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DEFINITION OF A BEAM

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A beam is a bar subject to forces or couples that lie in a plane containing the longitudinal of the bar. According to determinacy, a beam may be determinate or indeterminate. STATICALLY DETERMINATE BEAMS Statically determinate beams are those beams in which the reactions of the supports may be determined by the use of the equations of static equilibrium. The beams shown below are examples of statically determinate beams.

P Load

Cantilever Beam

Simple Beam

w (N/m)

Overhanging Beam

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS If the number of reactions exerted upon a beam exceeds the number of equations in static equilibrium, the beam is said to be statically indeterminate. In order to solve the reactions of the beam, the static equations must be supplemented by equations based upon the elastic deformations of the beam. The degree of indeterminacy is taken as the difference between the umber of reactions to the number of equations in static equilibrium that can be applied. In the case of the propped beam shown, there are three reactions R1, R2, and M and only two equations (M = 0 and Fv = 0) can be applied, thus the beam is indeterminate to the first degree (3 2 = 1).

w (N/m)

Propped Beam R1 R2

w2 (N/m)

w1 (N/m)

w2 (N/m)

P1

P2

Continuous Beam

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TYPES OF LOADING Loads applied to the beam may consist of a concentrated load (load applied at a point), uniform load, uniformly varying load, or an applied couple or moment. These loads are shown in the following figures.

P1 P2 w (N/m)

Concentrated Loads

Uniform Load

w (N/m)

Applied Couple

SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAM Consider a simple beam shown of length L that carries a uniform load of w (N/m) throughout its length and is held in equilibrium by reactions R1 and R2. Assume that x w (N/m) the beam is cut at point C a distance B of x from he left A C L support and the R1 portion of the R2 beam to the right x of C be removed. w (N/m) The portion removed must A M then be replaced C V by vertical R1 shearing force V

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

together with a couple M to hold the left portion of the bar in equilibrium under the action of R1 and wx. The couple M is called the resisting moment or moment and the force V is called the resisting shear or shear. The sign of V and M are taken to be positive if they have the senses indicated above.

SOLVED PROBLEMS INSTRUCTION: Write shear and moment equations for the beams in the following problems. In each problem, let x be the distance measured from left end of the beam. Also, draw shear and moment diagrams, specifying values at all change of loading positions and at points of zero shear. Neglect the mass of the beam in each problem. Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-403.

30 kN B 50 kN C D

Problem 403.

1m

3m Figure P-403

2m

Solution 403.

From the load diagram: MB = 0 5RD + 1(30) = 3(50) RD = 24 kN MD = 0 5RB = 2(50) + 6(30) RB = 56 kN

30 kN

A x

Segment BC: VBC = 30 + 56 VBC = 26 kN MBC = 30x + 56(x 1) MBC = 26x 56 kNm

x 30 kN A 1m RB = 56 kN 30 kN A B 50 kN C D B 50 kN C

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30 kN A B x

3m

Segment CD: VCD = 30 + 56 50 VCD = 24 kN MCD = 30x + 56(x 1) 50(x 4) MCD = 30x + 56x 56 50x + 200 MCD = 24x + 144

To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) In segment AB, the shear is uniformly distributed over the segment at a magnitude of 30 kN. (2) In segment BC, the shear is uniformly distributed at a magnitude of 26 kN. (3) In segment CD, the shear is uniformly distributed at a magnitude of 24 kN. To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) The equation MAB = 30x is linear, at x = 0, MAB = 0 and at x = 1 m, MAB = 30 kNm. (2) MBC = 26x 56 is also linear. At x = 1 m, MBC = 30 kNm; at x = 4 m, MBC = 48 kNm. When MBC = 0, x = 2.154 m, thus the moment is zero at 1.154 m from B. (3) MCD = 24x + 144 is again linear. At x = 4 m, MCD = 48 kNm; at x = 6 m, MCD = 0.

1m RB = 56 kN

Load Diagram

1m RB = 56 kN

3m

2m RB = 24 kN

30 kNm

Problem 404.

2000 lb Figure P-404 A B M = 4800 lbft C D

RA

3 ft

6 ft

3 ft

RD

170

Solution 404.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

MA = 0 12RD + 4800 = 3(2000) RD = 100 lb Segment AB: VAB = 1900 lb MAB = 1900x lbft

A x RA = 1900 lb

Segment BC: VBC = 1900 2000 VBC = 100 lb MBC = 1900x 2000(x 3) MBC = 1900x 2000x + 6000 MBC = 100x + 6000

2000 lb 3 ft A B M = 4800 lbft x RA = 1900 lb 6 ft C

3 ft A x RA = 1900 lb

2000 lb B

Segment CD: VCD = 1900 2000 VCD = 100 lb MCD = 1900x 2000(x 3) 4800 MCD = 1900x 2000x + 6000 4800 MCD = 100x + 1200

2000 lb B 3 ft 6 ft

M = 4800 lbft C 3 ft

Load Diagram

RA = 1900 lb 1900 lb

RD = 100 lb

To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) At segment AB, the shear is uniformly distributed at 1900 lb. (2) A shear of 100 lb is uniformly distributed over segments BC and CD. To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MAB = 1900x is linear; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 3 ft, MAB = 5700 lbft. (2) For segment BC, MBC = 100x + 6000 is linear; at x = 3 ft, MBC = 5700 lbft; at x = 9 ft, MBC = 5100 lbft. (3) MCD = 100x + 1200 is again linear; at x = 9 ft, MCD = 300 lbft; at x = 12 ft, MCD = 0.

Shear Diagram 100 lb 5700 lbft 5100 lbft 300 lbft Moment Diagram

Problem 405.

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80 kN Figure P-405 10 kN/m A B RA 2m 8m RC C

Solution 405.

10 kN/m A x RA = 114 kN

Segment AB: VAB = 114 10x kN MAB = 114x 10x(x/2) MAB = 114x 5x2 kNm Segment BC: VBC = 114 80 10x VBC = 34 10x kN A MBC = 114x 80(x 2) 10x(x/2) MBC = 160 + 34x 5x2

2m

80 kN B 10 kN/m

RA = 114 kN

C 8m RC = 66 kN

Load Diagram

To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) For segment AB, VAB = 114 10x is linear; at x = 0, VAB = 14 kN; at x = 2 m, VAB = 94 kN. (2) VBC = 34 10x for segment BC is linear; at x = 2 m, VBC = 14 kN; at x = 10 m, VBC = 66 kN. When VBC = 0, x = 3.4 m thus VBC = 0 at 1.4 m from B. To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MAB = 114x 5x2 is a second degree curve for segment AB; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 2 m, MAB = 208 kNm. (2) The moment diagram is also a second degree curve for segment BC given by MBC = 160 + 34x 5x2; at x = 2 m, MBC = 208 kNm; at x = 10 m, MBC = 0. (3) Note that the maximum moment occurs at point of zero shear. Thus, at x = 3.4 m, MBC = 217.8 kNm.

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

172

Problem 406.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-406.

900 lb Figure P-406 60 lb/ft A B RA 4 ft 8 ft C RC 6 ft D 400 lb

Solution 406.

MA = 0 12RC = 4(900) + 18(400) + 9[(60)(18)] RC = 1710 lb MC = 0 12RA + 6(400) = 8(900) + 3[60(18)] RA = 670 lb Segment AB: VAB = 670 60x lb MAB = 670x 60x(x/2) MAB = 670x 30x2 lbft

60 lb/ft A x RA = 670 lb

900 lb 4 ft 60 lb/ft

A x RA = 670 lb

Segment BC: VBC = 670 900 60x VBC = 230 60x lb MBC = 670x 900(x 4) 60x(x/2) MBC = 3600 230x 30x2 lbft Segment CD: VCD = 670 + 1710 900 60x VCD = 1480 60x lb MCD = 670x + 1710(x 12) 900(x 4) 60x(x/2) MCD = 16920 + 1480x 30x2 lbft

Copyright 2011 Mathalino.com. All rights reserved. This eBook is NOT FOR SALE. Please download this eBook only from www.mathalino.com. In doing so, you are inderictly helping the author to create more free contents. Thank you for your support.

900 lb 60 lb/ft A B 4 RA = 670 lb 670 lb 430 lb 8 RC = 1710 lb 760 lb 400 lb Shear Diagram 470 lb 2200 lbft 950 lb C 6 D Load Diagram 400 lb

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To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) VAB = 670 60x for segment AB is linear; at x = 0, VAB= 670 lb; at x = 4 ft, VAB = 430 lb. (2) For segment BC, VBC = 230 60x is also linear; at x= 4 ft, VBC = 470 lb, at x = 12 ft, VBC = 950 lb. (3) VCD = 1480 60x for segment CD is again linear; at x = 12, VCD = 760 lb; at x = 18 ft, VCD = 400 lb. To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MAB = 670x 30x2 for segment AB is a second degree curve; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 4 ft, MAB = 2200 lbft. (2) For BC, MBC = 3600 230x 30x2, is a second degree curve; at x = 4 ft, MBC = 2200 lbft, at x = 12 ft, MBC = 3480 lbft; When MBC = 0, 3600 230x 30x2 = 0, x = 15.439 ft and 7.772 ft. Take x = 7.772 ft, thus, the moment is zero at 3.772 ft from B. (3) For segment CD, MCD = 16920 + 1480x 30x2 is a second degree curve; at x = 12 ft, MCD = 3480 lbft; at x = 18 ft, MCD = 0.

3480 lbft

Problem 407.

Figure P-407 A B 3m RA 2m C 1m RD 30 kN/m D

Solution 407.

