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saqarTvelos semiotikis sazogadoeba

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

X SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2011

2 UDC 8122

mTavari redaqtori cira barbaqaZe

Editor-in-Chief Tsira Barbakadze

redaqtorebi Tamar berekaSvili Tamar lomiZe gia joxaZe

Editors Tamar Berekashvili Tamar Lomidze Gia Jokhadze

semiotikis kvlevis centri 2011 ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT: E-mail: tsira_barbakadze@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
dro enasa da kulturaSi, drois semiotika
elizbar elizbaraSvili (Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
Jan bodriaris kulturuli bulioni da qarTuli bulionis dro.........................................................................7 inga milorava (Tbilisi, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli

literaturis instituti)
nivTi, rogorc drois da kulturuli sivrcis simbolo modernistul teqstSi...........................................17 ada nemsaZe (Tbilisi, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli

literaturis instituti)
kitriani aryis boTli/mzis amosvlis kunZuli (ori qronotopuli simbolos analizisTvis) ............................29 rusudan zeqalaSvili (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
drois fenomeni da misi metaforuli interpretacia enaSi ..............................................................................................37 maia jaliaSvili(Tbilisi, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli

literaturis instituti)
drois metafizika qarTul modernistul romanSi .........48 zeinab kikviZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti)
eris cnobierebaSi arsebul idiomaTa dro-sivrculi semantemebi..................................................................................68

4 salome omiaZe (Tbilisi, ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
punqtualuroba, rogorc drois konceptis erT-erTi Semadgeneli ................................................................................77 tariel daTiaSvili ( quTaisi, damoukidebeli

mkvlevari)
uZravi da moZravi (globaluri da lokaluri) dro .......81 nino gogiaSvili (Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
gzis semiotika qarTuli masalebis mixedviT ...................90 gia joxaZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
dro da xsovna.............................................................................96 nino abakelia (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
ornamentizebuli dro da sivrce saqarTvelos teritoriaze dacul brinjaos artefaqtebze ................104

semiotika da sxva
lali guledani (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
mamaTa Segonebanis ideur-Tematuri Taviseburebani... 113 rusudan mircxulava (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
simbolos namdviloba art-sesiaze (art-Terapiasa da fsiqologiur art-treningSi).........................................127

5 dali baxtaZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo universiteti) germanuli da qarTuli kulturis semiotika xatovani azrovnebis enobriv subsistemebSi ......................................136 daviT SavianiZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti)
sizmris semiotika eTnografiul masalebsa da mxatvrul literaturaSi .......................................................144 maia miqautaZe, giga qamuSaZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
sametyvelo kodTa SereviT gamowveuli semantikuri Taviseburebani imerxevelTa metyvelebaSi ......................152 laSa CxartiSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti, doqtoranti)
scenur-sivrciTi metaforis semantika robert sturuas speqtaklSi mefe liri.........................................160 Tamar kiknaveliZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo universiteti, doqtoranti) patris pavis Teatraluri leqsikonis mniSvneloba Tanamedrove TeatrmcodneobaSi .........................................169 luiza xaWapuriZe, ia xaWapuriZe (quTaisi, akaki

wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti)


kulturaTa integracia da enobrivi desemantizacia (megobari/Seyvarebuli/boifrendi)....................................176 nana trapaiZe (baTumi, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo

universiteti)
veragoba da/Tu siyvaruli.....................................................182

6 irine CaCaniZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti)
sqesi da genderi: leqsikografiuli panorama .................196 SoTa barbaqaZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti, magistri)
Ria adamianebi Ria sazogadoebaSi................................204 Tamar lomiZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
ucnaurisa da gaucnaurebis cnebaTa semantika me-20 saukunis 10-20-iani wlebis kulturaSi ..............................214 aTinaT mamacaSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
winaaRmdegobis gamomxatveli sityva fransis ponJis da giorgi leoniZis SemoqmedebaSi ......................................222 cira barbaqaZe (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
dagineba da furTxeba qarTul sabWoTa poeziaSi ...........235 daviT TinikaSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti, doqtoranti)
drois aRqma avgustinesTan anu SenSi, sulo Cemo, vzomav dros ..............................................................................242 lali zaqaraZe (baTumi, SoTa rusTavelis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
merab mamardaSvili: evropuli identobis aRqma gza TviTgamorkvevisken .................................................................247 Tamar berekaSvili (Tbilisi, ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti)
identobis problema dro da sarke ...................................253

dro

enasa da kulturaSi drois semiotika a


elizbar elizbaraSvili Jan bodriaris kulturuli bulioni da qarTuli bulionis dro
frangi filosofosi Jan bodriari Tanamedrove evropuli postindustriuli sazogadoebis analizisas gamohyofs socio-kulturuli sivrcis ramdenime maxasiaTebels _ maT Soris erT-erT mTavars _ JanrTa aRrevis kanons. es aris situacia, rodesac moxsnilia sociokulturuli sivrcis tradiciuli, Sinagani diferenciacia da misi yvela sfero erT did kulturul bulionSi (bodriaris termini) aRireva. 1990 wels gamocemul wignSi _ borotebis gamWvirvaloba (Tavi orgiis Semdgom) frangi postmodernisti wers, rom Tanamedrove sivrceSi seqsi, ekonomika, politika, mecniereba, xelovneba, sporti erTmaneTisagan gamijnul teritoriebze aRar arsebobs, yoveli sfero ganicdis dekompensacias _ gadaiJoneba danarCen sxvaSi, ganzavdeba yvelaSi da kargavs Tavis specifikas. yoveli diskursi yvelgan saxeze myofia. am politikuri da informaciuli kulturis bulionSi seqsualuroba gardaiqmneba transseqsualurobad, ekonomika _ transekonomikad, po-

