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A PROJECT REPORT ON

Comparative Study of SF Sonic Batteries and Its Future Prospects in Garages of North Bengal

Conducted towards the partial fulfillment & requirement for the degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA)

Report Submitted By

Krishnendu Jha
Roll No. - 1106247145 Batch- 2011-2013

Under the guidance of:Corporate Guide:Faculty Guide:-

Mr.Suven Banerjee RSM (SF-EAST) Exide Industries Ltd.

Prof. Dibyendu Choudhury


Associate Professor Regional College of Mgmt.

Declaration

I, Krishnendu Jha, hereby declare that, the project entitled Comparative Study Of SF Sonic Batteries And Its Future Prospects In Garages Of North Bengal is submitted by me to Exide Industries, Kolkata based on a research study conducted and presented towards the partial fulfillment for the Award of the degree - Master of Business Administration. The report is based on my own work experience during the one and half months with the organization.

Krishnendu Jha
Reg. No.-1106247145 Regional College of Mgmt .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First I would like to thank Mr. Suven Banerjee, who gave me the opportunity to undertake a project at Exide Industries Ltd.

Then I would like to thank Mr. Debopratim Das and Mr. Jayantha Narayan Das who gave me the idea about how to do a market survey and how to prepare a questionnaire.

I would like to thank Prof. Dibyendu Choudhury , who helped me as my internal guide and giving me vital insights about the project and how the project is to be completed.

Last but not the least I would like to thank my parents, my family, my friends who supported me a lot throughout the time and the people with whom I met during the survey, without their help I could not have completed the project in time.

Corporate Guide Certificate


This is to certify that the work entitled Comparative Study Of SF Sonic Batteries And Its Future Prospects In Garages Of North Bengal on Exide product. This piece of project is done by Krishnendu Jha, Reg. No -1106247145, student of MBA (first year) under the guidance and supervision for partial fulfillment of MBA curricular of Regional College of Management Autonomous, Bhubaneswar. To the best of my knowledge and belief the term project report: 1. Embodies the work of 2. Has been duly completed. 3. Is up to the standard both in respect to the content and language for being referred to the examiner.

Mr. Suven Banerjee RSM ( SF-EAST) Exide Industries Ltd.


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ABSTRACT
As the title of the project suggests, this project is all about the Comparative Study of SF Sonic Batteries and Its Future Prospects In Garages of North Bengal. Due to increase in the population and their demand as well as better quality product market size is also increasing. The changing technological advancement and changing preference of the consumer satisfaction, there is cut throat competition in market.

As this project is all about the detail study of SF sonic Batteries in the Garages of North Bengal, a lot of survey throughout North Bengal is conducted, by which all the primary information about the products were collected. In this process several wholesaler, retailer and the customers were surveyed. All the required secondary informations gathered from the company as well as from the internet, books & journals. In order to find out the Brand & their price preferences, the satisfaction level of traders, service level they want from a company, a questionnaire has been prepared. The questionnaire for the existing dealers will help to interpret the satisfaction level of the brand they currently have or using. At last questionnaire and by different suitable charts the conclusion about the effective traders and customers satisfaction level in using SF Sonic batteries.

EXECUTIVE SUMMERY: The topic of my project was Comparative Study Of SF SONIC Batteries And Its Future Prospects In Garages Of North Bengal. Initially it has been observed that there was no database of Garages and service stations recorded to the company which is creating a big problem for the company executives to take any decisions and get knowledge about the recent real situation of the battery market and the issues regarding this SF SONIC battery. The company has to get information through the dealers and distributors which are not at all reliable because as we all know that they are basically profit oriented and it is not at all possible to get all the right information through these distribution channels or medium. So, the main goal of the company was to make a data bank of all the garages of West Bengal so that they can directly contact with the garage owners regarding their issues. Apart from that by from this database the company will be able to know about the monthly consumption of battery of a particular garage or particular area. Which will help them to analyze the market share as well as their strength, weakness, threats and opportunity. Lastly the company will maintain CRM so that they can stay in touch with the garages and make them aware about the product and provide after sales service. My job was to visit the garages and collect data from the garage owners. To do the survey I made cluster sampling from the region of North Bengal, which is basically a remote area. The districts I have covered are Coochbehar, Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur, Malda. I made extensive visit to these areas and visited most of the garages and service stations to prepare the database and also collect information about their issues and needs regarding batteries .I had prepared a brief questionnaire to get the information as needed. While visiting the garages and talking to the garage owners or workshop managers I come to know about various facts regarding battery. I come to know
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about the average monthly consumption of battery for individual garages, from which they purchase the battery, is there any discount or credit facility availed from the dealer or distributor. They have ever used SF battery or not, are they satisfied with the product and service of SF SONIC. All these questions helped me to collect true information from the garage owners which will be looked after by the company. Finally I have asked them to give any suggestions regarding this SF battery which they think the company should provide so that they can recommend this battery to the customers. From the answer of my questions I have got a brief idea about the competitive market from the garage owners perception. Unintentionally they have shared lots of information which is very essential for the company to get into their knowledge. While talking to the garage owners they have shared various issues and problem about other brands and company as well as the facility given by other companies to grab their attention. This information helps me as well as the company to progress the comparative study.

INTRODUCTION:

I am a student of Regional College of Management Autonomous pursuing my MBA.I am very pleased to get an opportunity to do a Summer project in such a renown world class company like Exide Industries ltd. I was allotted the project in the SF division of Exide Industries Ltd for 6 weeks under the guidance of Regional Sales Manager (SF- EAST). So there was not much time to undertake a big project .The task assigned to me was to visit all the authorized as well as unauthorized Auto and MC garages of entire North Bengal and to collect information about the battery market from the garage owners and also create awareness about the SF SONIC batteries. Apart from these to undergo through a comparative study. I have tried my best to cover the garages as much as possible within this short time period and I sincerely hope that my findings will come at least for some use to company. Then only I will think that all my efforts are well spent and gave little contribution in the growth of the organization.

Objective:
My project is about comparative study of SF SONIC batteries and its future prospects in garages of North Bengal. The objective of the project is to find out the opportunities of SF SONIC battery to capture the market of north Bengal. Apart from this it has also been pointed out about the competitors, their price, service and support as well as distribution. It has been noticed that a big portion of the market is captured by the local made unbranded battery due to their low pricing. So, its a big challenge for SF to compete with the known branded battery as well as the local brands to grab share in this competitive battery market. The another side of my project was to create awareness among the Garage owners about SF SONIC battery and its service, price and other facilities. By visisting most of the authorized and unauthorized garages and service stations of North Bengal I am able to find out the issues SF SONIC is having right now and got a brief idea about the battery market by spending some time and asking some questions to the garage owners and workshop managers with the help of my questionnaire. The primary motive was to collect the information from the garage owners to fulfill the survey and find out the solution.
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COMPANY PROFILE:

Exide Industries is the biggest storage battery producing company in India. It is also the largest power storage company in the whole of the south-east Asian region. It is also a manufacturer of automotive lead-acid batteries. It has plants in India and Sri Lanka.
Exide Industries Limited

Type Industry Founded Headquarters Key people

Public
Battery manufacturing 1947 Kolkata, India R.G. Kapadia, Chairman

HISTORY OF EXIDE INDUSTRIES LTD.:


The company was incorporated as Associated Battery Makers (Eastern) Ltd., on 31 January 1947 under the Companies Act, 1913 to purchase all or any of the assets of the business of manufacturers, buyers and sellers of and dealers in and repairers of electrical and chemical appliances and goods carried on by the Chloride Electric Storage Company (India) Ltd, in India, since 1916 with a view thereto to enter into and carry into effect (either with or without modification) an agreement which had already been prepared and was expressed to be made between the Chloride Electric Storage Co (India) Ltd on the one part and the company of the other part. The name of the company was changed to Chloride India Ltd on 2 August 1972. The name of the company was again changed to Chloride Industries Ltd. vide fresh Certificate of Incorporation dated 12 October 1988. The name of the company was further changed to Exide Industries Ltd. on 25 August 1995. The company manufactures the widest range of storage batteries in the world from 2.5 Ah to 20,400 Ah capacity, covering the broadest spectrum of applications. The company has six factories located across the country two in Maharashtra, two in West Bengal 9

Shamnagar (Mother plant) & Haldia, one in Tamil Nadu and one in Haryana. The companys predecessor carried on their operations as import house from 1916 under the name Chloride Electrical Storage Company. Thereafter, the company started manufacturing storage batteries in the country and have grown to become one of the largest manufacturer and exporter of batteries in the sub-continent today.

Other Brands of Exide Industries Ltd.:


EXIDE CHLORIDE INDEX DYNEX Standard Furukawa SF SONIC JUPITER CONREX

Subsidiaries:
1. Associated Battery Manufacturers (Ceylon) Limited (ABML) 2. Espex Batteries Limited (ESPEX) 3. Chloride Batteries S E Asia Pte Limited (CBSEA) 4. Leadage Alloys India Limited (Leadage) 5. Tandon Metals Ltd. (TML) 6. Caldyne Automatics Limited (Caldyne) 7. Chloride International Limited (CIL)
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Milestones Achieved by the Company:

Milestones
1916 Chloride Electric Storage Co. (CESCO) UK sets up trading operations in India as an import house. 1946 First factory set up in Shamnagar, West Bengal. 1947 Incorporated as Associated Battery Makers (Eastern) Limited on 31 January 1947 under the Companies Act. 1947 Incorporated Chloride International Limited (previously Exide Products Limited) 1969 Second factory at Chinchwad, Pune 1972 The name of the Company was changed to Chloride India Limited 1976 R&D Centre established at Kolkata 1981 Third factory at Haldia, West Bengal 1988 The name of the Company was changed to Chloride Industries Limited 1994 Technical collaboration with Shin Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Ltd. of Japan, a subsidiary of the Hitachi Group. 1995 Chloride Industries Limited renamed Exide Industries Limited 1997 Fourth factory at Hosur, Tamil Nadu 1998 Acquisition of industrial/ manufacturing units of Standard Batteries Ltd located at Taloja & Kanjurmarg (Maharashtra), Guindy (Tamilnadu) and plant at Ahmednagar (Maharashtra) from Cosepa Fiscal Industries Limited as a going concern. 1999 Acquired 51% Shareholding in Caldyne Automatics Ltd 2000 Acquisition of 100% stake in Chloride Batteries S E Asia Pte Ltd., Singapore and 49% stake in Associated Battery Manufacturers (Ceylon) Limited, Sri Lanka. 2003 Commissioned plant at Bawal, Haryana 2003 New joint venture in UK, ESPEX, with 51% holding. 2004 Associated Battery Manufacturers (Ceylon) Limited, Sri Lanka became a subsidiary consequent to acquiring further 12.50% Equity holding. 2005 Investment in 50% shareholding of ING Vysya Life Insurance Company Limited 2007 Caldyne Automatics Ltd becomes 100% subsidiary consequent to acquiring the balance 49% shareholding. 2007 Investment with 26% shareholding.in CEIL Motive Power Pty Ltd. A Joint Venture in Australia. 2007 Acquired 100% stake in Tandon Metals Ltd. 2008 Acquired 51% stake in Lead Age Alloys India Ltd

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Awards/ Certificates and Recognitions:


Exide Industries Limited awarded the Frost & Sullivan 2010 Market Leadership Award in the Industrial Battery Segment

Exide wins CFO of the year award in automotive and auto-ancillary category from CNBC-TV18 "Exide, Haldia factory gets TPM award for Category A, 2008, from Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance" Exide Haldia had a rich haul at the CII awards ceremony in Kolkata for 08-09 winning five awards in different categories.