A

MD = 0 6RA = 2[2(30)] RA = 20 kN

x RA = 20 kN

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

30 kN/m

3m x

RA = 20 kN 30 kN/m A 3m RA = 20 kN x 30 kN/m A B 3m RA = 20 kN 20 kN 2m C B C 2m

Segment BC: VBC = 20 30(x 3) VBC = 110 30x kN MBC = 20x 30(x 3)(x 3)/2 MBC = 20x 15(x 3)2 Segment CD: VCD = 20 30(2) VCD = 40 kN MCD = 20x 30(2)(x 4) MCD = 20x 60(x 4)

D 1m RD = 40 kN

Load Diagram

To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) For segment AB, the shear is uniformly distributed at 20 kN. (2) VBC = 110 30x for segment BC; at x = 3 m, VBC = 20 kN; at x = 5 m, VBC = 40 kN. For VBC = 0, x = 3.67 m or 0.67 m from B. (3) The shear for segment CD is uniformly distributed at 40 kN. To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) For AB, MAB = 20x; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 3 m, MAB = 60 kNm. (2) MBC = 20x 15(x 3)2 for segment BC is second degree curve; at x = 3 m, MBC = 60 kNm; at x = 5 m, MBC = 40 kNm. Note that maximum moment occurred at zero shear; at x = 3.67 m, MBC = 66.67 kNm. (3) MCD = 20x 60(x 4) for segment BC is linear; at x = 5 m, MCD = 40 kNm; at x = 6 m, MCD = 0.

60 kNm

Problem 408.

50 kN/m Figure P-408 A B 2m RA 2m C 2m RD D 20 kN/m

Solution 408.

Segment AB: VAB = 90 50x kN MAB = 90x 50x(x/2) MAB = 90x 25x2

B 50 kN/m A x RA = 90 kN

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50 kN/m A 2m RA = 90 kN x

Segment BC: VBC = 90 50(2) VBC = 10 kN MBC = 90x 2(50)(x 1) MBC = 10x + 100 kNm

20 kN/m

50 kN/m A B 2m RA = 90 kN x 2m C

Segment CD: VCD = 90 2(50) 20(x 4) VCD = 20x + 70 kN MCD = 90x 2(50)(x 1) 20(x 4)(x 4)/2 MCD = 90x 100(x 1) 10(x 4)2 MCD = 10x2 + 70x 60 kNm

50 kN/m A B 2m RA = 90 kN 90 kN 2m C

20 kN/m

To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) VAB = 90 50x is linear; at x = 0, VBC D = 90 kN; at x = 2 m, VBC = 10 kN. Load When VAB = 0, x = 1.8 m. Diagram 2m (2) VBC = 10 kN along segment BC. RD = 50 kN (3) VCD = 20x + 70 is linear; at x = 4 m, VCD = 10 kN; at x = 6 m, VCD = 50 kN. To draw the Moment Diagram: Shear 2 Diagram (1) MAB = 90x 25x is second degree; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 1.8 m, MAB = 81 kNm; at x = 2 m, MAB = 80 kNm. (2) MBC = 10x + 100 is linear; at x = 2 m, MBC = 80 kNm; at x = 4 m, MBC = Moment 60 kNm. Diagram (3) MCD = 10x2 + 70x 60; at x = 4 m, MCD = 60 kNm; at x = 6 m, MCD = 0.

1.8 m 81 kNm

10 kN 80 kNm 50 kN 60 kNm

Problem 409.

wo Figure P-409 A B L/2 L/2 C

176

Solution 409.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Segment AB: VAB = wox MAB = wox(x/2) 1 MAB = 2 wox2

wo A x

Segment BC: VBC = wo(L/2) 1 VBC = 2 woL MBC = wo(L/2)(x L/4) 1 1 MBC = 2 woLx + 8 woL2

Load Diagram To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) VAB = wox for segment AB is linear; at x = 0, VAB = 0; at x = L/2, VAB =

1 2 1 2

woL.

1 2

1 2

woL

1 8

3 8

woL2.

(2) MBC =

1 2

woLx +

1 8 1 8

1 8

woL2 woL2

x = L/2, MBC =

3 8

woL2.

Problem 410.

Cantilever beam carrying the uniformly varying load shown in Fig. P-410.

Figure P-410 wo

Solution 410.

y w = o L x wo y= x L 1 Fx = 2 xy

Fx =

Fx

1 3

x y Lx wo

1 wo x x 2 L

Fx =

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wo 2 x 2L

wo Load Diagram

1 wo 2 x x 3 2L w M = o x3 6L

wo 2L

1 2

2nd degree

1 2

woL.

wo 6L

1 6

x = 0, M = 0; at x = L, M = 3rd degree

1 6

woL2.

Problem 411.

Cantilever beam carrying a distributed load with intensity varying from wo at the free end to zero at the wall, as shown in Fig. P-411.

Figure P-411 wo

Solution 411.

y w = o Lx L wo y= (L x ) L

178

2 3

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x

1 2

Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

F1 =

1 2

x( w o y )

F1 wo

F2

x y Lx

F1 = F1 =

w 1 x w o o ( L x ) 2 L

w 1 x wo wo + o x 2 L wo 2 F1 = x 2L w F2 = xy = x o (L x ) L w F2 = o ( Lx x 2 ) L

Shear equation:

wo

L Load Diagram

1 2

woL

1 3

woL2

wo 2 w x o ( Lx x 2 ) 2L L wo 2 wo 2 V= x wo x + x L 2L w V = o x 2 wo x 2L

V = F1 F2 = Moment equation: 1 M = 2 xF1 2 xF2 3

= 0, V = 0; at x = L, V =

1 2

wo

woL.

wo 3 2 x + x is in third 2 6L degree; at x = 0, M = 0; at x = L,

wo

1 w 1 wo 2 x x x o ( Lx x 2 ) 3 2L 2 L wo 3 wo 2 wo 3 M= x x + x 3L 2 2L w w M = o x2 + o x3 2 6L

M=

M=

1 3

woL2.

Problem 412.

Figure P-406 A B RA 2 ft 4 ft C RC 2 ft 800 lb/ft D

Solution 412. MA = 0 6RC = 5[6(800)] RC = 4000 lb Segment AB: VAB = 800 lb MAB = 800x

800 lb/ft 2 ft A B x RA = 800 lb

179

www.mathalino.com MC = 0 6RA = 1[6(800)] RA = 800 lb

A x RA = 800 lb

Segment BC: VBC = 800 800(x 2) VBC = 2400 800x MBC = 800x 800(x 2)(x 2)/2 MBC = 800x 400(x 2)2 Segment CD: VCD = 800 + 4000 800(x 2) VCD = 4800 800x + 1600 VCD = 6400 800x MCD = 800x + 4000(x 6) 800(x 2)(x 2)/2 MCD = 800x + 4000(x 6) 400(x 2)2

800 lb/ft A B 2 ft RA = 800 lb 800 lb Load D Diagram To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) 800 lb of shear force is uniformly 4 ft 2 ft distributed along segment AB. RC = 4000 lb (2) VBC = 2400 800x is linear; at x = 2 ft, VBC = 800 lb; at x = 6 ft, VBC = 2400 1600 lb lb. When VBC = 0, 2400 800x = 0, thus x = 3 ft or VBC = 0 at 1 ft from B. (3) VCD = 6400 800x is also linear; at x = Shear 6 ft, VCD = 1600 lb; at x = 8 ft, VBC = 0. Diagram C To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MAB = 800x is linear; at x = 0, MAB = 0; 2400 lb at x = 2 ft, MAB = 1600 lbft. (2) MBC = 800x 400(x 2)2 is second degree curve; at x = 2 ft, MBC = 1600 lbft; at x = 6 ft, MBC = 1600 lbft; at x = 3 ft, MBC = 2000 lbft. 2 Moment (3) MCD = 800x + 4000(x 6) 400(x 2) is also a second degree curve; at x = 6 Diagram ft, MCD = 1600 lbft; at x = 8 ft, MCD = 0.

1 ft

1600 lbft

180

Problem 413.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-413.

Figure P-413 A B 2 ft RB 4 ft C D 1 ft 1 ft RE 100 lb/ft M = 1200 lbft E

Solution 413.

MB = 0 6RE = 1200 + 1[6(100)] RE = 300 lb ME = 0 6RB + 1200 = 5[6(100)] RB = 300 lb Segment AB: VAB = 100x lb MAB = 100x(x/2) MAB = 50x2 lbft

100 lb/ft A x

Segment BC: VBC = 100x + 300 lb MBC = 100x(x/2) + 300(x 2) MBC = 50x2 + 300x 600 lbft Segment CD: VCD = 100(6) + 300 VCD = 300 lb MCD = 100(6)(x 3) + 300(x 2) MCD = 600x + 1800 + 300x 600 MCD = 300x + 1200 lbft Segment DE: VDE = 100(6) + 300 VDE = 300 lb MDE = 100(6)(x 3) + 1200 + 300(x 2) MDE = 600x + 1800 + 1200 + 300x 600 MDE = 300x + 2400

100 lb/ft A B 2 ft RB = 300 lb 100 lb 4 ft

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M = 1200 lbft E To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) VAB = 100x is linear; at x = 0, VAB = Load C D 1 1 0; at x = 2 ft, VAB = 200 lb. Diagram (2) VBC = 300 100x is also linear; at x RE = 300 lb = 2 ft, VBC = 100 lb; at x = 4 ft, VBC = 300 lb. When VBC = 0, x = 3 ft, or VBC =0 at 1 ft from B. (3) The shear is uniformly distributed at 300 lb along segments CD and DE. Shear Diagram To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MAB = 50x2 is a second degree curve; at x= 0, MAB = 0; at x = ft, MAB = 200 lbft. (2) MBC = 50x2 + 300x 600 is also second degree; at x = 2 ft; MBC = 200 lbft; at x = 6 ft, MBC = 600 Moment lbft; at x = 3 ft, MBC = 150 lft. Diagram (3) MCD = 300x + 1200 is linear; at x = 6 ft, MCD = 600 lbft; at x = 7 ft, MCD = 900 lbft. (4) MDE = 300x + 2400 is again linear; at x = 7 ft, MDE = 300 lbft; at x = 8 ft, MDE = 0.

200 lb 1 ft 300 lb

300 lbft

Problem 414.

4 kN/m Figure P-414 2 kN/m A 2m

B 3m

Solution 414.

