva SemTxvevebSi paradigma igeba fuZis monacvleobiT (cxovrobs _ icxovrebs _ icxovra _ ucxovria...), anda supleturi warmoebiT (aris _ iyo _ iqneba...). am SemTxvevaSi ufro xelSesaxebia paradigmatul erTeulTa formaluri gansxvaveba, Tumca maTTvis niSandoblivia sistemis wevrTa kleba, paradigmis defeqturoba.

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ZiriTadi orientiria qarTuli zmnis paradigmis warmodgenili sruli modeli aucilebeli semantikuri niSnebis (kategoriebis) gaTvaliswinebiT. am niSnebiT, formalurad (fuZiT) da funqcionaluri datvirTviT es sistema enobrivi realobaa. marTalia, formaluri TvalsazrisiT TvalSisacemia zmniswinian da uzmniswino formaTa paralelizmi (rogorc SeCveul _ xatavs / daxatavs, ise SeuCvevel _ xata / daxata _ SemTxvevaSi), magram enobriv sistemaSi maTi damoukidebeli arseboba _ formaluradac da semantikuradac _ sruliad aSkaraa. funqcionirebis TvalsazrisiT warmodgenil formaTa distribucia namdvilad ver CaiTvleba Tavisufali varirebis SemTxvevad, rom maTi `aloformebad~ miCneva iyos SesaZlebeli. uGlebis es sruli sistema, bunebrivia, savaldebulo ver iqneba yvela tipis zmnisaTvis. rogorc cnobilia, arsebobs araerTi nakluli paradigma, ZiriTadad, gardauval, statikur zmnebSi. magram ZiriTad modelad unda miviGoT ara nakluli, aramed sruli sistema. rogorc Cans, enobrivi (Sinagani) modelebi sruli sistemis mixedviT yalibdeba da Semdeg enaSi mTeli procesebi mimdinareobs nakluli modelebis srulTan gaTanabrebisa. magaliTad, dialeqtebSi Cans, rogorc ergeba Taniani mravlobiTi saxelis brunebis srul models: maT-ma, maT-s, maT-is... amis nimuSia mwkrivnakl zmnebSi paradigmatuli Canacvlebis, sxva fuZis gamoyenebis Tu sxva magaliTebi. moTxovna garkveuli zmnuri mniSvnelobis (semantikur niSanTa gansazGvruli `konis~) gamoxatvisa aris is Sinagani `xelmZGvaneli~, romelic aiZulebs enis matarebels, daicvas arsebuli optimaluri modeli da, sairoebis SemTxvevaSi, misi karnaxiT `Seavsos~ nakluli modeli. amis magaliTad gamodgeba Zveli supleturi warmoeba zmnisa: aris _ iyo. aoristi iyo erTdroulad iTavsebda aspeqtobriv Sinaarss srulisas da usrulisas, wyvetilisas da uwyvetlisas; amitomac enam es `anomalia~ nawilobriv daZlia paradigmis gasworebiT: iyof(v)is _ iyof(v)oda _ iyo... anda: tiris formas wyvetilSi enacvleba itira. am formaSi aspeqturi diferenciacia ar aisaxeba. amitomac amgvar SemTxvevaSi ena usruli aspeqtis danakliss avsebs formis gameorebiT (itira da itira), meore SemTxvevaSi ki dialeqturi itiri-

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la formiT. itirila _ itira opozicia ukve iseTsave mimarTebas gamoxatavs, rogorsac aSena _ aaSena... anda, Sdr.: ikvnesa, iWikWika da Caikvnes-CaiWikWika da misT. Tu ara sistemis `dawola~ (zemoqmedeba), cxadia, amgvari `gasworeba~ ar moxdeboda. amgvarad, qarTuli zmnis formaTa semantikuri analizi, gansakuTrebiT sauGlebel erTeulTa aGwera Semadgeneli semantikuri elementebis (`diferencialuri niSnebis~) principiT, gvafiqrebinebs, rom zmnis uRlebis sruli sistema (paradigma) Tanamedrove qarTulSi warmodgenili SeiZleba iyos 16 sauRlebeli erTeulis saxiT. IV. 3.16. zmnis mniSvnelobis (`zmnurobis~) dakargvis SemTxvevebi; zmnis gadaqceva nawilakad, kavSirad, modalur elementad. qarTulSi zmnis piriani forma zogjer kargavs zmnurobas da sxva metyvelebis nawilad gvevlineba sxvadasxva modifikaciiT, damoukidebeli saxiT an romelime elementTan SerwymiT. warmoSobiT nazmnari formebia calkeuli sityvebi, romlebic Sorisdebulis funqciiT gvxvdeba da gamoiyeneba misalmebis, madlobis gadaxdis, Tavaziani mimarTvis, ficis dros: gagimarjos, gmadlobT, genacvale / genacva, geTayva (< geTayvane), RmerTmani (< RmerTman icis). zogi zmnis piriani forma gamoiyeneba modaluri daniSnulebiT da iqceva nawilakad, kavSirad, morfemoidad. nazmnar formaTagan modaluri elementi miiReba TviT amosaval zmnaTa semantikis safuZvelze. zmnuri mniSvnelobis daCrdilvis Semdeg zogi zmnis forma fonetikuradac icvleba da nazmnari modaluri elementi formiTac gansxvavdeba Zireulisagan (daxe, egeb, iqneb, dae). gvaqvs iseTi SemTxvevebic, roca nazmnari modaluri elementi Zireulisagan formalurad ar gansxvavdeba (Cans, unda, etyoba). zogi zmnuri forma sakuTriv zmnis funqciiTac gvxvdeba da modaluri elementis statusiTac (unda, iqneba, etyoba), zogi ki _ mxolod modaluri daniSnulebiT (-Tqo, -meTqi, egeb, lamis). zmnuri warmomavlobis modaluri elementebi: egeb/ egeba nawilakad qceuli zmnuri formaa; igi Tanamedrove qarTulSi mxolod modaluri elementis statusiT gvxvde-

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ba da gamoxatavs SesaZleblobas an daeWvebas. misi mniSvnelobaa: iqneb SeiZleba, vin icis, vinZlo: egeb jobdes, amaRam aq darCes. egeb yvelaferi kargad damTavrdes. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos dialeqtebSi egeb nawilaki dasturdeba ageb ageba agebis variantebiT. es zmnuri forma Zvel qarTulSi warmodgenili iyo, rogorc egebis da sakuTriv zmnis funqciiT gamoiyeneboda aseTi mniSvnelobiT: SeiZleba, jer ars. am mniSvnelobiT es zmna Tanamedrove qarTulSi mxolod uaryofiT nawilakTan erTad gvxvdeba: ar egebis, ar egeba (=ar SeiZleba, SeuZlebelia, ar iqneba) da umetesad stilizaciis mizniT aris gamoyenebuli. egebis zmnis modalur elementad gamoyenebisas semantikuri cvlileba aseTia: SesaZlebel ars, SeiZleba > SesaZloa, iqneb, vin icis. semantikur da formobriv cvlilebasTan erTad (egebis > egeba > egeb) Seicvala sintaqsuri wyoba: `egebis yofad~ tipis masdaruli konstruqcia Seicvala SesityvebiT, romelSic egeb-s Seewyo kavSirebiTis formebi, awmyo, uwyveteli, wyvetili, II TurmeobiTi: egeb werdes, egeb wers, egeb werda, egeb dawera, egeb daewera. egeb modaluri elementis saSualebiT qarTulSi gamoikveTa SesaZleblobis kilos gamoxatvis tendencia (b. jorbenaZe). iqneba Tanamedrove qarTulSi ori daniSnulebiT gamoiyeneba: sakuTriv zmnisa da modaluri elementisa. modalur elementad gamoyenebam ganapiroba misi formobrivi cvlileba: iqneba > iqneb. zmna iqneba-s zogadi mniSvnelobaa: iarsebebs. aqedan ganviTarebulia sasurvelobis semantika: vinZlo iyos iarsebos, rac safuZvlad daedo kidec am formis gamoyenebas modaluri elementis daniSnulebiT. sasurvelobis semantikis garda igi gamoxatavs varaudsac. iqneb exameba II kavSirebiTis formebs (iqneb movides, iqneb SeZlos), SesaZloa Segvxvdes sxva paradigmis formebTanac (iqneb wers, iqneb werda, iqneb dawera). iqneba, rogorc damoukidebeli an meSveli zmnis, da iqneba, rogorc modaluri elementis, gamoyenebis sferoebi enaSi mkveTrad gamijnulia: saxelTan (masdarTan, mimReobasTan) igi zmnis funqciiT gvxvdeba, zmnasTan _ modaluri elementis funqciiT (b. jorbenaZe).

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unda nawilaki gamoxatavs valdebulebas, aucileblobas: saWiroa, aucilebelia; unda vakeTebde, unda gavakeTo. warmoSobiT igi damoukidebeli zmnaa. unda zmna Tanamedrove qarTulSi ori mniSvnelobiT ixmareba: a) surs, swadia: qurds ra unda da bneli Rameo (andaza)... b) esaWiroeba, misTvis saWiroa: karg mTqmels kargi gamgone undao (andaza). rodesac unda pirveli mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba, iuRleba rogorc subieqturi, aseve obieqturi wyobiT (vundivar, vundodi, vundode. minda, mindoda, mindodes), xolo rodesac meore mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba, mxolod obieqturi wyoba aqvs da mxolod awmyos wris paradigmebi moepoveba (kargi gamgone minda, kargi gamgone mindoda, kargi gamgone mindodes). swored am meore mniSvnelobisagan ganviTarda is semantika, romelsac modaluri elmenti unda gamoxatavs: surs > sWirdeba > saWiroa... morfemoidis funqciiT gamoyenebisas unda mxolod kavSirebiTis formebs exameba da pirebis mixedviT ucvlelia, ar iuRleba. dialeqtebSi igi formobrivad icvleba. fonetikuri cveTis Sedegad kaxurSi, aWarulsa da mesxur-javaxurSi gvaqvs: unda una > nda na da (iq-nda mivides). unda gvxvdeba Tu nawilakTan Serwymuli: Tunda Tund; Tunda-s zogjer c nawilakic erTvis: Tundac (dialeqtebSi gvxvdeba Tumdac formiTac). es forma kavSirad aris qceuli da gamoxatavs: a) pirobas (`dae, Tund movkvde, ar meSinian~. ilia). b) saTqmelisadmi ganurCevel damokidebulebas (`Tund amodi, mzeo, da Tund nu amoxval~. vaJa). Tundac gvxvdeba agreTve CarTul sityvad winadadebaSi da imave funqcias asrulebs, rasac _ magaliTad: aviRoT, Tundac, erTi SemTxveva. modaluri daniSnulebiT gamoiyeneba agreTve unda zmnis II piris forma sxvadasxva modifikaciiT (damoukidebeli saxiT an Tu nawilakTan SerwymiT): ginda gind, Tuginda Tugind. ginda (iseve, rogorc Tund) kavSirad aris qceuli da aRniSnavs: a) pirobas (daerTvis c nawilakic _ gindac: gindac moklan, mainc arafers ityvis; b) ama Tu im garemoebis mimarT ganurCevel damokidebulebas (gind gaakeTe, gind ara). Zvel qarTulSi gvqonda gina, romelic kaxur dialeqtSi dRemdea SemorCenili.

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

lamis gamoxatavs miaxlovebiTobas, imaves, rasac kinaRam, TiTqmis: lamis atirda; lamis guli gauskda. Zvel qarTulSi lamis damoukidebeli zmnis formaa, imave struqturisa, rac `suris / surin~ formebi da niSnavs: apirebs, cdilobs. fuZe lam Tanamedrove qarTulSi -ob Temis niSans dairTavs: lam-ob-s. qarTuli enis ganviTarebis gviandel safexurze orive forma dasturdeba: v-lam-i v-lam-ob. dRes maTgan mxolod meore forma gvxvdeba, pirveli ki III piris formiT SemorCa, rogorc modaluri elementi. modaluri elementi lamis II kavSirebiTis formas exameba: lamis gavgiJde. lamis Cemi damemarTos. II kavSirebiTis garda igi SeiZleba Seexamos sxva paradigmis formebsac: lamis tiris, lamis tiroda, lamis itira, lamis etira. am morfemoids modalur elementad gamoyenebis dros unari aqvs zmnisTvis damaxasiaTebeli konstruqcia Seqmnas: `lamis, rom ar Saewiros~ (vaJa). igi gvxvdeba aris zmnasTan erTadac, romelic am SemTxvevaSi meSveli zmnis funqciiTaa gamoyenebuli: lamis aris, gagiJdes. dae nawilak-morfemoidi miRebulia daexsen zmnisagan. igi ixmareba III pirTan brZanebiTis gasaZliereblad da gamoxatavs: a) muqaras (dae, naxos, rac mouva!); b) daTmobas, Tanxmobas (dae, moxdes, rac mosaxdenia!); g) survils, natvras (`dae, ayvavdes imedi!~ akaki). iSviaTad dae I pirTanac gvxvdeba (`dae, Tund movkvde, ar meSinian!~ ilia). asimilaciiT dae gvaZlevs dee-s, zogjer _ SemoklebiT de-s (dee, ise iyos, rogorc Tqven gindaT! de, Seni sityva gamarTldes!). zmnuri warmoSobis modaluri formebia: davuSvaT, vTqvaT, vfiqrob, veWvob, vgoneb, mgonia. davuSvaT, vTqvaT CaerTvis winadadebaSi da gamoxatavs piroba-SesaZleblobas (davuSvaT, Cemi sityva ar gamarTlda... vTqvaT, yvelaferi kargad damTavrda...). vfiqrob, veWvob, vgoneb, mgonia / mgoni aseve CaerTvis winadadebaSi da gamoxatavs varauds, daeWvebas, SesaZleblobas (vfiqrob, eqsperimentma gaamarTla. veWvob, am saqmidan rame gamovides. vgoneb, yvelaferma kargad Caiara. mgonia, ase ajobebs). modaluri mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba agreTve zmnebi: Cans, etyoba, modi, adga.

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Cans, etyoba varaudis modalobas gamoxatavs: `mxedrebi daqanculni Candnen~ (k. gamsax); `rogorc etyoba, ...aq bevri gzebic ukeTebiaT~ (gogeb). modi waqezebis funqcias asrulebs: `modi da, fatman, mewie, vecadneT maTsa rgebasa~ (vefx). modi SeiZleba mxolod zmniswinis saxiTac Segvxvdes: `mo, davsxdeT, tarielisTvis cremli gvdis SeuSrobeli~ (vefx). adga eqspresiulobas matebs frazas: adga da miswera werili. igi xSirad gamoiyeneba zRaprebSi (adgnen da daiweres jvari. adga da wavida bedis saZebnelad). nazmnari formebis garda modaluri mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba zmnuri Sesityvebebic. zmnuri SesityvebebiT miRebuli modaluri elementebia: vinicobaa < vinicoba aris < vin icis-oba < vin icis, gamoxatavs piroba-SesaZleblobas (vinicobaa dagvagviandes, ar dagvelodoT!). TiTqmis < Tu iTqmis, gamoxatavs miaxlovebiTobas (TiTqmis mivaRwieT mizans). TiTqos / TiTqo < Tu iTqvas, esec miaxlovebiTobas gamoxatavs. gamoiyeneba mosalodneli an dasaSvebi moqmedebis gamosaxatavad (TiTqos yvelaferi kargad iyo). SesaZloa < SesaZlo aris; gamoiyeneba mosalodneli an dasaSvebi moqmedebis gamosaxatavad (SesaZloa ise ver gavakeTe, rogorc mindoda). kia < ki aris; dadasturebiTi nawilak-morfemoidia, romelic saliteraturo enaSi naklebad gamoiyeneba, gvxvdeba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos dialeqtebSi: gauxarda kia Zalian. ragind < rac ginda; gvxvdeba pirobiT-daTmobiTi funqciiT (`ragind bediT viyo kruli..., ar Sedrkeba Cemi guli~. akaki). SesaZloa, zmnuri warmomavlobisa iyos vinZlo elementic: vin-Se-iZlo > vinZlo (b. jorbenaZe, m. kobaiZe, m. beriZe), romelic waqezeba-waxalisebas gamoxatavs (`vinZlo, qveyana ar gaacino!~ yazbegi). arsebobs sxva mosazrebac: vin-Zi-ro(m) > vinZlo (a. SaniZe). zmnuri warmoSobisaa sxvaTa sityvis gamomxatveli nawilakebi: -Tqo, -o, -meTqi. maTi saSualebiT gadmoicema visime naTqvamis gameoreba (ukve giTxari, gavakeTeb-meTqi; uTxari, gavakeTebTqo; uTxra, gavakeTebo). -Tqo da -o miRebulia Tqva zmnisagan:

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Tqva > Tqo > o, -meTqi (dialeqturi: -meTqin, -mei) ki me vTqvi Sesityvebis Serwymisa da fonetikuri cveTis Sedegad aris miRebuli: me vTqvi > meTqi. nazmnari formebis gamoyeneba modaluri elementebis daniSnulebiT qarTulSi araiSviaTi movlenaa. zmnur formaTa da SesityvebaTa qceva nawilakad, kavSirad, Sorisdebulad SesaZlebelia TviT am zmnaTa amosavali semantikisa da sintaqsuri konstruqciis Taviseburebis safuZvelze. rodesac zmnuri formebi kargaven zmnur niSnebs da modalur elementebad iqcevian, isini gansxvavdebian amosavali piriani zmnebisagan sintaqsuri da morfologiuri TaviseburebebiT, xSirad ki fonetikuri cveTis Sedegad _ formiTac. IV. 3.17. zmnis mniSvnelobis gamoxatvis SesaZleblobebi qarTulSi. zmna-Semasmenlis funqciiT qarTulSi iSviaTad SeiZleba Segvxvdes sxva metyvelebis nawili. zmnis mniSvneloba (`zmnuroba~) SesaZlebelia gamoxatuli iyos zmniswiniT, atributiviT, substantiviT an SorisdebuliT. aseTi SemTxvevebi iSviaTia da zmnuri formis Semoklebis an zmnuri konstruqciis SekumSvis Sedegia. sasaubro metyvelebaSi gvxvdeba zmnebis Semokleba bolo marcvlis mokveciT, rac Cveulebriv xdeba brZanebiTSi: dade, mome, Sexe, daica, daiWi da sxv. (ix. IV. 5.10.7.). zogjer zmnis forma imdenad mokldeba, rom rCeba mxolod zmniswini. aseTi SemTxvevebi gvxvdeba saSual qarTulSi: `mo, davsxdeT, tarielisTvis cremli gvdis ar-SeSrobili~. (vefx.); `wa, Seebi xataelTa, ilaSqre da inapire...~ ("vefx.~). aseTi formebi gvqonda TxrobiTSic: `mibrZana: mogewonao? movaxsene: mo-meTqi~ (`amiran.~). Tanamedrove qarTulSi msgavsi formebi Zalze iSviaTia da gvxvdeba ZiriTadad brZanebiTSi: gamo, Semo, wamo, Camo... sasaubro metyvelebidan es formebi Sesulia saliteraturo enaSic. iSviaTad gvaqvs SemTxvevebi, roca zmnis mniSvneloba gamoixateba atributiviT, rac zmnuri konstruqciis SekumSvis Sedegia: Cumad! (=Cumad iyavi!), swrafad! (=swrafad gaakeTe!), adgilze! (=Sens adgilze iyavi!) da a.S.

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atributivi SesaZloa Sekvecili saxiTac Segvxvdes: Cu! (=Cumad!). zmnuri mniSvneloba zogjer gamoixateba substantiviTac: siCume! (=siCume iyos!), siwynare! (=siwynare iyos!), musika! (=musika daiwyos!)... saxelebis gamoyeneba zmnuri mniSvnelobiT meoreuli faqtia: zmnuri konstruqciis SekumSvis Sedegia da, rogorc wesi, gvxvdeba brZanebis dros (b. jorbenaZe). iSviaTad SeiZleba zmnis mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebuli iyos Sorisdebuli: `Sesjdomia erT kameCs rqasa da rqas Sua gaberili bayayi da _ yua! _yua!~ (r. inan.). `midis da guli _ dag-dug! dag-dug!~ (r. inan). `Causafrdebian jixvebs da _ baax! baax!~ (r. inan.). `mwyeri balaxSi gogmanebs, afrindeba da friii!~ (m. focx.). rogorc cnobilia, xmabaZviTi Sorisdebulebi geneturad dakavSirebulia xmabaZviT saxelur da zmnur fuZeebTan (braxabruxi, lawaluwi, raxaruxi, braxvani, tkacani, kraWuni da sxv.). isini warmogvidgenen moqmedebis siswrafes, simkveTres, gadmogvcemen mimsgavsebas im xmisas, romelic ismis romelime moqmedebis Sesrulebisas. es Sorisdebulebi axlos arian zmnebTan funqciurad da geneturad. amitom, bunebrivia, zogjer, rodesac winadadebaSi gamotovebulia zmna-Semasmeneli, misi mniSvnelobis gamoxatva SesaZlebelia xmabaZviTi SorisdebuliT. is, rom zmna-Semasmenlis funqcias zogjer iRebs zmniswini, saxeli, Sorisdebuli, sainteresoa enis gamomsaxvelobiTi SesaZleblobebis TvalsazrisiT.

Tavi IV. gvari _ qarTuli zmnis ZiriTadi saklasifikacio erTeuli IV. 4.1. dinamikuroba-statikurobis mniSvneloba da gvari
IV. 4.1.1. gvaris raobis sakiTxi. zmnis gvaris kategoriis Sesaxeb samecniero literaturaSi nairgvari da urTierTgamomricxavi mosazrebani arsebobs. gvaris kategoriis sirTule da Tavisebureba arsobrivadaa danaxuli e. benvenistis Semdegi SeniSvniT: `aqtivisa da pasivis gansxvaveba SeiZleba im zmnuri kategoriis nimuSad gamodges, Cvens Cveul azrovnebas rom aforiaqebs: is aucilebeli Cans, magram ucnobia bevri enisaTvis, martivia, magram misi interpretaciis dros did siZneleebs vawydebiT, simetriulia, Tumca gvacvifrebs Tavisi gamoxatvis araTanmimdevrulobiT~. opozicia aqtivi-pasivi TiTqos ufro garkveulia, opozicia aqtivi-saSuali (an mediumi) ufro bundovani, gaurkvevelia am opoziciaTa urTierTmimarTebis, maTi diaqroniuli interpretaciis (uwinaresoba-Semdgomadobis) sakiTxi: dasadgenia, romeli dapirispireba ufro aucilebelia enis aRsawerad da sxv. sadavoa, gvari morfologiaSi unda Seiswavlebodes, sintaqsSi, Tu is morfologia-sintaqsis an sulac leqsikis obieqtia _ es da sxva kidev bevri sakiTxi aRiZvris gvaris kategoriis Seswavlisas. gvaris kategoria bevr enaSi ar aisaxeba; ar aisaxeba is ergatiuli konstruqciis enebSic. es debuleba TiTqmis sayovelTaodaa gaziarebuli: ergatiuli enebi neitraluria gvaris formaluri da ara semantikuri gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT. mTis kavkasiur enebSi vnebiTis Canasaxs Tu SevxvdebiT. qarTvelur enebSi gvarTa Sepirispireba (aqtivi : pasivi) met-naklebad Camoyalibebul sistemas qmnis da aq bunebrivad Cndeba kiTxva, Tu ramdenad egueba qarTuli enis (qarTveluri enebis) ergatiuli tipis enad gaazreba gvaris kategoriis gamoyofas. gvaris kategoriis gagebis zogadi Tvalsazrisebi Tavisi Sinagani winaaRmdegobebiT qarTul gramatikul literaturaSi sa-

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Tanadod aris asaxuli. am literaturis mixedviT gvaris kategoria arsebiTad ganisazRvreba rogorc 1. leqsikur-gramatikuli (a.SaniZe...); 2. sintaqsur-morfologiuri (f. erTeliSvili, b. jorbenaZe...); 3. morfologiuri (arn. Ciqobava, a. oniani...) kategoria. gvaris gansazRvra a. SaniZis qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebSi (1953, 1973, 1981 w.w.) tradiciulad asea warmodgenili: gvari aris zmnis forma, romelic gviCvenebs, Tu rogoria urTierToba gramatikulad moqmed pirsa da zmniT aRniSnul moqmedebas Soris: g a m o m d i n a r e o b s m o q m e d e b a s u b i e q t u r i p i r i s a g a n d a s x v a p i r z e a d a m a r T e b u l i, g a n i c d i s a m m o q m e d e b a s, T u g a m o m d i n a r e o b s m i s g a n , magram ise, rom arc sxva pirzea damarTebuli da arc gancdilia sxvisi zemoqmedebiT (a. SaniZe). gvaris kategoriis am tradiciuli sampunqtiani ganmartebis Sesabamisad, gamoiyofa gvaris sami forma: m o q m e d e b i T i , v n e b i T i d a s a S u a l i . gvaris definiciaSi `sxva pirzea damarTebulis~ SemotaniT, ukve sintaqsSi gavdivarT da, Sesabamisad, saopozicio wevrebis daxasiaTebaSi sintaqsuri kategoriebis _ qvemdebarisa da pirdapiri damatebis _ urTierTobebi airekleba. moqmedebiTia (a q t i u r i a ) gvari, romelic gviCvenebs, rom gramatikulad moqmedi piri, romelsac subieqturis saxeliT vicnobT, igivea, rac realurad moqmedi piri da mas moepoveba samoqmedo piri, pirdapir-obieqturis saxeliT cnobili: v a g o r e b me mas. vnebiTia (p a s i u r i a ) gvari, romelic gviCvenebs, rom subieqturi piri imasve ganicdis, rasac pirdapir-obieqturi piri saTanado moqmedebiTSi, oRond zmnis formiT ar Cans, Tu visgan an risgan: g o r d e b a . saSualia (m e d i a l u r i a ) gvari, romelic gviCvenebs, rom subieqturi piri `moqmedebs~ ise, rom samoqmedo obieqti ara aqvs, magram am moqmedebas ar `ganicdis~, rogorc amas adgili aqvs vnebiTSi: g o r a v s (a. SaniZe). am ganmartebis mixedviT, gvaris kategoria oraqtantiani gardamavali zmnis kategoriaa, romelic zmnasTan semantikurad da sintaqsurad dakavSirebuli saxelebis, kerZod, s u b i e q t i s a da p i r d a p i r i o b i e q t i s (qvemdebarisa da pirdapiri dama-

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tebis) mimarTebas asaxavs. es mimarTeba realizdeba subieqtis aqtiuroba-pasiurobis zogadi mniSvnelobis farglebSi gramatikulad dapirispirebul formaTa safuZvelze. saSuali gvari am TvalsazrisiT neitraluria. moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebSi subieqtis moqmedebis samizne pirdapiri obieqtia, subieqti aqtiuria; vnebiTebSi Tavad subieqti xdeba moqmedebis samizne, Sesabamisad, subieqti pasiuria; realuri moqmedi zmnis formaSi ar aRiniSneba; saSual zmnebSi subieqtis moqmedebis mizani ar ikveTeba, _ subieqts samoqmedo obieqti ar uCans. irib obieqtTan (irib damatebasTan) mimarTeba gvaris definiciaSi ar aisaxeba. gvaris kategoriis a. SaniZis mier mocemul ganmartebaSi axsnilia gvaris formaTa Soris urTierTdamokidebulebis meqanizmi _ k o n v e r s i a . konversiuli urTierToba (upiratesad, aqtiv-pasivisa) ganixileba, rogorc erTi da imave Sinaarsis realizacia gansxvavebuli gramatikuli formebiT: biWi agorebs u r i k a s _ u r i k a gordeba (biWis mier) _ u r i k a goravs mze aTbobs d e d a m i w a s _ d e d a m i w a mzisagan Tbeba mxatvari xatavs s u r a T s _ s u r a T i ixateba mxatvris mier... konversiis gziT logikuri pirdapiri damateba gramatikul qvemdebared gardaiqmneba, logikuri qvemdebare wyvets zmnasTan kavSirs da Tandebuliani ubralo damatebis rolSi gvevlineba. gvaris sistema, rogorc iTqva, samwevrovania, magram es samwevrovani sistema enaSi yovelTvis ar aris realizebuli. gvxvdeba rogorc samwevrovani, ise orwevrovani sistemebis saxiT: a w u x e b s _ w u x d e b a _ w u x s... T l i s _ i T l e b a ( u T l i s _ e T l e b a ) tipisa. realuria, magram mainc SedarebiT iSviaTi, gvaris opoziciuri sistemis erTwevriani mocemulobac: a. SaniZis terminiT, gvaris mixedviT `ucalo~ zmnebi, romlebic formalurad miekuTvnebian gvaris ama Tu im saxeobas: ucalo moqmedebiTi: h - p a r a v - s ... `guguli kvercxebs h p a r a v s Citebs~... (T. razik.)

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a b i a b r u e b - s ... saxels utexs, arcxvens... `Sen a b i a b u r e b Cems saxels, Se aramzadav~ (s. SanS.) a n a x v e b s... aCvenebs. momakvdavs Svilebi anaxves... c q v e t - s... yurebs cqvets... C i n C x v r a v - s... CinCxvars agrovebs. gzaze erTi uRrani tye iyo. erTi berikaci CinCxvars C i n C x v r a v d a (zRap.) (qegl)... ucalo vnebiTi: i l e S e b - a... 1. Zalian Tvreba. 2. kuTx. (fS.) Zalian ZReba i z m u z n e b - a... saub. isvreba, iTxvreba... bavSvebi i z m u z n e b i a n yurZniT (n. lorTq.) i R r u b l e b - a... 1. ca mali-mal i R r u b l e b a (i. gogeb.) (qegl)... al. harisi ucalo vnebiTis (iniani, eniani da uniSno) aTeulobiT formas asaxelebs: i-badreba, i-buzeba, i-buteba, i-zunzleba, i-turtleba, e-bRauWeba, e-mcnaureba, e-kveTeba, e-fereba.., drkeba, Svreba, xvdeba da a.S. ucalo saSuali: c u c u n e b - s... mokle nabijebiT moZraobs || fusfusebs... m e r y e o b - s... raime garkveul mtkice gadawyvetilebas ver adgeba... C x i k i n o b -s ... codvilobs, Cxirkedelaobs Zaladob-s ... Zalas xmarobs, Zalmomreobs... (qegl)... orwevrovan sistemebSi saopozicio calebad upiratesad moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris formebia warmodgenili (T l i s _ i T l e b a , b a r a v s _ i b a r e b a, a b r u e b s _ b r u v d e b a , a v e d r e b s _ e v e d r e b a ...), an moqmedebiTi da saSuali (a b a l a x e b s _ b a l a x o b s ...). gamoricxuli ar aris vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris formebiT Seqmnili saopozicio wyvilic: mag., y i n d e b a `yinvam mouWira, acivda, a y i n d a ~ (ilia) (qegl) da y i n a v s ; c u c q d e b a _ c u c q s . Sdr.: c u c q d e b - a ... muxlCakeciT jdeba (adamiani), an ukana fexebze, alaze jdeba (cxoveli)

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c u c q - s ... cucqze, muxlebCakeciT, Cacucquli zis (adamiani), ukana fexebze zis, alaze zis (cxoveli), _ dacucqebulia (qegl). IV. 4.1.2. gvaris adgilisaTvis gramatikul kategoriaTa sistemaSi. gramatikul kategoriebs Soris enebSi rom garkveuli saxis ierarqiuli mimarTebebi gamovlindeba, faqtia (vandriesi, e. benvenisti...); calkeuli am kategoriaTagani mxolod kerZo saxeobas warmoadgens ufro zogadi kategoriisa. e. benvenisti indoevropul enaTa zmnuri kategoriebis sistemaSi gvars miiCnevs fundamentur kategoriad im azriT, rom yvela uRlebadi zmnuri forma ama Tu im diaTezas ganekuTvneba; gvaris kategorias ganekuTvneba zmnuri saxelebic _ infinitivi da mimReoba. sxva enebSi SeiZleba sxva viTareba iyos, aq enaTa siaxlove yovelTvis ar wyvets sakiTxs; magaliTad, rusulSi gramatikul kategoriebs Soris ZiriTad rols aspeqti (moqmedebis saxe) asrulebs, laTinursa da frangulSi ki es kategoria gadmonaSTis saxiTRa gvevlineba xolme (vandriesi). aqedan daskvna, rom gramatikuli kategoriis statusi sxva gramatikul kategoriebTan mimarTebiT unda daxasiaTdes romelime konkretul enaSi da am enis garkveuli periodisaTvis. qarTulSi, zmnuri kategoriebis sistemaSi, gvari, miuxedavad garkveuli araTanmimdevrulobisa, sagramatiko literaturis mixedviT, erT-erTi warmmarTveli kategoriaa. aqtiv-pasivisa da saSuali gvaris dapirispireba arsebiTad moicavs ZiriTad zmnur leqsikas, yvela uRlebadi (da, _ arauRlebadi) zmnuri forma gvaris kategoriis romelsame saxeobas ganekuTvneba. gvari upiro formebTan qarTulSi iseve ganixileba, rogorc pirian formebTan. kerZod: `gvari aris zmnis forma, romelic gviCvenebs, rom sagani, romelsac aRniSnavs an romlis mimarTac naxmaria es mimReoba: a) sxva sagnis mimarT aris moqmedebis Camdeni, b) an moqmedeba mas aqvs `gancdili~ (anu `damarTebuli~), g) an kidev gamoyvanilia moqmedad, magram sxva saganTan mimarTebis gareSe da ganucdelad. [ g a ] m g o r e b e l i `vinc agorebs~ _ moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobaa.

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a g o r e b u l i `rac aagores~ _ vnebiTi gvarisaa: `a g o r e b u l qvas xavsi ar moekidebao~ (andaz.). m g o r a v i _ `rac goravs~ _ saSuali gvarisa: `m g o r a v s qvas xavsi ar moekidebao~ (andaz.) da ase : moqmedebiTi mawuxebeli [ ] a maRelvebeli [ ] a mSenebeli gamgzavneli vnebiTi Sewuxebuli aRelvebuli aSenebuli gagzav nili saSuali mwuxare mRelvare da a.S.

gvaris kategoria gamonaklisis saxiT gvxvdeba sawyisTanac (moqm. t e x a _ vn. t y d o m a , w y v e t a _ w y d o m a , x e T q a _ s k d o m a da sxv.). ufro moqmedebiTisa da saSualis formebia garCeuli: b r u n e b a _ brunva, f e T q e b a _ feTqva, w u x e b a _ wuxili... gvaris kategoriebi ganixileba piris, aspeqtis, qcevisa da kauzativis kategoriebTan mimarTebiTac. moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi o r - da s a m p i r i a n e b i a , erTpiriani moqmedebiTi gvaris zmna ar arsebobs: a k e T e b s i s m a s , u k e T e b s i s m a s m a s ... vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris zmnebi e r T - da o r p i r i a n e b i a , sampiriani vnebiTi da saSuali, ramdenime gamonaklisis garda (hpirdeba, uyveba... is mas mas), qarTulSi ar gvaqvs: i x a t e b a is e x a t e b a is mas k e T d e b a is u k e T d e b a is mas T b e b a is u T b e b a is mas saSuali C a n s is u C a n s is mas w u x s is u w u x s is mas... moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebs aqvT rogorc u s r u l i , aseve s r u l i aspeqtis formebi (vnebiTebs ufro SezRudulad): moqmedebiTi aSena _ a-aSena akeTa _ ga-akeTa xata _ da-xata vnebiTi ixata _ da-ixata Senda _ a-Senda vnebiTi

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saSuali gvaris zmnebs sruli aspeqtis formebi ar ukeTdeba. moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebs q c e v i s s a m i v e f o r m a (s a a r v i s o , s a T a v i s o , s a s x v i s o ) aqvT: a-keTebs _ i-keTebs _ u - k e T e b s ... vnebiTsa da saSuals _ mxolod s a a r v i s o da s a s x v i s o : vnebiTi w u x d e b a _ u - w u x d e b a Tbeba _ u-Tbeba saSuali w u x s _ u - w u x s ... moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebs (da zogjer vnebiTebsac) ewarmoeba kauzativis (SualobiTi kontaqtis) formebi: moqm. a - T r - e v i n - e b s a-Tl-evin-eb-s a-kvle-evin-eb-s vneb. e - T r - e v i n - e b - a e-Tl-evin-eb-a e-kvl-evin-eb-a

saSuali gvaris formebs SualobiTi kontaqtis formebi ara aqvT. gvaris kategoriis formaTa dapirispireba udevs safuZvlad qarTuli zmnis uRlebis tipebad dajgufebas (a. SaniZe) da sxv. SeniSvna: mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis azriT, qarTulSi gvaris morfologiur kategoriad gamoyofa problemuria (r. asaTiani, d. meliqiSvili, i. meliqiSvili, a. harisi). IV. 4.1.3. gvaris formebi gamoxatulebisa da Sinaarsis planis mixedviT. gvaris formaTa dapirispireba (moqmedebiTi _ vnebiTi _ saSuali) qarTulSi marto Sinaarsis mixedviT ar aris warmodgenili. moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebs aqvT ara marto sakuTari Sinaarsi, aramed formac. saSuali gvaris zmnebi formisa da funqciis mixedviT aqtivsa da pasivs Soris arian gadanawilebuli. ZiriTadad formaluri dapirispireba aqtivsa da pasivs Soris dasturdeba. pasivis modelebs aqtivisagan arsebiTad Semdegi maxasiaTeblebi gamoarCevs: 1. awmyosa (da, saerTod, I seriis mwkrivebSi) -eb-i (I da II piri), -eb-a (III piri) daboloebebi;

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2. i-, e- xmovani prefiqsebi da -d sufiqsi I-II seriebSi; 3. -od savrcobi I seriaSi; 4. awmyos mwkrivSi subieqtis III piris -a sufiqsi, aqtivis -s sufiqsis sapirispirod. ase rom, moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa formebi warmoebis mixedviT erTmaneTs mkveTrad upirispirdebian uRvlilebis mTel sistemaSi, amitomac ganekuTvnebian isini uRlebis sxvadasxva tips. Tumca gvaqvs erTgvari gamonaklisic: II seriaSi prefiqsian (in_enian) vnebiTs Tavisi warmoeba ara aqvs da savsebiT misdevs saTanado zmnis moqmedebiTs (a. SaniZe). rac Seexeba gvaris saopozicio formaTa markirebis sakiTxs: qarTul saenaTmecniero literaturaSi gavrcelebuli mosazrebis mixedviT, gvaris saopozicio formebidan markirebulia mxolod vnebiTi da isic arasrulad; i-/ e- prefiqsiani da -d sufiqsiani vnebiTebis gverdiT gvaqvs aramarkirebuli e.w. `uniSno vnebiTebic~. amasTan, prefiqsian vnebiTTa i- da e- formantebi, gansxvavebiT -d sufiqsisagan, ar arian erTmniSvnelovnad mxolod vnebiTis markerebi, rac vnebiTis markirebis garkveul araTanmimdevrulobaze mianiSnebs. Tu imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom gvaris samwevrovan sistemaSi (moqmedebiTi : vnebiTi : saSuali), tradiciis mixedviT, qarTul gramatikebSi markirebulad mxolod vnebiTi aRiniSneba, samwevrovani sistema ki ori wevris markirebas mainc gulisxmobs, maSin qarTulSi gvaris kategoriis udavoba damajerebeli aRar Cans. vfiqrobT, rom qarTulSi, gvaris kategoriis arsebobis mtkicebisaTvis, faseuli Cans is Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac gvaris samwevrovan sistemaSi morfologiuri niSani (markeri) aqvs moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris formebs, saSuali gvaris zmnebi moqmedebiTisa da vnebiTis markirebul formebs uniSnobiT upirispirdebian; Sdr.: a-wuxebs _ wux-d-eba _ wuxs, a-goreb-s _ gor-d-eba _ goravs... orwevrovan sistemaSi niSniT ZiriTadad vnebiTia warmodgenili: ams _ i-meba, baravs _ i-bareba, Slis _ i-Sleba...