At the CII (Eastern Region) awards ceremony in Kolkata for 08-09 Exide Shyamnagar won CII Productivity Award -1ST Prize in category A for Significant Improvement in Productivity during the year

CII Quality Award Certificate of Appreciation for Commendable effort in the area of Total Quality at the CII(ER) Quality Award 2008-09

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The following table depicts the ISO certifications of the Companys various Plants:

ISO 9001 Haldia Hosur Shamnagar Taloja Chinchwad Bawal

TS-16949

ISO 14001

OHSAS 18001

(A) Companys

Plant at Shamnagar, West Bengal is an ISO-9001 & ISO-14001

Certified by TUV-NORD, Germany. It has secured the following awards and recognitions:
Certificate of Appreciation for Commendable Effort in Total Quality by CII 2003 Certificate of Appreciation for Commendable Effort in Energy Conservation by CII 2003 Certificate of Merit for Most Significant Achievement in Total Quality Management by CII2004 & 2005 Certificate of Appreciation for Best Practice in Industrial Relations by CII 2005-06 1st Position for Sustaining a High level of Productivity Award Contest by CII 2006-07 Most Significant Improvement in TQM Quality Award Contest by CII 2006-2007

(B) Companys Plant at Haldia, West Bengal is an ISO-9001 and ISO 14001 certified
by TUV-NORD, Germany. It has secured the following awards and recognitions:
Quality Award by CII-2003 & 2006 Productivity Award from CII Category A-2003 Safety Award from CII- 2003 Award for Best Practices in Industrial Relations by CII -2004 Indal Trophy for HRD- by CII- 2005 & 2007 Productivity Award- by CII-2005 Certificate of Appreciation for Energy Conservation- by CII- 2005 Environment Excellence Award- by West Bengal Pollution Control Board & Indian Chamber
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of Commerce - 2005 ITC Trophy for Safety, Health & Environment - by CII 2007

(C) Companys Plant at Hosur, Tamilnadu is an ISO-9001, ISO / TS-16949 and ISO14001 certified by TUV-NORD of Germany. It has secured the following awards and recognitions:
100 PPM award from OEM customer American Power Corporation January 03 Quality award from OEM customer Toyota - April 03 & April 04 Safety award from Government of Tamilnadu - April03 100 PPM award from OEM customer Hyundai - June03 Zero PPM Award from OEM customer Toyota April04 Green award from OEM customer Toyota - April04 Best Quality supplier award from OEM customer Toyota April05 Zero PPM award from OEM customer Toyota- April05 Quality Delivery Award from OEM customer Toyota - April05 First Prize in Best Garden Competition (Industrial Category) awarded by Mysore Horticulture Society 2005 Leadership and Excellence Award in Safety , Health & Environment by CII 2006 Indian Manufacturing Excellence Gold Award for Automotive Ancilliary Category from Frost & Sullivan in 2006 CII-EXIM Bank Award for Strong Commitment to Excel by CII in 2006 6th TERI Corporate Environmental Award- May 07

(D) Companys

Plant at Taloja, Maharashtra is an ISO / TS-16949 & ISO 14001

Certified. It has secured the following awards and recognitions:


Supplier Award Certificate of Appreciation- by Honda Siel Cars India Limited in 2002. 1st Company to be put on MPCB Website for using secured landfill in 2003. Quality Silver Award by Bajaj in 2006.

(E) Companys Plants at Chinchwad, Maharashtra and Bawal, Haryana are ISO / TS
16949 and ISO 14001 certified by TUV NORD.
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(F) The Company also secured Best SMF Battery Award for three consecutive years
2005-2006-2007

SF SONIC INDUSTRIAL
The SF Industrial Range of Industrial Lead Acid Batteries stand for abundant power, undaunted by the challenge of Indian conditions. All batteries provide power but it takes only an SF Industrial to perform at peak power, always. This matchless range of batteries for Online UPS, Off Line UPS & Home UPS applications redefines durability, defies the years and breathes new life to power. The power packed SF Industrial battery does not merely last long. It Lives Long. Stays Strong. Throughout its long lifespan, the power never drops, come what may. Thats what makes SF Industrial batteries so unbeatable.

The certification body is the renowned TUV-NORD headquartered in Germany Board of Directors R.G. Kapadia, Chairman & Non Executive Director R.B. Raheja, Vice Chairman & Non-Executive Director T.V. Ramanathan, Managing Director & Chief Executive Officer G. Chatterjee, Director Industrial P.K. Kataky, Director Automotive A.K. Mukherjee, Director Finance & Chief Financial Officer Nadeem Kazim, Director HR & Personnel Vijay Aggarwal, Non Executive Director H. M. Kothari, Non Executive Director Bhaskar Mitter, Non Executive Director S.B. Raheja Non Executive Director D.S. Parekh (Alternate to S.B. Raheja) Non Executive Director W. Wong, Non Executive Director Mona N. Desai, Non Executive Director
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Branch Offices
Head Office - SF Industrial
6A Hatibagan Road, Entally, Kolkata 700014 Phone No: (033) 2286 6158/59

Corporate Marketing Office

- Mr. Shibaji Dutta Gupta.


6A Hatibagan Road, Entally, Kolkata 700014 Phone No: (033) 2286 1860/6158/59/93 Fax No: (033) 2286 6186

Regional Offices
North:
NEW DELHI 3E/1, Jhandenwalan Extension, Link road, New Delhi - 110055 Phone: 011 - 23627095/96/97/98. Fax: 011 23555702 KOLKATA 6A Hatibagan Road, Entally, Kolkata - 700014 Phone: 033 22861860, 2286 6158/59 Fax: 033 22897455 MUMBAI Rahejas, 5th floor, 8 C Main Avenue, S. V. Road, Santacruz (west), Mumbai 400054 Phone: 022 - 26465283/84 Fax: 022 26465042 CHENNAI S 15, Economist House, 2nd Floor, Industrial Estate, Guindy, Chennai 600032 Phone: 044 - 22500726/1326 Fax: 044 - 22501216

East:

West:

South:

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Branch Offices
North
CHANDIGARH DELHI GHAZIABAD JAIPUR JALANDHAR JAMMU LUCKNOW ROHTAK UTTRANCHAL VARANASI

East
KOLKATA CUTTACK GUWAHATI JAMSHEDPUR PATNA SILIGURI

West
AHMEDABAD INDORE JABALPUR MUMBAI NAGPUR PUNE RAIPUR

South
BANGALORE CHENNAI COIMBATORE HYDERABAD KOCHI MADURAI

SF Power Junctions
In keeping with the tradition of providing exclusive service levels, we have created a state-ofthe-art kind retail experience for you - The SF Power Junctions. It is an exclusive Trade outlet that gives you a world-class experience in battery retailing, technologically superior support and personalized customer service, all at one stop.
SF Power Junction

Display and sale of the entire range of SF Industrial Batteries World-class ambience and personalized service

SONIC STATION
It is an exclusive store that aims to pamper you with superior and special service offerings. These flagship showrooms are designed to offer complete power solutions through the Companys wide range of products and value added services.
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All SONIC showrooms maintain a specified service standard and offers a delightful experience through a combination of state-of-the-art design, pleasant ambience, cutting edge service technology and customer focus. These flagship stores are pride of SF SONIC as they reinforce the Companys commitment to superior customer care and service. Visit your nearest Sonic Station and experience the power of Sonic!

COMPANYS VISION MISSION & CORE VALUES:


VISION Simultaneous to provide credit value additional to the customers, employees & Shareholders; being responsible by society as responsible corporate citizen. In addition achieving operational excellence along with caring for environmental protection

MISSION

To carefully balance the interest of stakeholders; strive to fulfill the aspirations of the employees, and persue excellence with passion, without deviating from their core values.

CORE VALUES

Fundamental axioms that the organization believes, people respect & works toward. They are: Personal orientation Company integrity & commitment Teamwork & mutual support People development & Involvement Strive for Excellence Management by Process & Facts Responsible Corporate citizenship
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TECHNOLOGY: Overview SF Industrial range of Lead Acid Storage batteries for UPS (Online & offline) & Home UPS (Inverter) applications are manufactured with cutting edge technology using modern and contemporary imported Plant & Machinery. SF Industrials factories have all the modern equipments necessary to manufacture world-class products. It also sources its components from the best Battery Component manufacturers in the world. SF Industrial Range of Batteries are produced from three world-class manufacturing facilities.

Brief Manufacturing Processes


o Lead Lead, the main raw material that constitutes 70% of the battery is used after a thorough checking through Spectrophotometric Analysis for Composition and Impurities. o Alloy Blending - Optical Emission Spectrophotometry checks the composition of the alloy in the laboratory before use. The Spectrophotometer is imported from Spectro, Germany o Oxide Manufacturing - Ball Mill, Li Shan, Taiwan & M-40 Mill, India are used for manufacture of Red Oxide and Grey Oxide. Percentage Oxidation, Apparent Density, Water Absorption characteristics etc. are continuously monitored to control the outgoing Oxide quality. o Plate Grids Grids are casted through Grid Moulds & Casting M/c from WRITZ, USA. The weights of the Grid Castings are checked throughout the casting process. The castings are also inspected for physical features to ensure excellent high rate performance and long life.

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o Paste Mixing - Ox-Master, Simpson Mixer, India & Drums, India are used for Paste mixing. The paste mix is checked for the density, moisture content &, temperature

o Pasting & Flash Drying Mac Paster & Flash Dryer from USA are used to paste active materials on the Grids. The pasted plate are weighed and tested for moisture content on sample basis.

o Plate Curing - The residual free lead in the plates is checked after completion of the curing period in Curing Ovens.

o Spine Castings Spines forms the main backbone of the Positive Plates of SF Industrial Range of Tubular Batteries. Spines for SF Industrial Range of Tubular o Batteries are casted through High Pressure HADI Casting machine imported from Austria.