3m F1 2 kN/m A 2m x F2 y 2 kN/m x2

2 kN/m A x

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

F1 = 2 x F2 =

4 kN/m

1 2 1 2 1 3

F2 = F2 =

2 kN/m A 2m

B 3m Load Diagram

1 3

(x 2)F2

1 3

1 degree

st

1 9

(x 2)[ 1 (x 2)2] 3

(x 2)3

To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) VAB = 2x is linear; at x = 0, VAB = 0; at x = 2 m, VAB = 4 kN. (2) VBC = 2x 1 (x 2)2 is a second degree curve; at x 3 = 2 m, VBC = 4 kN; at x = 5 m; VBC = 13 kN.

2nd degree

To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MAB = x2 is a second degree curve; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 2 m, MAB = 4 kNm.

1 (2) MBC = x2 9 (x 2)3 is a third degree curve; at x = 2

Problem 415.

Figure P-415 20 kN/m A B 3m 2m C 40 kN 2m D

Solution 415.

20 kN/m A x

Segment BC: VBC = 20(3) VAB = 60 kN MBC = 20(3)(x 1.5) MAB = 60(x 1.5) kNm

B 3m x 2m C 40 kN

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20 kN/m A B 3m x

20 kN/m A

Segment CD: VCD = 20(3) + 40 VCD = 20 kN MCD = 20(3)(x 1.5) + 40(x 5) MCD = 60(x 1.5) + 40(x 5)

20 kN/m A B 3m 2m C 2m 40 kN D To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VAB = 20x for segment AB is linear; at x = 0, V = 0; at x = 3 m, V = 60 kN. (2) VBC = 60 kN is uniformly distributed along segment BC. (3) Shear is uniform along segment CD at 20 kN. To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MAB = 10x2 for segment AB is second degree curve; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 3 m, MAB = 90 kNm. (2) MBC = 60(x 1.5) for segment BC is linear; at x = 3 m, MBC = 90 kNm; at x = 5 m, MBC = 210 kNm. (3) MCD = 60(x 1.5) + 40(x 5) for segment CD is also linear; at x = 5 m, MCD = 210 kNm, at x = 7 m, MCD = 250 kNm.

Load Diagram

20 kN 60 kN Shear Diagram

wo

Problem 416.

Beam carrying uniformly varying load shown in Fig. P-416. MR2 = 0 LR1 =

R1 = R1 =

1 6

L R1 Figure P-416 R2

F = Lwo

Solution 416.

2/3 L

1 3

1/3 L wo

LF Lwo)

L R1

1 1 3(2

Lwo

R2

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

MR1 = 0 LR2 = 2 LF 3

R2 = R2 =

2 1 3(2 1 3

Lwo)

Lwo

y wo = x L wo y= x L

2/3 x Fx = xy 1/3 x y wo

Fx = Fx =

1 2

xy =

1 wo x x 2 L

wo 2 x 2L

x R1

V = R 1 Fx V=

1 6

Lwo

wo 2 x 2L

wo

M = R 1x F x ( 1 x ) 3 w 1 M = 6 Lwox o x 2 ( 1 x ) 3 2L w 1 M = 6 Lwox o x 3 6L

To draw the Shear Diagram: V = 1/6 Lwo wox2/2L is a second degree curve; at x = 0, V = 1/6 Lwo = R1; at x = L, V = 1/3 Lwo = R2; If a is the location of zero shear from left end, 0 = 1/6 Lwo wox2/2L, x = 0.5774L = a; to check, use the squared property of parabola: a2/R1 = L2/(R1 + R2) a2/(1/6 Lwo) = L2/(1/6 Lwo + 1/3 Lwo) a2 = (1/6 L3wo)/(1/2 Lwo) = 1/3 L2 a = 0.5774L a=

L R1 R1 Load Diagram R2

To draw the Moment Diagram M = 1/6 Lwox wox3/6L is a third degree curve; at x = 0, M = 0; at x = L, M = 0; at x = a = 0.5774L, M = Mmax Mmax = 1/6 Lwo(0.5774L) wo(0.5774L)3/6L Mmax = 0.0962L2wo 0.0321L2wo Mmax = 0.0641L2wo

Moment Diagram

Problem 417.

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wo Figure P-417

L/2 R1

L/2 R2

Solution 417.

By symmetry: 1 1 R1 = R2 = 2 ( 2 Lw o ) =

1 4

Lw o

F

1/3 x

y w 2 wo = o ; y= x L x L /2

x

wo

wo

1 2 wo 1 F = 2 xy = x x 2 L w F = o x2 L

V = R1 F V=

1 4

R1 L/2

Lw o

wo 2 x L

L/2 R1

1 4

M = R 1x F ( 1 x ) 3

Lw o

w Lw o x o x 2 ( 1 x ) 3 L w M = 1 Lw o x o x 3 4 3L

M=

1 4

Shear Diagram

1 12

1 4

Lw o

L wo

To draw the Shear Diagram: V = Lwo/4 wox2/L is a second degree curve; at x = 0, V = Lwo/4; at x = L/2, V = 0. The other half of the diagram can be drawn by the concept of symmetry. To draw the Moment Diagram M = Lwox/4 wox3/3L is a third degree curve; at x = 0, M = 0; at x = L/2, M = L2wo/12. The other half of the diagram can be drawn by the concept of symmetry.

Moment Diagram

186

Problem 418.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Cantilever beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-418.

Figure P-418 A 4m 2m 20 kN M = 80 kNm B C

Solution 418.

20 kN A 4m x M = 80 kNm B

20 kN A x

20 kN A 4m

M = 80 kNm B 2m C Load Diagram To draw the Shear Diagram: VAB and VBC are equal and constant at 20 kN. To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MAB = 20x is linear; when x = 0, MAB = 0; when x = 4 m, MAB = 80 kNm. (2) MBC = 20x + 80 is also linear; when x = 4 m, MBC = 0; when x = 6 m, MBC = 60 kNm

Problem 419.

270 lb/ft

A 6 ft R1

C 3 ft R2

Figure P-419

Solution 419.

4 ft 810 lb 5 ft

187

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270 lb/ft A 6 ft R1 C 3 ft R2

[ MC = 0 ]

9R1 = 5(810) R1 = 450 lb 9R2 = 4(810) R2 = 360 lb Segment AB: y 270 = x 6 y = 45x

[ MA = 0 ]

F=

1 2

xy =

1 2

x( 45x )

F=

22.5x2

VAB = R1 F VAB = 450 22.5x2 lb MAB = R1x F( 1 x ) 3 MAB = 450x 22.5x2( 1 x ) 3 MAB = 450x 7.5x3 lbft

4 ft 810 lb 270 lb/ft

Segment BC: VBC = 450 810 VBC = 360 lb MBC = 450x 810(x 4) MBC = 450x 810x + 3240 MBC = 3240 360x lbft

A 6 ft R1 = 450 lb x

188

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

270 lb/ft To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) VAB = 450 22.5x2 is a second degree curve; at x = 0, VAB = 450 lb; at x = 6 ft, VAB = 360 lb. (2) At x = a, VAB = 0, 450 22.5x2 = 0 22.5x2 = 450 x2 = 20 x = 20 To check, use the squared property of parabola. a2/450 = 62/(450 + 360) a2 = 20 a = 20 (3) VBC = 360 lb is constant. To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MAB = 450x 7.5x3 for segment AB is third degree curve; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 20, MAB = 1341.64 lbft; at x = 6 ft, MAB = 1080 lbft. (2) MBC = 3240 360x for segment BC is linear; at x = 6 ft, MBC = 1080 lbft; at x = 9 ft, MBC = 0.

A 6 ft R1 = 450 lb

B 3 ft

C R2 = 360 lb

a== a 20 360 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

Problem 420.

A total distributed load of 30 kips supported by a uniformly distributed reaction as shown in Fig. P-420.

W = 30 kips Figure P-420

4 ft

12 ft

4 ft

Solution 420.

W = 30 kips w lb/ft

r lb/ft 4 ft 12 ft 4 ft

w = 30(1000)/12 w = 2500 lb/ft

189

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First segment (from 0 to 4 ft from left): V1 = 1500x M1 = 1500x(x/2) M1 = 750x2 Second segment (from 4 ft to mid-span): V2 = 1500x 2500(x 4) V2 = 10000 1000x M2 = 1500x(x/2) 2500(x 4)(x 4)/2 M2 = 750x2 1250(x 4)2

25 lb/ft To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) For the first segment, V1 = 1500x is linear; at x = 0, V1 = 0; at x = 4 ft, V1 = 6000 lb. (2) For the second segment, V2 = 10000 1000x is also linear; at x = 4 ft, V1 = 6000 lb; at mid-span, x = 10 ft, V1 = 0. (3) For the next half of the beam, the shear diagram can be accomplished by the concept of symmetry. To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) For the first segment, M1 = 750x2 is a second degree curve, an open upward parabola; at x = 0, M1 = 0; at x = 4 ft, M1 = 12000 lbft. (2) For the second segment, M2 = 750x2 1250(x 4)2 is a second degree curve, an downward parabola; at x = 4 ft, M2 = 12000 lbft; at mid-span, x = 10 ft, M2 = 30000 lbft. (2) The next half of the diagram, from x = 10 ft to x = 20 ft, can be drawn by using the concept of symmetry. x

2500 lb/ft

r = 1500 lb/ft

r = 1500 lb/ft 4 ft x

12,000

12,000 lbft

Moment Diagram

190

Problem 421.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Write the shear and moment equations as functions of the angle for the built-in arch shown in Fig. P-421.

R B

A Q P

Figure P-421

Solution 421.