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Tumca markirebuli SeiZleba iyos moqmedebiTi gvaris formac, Tu mas saopozicio calad `uniSno vnebiTi~ moudis: a-Tbobs _ Tbeba, a-xmobs _ xmeba, a-Srobs _Sreba... gvaris orwevrovani opoziciis mqone zmnaTa erT jgufSi markirebulia rogorc moqmedebiTi, aseve vnebiTi gvaris formebi: a-vsebs _ i-vseba, a-rRvevs _ i-rRveva, a-rCevs _ i-rCeva, a-keTebs _ keT-d-eba, a-Senebs _ Sen-d-eba... e.i. gamoxatulebis planis mixedviT qarTulSi gvari morfologiuri kategoriaa: samwevrovan sistemebSi markirebulia minimum ori wevri, orwevrovan sistemebSi _ minimum erTi wevri. gvaqvs garkveuli gamonaklisebic. orwevriani sistemebis im jgufSi, romelSic fuZedrekad aqtivebs saopozicio calad uniSno vnebiTebi moudiT _ bned-s, bnida _ bndeba, dreks, drika _ drkeba, sxlets, sxlita _ sxlteba, cveTs, cviTa _ cvdeba, wyvets, wyvita _ wydeba... moqmedebiTi gvaris formebi markirebulia ablautiT. sayuradReboa, rom uniSno vnebiTebs i- prefiqsiani vnebiTic SeiZleba Seenacvlos: bndeba || i-bnideba, drkeba || i-drikeba, sxlteba || i-sxliteba, cvdeba || i-cviTeba, wydeba || i-wyviteba... paraleluri iniani formebi, i-sxlitebas garda (romelic TavisTavad realuri forma Cans) qeglSia damowmebuli. gvaris sistemis wevrTa markirebis wesi darRveuli Cans a-dgen-s _ dgeba _ dgas, a-wvens _ wveba _ wevs, a-krTobs _ krTeba _ krTis samwevrovan sistemebSi _ markirebulia mxolod moqmedebiTis forma, Tu, ra Tqma unda, vnebiTis models (-eb-i, -eb-a) formalur niSnad ar miviCnevT. samwevrovan a - d g e n s _ d g e b a _ d g a s, a - w v e n s _ w v e b a _ w e v s, a - k r T o b s _ k r T e b a _ k r T i s... sistemebSi markirebuli gamodis mxolod moqmedebiTis formebi, aqedan, Sinaarsis planis mixedviT a - w v e n s _ w v e b a _ w e v s iseve, rogorc a-dgens _ dgeba _ dgas ver CaiTvleba udavo konversiul calebad, Sdr.: konversiuli wyvili a-dgens _ dgindeba (T. uTurgaiZe) da faqtobrivad orwevrovani sistema gvaqvs aramarkirebuli vnebiTisa da saSuali gvaris formebiT: w v e b a _ w e v s da d g e b a _ d g a s .

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aqtiv-pasivis srulfasovani konversiuli dapirispireba (akrTobs _ krTeba) yovelTvis ar realizdeba akrTobs _ krTeba _ krTis sameulSi, radgan pasiuri k r T e b a paralelurad k r T i s medialuri statikuri formis mniSvnelobasac iTavsebs, Sdr.: krTeb-a 1. (SekrTa, SemkrTala) grduv. vneb. a k r T o b s zmnisa _ uecrad mTeli taniT aranebismierad Setokdeba (SiSisagan, moulodnelobisagan...)... 2. (mxolod nakvTTa awmyos wyebaSi) grduv. stat. igivea, rac k r T i s (mniSvn. 2). mTvaris Suqi aTasnairad k r T e b o d a oqrosa da Tvalmargalitze (v. barn.)... (qegl). rac Seexeba Sinaarsis plans: orwevrovan sistemebSi, sadac vnebiTebi prefiqsiTaa markirebuli: recxs _ i-recxeba (viRacis mier), a-vsebs _ i-vseba (viRacis mier)... moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris formebSi subieqtis aqtiuroba-pasiuroba xelSesaxebia (ra Tqma unda, ar igulisxmeba deponensuri zmnebi). aqtiurobapasiurobis Sinaarsi morfologiurad gamoixateba: - da a- markeriT _ aqtivebSi (-recxs, a-vsebs), i-/ e- markerebiT _ pasivebSi: i-recxeba _ e-recxeba, i-vseba _ e-vseba (v i R a c i s m i e r )... samwevrovan sistemebSi (a-wuxebs _ wux-d-eba _ wuxs, a-gorebs _ gor-d-eba _ goravs) markirebulia moqmedebiTis forma (a- prefiqsi) da vnebiTi (-d sufiqsi), aramarkirebulia saSuali gvaris forma, moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris mniSvnelobebi Sinaarsobrivad upirispirdeba erTmaneTs subieqtis aqtiuroba-pasiurobis mixedviT, magram bevr SemTxvevaSi vnebiTis semantika orazrovania: w u x d e b a i s v i R a c i s m i e r / g o r d e b a i s v i R a c i s m i e r , v i R a c i s d a x m a r e b i T _ tipis SesityvebebSi subieqti pasiuri ganmcdelia; w u x d e b a , g o r d e b a; T v i T o n _ aqtiuri ganmcdeli. am Sinaarsebis realizacia imazecaa damokidebuli, vnebiTi gvaris subieqti sulieri saxelia Tu usulo (v i n jgufis Tu r a jgufis). usulo saxeli pasiuri ganmcdelia, sulieri saxeli _ aqtiuri, magram arc sulieri subieqti gamoxatavs, rom moqmedeba yovelTvis nebelobiTi aqtia, Sdr.: b i W i d a g o r d a (T v i T o n ) d a b i W i d a a g o r e s d a d a g o r d a; Tumca sulier subieqtTan konstruqciaSic yovelTvis ar iZebneba subieqtis moqmedebis gamomwvevi gareSe mizezi:

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l o d i d a a g o r e s d a d a g o r d a, magram: `lodi lodze swydeba kldes da raxraxiT g o r d e b a Zirs~ (i. gedev.) (qegl) _ teqstSi realuri moqmedi ar Cans, magram raRac garegan mizezze miniSnebulia. sxva magaliTi: `erTmaneTs a w y d e b o d n e n da g o r d e b o d n e n ~ (s. SanS.) (qegl) _ d a g o r e b i s m i z e z i isev gareSe Zalaa (`e r T m a n e T s a w y d e b o d n e n ~), romelic gramatikulad ar realizdeba da konteqstidan amoicnoba. sufiqsiani vnebiTebis erT jgufSi, romlebic subieqtad usulo saxels Seiwyoben, subieqtis pasiuroba eWvs ar iwvevs: a-brtye lebs _ brtyel-d-eba, a-viwroebs _ viwrovd-eba, a-Rrmavebs _ Rrmav-d-eba, a-fuebs _ fuv-de b a... vnebiTis am formebSi subieqti ganmcdeli subieqtia. roca sufiqsian vnebiTs subieqtad sulieri saxeli Seewyoba, ganmcdeli pasiuri subieqti imavdroulad aqtiuri ganmcdelic xdeba: a b r u e b s _ b r u v d e b a _ `didi sacxisagan avadmyofi b r u v d e b a ~, a b r m a v e b s _ b r m a v d e b a , _ `didi sicxisagan adamiani b r m a v d e b a~ || figur. sixarbiT brmavdeba, _ SuriT brmavdeba, a b e C a v e b s _ b e C a v d e b a _ `beCavi, sacodavi xdeba~ (qegl) da a.S. vnebiTis konstruqciaSi SeiZleba aRdges moqmedebis realuri subieqti qvemdebarisebri ubralo damatebis, an instrumentuli damatebis saxiT brmavdeba (s i c x i s a g a n, s i x a r b i T, S u r i T)... aseTive viTareba gvaqvs a- prefiqsiani moqmedebiTi gvarisa da uniSno vnebiTebis Sinaarsobrivi dapirispirebisas: a - T b o b s _ T b e b a , a - q r o b s _ q r e b a tipis orwevrovan dapirispirebaSi markirebulia moqmedebiTi (a- prefiqsi), pirobiTad aramarkirebulia e. w. uniSno vnebiTi. Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT, moqmedebiTi gvaris subieqti aqtiuria, vnebiTisa _ pasiuri, pasiurobis xarisxi aqac subieqtis sulieroba-usulobazea damokidebuli; Sdr.: a - T b o b s _ T b e b a _ Tbili xdeba... s a s t u m r o T b e b o d a centraluri gaTbobiT || siTbos iZens, sxeuls iTbobs. [cerodenam] vazebis qveS cecxli daanTo,

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miujda gverdze da T b e b o d a (zRap.). beRura C i t e b i JivJivebdnen da Tan mzeze T b e b o d n e n (s. mgalob.)... ase rom, Sinaarsis planis mixedviT moqmedebiTisa da vnebiTis formebi moqmedebis aqtiuroba-pasiurobis zogadi mniSvnelobiT upirispirdebian erTmaneTs. pasiuri zmnebis orgvar semantikas (konversirebuli da arakonversirebuli pasivisa) vnebiTi gvaris subieqtis sulieroba-usulobis faqtoric ganapirobebs. vnebiTis pasiuri semantikis damowmebis sakontrolo saSualebas konstruqciaSi m i e r Tandebuliani frazis Sewyoba warmoadgens: biWi xatavs suraTs > suraTi ixateba (b i W i s m i e r ). es sakontrolo saSualeba ar aris absoluturi. qvemdebarisebri damatebis aRdgena vnebiTis konstruqciaSi yovelTvis ar xerxdeba da bevr SemTxvevaSi xelovnurobis STabeWdilebas tovebs. vnebiTis formaTa pasiurobis xarisxis Semowmeba sxva saSualebebiTac SeiZleba. kerZod, vnebiTis konstruqciis warmoqmnis konversiuli arsidan gamomdinare, vnebiTis Sinaarsi SeiZleba gadmoices moqmedebiTi gvaris mravlobiTi ricxvis formiT, romelsac ganusazRvreli subieqti aqvs: i x a t e b a = x a t a v e n , iTeseba = Tesaven, izrdeba = zrdian, keTdeba = a k e T e b e n , S e n d e b a = a S e n e b e n (arn. Ciqobava). ganusazRvrelpirian winadadebas qarTulSi qvemdebaregauCinarebuli winadadeba hqvia. `aseT winadadebaSi qvemdebare gauCinarebulia, magram moqmedad mainc ivaraudeba viRaca gaurkveveli piri (Tu pirebi), romlis vinaobac ar aris gansazRvruli~ (l. kvaWaZe). ase rom, winadadebaSi vnebiTis formaTa Senacvleba moqmedebiTi gvaris ganusazRvrelpiriani mravlobiTis formebiT semantikurad misaRebia da, Sesabamisad, gramatikulad motivirebuli. Senacvlebas eqvemdebareba rogorc prefiqsiani, aseve sufiqsiani da uniSno vnebiTebi, romelTa subieqti pasiuria. Senacvlebis realuroba dafiqsirebulia `qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis~ mixedviT vnebiTebis ganmartebisas:

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i-prefiqsiani vnebiTebi ibereba _ beraven ibneva _ abneven ibriceba _ brecen ileseba _ lesaven iparseba _ parsaven iptyvneba _ ptyvnian ipoba _ apoben waesmeba _ wausvamen waeWireba _ wauWeren... doniani vnebiTebi bardeba _ abareben gubdeba _ agubeben grovdeba _ agroveben gamaimundeba _ gaamaimuneben niavdeba _ aniaveben zustdeba _ azusteben mTeldeba _ amTeleben Txovdeba _ aTxoveben

e-prefiqsiani vnebiTebi eboZeba _ uboZeben ekrZaleba _ ukrZalaven gamoericxeba _ gamouricxaven moerTmeva _ miutanen, moarTmeven SeebRaleba _ SeubRalaven SeeTleba _ SeaTlian; SeTlian Semoeglijeba _ Semohglejen

uniSno vnebiTebi lpeba _ alpoben qreba _ aqroben Tbeba _ aTboben cdeba _ gamouyeneblad rCeba, ver(ar) moixmareben

da sxv.

iSviaTad, magram leqsikonSi mainc dasturdeba doniani da uniSno relatiuri vnebiTebis ganmartebebi moqmedebiTi gvaris ganusazRvrelpiriani mravlobiTis formebiT: ukeTdeba _ keTdeba misi an misTvis, _ ukeTeben umtkicdeba _ 2. (daumtkicda, damtkicebia) umtkiceben, udasturdeba daurigdeba _ darigdeba maTTvis, daurigeben daufasdeba _ (mniSvn. 2) dafasdeba misi, daufaseben daucarieldeba _ dacarieldeba misi, daucarieleben dauwesdeba _ dawesdeba misTvis, _ wesad daudeben, daudgenen... gauTavisufldeba _ gaTavisufldeba misi, _ Tavisufali gauxdeba, gauTavisufleben... gaumravldeba _ gamravldeba misi, gaumravleben...

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Seulbeba _ Selbeba misi an misTvis, _ Seulboben, odnav daulbeba Seuwydeba _ Seuwyveten; Sewydeba misi... rac Seexeba saSuali gvaris zmnebs, rogorc tradiciulad ganmartaven, maT `forma umetesad moqmedebiTisa aqvs, funqcia _ vnebiTis~, subieqturi piri `moqmedebs~ ise, rom samoqmedo obieqti ara aqvs, magram am moqmedebas ar `ganicdis~, rogorc amas adgili aqvs vnebiTSi~ (a. SaniZe). IV. 4.1.4. a- prefiqsi moqmedebiTi gvaris formebSi. sakuTari markeri a- prefiqsi aqvs moqmedebiTi gvaris erT jgufs, romelTac warmoebis aseTi modelebi aqvT: 1. a- + fuZe + Temis niSani 2. a_ev, a_en konfiqsiani fuZeebi konkretulad a- p r e f i q s i udasturdeba m o q m e d e b i T i g v a r i s zmnaTa erT did nawils: a) orpirian gardamaval zmnur fuZeebs: a - k e T e b s (keTeba) a - v s e b s (vseba) a - n a T e b s (naTeba) a - n T e b s (nTeba) a - q u C e b s (quCeba) a - r C e v s (arCeva) a - m x e l s ({ga}mxela) a - r x e v s (rxeva)

da sxv.

b) sampirian gardamaval zmnur fuZeebs: a - b a r e b s (bareba) a - n a n e b s ({da}naneba) a - m a t e b s (mateba) a - r i d e b s (rideba) a - c m e v s (cmeva) a - n a x v e b s (naxva) a - r t y a m s (rtyma) a - m T x v e v s (mTxveva) da sxv. g) orpirian nasaxelar gardamaval zmnebs: a - d i d e b s (did-i) a - v r c e l e b s (vrceli) a - T e T r e b s (TeTri) a - T a v i s u f l e b s (Tavisufali) a - m o k l e b s (mokle) a - c o c x l e b s (cocxali) a - m J a v e b s (mJave) a - m w i f e b s (mwife) da sxv.

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d) gardauvali erTpiriani saSuali gvarisgan nawarmoeb Sesabamis gardamaval zmnebs a - d u m e b s (dums) a - g o r e b s (goravs) a - t i r e b s (tiris) a - c u r e b s (curavs) a - b r w y i n e b s (brwyinavs) a - m g z a v r e b s (mgzavrobs) a - T r T o l e b s (TrTis) a - x a r e b s (xarobs) da sxv. e) orpiriani saSuali gvaris Sesabamis sampirian gardamaval zmnebs: a - Z u l e b s (sZuls) a - k l e b s (a-klia) a - y v a r e b s (uyvars) a - w y u r e b s (swyuria) da sxv. v) `uniSno vnebiTTagan~ nawarmoeb gardamaval zmnebs a - d n o b s (dneba) a - x m o b s (xmeba) a - l p o b s (lpeba) a - c x o b s (cxveba) a - q r o b s (qreba) a - S r o b s (Sreba) da sxv. z) gardamavali moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa sampirian `sazedao formebs~ a - g l e j s (glejs) a - c l i s (clis) a - w i w k n i s (wiwknis) a - W r i s (Wris) a - t e x s (texs) da sxv. T) gardamaval orpirian kontaqtis formebs a - w e r i n e b s (wers) a - S l e v i n e b s (Slis) a - f x e k i n e b s (fxeks) da sxv. zmnaTagan nawarmoeb SualobiTi a - k e T e b i n e b s (a-keTebs) a - S e n e b i n e b s (a-Senebs) a - m T a v r e b i n e b s (a-mTavrebs)

dasaxelebul gardamaval zmnebSi a- prefiqsi moqmedebiTi gvaris prefiqsi Cans. gardauval zmnebSi dadasturebul a- prefiqss sxva kvalifikacia eZleva (gramatikuli omonimia qarTulisTvis ucxo ar aris. Sdr., m o i k l a m a n T a v i _ m o i k l a i g i (brZolaSi): i- prefiqsi gardamaval zmnaSi saTaviso qcevis niSania: m o - i - k l a T a v i , gardauvalSi vnebiTi gvarisa m o i-kl-a igi).

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SeniSvna: a- xmovani prefiqsis raobis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva Tvalsazrisebi arsebobs. samecniero literaturaSi igi ganimarteba rogorc gardamavlobis niSani, nasaxelar gardamaval zmnaTa mawarmoebeli, moqmedebiTi gvaris, kauzativis (farTo gagebiT), saarviso (neitraluri) qcevis prefiqsi, zmnaTa garkveul jgufSi sazedao situaciis, iribi obieqtisadmi mimarTebis aRmniSvneli formanti (m. brose, n. mari, m. janaSvili, g. deetersi, arn. Ciqobava, v. Tofuria, h. peCi, g. rogava, g. maWavariani, f. erTeliSvili, a. focxiSvili, h. fenrixi, m. maWavariani, i. meliqiSvili, d. meliqiSvili, a. oniani, b. jorbenaZe...). a- prefiqsis am nairgvari interpretaciebidan gardamaval zmnebSi moqmedebiTi gvaris gagebas arc erTi ar gamoricxavs. nasaxelar gardamaval zmnaTa warmoebaSi igulisxmeba saxelidan gardamavali zmnis moqmedebiTi gvaris warmoeba (s a x l i _ a - s a x l e b - s ...); moqmedebiT gvars (resp. gardamavlobas) varaudobs kauzativic: moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnis Camoyalibebis erTi gza kauzativia (w u x s _ a - w u x e b - s...); gardamaval moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTagan nawarmoeb kauzativebSi gamovlenili erTi a- prefiqsi (a - k e T a _ a - k e T e b i n a...) imas adasturebs, rom kauzativis ada gardamaval moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa a- prefiqsi erTi da igive odenobaa, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi kauzativis formaSi ori a- gveqneboda (zmnis TavkidurSi ori a- xmovnis mijriT warmodgena qarTulSi dasaSvebia; Sdr.: a - a y v a n i n a, a - a w e r i n a, a - a R e b i n a...). uxmovanprefiqso gardamavali moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebidan nawarmoeb kauzativebSi es a- aRdgeba (x a t - a _ a - x a t v i n - a ). moqmedebiTi gvarisaa saarviso qcevis formebad miCneuli a- xmovanprefiqsiani a - k e T e b s, a - S e n e b s ... zmnebi, moqmedebiTia aseve sruli aspeqtis gamomxatveli a- prefiqsiani fuZeebic: v n e b s _ a - v n e b - s _ a - v n o , h r g e b s _ a - r g e b - s _ a r g o ... sazedao situaciis, iribi mimarTebis gamomxatveli gardamavali formebi moqmedebiTi gvarisaa (a - w e r s , a - x a t a v s... magram, Sdr.: gardauvali a - w e r i a , a - x a t i a ..., a - d g e b a,

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a - j d e b a ... bunebrivia, gardauval zmnebSi a- prefiqsi moqmedebiT gvars ver daukavSirdeba). SeniSvna: arsebobs Tvalsazrisi, rom e.w. `sazedaos~ a- prefiqsi da moqmedebiTi gvaris neitraluri qcevis gardamaval zmnebSi gamovlenili a- (a - w u x e b s , a - S e n e b s ) sxvadasxva odenoba SeiZleba iyos (g. rogava, g. maWavariani...). arc moqmedebiTi gvaris saarviso qcevis zmnaTa a- prefiqsi (a - S e n e b - s ) da arc kauzativis a- (a - S e n e b i n e b - s ...) zmnebs TurmeobiTSi ar gadahyveba. TurmeobiTSi gvaris kategoriis neitralizacias aqvs adgili. aqtiur pirad aq iribi obieqti gvevlineba. pasiurad _ subieqti. gvaris kategoria ki moqmedebiTi gvaris pirdapiri (da ara iribi) obieqtis vnebiTSi subieqtad moqcevazea agebuli. esec mianiSnebs, rom a- prefiqsi moqmedebiT gvars ukavSirdeba. TurmeobiTSi ar gadahyveba arc `sazedao~ niSani da esec gasaTvaliswinebelia. a- prefiqsi ikargvis gardamavali (e.i. moqmedebiTi gvaris) zmnis gardauvalad moqcevisas: a - d n o b s _ d n e b a..., a - w u x e b s _ w u x d e b a. isic faqtia, rom gardamaval zmnaTa garkveul struqturul modelebSi a- xmovani prefiqsi ar dasturdeba; esenia fuZedrekadi zmnebi (d r e k s _ d r i k a , f l e T s _ f l i T a ), i- (T l - i - s , S l - i - s ...), -av (k e r - a v - s , x a t - a v - s ...) da -am (d g - a m - s ...) sufiqsiani zmnebi (gamonaklisi: a - b a m - s ...). SeniSvna: d r e k s , x a t a v s tipis zmnebSi a- xmovani prefiqsis arqona meoreul faqtadaa miCneuli _ gamowveuli sxvadasxva rigis faqtorebiT (fonetikuri, morfologiuri). qarTvelur enaTa (zanuris, svanuris) viTareba amosavalSi a- xmovnis pirveladobas varaudobs (Sdr.: megr. v-o-Squr-inu-an-q `vaSineb~, Wan. ge-b-o-fS-am `vavseb~, svan. x-a - n - i `vxnav~).

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qarTulSi gardamavali zmnis moqmedebiTi gvaris ori modelis arseboba 1. a - S e n e b s , a - S e n a ... (a + fuZe + sufiqsi)... 2. x a t a v s , x a t a (fuZe + sufiqsi) istoriuli cvlilebis Sedegi SeiZleba iyos; arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs im faqts, rom uxmovanprefiqso moqmedebiTi gvaris formaTa sapirispiro pasiuri zmnebi ZiriTadad prefiqsuli vnebiTis formebia (x a t a v s _ i - x a t e b - a ...). aqtivisa da pasivis formaTa am rigis dajgufebebi gramatikuli movlenis ZiriTad viTarebas asaxaven. gamonaklisebi ki sakmaod dasturdeba. ase, magaliTad, a-gzneb-s, a-vseb-s, a - m k o b - s , a - n d o b - s , a - q e b - s da a.S. formebi savaraudo sufiqsiani vnebiTis nacvlad prefiqsian vnebiTebs iZlevian: i - / e - g z n e b a , i - / e - v s e b a , i - m k o b a , e - n d o b a , i - q e b a ... moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa a- xmovanprefiqsiani da uxmovanprefiqso modelebis dapirispireba aseT suraTs warmoaCens: a + fuZe + eb modeliT nawarmoeb aqtiur zmnebs ZiriTadad uprefiqso vnebiTebi Seesabameba (a - k e T e b - s _ k e T - d e b a , a - w u x e b - s _ w u x - d - e b a ...). aq yuradRebas iqcevs is SemTxvevebi, roca moqmedebiTi gvaris formebSi a- xmovanprefiqsi ikargvis da sapirispiro vnebiTis formebi prefiqsiania (anda, sapirispiro vnebiTis formebi ar ewarmoeba): h - p a t i J e b s / / a - p a t i J e b s : TviTonac muxlTan miujda, purs a p a t i J e b s aludsa (vaJa, qegl) _ epatiJeba, h - p o v e b s _ i - p o v e b a (potencialisi), a m o - s - Z a x e b s _ a m o - i - Z a x e b - a (`am sityvas, romelic gulidan a m o i Z a x e b a pirdapir, meore gulamde Suamavali ar unda~; ilia), t o v e b - s (Sdr.: m i - a - t o v e b - s ) _ d a i t o v e b a (`saxlSi ar d a i t o v e b a ~), g a d a h k i d e b s (`aq ar g a d a i k i d e b a ~), b a d e b s _ i b a d e b a... vnebiTebi ara aqvs ax. qarTulSi s t a c e b s (Sdr.: Zv. qarT. m i m o d a i t a c e b i n ), a Z a g e b s (Zv. qarT. sZagebs) formebs. a + fuZe + ob modeliT nawarmoeb moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebs ZiriTadad uniSno vnebiTebi Seesabameba (a - T b - o b - s _ T b - e b - a, a - q r - o b - s _ q r - e b - a...).. gamonaklisebia: a - m k o b s _ i - m k o b - a, a - w r T o b s _ i - w r T o b - a , a - m x o b - s _ i m x o b - a ... moqmedebiTi gvaris formebTan amgvar modelSi a-s dakargvac dasturdeba: Zv. qarT. a - g r Z n o b - s _ a - g r Z n - a (gauk-

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virda mefesa da siqiSpe [vazirTa] ver a g r Z n a (saba) (qegl), ax. qarT. g r Z n o b s _ i - g r Z n o b a . a+fuZe+i modelis rigi zmna paralelurad uxmovanprefiqsodac ixmareba: a - g z a v n i s _ g z a v n i s, a - y v e d r i s _ h y v e d r i s. vnebiTebi am warmoebas prefiqsianebi Seesabameba: i - g z a v n e b a, i - y v e d r e b a... -i sufiqsiani gardamavali moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi ZiriTadad uxmovanprefiqsoa: S l - i - s, T l - i - s, x r - i - s, W r - i - s... a+fuZe+am/ 0+fuZe+am: am modelSi dasturdeba rogorc xmovanprefiqsiani, ise umiso warmoeba: a - d g a m - s, a - s x a m - s, a - b a m - s, a - r t y - a m - s.., d g - a m - s, s x - a m - s, s v - a m - s, n T q a m - s... vnebiTebi prefiqsuladaa nawarmoebi: i - d g - m - e b - a, i - s x m - e b - a, i - b m - e b - a... 0+fuZe+*em: c e m - s, -em Temis niSnad rTul zmnaSi gamoiyofa: pativs scems - pativi sca, c e m s formaSi -em fuZesTanaa Serwymuli, vnebiTi prefiqsulad iwarmoeba: i - c e m - e b - a. 0+fuZe+av modelis gardamaval moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebs prefiqsiani vnebiTebi upirispirdeba: x a t - a v - s _ i - x a t - e b - a... asevea martivfuZian (w e r s _ i w e r e b a ) da fuZedrekad (d r e k s _ i d r i k e b a ) zmnebTanac. moqmedebiTi gvaris Semdeg or modelSi sufiqsebad -ev da -en gamoiyofa, romlebic, Temis niSnebisagan gansxvavebiT, zmnas uRvlilebis mTel sistemaSi gasdevs. a+fuZe+ev modeliT nawarmoeb zmnebs prefiqsiani vnebiTebi aqvs _ aqac -a xmovani ikargvis: mivakvlie // mivkvlie vneb. m i i k v l e v a moaxvia // mohxvia daixveva Sdr.: s Z l e v s i Z l e v a (daiZleva)... a+fuZe+en modeliT nawarmoeb zmnebs ZiriTadad uniSno vnebiTebi Seesabameba: a Z v r - e n - s _ Z v r e b a , a c d - e n - s _ [ ] s - c d e b a , a w v d - e n - s _ [ s ] - w v d e b a . ramdenime, oden -en sufiqsiT nawarmoeb zmnaSi aranairi xmovani prefiqsi ar daCndeba da maT prefiqsiani vnebiTebi ukeTdeba: s Z e n s _ S e i Z i n e b a , k b e n s _ i k b i n e b a , h r q e n s _ i r q i n e b a ...

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d a s k v n a a s e T i a : gardamavali zmnis a- xmovanprefiqsuli (zogadad, xmovanprefiqsuli) warmoeba, rogorc Cans, naklebad iguebs vnebiTis prefiqsul warmoebas. Tumca aqtiv-pasivis iseTi opoziciuri calebi, sadac orive wevri prefiqsiTaa markirebuli qarTulSi dasturdeba (a - r x e v s _ i - r x e v a , a - r C e v s _ i - r C e v a , a - v s e b s _ i - v s e b a . . . ), magram es mainc gadaxvevaa gvaris opoziciur wevrTa markirebis im ZiriTadi modelebidan, romelic aramarkirebul aqtivs prefiqsebiT markirebul pasivebs upirispirebs (x a z a v s _ i - x a z e b a ...), xolo markirebul aqtivsa da pasivs (sufiqsian da uniSno vnebiTs) _ aramarkirebul mediums (a - w u x e b s , w u x - d - e b a _ w u x s , a - w v e n s , w v e b a _ w e v s ...). a- xmovani prefiqsi gardamaval aqtiur zmnaSi maSin zis myarad, Tu Sesabamisi gardauvali vnebiTis forma prefiqsiT ar iwarmoeba. magram es ukve Sedegia, romelsac axsna sWirdeba. SeniSvna: erT-erTi Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, amgvari Sedegi imiT unda iyos gapirobebuli, rom a- xmovniani gardamavali zmnebi ufro stabiluria _ am rigis gardamavali zmnis fuZidan vnebiTebi iSviaTad iwarmoeba, gansxvavebiT xatavs, wers tipis uxmovanprefiqso gardamaval zmnaTagan, romlebic labilurobis Tvisebas amJRavneben _ wyvetilSi sasubieqto qcevisa da vnebiTis formebi identuri aqvT: d a - x a t - a , d a - i x a t - a m a n i g i / d a - i - x a t - a i g i ... (arn. Ciqobava). moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa a- prefiqsiani da uprefiqso modelebis saTanado vnebiTebTan Sepirispireba aseTi daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas iZleva: moqmedebiTis a- prefiqsian models Z i r i T a d a d sufiqsiani pasivebi Seesabameba, moqmedebiTis uprefiqso models ki _ prefiqsiani pasivebi. gvaris samwevrovan sistemaSi (a - w u x e b s _ w u x - d - e b a _ w u x s ...) markirebulia opoziciis ori wevri moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi, aramarkirebulia saSuali; orwevrovan sistemaSi Tu vnebiTi iqneba markirebuli, saTanado moqmedebiTi SeiZleba uniSnod warmogvidges (x a z a v s _ i - x a x e b a , Sdr., a - v s e b s _ i - v s e b a ), Tu vnebiTi markire-

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buli araa, e.i. Tu uniSno vnebiTs aramarkirebulad miviCnevT, niSani moqmedebiTs eqneba (a - T b o b s _ T b e b a ...). a- prefiqsi gardamaval zmnebSi moqmedebiTi gvaris niSania. rac Seexeba `sazedaos~ a-s statuss. is dasturdeba rogorc gardamaval, aseve gardauval zmnebTan: gardam. wers _ dawers _ dawera a-wers _ d a - a - w e r s _ d a - a - w e r a ... gardauv. wevs _ a - w e v s , j d e b a _ a - j d e b a ... sazedao Sinaarss am zmnebSi saTanado zmnur fuZeTa semantika ganapirobebs, Sdr., v-wer, v - a - w e r wignze v - x a t a v , v - a - x a t a v kedelze... sxva SemTxvevaSi, roca zmnis fuZis semantika amgvar Sinaarss ver iguebs, es mniSvnelobac ar dasturdeba. gvaqvs `sazedaos~ mniSvneloba rogorc gardamaval, ise gardauval zmnebTan, gvaqvs opoziciuri wyvilebi am mniSvnelobis qona-arqonis TvalsazrisiT dapirispirebuli, gvaqvs saTanado markeri da, Sesabamisad, gramatikuli kategoria. ufro zustad, uxmovanprefiqso, neitraluri qcevis pirveladi zmnebis erT jgufSi warmoqmnili situaciis qvekategoria, romlis gavrcelebis areuli SezGudulia. rogorc a. SaniZe aRniSnavs, funqciuri gansxvaveba uniSno (xazavs...) da a- prefiqsian (a-xazavs...) zmnebs Soris kuTvnilebadaniSnulebis TvalsazrisiT ar arsebobs: `uniSno warmoebaca da anianic Tanabrad upirispirdeba iniansa da unian warmoebas, erT-obieqtiani iqneba zmna Tu or-obieqtiani~. a- xmovani prefiqsis arqona gardamaval zmnaTa erT nawilSi (x a t a v s , w e r s , S l i s . ..) meoreulia (am faqts qarTveluri enebic amowmebs). aseTi daskvnis gamotanis SesaZlebloba sinqronuli aRweris Sedegadac Cndeba: Tanamedrove qarTulSi dadasturebuli, paralelurad xmarebuli uxmovanprefiqso da -a xmovanprefiqsiani gardamavali formebis Sejereba istoriulad SesaZlebel semantikur da sintaqsur cvlilebaTa Tanmimdevrul suraTsac warmoaCens:

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a) dasturdeba a- prefiqsian da uprefiqso gardamaval fuZeTa Tavisufali monacvleoba: a - g z a v n - i - s _ g a - a - g z a v n - i - s _ g a - a - g z a v n - a || g z a v n - i - s _ g a - g z a v n - i - s _ g a - g z a v n a, h - y v e d r - i s || a - y v e d r - i - s ... am paralelur formebs funqcia erTnairi aqvT da arc sintaqsi Secvlila. b) a - x v e v - s || h - x v e v - s _ g a - a - x v e v s _ g a - a - x v i a (Sdr.: dial. g a x v i a ); sintaqsi ar Secvlila, awmyoSi paralelurad ixmareba xmovanprefiqsiani da uxmovanprefiqso formebi, oRond sruli aspeqtis droebSi oden xmovanprefiqsiani formebi gvaqvs. g) s t k e n - s _ a - t k e n - s _ a - t k i n - a , h - r g e b - s _ a - r g e b - s _ a - r g o , v n e b - s _ a - v n e b - s _ a - v n - o ... xmovanprefiqsiani zmnebi sruli aspeqtis gagebas iTavsebs. d) w e r - s _ a - w e r - s a- xmovanprefiqsianma formam `sazedaos~ Sinaarsi gaiTavisa: awers is mas (k e d e l z e ) > awers is mas k e d e l s . mniSvnelobis amgvar cvlilebas zmnuri fuZis semantika ganapirobebs. semantikuri reinterpretaciis Sedegad icvleba sintaqsic. amitom realuri gveCveneba xmovanprefiqsiani formebidan uxmovanprefiqso formaTa miRebis gza. IV. 4.1.5. vnebiTi gvaris jgufebis formobrivi da funqciuri mimarTeba da saSuali gvari IV. 4.1.5.1. prefiqsiani da sufiqsiani vnebiTebis mimarTeba. ordinaruli, konversiuli semantikis pasivebi ZiriTadad prefiqsiani vnebiTebia (i - x a t e b a v i R a c i s m i e r ...). magram pasiurobis gamoxatviT prefiqsiani vnebiTebi Tanmimdevrulni ar arian, Sdr.: i R i m e b a is, e p a r e b a is mas... warmoebis mixedviT, pasivebis ori tipi gairCeva: a) analizuri da sinTezuri. analizuri pasivebi. analizuri (aRweriTi) pasivebi Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi ZiriTadad iseT SemTxvevebSi dasturdeba, roca zmnas Cveulebrivi vnebiTis warmoeba ar uxerxdeba: g a n x i l u l i q n a, u a r y o f i l i q n a... aseTi formebi damaxasiaTebelia oficialur-saqmiani stilisTvis da maSinac ix-

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mareba, roca amave fuZis sinTezuri formebic arsebobs: g a r i c x u l i q n a || g a i r i c x a, g a g z a v n i l i q n a || g a i g z a v n a... sinTezuri pasivebi markerebis ragvarobisa da adgilis mixedviT sinTezuri pasivis 3 jgufi gamoiyofa: 1. p r e f i q s i a n i i- da e- niSnebiT: i-wereba, e-wereba... es prefiqsebi vnebiTobis funqciis gamoxatvasTan erTad pirianobis gansazRvrasac iTavsebs: erTpiriani pasivebi i- xmovanprefiqsiT iwarmoeba: i-xateba is... orpiriani pasivebi e- _ xmovanprefiqsiT: e-xateba is mas... 2. s u f i q s i a n i pasivebi, anu doniani pasivebi _ d sufiqsiT: wux-d-eba _ uwux-d-eba... 3. `u n i S n o ~ (anu nulovani) pasivebi: Tbeba _ uTbeba... prefiqsianebisagan gansxvavebiT, ufro naklebad igueben pasivis mniSvnelobas sufiqsiani vnebiTebi, Sdr.: gubdeba _ gube dgeba, gubed iqceva; wuxdeba _ wuxili ipyrobs, Rondeba; xeldeba _ xeli, Smagi xdeba da sxv. Tumca konversiis piroba sufiqsian vnebiTebsa da saTanado moqmedebiTebs Soris daculia, moqmedebiTi gvaris pirdapiri obieqti TviTganmcdel, pasiur subieqtad warmogvidgeba: agubebs wyals _ wyali gubdeba, awuxebs saqonels _ saqoneli wuxdeba, axelebs ZaRls _ ZaRli xeldeba... sufiqsian vnebiTebs axal qarTulSi doni awarmoebs (wux-deba, wiTl-d-eba...), umetesoba am zmnebisa nasaxelaria. qarTulSi sufiqsiani vnebiTebi prefiqsianebisagan gansxvavdeba ara marto formiT, aramed mniSvnelobiTac. sxvaoba maT Soris SeimCneva uRlebaSic (Tumca arc ise arsebiTi). sufiqsiani da prefiqsiani vnebiTebi nawilobriv gramatikuli kategoriebis warmoebiTac gansxvavdebian. konkretulad gansxvaveba am or warmoebas Soris ase aisaxeba: 1. erTi prefiqsuli warmoebaa (i-xateba, e-xateba), meore _ sufiqsuri (wux-d-eba, uyvar-d-eba). egeve sufiqsi nasaxelar zmnaTa mawarmoebelia qarTulSi (TeTri _ TeTr-d-eba, mokle _ mokl-d-eba...). nasaxelar zmnaTa vnebiTebis prefiqsebiT warmoeba

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qarTulisaTvis organuli ar aris (Tumca arc SeuZlebelia): Wvartli _ i-Wvartleba, Jangi _ i-Jangeba, Sdr.: Jang-d-eba... 2. vnebiTTa es orgvari warmoeba met-naklebad gansxvavdeba mniSvnelobiTac. sxva aris i-wereba, i-xateba da a.S. sxva aris wux-d-eba, TeTr-d-eba... pirvelTa moqmedeba v i R a c i s ( a n r a R a c i s ) m i e r a a gamowveuli, aseTi vnebiTebi advilad igueben mier Tandebulian ubralo damatebas: suraTi ixateba (m x a t v r i s m i e r ), wux-d-eba tipis vnebiTebSi ki moqmedeba SeiZleba fuZeSi mimdinare Sinagan procesadac gaviazroT T v i T o n v e w u x d e b a (iseve, rogorc uniSno vnebiTebSi) da garegani mizeziT gamowveul moqmedebadac: wuxdeba v i R a c i s m i e r , r a R a c m i z e z i T, Tumca am warmoebisaTvis niSandoblivia prefiqsuli modelis mniSvneloba, roca subieqti usulo saxelia: brtyeldeba (comi) v i R a c i s m i e r . .. es mcire gansxvavebac sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom calkeul SemTxvevaSi erTi da imave fuZidan rogorc sufiqsiani, aseve prefiqsini vnebiTi iwarmoebodes; da-i-Jang-eb-a || da-Jang-d-eba `erTi maTgani J a n g d e b a (resp. `Jangad iqceva~) gardaqceviTobis funqciis matarebeli unda iyos, meore i J a n g e b a (resp. `JangiT ifareba~) ki _ instrumentativisa, magram am ori mniSvnelobis azrobrivi siaxlovis gamo moxda am formaTa paralelur formebad gageba, ramac ganapiroba maTi funqciuri daaxloeba da Semdeg erTmaneTTan gaigiveba~ (b. jorbenaZe). qeglis mixedviT es paraleluri formebi mniSvnelobiT identuria: d a J a n g d e b a igivea, rac d a i J a n g e b a . isini gansxvavdebian sauRlebeli formebiT: da-i-Jangeba, da-i-Janga, daJangula daJang-d-eba, daJang-d-a, daJangebula; aseve: da-e-Tanxm-eb-a || da-s-Tanxm-d-eb-a da-e-Tanxmeba, da-e-Tanxma, dasTanxmebia dasTanxm-d-eba, dasTanxm-d-a, dasTanxmebia. paraleluri formebi daeTanxmeba-dasTanxmdeba mniSvnelobiT msgavsia: `Tanxmobas gamoucxadebs~, `Tanxmobas ganucxadebs~. m o - e - w y i n - e b - a || m o - s - w y i n - d - e b - a ...