Comparative Features Of 3 Different Spine Casting Process


Properties
(Vickers Micro Hardness, HV) Grain Size Grain Orientation Surface Condition

High Pressure
Uniform Micro Hardness Of 24.3 throughout the sample Coarse Single Directional No Voids

Low Pressure
Non-Uniform Micro Hardness varying from 21.5 to 28.4 Coarse & Fine Random Voids (Small Black Spots)

Gravity
Low Micro Hardness, varying from 17.5 to 18.2 Inconsistent Random Bigger Voids Than Low Pressure

o Other Processes Plates thus produced, Flat or Tubular are then Ammonia Dipped, Acid Pickled, Formed in Forming Circuits & Dried before they are sent to Assembly line for final assembly and finishing operations. o Separators - The separators employed are PVC for the low cost versions and polyethylene with glass mat reinforcement for the medium and high end.
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o Containers - The containers are made of PP copolymer which possesses excellent impact and other physical properties. The cover design is uncomplicated with easy to maintain top venting systems. In the case of maintenance free batteries, they have a coin flush filter vent system to give a clean flat maintainable surface with resistance to spark propagation inside battery to avoid the possibility of bursting during charging operations

Raising the Bar


SF Industrials quality checks and process control laboratory checks of all incoming metals, components and bought out parts. Incoming and blended metals are analysed for quality with optical emission spectrograph. Whats more, the SF Industrial R&D setup, approved by the Ministry of Science Technology Government of India, is a high-tech hub of innovation. The manufacturing facilities at Shamnagar, Haldia & Hosur is equipped with state-of-art machinery and instrumentation. Many such equipment have been imported from world class battery equipment manufacturers across the globe and some are also designed and produced with in-house capabilities. TQM is a strategic initiative of SF Industrial and we have progressed a lot along this unending journey towards Business Excellence. Our Quality Management System (QMS) is certified to ISO 9001 for SF Industrial. These certifications although issued in the names of the different manufacturing facilities, however include all our business processes of R&D, Manufacturing, Marketing, Sales, After-Sales Support and Corporate functions. The manufacturing facilities take credit for winning several laurels: o The Environmental Management System (EMS) is certified to ISO 14001 o The Occupational Health & Safety (OH&S) system is certified to OHSAS18001.

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Corporate Social Responsibility Policy

In line with our vision of being recognized by society as a responsible corporate citizen the following shall be our policy 1. Exide shall successfully combine shareholder value with environmental and social responsibility. 2. CSR is considered as one of the key business processes, which has been identified by the management and considered critical to be a successful organization. Exide shall also establish the sub-processes to internalize this key process with a mechanism to measure and control the effectiveness. 3. The Policy is to help people through a sustainable model, in such a way that they are able to stand on their own feet and can participate in the economy through their enhanced capacities. 4. Exide firmly commits itself to do its business in a responsible and ethical way, so that a positive impact is created on society and all its stake holders.

All batteries give power, but it takes a SF SONIC to perform at peak power, always.

UNICEF
Treat the Earth well, it was not given to you by your parents it was loaned to you by your children.
Both SF Sonic and UNICEF believe in this dictum and are working together to create a better environment for children - who are our future. In the current scenario, the environment for children in India demands urgent attention. An estimated 400,000 children under five die each year from serious ailments - caused by poor hygiene and unsafe drinking water. Also,
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unchecked lead in the air, in our food and drinking water can be a killer. Though lead is one of the most useful metals and a major element in batteries, it can harm the earths environment and life, if not treated scientifically after use. UNICEF is a name synonymous with child survival and development the world over. It has been doing significant work in India for the general health and well-being of children. Therefore, we at SF Sonic will contribute to the UNICEF Child Environment Programme, every time a used battery is returned to us. With your support and participation, the world can be a much better and healthier place. You can make it happen.

UNICEF and SF Sonic are stakeholders in creating a safe and healthy environment for children. The common agenda involves: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Focus on primary preventive measures for infant mortality and morbidity Universal sanitation coverage Integration and convergence with nutrition, health and education Demonstration of models on solid and liquid waste management Focus on water quality affected habitations safe drinking water option Establishment of management systems to ensure water safety, sustainability, cost effectiveness and social equity of rural piped water systems Focus on developing community based sustainable models on hygiene promotion Monitoring and surveillance of sanitation and water quality Demonstrate inclusive approaches for school water supply and sanitation in some districts

Other Partners For this noble venture UNICEF and SF Sonic will be supported by several partners Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, Government Resources, Panchayats & Rura Development Department (P&RD) and Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)

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AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY
An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile.[1] Usually this refers to an SLI battery(starting, lighting, ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system of a vehicles engine. Automotive SLI batteries are usually lead-acid type, and are made of six galvanic cells in series to provide a 12 volt system. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volt at full charge. Heavy vehicles such as highway trucks or tractors, often equipped with diesel engines, may have two batteries in series for a 24 volt system, or may have parallel strings of batteries. Lead-acid batteries are made up of plates of lead and separate plates of lead dioxide, which are submerged into an electrolyte solution of about 35%sulfuric acid and 65% water.[2] This causes a chemical reaction that releases electrons, allowing them to flow through conductors to produce electricity. As the battery discharges, the acid of the electrolyte reacts with the materials of the plates, changing their surface to lead sulfate. When the battery is recharged, the chemical reaction is reversed: the lead sulfate reforms into lead oxide and lead. With the plates restored to their original condition, the process may now be repeated. Battery recycling of automotive batteries reduces the need for resources required for manufacture of new batteries, diverts toxic lead from landfills, and prevents risk of improper disposal. Types Lead-acid batteries for automotive use are made with slightly different construction techniques, depending on the application of the battery. The "flooded cell" type, indicating liquid electrolyte, is typically inexpensive and long-lasting, but requires more maintenance and can spill or leak. Flooded batteries are distinguished by the removable caps that allow for the electrolyte to be tested and maintained. More costly alternatives to flooded batteries are "valve regulated lead acid" (VRLA) batteries, also called "sealed" batteries. The absorbed glass mat (AGM) type uses a glass mat
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separator, and a "gel cell" uses fine powder to absorb and immobilize the sulfuric acid electrolyte. These batteries are not serviceable: the cells are sealed so the degree of charge cannot be measured by hydrometer and the electrolyte cannot be replenished. They are typically termed "maintenance-free" by proponents, or "unable to be maintained" by skeptics. Both types of sealed batteries may be used in vehicular applications where leakage or ventilation for vented gasses is a concern. However, this article deals with the classic, flooded-type of car battery. The starting (cranking) or shallow cycle type is designed to deliver large bursts of power for a short time, as is needed to start an engine. Once the engine is started, the battery is recharged by the engine-driven charging system. Starting batteries are intended to have a low depth of discharge on each use. They are constructed of many thin plates with thin separators between the plates, and may have a higher specific gravity electrolyte to reduce internal resistance. The deep cycle (or motive) type is designed to continuously provide power for long periods of time (for example in a trolling motor for a small boat, auxiliary power for a recreational vehicle, or traction power for a golf cart or other battery electric vehicle). They can also be used to store energy from a photovoltaic array or a small wind turbine. Deep-cycle batteries have fewer, thicker plates and are intended to have a greater depth of discharge on each cycle, but will not provide as high a current on heavy loads. The thicker plates survive a higher number of charge/discharge cycles. The specific energy is in the range of 30-40 watthours per kilogram. Some cars use more exotic starter batteriesthe 2010 Porsche 911 GT3 RS offers a lithiumion battery as an option to save weight over a conventional lead-acid battery. USE & MAINTENANCE Fluid level: Car batteries using lead-antimony plates would require regular watering to replace water lost due to electrolysis on each charging cycle. By changing the alloying element to calcium, more recent designs have lower water loss, unless overcharged. Modern car batteries have reduced maintenance requirements, and may not provide caps for addition of water to the cells. Such batteries include extra electrolyte above the plates to allow for losses during the battery life. If the battery has easily detachable caps then a top-up with distilled water may be required from time to time. Prolonged overcharging or charging at excessively high voltage causes some of the water in the electrolyte to be broken up into hydrogen and oxygen
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gases, which escape from the cells; this is called gassing. If the electrolyte liquid level drops too low, the plates are exposed to air, lose capacity, and are damaged. The sulfuric acid in the battery normally does not require replacement since it is not consumed even on overcharging. Impurities or additives in the water will reduce the life and performance of the battery. Manufacturers usually recommend use of dematerialized or distilled water, since even potable tap water can contain high levels of minerals. Charge and discharge: In normal automotive service the vehicle's charging system powers the vehicle's electrical systems and restores charge used from the battery during engine cranking. When installing a new battery or recharging a battery that has been accidentally discharged completely, one of several different methods can be used to charge it. The most gentle of these is called trickle charging. Other methods include slow-charging and quick-charging, the latter being the harshest. The voltage regulator of the charge system does not measure the relative currents charging the battery and for powering the car's loads. The charge system essentially provides a fixed voltage of typically 13.8 to 14.4 V (Volt), adjusted to ambient temperature, unless the alternator is at its current limit. A discharged battery draws a high charge current of typically 20 to 40 A (Ampere). As the battery gets charged the charge current typically decreases to 25 A. A high load is when multiple high-power systems such as ignition, radiator fan, heater blowers, lights and entertainment system are running at the same time. In older vehicles (read: 80's and earlier) the battery voltage may decrease unless the engine is running at a higher than idle rpm and the alternator/generator is delivering at least enough current to power the load. This is not an issue for modern vehicles where alternators provide enough amperage for all consumers and a regulator keeps charging rate in check, so faster rpm has no effect. In such cars rpm has basically no influence on the recharging voltage - tests show a good recharging voltage regardless of the AC / headlights / music / fan / defrosting / other electrical consumers even at idle rpm. Some manufacturers include a built-in hydrometer to show the state of charge of the battery, a transparent tube with a float immersed in the electrolyte visible through a window. When the battery is charged, the specific gravity of the electrolyte increases (since all the sulfate ions are in the electrolyte, not combined with the plates), and the colored top of the float is visible in the window. When the battery is discharged, or the electrolyte level is too low, the
26