For that is less than 90 Components of Q and P: Qx = Q sin Qy = Q cos Px = P sin (90 ) Px = P (sin 90 cos cos 90 sin ) Px = P cos Py = P cos (90 ) Py = P (cos 90 cos + sin 90 sin ) Py = P sin Shear: V = Fy V = Qy Py V = Q cos P sin Moment arms: dQ = R sin dP = R R cos dP = R (1 cos ) Moment: M = Mcounterclockwise Mclockwise M = Q(dQ) P(dP) M = QR sin PR(1 cos )

V dQ Q P dP 90 R

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dQ Q 90 180 dP P

For that is greater than 90 Components of Q and P: Qx = Q sin (180 ) Qx = Q (sin 180 cos cos 180 sin ) Qx = Q cos Qy = Q cos (180 ) V Qy = Q (cos 180 cos + sin 180 sin ) Qy = Q sin Px = P sin ( 90) Px = P (sin cos 90 cos sin 90) Px = P cos Py = P cos ( 90) Py = P (cos cos 90 + sin sin 90) Py = P sin Shear: V = Fy V = Qy Py V = (Q sin ) P sin V = Q sin P sin Moment arms: dQ = R sin (180 ) dQ = R (sin 180 cos cos 180 sin ) dQ = R sin dP = R + R cos (180 ) dP = R + R (cos 180 cos + sin 180 sin ) dP = R R cos dP = R(1 cos ) Moment: M = Mcounterclockwise Mclockwise M = Q(dQ) P(dP) M = QR sin PR(1 cos )

180

192

Problem 422.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Write the shear and moment equations for the semicircular arch as shown in Fig. P-422 if (a) the load P is vertical as shown, and (b) the load is applied horizontally to the left at the top of the arch.

P B

R A O Figure P-422 C

Solution 422.

P B

MC = 0 2R(RA) = RP 1 RA = 2 P

For that is less than 90

R A O RA C

Shear: VAB = RA cos (90 ) 1 VAB = 2 P (cos 90 cos + sin 90 sin ) VAB =

1 2

P sin

R

RA d

90

90

193

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For that is greater than 90 Components of P and RA: Px = P sin ( 90) Px = P (sin cos 90 cos sin 90) Px = P cos Py = P cos ( 90) Py = P (cos cos 90 + sin sin 90) Py = P sin RAx = RA sin ( 90) 1 RAx = 2 P (sin cos 90 cos sin 90)

1 RAx = 2 P cos

P B

V R A R 90 RA O d 180

RAy = RA cos ( 90) 1 RAy = 2 P (cos cos 90 + sin sin 90) RAy =

1 2

P sin

1 VBC = 2 P sin

Moment arm: d = R cos (180 ) d = R (cos 180 cos + sin 180 sin ) d = R cos Moment: MBC = Mcounterclockwise Mclockwise MBC = RA(R + d) Pd 1 MBC = 2 P(R R cos ) P(R cos ) MBC = MBC = MBC =

1 2 1 2

PR PR +

1 2 1 2

1 2

PR(1 + cos )

194

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

The vertical shear at C in the figure shown in previous section (Shear and Moment Diagram) is taken as VC = (Fv)L = R1 wx where R1 = R2 = wL/2 VC =

wL wx 2

The moment at C is

wL x x wx 2 2 wLx wx 2 MC = 2 2

MC = (MC) = If we differentiate M with respect to x:

wL dx dM w dx = 2x 2 dx dx 2 dx wL dM = wx = shear dx 2

thus,

dM =V dx

Thus, the rate of change of the bending moment with respect to x is equal to the shearing force, or the slope of the moment diagram at the given point is the shear at that point.

195

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dV = 0 w = load dx dV = Load dx

Thus, the rate of change of the shearing force with respect to x is equal to the load or the slope of the shear diagram at a given point equals the load at that point.

PROPERTIES OF SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS The following are some important properties of shear and moment diagrams:

1. The area of the shear diagram to the left or to the right of the section is equal to the moment at that section. 2. The slope of the moment diagram at a given point is the shear at that point. 3. The slope of the shear diagram at a given point equals the load at that point. 4. The maximum moment occurs at the point of zero shears. This is in reference to property number 2, that when the shear (also the slope of the moment diagram) is zero, the tangent drawn to the moment diagram is horizontal. 5. When the shear diagram is increasing, the moment diagram is concave upward. 6. When the shear diagram is decreasing, the moment diagram is concave downward.

SIGN CONVENTIONS The customary sign conventions for shearing force and bending moment are represented by the figures below. A force that tends to bend the beam

196

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

downward is said to produce a positive bending moment. A force that tends to shear the left portion of the beam upward with respect to the right portion is said to produce a positive shearing force.

Positive Bending

Negative Bending

Positive Shear

Negative Shear

An easier way of determining the sign of the bending moment at any section is that upward forces always cause positive bending moments regardless of whether they act to the left or to the right of the exploratory section.

Without writing shear and moment equations, draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beams specified in the following problems. Give numerical values at all change of loading positions and at all points of zero shear. (Note to instructor: Problems 403 to 420 may also be assigned for solution by semi graphical method describes in this article.)

Problem 425.

Figure P-425 60 kN 30 kN

2m R1

4m R2

1m

Solution 425.

60 kN B D A 2m R1 = 35 kN Load Diagram 4m C 1m R2 = 55 kN 30 kN

197

www.mathalino.com MA = 0 6R2 = 2(60) + 7(30) R2 = 55 kN MC = 0 6R1 + 1(30) = 4(60) R1 = 35 kN

To draw the Shear Diagram: (1) VA = R1 = 35 kN (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram 60 kN VB = 35 + 0 60 = 25 kN (3) VC = VB + area in load diagram + R2 VC = 25 + 0 + 55 = 30 kN (4) VD = VC + Area in load diagram 30 kN VD = 30 + 0 30 = 0 To draw the Moment Diagram: (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + 35(2) = 70 kNm (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 70 25(4) = 30 kNm (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 30 + 30(1) = 0

35 kN

30 kN

Moment Diagram

30 kNm

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198

Problem 426.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Cantilever beam acted upon by a uniformly distributed load and a couple as shown in Fig. P-426.

5 kN/m Figure P-426 M = 60 kNm

2m

2m

1m

Solution 426.

5 kN/m B A 2m 2m Load Diagram 1m M = 60 kNm D C To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 0 (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 0 5(2) VB = 10 kN (3) VC = VB + Area in load diagram VC = 10 + 0 VC = 10 kN (4) VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 10 + 0 VD = 10 kN To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 (2)(10) MB = 10 kNm (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 10 10(2) MC = 30 kNm MC2 = 30 + M = 30 + 60 = 30 kNm (4) MD = MC2 + Area in shear diagram MD = 30 10(1) MD = 20 kNm

2nd deg

Moment Diagram

30 kNm

Problem 427.

800 lb 100 lb/ft Figure P-427

9 ft R1

3 ft R2

Solution 427.

800 lb 100 lb/ft

199

www.mathalino.com MC = 0 12R1 = 100(12)(6) + 800(3) R1 = 800 lb MA = 0 12R2 = 100(12)(6) + 800(9) R2 = 1200 lb

B 3 ft

C R2 = 1200 lb

x = 8 ft

100 lb 900 lb

Shear Diagram A

1200 lb

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = 800 lb (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 800 100(9) VB = 100 lb VB2 = 100 800 = 900 lb (3) VC = VB2 + Area in load diagram VC = 900 100(3) VC = 1200 lb (4) Solving for x: x / 800 = (9 x) / 100 100x = 7200 800x x = 8 ft To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) Mx = MA + Area in shear diagram Mx = 0 + (8)(800) = 3200 lbft (3) MB = Mx + Area in shear diagram MB = 3200 (1)(100) = 3150 lbft (4) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 3150 (900 + 1200)(3) = 0 (5) The moment curve BC is downward parabola with vertex at A. A is the location of zero shear for segment BC.

Moment Diagram

Problem 428.

10 kN/m 25 kNm

Figure P-428

1m R1

1m

3m R2

2m

200

Solution 428.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

MD = 0 5R1 = 50(0.5) + 25 R1 = 10 kN

E 2m R2 = 40 kN Load Diagram

50 kN

1m 1m R1 = 10 kN

MA = 0 5R2 + 25 = 50(4.5) R2 = 40 kN

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = 10 kN (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 10 + 0 = 10 kN (3) VC = VB + Area in load diagram VC = 10 + 0 = 10 kN (4) VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 10 10(3) = 20 kN VD2 = 20 + R2 = 20 kN (5) VE = VD2 + Area in load diagram VE = 20 10(2) = 0 (6) Solving for x: x / 10 = (3 x) / 20 20x = 30 10x x=1m To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + 1(10) = 10 kNm MB2 = 10 25 = 15 kNm (3) MC = MB2 + Area in shear diagram MC = 15 + 1(10) = 5 kNm (4) Mx = MC + Area in shear diagram Mx = 5 + (1)(10) = 0 (5) MD = Mx + Area in shear diagram MD = 0 (2)(20) = 20 kNm (6) ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 20 + (2)(20) = 0

20 kN 10 kN

10 kNm

5 kNm

Problem 429.

100 lb 120 lb/ft 120 lb/ft

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2 ft R1

2 ft R2 Figure P-429

2 ft

Solution 429.

100 lb 120 lb/ft 120 lb/ft

201

www.mathalino.com MC = 0 4R1 + 120(2)(1) = 100(2) + 120(2)(3) R1 = 170 lb MA = 0 4R2 = 120(2)(1) + 100(2) + 120(2)(5) R2 = 410 lb

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = 170 lb (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 170 120(2) = 70 lb VB2 = 70 100 = 170 lb (3) VC = VB2 + Area in load diagram VC = 170 + 0 = 170 lb VC2 = 170 + R2 VC2 = 170 + 410 = 240 lb (4) VD = VC2 + Area in load diagram VD = 240 120(2) = 0 (5) Solving for x: x / 170 = (2 x) / 70 70x = 340 170x x = 17 / 12 ft = 1.42 ft To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) Mx = MA + Area in shear diagram Mx = 0 + (17/12)(170) Mx = 1445/12 = 120.42 lbft (3) MB = Mx + Area in shear diagram MB = 1445/12 (2 17/12)(70) MB = 100 lbft (4) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 100 170(2) = 240 lbft (5) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 240 + (2)(240) = 0

A 2 ft R1 = 170 lb

B 2 ft

170 lb

Problem 430.