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qeglis mixedviT m o e w y i n e b a igivea, rac moswyindeba, Tumca moswyindeba zmnis mniSvnelobebidan (a R a r m o u n d e b a, m o h b e z r d e b a, m o h y i r W d e b a r a m e, S e C v e u l r a s m e v e R a r a i t a n s, S e s Z u l d e b a). m o s w y i n d e b a mxolod or mniSvnelobas _ `m o b e z r d e b a, m o h y i r W d e b a rame~ _ iguebs. es zmnebi sauRlebeli formebiTac gansxvavdebian: moewyineba _ moewyina _ moswyenia moswyindeba _ moswyinda _ moswyenia. aseT paralelur wyvilebs SeiZleba gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebic hqondeT: g a e q a n e b a (gaeqana, gaqanebula) _ didi siCqariT wava, gaemarTeba; gaiqceva _ gaqandeba (gaqanda, gaqanebula)... 1. qanaobas daiwyebs... 2. sirbiliT swrafad wava, _ gaiqceva (qegl); g a i n a z e b a _ nazobas daiwyebs || gaipranWeba _ ganazdeba _ nazi gaxdeba || gaipranWeba da sxv. Tanamedrove qarTulSi (aseve, Zvel qarTulSi) SeimCneva garkveuli tendencia prefiqsuli vnebiTebis sufiqsurad Secvlisa: e Z m o b i l e b a > u Z m o b i l d e b a, a i f o f x e b a > a f o f x d e b a, C a i S a q r e b a > C a S a q r d e b a , m o e w y u r e b a > m o s w y u r d e b a da sxv. (l. nozaZe). 3. gvaris formaTa erT dajgufebaSi vnebiTi midis warmoqmnil formad. vnebiTi gvaris formebi aris Sebrunebuli saxe moqmedebiTisa. xatavs / ixateba urTierTobisaTvis x a t a v s moqmedebiTi gvaris formaa amosavali: i x a t e b a vnebiTis forma moqmedebiTis konversiuli saxea. w u x d e b a , a w u x e b s formebTan pirveladisa da meoreulis sakiTxi imgvaradve ar daismis, rogorc x a t a v s / i x a t e b a formebTan. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom prefiqsian da sufiqsian zmnebs moqmedebiTi gvaris formis gansxvavebuli modelebi Seesabameba. 4. sufiqsiani vnebiTebis uRvlileba gansxvavdeba prefiqsiani vnebiTebis uRvlilebisagan. isini gansxvavebulad awarmoeben wyvetilisa da kavSirebiTi II-is formebs; Sdr.: doniani vnebiTebi

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axali qarT. Zv. qarT. wyvetili Se-v-wux-d-i Se-v-wux-en Se-wux-d-i Se-s-wux-en Se-wux-d-a Se-wux-n-a i- prefiqsiani vnebiTebi wyvet. da-v-i-xat-e da-i-xat-e da-i-xat-a

axali qarT. Zv. qarT. II kavSirebiTi Se-v-wux-d-e Se-v-wux-n-e Se-wux-d-e Se-s-wux-n-e Se-wux-d-e-s Se-wux-n-e-s

II kavS.

da-v-i-xat-o da-i-xat-o da-i-xat-o-s

sufiqsian vnebiTebs sakuTari warmoeba aqvT (iseve, rogorc `uniSno vnebiTebs~) da ar emTxvevian saTanado moqmedebiTebs. prefiqsiani vnebiTebis II seriis formebi minimalurad gansxvavdebian saTanado moqmedebiTisagan da zog SemTxvevaSi (saTaviso qcevis formaSi) kidevac Tanxvdebian mas: moqm. wyvet. da-i-xat-a man igi / vneb. daixata igi, II kavS. daixatos man igi / vneb. daixatos igi Sdr.: agreTve, moqm. Turm. II: da-e-xat-a mas igi / vneb. kavS. II da-e-xat-a igi mas. 5. prefiqsiani vnebiTebisagan gansxvavebiT, moqmedebiTi gvaris formebTan dapirispirebaSi donian vnebiTs ara aqvs sxva damatebiTi funqcia (mag. qcevisa); `gardaqceviTobis~ funqcias doniani vnebiTis formebi amosaval saxelur fuZeebTan mimarTebaSi aCens; prefiqsiani vnebiTebis markerebi qcevis funqciasac iTavseben, sufiqsian vnebiTebSi qcevas sakuTari formanti aqvs: w u x d e b a _ u - w u x d e b a ... 6. prefiqsian vnebiTebs ar ewarmoebaT e.w. `sazedao~ formebi. sufiqsian vnebiTebSi aseTi warmoeba SesaZlebelia: a - C n d e b a, a - t y d e b a (Tavs), a - k v d e b a, a - g v i a n d e b a . 7. orpirian prefiqsian vnebiTebs SeiZleba ewarmoebodes SualobiTi kontaqtis formebi: v-e-kvl-evin-eb-i, v-e-Tr-evineb-i... donian vnebiTebs aseTi warmoeba ara aqvT, piriqiT, sufiqsiani vnebiTis SualobiTi kontaqti SeiZleba e- prefiqsiT iwarmoos: v-Sav-d-eb-i _ v-e-Sav-ebin-eb-i, v-kvd-eb-i _ v-e-kvlevin-eb-i...

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8. prefiqsiani vnebiTebis (absoluturisa da relatiuris) erTi sakmaod didi jgufi deponensebia: i - Z l e v a , i - m u q r e b a , i-wyevleba, i-gineba, e-zideba, e-qaCeba, e-weva, e - r e k e b a , e - b a a s e b a ... sufiqsiani vnebiTebi deponensuri mniSvnelobiT ar gvxvdeba (gamonaklisi: h-pirdeba). 9. eniani vnebiTebis erTi jgufi, kerZod, `metyvelebis wris~ zmnebi _ e l a p a r a k e b a , e q a q a n e b a , e t i k t i k e b a , e s a u b r e b a , e C u r C u l e b a ... is mas SesityvebaSi SeiZleba samvalentian zmnebadac mogvevlinos: e l a p a r a k e b a , e C u r C u l e b a is mas: > is mas mas: r a R a c e e b s g v e j i y j i y e b o d n e n , magram Cven ena ar vicodiT... (a. yazb.) (qegl). am jgufis zmnebTan II seriis mwkrivebSi subieqti SeiZleba moTxrobiTi brunvis formiTac warmogvidges: e l a p a r a k a , e s a u b r a _ man. sufiqsian vnebiTebSi konstruqciis aseTi cvlileba ar dasturdeba (gamonaklisi: dahpirda i s m a s m a s || saub. dahpirda m a n m a s i s ). 10. e- prefiqsian zmnaTa erTi jgufi savaraudo realur subieqts naTesaobiT brunvaSi Seiwyobs (uTandebulod an TandebuliT): e x a T r e b a , e r i d e b a , e k r Z a l e b a , e s i r c x v i l e b a , e x a r b e b a ... mas (v i R a c i s an r a R a c i s ). sufiqsiani vnebiTebisaTvis aseTi konstruqciebi ucxoa. 11. sufiqsian vnebiTebs wyvetilSi faqtobrivad mxolod sruli aspeqtis formebi aqvs: S e - w u x d a , d a - d u m d a , S e u y v a r d a , g a - b r t y e l d a (gamonaklisi: Zveli qarTulis nasaxelari mnda da -n(-en) sufiqsianTagan dumna, wuxna... formebi). prefiqsian vnebiTebs wyvetilSi ewarmoeba rogorc sruli (d a i m a l a ), aseve usruli (i m a l a ) aspeqtis formebi, Tumca usrulis formebi _ SezRudulad. 12. sufiqsiani vnebiTebisaTvis ucxoa prefiqsiani vnebiTebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mniSvnelobis niuansebi: SesaZleblobis, miCnevis, gunebis (es mniSvnelobebi SeiZleba saTanado aqtivebmac gadmoscen: r a e m R e r e b a _ r a a m R e r e b s , r a e c i n e b a _ ra acinebs, ra eomeba _ ra aomebs, ra eqirqil e b a _ r a a q i r q i l e b s da a. S.). amasTan, sufiqsian da prefiqsian vnebiTebs (aseve, uniSno vnebiTebsac) aerTianebs uneburobis mniSvnelobis gamoxatva:

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sufiqsiani vnebiTebi Semo-aber-d-eba Semo-aRam-d-eba Semo-aTen-d-eba

prefiqsiani vnebiTebi uniSno vnebiTebi Semo-e-lanZReba Semo-adneba Semo-e-Wmeba Semo-acvdeba Semo-e-fSvneba Semo-aWkneba da sxv. nasaxelar zmnaTa warmoebisas sufiqsuri warmoeba vnebiTisa ufro produqtiulia, vinem _ prefiqsuli. SeniSvna: Zvel qarTulSi II seriis formebSi prefiqsiani vnebiTebis subieqtur pirebs mravlobiTSi igive -en sufiqsi uCndeba (wyvet. da-v-i-wer-en-i-T, dai-wer-en-i-T, da-i-wer-n-es...), rac moqmedebiTi gvaris mravlobiT ricxvSi dasmul pirdapir obieqts (wyvet. da-v-wer-en, da-wer-en, da-wer-n-a...). vnebiTebs, rogorc saTanado moqmedebiTebis konversivebs, mravlobiTobis e.w. sufiqsi, rogorc Cans, moqmedebiTebidan gadmohyvebaT. rogorc a. SaniZe SeniSnavs, Tqmuli exeba mxolod prefiqsian vnebiTebs. rac Seexeba sufiqsiansa da uniSnos (xazgasma Cvenia _ m. s.), maT warmoebas ara aqvs pirdapiri kavSiri moqmedebiTTan da infiqsis xmarebas mravlobiTSi ar imeoreben. rogorc vxedavT, formiT, funqciiT, zmnuri kategoriebis gansxvavebuli warmoebiT prefiqsiani da sufiqsiani vnebiTebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian. isini zmnaTa dajgufebis gansxvavebul sistemebs ganekuTvnebian: 1. xat-i-a a-xat-i-a u-xat-i-a wux-s u-wux-s xat-av-s i-xat-av-s > ixateba u-xat-av-s > e-xat-eb-a a-wux-eb-s > i-wux-eb-s u-wux-eb-s > wux-d-eb-a u-wux-d-eb-a

2.

448

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

aq SeiZleba ase daisvas sakiTxi: Tu prefiqsiani da sufiqsiani vnebiTebi gansxvavdebian ara marto formiT, aramed funqciiTac, maSin isini erT _ vnebiTi gvaris _ kategoriaSi ver gaerTiandebian. es ase iqneboda, Tu aqtivisa da pasivis mimarTeba qarTulSi ganvixilavT, rogorc erTi da imave Sinaarsis realizacias sxvadasxva formiT: k a c i w e r s w e r i l s = w e r i l i i w e r e b a k a c i s m i e r; Tu vnebiT gvars qarTulSi pasivis universaluri gansazRvrebis mixedviT SevafasebdiT rogorc bazisuri (logikuri) pirdapiri damatebis qvemdebared gardaqmnis Sedegs zedapirul struqturaSi, sadac bazisuri qvemdebare zmnasTan formalur kavSirs wyvets da mxolod Tandebuliani ubralo damatebis saxiT gvevlineba. aseTi vnebiTebi, romlebic semantikurad da sintaqsurad Seesabameba vnebiTis universalur models, qarTulSi aRweriTi vnebiTebia: g a g z a v n i l i q n a , w a y v a n i l i q n a , a R d g e n i l i q n a ... calkeul SemTxvevebSi sinTezuri vnebiTebic akmayofileben am universalur moTxovnas: gaigzavna (= gagzavnil iqna) v i R a c i s m i e r , moikla (= moklul iqna) m t r i s m i e r ... magram aqtiuri winadadebis pasivizacia qarTulSi yovelTvis am wesiT ar xorcieldeba, moqmedebiTi gvaris subieqti (qvemdebare) pasiur konstruqciaSi yovelTvis ar iguebs m i e r Tandebulian ubralo damatebas (qvemdebarisebr damatebas): *y v a v i l i i f u r C q n e b a m z i s m i e r. aseve ver iguebs R l i s _ i R l e b a opoziciuri wyvilis pasiuri wevri konstruqciaSi m i e r .- Tandebulian ubralo damatebas miuxedavad imisa, rom aqtiuri winadadebis subieqti agenturia; Sdr., e s k a c i m R l i s , magram _ *v i R l e b i a m k a c i s m i e r qarTulisaTvis xelovnuria, mocemul konteqstSi ufro bunebrivia - g a n Tandebuliani ubralo damateba: a m k a c i s a g a n v i R l e b i an sulac instrumentuli (moqmedebiT brunvaSi dasmuli) damateba _ a m k a c i T v i R l e b i . yovel SemTxvevaSi, vnebiTur konstruqciebSi instrumentuli damateba uCveulo ar aris: `ii dasaqcevi, uwin ver m R a l a v d a m u S a o b a da am bolo dros ki Zalian v i R l e b i ~ (e. ninoS.) (qegl). aq aseTi konversiuli gardaqmna ganxorcielda: mRalavs muSaoba > viRlebi [muSaobiT]

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Sdr.: `...zedmeti muSaobiT i R l e b i da Cems s a m u S a o s veRar asruleb~ (i. gedev.) (qegl) qarTulisaTvis aqtiuri da pasiuri konstruqciebis am rigis Senacvlebebi bunebrivia: s i a ruli mRlis _ siaruliT viRlebi, laparaki mRlis _ l a p a r a k i T v i R l e b i, zedmeti f u s f u s i m R l i s _ zedmeti f u s f u s i T v i R l e b i... Sdr., Rame f u s f u s i T v i R l e b i da dRe magra mZinavs [ambobs kurdReli] (T. razik.) (qegl). instrumentuli damateba winadadebaSi yovelTvis ar Cans, magram igulisxmeba, Sdr.: [bavSvi] c e l q o b s Zalze da i R l e b a (W. lomT.) = bavSvi c e l q o b i T i R l e b a . `qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi~ vnebiTi gvaris zmnebis ganmartebebSi xSirad Cndeba es instrumentuli Tu sxva saxis ubralo damatebebi; Sdr.: i b e r e b a _ h a e r i T (gaziT an sxva rameTi) ivseba da farTovdeba..., i b n e v a _ f a n t v i T iyreba..., i p a r s e b a ... matyli scildeba (cxvars _ d u q a r d i T )..., i p o x e b a ... c x i m i T iJRinTeba, i b n i d e b a ... guli uRondeba (Zlieri g a n c d i s g a m o ), i R v e d e b a ...RvediviT moqnili xdeba _ `bevri c e m i T rkinac i R v e d e b a o ...~ vnebiTis erTi jgufis polisemiuri formebis ZiriTadi da gadataniTi mniSvnelobebis ganmartebebi cxadad warmoaCenen mniSvnelobis ganviTarebis mimarTulebasac _ pasiuri subieqtis gaaqtiurebisaken, an ufro zustad: swrafvas _ pasiuri, `ganmcdeli~ subieqtidan Semsrulebeli subieqtis statusis gamoxatvisaken. Sdr.: i b e r e b a ... 1. haeriT... ivseba da farTovdeba. 2. saub. gadat. ibRinZeba, medidurobs _ gadat. ibuteba... i f a n t e b a ... 1. ibneva, iyreba... 2. sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT midis, iqsaqseba, iSleba. i b n e v a ... 1. fantviT iyreba... || gadat. vrceldeba (sadme). 2. gadat. ireva, azrebi efanteba, Tavgza ebneva. i q a r g e b a ... 1. qargva SeiZleba; qargaven. 2. poet. gadat. isaxeba.

450

Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

i R e W e b a ... 1. ReWviT qucmacdeba [saWmeli]... 2. erTTavad ReWavs. [kudabzikas] Tavi Caeqindra da ugemurad iReWeboda [g. wereT.]. i g r i x e b a ... 1. grexen, grexa SeiZleba, 2. imanWeba, iklakneba... i f x a W n e b a 1. ikawreba, fxaWnian. 2. fxaWnis (erTTavad, waramara). i f u f q e b a 1. iTuTqeba, fufqaven... 2. cxare cremlebiT tiris... i R r i c e b a ... igrixeba, ibriceba. fexsacmeli ibriceba || gadat. uSnod, ulazaTod igrixeba, - imanWeba. i t i k n e b a ... (tikiviT) ibereba. || saub. gadat. Zalian ZReba. i c r i c e b a ... 1. ileva, cvdeba, ixeva (xSiri xmarebisagan _ qsovili da misT.). 2. feri ekargeba, fiTrdeba... warmodgenil prefiqsian vnebiTebSi pirveli, ZiriTadi, mniSvneloba pasiuria, meore, gadataniTi mniSvneloba aqtiuri Cans _ subieqti sulieri saxelia. ase rom, vnebiTi gvaris prefiqsul formebSi subieqti yovelTvis pasiuri subieqti araa. Sdr., a.SaniZis cnobili debuleba: `Tu moqmedeba suliers exeba, pasiuri forma zogjer metad aqtiur moqmedebas miawers gramatikul subieqts: y a C a R i t y e S i d a i m a l a , C e m i a m x a n a g i T e l a v s g a e m g z a v r a ...~ amgvarad, vnebiTis niSandoblivi Tviseba _ warmoadginos zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedeba realuri Semsrulebeli piris gamouCenlad _ yovelTvis, rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, arc prefiqsian vnebiTebSi araa ganxorcielebuli _ pasiuri gramatikuli subieqti moqmedebis Semsruleblis funqciasac Taobs. IV. 4.1.5.2. doniani da uniSno vnebiTebis mimarTeba aqtivebTan. doniani da uniSno vnebiTebis mimarTeba saTanado aqtivebTan konversiis TvalsazrisiT Tanmimdevrulia, Sdr.: a-mwifebs x i l s _ x i l i mwifdeba a-duRebs C a i s _ C a i duRdeba a-cxelebs u T o s _ u T o cxeldeba a-xurebs T o n e s _ T o n e xurdeba... a-Tbobs o T a x s _ o T a x i Tbeba a-Srobs s a r e c x s _ s a r e c x i Sreba

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a-lpobs x i l s _ x i l i lpeba... aqtivis pirdapiri (pacienturi) obieqti vnebiTSi subieqtis adgilze dgas, magram vnebiTis subieqti araa erTmniSvnelovnad pacienturi subieqti, subieqtis mier gancdili procesi ara mxolod garegani mizeziT, aramed Tavad subieqtisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sinagani Tvisobrivi cvlilebiTacaa gapirobebuli. es kargad Cans dasaxelebuli vnebiTis formebis saleqsikono ganmartebebidanac: mwifdeba (xili), Sreba (sarecxi) da misTanani aRiqmeba rogorc `TavisiT~, `TviTon~ mwifdeba, Sreba. prefiqsiani vnebiTebis mniSvneloba ki arsebiTad subieqtze damarTebuli garegani moqmedebis SedegiTaa motivirebuli, Sdr.: i-qeb-a... qebiT ixsenieba, _ aqeben i-wereb-a... weriT aRibeWdeba (aso, cifri, sityva...), _ weren i-xateb-a... [gamo]isaxeba; xatva SesaZlebelia; xataven da sxv. rom sufiqsiani da uniSno vnebiTebis mniSvnelobisaTvis Tavad subieqtSi mimdinare Sinagani procesualuri cvlilebebis (gardaqceviToba, dawyebiToba...) gamoxatvaa niSandoblivi, es am tipis zmnaTa ganmartebebiTac dasturdeba, Sdr.: mwifdeb-a... 1. mwife xdeba, _ Semodis (xili, yana)... duRdeb-a... 1. duRils iwyebs... cxeldeb-a... cxeli xdeba... xurdeb-a... 1. Zlier cxeldeba... zvavdeb-a... zvavad iqceva, zvaviviT modis... Cqardeb-a... 1. siCqares umatebs, ufro Cqara moZraobs... Cerdeb-a... moZraobas (svlas), moqmedebas, muSaobas wyvets, _ dgeba (erT adgilas)... Zvaldeb-a... Zvalad iqceva, ZvaliviT magrdeba... wvrildeb-a... wvrili xdeba... civdeb-a... civi xdeba, siTbo akldeba... wiTldeb-a... wiTel fers iRebs, wiTeli feris xdeba... xevdeb-a... xesaviT xdeba, _ SeSdeba; [ga]irindeba... krTeb-a... uecrad mTeli taniT aranebismierad Setokdeba (SiSisgan, moulodnelobisgan) [Se]TrToldeba, frTxeba... lxveb-a... dnobas iwyebs, dneba (yinuli, sanTeli...)... tkbeb-a... 1. tkbili xdeba, sitkbo eZleva 2. gadat. kmayofilebas, siamovnebas ganicdis, gancxromaSi aris, netarebs... frTxeb-a... Sindeba, feTdeba, krTeba...

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

cdeb-a... 1. gamouyeneblad rCeba, ver(ar) moixmaren... cvdeb-a... xSiri xmarebiT Zveldeba (icriceba, ileva, ixeva...)... Wkneb-a... sinedle akldeba, sinorCes kargavs (iTqmis mcenareze)... xmeb-a... xmeli xdeba; sinedles, sicocxlis unars kargavs 2. saub. Zlier xmeba; mWlevdeba, ileva... TeTrdeba W e r i (viRacis mier), krTeba, frTxeba k a c i (SiSisagan, moulodnelobisagan), cvdeba t a n s a c m e l i (xSiri xmarebiT)... vnebiTis formebiT gamoxatul procesebs eZebneba gare mizezebi, magram isini vnebiTebis mniSvnelobaSi naklebad aisaxeba. prefiqsian vnebiTTagan sufiqsiani da uniSno vnebiTebis mniSvnelobis gansxvavebis erTi mizezi SeiZleba isic iyos, rom prefiqsiani vnebiTebi, warmoqmnis TvalsazrisiT, TavianT Zireul, aramarkirebul aqtivebTan mimarTebiT derivatebi arian, xolo sufiqsiani da uniSno vnebiTebis markirebuli aqtivebi Tavad warmoadgenen derivatebs (Zireuli formebi maTTvis saxelebi, uniSno vnebiTebi an saSuali gvaris zmnebia) da, bunebrivia, Tu gansxvavebuli mimarTebebi gansxvavebul mniSvnelobebs aCens. IV. 4.1.5.3. sufiqsian vnebiTTa mimarTeba uniSno da saSuali gvaris zmnebTan. sufiqsiani da uniSno vnebiTebi, gvaris orwevriani sistemis (aqtivi-pasivi) paralelurad (aTenebs _ Tendeba, acxobs _ cxveba...), saSuali gvaris zmnebTan erTad gvaris samwevrian sistemasac qmnian (awuxebs _ wuxdeba _ wuxs, awvens _ wveba _ wevs...). is, rac sufiqsian vnebiTebs prefiqsianebisagan ganasxvavebs _ aaxlovebs `uniSno vnebiTebTan~. sufiqsian da uniSno vnebiTebTan gramatikuli subieqtis pasiuri mniSvneloba nakleb TvalsaCinoa: dgeba, wveba, qreba..., wuxdeba, Cumdeba... (T v i T o n ), Tumca, aseve, dgeba, wveba (v i R a c i s d a x m a r e b i T), cxveba (v i R a c i s m i e r )... wuxdeba (x m a u r i T...), Cumdeba (r a R a c i s g a m o ), brtyeldeba (v i R a c i s m i e r )... prefiqsian vnebiTebSi, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, miuxedavad uamravi gamonaklisisa, pasiuri gramatikuli subieqtia kanonzomieri: ixateba, iwereba ( v i R a c i s m i e r ) . uniSno vnebiTebi d g - e b - a da doniani w u x - d - e b - a toli odenobaa SinaarsiTa da gramatikuli kategoriebis warmoe-

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biT, gansxvavebuli aqvT TurmeobiTis formebi: `uniSno vnebiTi~ manian mimReobas iyenebs: d a - m - d g a r - a , sufiqsiani _ vnebiTi gvaris mimReobas: S e - w u x e b u l - a , Tumca Sinaarsobrivad es ori warmoeba erTmaneTs faravs da gansxvavdeba prefiqsian vnebiTTa analogiuri warmoebisagan: Sdr., d a - w e r i l - a , aq naTelia, rom moqmedeba sxvis mier aris Sesrulebuli. S e w u x e b u l a orive mniSvnelobas iTavsebs (T v i T o n / s x v i s g a n , s x v i s m i e r ). moqmedebiTi gvaris formawarmoebis principi `uniSno~ da sufiqsian vnebiTebs saerTo aqvT: a _ eb; a _ ob da a _ en. wux-d-eb-a / a-wux-eb-s, TeTr-d-eb-a / a-TeTr-eb-s wv-eb-a / a-wv-en-s, Tb-eb-a /a-Tb-ob-s. SeniSvna: moqmedebiTi gvaris warmoebis principi aq kauzatiuria. `uniSno vnebiTebi~ specialur literaturaSi istoriulad ugvaro dinamikur zmnebadaa miCneuli. `mas Semdeg, rac enaSi zmnis gvarebi Camoyalibda da Seiqmna sapirispiro moqmedebiTvnebiTi formebi zmnisa, enaSi ukve arsebuli es erTpirian-dinamikuri zmnebis formebi funqcionalurad daemTxva da gamoyenebul iqna kidec moqmedebiTis sapirispiro warmoebad _ vnebiTad~ (q. lomTaTiZe). s u f i q s i a n i v n e b i T e b i saSuali gvaris zmnaTa saopozicio calebad gvevlinebian gvaris samwevrovan sistemaSi, rogorc funqciis, aseve formisa da gramatikul kategoriaTa warmoebis mxriv _ dro-kiloTa warmoebis mTel sistemaSi: a-wux-eb-s _ wux-d-eb-a _ wux-s a-gor-eb-s _ gor-d-eb-a _ gor-av-s a-Zul-eb-s _ s - Z u l - d - e b - a _ s - Z u l - s ... 1. sufiqsiani vnebiTebi iseve upirispirdebian an Seesabamebian saSual (medioaqtivsa da mediopasivs) zmnebs, rogorc `uniSno vnebiTebi~: dga-s _ dg-eb-a, qri-s _ qr-eb-a... da wux-s _ wux-d-eb-a, mwif-s _ mwif-d-eb-a, gor-av-s _ gor-d-eb-a, s-Zul-s

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_ s-Zul-d-eb-a, Can-s _ Cn-d-eb-a... saSuali forma mdgomareobas, viTarebas gadmogvcems, dinamikuri _ moqmedebis process. 2. saSuali gvarisa da dinamikur `uniSno~ da sufiqsian vnebiTebs erTnairad ewarmoebaT qceva: dga-s _ u-dga-s, wux-s _ u-wux-s, tir-i-s _ u-tir-i-s, mwif-s _ u-mwif-s... da dgeb-a _ udg-eb-a, wux-d-eb-a _ u-wux-d-eb-a, tir-d-eb-a _ u-tir-d-eb-a (autirdeba). 3. saSuali gvaris da sufiqsian da `uniSno~ dinamikur zmnebSi zogjer SeiZleba dadasturdes situaciis e.w. `sazedao~ formebi : a-Cn-i-a _ a-Cn-d-eb-a, a-wvim-s _ a-wvim-d-eb-a, a-dg-as _ a-dg-eb-a (Tavze), a-zi-s _ a-jd-eb-a, a-wev-s _ a-wv-eb-a... Sesabamisad, saSuali gvaris statikur zmnaTa saqceo mimarTeba Tu sam wevrs iTvaliswinebs, is paralelurad dinamikuri vnebiTis formasac eqneba: dg-a-s, a-dg-[a]-s, u-dg-[a]-s _ dg-eb-a, adg-eb-a, u-dg-eb-a Can-s, a-Cn-s, u-C[a]n-s _ Cn-d-eb-a, a-Cn-d-eb-a, uCn-d-eb-a. 4. Tu saSuali gvaris zmna micemiTsubieqtiania, micemiTsubieqtiani iqneba saTanado dinamikuri vnebiTic: uyvars _ uyvardeba, sZuls _ sZuldeba, swyuria _ swyurdeba da a.S. saintereso faqtia, rom Tu saSuali gvaris zmnas (micemiTsubieqtians) xmovani prefiqsi ekargvis, ekargvis is Sesabamis dinamikuri vnebiTis formasac: u-kvirs, h-kvirs _ u-kvirdeba, h-kvirdeba... doniani, prefiqsiani da uniSno vnebiTebis erT klasSi (pasivebSi) gaerTianeba, aqtiv-pasivis opoziciis universaluri gagebiT, garkveulwilad pirobiTia. qarTuli pasivebi ar arian evropuli pasiuri zmnebis zusti analogebi, Tumca maTi pasiuri mniSvneloba, iq sadac es mniSvneloba gvaqvs, saTuo ar unda iyos. qarTuli prefiqsiani, sufiqsiani da uniSno vnebiTebis pasiuri mniSvnelobis sakontrolo saSualebaa maTi Canacvleba saTanado moqmedebiTis ganusazRvrelsubieqtiani mravlobiTis formiT. ufro mkafioa vnebiTebis formobrivi maxasiaTeblebi: vnebiTis formantebi, awmyo drois jgufebis warmoeba, kerZod, eb-i, eb-a daboloeba I seriis I, II da III piris formebSi (v-wuxdeb-i, wuxd-eb-i, wuxd-eb-a; v-i-mal-eb-i, i-mal-eb-i, i-mal-eb-a; v-Tb-

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eb-i, Tb-eb-i, Tb-eb-a...), III piris subieqtis sufiqsi -a (wuxdeb-a, i-mal-eb-a, Tb-eb-a...), -od savrcobi (wux-d-eb-od-a, i-mal-eb-od-a, Tb-eb-od-a...). am morfologiuri maxasiaTeblebiT sufiqsuri da prefiqsuli vnebiTebi upirispirdebian saTanado aqtivis formebs. ase rom, opozicia aqtivi _ pasivi morfologiuri TvalsazrisiT, TvalsaCinodaa gamoxatuli, gansakuTrebiT, I seriaSi (aqtivis a-, da pasivis konfiqsuri i_eba(e_eba), -d_eba, _eba) markerebis dapirispirebiT. IV. 4.1.5.4. saSuali gvari (mediumi). gvaris opoziciur wevrTa markirebis ZiriTadi modelebi, rogorc ukve iTqva, aseTia: 1. orwevriani: aramarkirebuli aqtivi _ prefiqsiT markirebuli pasivi: xazavs _ i-xazeba... 2. orwevriani: a) markirebuli aqtivi _ markirebuli pasivi (sufiqsiani an uniSno): aTenebs _ Tendeba, acxobs _ cxveba... b) markirebuli aqtivi _ aramarkirebuli mediumi: asadilebs _ sadilobs... 3. samwevriani: markirebuli aqtivi _ markirebuli pasivi (sufiqsiani an uniSno) _ aramarkirebuli mediumi: awuxebs _ wuxdeba _ wuxs, awvens _ wveba _ wevs... duR-s, wux-s, gor-av-s, trial-eb-s, tir-i-s, laR-ob-s, fasob-s, cxar-ob-s da sxv. es is saSuali gvaris zmnebia, romelTac sapirispiro moqmedebiTic ukeTdeba da vnebiTic: aduRebs _ duRdeba _ duRs, agorebs _ gordeba _ goravs da a.S. vaxSmobs, vaWrobs, sadilobs, qris da misTanebs mediumebis sapirispirod mxolod moqmedebiTis formebi aqvs: avaxSmebs, avaWrebs, asadilebs, aqrolebs... saSuali gvaris zmnebSi tradiciul Temis niSnebs medialur zmnaTa awmyos fuZis formantebad gamoyofs di en holiski. es formantebia: (duR-s), -i (tir-i-s), -av (gor-av-s), -eb (sisineb-s), -ob (celq-ob-s). am rigSi ganvixilavT awmyos III piris specifikur -ia || -av daboloebian (Zv. qarT. -ies) e.w. statikur vnebiTebs: a b - i a, a n T - i a, w e r - i a / a - w e r - i a, x a t - i a / a - x a t - i a da misT. a. SaniZis mixedviT 120-mde statikur zmnas. mediopasi-

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vebisa da `statikuri vnebiTebis~ Sinarsoblivi da formaluri msgavseba (gardauvaloba, sruli aspeqtis formaTa arqona, qcevis nakluli sistema, uRlebis nakluli paradigma, awmyos I da II piris formaTa meSvelzmniani warmoeba...) samecniero literaturaSi cnobili faqtia (a. SaniZe, z. WumburiZe...). awmyos fuZis gansxvavebuli formantebiT Seqmnili formaluri zRvari mediopasivsa da statikurebs Soris myifea. a. SaniZe SeniSnavs: `sazogadod uaxles qarTuls aqvs tendencia statikurTa farglebSi moaqcios iseTi zmnebic, romlebic tipobrivad mediopasivia~; asaxelebs aseT, gansxvavebuli daboloebis mqone, mediopasivebs: a k r - a v - s, h - x u r - a v - s, s a x l - o b - s, h - m a r T - e b - s, C a s d g a m - s... da askvnis: iSleba formaluri zRvari mediopasivebsa da statikurebs Soriso. a. SaniZe exeba -ia daboloebian statikur zmnaTa saSuali gvaris formebSi gaerTianebis SesaZleblobasac, magram, sabolood, maT mainc vnebiTebSi ganixilavs. aseTi klasifikacia aviwrovebs statikuroba-dinamikurobis cnebis Sinaarss, romelic ufro farTo movlenaa, vidre vnebiTi gvari. statikuroba-dinamikurobis is dapirispireba, rac vnebiT gvarSi aRiniSneba: stat. ab-ia, wer-ia, xat-ia... _ dinam. ibm-eb-a, iwer-eb-a, ixat-eb-a..., saSuali gvaris `mediopasivebisTvisac~ niSandoblivia: dga-s _ dg-eb-a, wevs _ wv-eb-a, Can-s _ Cnd-eb-a... a b i a , a n T i a , x a t i a tipis statikur formaTa saSual gvarSi gaerTianebiT, amave fuZeebidan nawarmoebi aqtivisa da pasivis orwevrovani sistemebi samwevrovani xdeba: wers _ i-wereba _ weria, xatavs _ i-xateba _ xatia..., Tumca ar irRveva sistemis wevrTa markirebis wesi, aramarkirebul aqtivs (wers, xatavs) upirispirdeba markirebuli pasivi (i-wereba, i-xateba...) da -ia daboloebiT markirebuli saSuali (wer-ia, xat-ia...). SeiZleba markirebuli iyos opoziciis samive wevri (a-bam-s _ i-bm-eb-a _ ab-ia, a-nT-eb-s _ i-nT-eb-a _ anT-ia...). saSuali gvaris formebi, vnebiTebis msgavsad, konversiul urTierTobas amyareben saTanado moqmedebiTTan. `zogi niSnis mixedviT es zmna moqmedebiTs hgavs, zogiT ki _ vnebiTs: forma umetesad moqmedebiTisa aqvs, funqcia _ vnebiTisa (a. SaniZe). moqmedebiTebTan formiT msgavseba imaSi gamoixateba, rom moqmedebiTic da saSuali gvaris formebic arian uTemisniSnoc (w e r s