float sinks and the window appears yellow (or black). The built-in hydrometer only checks the state of charge of one cell and will not show faults in the other cells. In a non-sealed battery each of the cells can be checked with a portable or hand-held hydrometer. In emergencies a vehicle can be jump started by the battery of another vehicle or by a portable battery booster. Whenever the car's charge system is inadequate to fully charge the battery, a battery charger can be used. Simple chargers do not regulate the charge current, and the user needs to stop the process or lower the charge current to prevent excessive gassing of the battery. More elaborate chargers, in particular those implementing the 3-step charge profile, also referred to as IUoU, charge the battery fully and safely in a short time without requiring user intervention. Desulfating chargers are also commercially available for charging all types of lead-acid batteries. Storage Batteries last longer when stored in a charged state. Leaving an automotive battery discharged will shorten its life, or make it unusable if left for a long time (usually several years); sulfation eventually becomes irreversible by normal charging. Batteries in storage may be monitored and periodically charged, or attached to a "float" charger to retain their capacity. Batteries are prepared for storage by charging and cleaning deposits from the posts. Batteries are stored in a cool, dry environment for best results since high temperatures increase the self discharge rate and plate corrosion. Changing a battery When changing a battery, battery manufacturers recommend disconnecting the negative ground connection first to prevent accidental short-circuits between the battery terminal and the vehicle frame. Conversely the positive cable is connected first. A study by the National Highway Traffic Safety Association estimated that in 1994 more than 2000 people were injured in the United States while working with automobile batteries. The majority of automotive lead-acid batteries are filled with the appropriate electrolyte solution at the manufacturing plant, and shipped to the retailers ready to sell. Decades ago, this was not the case. The retailer filled the battery, usually at the time of purchase, and charged the battery. This was a time-consuming and potentially dangerous process. Care had to be taken when filling the battery with acid, as acids are highly corrosive and can damage eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Fortunately, this is less of a problem these days, and the
27

need to fill a battery with acid usually only arises when purchasing a motorcycle or ATV battery. Freshness Because of "sulfation", lead-acid batteries stored with electrolyte slowly deteriorate. Car batteries are date coded to ensure installation within one year of manufacture. In the United

States, the manufacturing date is printed on a sticker. The date can be written in plain text or
using an alphanumerical code. The first character is a letter that specifies the month (A for January, B for February and so on). The letter "I" is skipped due to its potential to be mistaken for the number 1. The second character is a single digit that indicates the year of manufacturing (for example, 6 for 2006). When first installing a newly purchased battery a "top up" charge at a low rate with an external battery charger (available at auto parts stores) may maximize battery life and minimize the load on the vehicle charging system.

Failure
Common battery faults include: o o o o o o o o Shorted cell due to failure of the separator between the positive and negative plates Shorted cell or cells due to build up of shed plate material below the plates of the cell Broken internal connections due to corrosion Broken plates due to vibration and corrosion Low electrolyte level Cracked or broken case Broken terminals Sulfation after prolonged disuse in a low or zero charged state

Corrosion at the battery terminals can prevent a car from starting due to electrical resistance. The white powder sometimes found around the battery terminals is usually lead sulfate which is toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. The corrosion is caused by an imperfect seal between the plastic battery case and lead battery post allowing sulfuric acid to react with the lead battery posts. The corrosion process is also expedited by over charging. Corrosion can also be caused by factors such as salt water, dirt, heat, humidity, cracks in the battery casing or loose battery terminals. Inspection, cleaning and protection with a light coating of dielectric grease are measures used to prevent corrosion of battery terminals.

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Sulfation occurs when a battery is not fully charged. The longer it remains in a discharged state the harder it is to overcome sulfation. This may be overcome with slow, low-current (trickle) charging. Sulfation is the formation of large, non-conductive lead sulfate crystals on the plates; lead sulfate formation is part of each cycle, but in the discharged condition the crystals become large and block passage of current through the electrolyte. The primary wear-out mechanism is the shedding of active material from the battery plates, which accumulates at the bottom of the cells and which may eventually short-circuit the plates. Early automotive batteries could sometimes be repaired by dismantling and replacing damaged separators, plates, intercell connectors and other repairs. Modern battery cases do not facilitate such repairs; an internal fault generally requires replacement of the entire unit.

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METHOD OF SURVEY:
At first I had pointed out the areas where maximum garages are situated. I found that most of the garages are situated besides the Highways. As my area of survey was North Bengal so NH-34 and NH-31 is the lifeline of these garages. From my first visit I have tried to get maximum information from the garage owners. So I had prepared the questionnaire very brief and to the point so that it does not take much time of the busy garage owners. From the first question of my questionnaire I come to know about the average vehicle managed in a month and the average consumption of battery in that garage which helped me to do a segmentation or categorization of the garage.

Defining the objectives:


The researchers as a part of research project primarily define the objectives of the project under the guidance of the faculty guide, so that in the light of the project objectives we can go ahead and achieve the objectives.

Sources Of Data:
Primary source of data collected directly from the garages and service stations. There are often reliable data sources and help in overcoming limitation of secondary data.

Data Collection:
Primary Data: - Questionnaire: The methodology adapted for doing this project encompasses a detailed study of primary source of information in order to find out the market shares of SF SONIC and its competitors in North Bengal, as well as to make a databank of the garages of West Bengal. This was done through questionnaire filled up by the garage owners and workshop or service managers.

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Sampling Plan ELEMENTS: Garage owners and service or workshop managers. EXTENT: NORTH BENGAL:COOCHBEHAR MATHABHANGA TOOFANGANJ DINHATA FALAKATA JALPAIGURI DHUPGURI MOYNAGURI FULBARI MALBAZAR DARJEELING SILIGURI SALUGARA BAGDOGRA UTTAR DINAJPUR ISLAMPUR DALKHOLA RAIGANJ DAKSHIN DINAJPUR
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BALURGHAT GANGARAMPUR HILI MALDA GABGACHI JODUPUR NARAYANPUR, MANGALBARI GAJOL SAMSI

STEPS OF METHODOLOGY:
1. PREPARATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE TO COLLECT THE INFORMATION.

2. VISITED 120 GARAGES IN ENTIRE NORTH BENGAL.

3. SEGMENTATION OF THE GARAGES ACCORDING TO THEIR AVERAGE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF BATTERY AND VEHICLE SERVICED OR REPAIRED.

4. CALCULATION OF THE MARKET SHARE ACCORDING TO THE PREFERENCE OF THE GARAGE OWNERS.

5. CALCULATION OF BRAND AWARENESS OF SF SONIC.

6. CALCULATING THE FUTURE GROWTH AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SF SONIC IN THE COMPETITIVE MARKET.
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QUESTIONNAIRE
Garage Name ProprietorsName Address Contact No. Email Id Type of Garage Type of work
1. HOW MANY CARS DO YOU MANAGE IN A MONTH 2. WHAT IS THE APPROXIMATE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF BATTERY? A. 0-5 B. 6-10 C. 11-15 D. >15 3. WHICH BRAND OF BATTERY DO YOU PREFER? A. EXIDE B. SF SONIC C. AMARON D. TATA GREEN E. OTHERS (SPECIFY) 4. FROM WHERE DO YOU PURCHASE THE BATTERY? FROM : COMPANY / DEALER

NAME & ADDRESS OF DEALER . 5. DISCOUNT (ON MRP) / CREDIT (DAYS) ENJOYED FROM THE DEALER? DISCOUNT (%). CREDIT DAYS
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6. WHICH ATTRIBUTE INSISTS YOU TO RECOMMEND AND FIT A PARTICULAR BATTERY? A. DISCOUNT B. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION C. BRAND NAME D. OTHERS 7. HAVE YOU EVER USED SF SONIC BATTERIES? A. YES B. NO 8. IF YES - ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH THE PRODUCT AND SERVICES OF SF SONIC? A. YES B. NO (IF NO ARE YOU AWARE OF SF SONIC PRODUCT/SERVICE AND PRICE? YES/NO IF YES (PROBE SOURCE) IF NO.. PRESENT DEALER PRICE LIST. 9. ARE YOU INTERESTED ABOUT RECOMMENDING SF SONIC BATTERIES? A. YES B. NO 10. HOW CAN COMPANY SUPPORT YOU TO BOOST UP YOUR SALE OF SF SONIC BATTERY? 11. Rank the companies according to the Customers preference and Garage preference

SCALE ON RANGE OF 1-5

Company Name

Rank on Customers Preference

Rank on Garage Owners Preference

SF Sonic Exide Amaron Tata green Astral Amco Any other

DATE
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SIGNATURE

USE OF SPSS IN DATA ANALYSIS:-

SPSS v.19 x86 running on Windows 7 x86

Developer(s): Initial release: Stable release:

IBM Corporation 1968 20.0 August 16, 2011; 11 months ago

Operating system: Windows, zLinux, Linux / UNIX & Mac Platform: Java
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Type: License: Website:

Statistical analysis, Data Mining, Text Analytics, Data Collection, Collaboration & Deployment Proprietary software www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/

SPSS is a computer program used for survey authoring and deployment (IBM SPSS Data Collection), data mining (IBM SPSS Modeler), text analytics, statistical analysis, and collaboration and deployment (batch and automated scoring services).

Contents

1 Statistics program 2 Versions o 2.1 Ownership history 3 Add-ons 4 Release history 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Statistics program
SPSS (originally, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was released in its first version in 1968 after being developed by Norman H. Nie and C. Hadlai Hull. SPSS is among the most widely used programs for statistical analysis in social science. It is used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing organizations and others. The original SPSS manual (Nie, Bent & Hull, 1970) has been described as one of "sociology's most influential books". [1] In addition to statistical analysis, data management (case selection, file reshaping, creating derived data) and data documentation (a metadata dictionary is stored in the datafile) are features of the base software.
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Statistics included in the base software:


Descriptive statistics: Cross tabulation, Frequencies, Descriptives, Explore, Descriptive Ratio Statistics Bivariate statistics: Means, t-test, ANOVA, Correlation (bivariate, partial, distances), Nonparametric tests Prediction for numerical outcomes: Linear regression Prediction for identifying groups: Factor analysis, cluster analysis (two-step, K-means, hierarchical), Discriminant