1000 lb 400 lb/ft 2000 lb 200 lb/ft

5 ft R1

10 ft Figure P-430

10 ft R2

202

Solution 430.

1000 lb 400 lb/ft B A 5 ft

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

MD = 0 20R1 = 1000(25) + 400(5)(22.5) + 2000(10) + 200(10)(5) R1 = 5000 lb MB = 0 20R2 + 1000(5) + 400(5)(2.5) = 2000(10) + 200(10)(15) R2 = 2000 lb

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 1000 lb (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 1000 400(5) = 3000 lb VB2 = 3000 + R1 = 2000 lb (3) VC = VB2 + Area in load diagram VC = 2000 + 0 = 2000 lb VC2 = 2000 2000 = 0 (4) VD = VC2 + Area in load diagram VD = 0 + 200(10) = 2000 lb To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 (1000 + 3000)(5) MB = 10000 lbft (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 10000 + 2000(10) = 10000 lbft (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 10000 (10)(2000) = 0 (5) For segment BC, the location of zero moment can be accomplished by symmetry and that is 5 ft from B. (6) The moment curve AB is a downward parabola with vertex at A. A is the location of zero shear for segment AB at point outside the beam.

R2 = 2000 lb

1000 lb

10000 lbft 5 ft A

Problem 431.

50 kN Figure P-431 2m 1m 10 kN/m 20 kN/m 40 kN

7m R1 R2

3m

Solution 431.

4m 20 kN/m 10 kN/m

203

www.mathalino.com MD = 0 7R1 + 40(3) = 5(50) + 10(10)(2) + 20(4)(2) R1 = 70 kN MA = 0 7R2 = 50(2) + 10(10)(5) + 20(4)(5) + 40(10) R2 = 200 lb

50 kN 2m B 1m C

40 kN

A 5m R1 = 70 kN

D 2m

E 3m

70 kN 50 kN

70 kN

40 kN

10 kN

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = 70 kN (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 70 10(2) = 50 kN VB2 = 50 50 = 0 (3) VC = VB2 + Area in load diagram VC = 0 10(1) = 10 kN (4) VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 10 30(4) = 130 kN VD2 = 130 + R2 VD2 = 130 + 200 = 70 kN (5) VE = VD2 + Area in load diagram VE = 70 10(3) = 40 kN VE2 = 40 40 = 0 To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + (70 + 50)(2) = 120 kNm (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 120 (1)(10) = 115 kNm (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 115 (10 + 130)(4) MD = 165 kNm (5) ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 165 + (70 + 40)(3) = 0 (6) Moment curves AB, CD and DE are downward parabolas with vertices at A, B and C, respectively. A, B and C are corresponding zero shear points of segments AB, CD and DE. Another way to solve the location of zero moment is by the squared property of parabola (see Problem 434). This point is the appropriate location for construction joint of concrete structures.

165 kNm Moment Diagram (7) Solving for point of zero moment: a / 10 = (a + 4) / 130 130a = 10a + 40 a = 1/3 m y / (x + a) = 130 / (4 + a) y = 130(x + 1/3) / (4 + 1/3) y = 30x + 10

MC = 115 kNm Mzero = MC + Area in shear 0 = 115 (10 + y)x (10 + y)x = 230 (10 + 30x + 10)x = 230 30x2 + 20x 230 = 0 3x2 + 2x 23 = 0 x = 2.46 m zero moment is at 2.46 m from C

204

Problem 432.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-432.

60 kN 40 kN/m M = 120 kNm

Figure P-432

1m R1

3m

1m

1m R2

Solution 432.

60 kN 40 kN/m M = 120 kNm D A B 1m R1 = 132 kN 3m Load Diagram C 1m 1m R2 = 48 kN E

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 60 kN (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 60 + 0 = 60 kN VB2 = VB + R1 = 60 + 132 = 72 kN (3) VC = VB2 + Area in load diagram VC = 72 3(40) = 48 kN (4) VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 48 + 0 = 48 kN (5) VE = VD + Area in load diagram VE = 48 + 0 = 48 kN VE2 = VE + R2 = 48 + 48 = 0 (6) Solving for x: x / 72 = (3 x) / 48 48x = 216 72x x = 1.8 m To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 60(1) = 60 kNm (3) Mx = MB + Area in shear diagram MX = 60 + (1.8)(72) = 4.8 kNm (4) MC = MX + Area in shear diagram MC = 4.8 (3 1.8)(48) = 24 kNm (5) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 24 (24 + 72)(1) = 72 kNm MD2 = 72 + 120 = 48 kNm (6) ME = MD2 + Area in shear diagram ME = 48 48(1) = 0 (7) The location of zero moment on segment BC can be determined using the squared property of parabola. See the solution of Problem 434.

72 kN

48 kN

48 kNm

Problem 433.

205

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750 lb Figure P-433 3000 lbft

2 ft R1

3 ft R2

2 ft

Solution 433.

750 lb

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = 300 lb (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 300 + 0 = 300 lb (3) VC = VB + Area in load diagram VC = 300 + 0 = 300 lb VC2 = VC + R2 = 300 + 450 = 750 lb (5) VD = VC2 + Area in load diagram VD = 750 + 0 = 750 VD2 = VD 750 = 750 750 = 0 To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = VA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + 300(2) = 600 lbft MB2 = VB 3000 MB2 = 600 3000 = 2400 lbft (3) MC = MB2 + Area in shear diagram MC = 2400 + 300(3) = 1500 lbft (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 1500 + 750(2) = 0

2 ft R1 = 300 lb

1500 lbft

2400 lbft

206

Problem 434.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-434.

60 kN 20 kN/m

Figure P-434

M = 120 kNm

2m R1

2m

2m

2m R2

Solution 434.

60 kN 20 kN/m M = 120 kNm A B 2m 2m R1 = 100 kN C 2m D E

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 0 (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 0 20(2) = 40 kN VB2 = VB + R1 = 40 + 100 = 60 kN (3) VC = VB2 + Area in load diagram VC = 60 20(2) = 20 kN VC2 = VC 60 = 20 60 = 40 kN (4) VD = VC2 + Area in load diagram VD = 40 + 0 = 40 kN (5) VE = VD + Area in load diagram VE = 40 + 0 = 40 kN VE2 = VE + R2 = 40 + 40 = 0 To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 (40)(2) = 40 kNm (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 40 + (60 + 20)(2) = 40 kNm (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 40 40(2) = 40 kNm MD2 = MD + M = 40 + 120 = 80 kNm (5) ME = MD2 + Area in shear diagram ME = 80 40(2) = 0 (6) Moment curve BC is a downward parabola with vertex at C. C is the location of zero shear for segment BC. (7) Location of zero moment at segment BC: By squared property of parabola: (3 x)2 / 50 = 32 / (50 + 40) 3 x = 2.236 x = 0.764 m from B

2m R2 = 40 kN

Load Diagram

60 kN 20 kN

40 kN

40 kN

Shear Diagram

1m 40 kNm 40 kNm

Moment Diagram

Problem 435.

207

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20 kN Figure P-435 10 kN/m 40 kN 1m 2m

2m R1

2m

1m

wo

Solution 435.

20 kN 10 kN/m 40 kN 1m

2m F

E wo = 16 kN/m

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in load diagram MB = 0 10(2) = 20 kN MB2 + MB + R1 = 20 + 68 = 48 kN (3) MC = MB2 + Area in load diagram MC = 48 10(2) = 28 kN MC2 = MC 20 = 28 20 = 8 kN (4) MD = MC2 + Area in load diagram MD = 8 + 0 = 8 kN MD2 = MD 40 = 8 40 = 32 kN (5) ME = MD2 + Area in load diagram ME = 32 + 0 = 32 kN (6) MF = ME + Area in load diagram MF = 32 + wo(2) MF = 32 + 16(2) = 0 To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 (20)(2) = 20 kNm (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 20 + (48 + 28)(2) MC = 56 kNm (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 56 + 8(1) = 64 kNm (5) ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 64 32(1) = 32 kNm (6) MF = ME + Area in shear diagram MF = 32 (32)(2) = 0 (7) The location and magnitude of moment at C are determined from shear diagram. By squared property of parabola, x = 0.44 m from B.

2m 2m 1m R1 = 68 kN Load Diagram

2.8 m 48 kN 28 kN 8 kN

208

Problem 436.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

A distributed load is supported by two distributed reactions as shown in Fig. P-436.

440 lb/ft Figure P-436 4 ft 8 ft R1 = w1 lb/ft R2 = w2 lb/ft 2 ft

Solution 436.

440 lb/ft 4 ft A B R1 = 400 lb/ft Load Diagram 8 ft C R2 = 960 lb/ft 2 ft D

Mmidpoint of CD = 0 4w1 (11) = 440(8)(5) w1 = 400 lb/ft Mmidpoint of AB = 0 2w2 (11) = 440(8)(6) w2 = 960 lb/ft

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 0 (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 0 + 400(4) = 1600 lb (3) VC = VB + Area in load diagram VC = 1600 440(8) = 1920 lb (4) VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 1920 + 960(2) = 0 (5) Location of zero shear: x / 1600 = (8 x) / 1920 x = 40/11 ft = 3.636 ft from B To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + (1600)(4) = 3200 lbft (3) Mx = MB + Area in shear diagram Mx = 3200 + (1600)(40/11) Mx = 6109.1 lbft (4) MC = Mx + Area in shear diagram MC = 6109.1 (8 40/11)(1920) MC = 1920 lbft (5) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 1920 (1920)(2) = 0

1600 lb

x = 3.636 ft

Shear Diagram

1920 lb

Moment Diagram

Problem 437.

209

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1000 lb

400 lb/ft

2 ft 500 lb

2 ft

4 ft

Figure P-437

Solution 437.