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da w e v s , d e b s da d e v s ...) da -i, -av, -eb-, -ob TemisniSnianebic (i- sufiqss pirobiTad vakuTvnebT Temis niSnebs), Tumca aqtivmediumis sapirispiro formebi ZiriTadad sxvadasxva niSnebiT formdeba: wux-s _ a-wux-eb-s, gor-av-s _ a-gor-eb-s, tir-i-s _ a-tir-eb-s, cxar-ob-s _ a-cxar-eb-s..., magram: trial-eb-s _ a-trial-eb-s... formis TvalsazrisiT, saSuali gvaris formebi moqmedebiTebisagan a- xmovani prefiqsis uqonlobiT gansxvavdebian. saSuali gvaris formebi moqmedebiTebs gardamavlobis TvalsazrisiT upirispirdebian: saSuali gvaris forma arsebiTad gardauvalia, moqmedebiTi gvarisa _ gardamavali. pasivebTan saSuali gvaris formebs aaxloebs gardauvaloba, pirTa raodenoba (erT- an orpirianebi arian), orpirian formebSi obieqturi piris rogoroba: saSualsac da vnebiTsac mxolod iribi obieqti Seewyoba. gamonaklisebi wess ar cvlis. mediumebisgan gansxvavebiT, vnebiTebs awmyoSi sakuTari modeli aqvT, gansxvavdebian es formebi mwkrivTa warmoebiTac. saSuali gvaris formebs sakuTari fuZiT mxolod I seriis (usruli aspeqtis) mwkrivebi ewarmoebaT, danarCen mwkrivebs ki imave fuZis aqtiuri an pasiuri formebiT ivseben. saSuali gvaris zmnebSi ganixileba gardauvali inversiuli an, sxvagvarad, micemiTsubieqtiani qona-yolisa da grZnoba-aGqmis semantikis statikuri zmnebi: a q v s, h y a v s, u y v a r s, s Z u l s, s Z a g s da a. S. micemiT subieqtiania -ia daboloebian statikur zmnaTa erTi nawilic: abadia, abaria, upyria, uyenia. sCvevia... subieqtis sintaqsis mixedviT, saSuali gvaris erTi nawili vnebiTebs mihyveba _ subieqti brunvaucvlelia, samsave seriaSi saxelobiT brunvaSi dgas. saSuali gvaris formaTa meore nawils brunvacvalebadi subieqti Seewyoba: I seriaSi _ saxelobiTi, II da III seriaSi _ moTxrobiTi da micemiTi brunvebiT. Sesabamisad, brunvaucvleli da brunvacvalebadi subieqtis mqone saSuali gvaris formebs arsebiTad gansxvavebuli semantika uCanT. am semantikis kvalobaze da imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu rogor xdeba saSuali gvaris formaTa nakluli mwkrivebis Sevseba, qarTulSi saSuali zmnebis ori jgufi gamoiyofa: 1. saSual-vnebiTebi (mediopasivebi), romlebic naklul mwkrivebs pasivis formebiT ivseben: aklia _ akldeba, aklda, hklebia, dgas _ idgeba,

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idga, mdgara; 2. saSual-moqmedebiTebi (medioaqtivebi), romlebic formaTwarmoebiT aqtiur zmnebs mihyvebian: cxovrobs (kaci), icxovrebs (kaci), icxovra (kacma), ucxovria (kacs). bunebrivia, nakluli mwkrivebis Sevseba-SerCeva pasivisa Tu aqtivis formebiT medialur zmnaTa saTanado pasiuri an aqtiuri mniSvnelobiT iyos gapirobebuli. SeniSvna: rac Seexeba nakluli paradigmis sakiTxs, mkvlevarTa erTi nawili miiCnevs, rom II da III seriis mwkrivTa formebi medioaqtivebisaTvis araorganulia, meoreulia, moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTagan nasesxebi (a. SaniZe...). sxva TvalsazrisiT, medioaqtivebs uRlebis sakuTari, sruli paradigma aqvs da sxva aqtiur zmnaTagan gansxvavebuli morfologiuri Tu sintaqsuri Taviseburebani saTanado istoriuli cvlilebis Sedegia (l. nozaZe, di en holiski, d. meliqiSvili). arsebobs sxvagvari gagebac (ix. aqve). Tumca nakluli paradigmis Sevsebasa da saSuali gvaris formaTa pasiur da aqtiur mniSvnelobebs Soris erTmniSvnelovani mimarTeba ar dasturdeba: pasiuri mniSvnelobis mediumi yovelTvis pasiuri formiT ar ivsebs danakliss da aqtiurisa _ aqtivis formiT. ganvixiloT Canacvlebis SemTxvevebi mediopasivisa da medioaqtivis jgufebSi: mediopasivebi. mediopasivTa erTi nawili naklul formebs Tavisive fuZis vnebiTiT ivsebs: swyins _ ewyineba, ewyina, swyenia, aklia _ daakldeba, daaklda, dahklebia, dgas _ idgeba, idga, mdgara da sxv. II nawils ki mxolod awmyos wris mwkrivebi ukeTdeba: Wirs, Cans, umZims, mwifs, xurs... medioaqtivebi. medioaqtiuri zmnebi, Casanacvlebeli formebis mixedviT, sam jgufad nawildeba: a) iyenebs aqtiur formebs, b) iyenebs rogorc aqtiur, aseve pasiur formebs (donian pasivebs), g) gvxvdeba mxolod awmyos wyebaSi. davaxasiaToT TiToeuli maTgani:

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a) am jgufis medioaqtivebTan aqtiuri formis Canacvleba ufro xSiria: guSagobs _ iguSagebs, iguSaga, uguSagnia, fiqrobs _ ifiqrebs, ifiqra, ufiqria, keklucobs _ ikeklucebs, ikekluca, ukeklucnia, TareSobs _ iTareSebs, iTareSa, uTareSia, cxovrobs _ icxovrebs, icxovra, ucxovria da bevri sxva. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aqtiuri Sinaarsis gamomxatveli saSuali formebisaTvis es ZiriTadi tendenciaa. Tumca aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom aqtiuri formebi Caenacvleba iseT medioaqtivebsac, romelTa aqtiuri Sinaarsi arc ise TvalsaCinoa, Sdr.: netarebs _ (inetara, unetaria). netarebaSia, netarebas grZnobs..., flidobs _ (iflida, uflidia). flidia..., SimSilobs _ (iSimSila, uSimSilnia). usaWmelod, uWmelad aris, _ mSieria... (qegl). b) medioaqtivTa paradigmis Sevseba moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnis formebis garda, paralelurad doniani vnebiTis formebiTac xdeba: nebivrobs (inebivra, unebivria || ganebivrda, ganebivrebula). buntobs (ibunta, ubuntia || abuntda, abuntebula). wuxs (iwuxa, uwuxia || Sewuxda, Sewuxebula) da sxv. g) aqtiuri Sinaarsis medialur zmnaTa erTi nawili mxolod I seriis usruli aspeqtis formebiT dasturdeba: uzneobs, ugunebobs, pranWiaobs... mxolod am formebiT dasturdeba rTuli zmnebis didi nawilic: guluxvobs, enamaxvilobs, crupentelaobs, pirmoTneobs, Zilfxizlobs da a.S. aqtiurobis TvalsazrisiT, uzmniswino da zmniswiniani medioaqtivebi ar ganirCevian, magram uzmniswino formebs uRlebis sruli paradigma aqvT, zmiswinianebs _ nakluli: boginobs _ ibogina, uboginia, TareSobs _ iTareSa, uTareSia, maWanklobs _ imaWankla, umaWanklia... magram daboginobs, daTareSobs, damaWanklobs formebi mxolod awmyos jgufis droebSi gvxvdeba. aq mxolod is medioaqtivebi davasaxeleT, romelTac ganusazRvrelobis da- zmniswini axlavs. sxva zmniswinis darTvis SemTxvevaSi, medioaqtivebs naklul mwkrivebSi SeiZleba doniani pasivis saTanado formebi Caenacvlos: jiriTobs _ ijiriTebs, i j i r i T a, ujiriTnia, Sdr.: mojiriTobs, mojiriTdeba, m o j i r i T d a, mojiriTebula..., magram Sdr., ikikebs _ i i k i k a man, Sesikikebs _ S e s i k i k a man mas... medioaqtiur formaTagan II seriis mwkrivebi mxolod qcevis mixedviT neitralur formebs aqvT: wuxs _ iwuxa man... amave fuZis saobieqto qcevis formebi ki mxolod awmyos jgufSi gvxdebi-

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an: u-wuxs, u-duRs da misT. calkeul SemTxvevebSi Camnacvleblad aq SeiZleba doniani vnebiTis saTanado qcevis formebi vivaraudoT: uwuxs _ Seuwuxdeba, Seuwuxda, Seswuxebia (guli)... ase rom, terminebi `mediopasivi~, `medioaqtivi~ zedmiwevniT ver aRwers saSuali gvaris formebs. medialuri formebis aqtiuri semantika aucileblad ar gulisxmobs saTanado zmnebis uRlebis srul paradigmas da, Sesabamisad, II seriis mwkrivebSi subieqtis ergatiul brunvaSi, xolo III seriaSi _ micemiT brunvaSi dasmas, Tumca es tendencia aSkaraa. medioaqtivebis sistema erTiani, mTliani paradigmis saxiT qarTulSi jer ar Camoyalibebula. is Zveli qarTulis gviandel periodSi isaxeba da es procesi kvlavac grZeldeba. SeniSvna: qarTuli zmnis aqtiurobis hipoTeza (g. klimovi, g. hopi, l. nozaZe, a. harisi...) swored medioaqtiuri zmnebis semantikur-sintaqsuri maxasiaTeblebis urTierTgapirobebulobis mtkicebas emyareba. aqtiurobis Teoriis momxreTa azriT, medialur zmnaTa fuZis aqtiuri semantika realizebulia sintaqsur doneze: II seriis mwkrivebSi am zmnaTa subieqti ergatiul (resp. aqtiur) brunvaSi dgas, III seriis mwkrivebi inversiulia: wuxs is, iwuxa man, uwuxia mas; mefobs igi, imefa man, umefia mas... qarTuli (resp. qarTveluri) zmnis aqtiurobis hipoTeza qarTuli zmnis ZiriTad saklasifikacio erTeulad ara gardamavloba-gardauvalobas, aramed aqtiuroba-inaqtiurobas miiCnevs. IV 4.1.6. gvaris saopozicio formaTa semantikuri maxasiaTeblebi (gardamavloba _ gardauvaloba, dinamikuroba _ statikuroba, zRvruloba _ arazRvruloba) gvaris saopozicio formebi (moqmedebiTi, vnebiTi da saSuali) qarTulSi erTmaneTs upirispirdebian gardamavloba _ gardauvalobis, dinamikuroba _ statikurobisa da moqmedebis saxis anu zRvradoba-arazRvradobis semantikuri maxasiaTeblebiT (amasTan, gardamavloba qarTulizmnis sintaqsuri maxasiaTebelicaa).

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gvaris formaTa dapirispireba warmodgenili maxasiaTeblebis gaTvaliswinebiT ase aisaxeba: gardamavlobis mixedviT: moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi gardamavlebi arian, SesityvebebSi pirdapir damatebas Seiwyoben: akeTebs, wers, xatavs ( i s m a s ), aSenebinebs ( i s m a s m a s ). vnebiTi ( ixateba, wuxdeba, qreba) da saSuali (wuxs, Cans) gvaris zmnebi gardauvali zmnebia, gardauvali zmnebi pirdapir damatebas ver igueben. statikuroba _ dinamikurobis mixedviT: moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebi dinamikuri zmnebia, isini process gamoxataven: moqm.: a k e T e b s, i k e T e b s, u k e T e b s; a w u x e b s, i w u x e b s (Tavs), u w u x e b s; a r C e v s, i r C e v s , u r C e v s da a.S. vneb.: q r e b a, u q r e b a; C n d e b a, a C n d e b a, u C n d e b a; c i v d e b a, u c i v d e b a; i m a l e b a, e m a l e b a da a.S. saSuali gvaris zmnaTa erTi nawili _ mediopasivebi _ statikuri, mdgomareobis aRmniSvneli zmnebia: d g a s, a d g a s, u d g a s; z i s, a z i s, u z i s; w e v s, a w e v s, u w e v s; C a n s, u C a n s; u y v a r s; s Z u l s; u m Z i m s; S v e n i s da a.S. saSuali gvaris ufro didi nawili _ medioaqtivebi, TavisTavSi Caketil `moqmedebas~ afiqsireben: w u x s _ u w u x s, g o r a v s _ u g o r a v s, t r i a l e b s, g r i a l e b s, S r i a l e b s, c x o v r o b s , s a x i o b s da a.S. am zmnaTa erTi nawilis aqtiuri semantika, qeglis ganmartebis mixedviT, bevr SemTxvevaSi arc ise TvalsaCinoa: g o d e b s `tiriliT glovobs, moTqvams~, e l v a r e b s `elvarebas gamoscems~; aseve: a r s e b o b s, c x o v r o b s, m d e b a r e o b s, s u l d g m u l o b s... piriqiT, bevri maTgani mdgomareobis mniSvnelobas gamoxatavs: w u x s `wuxiliT aris Sepyrobili~, n a n o b s `sananeblad aqvs~, n e t a r e b s `netarebas grZnobs~, m o u s v e n r o b s `mousvenrad aris~, n a R v l o b s `naRveli aqvs, dardobs~, S i m S i l o b s `usaWmelod, uWmelad aris, _ mSieria~, n e b i v r o b s `nebivrad aris, ganebivrebulia, gancxromaSia~ da a.S. medioaqtiuri formebis erTi nawili dinamikuroba-statikurobis TvalsazrisiT semantikuri labilurobiT xasiaTdeba: b r u n a v s ... 1. moZraobs risame irgvliv; moZraobs Tavisi RerZis garSemo, trialebs; 2. gadat. mudmiv moZraobaSia, icvleba (qegl). Sdr., [wisqvili] Tu Zvels ruvs zevidan b r u n a v s

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[=rus zevidan a r i s , d g a s m.s.) Cemiao da Tu qvemoT b r u n a v s (Tu qvemoT a r i s , d g a s ) Seni iqnebao (q. s. Zeg.). b R a v i s _ `Cems karze erTi oTxfexi pirutyvi ara b R a v i s ~ (q. s. Zeg.) = ar aris; t r i a l e b s _ `erTi weliwadi SenTan erTad qarTvel sazogadoebaSi v t r i a l e b ~ (S. aragv.); g o r a v s... brunviT, trialiT adgils {gada}inacvlebs _ `nacarqeqia usaqmurad g o r a v d a, svamda, Wamda, eZina!~ (akaki) (qegl), Sdr. `sicives kaci mouklavs sawyali ager g o r a v s a ~. statikuri Sinaarsisaa medioaqtiur zmnaTa sasxviso qcevis didi nawili: g u l i u w u x s `guli aqvs Sewuxebuli~, s a x e u b r w y i n a v s `saxe aqvs gabrwyinebuli~, t a n i u T r T i s , C a i u d u R s , x e l e b i u c a x c a x e b s , T a v S i u q r i s da sxv. gramatikuli mdgomareobis cneba erTgvarovani ar aris. b. jorbenaZe absoluturi mdgomareobis gamomxatvel (dgas, wevs, zis) statikur zmnebTan erTad, statikurebad miiCnevs medioaqtiur zmnebsac, romelTa konstruqciaSi ar gvaqvs realuri (pirdapiri) obieqti da maTi statikurobis gansxvavebuli xarisxis dasaxasiaTeblad Semoaqvs SefardebiTi mdgomareobis cneba; yvavilobs, naGvlobs, nanobs da a. S. medioaqtiur formaTa statikurobaze msjelobs agreTve d. holiski. zRvradoba _ arazRvradobis mixedviT zRvradi semantikis zmnebia moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris formebi: a c x e l e b s _ c x e l d e b a, x a t a v s _ i x a t e b a... formebi zRvradia, am zmnebis mier gamoxatuli procesi unda dasruldes: gaacxelebs _ gacxeldeba, gaacxela _ gacxelda; daxatavs _ daixateba, daxata _ daixata da a.S. (z. umburiZe, d. holiski, i. meliqiSvili) arazRvradia saSuali gvaris semantika, procesis dasruleba am zmnebis mier gamoxatuli qmedebiT ar igulisxmeba: w u x s `wuxilis mdgomareobas~, wuxilis process gamoxatavs. Sdr.: wuxs... `wuxiliT aris Sepyrobili~ (qegl), g o r a o b s `mwolare erT adgilze brunavs, trialebs, gadabrund-gadmobrundeba~ (qegl). gardamavloba _ gardauvalobis semantikuri maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi upirispirdebian saSuali da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebs: moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi _ gardamavlebi, vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris zmnebi _ gardauvalebi.

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dinamikuroba _ statikurobis semantikuri maxasiaTeblebiT moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi upirispirdeba saSual zmnebs: moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebi dinamikurebi arian, saSuali gvaris zmnaTa erTi nawili (mediopasivebi, micemiTsubieqtiani da -ia daboloebiani zmnebi) statikuri zmnebia, meore nawili (medioaqtivebi) _ dinamikuri zmnebi; dinamikur zmnaTa erT wyebas statikuroba-dinamikurobis TvalsazrisiT labiluroba axasiaTebs. zRvradoba _ arazRvradobis mixedviT moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebi zRvradi zmnebia, saSuali gvaris zmnebi _ arazRvradi. amgvarad: moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi semantikurad daxasiaTdeba rogorc gardamavali, dinamikuri da zRvradi zmnebi. vnebiTebi _ gardauvali, dinamikuri da zRvradi. saSuali gvaris zmnebi arian gardauvalebi, rogorc statikurebi aseve dinamikurebi da arazRvradebi. sazRvari am semantikuri klasebis gvaris formebs Soris irRveva xolme, mag. vnebiTi gvaris semantikuri saxeobebi (`miCnevis~, `gunebis~, `SesaZleblobis~) arazRvradi zmnebia. semantikur maxasiaTeblebsa da gvaris formebis mimarTebas Soris sxva darRvevebic gvaqvs.

IV. 4.2. gvari da gardamavloba


ukve aRvniSneT, rom gvaris erT-erTi ZiriTadi semantikuri da sintaqsuri maxasiaTebeli gardamavlobac aris. gvarisa da gardamavlobis cnebaTa gadakveTa gvaris kategoriis ganmartebaSivea xelSesaxebi: gvari aris zmnis forma, romelic gviCvenebs, Tu rogoria urTierToba gramatikulad moqmed pirsa da zmniT aRniSnul moqmedebas Soris: moqmedeba momdinareobs subieqturi pirisagan da s x v a p i r z e a d a m a r T e b u l i , subieqti ganicdis am moqmedebas, Tu momdinareobs misgan, magram ise, rom arc s x v a p i r z e a d a m a r T e b u l i da arc gancdilia sxvisi moqmedebiT (a. SaniZe). gvaris es definicia ar gulisxmobs mxolod `gramatikulad moqmed pirsa da zmniT aRniSnul moqmedebas Soris~ mimarTebis gamovlenas. `sxva pirze damarTebis~ cnebis Semotanam am katego-

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riis SinaarsSi subieqtisa da pirdapiri obieqtis pirTa mimarTebis (e.i. gardamavlobis) sakiTxic wamoswia. moqmedebiTi, vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris formebis ganmartebebSi (isev a. SaniZis mixedviT) ki ukve erTmniSvnelovnad fiqsirdeba pirdapiri obieqtis (pirdapiri damatebis) ganmsazRvreli roli gvaris saopozicio formebis dapirispirebaSi da, zogadad, gvaris kategoriis funqcionirebaSi. es ganmartebebi aseTia: `m o q m e d e b i T i a (aqtiuria) gvari, romelic gviCvenebs, rom gramatikulad moqmedi piri, romelsac subieqturis saxeliT vicnobT, igivea, rac realurad moqmedi piri, da mas moepoveba samoqmedo piri, p i r d a p i r - o b i e q t u r i s (xazi Cvenia, m.s.) saxeliT cnobili; magaliTi: `vagoreb~ (me, mas). v n e b i T i a (pasiuria) gvari, romelic gviCvenebs, rom subieqturi piri imasve ganicdis, rasac p i r d a p i r - o b i e q t u r i saTanado moqmedebiTSi, oRond zmnis formiT ar Cans, Tu visgan an risgan; magaliTi: `gordeba~. s a S u a l i a (medialuria) gvari, romelic gviCvenebs, rom subieqturi piri `moqmedebs~ ise, rom s a m o q m e d o o b i e q t i ara aqvs, magram am moqmedebas ar `ganicdis~, rogorc amas adgili aqvs vnebiTSi; magaliTi: `goravs~ (a. SaniZe). warmodgenili ganmartebebis mixedviT, moqmedebiTi, vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris formebi erTmaneTs upirispirdebian ara marto subieqtis aqtiuroba-pasiurobis, aramed samoqmedo obieqtis anu pirdapiri obieqtis (resp. pirdapiri damatebis) qona-uqonlobiTac, kerZod: moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa gramatikuli subieqti a q t i u r i (realuri) subieqtia:

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m x a t v a r i xatavs suraTs. b i W i agorebs urikas m z e amwifebs xils... m x a t v a r i , b i W i , m z e aqtiuri subieqtebia saTanado formis zmnebTan Sewyobili. vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa gramatikuli subieqti p a s i u r i , ganmcdeli subieqtia (realuri pirdapiri obieqti gardamavali zmnisa): s u r a T i ixateba. u r i k a gordeba. x i l i mwifdeba. Sdr.: biWi xatavs s u r a T s Sdr.: biWi agorebs u r i k a s Sdr.: mze amwifebs x i l s ...

s u r a T i , u r i k a , x i l i _ ixateba, gordeba, mwifdeba v i R a c i s (r a R a c i s ) m i e r , pasiuri subieqtebia _ zmnis pasiur formebTan Sewyobili. saSuali gvaris subieqti SeiZleba aqtiuric iyos (TviTmoqmedi) da araaqtiuric: u r i k a goravs Sdr.: biWi agorebs u r i k a s ; x i l i mwifs Sdr.: mze amwifebs x i l s ... mocemul zmnur konteqstSi u r i k a aqtiuria, TviTmoqmedi subieqtia, x i l i _ araaqtiuri. moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebs pirdapiri obieqti SeewyobaT: xatavs s u r a T s , agorebs u r i k a s , amwifebs x i l s . vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris zmnaTa Sesityveba pirdapir obieqts ar gulisxmobs, piriqiT, gamoricxavs: suraTi ixateba, urika gordeba/ goravs, xili mwifdeba/ mwifs... gvaris saopozicio formaTa urTierToba ganixileba konversiis meqanizmis safuZvelze. es urTierToba gulisxmobs erTi da imave Sinaarsis realizacias gansxvavebuli gramatikuli formebis (moqmedebiTis, vnebiTis an saSualis) saSualebiT: mxatvari xatavs suraTs _ suraTi ixateba [mxatvris mier]

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urika gordeba [biWis mier] biWi agorebs urikas mze amwifebs xils xili mwifs [mzeze] urika goravs xili mwifdeba [mzeze]

konversiis gziT moqmedebiTi gvaris pirdapiri damateba gramatikul qvemdebared gardaiqmneba vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris konstruqciebSi. logikuri qvemdebare zmnasTan wyvets kavSirs da SeiZleba Tandebuliani an moqmedebiT brunvaSi dasmuli ubralo damatebis (an garemoebis) rolSi mogvevlinos, isic, ZiriTadad, vnebiTur konstruqciebSi: s u r a T i ixateba m x a t v r i s m i e r . u r i k a gordeba b i W i s m i e r da a.S. _ qarTulisaTvis arsebiTad xelovnuri konstruqciebia. ase rom, konversiuli gardaqmnebis (pasivizaciis, medializaciis) Sedegad Sinaarsis plani yovelTvis igive ar rCeba, ramdenadac am gardaqmnebis Sedegad r e a l u r i s u b i e q t i s saTanado transformebi konstruqciaSi savaldebulo ar aris: b i W i agorebs urikas > urika gordeba [b i W i s m i e r ]. magram konstruqciisTvis savaldebuloa p i r d a p i r i o b i e q t i s transformebi: realuri pirdapiri obieqtis transformi pasiur konstruqciaSi pasiuri gramatikuli subieqtia: xatavs s u r a T s > s u r a T i ixateba; medialur konstruqciaSi mas Seefardeba an `TviTmoqmedi~ subieqti: agorebs u r i k a s > u r i k a goravs an `mdgomareobis~ subieqti: amwifebs x i l s > x i l i mwifs... amdenad, gvaris formaTa funqcionirebisaTvis p i r d a p i r i o b i e q t i s (resp. pirdapiri damatebis) mniSvneloba arsebiTia; Tu moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebSi moqmedebis procesi s u b i e q t i s T v a l s a z r i s i T ganixileba, an, ufro zustad, iseTi subieqtis TvalsazrisiT, romelsac samoqmedod p i r d a p i r i o b i e q t i moepoveba: wers, xatavs, aSenebs, Wris... is m a s , vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris zmnebiT gamoxatuli procesi realuri pirdapiri obieqtis Tvalsazriss warmoaCens:

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vnebiTi: iwereba w e r i l i , ixateba s u r a T i , Sendeba s a x l i , iWreba g z a ... (Sdr.: weren w e r i l s , xataven s u r a T s , aSeneben s a x l s , Wrian g z a s ...) saSuali: goravs u r i k a , mwifs x i l i , wuxs b a v S v i ... (Sdr.: agoreben u r i k a s, amwifeben x i l s, awuxeben b a v S v s...); bunebrivia, rom gvaris gansazRvraSi pirdapiri damatebis cnebis SemotaniT gvarisa da gardamavlobis mimarTebis sakiTxic ganixileba: gardamavali da gardauvali zmnebi pirdapiri damatebis qona-arqoniT upirispirdebian erTmaneTs: gardamaval zmnas pirdapiri damateba Seewyoba: wers w e r i l s , aSenebs s a x l s , agorebs u r i k a s ... gardauval zmnas ar Seewyoba pirdapiri damateba: iwereba werili, Sendeba saxli, gordeba / goravs urika... es niSnavs, rom moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi gardamavali zmnebia, vnebiTi da saSuali gvarisa ki _ gardauvalebi: wers, xatavs, aSenebs, agorebs, amwifebs... i s m a s moqmedebiTi gvaris gardamavali zmnebia, radganac am zmnebiT gamoxatuli moqmedeba xasiaTdeba subieqtis gadasvliT pirdapir obieqtze, es pirdapiri obieqti ki wyaroa pasiuri (iwereba, ixateba, Sendeba, gordeba, mwifdeba... i s ) da medialuri (goravs, mwifs... i s ) gardaqmnebisa. gvaris kategoriisa da gardamavlobis gadakveTa zogadad imaSi gamovlindeba, rom a) moqmedebiTi gvaris forma gardamavalia da b) pirdapiri damatebis raoba gansazRvravs konversiuli pasivisa da mediumis subieqtebis raobasac.

IV. 4.2.1. moqmedebiTi gvari da gardamavloba. `qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebidan~ cnobilia debuleba: `yoveli moqmedebiTi gardamavalia, magram yoveli gardamavali ar aris moqmedebiTi~ (a. SaniZe). am debulebis sailustraciod ganxilulia i c i s zmna: `vanom gakveTili i c i s ~; icis m a n i g i orpiriani gardamavali

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zmnaa: subieqti moTxrobiT brunvaSi udgas, pirdapiri obieqti _ saxelobiTSi, magram icis ar aris moqmedebiTi gvaris forma, radgan saopozicio (vnebiTi da saSuali) aklia. aseve: gardamavalia q i r a o b s zmna: qiraobs o T a x s , iqirava o T a x i , magram gardamavali qiraobs ar aris moqmedebiTi gvaris forma, radganac sapirispiro formebi gvarisa ar ukeTdeba. am tipis zmnaTa erTi rigi polisemiuria: ixmareba absoluturi da relatiuri mniSvnelobiTac: swavlobs i s / swavlobs i s m a s TamaSobs i s / TamaSobs i s m a s ; angariSobs i s / angariSobs i s m a s ; Takilobs i s / Takilobs i s m a s da misT. absoluturad xmarebis SemTxvevaSi aseTi zmnebi saSuali gvarisani arian, mniSvneloba saSuali gvarisa aqvT: subieqturi piri TviTmoqmedia da samoqmedo obieqti ara aqvs, uRvlilebis nakluli paradigmebic saSuali gvaris formaTa msgavsad ukeTdeba: awmy. s w a v l o b s myof. i s w a v l i s wyvet. i s w a v l a I Turm. u s w a v l i a . relatiuri wyobiT am zmnas pirdapiri obieqti uCndeba da gardamavali xdeba, Sdr.: absolut. `gigla swavlobs titina~ relat. `gigla swavlobs g a k v e T i l s ~, myof. iswavlis g a k v e T i l s , wyvet. iswavla g a k v e T i l i , I Turm. uswavlia g a k v e T i l i . ganxilul (s w a v l o b s , a n g a r i S o b s , q i r a o b s , T a k i l o b s ...) zmnaTa gramatikuli statusis (gvaris, gardamavlobis) sakiTxi sadavoa. `vswavlob~ gardamavalia _ aRniSnavs a. SaniZe, radgan mas pirdapiri obieqti aqvs: vswavlob f r a n g u l s , vswavlob w e r a s ...

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`vswavlob~ da `vaswavli~ iseTs mimarTebaSia erTmaneTTan, rogorc vTqvaT, `vWam~ da `vaWmev~, an `vicvam~ da `vacmev~. SeiZleba `vswavlob~ zogjer absoluturad iqnes naxmari, magram e s s x v a m o q m e d e b i T z m n e b s a c a x a s i a T e b s ...~ (xazgasma Cvenia, m.s.). am bolo frazaSi a. SaniZe im m o q m e d e b i T i g v a r i s f o r m e b s gulisxmobs, romlebic zmnis fuZiT gadmocemuli moqmedebis ganzogadebis Sedegad absoluturi mniSvnelobiTac SeiZleba Segvxvdes, pirdapir obieqtze miTiTebis gareSe. Sdr.: xatav-s i s s u r a T s , magram x a t a v s , ` s a e r T o d x a t a v s ~ , `mxatvaria~ [`arsakiZe] ukeT x a t a v s , vidre aSenebs~ (k. gams.) qegl kerav-s i s k a b a s , magram k e r a v s `s a e r T o d k e r a v s ~, `mkeravia~ gigas deda k e r a v s (`mkeravia~), `TviTon Wris da TviTon k e r a v s ~ (andaz.). oRond esaa, rom x a t a v s , k e r a v s da msgavs formebs gvaris mixedviT saopozicio formebic aqvT. s w a v l o b s da misTanebs ki aseTi formebi ar udasturdebaT. amdenad isini gardamavlebi ki arian, magram gvaris mniSvnelobas ar gamoxataven. raki es zmnebi, absoluturnic da relatiurebic, uRvlilebis paradigmas medioaqtiuri zmnebis paradigmis msgavsad ageben (gansxvaveba mxolod sintaqsSia), a. SaniZe am paradigmas asec axasiaTebs _ `medioaqtivisebri formaTa warmoeba gardamaval zmnebSi~. Sdr.: awmyo myof. wyvet. I Turm.

cxovrob-s is i-cxovreb-s is i-cxovr-a man u-cxovr-i-a mas

swavlob-s is / is mas i-swavl-is is / is mas i-swavl-a man / man is u-swavl-i-a mas / mas is

ase rom, a. SaniZis TvalsazrisiT, s w a v l o b s , a n g a r i Sobs, galobs, glovobs, TamaSobs, nanobs, lapar a k o b s , f i q r o b s ... tipis zmnebi, romlebic absoluturi da

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relatiuri (anu gardauvali da gardamavali) mniSvnelobebiT ixmareba, gvaris kategoriis gareT mdgomi, ugvaro, gardamavali zmnebia: absoluturi da relatiuri konteqstis mixedviT ganirCeva: galob-s i s / i s m a s : aq SaSvi galobs, iq wyaro kldeze Camorbis CqrialiT (S. mRvim.) igi dRes sul sxva s a g a l o b e l s a galobs (ilia) laparakob-s i s / i s m a s : vlaparakob, vlaparakob gacxarebiT, is _ ki, visac velaparakebi, zis gaunZrevlad (d. kld.) Tina... kargad ver laparakobda q a r T u l s (ek. gab.) qegl. nanob-s i s / i s m a s : `eg iyo Cemi bediswera... ara vnanob, ara...~ _ kvlav miubrunda giorgi gawyvetil sityvas (ilia) bagrata ara Tu nanobda Tavis s a q c i e l s , piriqiT, emuqreboda kidec mezoblebs (e. ninoS.) qegl. zmnaTa erTi nawili mxolod relatiuri mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba: qiraobs, xmarobs, Civis... i s m a s : qaCali savarcxlis g a Z v i r e b a s a Ciodao (andaza) qegl. dasturdeba sampiriani formac: s-Tavazob-s, uTavazeb-s (i s m a s m a s ), uTavaza (m a n m a s i s ). a. SaniZe gardamaval sampirian zmnebSi ganixilavs `medioaqtivisebr~ u C i v i s (myof. uCivlebs) formasac, Tumca am zmnas faqtobrivad pirdapiri obieqti ar Seewyoba da, Sesabamisad, misi gardamavlad (da sampirianad) kvalifikaciac saTuoa: erTi glexi sasamarTloSi misuliyo da u C i o d a Tavis mezobels (i. gogeb.) `waval, v u C i v l e b !~ _ fiqrobs gamwarebuli (mix. mrevl.) qegl... SeniSvna: `qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi~ zemoCamoTvlil `medioaqtivisebri~ uRvlilebis zmnebs gardauvali statikuri zmnebis kvalifikacia eZleva.

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warmovadgenT oriode ilustracias rogorc absoluturrelatiuri, aseve _ relatiuri zmnebisa: absolutur-relatiuri: fiqrob-s (iyen. ifiqra, ufiqria) grduv. stat. 1. TavisTvis gunebaSi msjelobs, azrs ikrebs, _ sazrobs, azrovnebs... daTua... ijda Tavis alagze da fiqrobda (n. lom.)... 4. `qarTvelebi Seni sardlobiT fiqroben mterze g a m a r j v e b a s a ~ (akaki)... qegl. relatiuri: Taob-s (iyen. iTava, uTavnia) grduv. stat. moTave aris, saTaveSi udgas rasme, _ iwyebs; iniciativas iCens (rameSi). vin Taobs am s a q m e s ? _ qarTli Taobs da Cven _ ki saqarTvelos nawili varT, ukan ver davdgebiT (a. yazb.). Takilob-s (iyen. iTakila, uTakilnia) grduv. stat. saTakilod miaCnia, _ ar kadrulobs. uwurTvnels, uzrdels... Cven SinaurobaSiac ... vTakilobT (ilia)... qegl. gvarisa da gardamavlobis mimarTebis tradiciuli a. SaniZiseuli formula, rom: moqmedebiTi gvaris forma gardamavalia, vnebiTisa da saSualisa ki _ gardauvali; yoveli moqmedebiTi gardamavalia, magram yoveli gardamavali ar aris moqmedebiTi, albaT damatebiT argumentacias moiTxovs. a. SaniZis debuleba, rom relatiuri mniSvnelobiT xmarebuli: angariSobs m o g e b a s , TamaSobs b u r T s , swavlobs g a k v e T i l s _ gardamavali zmnebia, misaRebia, magram absoluturi mniSvnelobiT es zmnebi gardamavlebi ver iqnebian. maT labiluri konstruqciebi aqvT: pirdapiri damatebis darTva-daurTvelobiT ganasxvaveben gardamavlobasa da gardauvalobas. rac Seexeba aRniSnuli tipis zmnebSi gvaris kategoriis gamoxatvis sakiTxs: marTalia, maT uRvlilebis paradigma medioaqtiuri zmnebisa aqvT, magram a. SaniZis mier saSuali gvaris zmnebSi ar ganixilebian, radgan: 1. gvaris sapirispiro gramatikuli mniSvnelobis formebi ara aqvT, 2. SeewyobaT pirdapiri damateba (saSuali gvaris zmnebad maTi moazreba ki gardamavali saSuali gvaris cnebis Semotanas niSnavs).