The many features of SPSS are accessible via pull-down menus or can be programmed with a proprietary 4GL command syntax language. Command syntax programming has the benefits of reproducibility, simplifying repetitive tasks, and handling complex data manipulations and analyses. Additionally, some complex applications can only be programmed in syntax and are not accessible through the menu structure. The pull-down menu interface also generates command syntax; this can be displayed in the output, although the default settings have to be changed to make the syntax visible to the user. They can also be pasted into a syntax file using the "paste" button present in each menu. Programs can be run interactively or unattended, using the supplied Production Job Facility. Additionally a "macro" language can be used to write command language subroutines and a Python programmability extension can access the information in the data dictionary and data and dynamically build command syntax programs. The Python programmability extension, introduced in SPSS 14, replaced the less functional SAX Basic "scripts" for most purposes, although SaxBasic remains available. In addition, the Python extension allows SPSS to run any of the statistics in the free software package R. From version 14 onwards SPSS can be driven externally by a Python or a VB.NET program using supplied "plug-ins". SPSS places constraints on internal file structure, data types, data processing and matching files, which together considerably simplify programming. SPSS datasets have a 2dimensional table structure where the rows typically represent cases (such as individuals or households) and the columns represent measurements (such as age, sex or household income). Only 2 data types are defined: numeric and text (or "string"). All data processing occurs sequentially case-by-case through the file. Files can be matched one-to-one and oneto-many, but not many-to-many. The graphical user interface has two views which can be toggled by clicking on one of the two tabs in the bottom left of the SPSS window. The 'Data View' shows a spreadsheet view of the cases (rows) and variables (columns). Unlike spreadsheets, the data cells can only
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contain numbers or text and formulas cannot be stored in these cells. The 'Variable View' displays the metadata dictionary where each row represents a variable and shows the variable name, variable label, value label(s), print width, measurement type and a variety of other characteristics. Cells in both views can be manually edited, defining the file structure and allowing data entry without using command syntax. This may be sufficient for small datasets. Larger datasets such as statistical surveys are more often created in data entry software, or entered during computer-assisted personal interviewing, by scanning and using optical character recognition and optical mark recognition software, or by direct capture from online questionnaires. These datasets are then read into SPSS. SPSS can read and write data from ASCII text files (including hierarchical files), other statistics packages, spreadsheets and databases. SPSS can read and write to external relational database tables via ODBC and SQL. Statistical output is to a proprietary file format (*.spv file, supporting pivot tables) for which, in addition to the in-package viewer, a stand-alone reader can be downloaded. The proprietary output can be exported to text or Microsoft Word, PDF, Excel, and other formats. Alternatively, output can be captured as data (using the OMS command), as text, tabdelimited text, PDF, XLS, HTML, XML, SPSS dataset or a variety of graphic image formats (JPEG, PNG, BMP and EMF). SPSS Server is a version of SPSS with a client/server architecture. It had some features not available in the desktop version, such as scoring functions (Scoring functions are included in the desktop version from version 19). The goal of a correlation analysis is to see whether two measurement variables co vary, and to quantify the strength of the relationship between the variables, whereas regression expresses the relationship in the form of an equation. For example, in students taking a Maths and English test, we could use correlation to determine whether students who are good at Maths tend to be good at English as well, and regression to determine whether the marks in English can be predicted for given marks in Maths.

What is a Scatter Diagram


The starting point is to draw a scatter of points on a graph, with one variable on the X-axis and the other variable on the Y-axis, to get a feel of the relationship (if any) between the variables as suggested by the data. The closer the points are to a straight line, the stronger the linear relationship between two variables.

Why Use Correlation?


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We can use the correlation coefficient, such as the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, to test if there is a linear relationship between the variables. To quantify the strength of the relationship, we can calculate the correlation coefficient (r). Its numerical value ranges from +1.0 to -1.0. r > 0 indicates positive linear relationship, r < 0 indicates negative linear relationship while r = 0 indicates no linear relationship.

Why Use Regression


In regression analysis, the problem of interest is the nature of the relationship itself between the dependent variable (response) and the (explanatory) independent variable. The analysis consists of choosing and fitting an appropriate model, done by the method of least squares, with a view to exploiting the relationship between the variables to help estimate the expected response for a given value of the independent variable. For example, if we are interested in the effect of age on height, then by fitting a regression line, we can predict the height for a given age. o Assumptions Some underlying assumptions governing the uses of correlation and regression are as follows. The observations are assumed to be independent. For correlation, both variables should be random variables, but for regression only the dependent variable Y must be random. In carrying out hypothesis tests, the response variable should follow Normal distribution and the variability of Y should be the same for each value of the predictor variable. A scatter diagram of the data provides an initial check of the assumptions for regression.

o Uses of Correlation and Regression


There are three main uses for correlation and regression.

One is to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships. In this case, the experimenter determines the values of the X-variable and sees whether variation in X causes variation in Y. For example, giving people different amounts of a drug and measuring their blood pressure. The second main use for correlation and regression is to see whether two variables are associated, without necessarily inferring a cause-and-effect relationship. In this case, neither variable is determined by the experimenter; both are naturally variable. If an association is found, the inference is that variation in X may cause variation in Y, or variation in Y may cause variation in X, or variation in some other factor may affect both X and Y.
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The third common use of linear regression is estimating the value of one variable corresponding to a particular value of the other variable.

CHI SQUARE
The "t" test and the F test described in previous modules are called parametric tests. They assume certain conditions about the parameters of the population from which the samples are drawn. Parametric and nonparametric statistical procedures test hypotheses involving different assumptions. Parametric statistics test hypotheses based on the assumption that the samples come from populations that are normally distributed. Also, parametric statistical tests assume that there is homogeneity of variance (variances within groups are the same). The level of measurement for parametric tests is assumed to be interval or at least ordinal. Nonparametric statistical procedures test hypotheses that do not require normal distribution or variance assumptions about the populations from which the samples were drawn and are designed for ordinal or nominal data. The main weakness of nonparametric tests is that they are less powerful than parametric tests. They are less likely to reject the null hypothesis when it is false. When the assumptions of parametric tests can be met, parametric tests should be used because they are the most powerful tests available. There are, however, certain advantages of nonparametric techniques such as Chi Square (X2). For one thing, nonparametric tests are usually much easier to compute. Another unique value of nonparametric procedures is that they can be used to treat data which have been measured on nominal (classificatory) scales. Such data cannot, on any logical basis, be ordered numerically, hence there is no possibility of using parametric statistical tests which require numerical data. The general pattern of nonparametric procedures is much like that seen with parametric tests, namely, certain sample data are treated by a statistical model which yields a value or statistic. This value is then interpreted for the likelihood of its chance occurrence according to some type of statistical probability distribution. With Chi Square, a value is calculated from the data using Chi Square procedures and then compared to a critical value from a Chi Square table with degrees of freedom corresponding to that of the data. If the calculated value is equal to or greater than the critical value (table value), the null hypothesis is rejected. If the calculated value is less than the critical value, the null hypothesis
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(Ho) is accepted. This procedure is similar to that used with the "t" test and F test. o Purpose of Chi Square The Chi Square (X2) test is undoubtedly the most important and most used member of the nonparametric family of statistical tests. Chi Square is employed to test the difference between an actual sample and another hypothetical or previously established distribution such as that which may be expected due to chance or probability. Chi Square can also be used to test differences between two or more actual samples. o Basic Computational Equation

Example:

A Observed responses (Fo) Expected responses (Fe) Fo - Fe (Fo - Fe)2 8 (10) -2 4 .4

U 8 (10) -2 4 .4 2.4
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D 14 (10) 4 16 1.6

Degrees of freedom - (number of levels - 1) = 2 X2.05 = 5.991 2.4 < 5.991 Therefore, accept null hypothesis.

When there is only one degree of freedom, an adjustment known as Yates correction for continuity must be employed. To use this correction, a value of 0.5 is subtracted from the absolute value (irrespective of algebraic sign) of the numerator contribution of each cell to the above basic computational formula. The basic chi square computational formula then becomes:

One-Way Classification
The One-Way Classification (or sometimes referred to as the Single Sample Chi Square Test) is one of the most frequently reported nonparametric tests in journal articles. The test is used when a researcher is interested in the number of responses, objects, or people that fall in two or more categories. This procedure is sometimes called a goodness-of-fit statistic. Goodness-of-fit refers to whether a significant difference exists between an observed number and an expected number of responses, people or objects falling in each category designated by the researcher. The expected number is what the researcher expects by chance or according to some null hypothesis.

Example of a One-Way Classification (with Yates Correction):


Suppose that we flip a coin 20 times and record the frequency of occurrence of heads and tails. We know from the laws of probability that we should expect 10 heads and 10 tails. We also know that because of sampling error we could easily come up with 9 heads and 11 tails or 12 heads and 8 tails. Let us suppose our coin-flipping experiment yielded 12 heads and 8 tails. We would enter our expected frequencies (10 - 10) and our observed frequencies (12 8) in a table.

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Observed Expected Heads Tails 12 8 20 10 10 20

(Fo-Fe0.5) 1.5 -1.5

(Fo-Fe0.5)2 2.25 2.25 0.225 0.225 0.450

The calculation of x in a one-way classification (Yates Correction) is very straight forward. The expected frequency in a category ("heads") is subtracted from the observed frequency, and since Yates Correction is being used, 0.5 is subtracted from the absolute value of Fo - Fe, the difference is squared, and the square is divided by its expected frequency. This is repeated for the remaining categories, and as the formula for x2 indicates, these results are summed for all categories. How does a calculated X2 of 0.450 tell us if our observed results of 12 heads and 8 tails represent a significant deviation from an expected 10-10 split? The shape of the Chi Square sampling distribution depends upon the number of degrees of freedom. The degrees of freedom for a one-way classification X2 is r - 1, where r is the number of levels. In our problem above r = 2, so there would obviously be 1 degree of freedom. From our statistical reference tables, a X2 of 3.84 or greater is needed for X2 to be significant at the .05 level, so we conclude that our X2 of 0.450 in the coin-flipping experiment could have happened by sampling error and the deviations between the observed and expected frequencies are not significant. We would expect any data set yielding a calculated X2 value less than 3.84 with one degree of freedom at least 5% of the time due to chance alone. Therefore, the observed difference is not statistically significant at the .05 level.

Two-Way Classification
The two-way Chi Square is a convenient technique for determining the significance of the difference between the frequencies of occurrence in two or more categories with two or more groups. For example, we may see if there is any difference in the number of freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors in regards to their preference for spectator sports (football, basketball, or baseball).
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This is called a two-way classification since we would need two bits of information from the students in the sample, their class and their sports preference.

Example of a Two-Way Classification


Suppose an investigator wishes to see if 20 boys and girls respond differently to an attitudinal question regarding the educational value of extracurricular activities and observed the following (A = very valuable, U = uncertain, and D = little value). Boys A = 60 U = 20 D = 20 Girls A = 40 U = 0 D = 60 Expected frequencies (Fe) for each cell are determined by the following formula.

Example - For the cell "Boys - A", the corresponding row subtotal = 100, the corresponding column subtotal = 100, and the total number of observations = 200. NOTE: Row subtotals and column subtotals must have equal sums, and total expected frequencies must equal total observed frequencies.