1000 lb

400 lb/ft To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 1000 lb VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 1000 + 0 = 1000 lb VB2 = VB + 500 = 1000 + 500 VB2 = 500 lb (2) VC = VB2 + Area in load diagram VC = 500 + 0 = 500 lb (3) VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 500 400(4) = 2100 lb To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 1000(2) = 2000 lbft (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 2000 500(2) = 3000 lbft (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 3000 (500 + 2100)(4) MD = 8200 lbft

A 2 ft

B 2 ft 500 lb

C 4 ft

Load Diagram

2100 lb

Moment Diagram

8200 lbft

210

Problem 438.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

The beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-438 consists of two segments joined by a frictionless hinge at which the bending moment is zero.

200 lb/ft

Figure P-438

Hinge 2 ft R1 4 ft 2 ft

Solution 438.

200 lb/ft A 2 ft A B 2 ft 4 ft R1 = 900 lb Load Diagram 500 lb H 2 ft C R1 B

200 lb/ft

H 4 ft

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 0 (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 0 200(2) = 400 lb VB2 = VB + R1 = 400 + 900 = 500 lb (3) VH = VB2 + Area in load diagram VH = 500 200(4) = 300 lb (4) VC = VH + Area in load diagram VC = 300 200(2) = 700 lb (5) Location of zero shear: x / 500 = (4 x) / 300 300x = 2000 500x x = 2.5 ft To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 (400)(2) = 400 lbft (3) Mx = MB + Area in load diagram Mx = 400 + (500)(2.5) Mx = 225 lbft (4) MH = Mx + Area in load diagram MH = 225 (300)(4 2.5) = 0 ok! (5) MC = MH + Area in load diagram MC = 0 (300 + 700)(2) MC = 1000 lbft (6) The location of zero moment in segment BH can easily be found by symmetry.

x = 2.5 ft 400 lb

300 lb 700 lb

Problem 439.

211

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A beam supported on three reactions as shown in Fig. P-439 consists of two segments joined by frictionless hinge at which the bending moment is zero.

4000 lb Figure P-439 Hinge 400 lb/ft

R1

4 ft

4 ft

4 ft

R2

10 ft

R3

Solution 439.

4000 lb 4000 lb Hinge A A B H C 4 ft R2 = 4800 lb Load Diagram 2800 lb D 10 ft R3 = 1200 lb R1 4 ft B VH 4 ft 400 lb/ft Hinge H

4 ft 4 ft R1 = 2000 lb

2000 lb

VH = 2000 lb Hinge 1200 lb H 4 ft R2 3 ft C

400 lb/ft

D 10 ft R3

2000 lb

x = 7 ft

Shear Diagram

8000 lbft To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 0 (2) VB = 2000 lb VB2 = 2000 4000 = 2000 lb (3) VH = 2000 lb (3) VC = 2000 lb VC = 2000 + 4800 = 2800 lb (4) VD = 2800 400(10) = 1200 lb (5) Location of zero shear: x / 2800 = (10 x) / 1200 1200x = 28000 2800x x = 7 ft To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = 2000(4) = 8000 lbft (3) MH = 8000 4000(2) = 0 (4) MC = 400(2) MC = 8000 lbft (5) Mx = 800 + (2800)(7) Mx = 1800 lbft (6) MD = 1800 (1200)(3) MD = 0 (7) Zero M is 4 ft from R2

212

Problem 440.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

A frame ABCD, with rigid corners at B and C, supports the concentrated load as shown in Fig. P440. (Draw shear and moment diagrams for each of the three parts of the frame.)

C L D

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L/2

P Figure P-440

L/2

Solution 440.

Member AB P PL/2 C Shear Diagram Load Diagram PL/2 PL/2 Moment Diagram A Member BC P

B P

L/2

B P

PL/2

Shear Diagram

Member CD P C

PL/2

Load Diagram

PL/2

Problem 441.

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A beam ABCD is supported by a roller at A and a hinge at D. It is subjected to the loads shown in Fig. P-441, which act at the ends of the vertical members BE and CF. These vertical members are rigidly attached to the beam at B and C. (Draw shear and moment diagrams for the beam ABCD only.)

10 kN

4

Figure P-441

F 2m

2m A B

2m C

2m D

2m 14 kN E

Solution 441.

5 4 3

10 kN F 2m

FBH = 14 kN to the right MB = 14(2) MB = 28 kNm counterclockwise FCH = 3/5 (10) FCH = 6 kN to the right FCV = 4/5 (10) FCV = 8 kN upward MC = FCH (2) = 6(2) MC = 12 kNm clockwise

2m A B

2m C

2m D

2m 14 kN E

MD = 0 6RA + 12 + 8(2) = 28 RA = 0

8 kN 2m 6 kN 2m C 12 kNm RDV = 8 kN D RDH = 20 kN

2m 14 kN

B 28 kNm

RA = 0

214

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2m 14 kN

Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

8 kN 2m 6 kN 2m C 12 kNm RDV = 8 kN D RDH = 20 kN To draw the Shear Diagram (1) Shear in segments AB and BC is zero. (2) VC = 8 (3) VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 8 + 0 = 8 kN VD2 = VD RDV VD2 = 8 8 = 0 To draw the Moment Diagram (1) Moment in segment AB is zero (2) MB = 28 kNm (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 28 + 0 = 28 kNm MC2 = MC + 12 = 28 + 12 MC2 = 16 kNm (4) MD = MC2 + Area in shear diagram MD = 16 + 8(2) MD = 0

B 28 kNm

RA = 0

Load Diagram

8 kN

Shear Diagram

Problem 442.

Figure P-442 wO

L R1 R2

Solution 442.

Lwo 2/3 L 1/3 L wo

R1 =

1 6

Lwo

R2 =

1 3

L R1 R2

Lwo

wo A L R1 = 1/6 Lwo R2 = 1/3 Lwo Load Diagram 1/6 Lwo B

215

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To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = 1/6 Lwo (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 1/6 Lwo 1/2 Lwo VB = 1/3 Lwo (3) Location of zero shear C: By squared property of parabola: x2 / (1/6 Lwo) = L2 / (1/6 Lwo + 1/3 Lwo) 6x2 = 2L2 x = L / 3 (4) The shear in AB is a parabola with vertex at A, the starting point of uniformly varying load. The load in AB is 0 at A to downward wo or wo at B, thus the slope of shear diagram is decreasing. For decreasing slope, the parabola is open downward. To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MC = MA + Area in shear diagram MC = 0 + 2/3 (L/3)(1/6 Lwo) MC = 0.06415L2wo = Mmax (3) MB = MC + Area in shear diagram see figure for solving A1 MB = MC A1 For A1: A1 = 1/3 L(1/6 Lwo + 1/3 Lwo) 1/3 (L/3)(1/6 Lwo) 1/6 Lwo (L L/3) A1 = 0.16667L2wo 0.03208L2wo 0.07044L2wo A1 = 0.06415L2wo MB = 0.06415L2wo 0.06415L2wo = 0 (4) The shear diagram is second degree curve, thus the moment diagram is a third degree curve. The maximum moment (highest point) occurred at C, the location of zero shear. The value of shears in AC is positive then the moment in AC is increasing; at CB the shear is negative, then the moment in CB is decreasing.

2

L / 3

A1

Problem 443.

wO Figure P-443

L/2 R1

L/2 R2

216

Solution 443.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

By symmetry: 1 R1 = R2 = 2 ( 1 Lw o ) 2 R1 = R2 =

1 4

wO

Lwo

L/2

L/2

1 4

R2 = Lwo

Lw o

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = Lwo (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = Lwo (L/2)(wo) = 0 (3) VC = VB + Area in load diagram VC = 0 (L/2)(wo) = Lwo (4) Load in AB is linear, thus, VAB is second degree or parabolic curve. The load is from 0 at A to wo (wo is downward or wo) at B, thus the slope of VAB is decreasing. (5) VBC is also parabolic since the load in BC is linear. The magnitude of load in BC is from wo to 0 or increasing, thus the slope of VBC is increasing. To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + 2/3 (L/2)(1/4 Lwo) = 1/12 Lwo (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 1/12 Lwo 2/3 (L/2)(1/4 Lwo) = 0 (4) MAC is third degree because the shear diagram in AC is second degree. (5) The shear from A to C is decreasing, thus the slope of moment diagram from A to C is decreasing.

Shear Diagram

1 12

1 4

Lw o

L wo

Moment Diagram

Problem 444.

Figure P-444

wo

wo

L/2 R1

L/2 R2

Solution 444.

1 2

Lwo

By symmetry R1 = R2 = R1 = R2 =

1 2 1 4

total load

Lwo

217

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To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = Lwo (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = Lwo (L/2)(wo) = 0 (3) VC = VB + Area in load diagram VC = 0 (L/2)(wo) = Lwo (4) The shear diagram in AB is second degree curve. The shear in AB is from wo (downward wo) to zero or increasing, thus, the slope of shear at AB is increasing (upward parabola). (5) The shear diagram in BC is second degree curve. The shear in BC is from zero to wo (downward wo) or decreasing, thus, the slope of shear at BC is decreasing (downward parabola) To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + 1/3 (L/2)( Lwo) = 1/24 L2wo (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 1/24 L2wo 1/3 (L/2)( Lwo) = 0 (4) The shear diagram from A to C is decreasing, thus, the moment diagram is a concave downward third degree curve.

1 4

wo C L/2 R2 = Lwo

Lw o

Shear Diagram

1 4

Lw o

1 24

L wo

Moment Diagram

Problem 445.

80 kN/m Figure P-445 20 kN/m

1m R1

3m

1m R2

Solution 445.

F2 = 90 kN 2m F1 = 80 kN 1m 60 kN/m 20 kN/m

Checking R1 + R2 = F1 + F2 ok!