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gansaxilvel zmnaTa gvaris ama Tu im formisadmi mikuTvnebis sakiTxi SeiZleba gadawydes gvaris morfologiuri opoziciis cnebis ara absoluturi realizaciis _ aramed SefardebiTi realizaciis moTxovniT (g. nebieriZe): aucilebeli ar aris saopozicio erTeulebi yvela SesaZlo poziciaSi dadasturdes (morfologiuri opoziciis dizunqciuri realizacia). gvaris samwevrovani sistema (moqmedebiTi : vnebiTi : saSuali), rogorc ukve araerTxel aRvniSneT, enaSi yovelTvis ar aris realizebuli: a w u x e b s : w u x d e b a : w u x s, a g o r e b s : g o r d e b a : g o r a v s... gvaqvs orwevriani (moqmedebiTi : vnebiTi da moqmedebiTi : saSuali) : a n g r e v s : i n g r e v a ... da a c x o v r e b s : c x o v r o b s ... da erTwevriani realizaciebic : mxolod moqmedebiTi : h p a r a v s..., mxolod vnebiTi : i l e S e b a, mxolod saSuali : c u c u n e b s... (ix. a. SaniZis `ucalo moqmedebiTi~, `ucalo vnebiTi~, `ucalo saSuali~). s w a v l o b s tipis zmnebi formis TvalsazrisiT saSuali gvaris medioaqtiuri zmnebia, gramatikuli funqciis TvalsazrisiT _ polisemiurebi: absoluturi konstruqciiT saSuali gvarisani arian da gardauvalebi (`gigla swavlobs titina~), relatiuri konstruqciiT (`gigla swavlobs gakveTils~) ki moqmedebiTi gvaris funqciiT gvevlinebian, aqvT pirdapiri damateba (subieqtis moqmedeba gadadis pirdapir obieqtze). sqematurad gvaris kategoriis sistema (SesaZlo varianti) ase gvesaxeba:
gvaris kategoria (sistema) gardamavali gardauvali moqmedebiTi vnebiTi saSuali a-wuxeb-s wux-d-eb-a wux-s a-ngrev-s a-cxovreb-s a-patimreb-s _ _ s-wavlob-s Takilob-s i-ngrev-a _ _ ileSeba _ _ _ _ cxovrob-s _ _ s-wavlob-s is s-wavlob-s is mas Takilob-s is mas

samwevriani: orwevriani:

erTwevriani:

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sqemaze gamosaxuli saSuali gvaris absolutur da relatiur formaTa mimarTeba _ absolutur-gardauvali (saSuali gvari) > relatiur-gardamavali > moqmedebiT gardamavali (swavlobs is > swavlobs is mas) gapirobebuli Cans zmnis fuZis semantikis cvlilebiT. a. SaniZis mier gaanalizebuli da saxeldebuli `medioaqtivisebri gardamavali~ zmnebis jgufi (a n g a r i S o b s , g a l o b s , g l o v o b s , T a o b s , T a k i l o b s , T a m a S o b s, l a p a r a kobs, nanobs, ocnebobs, fiqrobs, Civis, qiraobs, x m a r o b s ...) arsebiTad cnobierebis (ZiriTadad, metyvelebis) wris zmnebia, romlebic adamianis fsiqikur aqtivobasa da misi Sesabamisi Sinaarsebis erTobliobas gamoxataven. es fsiqikuri aqtivoba arsebobs realuri gancdebis, realuri Sinaarsebis saxiT siRrmul struqturaSi, romelic SeiZleba zedapirul struqturaSic amotivtivdes; am saxis gardaqmnebs met-naklebad zmnaTa ZiriTadi da gadataniTi mniSvnelobebis Sejerebac warmoaCens: laparakob-s... 1. laparakSi aris garTuli, _ saubrobs, baasobs. `sxvebTan rom l a p a r a k o b d i , guli mwydeboda~ (akaki)... 2. laparaki icis, _ metyvelebs raime enaze... [qalma] sixaruliT wamoiZaxa: `maS aqac l a p a r a k o b e n Cerqezulad?~ (a. yazb.). Tina kargad l a p a r a k o b d a q a r T u l s (ek. gab.) qegl. laparakobs is (saerTod) > laparakobs is (Cerqezulad). laparakobs is m a s (qarTuls). nanob-s... sananeblad aqvs; Tavisi namoqmedariT ukmayofiloa, nawyenia. `eg iyo Cemi bediswera... ara v n a n o b , ara! _ kvlav miubrunda giorgi gawyvetil sityvas (ilia)... bagrata ara Tu n a n o b d a Tavis s a q c i e l s , piriqiT, emuqreboda kidec mezoblebs (e. ninoS.) qegl. nanobs is > nanobs is m a s (saqciels) fiqrob-s... 1. TavisTvis gunebaSi msjelobs, azrs ikrebs, _ sazrobs, azrovnobs. glexi midis da f i q r o b s , ra miyo im beberma, raze damRupao (zRap.)... 2. visime (an risame) fiqri aqvs, fiqrSi aris (visime an risame) fiqri awuxebs, ar asvenebs, _

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zrunavs, cdilobs (vinmeze an rameze)... bartyebis siyvaruli [torolas]... sul ufro uZlierdeboda da uZlierdeboda. mxolod maTze f i q r o b d a , maTze zrunavda (i. gogeb.)... 6. fiqrad, azrad aqvs, gunebaSi aqvs, ganzraxva aqvs, _ apirebs. mxolod arwivi ara f i q r o b d a arsad w a s v l a s (vaJa)... qegl. fiqrobs is > fiqrobs is maTze > fiqrobs is m a s (wasvlas). `medioaqtivisebri gardamavlebis~ moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebad gaazrianebisas Cndeba sirTuleebi, romlebic axsnas moiTxovs, es sirTuleebia: 1. 2. 3. 4. gvaris saopozicio formebis arqona uRvlilebis medioaqtivisebri (narevi) paradigma sxva kategoriebisadmi gansxvavebuli mimarTeba gansxvavebuli semantika

pasuxebic amave mimdevrobiT dalagdeba: 1. gvaris saopozicio formebis arqona xels ar uSlis ucalo moqmedebiTis, ucalo vnebiTisa da ucalo saSualis gamoyofas; amasTan, Tu Cven gramatikuli kategoriebis daxasiaTebisas (amis Sesaxeb zemoT ukve gvqonda msjeloba) morfologiuri opoziciebis dizunqciuri realizaciis Tvalsazriss avirCevT, es winaaRmdegoba moixsneba da aRar vimsjelebT ugvaro, uqceo, udroo, upiro da a.S. formebis Sesaxeb. 2. narevi paradigma m i a q v s _ w a i R o , m i h y a v s _ w a i y v a n a xels ar uSlis m i a q v s , m i h y a v s micemiTsubieqtian gardauval zmnaTa gardamavlebad gaazrebis SesaZleblobas (a. SaniZe); aseve, Tu pirdapiri damatebis gamoricxviT moqmedebiTi gvaris zmna gardauvali xdeba da saSuali gvaris paradigmis naklul mwkrivebs avsebs, maSin logikuri Cans, rom gardauvali saSuali gvaris formaTa SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damatebis CarTviT es formebi gardamavali moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebSi gadanawildes. 3. moqmedebiTi gvaris formebad medioaqtivisebri gardamavlebis ganxilvis SemTxvevaSi, bunebrivad dadgeba sakiTxi zmnis moqmed gramatikul kategoriebTan maTi ordinaruli, moqmedebiTebisagan gansxvavebuli, damokidebulebis Sesaxeb; aseT zmnebs ar

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gaukeTdebaT sapirispiro saTaviso da sasxviso qcevis formebi da qcevis sistemaSi daikaveben saarviso (neitraluri) nulprefiqsiani formis adgils: saarviso wer-s _ s-wavlob-s saTaviso i-wer-s i-naxav-s _ sasxviso u-wer-s u-naxav-s _

aseve: s w a v l o b s tipis formebi ver awarmoeben SualobiTi kontaqtis sufiqsian formebs, magram, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, am kategoriiT gamoxatuli Sinaarsis sxvagvarad gadmocema SeuZliaT: swavlob-s is gakveTils (uSual. kontaqti) _ a-swavl-i-s is m a s gakveTils (Sual. kontaqti). `vswavlob~ da `vaswavli~ iseTs mimarTebaSia erTmaneTTan, rogorc, vTqvaT, `vWam~ da `vaWmev~, an `vicvam~ da `vacmev~ (SaniZe). a-Wm-ev-s, a-cm-ev-s da misT. is erTeuli SemTxvevebia, romlebSic SualobiTi kontaqtis mawarmoeblad arqauli -ev sufiqsi daCndeba. aris sxva sakiTxebic. 4. moqmedebiTi gvaris formis semantika gulisxmobs, rom gramatikulad moqmedi piri, subieqti, igivea, rac realurad moqmedi piri da mas moepoveba samoqmedo, pirdapirobieqturi piri. s w a v l o b s tipis gardamaval zmnebs aseTi aqtiuri gardamavali semantika ar uCans. samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom `es pirdapiri obieqti ar aris iseTi Zalisa da mniSvnelobisa, rogorc moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebis pirdapiri obieqtia da, amasTan, meryevi bunebisaa: xan ixmareba aseTi tipis zmnebTan da xan ara~ (e. babunaSvili). marTlac winadadebaSi g i g l a s w a v l o b s g a k v e T i l s gamokveTilad ar Cans, rom realuri subieqtis moqmedeba gadadis pirdapir obieqtze, swavlobs zmnas erTgvari refleqsuri, ukuqceviTi Sinaarsi aqvs, moqmedebis Sedegi subieqts ubrundeba: Sdr.:

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swavlob-s ... codnas iZens, ganaTlebas iRebs (qegl). pirdapir obieqtze gadasuli moqmedebis ukuqceviToba kargad Cans am tipis sxva zmnaTa ganmartebebiTac: nanob-s ... sananeblad aqvs; Tavisi namoqmedariT ukmayofiloa glovob-s ... visame gardacvalebis gamo mwuxarebaSia Takilob-s ... saTakilod miaCnia fiqrob-s ... TavisTvis gunebaSi msjelobs... xmarob-s ... iyenebs, sargeblobs rameTi... (qegl). unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom yovelTvis arc moqmedebiTi gvaris formebTan ikveTeba mkafiod pirdapir obieqtze gadasvlis mniSvneloba (a. SaniZis mixedviT, pirdapir obieqtze damarTeba), mag.: apireb-s ... fiqrobs gaakeTos; ganzraxuli aqvs; samoqmedod emzadeba amCnev-s ... xedavs, [mi]xvdeba, grZnobs, SeniSnavs aoceb-s ... akvirvebs, acvifrebs... zogav-s ... aaridebs, ar SeamTxvevs visme (an rasme) raime cuds, usiamovnos..., _ ar imetebs, ufrTxildeba, indobs... 2. moixmars, xarjavs... rasme Tadarigianad, rom mosaxmari metxans eyos, _ momWirneobs... (qegl) da sxv. vfiqrobT, rom medioaqtivisebri relatiuri gardamavali formebis moqmedebiTebSi, xolo absoluturi wyobis formebis saSual gvarSi ganxilva garkveul sabuTianobas emyareba. gansaxilvel zmnaTa gramatikuli statusis Sesaxeb arsebobs sxva Tvalsazrisic, romelsac aseve Tavisi logika aqvs: pirdapiri obieqtis gareSe isini saSuali gvaris gardauvali zmnebia, pirdapiri obieqtis darTviT ki _ saSuali gvaris gardamavali zmnebi (e. babunaSvili). s w a v l o b s g i g l a t i t i n a _ swavlobs saSuali gvaris gardauvali zmnaa. g i g l a s w a v l o b s g a k v e T i l s _ swavlobs aq saSuali gvaris gardamavali zmnaa.

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zemoT warmodgenili sqema, rogorc erT-erTi varianti gvaris sistemisa, saSuali gvaris zmnaTa gardamavlobis gaTvaliswinebiT aseT saxes miiRebda:
gardamavali moqmedebiTi gvari a-wuxeb-s a-ngrev-s a-patimreb-s _ _ _ _ gardauvali vnebiTi gvari wux-d-eb-a i-ngrev-a _ i-leSeb-a _ _ _ gardauvali gardamavali saSuali gvari wux-s is _ _ _ swavlob-s is, swavlob-s is mas Takilob-s is mas

e. babunaSvili a. SaniZis mier `TamaSobs~, `swavlobs~ tipis zmnebis saSuali gvaris zmnebidan amoricxvas naZaladevad da araTanmimdevrulad miiCnevs: `amas isic unda adasturebdes, rom `swavlobs~ zmna, romelic a. SaniZis gramatikaSi erT SemTxvevaSi daxasiaTebulia rogorc mxolod gardamavali, rogorc Cans, ugvaro zmna, sxva SemTxvevaSi, iqve, imave naSromSi, saSuali, saxeldobr, medioaqtivi zmnis magaliTad aris dasaxelebuli (e. babunaSvili). Seusabamobani da winaaRmdegobebi, rac e.w. medioaqtivisebri gardamavlebisa da oden brunvacvalebadsubieqtiani, magram pirdapiri damatebis armqone zmnuri formebis gramatikuli kvalifikaciis dros Cndeba, obieqturi sirTuleebia. a. SaniZis xedvas araTanmimdevrulobas ver davwamebT: mas rom s w a v l o b s tipis, gvaris sapirispiro formaTa uqoneli, zmnebi saSuali gvaris formebad ecno, maSin dairRveoda misive debuleba: g v a r i s k a t e g o r i a y a l i b d e b a s a p i r i s p i r o formaTa arsebobis niadagze. aseve Tanmimdevruli iyo a. SaniZe, rodesac oden ergativsubieqtiani, SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damatebis armqone zmnebi (ivno m a n , ixara m a n , Sexeda m a n m a s da misT.) gardauval zmnebad ganixila, radgan, misi TvalsazrisiT, pirdapiri damatebaa gardamavlobis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli; magram, aseve Tanmimdevrulad, faqtebis logikis ZaliT, a. SaniZem garkveuli koreqtivi Seitana gardamavlobis miseul gansazRvraSi, roca zemoCa-

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moTvlili tipis zmnebi `naxevrad gardamaval~ zmnebad daasaxela: ergativsubieqtiani (ixara m a n ...) da saxelobiTsubieqtiani (daixata i s ) zmnebi erT, gardauval zmnaTa klasSi ver gaerTiandeboda. am terminis (`naxevrad gardamavali~ zmnebi) kvlav Semotana saenaTmecniero mimoqcevaSi gardamavlobis gansazRvraSi brunvacvalebadi subieqtis rolis dafasebaa. rogorc `medioaqtivisebri gardamavlebi~ _ s w a v l o b s , a n g a r i S o b s , T a k i l o b s _ aseve oden brunvacvalebadsubieqtiani ixara m a n , Sexeda m a n m a s da misT.; pirdapiri damatebis SewyobiTac da mis gareSec, gardamavali, ufro zustad, fsevdogardamavali zmnebia; SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damatebis Sewyobis gareSec maT SerCenili aqvT gardamavlobis sxva maxasiaTeblebi: pirvel rigSi brunvacvalebadi subieqti, subieqtis III piris mravlobiTis -es sufiqsi wyvetilSi, inversia III seriis formebSi; amasTan, fsevdogardamaval zmnebSi srulyofilad ver gamoixateba gvaris, qcevis da sxva gramatikuli kategoriebis mniSvnelobebi. SeniSvna: 1930 wlis `qarTuli enis gramatikaSi~ a. SaniZe saSuali gvaris zmnebs ugvaro zmnebad miiCnevs: `saSuali zmnebi is jgufia ugvaro zmnebisa, romelnic gardauvalni arian, magram formiT moqmedebiTisagan ar ganirCevian~... SeniSvnaSi a. SaniZe wers: `saSuali zmnebi sapirispiro gvarovnuli formebis uqonlobis gamo arsebiTad ugvaro zmnebia. magram xSirad maT calke gvars ganukuTvneben (`saSuali gvario~) $104~. SemdgomSi, rogorc vnaxeT, a. SaniZe ugvaro zmnebad mxolod zmnaTa erT mcire jgufs asaxelebs, romelTac saopozicio formebi (arc moqmedebiTisa da arc vnebiTisa) ara aqvT. Tu saSual gvarSi gaerTianebuli formebi ugvaro zmnebia, maSin, gvaris mixedviT, qarTulSi aqtiv-pasivis opozicia SemogvrCeba da, bunebrivia, am kategoriaSi saSual gvarad saxeldebuli formebi aRar ganixileba. asec iqceva arn. Ciqobava: gvaris kategoriis saopozicio formebad

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moqmedebiTsa da vnebiTs tovebs da saSuali gvaris zmnebs, absoluturebsac da relatiurebsac, erT semantikur klasSi _ statikur zmnaTa klasSi aerTianebs. a. SaniZisagan gansxvavebiT, statusis cneba ufro farTovdeba, statikuroba ar udris vnebiTs (Sdr.: `statikuri vnebiTi~): statikur zmnaTa klasSi erTiandebian saSuali gvaris zmnebic da statikuri vnebiTebic.

IV. 4.3. aqtiuroba-pasiurobis mimarTeba vin da ra jgufis saxelebTan


enaSi forma da Sinaarsi yovelTvis ar faravs erTmaneTs, morfologiuri da semantikuri erTmaneTs yovelTvis ar mihyveba da am `gadacdomebis~ uamravi magaliTi daiZebneba. qarTulSi mxolod qcevis kategoriidan formisa da Sinaarsis gansxvavebis oriod nimuSs davasaxelebT: i-naxavs, i-wyebs, i-wunebs, i-pyrobs da sxv., saTaviso qcevis formebia (prefiqsi i-), magram saTavisos mniSvnelobas ar gamoxataven, u-Svebs is mas (gareT), u-kravs is Congurs... morfologiis TvalsazrisiT sasxviso qcevis formebia (prefiqsi u-), magram saTanado Sinaarsi da saTanado sintaqsi (gardamavali sasxviso qcevis forma am konteqstSi ara samvalentiani, aramed orvalentiania) ara aqvT. `winadadebaSi: `daviTma dalia erTi boTli Rvino~, obieqti rom subieqtisTvisaa gankuTvnili, amas `dalia~ zmnis f u Z i s m n i S v n e l o b a gamoxatavs da ara afiqsi. `Rvino~ rom sasubieqtodaa gankuTvnili, amas l e q s i k u r i s a S u a l e b a gadmogvcems~ (arn. Ciqobava)... formisa da Sinaarsis aseTi gansxvaveba, bunebrivia, dasturdeba gvaris kategoriis funqcionirebis drosac. gvaris gramatikuli kategoria Tanamedrove qarTulSi aRiniSneba arsebiTad subieqtis aqtiuroba-pasiurobis farglebSi gramatikulad dapirispirebul formaTa arsebobis safuZvelze: wers is werils _ i-wereba werili u-wers is mas werils _ e-wereba mas werili

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awuxebs bavSvi dedas _ wux-d-eb-a deda u-wuxebs bavSvi dedas guls _ u-wux-d-eb-a dedas guli aTbobs mze dedamiwas _ dedamiwa Tbeba u-Tbobs mze berikacs Zvlebs _ u-Tbeba berikacs Zvlebi da a.S. zmnuri kategoriebis sistemaSi, miuxedavad garkveuli araTanmimdevrulobisa, gvari erT-erTi warmmarTveli kategoriaa. aqtivis, pasivisa da saSuali gvaris opozicia moicavs ZiriTad zmnur leqsikas: yvela uRlebadi da arauRlebadi zmnuri forma gvaris kategoriis romelsame saxeobas ganekuTvneba. iseve rogorc sxva morfologiur kategoriebTan, gvaris kategoriis SemTxvevaSic xSirad sityvis mniSvneloba da forma erTmaneTs ar faravs, aqtiv-pasivis dapirispirebisas forma da mniSvneloba erTmaneTs ar mihyveba. formisa da mniSvnelobis araTanmimdevrulobis SemTxvevaSi ufro xSirad msjeloben imis Sesaxeb, rom zmnis pasiuri modeli aqtiur semantikasac gamoxatavs, naklebad _ moqmedebiTi da saSuali gvaris Sesaxeb. bevr SemTxvevaSi es araTanmimdevroba formisa da mniSvnelobisa aqtantebis suliereba-usulobasTan an vin Tu ra jgufis saxelebTan mikuTvnebulobiT aris Sepirobebuli. ganvixilavT formisa da mniSvnelobis dapirispirebis magaliTebs rogorc moqmedebiTi gvaris, aseve vnebiTi da saSuali gvaris zmnebTan. IV. 4.3.1. moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi. moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebSi subieqti moqmedi (aqtiuri) piria da mas moepoveba samoqmedo piri pirdapiri obieqtis saxiT, Tumca aqtantebis aseTi mimarTeba yovelTvis araa realizebuli da aq fuZis semantika TamaSobs Tavis rols, kerZod: Tu moqmedebiTi gvaris formebs aqvT imgvari semantika, romelic apirobebs subieqtis fizikur zemoqmedebas pirdapir obieqtze, anu, aqvT imgvari pirdapiri damateba, romelic moaxdens am fizikur zemoqmedebas, maSin moqmedebiTi gvaris subieqtis aqtiuroba mkafiodaa gamokveTili da formisa da Sinaarsis Tanxvdena gvaqvs: a m t v r e v - s... Zalis miyenebiT (mTlians) nawilebad aqcevs, _ texs, amsxvrevs... `Cxikvi niskartiT wkirebs a m t v r e v d a ~ (vaJa)...

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a m s x v r e v - s... namsxvrevebad aqcevs, wvril-wvrilad amtvrevs... a m t v e r e b - s... mtvers ayenebs... a m u n j e b - s... munjs xdis... a f e T q e b - s... afeTqebas iwvevs, afeTqebiT angrevs... a f e r a d e b - s... ferads xdis, _ aWrelebs... a w y a l e b - s... wylians xdis, wylad aqcevs... b a r a v - s... bariT miwas amuSavebs... q e l a v - s... fexiT sress, Telavs... s e r a v - s... 1. mWreli iaraRiT (an wvetiani sagniT) risame zedapirs (kans, saqonlis tyavs, xorcs...) zolebad odnav Wris, _ SaSravs... 2. sers, niSans adebs yurze (Sinaur cxovelebs). 3. gadat. kvals zolebad aCnevs, Raravs, kveTs... t e x - s... 1. raime magar sagans Zalis miyenebiT, dartymiT nawilebad yofs, nawilebad aqcevs... 2. gadat. oTaxis, nagebobis, cixis da misT. daketil kars (klites...) amtvrevs, aRebs (gaZarcvis, dapyrobis...) mizniT... (qegl) da a.S. am zmnebs samoqmedod konkretuli pirdapiri obieqti Seewyoba obieqti, romelic cvlilebas eqvemdebareba. subieqti, bunebrivia, sulieri, vin jgufis saxelia, obieqtad, aseT SemTxvevebSi, ZiriTadad ra jgufis saxeli gvaqvs; sulieric da usuloc: abalaxebs s a q o n e l s da Telavs n a b a d s . ra Tqma unda, gardamavali zmnebi pirdapir obieqtad Seiwyoben vin jgufis saxelebsac: a m u n j e b s _ munjad xdis, a s a u z m e b s _ sauzmes aWmevs, a t i r e b s _ tirilsa hgvris, cremls aRvrevinebs da sxv. amaT gverdiT gvaqvs moqmedebiTi gvaris iseTi formebic, romelTac arakonkretuli, inertuli pirdapiri obieqti Seewyoba; aseTi obieqti fizikur zemoqmedebas ver moixdens da, Sesabamisad, cvlilebebsac ar eqvemdebareba. am rigis moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebSi subieqtis aqtiurobis xarisxi naklebia: a m C n e v - s... xedavs, mixvdeba, grZnobs, SeniSnavs... a p i r e b - s... fiqrobs gaakeTos; ganzraxuli aqvs, samoqmedod emzadeba...

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a S t e r e b - s... Sters xdis || uzomod akvirvebs, aocebs... a m a d l i - s, a m a d l e b - s... madlad uTvlis, _ ayvedrebs, amunaTebs (misTvis) Cadenil sikeTes, masze gaweul amags)... a s w r e b - s... gansazRvrul vadaSi Sesrulebas axerxebs, droze akeTebs... s u n a v - s... cxviris axlos mitaniT risame suns sinjavs, _ ynosavs, suns iRebs... f i c a v - s... fics ambobs, debs, ficiT aRTqmas, pirobas iZleva; ficiT arwmunebs... (qegl) Tu aSterebs da mis sinonimur akvirvebs, aocebs, acvifrebs znebTan, aseve, agiJebs, asulelebs, atutucebs da msgavs aqtivebTan subieqtis emociur-nebelobiTi moqmedeba mainc aris gamoxatuli pirdapir obieqtze, amCnevs, apirebs, sunavs, ficavs da misTanebSi subieqturi piri mxolod ganmzraxveli (a p i r e b s, a s w r e b s, f i c a v s), mWvreteli (a m C n e v s) an aRmqmelia (s u n a v s) da misi namoqmedari ganzraxulis, danaxulisa da aRqmulis saxiT masve ubrundeba. am zmnebTan Sewyobili pirdapiri obieqtebic cvlilebas ar eqvemdebarebian. Taviseburia aqtiurobis TvalsazrisiT moqmedebiTi gvaris im zmnaTa semantika, romelTac pirdapir damatebad sakuTari sxeulis nawilebi (Sesabamisad, ra jgufis saxelebi) Seewyoba; aseTi zmnebi aqtiuri Sinaarsisaa da es qeglis ganmartebis mixedviTac Cans: a s a v s a v e b - s... `aqeT-iqiT swrafad Slis, malimal aqnevs [xelebs]~... a x a m x a m e b - s... arawesierad amoZravebs [quTuTo-wamwams]~... aseT zmnebTan subieqtis moqmedeba marTalia gadadis pirdapir obieqtze, magram es pirdapiri obieqti subieqtis nawilia da ara sxva piri. moqmedebiTi gvaris funqcionirebis mTavari principi ki CvenSi damkvidrebuli gramatikuli tradiciis mixedviT isaa, rom aqtiuri subieqtis moqmedeba `sxva pirzea damarTebuli~, am rigis zmnebSi mTelis (subieqtis) moqmedeba missave nawilze (pirdapir obieqtze) fiqsirdeba am nawilis saTanado reaqciiT: a s a v s a v e b s x e l e b s = *savsavebs misi xelebi...

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aseTi zmnebia: apaWunebs Tvalebs abartyunebs yurebs afarTxalebs xelebs afaxulebs Tvalebs acecebs Tvalebs acmacunebs pirs, tuCebs da a.S. somaturi pirdapiri obieqti aseT zmnebSi subieqtis organul kuTvnilebas warmoadgens da, Sesabamisad, maTi (subieqtisa da pirdapiri obieqtis) urTierTmimarTebiT gamoxatuli moqmedebebi subieqtis fizikur da inteleqtualur-emociur mdgomareobas (SiSs, gaocebas, tkivils, dabneulobas...) afiqsirebs, Sdr.: a f e T e b - s (Tvalebs)... SeSinebuli TvalebiT aqeT-iqiT iyureba a f a c i c e b - s (Tvalebs)... daZabuli yuradRebiT mali-mal aqeT-iqiT ixedeba a p a W u n e b - s (Tvalebs)... `[bermonazoni] mwuxarebis niSnad Tvalebs a p a W u n e b d a ~ (g. wereT.) m o k u m a v - s... `molas brazisagan piri m o e k u m a ~ (s. SanS.)... mniSvnelobiT aseTi zmnebi moqmedebiTi gvaris Sinaarssac iTavsebs, _ Seiwyobs pirdapir obieqts, Tumca es pirdapiri obieqti, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, aris ara `samoqmedo piri~, aramed _ subieqtis nawili, e.i. subieqti moqmedebs TavisTavze rogorc pirdapir obieqtze da Sinaarsobrivad amiT emsgavseba vnebiTs, radgan vnebiTis formaSi `subieqturi piri imasve `ganicdis~, rasac pirdapir-obieqturi saTanado moqmedebiTSi~; aseTi moqmedebiTi hgavs saSualsac, `romelic gviCvenebs, rom subieqturi piri `moqmedebs~ ise, rom samoqmedo obieqti ara aqvs~, realurad es samoqmedo obieqti igive subieqtia. Cveulebriv, moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebSi aqtiuri subieqti sulieri, ZiriTadad vin jgufis saxelia, pirdapir obieqtad ZiriTadad mainc ra jgufis saxeli (sulieri da usuloc) gvaqvs. rolebis Secvlas, rodesac ra jgufis saxeli subieqtad gamodis, xolo vin jgufis saxeli _ pirdapir obieqtad, personifikaciis ieri dahkravs.

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am rigis semantikur Canacvlebebs Tan axlavs saTanado morfologiuri da sintaqsuri cvlilebebi. subieqtur da obieqtur pirTa kombinacia orvalentiani moqmedebiTi gvaris sintaqsSi nebismieri ar aris; erTi piri moqmedi unda iyos, meore, samoqmedo. moqmedsa da samoqmedos saTanado pirebis brunvaTa formebi warmoaCens. pirTa Soris SesaZlebel kombinaciaTa ricxvi ki sul Svidia: I subieqtur pirTan _ g-aqeb (1.2), v-aqeb (1.3), II subieqtur pirTan _ m-aqeb (2.1), aqeb (2.3), III subieqtur pirTan _ m-aqeb-s (3.1), g-aqeb-s (3.2), aqeb-s (3.3)... (a. SaniZe). subieqturi da obieqturi pirebis SesaZlebel kombinaciaTa ricxvi ukve am saxelTa semantikiTaa gapirobebuli. aq 3 SemTxveva gairCeva: 1. 2. 3. orive saxeli vin jgufisaa orive saxeli ra jgufisaa erTi saxeli vin jgufisaa, xolo meore _ ra jgufisa.

TiToeuli am SesaZleblobis realizacia subieqturi da obieqturi pirebis kombinaciaTa saTanado raodenobiTa da zmnis struqturaSi Sesabamisi cvlilebebiT aisaxeba. Svidive kombinacia realizebuli iqneba vin jgufis saxelebTan. ra jgufis saxelebis CanacvlebiT es kombinaciebi mcirdeba: Tu ra jgufis saxeli pirdapiri obieqtia, es obieqti ucvleli piri xdeba (a. SaniZis terminologiiT) da I pirTan SesaZlebeli ori kombinaciidan (1.2, 1..3) dagvrCeba mxolod 1.3, II pirTan _ mxolod 2.3, III pirTan _ 3.3; sabolood gvrCeba oden subieqturi wyobis formebi. aseTi SemTxvevebi SeiZleba iyos konteqsturic (xatavs suraTs, Sdr., xatavs bavSvs) da leqsikuric, mag.: Toxnis, baravs, lesavs, Carxavs, ReWavs da msgavs zmnebs, romelTac pirdapir obieqtad ra jgufis saxeli Seewyoba, mxolod subieqturi wyobis formebi ukeTdeba. subieqturi wyoba: v-Toxni venaxs Toxni venaxs Toxni-s venaxs obieqturi wyoba: (ar gveqneba) *m-Toxni-s *g-Toxni-s da a.S

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moqmedebiTi gvaris struqturas subieqtis semantikac cvlis Tu subieqtad ra jgufis saxeli warmogvidgeba (rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, aseTi SemTxvevebi iSviaTia da mas personifikaciis ieri dahkravs); Sdr.: z a f x u l S i R v i n o s a c i e b e n, magram y i n v a S i u p a l t o o d s i a r u l i m a c i e b s (a. SaniZe): zmna kargavs subieqturi wyobis warmoqmnis unars (mxolod obieqturi piriRa Seewyoba) da gardamavali moqmedebiTi gvaris zmna gardauvali xdeba: aciebs _ gaacia mas... aseTi zmnebia: aZagZagebs, aJrJolebs, aTrTolebs... aseve SeiZleba iTqvas, rom bevr SemTxvevaSi moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebis konversivebis warmoqmna gapirobebulia pirdapiri obieqtis (damatebis) raobiT. arafizikuri, emociur-nebelobiTi, sametyvelo-moraluri zemoqmedebis qveS moqceuli ra jgufis nairgvari Sinaarsis (abstraqtuli, moqmedebis saxelebi) pirdapiri damateba-obieqti konversiul gardaqmnas naklebad egueba: raRac u b e d u r e b a s apirebs, iq m i s v l a s rogor bedavs da misT. konversiul formebs ar ikeTeben. pirdapiri damatebis arCevas ki moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnuri leqsemis semantika gansazRvravs. konversiuli pasivebi ar ukeTdeba moqmedebiTi gvaris iseT formebs, romelTac pirdapir obieqtad ra jgufis saxelTan sakuTari sxeulis nawili, an am sxeulis nawilTa Sesamosi sagani Seewyoba, mag.: apaWunebs Tvalebs _ *paWundeba Tvalebi asavsavebs enas, xelebs _ *savsavdeba ena, xelebi acecebs xelebs, Tvalebs _ *cecdeba xelebi, Tvalebi prawavs Tvalebs _ *ipraweba Tvalebi parWyavs xelebs, fexebs _ *iparWyeba xelebi, fexebi afratunebs qoSebs _ *fratundeba qoSebi da sxv. somatur pirdapirdamatebian moqmedebiTebSi konversiuli gardaqmnebi ver xorcieldeba, mizezi ki isaa, rom ganmcdeli somaturi pirdapiri obieqti konversiuli gardaqmnisas pasivis subieqtis funqcias ver iguebs: biWi abrialebs Tvalebs _ *Tvalebi brialdeba (biWis mier) gveli asavsavebs enas _ *ena savsavdeba (gvelis mier)...

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

ra Tqma unda, somaturi saxelebiT gamoxatuli pirdapiri damateba-obieqtis mqone moqmedebiTi zmnebisTvis konversivebis SezRudva absoluturi ar aris da s a x e i m a n W e b a , S u b l i i W m u x n e b a tipis Sesityvebebic ar gamoiricxeba, magram Sinaarsobrivad da logikuradac bunebrivi iqneba, Tu moqmedebiTis konversiul pasiur an medialur konstruqciaSi subieqtad ara nawili (somaturi, ra jgufis saxeli) _ Subli iWmuxneba < Subls Wmuxnis; saxe imanWeba < saxes manWavs; xelebi [a]caxcaxdeba an caxcaxebs < xelebs acaxcaxebs _ aramed am nawilis mflobeli subieqti vin jgufis saxeli warmogvidgeba da, Sesabamisad, konversiis meqanizmic dairRveva: vnebiTis subieqti ara ra jgufis, aramed vin jgufis aqtiuri saxeli gaxdeba: laparakis dros [besia] saSinlad iWmuxneboda (e. ninoS.) sacodavi adamiani ... imanWeboda (n. lorTq.) wnoris foToliviT caxcaxebda vardisaxari (k. gamsax.) qegl IV. 4.3.2. vnebiTi gvaris zmnebi. formisa da Sinaarsis `antagonizmi~ ufro xelSesaxebad vnebiTi gvaris zmnebSi Cans; qarTulSi vnebiTi gvaris formebiT pasiuri mniSvnelobis garda SeiZleba gamoixatebodes aqtiuri da medialuri mniSvnelobebic. formisa da Sinaarsis am Seusabamobas bevr SemTxvevaSi subieqtis semantikuri raoba, konkretulad ki subieqtis sulier saxelTan, vin jgufis saxelTan mikuTvnebuloba ganapirobebs. vnebiTis subieqti SeiZleba iyos rogorc ra jgufis usulo da sulieri saxeli, aseve, _ vin jgufis saxelic. vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa gamoxatulebis planSi subieqtis semantikur raobas garkveuli koreqtivebi Seaqvs. am TvalsazrisiT vnebiTis tipebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian. amitom maT Sesaxeb calke vimsjelebT. ganvixilavT mxolod vnebiTis absolutur formebs. vnebiTebi, ro melTac su bieqtad ra jgufis s a x e l e b i m o u d i s: IV. 4.3.2.1. iniani vnebiTebi i b a r d n e b - a... Tovlis fartenebiT, TovliT ifareba... i b a r e b - a... baraven; dabarva SeiZleba, _ bariT muSavdeba (miwa)...

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i b e k n e b - a... beknian; itkepneba... i b e W d e b - a... beWdaven; beWdva SeiZleba... i b z a r e b - a... bzari uCndeba; skdeba... i b i l w e b - a... bilwaven; bilwi xdeba... i b i n d e b - a... bindi efineba, _ bneldeba... i s x v l e b - a... sxlaven; sxlva SeiZleba... i t k e p n e b - a... tkepnian; tkepniT swordeba... i f S v n e b - a... fSvna SeiZleba, _ namcecebad iqceva, wvrilwvrilad imsxvreva, ifxvneba; fSvnian... i q s o v e b - a... qsoviT keTdeba; qsoven... i q a r g e b - a... qargva SeiZleba; qargaven... i C q m a l e b - a... imaleba, ifareba; Cqmalaven... i Z e n Z e b - a... iSleba (wvril-wvril Zafebad _ naqsovi), iweweba, ZenZaven da sxv. (qegl) CamoTvlil vnebiTis formebs subieqtad ra jgufis usulo saxelebi Seewyoba; SedarebiT naklebi raodenobiT gvxvdeba iseTi vnebiTebi, romelTac subieqtad ra jgufis sulieri saxelebi aqvT: i b d R v n e b - a... bdRvnian; bdRvna SeiZleba, _ iptyvneba. qaTami ibdRvneba i b r a w e b - a... brawaven, wiTlad iwveba, ixrakeba (xorceuli da sxv.). goWi ibraweba. _ kartofili ibraweba. i k v l e b - a... klaven... i k v l e b a saqoneli (S. dad.). i x a r S e b - a... wyalSi an sxva ram siTxeSi (mag., rZeSi) duRiliT mzaddeba (saWmeli), _ xarSaven. lobio ixarSeba... Sig lurjsave qvamarilSi lurji Tevzi i x a r S e b a (g. leon.) ... i x e d n e b - a... iwvrTneba (cxenebi, xari da misT.), xednian... i W y l i t e b - a... isriseba, Wyleten. gzaze bevri (kalia) Sinauri saqonlisagan i W y l i t e b a (i. gogeb.)... qegl vnebiTebi, romelTac subieqtad ra jgufis usulo saxelebi Seewyoba, mniSvnelobiT pasiuri zmnebia _ vnebiTis konstruqciaSi aRdgeba moqmedebis realuri subieqti qvemdebarisebri ubralo damatebis an sxva saxiT: ibareba v i R a c i s m i e r, ibdRvneba

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologia

v i R a c i s m i e r, ibekneba v i R a c i s m i e r, ibeWdeba v i R a c i s m i e r da a.S. amgvari vnebiTebis pasiurobis xarisxi imiTac mowmdeba, rom vnebiTis Sinaarsi qeglSi moqmedebiTi gvaris ganzogadebulpiriani mravlobiTi ricxvis formiT ganimarteba: ibereba _ `baraven~, ibdRvneba _ `bdRvnian~, ibekneba _ `beknian~, ibeWdeba _ `beWdaven~, isxvleba _ `sxlaven~ da a.S. IV. 4.3.2.2. doniani vnebiTebi. prefiqsianebisagan gansxvavebiT pasivis mniSvneloba sufiqsian vnebiTebSi TiTqos naklebad igrZnoba, aq gardaqceviTobis mniSvneloba ufro arsebiTi Cans: b r t y e l d e b - a _ brtyeli xdeba, g u b d e b - a _ gubed dgeba, gubed iqceva da sxv. aseTi formebis semantika orazrovania: wuxdeba, gordeba... v i R a c i s m i e r _ sakuTari nebisagan damoukidebeli subieqti aseT konstruqciaSi pasiuri, ganmcdelia, magram konstruqciaSi w u x d e b a, g o r d e b a... T v i T o n, T a v i s i n e b i T _ subieqti aqtiur ganmcdelad gvevlineba. qeglSi wuxdeba zmnasTan damowmebul ilustraciaSi _ grZnoba gvekargvis, suli SfoTavs, guli w u x d e b a (g. tab.) _ gulis Sewuxebis mizezi _ realuri subieqti, konteqstis mixedviT ar Cans; aseve ar Cans mizezi g o r d e b a zmnasTan damowmebul ilustraciaSi: `lodi lodze swydeba kldes da raxraxiT g o r d e b a Zirs~ (i. gedev.); sxva magaliTSi: `erTmaneTs a w y d e b o d n e n da g o r d e b o d n e n ~ (s. SanS.) dagorebis mizezi (`erTmaneTs awydebodnen~) gramatikulad ar realizdeba da konteqstidan amoicnoba. donian vnebiTebTan, romelTac ra jgufis subieqti Seewyoba, pasiuroba ufro xelSesaxebia. Sdr.: g a n a R d d e b - a... ganaRdeba moxdeba, gaanaRdeben... g a n a w i l d e b - a... gaanawileben, ganawileba SesaZlebeli iqneba, gaiyofa, ganawildeba... aTasi Tumani g a n a w i l d a da daurigda movaleebs (l. ardaz.) g a n a x e v r d e b - a... gaanaxevreben; naxevramde dava, naxevari (nawili) darCeba... g a n a x l d e b - a ... gaanaxleben, _ axaliviT gaxdeba... g a n e l d e b - a... gaaneleben; Sesustdeba (cecxli) ...