A Boys Girls 60 40 (50) 20 (50) 0 20

U (10) (10) 20 60 80

D (40) (40)

Row Subtotals 100 100 200

Column 100 Subtotals

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Degrees of Freedom = (Rows - 1)(Columns - 1) = (2 - 1)(3 - 1) = 2 Table value of X2.05 with 2 degrees of freedom = 5.991 Therefore, reject null hypothesis.

Type Of Garage * Monthly Consumption Crosstabulation

Count monthly consumption 0-5 type of garage AUTHORIZED UNAUTHORIZED Total 39 28 67 6-10 21 4 25 11-15 8 1 9 15+ 19 1 20 Total 87 34 121

Chi-Square Tests

Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 14.596a 16.450 121

df 3 3

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .002 .001

a. 1 cells (12.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.53.

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Value Nominal by Nominal Lambda Symmetric type of garage Dependent monthly consumption Dependent Goodman and Kruskal type of garage tau Dependent monthly consumption Dependent .000 .000 .000 .121 .064

Asymp. Std. Errora .000 .000 .000 .050 .027

Approx. Sig. .000 .000 .000 .002c .000c

Symmetric Measuresa Value Nominal by Nominal Phi Cramer's V Contingency Coefficient N of Valid Cases a. Correlation statistics are available for numeric data only. .347 .347 .328 121 Approx. Sig. .002 .002 .002

.002 significant level is reliable enough for the validation of data collected.

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Battery Preference * MEDIA EXPOSURE_Belief


Crosstab Count MEDIA EXPOSURE_Belief HIGHLY HIGHLY UNBELIEVA UNBELIEVA AVERAG BELIEVABL BELIEVABL BLE BLE E E E battery preference EXIDE 1,5 SF SONIC AMARON TATA GREEN LOCAL BRANDS Total 4 0 0 4 0 0 8 14 0 0 2 0 1 17 13 0 1 1 0 0 15 26 1 2 5 0 0 34 35 0 0 4 1 3 43

Total 92 1 3 16 1 4 117

Findings: From this analysis we can say that Media Exposer has a great impact on the battery
preference.Most of the garage owners highly believe on Exide.
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 20 20 .331 .329

Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 22.173a 22.217 117

df

a. 24 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

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Directional Measures Asymp. Std. Approx. Errora Tb .034 .000 .046 1.161 1.161 Approx. Sig. .246 .246 .246

Value Nominal by Nominal Lambda Symmetric battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Belief Dependent Goodman and Kruskal tau battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Belief Dependent .040 .000 .054

.055 .049

.044 .012

.045d .305d

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Cannot be computed because the asymptotic standard error equals zero. d. Based on chi-square approximation

Symmetric Measuresa Value Nominal by Nominal Phi Cramer's V Contingency Coefficient N of Valid Cases a. Correlation statistics are available for numeric data only. .435 .218 .399 117 Approx. Sig. .031 .022 .031

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Crosstab Count MEDIA EXPOSURE_Trustworthiness NOT SO HY battery preference 1,5 SF SONIC AMARON TATA GREEN LOCAL BRANDS Total 8 12 25 41 31 117 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 1 1 2 6 0 1 1 3 16 1 4 EXIDE 6 QUITE HY 8 AVERAGE 22 HY 35 HIGHLY TRUSTWORT TRUSTWORT HY 21 Total 92

TRUSTWORT TRUSTWORT

battery preference * MEDIA EXPOSURE_Trustworthiness

Chi-Square Tests
Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 21.359a 23.643 117 df 20 20 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .176 .258

a. 24 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Findings: As per significance level the data has a variation from the normal distribution curve and may or
may fall into the accepted region.

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Directional Measures Asymp. Std. Errora .039 .000 .052 Approx. Tb 1.220 .000c 1.220 Approx. Sig. .222 .000c .222

Value Nominal by Nominal Lambda Symmetric battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Trustwo rthiness Dependent Goodman and Kruskal tau battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Trustwo rthiness Dependent a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. .050 .000 .066

.053 .049

.031 .012

.061d .297d

c. Cannot be computed because the asymptotic standard error equals zero. d. Based on chi-square approximation

Symmetric Measuresa Value Nominal by Nominal Phi Cramer's V Contingency Coefficient N of Valid Cases a. Correlation statistics are available for numeric data only. .427 .214 .393 117 Approx. Sig. .03 6 .037 .226

50

battery preference * MEDIA EXPOSURE_Conviction

Crosstab Count MEDIA EXPOSURE_Conviction NOT AT ALL QUITE HIGHLY CONVICTE CONVICTE AVERAG CONVICTE CONVICTE D D E D D battery preference EXIDE 1,5 SF SONIC AMARON TATA GREEN LOCAL BRANDS Total 7 0 0 0 0 1 8 12 0 2 3 0 2 19 21 0 0 7 0 1 29 33 0 1 3 0 0 37 19 1 0 3 1 0 24

Total 92 1 3 16 1 4 117

Findings: Conviction of Exide batteries are more than any other brands.

Chi-Square Tests

Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 26.504a 25.689 117

df 20 20

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .150 .176

51

Chi-Square Tests

Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 26.504a 25.689 117

df 20 20

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .150 .176

a. 24 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Directional Measures
Asymp. Std. Value Error
a

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal

Lambda

Symmetric battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Convicti on Dependent

.086 .000 .113

.036 .000 .049

2.229 .c 2.229

.026 .c .026

Goodman and Kruskal tau

battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Convicti on Dependent

.050 .057

.028 .017

.092d .148d

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Cannot be computed because the asymptotic standard error equals zero. d. Based on chi-square approximation

52

Symmetric Measuresa Value Nominal by Nominal Phi Cramer's V Contingency Coefficient N of Valid Cases a. Correlation statistics are available for numeric data only. .476 .238 .430 117 Approx. Sig. .150 .150 .150

battery preference * MEDIA EXPOSURE_Credibility

Crosstab Count MEDIA EXPOSURE_Credibility NOT AT ALL LITTLE AVERAG CREDIBLE INCREDIBLE E battery preference EXIDE 1,5 SF SONIC AMARON TATA GREEN LOCAL BRANDS Total 7 0 1 4 0 0 12 19 1 0 1 0 1 22 13 0 1 3 0 1 18 LITTLE CREDIBLE 30 0 1 4 1 2 38 HIGHLY CREDIBLE 23 0 0 4 0 0 27

Total 92 1 3 16 1 4 117

53

Chi-Square Tests

Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 18.063a 18.566 117

df 20 20

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .583 .550

a. 24 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.

Directional Measures Asymp. Std. Approx. Errora Tb .032 .000 .042 .302 .c .302 Approx. Sig. .763 .c .763

Value Nominal by Nominal Lambda Symmetric battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Credibili ty Dependent Goodman and Kruskal tau battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Credibili ty Dependent a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. .010 .000 .013

.041 .036

.032 .009

.251d .675d

c. Cannot be computed because the asymptotic standard error equals zero. d. Based on chi-square approximation

54

Symmetric Measuresa Value Nominal by Nominal Phi Cramer's V Contingency Coefficient N of Valid Cases a. Correlation statistics are available for numeric data only. .393 .196 .366 117 Approx. Sig. .583 .583 .583

battery preference * MEDIA EXPOSURE_Reasonableness

Directional Measures Value Nominal by Nominal Lambda Symmetric battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Reasona bleness Dependent Goodman and Kruskal battery preference tau Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Reasona bleness Dependent a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Cannot be computed because the asymptotic standard error equals zero. d. Based on chi-square approximation 55 .064 .000 .082 Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb .070 .000 .089 .885 .c .885 Approx. Sig. .376 .c .376

.069 .050

.042 .015

.005d .282d

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 22.921a 23.481 117 df 20 20 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .293 .266

a. 25 cells (83.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .11.

Symmetric Measuresa Value Nominal by Nominal Phi Cramer's V Contingency Coefficient N of Valid Cases a. Correlation statistics are available for numeric data only. .443 .221 .405 117 Approx. Sig. .293 .293 .293

battery preference * MEDIA EXPOSURE_Likelihood

Crosstab Count MEDIA EXPOSURE_Likelyhood TOTALLY DISLIKE battery preference EXIDE 1,5 SF SONIC AMARON TATA GREEN LOCAL BRANDS Total 3 0 0 1 0 1 5 DISLIKE 16 0 0 3 0 1 20 OK 20 0 1 2 0 0 23 LIKE 26 0 0 7 1 1 35 DESIRABLE 27 1 2 3 0 1 34 Total 92 1 3 16 1 4 117

56

Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 20 20 .000 .000

Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 15.789a 15.623 117

df

a. 26 cells (86.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .04.

Directional Measures Value Nominal by Nominal Lambda Symmetric battery preference Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Likelyho od Dependent Goodman and Kruskal battery preference tau Dependent MEDIA EXPOSURE_Likelyho od Dependent a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Cannot be computed because the asymptotic standard error equals zero. d. Based on chi-square approximation .037 .000 .049 Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb .070 .000 .091 .526 .c .526 Approx. Sig. .099 .c .099

.024 .036

.022 .011

.003d .008d

57

Symmetric Measuresa Value Nominal by Nominal Phi Cramer's V Contingency Coefficient N of Valid Cases a. Correlation statistics are available for numeric data only. .367 .184 .345 117 Approx. Sig. .007 .002 .006

Regression
Model Summaryb Change Statistics Model 1 R .201a Adjusted R Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate .041 -.012 1.005 R Square Change .041 F Change .769 df1 6 df2 109 Sig. F Change .016

a. Predictors: (Constant), MEDIA EXPOSURE_Likelyhood, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Conviction, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Reasonableness, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Trustworthiness, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Credibility, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Belief b. Dependent Variable: battery preference

ANOVAb Sum of Squares Regression Residual Total 4.663 110.199 114.862 58

Model 1

df 6 109 115

Mean Square .777 1.011

F .769

Sig. .596a

a. Predictors: (Constant), MEDIA EXPOSURE_Likelyhood, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Conviction, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Reasonableness, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Trustworthiness, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Credibility, MEDIA EXPOSURE_Belief b. Dependent Variable: battery preference

Coefficients

Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) MEDIA EXPOSURE_Belief MEDIA EXPOSURE_Trustworthi ness MEDIA EXPOSURE_Conviction MEDIA EXPOSURE_Credibility MEDIA EXPOSURE_Reasonable ness MEDIA EXPOSURE_Likelyhood a. Dependent Variable: battery preference -.076 .080 -.091 -.945 .347 -.073 -.090 -.089 .044 .079 .054 .553 .582 .039 .053 .052 -.082 .077 -.107 -1.063 .290 -.066 -.101 -.100 -.137 .083 -.162 -1.651 .102 -.157 -.156 -.155 -.009 .083 -.010 -.103 .918 -.029 -.010 -.010 B 2.319 .018 Std. Error .600 .080 .023 Coefficients Beta t 3.864 .220 Sig. .000 .826 -.041 .021 .021 Correlations Zero-order Partial Part