R1

1m

3m

1m

R2

218

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y 20 kN/m A B

Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

80 kN/m To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = R1 = 84 kN (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 84 20(1) = 64 kN (3) VC = VB + Area in load diagram VC = 64 (20 + 80)(3) = 86 kN (4) VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 86 + 0 = 86 kN VD2 = VD + R2 = 86 + 86 = 0 (5) Location of zero shear: From the load diagram: y / (x + 1) = 80 / 4 y = 20(x + 1) VE = VB + Area in load diagram 0 = 64 (20 + y)x (20 + y)x = 128 [20 + 20(x + 1)]x = 128 20x2 + 40x 128 = 0 5x2 + 10x 32 = 0 x = 1.72 and 3.72 use x = 1.72 m from B (5) By squared property of parabola: z / (1 + x)2 = (z + 86) / 42 16z = 7.3984z + 636.2624 8.6016z = 254.4224 z = 73.97 kN To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + (84 + 64)(1) = 74 kNm (3) ME = MB + Area in shear diagram ME = 74 + A1 see figure for A1 and A2 For A1: A1 = 2/3 (1 + 1.72)(73.97) 64(1) 2/3 (1)(9.97) A1 = 63.5 ME = 74 + 63.5 = 137.5 kNm (4) MC = ME + Area in shear diagram MC = ME A2 For A2: A2 = 1/3 (4)(73.97 + 86) 1/3 (1 + 1.72)(73.97) 1.28(73.97) A2 = 51.5 MC = 137.5 51.5 = 86 kNm (5) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 86 86(1) = 0

C 3m

D 1m R2 = 86 kN

1m R1 = 84 kN

nd

86 kNm

Moment Diagram

Problem 446.

219

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50 kN Figure P-446 1m 4m 20 kN/m 1m 50 kN

Solution 446.

50 kN 1m B A

4m 20 kN/m

50 kN 1m C D

To draw the Shear Diagram (1) VA = 0 (2) VB = VA + Area in load diagram VB = 0 + (36)(1) = 18 kN VB2 = VB 50 = 18 50 VB2 = 32 kN (3) The net uniformly distributed load in segment BC is 36 20 = 16 kN/m upward. VC = VB2 + Area in load diagram VC = 32 + 16(4) = 32 kN VC2 = VC 50 = 32 50 VC2 = 18 kN (4) VD = VC2 + Area in load diagram VD = 18 + (36)(1) = 0 (5) The shape of shear at AB and CD are parabolic spandrel with vertex at A and D, respectively. (6) The location of zero shear is obviously at the midspan or 2 m from B. To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + 1/3 (1)(18) MB = 6 kNm (3) Mmidspan = MB + Area in shear diagram Mmidspan = 6 (32)(2) Mmidspan = 26 kNm (4) MC = Mmidspan + Area in shear diagram MC = 26 + (32)(2) MC = 6 kNm (5) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 6 1/3 (1)(18) = 0 (6) The moment diagram at AB and CD are 3rd degree curve while at BC is 2nd degree curve.

18 kN 32 kN Shear Diagram

6 Knm

6 Knm

220

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

In the following problems, draw moment and load diagrams corresponding to the given shear diagrams. Specify values at all change of load positions and at all points of zero shear.

Problem 447.

V (lb) 2 Figure P-447 2400 400 1000 x (ft) 3 2 2

Solution 447.

4000 2000 lb 4400 lb 1000 lb To draw the Load Diagram (1) A 2400 lb upward force is acting at point A. No load in segment AB. (2) A point force of 2400 400 = 2000 lb is acting downward at point B. No load in segment BC. (3) Another downward force of magnitude 400 + 4000 = 4400 lb at point C. No load in segment CD. (4) Upward point force of 4000 + 1000 = 5000 lb is acting at D. No load in segment DE. (5) A downward force of 1000 lb is concentrated at point E. To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + 2400(2) = 4800 lbft MAB is linear and upward (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 4800 + 400(3) = 6000 lbft MBC is linear and upward (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 6000 4000(2) = 2000 lbft MCD is linear and downward (5) ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 2000 + 1000(2) = 0 MDE is linear and upward

2 ft R1 = 2400 lb

3 ft

2 ft

2 ft

Problem 448.

221

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V (kN)

Figure P-448

2 36

1.6

2.4

16

20 x (m) 24

40

Solution 448.

20 kN/m 20 kN 10 kN/m To draw the Load Diagram (1) A uniformly distributed load in AB is acting downward at a magnitude of 40/2 = 20 kN/m. (2) Upward concentrated force of 40 + 36 = 76 kN acts at B. No load in segment BC. (3) A downward point force acts at C at a magnitude of 36 16 = 20 kN. (4) Downward uniformly distributed load in CD has a magnitude of (16 + 24)/4 = 10 kN/m & causes zero shear at point F, 1.6 m from C. (5) Another upward concentrated force acts at D at a magnitude of 20 + 24 = 44 kN. (6) The load in segment DE is uniform and downward at 20/2 = 10 kN/m. To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 (40)(2) = 40 kNm MAB is downward parabola with vertex at A. (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 40 + 36(1) = 4 kNm MBC is linear and upward (4) MF = MC + Area in shear diagram MF = 4 + (16)(1.6) = 8.8 kNm (5) MD = MF + Area in shear diagram MD = 8.8 (24)(2.4) = 20 kNm MCD is downward parabola with vertex at F. (6) ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 20 + (20)(2) = 0 MDE is downward parabola with vertex at E.

222

Problem 449.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Shear diagram as shown in Fig. P-449.

3 2 3 4 3700 1700 x (ft) 3100 8

Figure P-449

V (lb)

4000

Solution 449.

4000 lb 2000 lb 600 lb/ft To draw the Load Diagram (1) Downward 4000 lb force is concentrated at A and no load in segment AB. (2) The shear in BC is uniformly increasing, F thus a uniform upward force is acting at a magnitude of (3700 + 4000)/2 = 3850 3100 lb lb/ft. No load in segment CD. (3) Another point force acting downward with 8 ft 3700 1700 = 1200 lb at D and no load in segment DE. (4) The shear in EF is uniformly decreasing, thus a uniform downward force is acting with magnitude of (1700 + 3100)/8 = 600 lb/ft. (5) Upward force of 3100 lb is concentrated at end of span F. 31/6 ft H To draw the Moment Diagram (1) The locations of zero shear (points G and H) can be easily determined by ratio and proportion of triangle. (2) MA = 0 (3) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 4000(3) = 12,000 lbft (4) MG = MB + Area in shear diagram MG = 12,000 (80/77)(4000) MG = 14,077.92 lbft (5) MC = MG + Area in shear diagram MC = 14,077.92 + (74/77)(3700) MC = 12,300 lbft (6) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 12,300 + 3700(3) = 1200 lbft (7) ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 1200 + 1700(4) = 5600 lbft (8) MH = ME + Area in shear diagram MH = 5600 + (17/6)(1700) MH = 8,008.33 lbft (9) MF = MH + Area in shear diagram MF = 8,008.33 (31/6)(3100) = 0

C D

3850 lb/ft 3 ft 2 ft 3 ft 4 ft

Load Diagram

4000 lb

74/77 ft

17/6 ft

3100 lb

1,200 lbft

Problem 450.

223

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V (lb) 4 2 4 900 480 x (ft) 4 4

Figure P-450

900 1380

Solution 450.

900 lb 900 lb

Solution

To draw the Load Diagram (1) The shear diagram in AB is uniformly upward, thus the load is uniformly distributed upward at a magnitude of 900/4 = 225 lb/ft. No load in segment BC. (2) A downward point force acts at point C with magnitude of 900 lb. No load in segment CD. (3) Another concentrated force is acting downward at D with a magnitude of 900 lb. (4) The load in DE is uniformly distributed downward at a magnitude of (1380 900)/4 = 120 lb/ft. (5) An upward load is concentrated at E with magnitude of 480 + 1380 = 1860 lb. (6) 480/4 = 120 lb/ft is distributed uniformly over the span EF. To draw the Moment Diagram (1) MA = 0 (2) MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + (4)(900) = 1800 lbft (3) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 1800 + 900(2) = 3600 lbft (4) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 3600 + 0 = 3600 lbft (5) ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 3600 (900 + 1380)(4) ME = 960 lbft (6) MF = ME + Area in shear diagram MF = 960 + (480)(4) = 0 (7) The shape of moment diagram in AB is upward parabola with vertex at A, while linear in BC and horizontal in CD. For segment DE, the diagram is downward parabola with vertex at G. G is the point where the extended shear in DE intersects the line of zero shear. (8) The moment diagram in EF is a downward parabola with vertex at F.

120 lb/ft

B 225 lb/ft 4 ft 2 ft

E 1860 lb

4 ft

4 ft

4 ft

Load Diagram

900 lb 480 lb G

224

Problem 451.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Shear diagram as shown in Fig. P-451.

V (kN) 10 2nd-degree curve

Figure P-451

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x (m) 2 8 3 1 1 2

Solution 451.

8 kN/m 6 kN To draw the Load Diagram (1) Upward concentrated load at A is 10 kN. (2) The shear in AB is a 2nd-degree curve, thus the load in AB is uniformly varying. In this E case, it is zero at A to 2(10 + 2)/3 = 8 kN at B. No load in segment BC. (3) A downward point force is acting at C in a magnitude of 8 2 = 6 kN. (4) The shear in DE is uniformly increasing, thus the load in DE is uniformly distributed and upward. This load is spread over DE at a magnitude of 8/2 = 4 kN/m. To draw the Moment Diagram (1) To find the location of zero shear, F: x2/10 = 32/(10 + 2) x = 2.74 m (2) MA = 0 (3) MF = MA + Area in shear diagram MF = 0 + 2/3 (2.74)(10) = 18.26 kNm (4) MB = MF + Area in shear diagram MB = 18.26 [1/3 (10 + 2)(3) 1/3 (2.74)(10) 10(3 2.74)] MB = 18 kNm (5) MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 18 2(1) = 16 kNm (6) MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 16 8(1) = 8 kNm (7) ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 8 (2)(8) = 0 (8) The moment diagram in AB is a second degree curve, at BC and CD are linear and downward. For segment DE, the moment diagram is parabola open upward with vertex at E.