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g a n i a v d e b - a... gaaniaveben g u b d e b - a... gubed dgeba, gubed iqceva (wyali...) ... d u R d e b - a... duRils iwyebs. wyali cecxlze d u R d e b a ... m a g r d e b - a... 1. magari xdeba, simagre emateba, _ mkvrivdeba... CurCxelebi mzisagan m a g r d e b i a n, xmebian (l. asaT.). gadat. Seupovari, amtani xdeba... m a r T l d e b - a... 1. simarTle mtkicdeba; udanaSauloba dasturdeba; amarTleben... m z a d d e b - a... amzadeben... o b d e b - a... obi edeba, obiani xdeba... o r T q l d e b - a... orTqlad iqceva... t y d e b - a... texen... (qegl) doniani vnebiTebis pasiuri semantikis Semowmeba m i e r Tandebuliani frazebis SewyobiT garkveuli tipis zmnebTan saTanado konteqstebis aRdgeniT sirTules ar warmoadgens: ganaRddeba, ganawildeba, ganaxldeba, ganiavdeba, gamagrdeba, damokldeba (viRacis mier). zogjer realuri subieqtis funqcias -gan an sxva Tandebuliani ubralo damatebac asrulebs: CurCxelebi m z i s a g a n m a g r d e b i a n , xmebian (l. asaT.); c e c x l S i rkina r b i l d e b a (ilia) qegl da sxv. pasiuri semantikis Semowmeba aseve SeiZleba donian vnebiTebisaTvis moqmedebiTi gvaris ganusazRvrelpiriani mravlobiTis formebis SenacvlebiT, rac qeglis zemoT moyvanili ganmartebebiTac dasturdeba: ganaRddeb-a... `gaanaRdeben~, ganawildeb-a... `gaanawileben~, ganaxevrdeba... `gaanaxevreben~, ganeldeb-a... `gaaneleben~, mzaddeb-a... `amzadeben~, gubdeb-a... `agubeben~, grovdeb-a... `agroveben~ da sxv. IV. 4.3.2.3. uniSno vnebiTebi iseTi uniSno vnebiTebi, romlebic subieqtad mxolod ra jgufis saxelebs Seiwyoben naklebad Cans (lRveba, lxveba, cvdeba, cxveba...): l R v e b - a... dauSvebelia natriumis wvis Catareba rkinis kovzze... radgan... rkina l R v e b a da wvas ganicdis (`saxalxo ganaTl.~). || figur. dafnis foTlebSi mze dawuruli l R v e b o d a, rogorc Taflis sanTeli (i. abaS.)

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l x v e b - a... dnobas iwyebs, dneba (yinuli, sanTeli...). Tovli l R v e b o d a, pir-mziTSi bardani Camodioda (vaJa) c v d e b - a... xSiri xmarebiT Zveldeba (icriceba, ileva, ixeva...) c x v e b - a... gaxurebul RumelSi (ToneSi, kecze...) moTavsebuli comi SuSdeba da saWmelad vargisi xdeba... gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT uniSno vnebiTebi subieqtad vin jgufis saxelebsac igueben: l b e b - a... rbili xdeba siTxeSi debiT an dasvelebiT; dasvelebiT rbildeba. lavaSebi l b e b i a n wvnisagan (S. aragv.). || gadat. Zalian sveldeba. [pozua] lbeboda amosasxmeli saqalamne tyaviviT (b. Cx.) l p e b - a... 1. iSleba, ixrwneba (aracocxali organuli sxeuli), _ alpoben. mcenarec bolos berdeba, xmeba da l p e b a (i. gogeb.). 2. saub. gadat. Zalian didxans, xangrZlivad imyofeba (cixeSi...)... S r e b - a... 1. mSrali xdeba; sisvele, sineste ecleba. mzeze Sreba... _ mzisagan gaxurebuli rkinis gembani uceb S r e b o d a (a. lom.) ... 2. rZis gamoyofis unars kargavs (droebiT), rZe eleva, uSreba (saqonels). makeobaSi furi S r e b a. 3. gadat. moulodnelobisagan saxtad rCeba, ena uvardeba... c d e b - a... 1. gamouyeneblad rCeba, ver(ar) moixmaren. naxevari miwa saqarTveloSi yovel weliwads c d e b a (i. gogeb.). || usaqmodaa, dros tyuil-ubralod kargavs... x m e b - a ... xmeli xdeba; sinedles, sicocxlis unars kargavs (mcenare). raki fesvebi ufuWdeba mcenaresa, male yviTldeba da x m e b a (i. gogeb.). || Sreba: CurCxelebi mzisagan magrdebian, x m e b i a n (l. asaT.). 2. saub. Zlier xdeba, mWlevdeba, ileva. zaalis nabiWvari orive banakSi wiravda da SiSisagan x m e b o d a (m. javax.) (qegl). uniSno vnebiTebSi pasiuri mniSvnelobebi SedarebiT mkrTalad aisaxeba. -m i e r Tandebuliani frazebi vnebiTebTan Znelad aRdgeba (es miwebi a m a T m i e r tyuilad c d e b a ). aq ufro medialuri, subieqtis wreSi Caketili moqmedebis mniSvnelobebi warmoCndeba; Tumca pasiuri semantikac gamoixateba da amas uniS-

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no vnebiTTa mniSvnelobis moqmedebiTi gvaris subieqtis ganusazRvrelpiriani mravlobiTis formebiT ganmartebebic cxadyofs: c d e b - a... gamouyeneblad rCeba, v e r ( a r ) m o i x m a r e n... l p e b - a... iSleba, ixrwneba (aracocxali organuli sxeuli), _ a l p o b e n... (qegl) vnebiTuri da medialuri mniSvnelobebis Canacvlebis karg magaliTs warmoadgens polisemiuri k r T e b a zmna, romlis pirveli mniSvneloba vnebiTur-medialuria da es qeglis ganmartebisa da sailustracio nimuSis mixedviTac amoicnoba, xolo meore mniSvneloba _ medialuri (mniSvnelobiTa da uRvlilebiT utoldeba statikur-medialur zmnas). k r T e b - a... uecrad mTeli taniT aranebismierad [Se]tokdeba (S i S i s a g a n, m o u l o d n e l o b i s a g a n...). [onise] mudam dafiqrebuli... dadioda... xSirad k r T e b o d a , TiTqos v i R a c a m S e a S i n a o (a. yazb.)... 2. (mxolod nakvTTa awmyos wyebaSi) grduv. stat. igivea, rac k r T i s (mniSv. 2). mTvaris Suqi aTasnairad k r T e b o d a oqrosa da Tvalmargalitze (v. barn.)... (qegl) IV. 4.3.3. vnebiTebi, romelTac subieqtad moudis rogorc ra, aseve vin jgufis saxelebi. vnebiTTa erTi nawili subieqtad Seiwyobs rogorc ra jgufis (usulo), aseve vin jgufis (sulier) saxelebs. a) i n i a n i v n e b i T e b i sxva vnebiTTa msgavsad iniani vnebiTebic subieqtad iguebs rogorc ra, aseve vin jgufis saxelebs. subieqtis raobis cvla zmnis mniSvnelobaSic aisaxeba da warmoaCens mniSvnelobis ganviTarebis mimarTulebas _ pasiuri subieqtis gaaqtiurebas, an sxvagvarad _ pasiuri `ganmcdeli~ subieqtis, TviTmoqmed, Semsrulebel subieqtad gadaqcevas, Sdr.: i b e r e b - a... beraven, 1. haeriT (gaziT an sxva rameTi) ivseba da farTovdeba. marcxena guda ifukeboda da amave dros marjvena i b e r e b o d a (T. razik.)... || saub. gadat. Zalian bevrs svams, _ iWyipeba. [sakoncentracio] banakSi yavanarevi wyliT v i b e r e b o d i T da xSirad gvixdeboda gareT sirbili (a. quTaT.). 2. saub.

492

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gadat. ibRinZeba, medidurobs. igi Tavisi mxriT erTiaTad i b e r e b a, Tavs iwonebs (vaJa) ... i g z a v n e b - a... gzavnian, [mi]avlenen; gagzavna warmoebs... gazeTi [`iskra~]... gamZle qaRaldze ibeWdeboda da farulad i g z a v n e b o d a ruseTSi... ...samuSaod damatebiT i g z a v n e b a 3 eqimi... i g z n e b - a... agzneben; inTeba, CaRdeba, cecxli ekideba, ali edeba, || poet. gadat. aRfrTovandeba, aRfrTovanebulia, agznebulia, iwvis... mec es leqsi davuwere erT qvriv ymawvil kacs, romelic i g z n e b o d a erTi qalis siyvarulisagan (r. erisT.)... i g r i x e b - a... grexen; grexa SeiZleba, nedli saxre i g r i x e b a o (andaza) ... 2. imanWeba; iklakneba, ikrunCxeba. mas gverdiT misdevs koxta biWi, romelic i g r i x e b a da ipranWeba... warmodgenil vnebiTebSi ZiriTadi mniSvneloba pasiuria, gadataniTi mniSvnelobebi aqtiuri xdeba, radgan subieqtad vin jgufis (sulieri) saxelebi gvaqvs, Sdr.: ibereba guda, magram ibereba kaci _ `iWyipeba~; `ibRinZeba~, `medidurobs~... b) d o n i a n i v n e b i T e b i g v i a n d e b - a... risame (daniSnuli, winaswar gansazRvruli) vada, dro gadis, _ igvianebs, yovndeba... `gaswi, biWo, gautie, Torem Zalze g v i a n d e b a ~ (S. mRvim.)... `wadi... nu g v i a n d e b i ~... (ilia). m c i r d e b - a... mcire xdeba, _ klebulobs, cotavdeba, roca sityva xSirdebao, maSin saqme m c i r d e b a o (andaza)... 2. Rirseba elaxeba, akldeba. `rom gTxov, miT me ufro v m c i r d e b i ~ (i. maCab. Targm.). g r o v d e b - a... erTad Tavs iyris; agroveben. [futkrebi] g r o v d e b i a n da Rames uZilod atareben (i. gogeb.). xalxi g r o v d e b a saWidaoze sasaxlis win (akaki)... c x a r d e b - a... 1. cxare, mxurvale xdeba. 2. gadat. Zalian brazdeba, _ cecxldeba, wiwmatdeba. [kikoliki] TandaTan ufro c x a r d e b o d a (g. wereT.). w i T l d e b - a... wiTel fers iRebs, wiTeli ferisa xdeba. kalmaxiani Samfuri gamwkrivda nakverCxalzeda, Tevzi SiSinebs, w i T l d e b a, ali edeba cvarzeda (baC.) || sircxvilisagan saxe

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elanZeba. diplomati ar unda w i T l d e b o d e s , magram griboedovma qebas veRar gauZlo da odnav ailanZa (m. javax.). f u W d e b - a... afuWeben. 1. uvargisi xdeba, ziandeba. yvela Wirnaxuli f u W d e b a (vaJa)... 2. gadat. iSleba, ifuSeba, iRupeba. moxda is, riTac imaTi saqme f u W d e b o d a, iSleboda (vaJa). 3. gadat. zneobrivad ecema, iryvneba. arian iseTi susti bunebisani, romlebic ilos mdgomareobaSi suliT ecemian, guliT iryvnebian da xasiaTiT f u W d e b i a n (i. ekal.). zemoT ukve CamovTvaleT is uniSno vnebiTebi, romelTac subieqtad moudis rogorc ra, aseve vin jgufis saxelebi: sarecxi Sreba da saqoneli Sreba (`rZe eleva~), moulodnelobisagan kaci gaSra (`saxtad darCa~), miwa cdeba da kaci cdeba (`tyuilubralod dros kargavs~) da sxv. magaliTebis CamoTvla SeiZleba gagrZeldes. magram Cans, rom ZiriTadi mniSvnelobebi upiratesad TiTqos usulo (ra jgufis) subieqts Seiwyoben (Cveulebrivia ra jgufis sulieri subieqtebic: T e v z i SiSinebs, w i T l d e b a, futkrebi grovdebian...) gadataniTi mniSvnelobebi ki _ suliers (vin jgufisas): mcirdeba (`klebulobs~) s a q m e da mcirdeba (`Rirseba elaxeba~) k a c i, cxardeba s a W m e l i da cxardeba (`brazdeba~) k a c i, fuWdeba W i r n a x u l i da fuWdeba (`zneobrivad ecema~) k a c i da a.S. usulo (ra jgufis) saxeliT gamoxatuli subieqti pasiuria Tundac amave ra jgufis sulieri saxeliT gamoxatul subieqtze (futkrebi grovdebian...), vin jgufis saxeliT gadmocemuli subieqti _ aqtiuri. vnebiTis es mniSvnelobebi (ZiriTadic da gadataniTic) saTanado moqmedebiTebSic SeiZleba daCndes: a m c i r e b - s... 1. apataravebs, acotavebs... 2. akninebs _ m c i r d e b -a 1. pataravdeba, cotavdeba... 2. knindeba a f u W e b - s... uvargiss xdis... || znes wauxdens, ryvnis _ f u W d e b -a... 1. uvargisi xdeba... 2. zneobrivad ecema, iryvneba... Tumca aseTi Sesabamisoba vnebiTsa da moqmedebiTebis mniSvnelobebSi yovelTvis ar dasturdeba, Sdr.: a S r o b - s... svels mSralad aqcevs... _ Sreb-a... 1. mSrali xdeba... 2. gadat. moulodnelobisagan saxtad rCeba, ena uvardeba

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vnebiTis gadataniT mniSvnelobas Sreba _ gadat. `moulodnelobisagan saxtad rCeba~... moqmedebiTis Sesabamisi mniSvneloba ar udasturdeba. IV. 4.3.4. vnebiTi gvaris zmnebi, romelTac subieqtad vin jgufis (sulieri) saxelebi Seewyoba. vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa erT nawils (prefiqsianebs, sufiqsianebsa Tu uniSnoebs) subieqtad mxolod vin jgufis saxelebi Seewyoba. aseT vnebiTebs ufro aqtiuri Sinaarsi uCanT, imaTgan gansxvavebiT, romelTac subieqtad ra jgufis saxelebi aqvT. Sesabamisad, am zmnebis konversiul moqmedebiTebs pirdapir damatebad aseve vin jgufis saxelebi moudiT: b r m a v d e b - a... brma xdeba, Tvalis Cini uqreba... a b r m a v e b s... brmasa xdis, _ mxedvelobas ukargavs, usinaTlod aqcevs... b r u v d e b - a... cnobiereba bundovani uxdeba, _ retiandeba... a b r u e b - s... brus axvevs, _ aretianebs... b r i y v d e b - a... 1. briyvi xdeba. 2. tyuvdeba, cdeba. a b r i y v e b - s... motyuebiT mcdar nabijs gadaadgmevinebs, sisuleles [Ca]adeninebs, _ asulelebs... d u n d e b - a... dune xdeba, _ [mo]eSveba, sustdeba... a d u n e b - s... dunes xdis, mouSvebs, daasustebs c v i f r d e b - a... ocdeba... a c v i f r e b s... akvirvebs, aocebs... m S v i d d e b - a... mSvidi xdeba, simSvide eufleba, _ wynardeba... a m S v i d e b - s... mSvids xdis, mSvidad amyofebs, xels uwyobs damSviddes, _ awynarebs...

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m x n e v d e b - a... mxne xdeba, mxneoba emateba, _ guli umagrdeba... a m x n e v e b -s... mxnes xdis, mxneobas matebs, _ guls umagrebs... i C a g r e b - a... beCavdeba, Cagraven, ibriyveben... C a g r a v - s... aviwroebs, ibriyvebs, jabnis, abeCavebs... i w a f e b - a... iwvrTneba, varjiSdeba, xelovndeba, ostatdeba... w a f a v - s... 1. wvrTnis, axelovnebs, aCvevs rasme... 2. kuTx. (ingil.) wevs, Wimavs (Zafs, tyavs) i t a n j e b - a... tanjaven; tanjvas ganicdis, satanjvelSia Cavardnili, ewameba... t a n j a v - s... awamebs, awvalebs, Zlier awuxebs... i b n i d e b - a... cnobierebis dakargvamde midis, guli uRondeba (Zlieri gancdis gamo), bruvdeba (sunisagan...)... b n e d - s | b n e d - a v - s... abruebs... i S x l a r T e b - a... gaSliT, mTeli sigrZiT wveba, _ iSoteba... g a S x l a r T a v - s... 1. mowyvetiT Zirs dascems. garTxmiT waaqcevs, gaSotavs... i p r a n W e b - a... 1. pranWvas, pranWva-grexas mohyveba, zedmetad keklucobs... p r a n W a v s... manWavs, RmeWs, grexs... 2... sakeklucod, sxvis mosawoneblad zedmetad rTavs, kazmavs, awyobs da a.S. uniSno vnebiTTagan ZiriTadi mniSvnelobiT subieqtad mxolod vin jgufis (sulieri) saxeli moudis b n d e b a, j d e b a, w v e b a... zmnebs (Sdr., gadat. bindi Camowva, kedeli dajda...). b n d e b - a... Zv. grduv. vneb. b n e d s zmnisa. mibnedili xdeba, cnobis dakargvamde midis, guli eleva (raime Zlieri gancdis

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gamo), _ ibnideba. am suraTisa mnaxveli erTi diaci b n d e b o d a (vaJa)... vnebiTebi, romelTac vin jgufis subieqti Seewyoba, konstruqciaSi mier Tandebulian damatebas naklebad igueben, e.i. pasivobis naklebi xarisxiT xasiaTdebian: iCagreba, iwafeba, itanjeba... v i R a c i s m i e r, magram ibnideba... v i R a c i s g a m o, ipranWeba... r a R a c i s g a m o , brmavdeba, bruvdeba... r a R a c i s g a n ( s i c x i s g a n ), dundeba... s i c x i T da a.S. vnebiTTa erT jgufs saerTod ara aqvs sapirispiro konversiuli moqmedebiTebi, aseT `ucalo~ vnebiTebTan subieqtis aqtivoba ufro TvalsaCinoa; Sdr.: i b u t e b - a... nawyeni da damdurebuli Cumad aris, xmas ar iRebs (iTqmis bavSvze, qalze)... ras i b u t e b i, qalao, aRar wagiyvan, arao! (xalx.)... _ i b u w u w e b - a... buwuws iSlis, _ iburZgnis (bewvs, balans). || gadat. brazdeba, cxardeba... _ i y u J e b - a... ikunteba da Tavs afarebs rasme... i c r e m l e b - a... cremlebsa Rvris, _ tiris... vnebiTis am formaTa savaraudo moqmedebiTebi (*butavs, *buwuwavs, *yuJavs, *cremlavs da a.S.) enaSi ar dasturdeba, Sesabamisad, vin jgufis subieqtiani vnebiTis formebi aqtiur (albaT ufro medialur) mniSvnelobas afiqsireben IV. 4.3.5. formiT pasiuri da funqciiT aqtiuri zmnebi. aqtiv-pasivis dapirispirebis funqciuri da semantikuri Seusabamobis erT-erT nimuSad dasaxelebulia i g i n e b a tipis, e. w. `deponensuri formebi~ ( sayuradRebo faqtia, rom Seusabamoba, rac zogadad qarTuli enis sinTezuri vnebiTis formasa da Sinaarss Soris gvaqvs, a. harisma pirobiTad terminologiuri cvlilebiT gadawyvita: aRweriTi vnebiTebisaTvis, romlebic ufro adekvaturad gamoxataven vnebiTobis universalur cnebas, SemogvTavaza p a s i v i, xolo Cvens gramatikul tradiciaSi damkvidrebul pasivis sinTezur formebs igi v n e b i T e b s uwodebs). warmovadgenT am formaTa funqciiT Seusabamo jgufis zmnaTa daxasiaTebas.

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formiT pasiuri da SinaarsiT aqtiuri zmnebi qarTulSi `deponensebis~ saxeliT gamoyo a. SaniZem: iZleva, ibRvireba, igineba, ikbineba, ilanZReba, iloceba (=locavs), iloRneba, imuqreba, irwmuneba, iswavleba, itaneba, ityueba, ificeba, iqoleba (=qoqlas ayris), iRrineba, iylapeba, iyureba (gamoiyureba), icemeba, icqireba, icoxneba, iwereba, iwyevleba, iWyiteba, ixedeba, ixveweba da sxv. deponesuri formebia ara marto iniani, aramed eniani vnebiTebic (ezideba, erekeba, eweva). `sazogadod deponensuri formis daniSnulebaa, Tavidan airidos relacia anu mimarTeba obieqtisadmi~, _ aRniSnavs a. SaniZe. saboloo daskvna deponensebis Sesaxeb `qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebSi~ amgvaradaa Sejamebuli: `...sakiTxi deponensebis Sesaxeb qarTulSi arsebiTad ramdensame zmnas exeba, romlebic awmyos wreSi pasivis formas atareben da mniSvneloba aqtivisa aqvT. myofadis wris mwkrivis formebi maT ara aqvT. iSviaTad ukeTdebaT II da III seriis mwkrivebi~. `deponensuri~ formebi saliteraturo qarTulSi arc Tu ise iSviaTad ixmareba; es faqti saTanadod aisaxa `qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi~. warmovadgenT saTanado masalas (garkveuli nawili aq warmodgenili `deponensebisa~ ganmartebiT leqsikonSi araa damowmebuli): i t u r t l e b o d a lamSi da lafSi (vaJa); unda gacnoboT, Zmebo, ambavi, imas Tan mosdevs axali xana, rom konetabli xmalsa migzavns da i b a r e b a imasac Tana (vaJa); nu i b u w u w e b i, bewvs nu iSli (vaJa); m i i Z a b e b i trials mindorze (vaJa); meca vstir da v i t y i n e b i (raf. erisT.); gigola nagvianevad i m u q r e b o d a da i b i l w e b o d a, xolo zaali kidev karga xans i x e r x e b o d a (m. javax.); sul ukan-ukan i k u n C x e b i (n. lorTq.); ager m o i l a x v r e b a pirqve dasamarxavi (g. leon.); mwuxarebis anZalze acmuli deda uRrublod i m d u R r e b o d a (g. leon.); Tan i l o S n e b o d n e n, erTmaneTs Tavpiri Camoacales (g. leon.);

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msunagad i n e r w y v e b o d a (d. Seng.); wiwilebi erTimeores ajirgaleben, WukWukeben, wiaqoben, i k o r t n e b i a n (d. Seng.); gvelebi nebivrad i q v a r q v n e b i a n oqros mtverSi (d. Seng.); gverdiT maraxoSi Cxaveri midgas, v i w r u p e b i, yalions vuplakuneb da nacars v i q e q e b i (d. Seng.); mificxebul mWads xmelad v i x u r x n e b o d i (d. Seng.); wvima i J i n J l e b o d a, kera i b J u t e b o d a (d. Seng.); is mainc ar isvenebs, i w y e v l e b a, i k r u l e b a (d. Seng.); tyuilad r a s i x a m e b i ? (uiaraRo); amdens r a s i p r i w e b i ? (uiaraRo)... CamoTvla SeiZleba gagrZeldes: i k o r t n e b a, i k a w r e b a, i Z a g r e b a, i b e r t y e b a, i y a l y e b a, i C i C q n e b a, i g e s l e b a, i R u n e b a da a. S. a. SaniZe `safuZvlebSi~ deponensebTan dakavSirebiT amgvar SeniSvnas akeTebs: `ilanZReba~ da `igineba~ wyvetilis formiT aris mocemuli am winadadebaSi: `saRamoze anuka dabrunda, bevri itira sabralom, ilanZRa da igina (vaJa). cxadia, rom zmnebi deponensuri gagebiT aris naxmari~. `safuZvlebis~ 1953 w. gamocemaSi a. SaniZe am SeniSvnas daurTavda: `magram amJamad CemTvis naTeli ar aris, Tu rogor unda Seewyos maT qvemdebare: `anukam ilanZRa da igina~, Tu `anuka ilanZRa da igina~. a. SaniZis es SeniSvna am rigis sxva formebsac exeba. `deponensebis~ erTi nawilis qvemdebaris brunva wyvetilSi konteqstis mixedviT gaurkveveli rCeba: i-zmoreba: Svilma Tvalebi moifSvnita gaizmora da wigni CamoarTva~ (ilia); erTi gaizmora, erTi kidev wamoiwia (ilia) (gaurkvevelia, gaizmora is Tu gaizmora man); icreml-eb-a: Sehkivla da Seikivla, icremla da guls idarda (r. erisT.); aseve ver gadawydeba II seriis mwkrivebSi qvemdebaris brunvis sakiTxi (man Tu is?) konteqstis mixedviT sxva SemTxvevebSic: i-loc-eb-a: mec gamovarTvi Tasi da daviloce (vaJa); imudareba: wavida ilo, ibrZola, imudara (r. inan), (imudara ilo Tu ilom?);

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wyvetili: `[mdinare] ager geubneba: rogor mTis gulidan wveTad gamoicremla, Semdeg ki rogor iqca cremli nakadulad (S. aragv) (icremla, gamoicremla igi Tu man); `_ Tumca Sens zRva boRma-naRvels Cemi nugeSi ver swvdeba, magram mainc minda yoveldRe giaxlo da Tanaziar vicremloT~ (v. barn.); i-furTx-eb-a: `ese ra vqenio, ifurTxa da ixexa tuCebi (oT. Wil.) (ifurTxa igi Tu man?); ikvebeb-a: magisTana rameebze fiqrs Tavi daanebe da kargad ikvebe (r. inan.); i-Wyit-eb-a: `uyuradRebod gamoiWyita Tavis kuTxidan (ilia); `ise rogorc moscdeba Svindi, rom yviTlad aRar gamoiWyitos gaRma pirimziTidam~ (vaJa)... `deponensebad~ wodebul vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa subieqtis brunvis romeloba II seriis mwkrivebSi, rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, konteqstis mixedviT yovelTvis ar irkveva. `qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi~ saTanado adgilebze mkafiod aris miTiTebuli, rom romelime moTxrobiTsubieqtiani gaixeda, daiRrina, daiyefa man da misTanani, ixedavs, daiRrens, iyefebs... formaTa wyvetilia; xolo Sesabamis vnebiTebs (ixedeba, iRrineba, iyefeba...) an ar ewarmoebaT II seriis mwkrivebi, anda, Tuki ewarmoebaT, subieqti saxelobiT brunvaSi iqneba warmodgenili. es asea, magram zogjer gaugebrobas iwvevs imgvari SemTxvevebi, roca aqtiuri Sinaarsis vnebiTebs wyvetilsa da II kavSirebiTSi ordinaruli saxelobiTsubieqtiani formebis paralelurad moTxrobiTsubieqtiani formebic moeZevebaT. mag., imuqreba, ifxoreba, ikriWeba... formebs II seriaSi Seesabameba daimuqra, gaifxora, gaikriWa igi || man. moTxrobiTsubieqtian formaTa savaraudo awmyo *daimuqrebs, *gaifxorebs, *gaikreWs... ki ar dasturdeba. amas garda, vnebiTis zogierTi forma qegl-is mixedviT mxolod awmyo formebSi gvaqvs damowmebuli, Cveni masalis (ZiriTadad `ganmartebiTi leqsikonis~ Semdegdroindeli teqstebis) mixedviT ki am formebs wyvetilisa da II kavSirebiTis mwkrivebi ewarmoeba (mag.: iyureba _ iyura, ifurTxeba _ ifurTxa, izideba _ gaizida,
aq ar igulisxmeba mravlobiTi ricxvis III subieqturi piris formebi wyvetilSi: Seigin-en, gailanZRn-en isini da igin-es, ilanZR-es maT...

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iqadneba _ daiqadna, iweva _ daiwia...), subieqtis brunvas ki konteqsti ver gvirkvevs. II seriis (iSviaTad, TurmeobiTis) mwkrivTa warmoebis mixedviT aqtiuri Sinaarsis i- prefiqsiani vnebiTis formebSi SeiZleba gamoiyos ori jgufi: 1. vnebiTebi, romelTac II seriis formebi ar ewarmoebaT: iZleva, ikbineba, irwmuneba, iswavleba, icemeba da sxva. 2. vnebiTebi, romelTac ewarmoebaT II seriis formebi: iRvrimeba _ daiRvrima, izmoreba _ gaizmora, ixedeba _ gaixeda... II seriis formebSi subieqtis brunvis gaTvaliswinebiT sami qvejgufi gamoiyofa: a) wyvetilSi subieqti saxelobiT brunvaSia warmodgenili: iRvrimeba _ daiRvrima is, imudareba _ imudara is, iTxupneba _ iTxupna is da sxva. b) subieqti SeiZleba idges rogorc saxelobiTSi, aseve moTxrobiT brunvaSi: gaizmora is || man, daibertya is || man, moikeca is || man, daibRvira is || man, gaiWvrita is || man, gaikriWa is || man, daiRriWa is || man... g) subieqti moTxrobiT brunvaSi dgas: ixedeba is _ gaixeda man, iRimeba is _ gaiRima man, iRrineba is _ daiRrina man... ufro konkretulad: 1. am jgufSi gaerTianebul iZleva tipis zmnebis Sesaxeb a. SaniZe SeniSnavs: `iZleva ganmartoebiT ar dgas qarTulSi, aris rigi zmnebisa, romelTac deponensuri xasiaTi aqvT da marto awmyo wris mwkrivebSi ixmarebian~. i-Cveneb-a: `mrisxanebiT tuCebs ikvnetda, muStebs iCveneboda~ (vaJa); icemeb-a: `batoni Siketi gaxelebuli mivarda avazaks, dauwyo cema, rogorc icemeba xolme gaqurduli sofeli~ (d. kariW.); `eei, is uRmerToebi, ranairad icemebodnen~ (n. lorTq.); i-orTqleb-a: `i racxaa, qSinavs da iorTqleba, paravozia Tu racxa (n. lorTq.); i-swavleb-a: `SeniTanebi viyaviT iqa, ro Wkuas iswavlebi~ (ant. furc.); i-RerReb-a: `ras iRerRebi ZaRliviTa! (g. leon.);

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i-rwmuneb-a: `mama raRacas irwmuneboda~ (r. inan.); mi-iZabeb-a: `miiZabebi trials mindorze~ (vaJa). a. SaniZes am rigis ocze meti zmna aqvs CamoTvlili. II seriis formebi ar ewarmoeba agreTve kauzatiurad nawarmoeb vnebiTebs: iTvlevineba, ityobineba, ikvlevineba... 2. am jgufSi gaerTianebuli vnebiTebi gansxvavdebian II seriis formebSi subieqtis brunvis mixedviT: a) zmnaTa erT rigs subieqti saxelobiT brunvaSi Seesabameba, rogorc ordinarul vnebiTs: iTxupneba _ moiTxupna igi, iklakneba _ daiklakna igi, ipranWeba _ gaipranWa igi, itylarWeba _ gaitylarWa igi, imrizeba_ aimriza igi da sxva. imrizeba: `giorgi aimriza~ (ilia); `zaalic aimriza~ (m. javax.); iRvrimeba: `hxedavda, rom Svils guneba ecvala, ufro daiRvrima, ufro guli daixura~ (ilia); izideba: `satrfosken medgrad gaizida~ (a. yazb.); iwveleba: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis mixedviT es forma mxolod awmyos wyebaSi ixmareba, Tumca Sdr.: `gamodiT, moiwveleniT, tagana mzad aris~ (g. leon.). ixarjeba: `ramdeni vixarjeT, ramdeni veZebeT~ (uiaraRo). iWreba: `SeiWra sadme tyis sixSoSi da gza veRar gamougnia~ (d. Turd.)... b) am qvejgufSi gaerTianebul vnebiTi gvaris zmnebTan subieqtis brunvad saxelobiTis paralelurad moTxrobiTic SeiZleba mogvevlinos: i-bRvir-eb-a: `stepani moibRvira, safexurebs Seuyva~ (`lit. saq.~); `maiorma Calur wverSi CaibRvira~ (m. javax.); i-Wvrit-eb-a: `hm, viTom muceli atkivda am melakudas! _ Tqva zamTaraZem, wamoiwia, fanjridan aivanze gaiWvrita~ (W. amirej.) (gaiWvrita is Tu man?); `d e m b i n m a katorRelTa sakanSi kidev didxans iWvrita~ (W. amirej.); m z e m... gamoiWvrita (`komunisti~). iRrijeba: {C i n o v n i k i} Tavmomwoned gaiRrija (ek. gab.); qegl `g r i g o l a i t i c odnav gaiRriWa~ (h. falada); `b i l i m gaiRrija...~ (`saunje~); ibertyeba: `k a k o erTi SeibRerta~ (dialeq., l. mrel.);

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`marTals ambob, gvianoba aRar varga _ upasuxa moxevem, Seibertya da qudis moxdiT daumata (a. yazb.); (Seibertya man?); imuqreba: `axla-ki mogivli, Se lawirako!~ _ daimuqra g i o r g i da meore dResve boqauls ewvia~ (i. gedev.); `Ciles samxedro-faSisturi xuntis m e T a u r m a pinoCetma daimuqra, rom sastikad gauswordeba qveynis im Zalebs...~ (`komunisti~); iwyevleba: `roca mabrazeben, rom ar daviwyevlo, ara maqvs moTmineba, viwyevlebi (vaJa, qegl); `rom ar daviwyevlo~ _ aq zmna TiTqos ergativSi dasmul subieqts ufro iguebs, magram Sdr.: `javrismosvliT daiwyevla i v a n e ~ (e. ninoS.); itanjeba: `i g i itanja siyvarulisTvis~ (vaJa); `mec magas veZeb, leSma itanjos, mxolod ki, mxolod suli ar wawymdes~ (vaJa); i-wev-a: `mze odnav aiwia~ (n. dumb.); Sdr. `mzem isev aiwia~ (n. dumb.); i-keceb-a: `p a t a r Z a l i SiSisagan iqve Caikeca~ (g. leon.); `Cveni banaki Saragza xom ar aris, rom yvela v i g i n d a r a m aq moikecos~ (m. javax.); `Tamar mefeze ufro Zlieri mefeebi ki ar iyvnen? _ ikiTxes meurmeebma, r o m l e b m a c moikeces~ (s. mgal.); `patiosanma p i r u t y v m a tkivilisagan ukana muxlebiT Caikeca~ (a. yazb.); i-zmor-eb-a: `mahmudi jer gaizmora ~ (W. amirej.); `kacebma gaiRviZes, gaizmornen~ (`iveria~); `ymawvilma gangeb gaizmora~ (n. lorTq.); `qalma agznebiT gaizmora~ (n. lorTq.); i-turneb-a || itruneba || itvrineba: `biWebi gaitrunen~ (l. mrel.); `axla ki gaitruna moedani~ (l. mrel.); `T e v d o r e m iturna da TavisTvis mijda gamxmari joyrebis ZirSi~ (vaJa); `ZaRlma itvrina~ (g. xorg.);

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i-kriWeb-a: `maTi b r w y i n v a l e b a yvelis vaWariviT gaikriWa da meti ara sTqva-ra~ (g. wereT., qegl); Sdr.: `d i t o m am gaxsenebaze TiTqos gacinebiT gaikriWa~ (g. wereT.); `gaikriWa isev g u r a m i ~ (n. dumb.); `k r e W a n a m gaikriWa da mivida... k r e W a n a m isev gaikriWa~ (r. inan.); `gaikriWa W a b u k m a da niniac gaacina~ (n. Saman.). i-loceb-a: dailoca i g i (ix. qegl) `m a s p i n Z e l m a dailoca da sasmisi SemogvTavaza~ (s. kld.); i-SmuSneb-a: `zogi usiamod SeiSmuSna mxolod~ (m. abaS.); `s t u m a r i gaiSmuSna~ (akaki); `da g a n a w y e n e b u l m a c rom SeiSmuSnos, mainc unda vuTxraT, rac saTqmelia~ (`lit. saq.~). i-lanZReb-a: `Se xeprev, Sena, gailanZRa t o s k a n e l i Cveulebisamebr~ (vaJa); `ra vqna, rom veraferi Sevasmine mag mam... _ aq gailanZRa gagulisebuli g e n o ~ (an. erisT.-xoSt.); `barTlomem uTxra `qofakoo~ da ilanZRes da igines~ (n. lorTq.) (subieqti ergativSi dgas). i-gineb-a: `saldaTebma miixed-moixedes, ramdenjerme daurideblad, rusulis wesiT Seiginen saxlis mouwyoblobazed da miesivnen keras~ (a. yazb.) (Seigin-en isini), Sdr.: `ilanZRes da igines (maT)~; `farnaozma Seigina~ (oT. Wil.). i-fxoreb-a: `Tavi moivaJkaca, cota aifxora kidec~ (g. xorg.): `s i l i b i s t r o m wamoifxora~ (m. mrevl.). i-yureb-a: `inom Tvali veRar moaSora varskvlavs, iqamde iyura, sanam Tvalebi ar aeblanda~ (oT. Wil.); `cota xans viyureT~ (`ciskari~); `revazma mdumared gadafurcla bloknoti, mcire xans iyura Siga~ (l. mrelaS.); `karga xans iyura aqeT-iqiT~ (`saunje~). da-i-bRoteb-a: `iara, ibRota, ganTiadis svel bindSi, ofli Camodioda~ (r. inan.). (naTeli araa subieqtis brunva: ibRota is Tu man?).