Battery Preference = 2.319+ 0.018 (media exposure_belief) 0.009(Media exposure_trustworthiness) 0.137(M.E_conviction) 0.82 (M.E_credibility)+ 0.44(M.E_reasonableness) 0.76(M.E_likelihood).
Casewise Diagnosticsa Case Number 6 23 85

Std. Residual 3.307 3.248 3.382

battery preference 5 5 5 59

Predicted Value 1.67 1.73 1.60

Residual 3.325 3.266 3.400

Casewise Diagnosticsa Case Number 6 23 85

Std. Residual 3.307 3.248 3.382

battery preference 5 5 5

Predicted Value 1.67 1.73 1.60

Residual 3.325 3.266 3.400

a. Dependent Variable: battery preference

Residuals Statisticsa Minimum Predicted Value Residual Std. Predicted Value Std. Residual 1.11 -1.043 -1.780 -1.037 Maximum 2.04 3.400 2.868 3.382 Mean 1.47 .000 .000 .000 Std. Deviation .201 .979 1.000 .974 N 116 116 116 116

a. Dependent Variable: battery preference

Frequencies
monthly consumption Frequency Percent Valid Percent Valid <=5 <=5-10 <=11-15 >=16 Total 25 67 25 9 20 146 17.1 45.9 17.1 6.2 13.7 100.0 17.1 45.9 17.1 6.2 13.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 17.1 63.0 80.1 86.3 100.0

60

Findings- In most cases the monthly consumption of battery in individual garages is 0-5.

61

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:


1. WHAT IS THE APPROXIMATE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF BATTERY? B. 0-5 B. 6-10 C. 11-15 D. >15

Monthly consumption 0-5 6-10 11-15 15+

No Of garages in this category 63 25 10 22

No Of garages in this category


15+ 11-15 6-10 0-5 Monthly consumption 0 20 40 60 80 No Of garages in this category

Total sample size = 120

CATEGORISING THE GARAGES ACCORDING THEIR MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF BATTERY

62

2. WHICH BRAND OF BATTERY DO YOU PURCHASE MOST? B. EXIDE B. SF SONIC C. AMARON D. TATA GREEN E. OTHERS (SPECIFY)

Brand
Exide Amaron SF SONIC Local Brands

Market Share
85 17 10 8

Market Share
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Exide Amaron SF SONIC Local Brands Market Share

TOTAL SAMPLE SIZE= 120

DETERMINING THE MARKET SHARE FROM THE PURCHASE OF THE GARAGE OWNERS

63

3. From where does you purchase the batteries?

Source
Dealer Company Retailer

No Of Purchase
70 40 10

Source
80 60 40 20 0 Dealer Company Retailer No Of Purchase

TOTAL SAMPLE SIZE= 120

SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO THE PURCHASE POINT OF THE GARAGE OWNERS


64

4. Reasons for recommending a particular brand battery:

Reason for Recommending Customer satisfaction Discount Brand name Good service support

no. of purchase 40 10 25 45

Reason for Recomendation


50 40 30 20 10 0

no. of purchase

TOTAL SAMPLE SIZE=120

ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS WHICH INSISTS THE GARAGE OWNERS

65

5. Satisfaction level of garage owners:

Status
Satisfied Dissatisfied

garage owner's satisfaction level


78% 22%

garage owner's satisfaction level

satisfied dissatisfied

ANALYZING THE SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE GARAGE OWNERS

66

7. Awareness about SF Sonic among the garage owners:

Status
Used Not Used

Awareness About SF SONIC


63% 37%

awareness about SF SONIC

used not used

67

8. Rank on Customer preference (RANGE OF 1-5 SCALE)

Brand
Exide SF SONIC AMARON TATA GREEN LOCAL BRANDS

Rank on customer preference


5 3 4 2 2

Rank on customer preference


LOCAL BRANDS TATA GREEN AMARON SF SONIC Exide 0 1 2 3 4 5 Rank on customer preference

(RANGE OF 1-5 SCALE)

68

9. Rank on Garage owners preference:

Brand
EXIDE AMARON SF SONIC TATA GREEN LOCAL BRANDS

Rank on garage owners preference


5 4 3 2 3

Rank on garage owners preference


LOCAL BRANDS TATA GREEN SF SONIC AMARON EXIDE 0 1 2 3 4 5 Rank on garage owners preference

(RANGE OF 1-5 SCALE)

69

10.

Segmentation of the Garages according to their types of work:

type of garages
2 wheeler garages authorised 4 wheeler unauthorised 4 wheelers tractor and HUV

No.
33 40 35 12

Garage types
tractor and HUV unauthorised 4 wheelers authorised 4 wheeler 2 wheeler garages 0 10 No.

20

30

40

TOTAL SMPLE SIZE= 120

70

FINDING:
The first thing I have found after the completion of my market survey that SF SONIC battery though its a brand of Exide Industries ltd. Having only 8.33% of market share which is very low. It is being observed that there are more that 30% of four wheeler garages which are unauthorized and free to recommend any brand batteries which depends totally on the garage owners. So, it is a great opportunity for SF SONIC to grab the market of these unauthorized garages with regular garage visit and providing other facilities to the garage owners. According to the pattern of the questionnaire the first thing is observed that almost 50% of garages are there who consumes average 0-5 batteries monthly,22% of garages have average monthly consumption of 6-10 batteries,9% garages monthly consume 1115 batteries and 18% garages have average monthly consumption of more than 15 batteries. After visiting the garages and asking the garage owners about the product I found that the market share of SF SONIC is very low just because of lack of awareness. Many of the garage owners even surprised about the existence of this brand. According to my survey I found that 37% of the garage owners do not even used SF Sonic battery so they are totally unaware about the quality and service of SF SONIC provided by the company. So they do not recommend this battery to the customers which reflect in the low market share of the brand. Among the garage owners who have used this brand before, 78% of them is satisfied with the service of SF SONIC. Rest 22% are not satisfied regarding various issues like problem of replacement, dealer unavailability etc. I have asked the garage owners about their purchase point of battery needed monthly, I found that 58% of garage owners purchase battery from the dealer, 33% purchase directly from the company outlets which are mainly purchased by the big authorized garages. The owners told that often they tell the customer to purchase battery from their own, because the garage owners do not want to take responsibilities. In North Bengal 70% of garages recommend their customers to use Exide but most of them do not even know that SF SONIC is also another brand of Exide Industries Ltd. When I have asked them that which thing insist them to recommend a particular battery, they were confused of giving the right answer.38% of the garage owners told
71

that they are attracted towards good service support from the company and their preference based on that aspect. 32% relies on customer satisfaction and 20% of them totally depends on the brand name, they do not want to take any risk using other brands and lastly 8% of the garages search profit so the only thing that attracts them is discount. On the basis of customer preference in the range of 1-5 scale, the survey which I have done, I found that Exide is on top brand preferred by the customers, then its Amaron , SF SONIC is in the third position with 3 points out of 5 lies in the same position with the local brands preferred by the customers of North Bengal. Lastly on the basis of the garage owners preference I found that almost 90% of the garage owners have given Exide 5 points and though SF SONIC is unknown to many of them so they denied to give any comments but in average SF got 3 points which is very low.

PROBLEM FACED:There are various problems that I have faced during this survey. The problem I have faced the most was to identify the exact location of the garages in the remote area which are not at all well communicated so it was very time consuming. Secondly, the garage owners were not interested to disclose the information such as discount or credit facility availed from the dealer or monthly consumption of battery which are very essential for my project. Beside this most of the garage owners are illiterate so sometimes it was very hard to make them understand about my survey. In some cases the people who are interested on taking dealership asked for further details about what are the procedures to play the role of a dealer and what will be the expenditure. But I was unable to give him the information. The problem was very exciting, some of the garage owners asked me to suggest them a solution of a battery they are facing problem in the garage. But apart from these problems I have enjoyed a lot to fulfill the entire market survey.

72

SWOT Analysis of SF Sonic Batteries:


STRENGTH: - PRODUCT OF EXIDE INDUSTRIES LTD. - PROPER SERVICE AND SUPPORT. - LOWER PRICE THAN EXIDE - ATTRACTING WARRANTY FACILITY - DEALER NETWORK

WEAKNESS:
LOW BRAND AWARENESS WEAK DEALER AND CUSTOMER RELATION WEAK RETAIL NETWORK OF DISTRIBUTOR PRICE VARIATION FROM DEALER TO DEALER LACK OF COMPANY OR DEALER VISIT TO THE GARAGES.

OPPORTUNITIES:

- GROWING MARKET OF AUTOMOBILE. - CUSTOMERS ARE CONFUSED WITH THEIR PREFERENCE FOR BATTTERY. - CUSTOMERS ARE ATTTRACTED TOWARDS LOW PRICE AND DISCOUNT.

THREATS: - BRAND POSITION OF EXIDE. - NEW ENTRY OF LOW PRICE LOCAL BRAND BATTERY. - HEAVY COMPETITION WITH OTHER BRANDS LIKE AMARON, TATA GREEN, LUMINOUS ETC.
73

SUGGESTION
The company has to create strong brand awareness by continuous process in remote areas like North Bengal to achieve high growth. The distribution channel must be strong and well circulated so that it can cover each and every remote location. Product availability from the nearest dealer or retailer. Regular company or dealer visits to the garages so that it can decrease the gap between customer and the company. Garage owners should be aware about the products and the price. Distributor or retailer should give more attractive discount and credit to the garages. Strong after sales service to be provided by the dealer towards the end users. Quick replacement facility in case of warranty and provide service battery in case of emergency. Arrange service camp and provide training session for the garage mechanics by the company technician. The company should strictly take action against those distributors who are also selling other brands along with sf sonic for more profit. Banners and wall paint should be done to the garages according to their potential for promotion and customer awareness. It will be good if company arrange a monthly meeting with the garage owners. Gifts like t-shirt, caps, towel with company logo for the garage mechanics can insist them to recommend sf sonic battery and also it will help in promotion to some extent. Company tie up with the automobile company at the time of manufacture of the vehicle.