A 10 kN 3m

D 4 kN/m

1m

1m

2m

Load Diagram 10 kN

18.26 kNm

Moment Diagram

MOVING LOADS

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From the previous section, we see that the maximum moment occurs at a point of zero shears. For beams loaded with concentrated loads, the point of zero shears usually occurs under a concentrated load and so the maximum moment. Beams and girders such as in a bridge or an overhead crane are subject to moving concentrated loads, which are at fixed distance with each other. The problem here is to determine the moment under each load when each load is in a position to cause a maximum moment. The largest value of these moments governs the design of the beam.

SINGLE MOVING LOAD For a single moving load, the maximum moment occurs when the load is at the midspan and the maximum shear occurs when the load is very near the support (usually assumed to lie over the support).

P Position for maximum shear L/2 L P Position for maximum moment L/2

Mmax =

PL and Vmax = P 4

TWO MOVING LOADS For two moving loads, the maximum shear occurs at the reaction when the larger load is over that support. The maximum moment is given by

Pb > Ps Pb d Ps

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Mmax =

( PL Ps d ) 2 4 PL

where Ps is the smaller load, Pb is the bigger load, and P is the total load (P = Ps + Pb).

THREE OR MORE MOVING LOADS In general, the bending moment under a particular load is a maximum when the center of the beam is midway between that load and the resultant of all the loads then on the span. With this rule, we compute the maximum moment under each load, and use the biggest of the moments for the design. Usually, the biggest of these moments occurs under the biggest load.

The maximum shear occurs at the reaction where the resultant load is nearest. Usually, it happens if the biggest load is over that support and as many a possible of the remaining loads are still on the span. In determining the largest moment and shear, it is sometimes necessary to check the condition when the bigger loads are on the span and the rest of the smaller loads are outside.

A truck with axle loads of 40 kN and 60 kN on a wheel base of 5 m rolls across a 10-m span. Compute the maximum bending moment and the maximum shearing force. R = 40 + 60 = 100 kN

40 kN R 60 kN 5x x

Solution 453.

5m

227

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40 kN

C L

R1

3.5 m

1.5 m 10 m

3.5 m

R2

MTo the left of 40 kN = 3.5R1 MTo the left of 40 kN = 3.5(35) MTo the left of 40 kN = 122.5 kNm

R = 100 kN 40 kN 3m 2m C L

For maximum moment under 60 kN wheel: MR1 = 0 60 kN 10R2 = 4(100) R2 = 40 kN MTo the right of 60 kN = 4R2 MTo the right of 60 kN = 4(40) MTo the right of 60 kN = 160 kNm Thus, Mmax = 160 kNm

R = 100 kN 60 kN 3m 2m

R1

4m

1m 10 m

4m

R2

40 kN

The maximum shear will occur when the 60 kN is over a support. MR1 = 0 10R2 = 100(8) R2 = 80 kN Thus, Vmax = 80 kN

R1

8m

R2

Problem 454.

Repeat Prob. 453 using axle loads of 30 kN and 50 kN on a wheel base of 4 m crossing an 8-m span. R = 30 + 50 = 80 kN

30 kN R 4x x 50 kN

Solution 454.

4m

228

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Maximum moment under 30 kN wheel: MR2 = 0 8R1 = 2.75(80) R1 = 27.5 kN MTo the left of 30 kN = 2.75R1 MTo the left of 30 kN = 2.75(27.5) MTo the left of 30 kN = 75.625 kNm Maximum moment under 50 kN wheel: MR1 = 0 8R2 = 3.25(80) R2 = 32.5 kN MTo the right of 50 kN = 3.25R2 MTo the right of 50 kN = 3.25(32.5) MTo the right of 50 kN = 105.625 kNm Thus, Mmax = 105.625 kNm

R = 80 kN 2.5 m 1.5 m 50 kN

R = 80 kN 30 kN 2.5 m C L 1.5 m 50 kN

R1

2.75 m

1.25 m 8m

2.75 m

R2

R = 80 kN 30 kN 2.5 m 1.5 m 50 kN C L

R1

3.25 m

0.75 m 8m

3.25 m

R2

30 kN

The maximum shear will occur when the 50 kN is over a support. MR1 = 0 8R2 = 6.5(80) R2 = 65 kN Thus, Vmax = 65 kN

6.5 m R1 8m R2

Problem 455.

A tractor weighing 3000 lb, with a wheel base of 9 ft, carries 1800 lb of its load on the rear wheels. Compute the maximum moment and maximum shear when crossing a 14 ft-span. R = Wr + Wf 3000 = 1800 + Wf Wf = 1200 lb Rx = 9Wf 3000x = 9(1200) x = 3.6 ft

Wr = 1800 lb x R = 3000 lb 9x Wf

Solution 455.

9 ft

9 x = 5.4 ft

R = 3000 lb 3.6 ft C L

229

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Wr = 1800 lb

Wf = 1200 lb 5.4 ft

R1

5.2 ft

1.8 ft 14 ft

5.2 ft

R2

When the midspan is midway between Wr and R, the front wheel Wf will be outside the span (see figure). In this case, only the rear wheel Wr = 1800 lb is the load. The maximum moment for this condition is when the load is at the midspan. R1 = R2 = (1800) R1 = 900 lb Maximum moment under Wr MTo the left of rear wheel = 7R1 MTo the left of rear wheel = 7(900) MTo the left of rear wheel = 6300 lbft Maximum moment under Wf MR1 = 0 14R2 = 4.3R 14R2 = 4.3(3000) R2 = 921.43 lb MTo the right of front wheel = 4.3R2 MTo the right of front wheel = 4.3(921.43) MTo the right of front wheel = 3962.1 lbft Thus, Mmax = MTo the left of rear wheel Thus, Mmax = 6300 lbft

Wr = 1800 lb

7 ft R1 14 ft R2

Wf = 1200 lb

R1

4.3 ft

2.7 ft 14 ft

4.3 ft

R2

Wf = 1200 lb

R1

10.4 ft 14 ft

R2

The maximum shear will occur when the rear wheel (wheel of greater load) is directly over the support. MR2 = 0 14R1 = 10.4R 14R1 = 10.4(3000) R1 = 2228.57 lb Thus, Vmax = 2228.57 lb

230

Problem 456.

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Three wheel loads roll as a unit across a 44-ft span. The loads are P1 = 4000 lb and P2 = 8000 lb separated by 9 ft, and P3 = 6000 lb at 18 ft from P2. Determine the maximum moment and maximum shear in the simply supported span.

x

Solution 456.

P1 = 4k

P2 = 8k R

P3 = 6k

x = 13 P1 = 4k 9 P2 = 8k 18 R = 18k C L

Maximum moment under P1 MR2 = 0 P3 = 6k 44R1 = 15.5R 44R1 = 15.5(18) R1 = 6.34091 kips R1 = 6,340.91 lbs MTo the left of P1 = 15.5R1 MTo the left of P1 = 15.5(6340.91) MTo the left of P1 = 98,284.1 lbft Maximum moment under P2 MR2 = 0 44R1 = 20R 44R1 = 20(18) R1 = 8.18182 kips R1 = 8,181.82 lbs MTo the left of P2 = 20R1 9P1 MTo the left of P2 = 20(8,181.82) 9(4000) MTo the left of P2 = 127,636.4 lbft

15.5 R1

6.5 44

15.5 R2

x = 13 P1 = 4k 9 P2 = 8k 18 R = 18k C L P3 = 6k

20 R1

2 44

20 R2

231

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Maximum moment under P3 R1 = 0 44R2 = 15R 44R2 = 15(18) R2 = 6.13636 kips R2 = 6,136.36 lbs MTo the right of P3 = 15R2 MTo the right of P3 = 15(6,136.36) MTo the right of P3 = 92,045.4 lbft Thus, Mmax = MTo the left of P2 Thus, Mmax = 127,636.4 lbft

x = 13 P1 = 4k 9 P2 = 8k 18 R = 18k C L P3 = 6k

15 R1

7 44

15 R2

x = 13 P1 = 4k 9 P2 = 8k 18 R = 18k P3 = 6k

31 R1 44

The maximum shear will occur when P1 is over the support. MR2 = 0 44R1 = 35R 44R1 = 31(18) R1 = 12.6818 kips R1 = 12,681.8 lbs R2 Thus, Vmax = 12,681.8 lbs

Problem 457.

A truck and trailer combination crossing a 12-m span has axle loads of 10, 20, and 30 kN separated respectively by distances of 3 and 5 m. Compute the maximum moment and maximum shear developed in the span.

Solution 457.

x 10 kN 20 kN R 30 kN

3m

5m

232

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Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

Maximum moment under 10 kN

x=5m 10 kN 3m C L 20 kN 5m R = 60 kN 30 kN

3.5 m R1

2.5 m

3.5 m R2 12 m

MTo the left of 10 kN = 3.5R1 MTo the left of 10 kN = 3.5(12.7) MTo the left of 10 kN = 61.25 kNm Maximum moment under 20 kN

x=5m 10 kN 3m C L 20 kN 5m R = 60 kN 30 kN

5m R1 1m 12 m

5m R2

233

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MTo the left of 20 kN = 5R1 3(10) MTo the left of 20 kN = 5(25) 30 MTo the left of 20 kN = 95 kNm When the centerline of the beam is midway between reaction R = 60 kN and 30 kN, the 10 kN comes off the span.

x=3m 10 kN 3m 20 kN 5m R = 50 kN C L 30 kN

5m R1 1m 12 m

5m R2

MTo the right of 30 kN = 5R2 MTo the right of 30 kN = 5(20.83) MTo the right of 30 kN = 104.17 kNm Thus, the maximum moment will occur when only the 20 and 30 kN loads are on the span. Mmax = MTo the right of 30 kN Mmax = 104.17 kNm

234

www.mathalino.com

Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams; Relation between Load, Shear, and Moment; Moving Loads

The maximum shear will occur when the three loads are on the span and the 30 kN load is directly over the support.

x=5m 10 kN 3m 20 kN 5m R = 60 kN 30 kN

9m 12 m R1 R2

Thus, Vmax = 45 kN

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