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g) am qvejgufSi dasaxelebuli vnebiTebis uRvlilebis paradigma narevia: is vnebiTi gvaris awmyo wrisa da moqmedebiTi gvaris sasubieqto qcevis iseTi formebiTaa Sevsebuli, romelTac SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damateba ar uCanT; amJamad aRiqmeba erT mTlian paradigmad: i-yefeb-a: `am dros ZaRlma, romelic Sori-axlo iwva da waeyo cxviri miwaSi, daiyefa~ (ilia); `gauSvi, iyefos, iyefos~ (oT. Wil.); `daTovilma ZaRlma jer iyefa~ (g. leon.). i-Rrineb-a: `TiTqos nadirma ZilSi daiRrinao~ (oT. Wil.). i-Rimeb-a: `uwindula aRar mZgers natyviarSi, g u l m a c ufro iRima _ upasuxa besiam~ (e. ninoS.); `e z o m gaiRima~ (m. javax.). subieqti saxelobiT brunvaSic dasturdeba: `gaiRima a C r d i l i : raT meZaxi ostato~ (`orioni~). i-qadn-eba: `avkafav mag jagnara yazaxs~ _ daiqadna Z u k u m ~ (uiaraRo); i-xedeb-a: `g i o r g i m ukan aRar moixeda~ (ilia); `melma aixeda~ (vaJa). (Se)-i-kurTxeb-a: `dampalia es SobelZaRli~ _ SeikurTxa TavisTvis~ (avT. Cxikv.); `erTi magisi oxeri... _ SeikurTxa g u r a m m a ~ (d. askurava). i-cqireb-a: `icqireT, SemoicqireT, ara gnebavT Zroxis artala?!~ (vaJa); `zemoT caSi avedi, ramdenic ki SemeZlo, vicqire~ (n. lorTq.); `gareT karga xans icqira~ (l. mrel.); subieqtis brunva am konteqstSi araa garkveuli (igi Tu man?), magram, Sdr.: `Savlegom vedroSi mcire xans icqira~ (l. mrel.). b) da g) qvejgufSi warmodgenil moTxrobiTsubieqtian zmnaTa nawils awmyoSi saTanado moqmedebiTi formebi eZebneba: ixedavs, moikecavs, daiyefs, gamoWyets, Seiginebs, gaiRimebs, ifurTxebs... es formebi SedarebiT iSviaTia Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi, da, Tuki ixmareba, rogorc wesi, myofadis droebSi

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(iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda); awmyos droebSi warmoqmnil xarvezs vnebiTis saTanado aqtiuri Sinaarsis formebiT avsebs (ixedavs || ixedeba, igineba, izmoreba...); SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom amgvari vnebiTebi `Tavs arideben~ e. w. myofadis wris mwkrivebis warmoebas. saTanado mniSvneloba moqmedebiTis formebiTac gamoixateba (gaixedavs, Seiginebs, gaizmorebs, daiyefebs...); iqmneba STabeWdileba, TiTqos moTxrobiTsubieqtiani formebi vnebiTis paradigmis gagrZelebaa II seriaSi. es `gaTaviseba~ ki damokidebulia Sesabamisi gardamavali formis awmyoSi xmarebis sixSireze. mag.: romelime ixedeba is _ gaixeda man qarTulSi ukve erT paradigmad aRiqmeba da amis mizezi ixedavs formis xmarebis iSviTaobaa (ixedavs _ gaixeda > ixedeba _ gaixeda); iCoqebs is _ daiCoqa man ki SedarebiT myari paradigmaa, radgan iCoqeba _ daiCoqa formaTa xmareba qarTulSi imdenad iSviaTia, rom ganmartebiT leqsikonSi arc aRnusxula (`CaiCoqebi da atirdebi~ (`lit. saq.~); `dabneuli daviCoqe~ (dia Cianeli); `TaTia wamoiCoqa~ (`ciskari~). aseve iSviaTia imuxleba forma (`fiqrebi xan ZirkvebmoqceuliviT... imuxlebodnen~ (`nobaTi~) da amdenad Caimuxlebs is _ Caimuxla man myari Sesityveba Cans. ixedeba igi _ gaixeda man (Sereuli paradigmis) tipis zmnaTa analogiiT SeiZleboda agvexsna moTxrobiTsubieqtian icqira, daimuqra, wamoifxora, SeikurTxa... (man) formaTa arseboba II seriaSi; maT awmyoSi saTanado moqmedebiTis calebi ar eZebnebaT, e. i. ar gvaqvs *icqers, *imuqrebs, *ifxorebs, *ikurTxebs..., samagierod dasturdeba vnebiTis formebi icqireba, imuqreba, ifxoreba, {Se}ikurTxeba wyebisa... magram, radgan es `analogia~ mxolod gansazRvruli rigis _ aqtiuri Sinaarsis _ vnebiTebs moicavs, vfiqrobT, rom swored vnebiTis formaTa aqtiuri Sinaarsis mizezia mosaZiebeli. imis mizezad, rom vnebiTis zog formas moqmedebiTis funqcia aqvs, a. SaniZe vnebiTis am formaTa (inian vnebiTebis) saTaviso qcevidan warmomavlobas Tvlis; Tu mxolod esaa mizezi, maSin aqtiuroba amgvari gziT miRebuli vnebiTebis yvela formas (e. i. yvela inian vnebiTs) unda Seexos, es ki ase araa. aq gasaTvaliswinebelia qarTulSi gvaris kategoriis funqcionirebis ganmsazRvreli piroba: gvaris sakiTxi wydeba sapirispiro formaTa paraleluri arsebobiT konversiis niadagze.

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vnebiTis forma moqmedebiTidan iwarmoeba konversiis gziT. konversiis meqanizmi ki aseTia _ moqmedebiTi gvaris pirdapiri obieqti vnebiTi gvaris formaSi subieqtad gvevlineba xolme. Tu CvenTvis saintereso aqtiuri Sinaarsis inian vnebiTebs gverdiT saTanado moqmedebiTebs amovuyenebT, gveqneba moqmedebiTi gvaris formaTa ori modeli: 1. a + fuZe + sufiqsi, 2. fuZe + sufiqsi pirveli modeliT (a + fuZe + sufiqsi) nawarmoebi moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebi upiratesad kauzatiuri Sinaarsisani arian: ayefebs is mas, {ga}aRimebs is mas, alocebs igi mas, aCxubebs is mas... obieqti aq yovelTvis a q t i u r i a (s u l i e r i), moqmedebis Sesrulebeli, Sesabamisi vnebiTis subieqtic agreTve, aqtiuria: iyefeba, iRimeba, iloceba... (is), waiCxubebian (isini)... is faqti, rom moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebis obieqti TviTon gvevlineba moqmedebis Semsruleblad, SegveZlo CagveTvala Sesabamisi vnebiTis subieqtis aqtiurobis mizezad (moqmedebiTi gvaris pirdapiri obieqti = vnebiTi gvaris subieqts). amaT gverdiT gvaqvs azmorebs is || mas, afurTxebs is (an, is mas), aWyets is Tvalebs... a + fuZe + sufiqsi modeliT nawarmobi formebi da, aseve, fuZe + sufiqsi modeliT nawarmoebi bertyavs is mas, kecavs is mas... formebi. CamoTvlil formaTagan azmorebs is / mas, afurTxebs is mxolod formiTaa moqmedebiTi gvarisa _ uaxloesi obieqti amaT ar moeZevebaT. konteqstSi afurTxebs forma orpirianadac SeiZleba warmogvidges (is mas), magram es obieqti pirdapiri obieqti araa (afurTxebs is m a s _ miafurTxa man m a s); amdenad konversiis piroba am e. w. moqmedebiTi (azmorebs is / azmorebs mas, afurTxebs is mas / afurTxebs is da vnebiTi gvaris (izmoreba is, ifurTxeba is) formebs Soris aq ver iqneba daculi. rac Seexeba formebs _ bertyavs is mas, kecavs is mas, aWyets is Tvalebs _ maT aqvT Sesabamisi ordinaruli vnebiTebi (ibertyeba viRacisgan, ikeceba bade viRacis mier). am zmnaTa pirdapiri obieqti araa is aqtiuri obieqti, romelic iWyiteba, ibertyeba (TviTon ibertyavs), ikeceba (TviTon moikecavs) formebTan subieqtad warmogvidgeba. vnebiTis aqtiur formebTan subieqtis fardi saxeli sulierTa klasis (ZiriTadad vin jgufis) warmomadgenelia, magram,

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Cveni azriT, mxolod es faqti ar gamodgeba vnebiTis aqtiuri Sinaarsis amxsnelad. erTi da igive subieqti _ s u l i e r T a klasis warmomadgeneli _ erTsa da imave formaSi SeiZleba pasiuradac gaiazrebodes _ ibertyeba is viRacis mier (= icemeba viRacis mier) da aqtiuradac _ ibertyeba is (ibertyavs TviTon mtvers); pasiuria s u l i e r T a klasis gamomxatveli subieqti sxva SemTxvevebSic: moikla kaci (frangni amboben, RmerTo, ra mxne kaci moikla `simRera rolandze~), daiWra daTvi... e. i. damokidebuleba suliersa da aqtiurs Soris am SemTxvevaSi erTmniSvnelovani araa _ erTi meores ar niSnavs. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT erTi faqtia sayuradRebo: aqtiuri Sinaarsis mqone vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa sapirispiro moqmedebiTebi saTaviso qcevis formebTan saTanado SesityvebebSi uobieqtodaa warmodgenili: ixedavs (Sdr.: ixedeba): `iwmends, ixedavs xelze, tiris~ (s. mgal.); `cisken aixedavda da tiroda~ (n. lorTq.); gamo-i-Wvrets (Sdr.: {gamo}iWvriteba): `iqamdisani energiulad gamoiWvrets imisi saxe~ (ilia); gamo-i-Wyets (Sdr.: gamoiWyiteba): `mze xan gamoiWyets da xan RrublebSi exveva~ (akaki); i-tyuebs (Sdr.: ityueba): `oTaraanT giorgis ra mowme unda? RmerTmani, ityuebs-da! _ sTqva viRacam~ (ilia); `Tu RmerTi gwams, nu ityueb! Tqvi marTali~ (`iveria~, 1890); da-i-yef-eb-s / da-i-yef-s (Sdr.: {da}iyefeba): `iyefebian, veRar gavigoneb, saidan ra xma wamova~ (W. amirej.) `romelic ar gvicnobs, daiyefs da gaCumdeba~ (n. lorTq.); `yoranas mura tyuilad ar iyefeboda~ (`ciskari~); Se-i-ginebs (Sdr.: Seigineba): `_ patroniviT ari, magis, _ Seiginebda mito, Tavs Seaqanebda da gogias SeuZaxebda~ (`komunisti~); ga-i-zmor-eb-s (Sdr.: ga-i-zmor-eb-a): `roca moigunebebda, erTs lazaTianad gaizmorebda da amas ityoda~ (ilia);

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`xataura odnav waikrutunebda, zarmacad odnav gaizmorebda~ (S. aragv.); ga-i-Rim-eb-s: (Sdr.: {ga}-i-Rim-eb-a): `qorRuyo siamovnebiT gaiRimebda, radgan am saqcielSi ganusazRvrel siyvaruls xedavda~ (al. yazb.); `maSin pirvelad gaiRimeb~ (n. lorTq.); mo-i-kec-av-s (Sdr.: mo-i-kec-eb-a): `anu ra sityvebs SeeZloT gamoxatva qaixosros siamovnebisa maSin, rodesac is moikecavda xaliCazed, daebjineboda kalTaSi Cadgmul muTaqas~ (`moambe~, 1894); i-loc-eb-s / i-loc-eb-a: `modi da Cvens xelmwifeze nu iloceb~ (n. lorTq.); `isev aq mova, Tavis eklesiaze ilocavs~ (n. lorTq.); i-furTx-eb-s (Sdr.: i-furTx-eb-a): `xelSi isev wigni uWiravs, TiTze ifurTxebs da ise furclavs~ (d. Seng.); `dimo daxeTqil xelisgulze daifurTxebda da Ronivrad uTavazebda miniSnebul adgils~ (g. xorg.). aRniSnuls arsebiTi mniSvneloba unda hqondes. i- prefiqsiani vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTaTvis genetikurad amosavali moqmedebiTi gvaris saTaviso qcevis formaa, saTaviso qcevis zemoT CamoTvlili formebi ki mxolod formaluradRa arian saTaviso qcevisa, radgan SesityvebaSi pirdapiri obieqti ar dasturdeba da mxolod subieqtia warmodgenili: ixedavs igi..., Sesabamisad, misgan momdinare, vnebiTis formaSic egeve subieqti warmoCndeba _ aqtiuri subieqti, moqmedi (agensi): ixedavs igi / ixedeba igi... aqtiuroba-pasiuroba ki sxvadasxva subieqts ukavSirdeba. ixedavs / ixedeba (igi) tipis formaTa Soris Sinaarsobrivi sxvaoba Sesityvebis struqturis sxvaobis darRvevasTan erTad (gardamavali zmna uobieqtod warmogvidgeba) iSleba. sintaqsur doneze moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebs Soris momxdar neitralizacias daerTo neitralizacia semantikur doneze. gansxvaveba moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi gvaris zmnebs Soris am SemTxvevaSi mxolod formaluria; ixedeba (`winac ki ar ixedebi~; m. javax.) aqtiuri mniSvnelobiT aRaraa xedavs is mas formis konversiuli saxe, radgan orsave formaSi, erTi, aqtiuri subieqti gvaqvs.

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rodesac gvaris formebs Soris konversiis piroba daculia, maSin vnebiTic Cveulebrivi gveqneba: xedavs is mas (tyian serebs) _ Sdr.: `mdinareebi garula da faskunja rom SeerTdebian, iqidan samxreTisaken didi tyiani serebi ixedeba~ (g. wereT.). amgvarad, ixedeba vnebiTis formas (aqtiuri mniSvnelobisas) funqciurad Sesabamisi moqmedebiTis forma ar gaaCnia. gamoiyofa kidev erTi rigis vnebiTebi, romelTa saTanado moqmedebiTs saTaviso qcevis formaSi pirdapir obieqtad aqvs refleqsivi `Tavi~ (an sakuTari sxeulis nawilebi), e. i. subieqti moqmedebs TavisTavze; igi TviTonvea moqmedebis Semsrulebelic (agensi) da moqmedebis obieqtic (paciensi): itanjavs igi Tavs... Sesabamisi vnebiTis formaSi subieqti SeiZleba pasiuradac gaviazroT da aqtiuradac: itanjeba viRacisgan, raRacis gamo, da itanjeba TviTon (Tavs itanjavs), amitom wyvetilSi saxelobiTis gverdiT gvaqvs subieqtis moTxrobiTbrunviani konstruqciac: itanja igi / man. imuqreba, icqireba, ifxoreba, SeikurTxeba, gadaiwvereba, gadaixreba... formebi aqtiuri Sinaarsisaa da moTxrobiTsubieqtiani konstruqciac SeiZleba hqondes II seriis mwkrivebSi (saxelobiTsubieqtianis gverdiT): daimuqra man, icqira man, gaifxora man, `mzem gadaiwvera da Caesvena mTebs iqiT~ (`iveria~). `mzem gadaixara~ (al. yazb.)... Tumca am zmnaTa saTanado gardamavali calebi saliteraturo qarTulSi ar dasturdeba. e. i. enaSi gvaqvs vnebiTis formebi da ara gvaqvs sapirispiro moqmedebiTebi; raki gvaris kategoria sapirispiro formaTa arsebobas gulisxmobs, amdenad, `ucalo vnebiTebi~ formalurad aris vnebiTi da ara funqciurad~. subieqti aq moqmedia da ara vnebuli _ vnebiTis formis aqtiur Sinaarssac es faqti gansazRvravs. qarTuli enis saTanado masalis zemoT Catarebuli analizi amgvari daskvnis saSualebas gvaZlevs: vnebiTis formaTa aqtiuri Sinaarsi gapirobebulia Sesabamisi moqmedebiTi gvaris zmniT, moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnis SesityvebaSi momxdari struqturul-semantikuri cvlilebebi vnebiTebSic aisaxeba, an ufro konkretulad _ vnebiTi SeiZleba aqtiuri Sinaarsis iyos: 1. Tu subieqtad v i n jgufis (sulieri) saxeli aqvs;

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2. Tu saTanado moqmedebiTis cali ar gaaCnia (*acqers _ icqireba is, icqira man; *SeikurTxebs _ SeikurTxeba is _ SeikurTxa man...); 3. Tu opoziciuri wyvili (aqtivi _ pasivi) mxolod formaluradaa dapirispirebuli (afurTxebs is mas _ ifurTxeba is, kbens is mas _ ikbineba is...), magram es dapirispireba moCvenebiTia; moqmedebiTi gvaris formas pirdapiri obieqti aklia (kbens is mas _ ukbina man mas, afurTxebs is mas _ miafurTxa man mas...) da konversiis piroba aRar arsebobs. mTavari mizezi vnebiTis formaTa aqtiurobisa swored gardamaval zmnaSi pirdapiri obieqtis klebasTanaa dakavSirebuli: i- prefiqsiani sasubieqto qcevis formebi, romlebic iniani vnebiTebisaTvis Zireulebi Canan, uobieqtoni arian, Sdr., vnebiTebi: ixedeba, iWvriteba, ityueba, iyefeba, Seigineba, gaizmoreba, iloceba, ifurTxeba, iweva... da saTanado uobieqto `moqmedebiTebi~: ixedavs, gamoiWvrets, ityuebs, iyefebs, Seiginebs, gaizmorebs, (TiTze) ifurTxebs, iwevs... (igi...) _ moqmedebiTisa da vnebiTis formebi mxolod formalurad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan, sintaqsurad da funqciurad erTni arian, erTi da igive aqtiuri subieqti aqvT: amitom maTi paradigmebis Serevac bunebrivi Cans. aqtiuri subieqti aqvT imaleba, itanjeba... formebsac, romelTa sapirispiro moqmedebiTi gvaris sasubieqto qcevis formebs pirdapir obieqtad ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli `Tavi moudis: Tavs imalavs, Tavs itanjavs... Sdr.: _ imaleba, itanjeba (TviTon): `vaWari da daviTi Tavs imalavdnen, radganac sulTnisa eSinodaT~ (i. gogeb.) _ [lomi] nadirTa Tavzardamcemi axla imalvis Tavada (vaJa, qegl). aqtiuri Sinaarsis vnebiTebis uRlebis nakluli paradigmis Sevseba moqmedebiTi gvaris sasubieqto qcevis uobieqto formebiT da saSuali gvaris medioaqtiur zmnaTa uRlebis paradigmis Sevseba erTi rigis movlena Cans.

IV. 4.4. ukuqceviToba


IV. 4.4.1. zogadi mimoxilva. sxvadasxva enis gramatikebSi sityvaformebi, romelTac ukuqceviTi (refleqsuri) mniSvneloba aqvT, gansxvavebulad ganixileba: a) rogorc damoukidebeli zmne-

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bi, b) rogorc gvaris kategoriis sityvaformebi, g) rogorc qcevis kategoriis saxeoba. ukuqceviTobis kategoria yvelaze ukeT indoevropul enebSia Seswavlili. am enebidan refleqsurobis idea gramatikuladaa gamoxatuli CexurSi, slovakurSi, polonurSi... es kategoria aq nazmnar saxelebSic aRiniSneba: CvenSi ukuqceviToba tradiciulad gvaris kategoriaSia warmodgenili (a. SaniZe...). ganixileba is agreTve, rogorc damoukidebeli kategoria, romelic uSualod ukavSirdeba gvarisa da gardamavlobis kategoriebs (b. jorbenaZe) da _ rogorc qcevis saxeoba (q. lomTaTiZe, m. maWavariani). ukuqceviTobas qarTulSi h. Suxardtma miaqcia yuradReba (1896 w.). man ukuqceviTobis niSnad gamoyo saTaviso qcevis iprefiqsi ([Se]-i-b...), romelic micemiT brunvasTan daakavSira. am sakiTxs Seexo n. maric. a. SaniZem `qarTuli zmnis saqcevSi~ (1926 w.) warmoaCina gardamavali zmnis is mniSvneloba, roca `subieqti Tavis saganze moqmedebs~, an `TavisTvis eweva saqmes~ da mas `saTaviso~ uwoda. manve aRniSna, rom am qceviT iwarmoeben xolme formebs zmnebi, roca obieqtad sxeulis romelime nawili moudiT; mag.: w v e r s viparsav, T m a s vikreW, T a v s vivarcxni, c x v i r s vixocav, p i r s viban... an kidev: q u d s vixurav, C o x a s vicvam, s a r t y e l s virtyam da misT. a. SaniZem upirvelesi mniSvneloba mianiWa gardamaval zmnebSi pirdapiri damatebis poziciaSi `T a v i ~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxelis xmarebis SemTxvevebs, `romelic am qceviT refleqsuri Sinaarsis azrs gadmogvcems xolme, e.i. iseTi mniSvnelobis matarebelia, rom moqmedeba TviT subieqtsave ubrundeba: T a v s iklavs, T a v s iwamlavs, T a v s igdebs, T a v s iqebs da misT.~ a. SaniZem am werilSi faqtobriv warmoadgina ukuqceviTobis gansazRvra (`moqmedeba TviT subieqtsave ubrundeba~) da gardamaval sasubieqto qcevis zmnaSi ukuqceviTobis realizaciis pirobebi. faseulia arn. Ciqobavas mosazreba qarTuli (qarTveluri) gardamavali zmnis refleqsuri mniSvnelobis uwinaresobis Sesaxeb gvaris kategoriasTan SedarebiT.

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IV. 4.4.2. ukuqceviToba qarTulSi. ukuqceviToba (refleqsuroba) zogadad binarul mimarTebas gulisxmobs; ukuqceviTobis, rogorc gramatikuli kategoriis realizaciisaTvis aucilebeli pirobaa subieqtisa da pirdapiri obieqtis koreferentuloba da am mimarTebis markirebuloba; mimarTeba refleqsuria, Tuki yoveli sagani Tavis TavTan imyofeba aseT mimarTebaSi. qarTul gramatikul literaturaSi ukuqceviTebad ganixileba rogorc gardamavali, aseve gardauvali, rogorc moqmedebiTi da vnebiTi, aseve saSuali gvaris, konkretulad ki i-prefiqsiani zmnebi. ukuqceviToba miCneulia zogad, i- prefiqsis mqone yvela formisaTvis saerTo funqciad (b. jorbenaZe). i- prefiqsis distribucia qarTulSi ki sakmaod farToa; is gvxvdeba gvarisa da qcevis mixedviT gansxvavebul zmnaTa formebSi, saxeldobr: a) vnebiTis formebidan _ sakuTriv vnebiTebSi: i-Wreba, i-msxvreva, i-ngreva.., potencialisebSi: i-Wmeva, i-smeva.., aqtiuri mniSvnelobis vnebiTebSi (deponensebSi): i-rwmuneba, i-furTxeba..., doniani da uniSno vnebiTis sasxviso qcevis I da II piris formebSi: m-i-wux-d-eb-a, g-i-wux-d-eb-a... m-i-Tb-eb-a, g-i-Tb-eb-a... b) moqmedebiTis formebidan _ saTaviso qcevis formebSi: v-i-xatav, i-xatav, i-xatav-s... sasxviso qcevis I da II piris formebSi: m-i-xatav-s, g-i-xatav-s... g) saSuali gvaris formebidan _ zmnaTa erT mcire nawilSi: i-glov-s, i-nani-s, i-cini-s, i-Rimi-s... oriode mediopasiuri formisa da absolutur medioaqtiur formaTa myofadisa da II seriis formebSi: dga-s _ i - d g e b a, i - d g - a, wev-s _ i - w v e b - a, i - w v - a..., xarob-s _ i - x a r e b - s, i - x a r - a , wvalob-s _ i - w v a l e b - s, i - w v a l - a..., sasxviso qcevis I da II piris formebSi: m-i-wuxs, g-i-wux-s... distribuciis Sesabamisad, nairgvaria i- prefiqsiT gamoxatuli mniSvnelobebi. es mniSvnelobebi (saTaviso da sasxviso qcevis, medialur zmnaTa myofadisa da II seriis) realizebulia gvarisa da qcevis saTanado formebiT. ukuqceviTobas (refleqsurobas), iseve, rogorc potencialiss, deponensebs, sakuTari forma ara aqvT.

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sakuTriv ukuqceviTebad saxeldebul zmnur formaTa analizis mixedviT CvenSi ZiriTadad ukuqceviTobis orgvari gageba ikveTeba: 1. subieqti moqmedebs sakuTar Tavze, sakuTari Tavis mimarT da imavdroulad obieqticaa (pirdapiri obieqti); gvaqvs refleqsuri mimarTeba da gamoixateba sakuTriv refleqsuri mniSvneloba: T a v s iklavs, T a v s iqebs... imaleba (`Tavis Tavs malavs~), iZabeba (`Tavis Tavs Zabavs~)... 2. moqmedeba subieqtis wres ar/ver scildeba, subieqtis sazRvrebSia Caketili; aRiniSneba medialuri mniSvneloba: iglovs, iRimis, icinis... faqtobriv, ukuqceviTobis meore gansazRvreba _ medialuri mniSvnelobis aRniSvna _ gaTvaliswinebulia pirveli gansazRvrebis viTarebiTac: Tu subieqti moqmedebs sakuTar Tavze, e.i. subieqti funqciurad pirdapiri obieqtis identuria (anu subieqti da pirdapiri obieqti koreferentulebi arian). es ukve TavisTavad imasac apirobebs, rom moqmedeba subieqtis sazRvrebs ar gascildeba. Tumca, isic unda iTqvas, rom moqmedebis Caketilobas subieqtis sazRvrebSi mxolod subieqtisa da pirdapiri obieqtis igiveoba ar qmnis, gardamavali zmnis SesityvebaSi pirdapiri obieqtis eliminaciis SemTxvevaSi, subieqtis moqmedeba subieqtis wreSive eqceva: Sdr.: imuSavebs y a n a s _ imuSavebs awi imanac eiRos Toxi da imuSaos y a n a (ninoS.) simonas Cveulebad hqonda, dilas karga mzis amosvlamde ezos maxlobel yanaSi imuSavebda (ninoS.). imuSavebda = muSaobda. moisustebs x m a s _ moisustebs: stvirma TandaTan x m a moisusta (vaJa) Sdr.: bgera moisustebs... i- prefiqsis nairgvari mniSvnelobebidan Cven gamovarCieT ZiriTadi mniSvnelobebi, romelTa safuZvelze specialur lite-

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raturaSi ukuqceviTi formebis gamoyofa xdeba. es mniSvnelobebia: 1. refleqsuri; 2. medialuri. refleqsuri mniSvnelobebi dasturdeba gardamavali moqmedebiTi gvaris saTaviso qcevis zmnaTa rigSi da iniani pasivebis erT nawilSi. medialuri mniSvneloba _ saSuali gvaris zmnebSi (da inian vnebiTTa erT jgufSi). Tumca i-prefiqsian formebs mxolod ukuqceviTis an medialuris mniSvneloba ara aqvs da faqtia isic, rom ukuqceviTi an medialuri mniSvneloba mxolod i- prefiqsiani formebiT ar gamoixateba: wiravs viRacas `ar zogavs, imetebs~ _ araukuqceviTi formaa, magram T a v s wiravs `Tavs debs visime an risame sanacvlod~ ukuqceviT mniSvnelobas gamoxatavs: subieqti da pirdapiri obieqti (`Tavi~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli) koreferentulia da ukuqceviT mniSvnelobas gviCvenebs. idiomi q e d s , T a v s xris igivea, rac q e d s , T a v s ixris... sagmobic viyo, q e d s ar vxri, Tavi mdidari mgonia (vaJa); Sdr.: q e d s , T a v s ixris, metis meti mowiwebis an morCilebis niSnad visime (risame) winaSe T a v s xris. `didkacni T a v s ixridnen dabla~ (i. maCab. Targm.) || gadat. emorCileba, fexqveS edeba... `onisem Sexeda mamas, romlis winaSec mTeli xeoba T a v s ixrida~ (a. yazb.). T a v s gamoaCens igivea, rac Tavs gamoiCens. `aba, Sen ici, Tu ar Segvarcxven, T a v s gamoaCen da gamogvaCeno!~ (akaki). Sdr.: T a v s gamoiCens gadat. Tavs isaxelebs, saxels moixveWs... `Tqven SemTxveva geZlevaT, rom T a v i gamoiCinoT vaJkacobiT~ (a. yazb.) (qegl). am rigisaa T a v s avlens, T a v s gamoyofs, T a v s waradgens da sxv. ase rom, pirdapiri obieqtis fardi refleqsuri nacvalsaxelis Sewyobis SemTxvevaSi, ukuqceviTobis mniSvnelobis gamoxatva gardamaval zmnaSi i- prefiqsis mqoneblobis gareSec SeiZleba.

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aseve, medialuri, subieqtis sazRvrebSi Caketili mniSvneloba SeiZleba gadmoices aramedialuri zmnebis meSveobiTac. magaliTad, rigi gardamavali zmna ixmareba rogorc relatiuri, aseve absoluturi mniSvnelobiTac. relatiuri zmnis absoluturad warmodgena sintaqsis (valentobis) cvlas ukavSirdeba: wer-s _ 1. `eqimi ... sxvadasxva wamlebs werda~ (l. ardaz.). Sdr.: 3. (mxolod nakvTTa awmyos wyebaSi) Txzavs l i t e r a t u r u l n a w a r m o e b e b s . winaTac vwerdi, ra Tqma unda, magram es iyo pirveli nawarmoebi, romelic imdenad momwonda, rom gavbede mecada bedi (W. lomT.) (qegl). wer-s nawarmoebs > wers `saerTod wers, mweralia~. xatav-s 1. rasme gamosaxavs ferebis an xazebis saSualebiT, _ qmnis (suraTs), akeTebs (naxats). Sdr.: [arsakiZe] ukeT xatavs, vidre aSenebs (k. gams.) (qegl). am konteqstis mixedviT xatavs da aSenebs absoluturi mniSvnelobisaa: xatavs (saerTod); aSenebs (saerTod): xatavs s u r a T s > xatavs (saerTod) aSenebs S e n o b a s > aSenebs (saerTod). anaTeb-s : s a m o T x e s a c aqedamve eg anaTebda (ilia). Sdr.: Tqven iciT, rom qveyanazed maSin ufro Tbila, roca mze anaTebs (gog.). anaTebs s a m o T x e s > anaTebs (saerTod)... gardamaval zmnaTa SesityvebaSi momxdari struqturuli cvlilebebis, kerZod, pirdapiri obieqtis eliminaciis Sedegad zmnam medialuri mniSvneloba SeiZina. i- prefiqsiani vnebiTis modelis rig zmnas medialuri mniSvneloba udasturdeba. aseT zmnebad b. jorbenaZe asaxelebs iqeqeba, ikenkeba, iqafeba, icremleba da misT. da aRniSnavs: `es zmnebi funqciurad `saSual~ formebs uaxlovdebiano~ (jorbenaZe, 1971, 158). igive avtori am zmnebs ukve sxvagan (b. jorbenaZe, 1983, 142) ukuqceviT zmnebad ganixilavs. es sapirispiro ganmartebani faqtobriv viTarebas asaxavs. saSuali gvaris medioaqtiuri formebi Sinaarsobrivad sxva enebSic (mag. rusulSi) Znelad ganirCevian refleqsivebisgan. subieqturi piri am rigis zmnebSi TviTmoqmedi piria, magram misi moqmedeba subieqtis sazRvrebSia

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moqceuli, pirdapir obieqtze mimarTebas (rac advilad sagulisxmebelia) ar iTvaliswinebs: iqeqeba, ikenkeba (s a e r T o d ). Sdr.: iqeqeb-a (mxolod nakvTa awmyos wyebaSi). 1. iqeqavs, ifxans. jagebSi narCita ijda da iqeqeboda (T. razik.) (qegl). gardamavali zmniT gadmocemul qeglis am ganmartebaSi iqeqeba _ i q e q a v s , ifxans, pirdapir obieqtze miTiTeba ar gvaqvs, Tumca sxva msgavsi formebis ganmartebisas sagulvebeli pirdapiri obieqti Tavs iCens xolme: ibertyeb-a ... 1. vneb. b e r t y a v s zmnisa _ bertyaven; bertyva SeiZleba... 2. (mxolod nakvTTa awmyos wyebaSi) vneb. bertyviT icilebs (m t v e r s , wylis w v e T e b s da misT.) (qegl). zemoTqmulis mixedviT, vfiqrobT, rom unda Sejerdes qarTul gramatikul literaturaSi ukuqceviTebad moazrebul zmnebSi gamovlenili gansxvavebuli _ refleqsuri, medialuri da a.S. mniSvnelobebi da sakuTriv refleqsuri mniSvnelobis matarebeli zmnebi sxvaTagan gamocalkevdes. refleqsuri mimarTeba gulisxmobs medialur mniSvnelobasac, magram ara piriqiT: medialuri mniSvneloba refleqsur mimarTebas mxolod refleqsiis farTo gagebiT gulisxmobs (ix. filosof. leqsik.). ukuqceviT formaSi imaleba `Tavs imalavs; Tavis Tavs malavs~ subieqti da obieqti erT pirad, Tavis Tavze moqmed subieqtad aris Serwymuli, erTgvarad aqtiuricaa da pasiuric; es moqmedeba, bunebrivia, sakuTari Tavis irgvliv trialebs, e.i. medialuricaa da arsebiTad daiyvaneba subieqtis mdgomareobis garegnul gamoxatvaze, Sdr.: ibnideb-a ... cnobierebis dakargvamde midis, guli uRondeba (Zlieri gancdis gamo); bruvdeba (sunisagan...). liza ... wamdauwum ibnideboda, iqnevda xelsa da fexs, abrialebda Tvalebs (ek. gab.) igangleb-a ... mTlianad isvreba (fqvilSi, bumbulSi, mtverSi...), titveli bavSvebi mtverSi iganglebian (`axalg. komunisti~) igudeb-a ... sunTqva ekvris; ixuTeba; ixrCoba. uceb mixvda, rom Tavisi xeli aqvs yelSi waWerili, myisve daapirebs moiSo-

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ros, magram dro gadis da ara Tu SeRavaTi eZleva, aramed ufro igudeba (r. gvet.) (qegl)... saSuali gvaris i- prefiqsian iglovs, iRimis, icinis da msgavsi formebis medialuri mniSvneloba sadavo araa; subieqti TviTon ganicdis zmniT gamoxatul moqmedebas, magram refleqsuroba zemoT moyvanili gagebiT am zmnaTa mniSvnelobaSi ar ikiTxeba, gvaqvs subieqtis Sinagani mdgomareobis cvlileba, rogorc refleqsireba garesamyaroseuli faqtorebisa; es mdgomareoba SeiZleba subieqtis gareTac gavides, rac saTanado konteqstebSic Cans: i-glov-s is i-glov-s is mas... `qistni joyolas igloven~ (r. erisT.). icini-s ... sicili aqvs atexili, _ ecineba... vicini, rodesac gamexardeba rame (i. gogeb.) ... am dRes velodi, moveswar! vicini, aRar vtiri me (akaki) ... (qegl). IV. 4.4.3. ukuqceviTobis mniSvnelobisaTvis. Cven ukve vimsjeleT CvenSi arsebul ukuqceviTobis `farTo~ gagebaze, romelic iTavsebs rogorc refleqsuri, aseve medialuri mniSvnelobis matarebel zmnebs da aRvniSneT, rom refleqsuri mniSvneloba unda gamocalkevdes, radgan isini erTmaneTs ar faraven. ukuqceviTobis mniSvnelobaSi arsebiTia subieqtis r e f l e q s u r i m i m a r T e b a T a v i s T a v z e da ara sxvaze. enobriv sinamdvileSi `Tavis Tavze mimarTeba~ SeiZleba gamovlindes zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedebis ukuqcevadobiT `subieqtidan subieqtze~ rogorc gardamaval, aseve gardauval zmnebSi. gardamaval zmnebSi refleqsuri mimarTeba `Tavis Tavze~, gramatikulad saTaviso qcevis formebiT realizdeba; a. SaniZe saTaviso qcevis formaTa xmarebis ramdenime SemTxvevas asaxelebs: a. rodesac subieqti T a v i s s x e u l z e an T a v i s s x e u l i s n a w i l e b z e moqmedebs: t a n i daibana, T a v i moifxana, T v a l e b i amoiwminda, y u r i gamoiCxrika, k b i l i moicvala da a.S. b. rodesac obieqtad dasaxelebulia Tavsaxuravi samkauli, tanisamosi (an misi nawili) an fexsacmeli, Tu iaraRi, romelic tanze aqvs kacs: q u d i daixura, p e r a n g i Caicva (an qalamani

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Caicva), p a l t o moisxa, s a r t y e l i Seirtya, k a l T e b i aikvalTa da a.S. g. rodesac moqmedeba subieqtisTvis aris daniSnuli an misken aris mimarTuli: f u l i isesxa, Sdr.: fuli asesxa; w i g n i iTxova, Sdr.: wigni aTxova; q o n e b a Caibara, Sdr.: qoneba Caabara da a.S. (a.SaniZe) CamoTvlilia sxva SemTxvevebic: subieqtis moqmedeba an moqmedebis Sedegi yvelgan subieqtze, subieqtisTvis an subieqtisken aris mimarTuli. ukuqceviTobis mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa pirveli SemTxveva: t a n i daibana, T a v i moifxana ... subieqti aq moqmedebs Tavis Tavze, ufro zustad, Tavis nawilze, magram es nawili (t a n i , T a v i ...) gramatikulad pirdapiri obieqtia. refleqsuri mimarTeba ki igiveobas gulisxmobs: a da b sagani erTmaneTis igiveobrivia mxolod maSin, rodesac a-s aqvs yvela is Tviseba, romelic aqvs b-s da b-s aqvs yvela is Tviseba, romelic aqvs a-s. frazaSi biWma T a v i moifxana subieqti (biWi) da pirdapiri obieqti (Tavi) ar arian igiveobrivi arc leqsikurad, arc gramatikulad, arc referencialurad. aseT SesityvebebSi mxolod n a w i l o b r i v i r e f l e q s i v i z a c i a gvaqvs. s r u l i r e f l e q s i v i z a c i a dasturdeba gardamaval sasubieqto qcevis formaTa iseT SesityvebaSi, sadac subieqtisa da pirdapiri obieqtis referencialuri igiveoba gvaqvs; aseT SemTxvevebSi pirdapiri obieqtis adgils ikavebs III piris ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli `Tavi~, romelic ganzogadebulia III pirisTvis. subieqti da pirdapiri obieqti aseT poziciaSi erTdrulad aqtiuric aris da pasiuric: T a v i moikla... gardauval zmnebSi subieqtis refleqsuri mimarTeba Tavis TavTan realizebulia i-niani vnebiTis formaTa erT nawilSi, kerZod, im nawilSi, romelTa zedapiruli subieqti bazisuri pirdapiri obieqtis transformia da romelTa konstruqciaSi bazisuri subieqti ar aRdgeba: imaleba i s (= T a v i s T a v s malavs) ... amdenad, Cveni azriT, u k u q c e v i T o b a qarTulSi unda ganisazRvros s u b i e q t i s m i e r g a m o x a t u l i m o q m e d e b i s u k u q c e v a d o b i T T a v i s T a v z e , rogorc pirdapir obieqt-

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ze. amasTan, aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens subieqtsa da am obieqts Soris sruli referencialuri identurobis Cveneba. am mimdevrobiT ganvixilavT ukuqceviTobis gamovlenas iprefiqsian zmnebSi: gardamaval saTaviso qcevis, iniani vnebiTebisa da medialur i- prefiqsian zmnaTa jgufebSi. IV. 4.4.4. ukuqceviToba pirian gardamaval zmnebSi a) nawilobrivi, arasruli refleqsivizacia ukuqceviTobis zemoT dasaxelebuli mocemulobidan gamomdinare sinqroniul doneze gamoiricxeba yvela gardamavali sasubieqto (saTaviso) qcevis zmnebis ukuqceviTebad kvalifikacia. sasubieqto qceva gamoixateba maSin, roca subieqtis moqmedeba subieqtisTvisaa daniSnuli (saxli aiSena, kuTxe moiwyo), misken aris mimarTuli (toti moiwoda, xeli Cemken moiSvira...), an kidev subieqtzevea damarTuli (Tavi moifxana, Tma SeiReba...). subieqtis ukuqcevadoba Tavis Tavze, rogorc pirdapir obieqtze, mxolod am bolo SemTxvevaSia gamoxatuli, magram am tipis magaliTebSi daculi ar aris refleqsuri mimarTebis realizaciisaTvis aucilebeli piroba _ subieqtsa da obieqts Soris sruli referencialuri identuroba. T a v i moifxana, f e x i iRrZo, m u x l i daiSava, T m a gaikriWa, p i r i gaiparsa, T m a daivarcxna ... da msgavsi Sesityvebebi subieqtisa da pirdapiri obieqtis, rogorc mTelisa da nawilis, mxolod parcialur identurobas afiqsireben. aq subieqti moqmedebs ara `Tavis Tavze~, aramed `Tavisze~ da es Tavisi gramatikulad pirdapiri obieqtia (pirdapiri damateba). amgvar myar SesityvebebSi, roca pirdapir obieqtad somaturi elementebia warmodgenili da Sesityvebis mniSvnelobac Semadgeneli sityvebis mniSvnelobaTa jamidan gamoiyvaneba, nawilobrivi, arasruli refleqsivizaciaa gamoxatuli. somaturobieqtian SesityvebaSi xSirad dasturdeba Sesityvebis azrobrivi struqturis gardaqmnac (anu gadataniToba) dasturdeba, Sdr.: fexs moitexs pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT _ patara tatom fexi moitexa _ da gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT: gzaSi dabrkoldeba, Seferxdeba. spiridons ki eswrafeboda dedis naxva da javri mo-

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sdioda, _ matarebelma raRa maincdamainc dRes moitexa fexio (e. ninoS.) (qegl). f e x s iTrevs Cveulebrivi mniSvnelobiT rom ixmarebodes, amas unda niSnavdes: `imdenad nela da undomod midis, rom nabijis gadadgmisas fexis zeviT aweva ezareba da TreviT miaqvs~ (Sdr. vaJa: `cal mxars miwaze miiTrevs~); magram f e x s iTrevs amgvari `neli siarulis~ aRmniSvneli gamoTqma araa, aramed raime saqmianobaSi ganzrax dagvianebis aRsaniSnavad iyeneben: `iagora yovelTvis f e x s iTrevda Sin wasvlaze~ (r. inan.)... f e x s iTrevs _ gamoTqmisaTvis Cveulebrivia swored gadataniTi xmareba (b. foCxua). f e x s iTrevs agvianebs, nela moqmedebs (qegl). f e x s iTrevs Tandayolili naklis an dazianebis SemTxvevaSi cali fexis SezRudul moZraobasac aRniSnavs. f e x s moikidebs 1. fexs daimagrebs, fexi ar ausxlteba. kalatozebic daiZrnen adgilidan, magram verc erTma [ver] moikida svel xaraCoze f e x i (k. gams.) 2. gadat. damkvidrdeba, ganmtkicdeba, damagrdeba. yvelaze adre sparselebma f e x i somxeTSi moikides (saq. ist.) || gaZlebs barSi [Semodgomaze]... Tovls f e x i ver moukidnia (i. gogeb.) k i s e r s moitexs, k i s e r i mostydeba. 1. waiqceva da rasme daiSavebs. `am wkvaramebSi k i s e r s moitexs kaci~ (n. lorTq.) 2. gadat. damarcxdeba, daiRupeba. vinc-ki gamomedevneba da gadmodgams Cemken fexso... Tavad k i s e r s moitexso (S. mRvim.)... (qegl). T a v s moifxans, k i s e r s moifxans gadat. Cafiqrdeba, daRondeba, sagonebelSi Cavardeba. glexkacebi iq darCnen kidev ramdenime xani, SesCivles erTmaneTs TavianT mdgomareobaze, moifxanes T a v e b i da daiSalnen (a. yazb.) (qegl, V); xemwifem k i s e r i moifxana, ra qnas, rogor moiSoros mRvdeli Tavidan?~ (T. razik.) (T. saxokia)... am rigis idiomebi T a v s moifxans, k i s e r s moifxans, m x r e b s aiCeCavs da a.S. kinesikuri paralingvizmebia da maT TavianTi garkveuli semantika aqvT.