74

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SALES TEAM TO INCREASE THE MARKET SHARE OF SF SONIC:-

SF SONIC GAR AGE SAP DEALER DISTRIBUTOR DISTRIBUTOR FLEET

CRM

RETAILER DISTRIBUTOR DISTRIBUTOR DEALER AM


MAM

GARAGE
DISTRIBUTOR

FLEET

GE

FSO

FSO

SALES PROMOTION FOCUS

NEW DISTRIBUTOR/ DEALER APPT.

MONITOR FSO KRAS ( CRM ) AM PERFORMANCE ( SAP) NEW CHANNEL EXPANSION / MARKET PENETRATION REPORTING TO GM

RSM

75

PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF SF SONIC:

76

ANNEXURE
The garages I have visited in North Bengal for my survey:

Garage Name
R.K.AUTOMOBILE CHAMPU GARAGE SERVICE MEN'S SERVICE PUCHKI AUTO WORKS KUNDU AUTOMOBILES ADHIR AUTOMOBILES SARKAR AUTO ELECTRICAL WORKS MAHAVIR AUTOMOBILES DAS MARUTI REPAIRING CENTRE RATNA AUTOMOBILES S.S. AUTOMOBILES PRATIK AUTOMOBILES S.P.AUTOWORKS AUTOCARE SHIV AUTOWORKS BHARAT AUTOMOBILES BALAJI HONDA SHIV AUTOMOBILES BISWAS AUTOMOBILES OSL AUTOMOTIVES KRISHNA MARUTI WORKSHOP DINHATA AUTOMOBILES R.R AUTOMOBILES MANAKAMNA AUTOMOBILE RADHA KRISHNA ENGINEERING RAJA MOTORS JOGOMAYA AUTO WORKS DAS AUTO CENTRE SARKAR AUTO CENTRE R.N AUTO

Place
JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI

Type Of Garage
3-4 WHEELER ELECTRICAL TATA AUTHORISED BAJAJ 2 WHEELER AUTHORISED UNAUTHORISED 2 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER

Battery Preference
EXIDE EXIDE AMARON AMARON EXIDE ASTRAL EXIDE

JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI JALPAIGURI DHUPGURI DHUPGURI DHUPGURI DHUPGURI DHUPGURI DHUPGURI DHUPGURI DHUPGURI DHUPGURI DINHATA DINHATA DINHATA DINHATA DINHATA DINHATA DINHATA ALIPURDUAR ALIPURDUAR 77

TVS WORKSHOP MARUTI UNAUTHORISED HONDA AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER MARUTI AUTHORISED HERO AUTHORISED UNAUTHORISED 2 WHEELER YAMAHA AUTHORISED UNAUTHORISED 2 WHEELER HERO AUTHORISED HONDA AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER BAJAJ 2 WHEELER AUTHORISED PIAGGIO AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER TATA AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER MARUTI 4 WHEELER SERVICE CENTRE MARUTI AUTHORISED YAMAHA AUTHORISED TVS AUTHORISED TATA AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER BAJAJ 2 WHEELER AUTHORISED HERO AUTHORISED HONDA AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER BAJAJ 2 WHEELER AUTHORISED YAMAHA AUTHORISED

EXIDE EXIDE AMARON EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE AMARON EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE AMARON POWERZONE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE

KRISH AUTO PARTS G.M.MOTORS SAGAR SCOOTER WORKS PRADYUT AUTOMOBILES TOOFANGANJ AUTO CENTRE SANDIP AUTOLINES DURGA HYUNDAI OSL AUTOMOTIVES PVT LTD. BAJLA MOTORS PVT LTD PROVA AUTOMOBILES BRAHMACHARI BAJAJ DEBNATH HONDA AUTO CENTRE RUPS AUTO MAA MAHALAXMI HONDA B.K.MOTORS JOGOMAYA WORKSHOP NATIONAL MOTORS DARJEELING AUTOMOBILE PVT LTD KAYONS CHEVROLETTE RAVI AUTO LTD RELIABLE AUTOMOBILES HIMGIRI MOTORS SILIGURI AUTO WORKS PVT LTD KAYSONS HONDA M.A.E WORKS SEVOKE MOTORS PVT -LTD TOPSEL TOYOTA DURGA HYUNDAI BEEKAY AUTO PVT LTD. KHOKAN MOTORS L.N. AUTOMOBILES KARMAKAR AUTOMOBILES JAGA GARAGE MANDALL AUTO REPAIRING CENTRE SUDARSHAN AUTOMOBILE LOKNATH AUTO AGENCY

ALIPURDUAR ALIPURDUAR ALIPURDUAR ALIPURDUAR TOOFANGANJ COOCHBEHAR COOCHBEHAR COOCHBEHAR COOCHBEHAR COOCHBEHAR COOCHBEHAR COOCHBEHAR COOCHBEHAR

3 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELLER UNAUTHORISED 2 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED MARUTI AUTHORISED HERO AUTHORISED HERO AUTHORISED HYUNDAI AUTHORISED TATA AUTHORISED TATA & PIAGGIO AUTHORISED MARUTI AUTHORISED BAJAJ 2 WHEELER AUTHORISED HONDA AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER YAMAHA AUTHORISED

AMARON AMARON EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE AMCO EXIDE AMARON EXIDE AMARON EXIDE SF SONIC EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE,MINDA EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE TATA GREEN EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE AMARON EXIDE EXIDE AMARON EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE AMARON

MATHABHANGA HONDA AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER MATHABHANGA BAJAJ AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER MATHABHANGA HERO AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI SILIGURI ISLAMPUR ISLAMPUR ISLAMPUR ISLAMPUR ISLAMPUR ISLAMPUR 78 YAMAHA AUTHORISED HERO AUTHORISED CHEVROLETE AUTHORISED MAHINDRA AUTHORISED TATA AUTHORISED SUZUKI AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER BAJAJ 2 WHEELER AUTHORISED HONDA AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER MARUTI AUTHORISED TOYOTA AUTHORISED HYUNDAI AUTHORISED MARUTI AUTHORISED MAHINDRA AUTHORISED BAJAJ 2 WHEELER AUTHORISED UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER MAHINDRA AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER

S.A. SERVICE STATION BHARAT AUTOMOBILES STAR MOTORS KALI (CH)MOTORS YUSUF MOTORS ZAINAB MOTORS BEHANI BROTHERS S.N.MOTORS PVT LTD NEWLINE AUTO TRACK PVT LTD DURGA HYUNDAI LEXICAN MOTORS BHAI BHAI AUTOMOBILES DURGA MACHINERY MART TULTUL MOTOR GARAGE MATAHAR GARAGE PAL AUTOWORKS SONAL MARUTI GARAGE MAA MOTOR GARAGE ROY AUTOMOBILES DURGA AUTO CENTER J.K.WHEELS PVT.LTD. PLANET WHEELS NEWLINE AUTO TRACK PVT LTD PUNAM AUTO CENTER POWERTRAC(NATIONAL MOTORS) UTTAM AUTO WORKS MEHI MOTORS PVT LTD NEW TVS(NEW MALDA DIESELS PVT LTD.) TIRUPATI STEELS TIRUPATI TRADERS D.N.S AUTOMOBILES ABHISEK AUTO CENTRE GHOSH AUTOMOBILES DAS AUTOMOBILES RADHARANI MOTORS P.K.AUTOMOBILES

ISLAMPUR ISLAMPUR DALKHOLA DALKHOLA DALKHOLA DALKHOLA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA MALDA GAZOL MALDA BALURGHAT BALURGHAT BALURGHAT BALURGHAT 79

MARUTI & TATA AUTHORISED HERO AUTHORISED UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER MAHINDRA AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER 4 WHEELLER AUTHORISED MARUTI AUTHORISED TATA AUTHORISED HUV MAHINDRA AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER TATA AUTHORISED(HUV,MCV,COMMERCIAL) HYUNDAI AUTHORISED TATA AUTHORISED(HUV,LUV,COMMERCIAL) UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER HINDUSTAN MOTORS AUTHORISED UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER HERO AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER MARUTI AUTHORISED BAJAJ AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER TATA AUTHORISED 2ND HAND CAR DEALER POWERTRAC TRACTOR TATA CERTIFIED SERVICE STATION HONDA AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER TVS AUTHORIISED MAHINDRA SEVA YAMAHA AUTHORISD 2 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER MARUTI AUTHORISED MARUTI AUTHORISED UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER TATA MOTORS AUTHORISED(COMMERCIAL) UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER

EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE AMARON EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE SF SONIC ASTRAL EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE SF SONIC EXIDE EXIDE AMARON EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE AMARON

SHEFALI AUTOMOBILES BIMALA AUTO MOTOR WORKS LAXMI ENGINEERING WORKS ANANDA MOTORS R.D.AUTOMOBILES RAVI MOTORS S.N.AUTOMOTIVES AMAR GARAGE NOKUL SARKAR GARAGE BIDYUT AUTO PARTS PRASAD AUTO CENTER MIRA AUTO CENTER MIRA AUTO CENTER SANKAR AUTO CENTER SHANKAR AUTO CENTER RAIGANJ PLANET WHEELS SRIRAM MOTORS SANYAL GARAGE VISHAL TVS SHOWROOM

BALURGHAT BALURGHAT BALURGHAT GANGARAMPUR GANGARAMPUR GANGARAMPUR GANGARAMPUR RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ RAIGANJ

UNAUTHORISED HUV FORCE MOTORS,MAHINDRA WORKS MAHINDRA AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER NEW HOLLAND TRACTOR AUTHORISED MAHINDRA AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER FORCE MOTORS AUTHORISED UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER UNAUTHORISED 4 WHEELER TAFE TRACTOR AUTHORISED HONDA AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER JOHN DEERE TRACTOR MAHINDRA SEVA HERO AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER BAJAJ AUTHORISED 2 WHEELER MAHINDRA AUTHORISED 4 WHEELER TATA MOTORS AUTHORISED(COMMERCIAL) TVS AUTHORIISED

EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE SF SONIC EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE AMARON AMARON EXIDE EXIDE SF SONIC EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE EXIDE

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Conclusion:-

The result of the survey clearly indicates that there is a huge competition in the battery market and SF SONIC has to compete with the renown brand like Exide, Amaron, Tata Green etc as well as with the local brand like Amco, Astral, Microtek, Powerzone etc. After collecting the data from the garages and analyzing it we can see that SF SONIC battery has only 8.33% market share which is very low but there are lots of opportunities for this brand to increase the market share. The project report point out the lack of awareness about the brand among the customers as well as to the garage owners. So, initially the company has to increase the promotional activities. Besides this the company has to maintain a good relationship with the customers and garage owners and also company has to provide good after sales service to make the customer satisfied towards the brand.

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