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SeniSvna:

somaturobieqtian SesityvebebSi mniSvnelobaTa cvlilebis mizezi SeiZleba sxvadasxva iyos, mag.: g u l s itexs gadat. guls icruebs, imeds kargavs, sasowarkveTilebaSi vardeba, guli ufuWdeba..., e n a s itexs gadat. (sworad) warmoTqmas eCveva, laparakSi iwafeba... da msgavsi Sesityvebebi mxolod gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba. pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT *g u l s itexs, *e n a s itexs azrobrivad Seuxamebadi gamoTqmebia, arc g u l i , arc e n a fizikurad gatexas ar eqvemdebareba, texadi ar aris (Sdr., Tavs itexs, fexs itexs...) da am gamoTqmebis arseboba mxolod gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT aris gamarTlebuli. Tu g u l s itexs `guli ufuWdeba~ gamoTqmis arseboba texs zmnis Tanamdevi uaryofiTi konotaciiT (fexs itexs, kisers itexs) aris gamarTlebuli, e n a s itexs `laparakSi iwafeba~ gamoTqmis marTebuloba amave texs zmnis dadebiTi konotaciis gamomxatveli gamoTqmebiT aris gapirobebuli, Sdr.: y a m i r s (a x o s ) gatexs dauxvnel miwas moxnavs... s i c x i s, s i c i v i s, z a m T r i s... gatexa sicxis, sicivis, zamTris... Zalian Sesusteba ... qegl...

sxva gamoTqmebSi mniSvnelobaTa cvlilebis sxva mizezebi daiZebneba. somaturobieqtiani gardamavali i- prefiqsiani zmnuri Sesityvebebis gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT xmarebas, idiomebad gadaazrianebas Tan axlavs SesityvebebSi pirdapiri obieqtis waSla, rac am gamoTqmaTa ganmmartveli zmnebis Cvenebis mixedviTac aSkaraa. es ganmartebebi ZiriTadad gardauvali zmnebiT aris gadmocemuli, Sdr.: f e x s moitexs > `dabrkoldeba, Seferxdeba~ f e x s iTrevs > `agvianebs; nela moqmedebs~ f e x s moikidebs > `damkvidrdeba; damagrdeba~ k i s e r s moitexs > `damarcxdeba; daiRupeba~ T a v s , k i s e r s moifxans > `daRondeba; sagonebelSi Cavardeba~

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g u l s moicems > `gambedaoba moemateba; gamxnevdeba~ g o n s moicems > `gonebaSi Cavardeba, gons mova~ W k u a s moicems > `Wkviani gaxdeba; WkuaSi Cavardeba~ m u x l s moidreks > `muxlebze dadgeba; daiCoqebs~... qeglSi am da msgavs gamoTqmebTan damowmebuli paraleluri gardamavalzmniani ganmartebebi arsebiTad sinonimuri mniSvnelobis gamoTqmebia, identuri an sxva (ZiriTadad isev somaturi) pirdapiri obieqtiT: f e x s moidgams `damkvidrdeba, ganmtkicdeba, gamagrdeba~, || fexs ikidebs w e l s moiwyvets `Zalian gairjeba~ || bevrs iSromebs k i s e r s moigrexs `damarcxdeba~, || `kisers moitexs~ g u l s moifxans `guls moijerebs; guls moioxebs~ g u l s moijerebs `dakmayofildeba sruliad (rameTi);~ || `raime moTxovnilebas, survils Seisrulebs` s u l s moibrunebs `suls moiTqvams; Seisvenebs~ q e d s moidreks `damorCildeba; qeds moixris~ W k u a s iswavlis `gonieri, Wkviani gaxdeba, WkuaSi Cavardeba~, moWkviandeba || Wkuas moikrebs da a.S. gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT gadaazrianebul SesityvebaSi somatur pirdapir obieqtze damarTuli moqmedeba ganzogadebulia da mTlian pirovnebas moicavs, amitom es konkretuli somatomebi aseT SemTxvevebSi azrobrivad ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxelis funqciiT warmogvidgeba; pirobiTad, am Sesityvebebs azrobrivi refleqsivebi SeiZleba vuwodoT. pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT ki somaturobieqtiani Sesityveba faqts afiqsirebs: f e x s moitexs, f e x s iTrevs, m u x l s moidreks, T a v s ixris... a r a s r u l i r e f l e q s i v e b i a. refleqsuri nacvalsaxelis funqciiT dasturdeba q e d i `kiseri~ gamoTqmaSi q e d i s moxra `damorCileba, q e d i s modreka,~ winaaRmdegobis Sewyveta: `Tqven kargad myvandeT, Torem male mteri mogikvdeT, male me i jor-zaqara movtexo da Tqven win q e d i movaxrevino (s. mgalob.) (al. oniani), Sdr.: T a v s ixris gadat. emorCileba, fexqveS egeba. ase gvaqvs sxva gamoTqmebSic:

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f e x s ikidebs... 1. fexs imagrebs, fexi ar usxlteba, Sdr.: 2. gadat. mkvidrdeba, myardeba, mtkicdeba... x e l e b s iboWavs gadat. moqmedebis saSualebas ispobs, _ Tavs izRudavs (qegl). gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT xmarebul SesityvebebSi somatur pirdapir obieqtTa konkretuli mniSvnelobebi waiSleba. ukve aRvniSneT, rom zogjer somaturi pirdapiri damateba Sesityvebidan gadis. yvela somaturobieqtiani sasubieqto qcevis gardamavali zmna ar iRebs gadataniT mniSvnelobas da oden pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba; aseTi zmnebia: isress, moisress (x e l e b s , x e l i s g u l s , saxes, T v a l e b s ), iwiwknis, moiwiwknis ... (x o r c s , q o C o r s , w v e r s ...), iRrecs, moiRrecs ... (k i s e r s , T a v s ...), iWmuxnis, moiWmuxnis... (S u b l s , w a r b e b s , s a x e s ), iparsavs (p i r s , T m a s , w v e r s ...), ivarcxnis (T m a s , w v e r s ), ifSvnets (x e l e b s , T v a l e b s ), iRerebs (y e l s ), icvlis (k b i l e b s ), ixocavs (x e l e b s , p i r s , c x v i r s ), iglejs (x o r c e b s , T m a s ) da sxv. subieqtis moqmedeba `miiqceva~ pirdapir obieqtze, rogorc missave nawilze da am `miqcevis~ Sedegi subieqtiTve aisaxeba: vinc p i r i , T m a , w v e r i gaiparsa aris p i r - , T m a - , w v e r g a p a r s u l i , vinc y e l i moiRera _ y e l m o R e r i l i da a.S. moqmedebiTi gvaris saobieqto mimReobis win dasmuli anu fuZesTan Serwymuli pirdapiri obieqti gardamaval saobieqto mimReobas funqciurad sasubieqto mimReobad aqcevs: p i r g a p a r s u l i `visac piri gaparses~, an `vinc piri gaiparsa~, y e l m o R e r i l i `vinc yeli moiRera~ da a.S. (arn. Ciqobava, ek. osiZe,..). am rigis struqturuli cvlileba zmnebSic SeiZleba ganxorcieldes. dasaxelebuli somaturobieqtiani gardamavali zmnebidan zogierT SemTxvevaSi (rCeuli moqmedebis aRniSvnisas) pirdapiri damatebis xmareba SesityvebaSi aucileblobas aRar warmoadgens: is TavisTavad igulisxmeba, mag.: gaparsva (p i r i s , w v e r i s ), morTxma (f e x i s ), davarcxna (T m i s , w v e r i s )... da xdeba pirdapiri damatebis eliminacia: iparsavs i s , ivarcxnis i s ... eliminacia aseT SesityvebaSi moulodneli ar aris qarTulisaTvis, ix.:

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moiCqmet-s... mosCqmets Tavisas. bevrjer mwared mouCqmetia darias _ Tavisi xorci (e. ninoS.) (qegl). Sdr.: iCqmet-s... Cqmets Tavisas. [tasiam] xelze iCqmita (l. qiaC.) moiCqmets xorcs, *xels > iCqmets xelze moiSiSvleb-s... moiSiSvlebs Tavisas, _ SiSvels gaixdis, gaiSiSvlebs. `besiam moiSiSvla is adgili..., romelic misTvis daeWra tyvias~ (e. ninoS.), Sdr.: `aba moiSiSvle im alagas, sadac gaqvs dakodili~ (e. ninoS.). moiSiSvla is (adgili) > moiSiSvla im alagas SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damatebis poziciaSi adgilis garemoeba Caenacvla. moiyrueb-s ... 1. yurs moiyruebs ... 2. (mxolod nakvTTa awmyos wyebaSi) ... odnav yrua (qegl) moiyruebs yurs > moiyruebs daimunjeb-s e n a s , p i r s : aRe p i r i RvTis saqebrad, nu gaimunjeo (guram..). meti araferi mkiTxa da e n a daimunja (`mnaTobi~, 1972, 1, 42). Sevityov da mas nu vetyviT, davidumoT, davimunjoT (arC., I, 14, 3)... daimunjebs enas, pirs > daimunjebs b) sruli refleqsivizacia subieqtis moqmedeba Tavis Tavze, rogorc pirdapir obieqtze mkafiod gamoxatulia im sasubieqto qcevis zmnebSi, romelTa SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damatebis pozicia Sevsebulia `Tavi~ ukuqceviTi (an sxva sinonimuri) nacvalsaxeliT, aseT SemTxvevebSi daculia subieqtisa da pirdapiri obieqtis sruli referencialuri identurobis pirobac da, Sesabamisad, zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedebis sruli refleqsivizacia gvaqvs, kombinirebulad gamoixateba aqtiur-pasiuri moqmedeba (l. tenieri). es Sesityvebebia: T a v s iklavs, T a v s irCens, T a v s izRvevs, T a v s izRudavs, T a v s igdebs, T a v s imtvrevs, T a v s irTobs, T a v s ircxvens, T a v s idebs, T a v s ikavebs, T a v s imaxinjebs, T a v s itanjavs, T a v s itkivebs, T a v s iqebs, T a v s icxelebs, T a v s gaitans, T a v s moidreks da kidev bevri sxva. Sdr.:

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T a v s igdebs ... uwesod iqceva, arasakadriss bedavs, Tavxedobs. ra T a v s vigdeb, ra mayvirebs ase mwared (akaki)... T a v s igdebs (gansacdelSi) ... (gansacdelSi) vardeba Tavisive mizeziT (daufiqreblobiT da sxv.) `ra gaWirveba gadga amisTana, rom gansacdelSi igdebdi T a v s a ?~ (vaJa) ... T a v s idebs 1. Tavs debs; Zalian did gulmodginebas iCens, metad zrunavs (vinmesTvis an ramesTvis); esarCleba (visme). me misTvis T a v s videb, vaqeb da vadideb (d. guram.). 2. didi warmodgena aqvs Tavis Tavze, _ Tavi moaqvs, yoyoCobs. T a v s idebda, sul indauriviT ifxoreboda (T. razik.) T a v s imtvrevs gadat. Zalian bevrs fiqrobs (raime Znelad gadasawyvet sakiTxze) _ Tavs itexs. orive mxare am amocanaze imtvrevda T a v e b s (S. aragv.)... T a v s ikavebs 1. Tavs imagrebs, wonasworobas icavs, _ Tavs iWers. melqisedeki T a v s Zlivs ikavebda jorze (k. gams.). || gadat. moTminebas ar kargavs. aenTo babale, gabrazda, magram Tavs mainc ikavebda (i. gedev.)... T a v s iklavs 1. sicocxles ispobs [g. uiSvili] ver itans Tavmoyvareobis Selaxvas ... da Sin dabrunebis Semdeg T a v s iklavs (g. qiq.). 2. gadat. Zalian unda, didi survili aqvs risame, Zalian cdilobs, daJinebiT moiTxovs rasme. Seni gulisTvis T a v s iklavs, sisxls da cremls afrqvevs yvelao (vaJa) ... T a v s imarTlebs... Tavis gamarTlebas cdilobs (ecdeba)... `riT gindaT imarTloT Tavi~ (akaki)... T a v s imSvidebs... Tavs inugeSebs; wynardeba, mSviddeba... goderZi Tavs Zlivs imSvidebs (S. dad.)... sia aseTi Sesityvebebisa SeiZleba gagrZeldes: T a v s irTobs, T a v s irCens, T a v s isaxelebs, T a v s iRupavs, T a v s iqcevs da a.S... zogjer `Tav~ ukuqceviT nacvalsaxels SesityvebaSi SeiZleba `guli~ Seenacvlos mniSvnelobis Seucvlelad: g u l s (T a v s ) imSvidebs... Tavs inugeSebs; wynardeba, mSviddeba. ase vfiqrobdiT Cvena da vimSvidebdiT g u l s a (n. lom.). goderZi T a v s Zlivs imSvidebda (S. dad.).

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T a v s (g u l s ) iborotebs... Zlier dardobs, guls ixeTqs. qali gacruebuli imedebiT gatacebuli iborotebda T a v s (v. barn.). T a v s (g u l s ) imxnevebs.. Tavis Tavs amxnevebs, _ Tavs inugeSebs. xvale dRevandels unda sjobdes... am imediT g u l s imxnevebs adamiani (ilia) (qegl). is imxnevebda T a v s (ant. furc.)... Cveulebriv, am somatomebis (`Tavi~, `guli~) SenacvlebiT SesityvebaTa mniSvnelobac icvleba: g u l s ixeTqavs... Zalian eSinia risame, Zlier ganicdis rasme T a v s ixeTqavs gadat. Zalian bevrs fiqrobs... Sesityvebas zogjer refleqsuri nacvalsaxelic tovebs: Tavs inugeSebs || inugeSebs: inugeSebda T a v s gogla (S. aragv.). Sdr., Tu ver ixerxa, ra vuyoT? amiT vinugeSeb, rom cudad jdomas cudad Sroma sjobia (ilia); icoda, ra tkiviliT imtkivneulos, ra sixaruliT inugeSos (ilia). moiavadmyofeb-s ... 1. Tavs moiavadmyofebs, Tavs avadmyofad moaCvenebs; avadmyofobas moigonebs. gamwyralma qalma daiTxova qala-biWa da T a v i moiavadmyofa (zRap.). 2. (mxolod nakvTTa awmyos wyebaSi)... odnav avad aris; zogjer avadmyofobs. Tavs moiavadmyofebs > || moiavadmyofebs. moibriyveb-s ... 1. Tavs moibriyvebs, Tavs briyvad moaCvenebs; briyvobas moigonebs. Tavi moubriyvebia. _ Tu-ki aqe sadme pirSi TqmisaTvis, T a v s moibriyvebs? (i. maCab. Targm.). 2. (mxolod nakvTTa awmyos wyebaSi)... odnav briyvia, _ moisulelebs. Tavs moibriyveba > || moibriyvebs moisuleleb-s ... 1. Tavs moisulelebs, Tavs sulelad moaCvenebs. `exla ki gTxovT, nu moisulelebT T a v s !~ (q. baqr. Targm.). 2. (mxolod nakvTTa awmyos wyebaSi)... cota sulelia, _ mosuleloa. (qegl). Tavs moisulelebs > moisulelebs

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`Tavi~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxelis gareSe inugeSebs da msgavsi yalibis erTvalentiani variantebi (iwuxebs, isulelebs, icocxlebs) saSuali gvaris medioaqtiur zmnaTa naklul paradigmas avseben: awmy. nugeSob-s, myof. i-nugeSeb-s, wyvet. i-nugeS-a m a n cocxlob-s i-cocxleb-s i-cocxl-a m a n Sdr.: didxans veRar vicocxleb (vaJa), magram: erT dResac ar vicocxlebdi T a v s (ant. furc.). ixarebs T a v s : `T a v s aseTzed nu ixareb, bolos inandeo~ (guram. 161, 4), magram: ixarebs (myofadi x a r o b s zmnisa) da sxv. saSuali gvaris zmnebis naklul paradigmaTa Semavsebeli i- prefiqsiani formebis gardamaval sasubieqto qcevis zmnaTagan warmomavloba Sesityvebidan pirdapiri obieqtis (damatebis) eliminaciiT samecniero literaturaSi erTgvarad sadavo sakiTxi gaxda. Tumca rigi faqti am debulebis marTebulobas uWers mxars. pirvel rigSi es SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damatebis gamotovebis faqtia, rac dasturdeba rogorc axal, aseve Zvel qarTulSic. SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damatebis gamotovebas garkveuli mizezebic eZebneba. erT-erTi mizezia tavtologia; SeiniSneba tavtologiis orgvari SemTxveva: 1. roca gardamavalzmnian SesityvebaSi pirdapir obieqtad warmodgenilia ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli `T a v i~, e.i. subieqti funqciurad identuria pirdapiri damatebisa. `T a v i~ ukuqceviT nacvalsaxels SeiZleba Seenacvlos `s u l i~ an adamianis sxeulis nawilis aRmniSvneli sxva sityva. axal qarTulSi aseTi calkeuli faqtebis Sesaxeb zemoT gvqonda msjeloba. Zveli qarTulidanac davimowmebT oriode magaliTs: ilmobs T a v s > ilmobs muclisa tkivili mizez-idgas da T a v i ilmos (m. sw. 243,3) Sdr.: ilmo dedakacman erTsa Sina dResa (O. es. 66,8) aRimsTobs s u l s > aRimsTobs

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aRvimsTob Sendami s u l s a Cemsa (fs. 62 2) Sdr.: RmerTo Cemo, Sendami aRvimsTob (fs. 62 2)... 2. roca gardamaval zmnasa da pirdapir damatebas saerTo amosavali fuZe aqvs d a i Z i n e b s Z i l s > daiZinebs daiZines Z i l i maTi (fs. 75 6) Sdr.: maSin daiZina stefane ZiliTa sulneliTa (sin. 61, 8) i l o c a v s l o c v a s > ilocavs da viTarca ese l o c v a iloca iuda, SeiZra adgili igi (sin. 242,4) Sdr.: xolo me vilocevd Sendami (fs. 68 14)... dasaxelebul faqtebs sxvagvari _ ara pirdapiri damatebis dakargvis, aramed gaCenis _ kvalifikaciac eZleva. am Tvalsazriss Tavisi logika da faqtobrivi dasabuTebac axlavs (l. nozaZe...) aqvs Tu ara raime, sxva gardamaval zmnaTagan gasxvavebuli, statusi sasubieqto qcevis im formebs, romelTac SesityvebaSi pirdapiri damatebis poziciaSi subieqtis identuri `Tavi~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli an masTan gaTanabrebuli sxva romelime somaturi saxeli udgas? T a v s inugeSebs, T a v s imSevs, T a v s imxnevebs, T a v s irCens, T a v s irwmunebs... SesityvebaTa saopozicio wyvilebad neitraluri (saarviso) qcevis subieqtis araidenturi _ pirdapiri damatebis mqone formebi gvevlineba: anugeSebs, amxnevebs, arCens, arwmunebs (sxvas) ... T a v s inugeSebs... anugeSebs, nugeSs aZlevs Tavis Tavs _ anugeSebs, nugeSs aZlevs T a v s imSevs... amSevs Tavis Tavs _ amSevs, mSiers amyofebs T a v s (g u l s ) imxnevebs... Tavis Tavs amxnevebs _ amxnevebs mxnes xdis, mxneobas matebs T a v s irCens ... TviTon inaxavs Tavis Tavs ... (qegl) _ arCens inaxavs, acxovrebs (visme)...

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T a v s inugeSebs da anugeSebs erTmaneTs upirispirdebian rogorc sasubieqto da neitraluri qcevisa (iSenebs da aSenebs) da aseve, rogorc ukuqceviTi da araukuqceviTi mniSvnelobis formebi; aqedan qceva gramatikulad, saTanado morfologiuri markeriT (sasubieqto i-) da sintaqsuri gamoxatulebiT (valenturi modeli) xasiaTdeba. ukuqceviTobas specialuri gramatikuli markeri ar uCans: i- prefiqsi pirdapiri damatebis subieqtisaken mimarTebas (kuTvnileba-daniSnulebas) afiqsirebs da ara subieqtisa da pirdapiri damatebis funqciur identurobas. ukuqceviTobis mniSvnelobas am rigis SesityvebebSi `Tavi~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli gamoxatavs da es rom asea, iqidanac Cans, rom ukuqceviToba neitraluri qcevis formebiTac SeiZleba gamoixatos, Tuki es formebi pirdapir damatebad `T a v i ~ ukuqceviT nacvalsaxels Seiwyobs: T a v s debs, T a v s gadadebs, T a v s aCvenebs, T a v s xris, T a v s wiravs, T a v s aCens, T a v s waagebs ... g) `Tavi~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli gardamavali zmnis neitraluri qcevis formaTa SesityvebebSi zogierTi aseTi Sesityveba adrec davasaxeleT; warmovadgenT kidev ramdenime maTgans qeglis mixedviT: T a v s gadadebs... Tavs dadebs, Tavs gaswiravs, Tavs ar dazogavs. qveyana Cvengan uxv dovlaTs moelis, unda gadavdoT T a v i (mix. mrevl.) T a v s gaswiravs... Tavs dadebs visime an risame sanacvlod, Tavs Seswiravs. netavi imas, vinaca moZmisTvis T a v i gaswira (vaJa) ... T a v s debs... Tavs swiravs (vinmesTvis, ramesTvis). `Sexede imas, visTvisac T a v s deb~ (akaki) (raimeze, rameSi) debs Tavs, ramed moaqvs, miaCnia Tavi, ereva. `egec naswavlebSi debs T a v s~ (i. gulis.). T a v s aCvenebs... imgvarad iqceva, rom SecdomaSi Seiyvanos vinme, _ TvalTmaqcobs ... (T a v s ) aCens... 2. dasanaxs xdis ... `nuRa moxval! Tavs uSvele, nu aCeno!~ (akaki)

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T a v s waagebs... daiRupeba (Tavisi mizeziT). `ra gaakeTe?~ _ `veraferi, batono, imis meti, rom T a v i c kinaRam wavage~ (barnov.) (qegl). neitraluri (saarviso) qcevis formebTan `T a v i ~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxelis Sewyoba pirdapir damatebad raodenobrivad ufro SezRudulia, vidre sasubieqto qcevis formebTan da es bunebrivicaa, sasubieqto qcevis Sinaarsi (subieqtisken mimarTeba) zmnisaTvis subieqtis identuri pirdapiri damatebis Sewyobis saukeTeso pirobaa. ganxilul orpiriani neitraluri qcevis formaTa `T a v i ~ pirdapirdamatebian Sesityvebebs da sasubieqto qcevis zmnaTa analogiur Sesityvebebs Tanmxvedri mniSvnelobebi aqvs: T a v s idebs 1. Tavs debs ... 2. didi warmodgena aqvs Tavis Tavze... q e d s , T a v s xris igivea, rac qeds, Tavs ixris... T a v s gamoaCens igivea, rac Tavs gamoiCens (qegl) ... ase rom, orpirian gardamaval sasubieqto qcevis zmnebSi refleqsuroba arsebiTad SesityvebebSi `T a v i ~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxelis gamovlenas ukavSirdeba. sasubieqto qcevis i- prefiqsi damatebiTi pirobaa ukuqceviTobis realizaciisaTvis (Sdr.: Tavs idebs || Tavs debs, Tavs ixris || Tavs xris...) iSeneb-s gardamavali sasubieqto qcevis formaa aSenebs zmnisa ... aSenebs Tavisas an TavisTvis ... Sdr.: imxneveb-s grdm. sub. qc. amxnevebs zmnisa _ amxnevebs Tavisas ... imxnevebs igivea, rac imxnevebs Tavs. inugeSeb-s ... igivea, rac Tavs inugeSebs ... (qegl). amdenad, iSenebs sasubieqto qcevis zmnaTagan imxnevebs (T a v s ), inugeSebs (T a v s ) tipis zmnebis calke klasad gamoyofis safuZveli ara sintaqsuri, aramed leqsikuri faqtori Cans. sintaqsurad brunvacvalebadi da pirgaurCeveli `T a v i ~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli i m x n e v e b s T a v s tipis SesityvebaSi pirda-

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piri damatebis adgils ikavebs da zmnasTan Sewyobili gamoxatavs subieqtisken mimarTebasac (saTaviso qceva) da subieqtTan identurobasac (ukuqceviToba): imxnevebs T a v i s a s = imxnevebs Tavis Tavs, inugeSebs T a v i s a s = inugeSebs Tavis Tavs, iwuxebs T a v i s a s = iwuxebs Tavis Tavs, guls... sintaqsuri damokidebuleba zmnasa da `T a v i ~ ukuqceviT nacvalsaxels Soris am rigis SesityvebebSi daxasiaTdeba rogorc urTierToba zmnasa da ra jgufis saxeliT gadmocemul pirdapir damatebas Soris: zmna marTavs rogorc subieqts, aseve pirdapir obieqts brunvaSi (is iklavs T a v s _ man moikla T a v i ), magram pirdapiri obieqti ar marTavs zmnis pirs, _ zmnis pirs marTavs mxolod subieqti da, Sesabamisad, T a v s i k l a v s struqturis Sesityveba mxolod erTi, subieqturi wyobiT iuRvlis (saTanado inversiiT III seriaSi). Tavisebureba gvaqvs mimReobis warmoebaSic: ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli Seerwymis mimReobis formas da obieqturi mimReobebi subieqturi mimReobis funqciiT gvevlinebian: Tavagdebuli _ vinc Tavi aigdo, TavSekavebuli _ visac Tavis Sekavebis unari aqvs; vinc Tavs ikavebs xolme, TavmoRerebuli _ visac Tavi aqvs moRerebuli, Tavmodrekili, TavmoZuebuli, TavmoWrili da a.S. (qegl). Serwyma xdeba masdarebSic: TavSekaveba ~Tavis Sekaveba~, TavSeyra, Tavminebeba da a.S. h. pauli aRniSnavs: winadadebaSi er hat sich gettet `man Tavi moikla~ qvemdebaris urTierToba damatebasTan srulad Seesabameba maT urTierTobas winadadebaSi er hat ihn gettet `man is mokla~. magram aq warmodgena moqmed subieqtsa da warmodgena obieqtze, romelzedac gadadis es moqmedeba, gamocalkevebulia erTmaneTisagan, maSin roca winadadebaSi er hat sich gettet es warmodgenebi erTmaneTs erwymis da ukuqceviTi zmna gamoxatavs subieqtSi Caketil process, Tumca es Serwyma funqciuria da ara formaluri (pauli, 1960, 326). es exeba qarTulsac. `Tavi~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli funqciurad erwymis subieqts da ara formalurad; formalurad is pirdapiri damatebaa. `Tavi~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxelis pirdapiri damatebis funqciiT xmareba ar Semoifargleba mxolod orvalentiani sasubieq-

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to qcevis zmnebiT. es nacvalsaxeli dasturdeba samvalentian zmnebTanac da miemarTeba rogorc subieqts, aseve irib obieqtsac. IV. 4.4.5. ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli sampirian gardamaval zmnebSi. `T a v i ~ ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeli da masTan gaTanabrebuli sxva somaturi saxelebi pirdapiri damatebis poziciaSi SeiZleba sampirian (neitralur da saobieqto qcevis) gardamaval zmnaTa SesityvebebSic Segvxvdes. subieqtsa da obieqtebs da Tavad obieqtebs Soris identurobis TvalsazrisiT Semdegi saxis mimarTeba dasturdeba: 1. subieqtisa da pirdapiri damatebis identuroba: T a v s aklavs, T a v s anacvalebs, T a v s anebebs, T a v s aRwevs, T a v s arTmevs, T a v s acodebs, T a v s uyadrebs, T v a l s usworebs, g u l s uxsnis, T v a l s umarTavs. 2. iribi damatebisa da pirdapiri damatebis identuroba: T a v s Wris, T a v s atkivebs, T a v s abams, T a v s uqonavs, g u l s ukodavs, T v a l e b s sTxris, g u l s unaTebs, g u l s umagrebs, g u l s utexs da sxv. subieqtisa da pirdapiri damatebis identurobis ramdenime ilustracia: T a v s aklavs _ 1. vinmesTan brZolaSi kvdeba. Tavs swiravs. samSoblos mters Tavs aklavs ... 2. TavgamodebiT akeTebs (rasme) T a v s anacvalebs _ 1. Seswiravs, visime gulisTvis gadasdebs (Tavs, adamianobas, sicocxles...) ... `T a v s vanacvaleb Sens mzesa, oRond wamomye colada!~ (r. erisT.) T a v s anebebs _ tovebs, Sordeba (rasme), wyvets (raime saqmianobas), miatovebs ... moZRvari ... Tavis mowafes sikvdilis Semdegac T a v s ar anebebda (a. yazb.) T a v s aRwevs _ gadaurCeba rasme, Tavidan aicdens (rasme). Tavs aRwevs gansacdels. T a v s uyadrebs _ Tavis Tavis Rirsad, tolad Tvlis, miiCnevs. arwivi yornebs T a v s ar uyadrebda (vaJa) T v a l s usworebs _ pirdapir ucqeris. iaraRis brWyvials T v a l s ver vusworebdi, mwvavda (vaJa) ...

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g u l s uxsnis _ gulis nadebs umJRavnebs, gulis Tqmas uziarebs, mxolod didebTan ver axerxeben ymawvilebi sityva-pasuxs da g u l s ar uxsnian maT (akaki) (qegl). CamoTvlil sampirian SesityvebaTa ganmmartveli frazebi garkveulwilad afiqsirebs subieqtisa da pirdapiri damatebis warmodgenaTa subieqtSi Serwymis Sedegad ganxorcielebul cvlilebebs SesityvebaTa pirdapir mniSvnelobaSi. gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT SesityvebaSi bevr SemTxvevaSi aRar ikiTxeba pirdapiri damateba da zmnuri fuZe axali leqsikuri da zogjer gramatikuli mniSvnelobiT warmogvidgeba: T a v s anebebs _ ovebs, Sordeba (rasme) ... T a v s aRwevs _ gadaurCeba rasme, Tavidan aicdens rasme ... T a v s aklavs _ 1. vinmesTan brZolaSi kvdeba ... T v a l s usworebs _ pirdapir ucqeris ... (qegl) T a v i misca wyals _ Tavi daixrCo, mgl. `Cvens nacnobs Zalian gauWirda da T a v i wyals misca~ (T. saxokia). subieqtisa da pirdapiri damatebis (`Tavi~ refleqsivi) referencialuri identuroba realizdeba ara marto neitraluri qcevis sampirian, aramed saobieqto qcevis gardamaval zmnebSic: T a v s uyadrebs `uyadrebs is Tavis Tavs mas~ g u l s uxsnis `uxsnis is Tavis guls mas~ T v a l s usworebs `usworebs is Tavis Tvals mas~... saobieqto qcevis gardamavali refleqsuri mniSvnelobis zmnebi raodenobrivad ufro naklebi Cans da es gasagebicaa: saobieqto qceva gardamaval zmnebSi pirdapiri da iribi obieqtis kuTvnileba-daniSnulebiT mimarTebas afiqsirebs, am SemTxvevebSi ki orientaciaa gamosaxatavi: s u b i e q t T a n i d e n t i f i c i r e buli pirdapiri damatebis saiqeTo mimarTeba i r i b d a m a t e b a s T a n . am mniSvnelobis gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba ki mxolod SezRuduli semantikis zmnebs eqnebaT. zogierTi `Tavi~ pirdapirdamatebiani saobieqto qcevis zmnis Sesityveba polisemiuria da afiqsirebs rogorc a) subieqtisa da pirdapiri damatebis, aseve b) iribi da pirdapiri damatebis funqciur identurobas.

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a) subieqtisa da pirdapiri damatebis identuroba: T a v s ukravs 1. Tavis daxriT salams aZlevs, _ esalmeba. `vinc Raribi iyo, sanovages ezidebodnen ZRvnad... mcemdnen Tayvans, mikravdnen T a v s ~ (vaJa) ... b) iribi da pirdapiri damatebis identuroba: T a v s ukravs 2. gadat. iZulebiT gagzavnis, gadaasaxlebs; Tavs amoayofinebs; adgils miuCens, moaqcevs ... `wamsve ZroxaSi me mikres T a v i , Cems saxl-karidan gamagdes Sora~ (ilia) qegl. sampirian zmnebSi pirdapiri da iribi damatebebis raime saxis mimarTebaTa (kuTvnilebiToba, sazedao...) dafiqsireba Cveulebrivia, uCveulo arc identurobis dafiqsirebaa: T a v s sTxovs `Tavis Txovna _ mamakacis mier qalisaTvis sqesobrivi dakmayofilebis Txovna`. `avo kaco, viT gabede, Sen me (qals) mTxove T a v i ?~ (d. guram.) (T. saxokia). T a v s uqonavs _ misi gulis mogebas cdilobs tkbili sityviT. `isini TviTonve giyoleben, T a v s giqonaven, xels gWideben~ (s. mgalob.) `aladi ... zurabs T a v s uqonavda~ (s. SanS.) (qegl). refleqsuroba subieqtisa da pirdapiri damatebis funqciur identurobas ukavSirdeba, amdenad pirdapiri da iribi damatebis identurobis sakiTxi samvalentian zmnebSi refleqsurobis kuTxiT ar ganixileba. sampirian T a v s anebebs, T a v s uyadrebs da msgavs SesityvebebSi, sadac subieqtisa da p i r d a p i r i d a m a t e b