elizbar elizbaraSvili

litika _ transpolitikad, esTetika _ transesTetikad. es aris iseTi mdgomareoba, rodesac yvelaferi seqsualuria, yvelaferi politikuria, yvelaferi esTetikuri. wignis calkeuli Tavi TiToeuli fenomenis ganxilva-ilustrirebas eTmoba. termin transpolitika-Si igulisxmeba, rom politika moCvenebiT, meorad arsebobaSia gadasuli. mas arseboba ki ar Seuwyvetia da am saxiT ki ar gamqrala, aramed ufro farul, TvalTmaqcur arsebobas ganagrZobs. es niSnavs, rom politika, rogorc realuri fenomeni, Tavisufldeba Tavisi ideebisagan, koncepciebisagan, Tavisi arsebisagan, Rirebulebisagan, Tavisi warmomavlobisa da daniSnulebisagan da adgas usasrulo TviTwarmoebis gzas. TiTqos yvelaferi ganagrZobs funqcionirebas, maSin rodesac arsebobis sazrisi gaqra. politikuri sfero ganagrZobs funqcionirebas sakuTari Semadgenlobisadmi srul gulgrilobaSi. avtori aq dasZens: paradoqsi isaa, rom aseTi funqcionirebiT sulac ar zaraldeba igi, aramed piriqiT _ sul ufro srulyofili xdeba (borotebis gamWvirvaloba gv. 12). es aris didi sazogadoebrivi agregati, romelic TiTqos cariel siCqareze muSaobs. anu politikidan didi xania gaqra ideebi, magram politikuri moRvaweebi kvlav ganagrZoben TavianT TamaSebs. es aris politikis formalur-carieli TamaSebi, rodesac misi moqmedi pirebi srulebiT gulgrilni rCebian sakuTari fsonebisadmi. maT ar ainteresebT ideebi, maTi ganxorcielebaganuxorcielebloba, ainteresebT mxolod karieruli TamaSebi: Sejibri, winsvla, gamarjveba, damarcxeba. aRar arsebobs politikuri avangardi, romelic gardaqmnisa da cvlilebebis ideebis ZaliT kritikas SeZlebda. politika mTlianad moCvenebiT arsebobaSi gadadis. igi iqceva speqtaklad, romlisac aRaravis swams. am speqtaklis miRma araviTari ideaTa Widili ar imaleba. yvelaferi carieli TamaSebia, sadac aRar arsebobs realuri politikuri procesebi. bodriari askvnis: yovelive amis Sedegad miviReT sruli gaurkvevloba da SeuZlebloba imisa, rom kvlav daveufloT saganTa politikuri gansazRvris principebs (borotebis gamWvirvaloba, gv. 18). Cven vsaxlobT transpolitikurSi, sxvagvarad _ politikuris nulovan niSnulze, romelic misi kvlavwarmoebisa da usasrulo simulaciisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli (borotebis gamWvirvaloba, gv. 19). da radganac ar arse-

Jan bodriaris kulturuli bulioni da qarTuli `bulionis~ dro

bobs originaluri politikuri strategiebi, aRar xdeba socialuri urTierTobebis gonieri, swori marTva, saxelmwifo kargavs Tavis socialur arss. saxelmwifo aRar funqciobs politikuri nebis Sesabamisad, mas marTavs SantaJi, daSineba, TvalTmaqcoba, provokacia an saCvenebeli problemebi. is igonebs politikas, romlisTvisac gulgrilobaa damaxasiaTebeli (borotebis gamWvirvaloba, gv. 117). es aris politikis dasasrulis erTi aspeqti. meore aspeqtia politikis yvelgan da yvelaferSi SeWra. ai, misi es aqcenti gvainteresebs Cven yvelaze metad. frangi postmodernistis azriT, dRes politika SeiWra sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoSi: biznesSi, xelovnebaSi, mecnierebaSi, sportSi, seqsSi. yvelaferi gaxda politikuri. politika SeiWra sxva sferoebSi imdenad, ramdenadac isini kargaven TavianT specifikur xasiaTs da aRrevisa da dasenianebis erTian procesSi xdebian CaTreulni. maTgan TiToeuli sfero, rogorc politikis sfero, Tanabari xarisxiTaa Sepyrobili, daavadebuli jaWvuri reaqciiT, SemTxveviTi da uazro gamravlebiT, metastazirebiT (borotebis gamWvirvaloba, gv. 14). ras niSnavs warmodgenili sferoebis urTierTdainficireba? es imas niSnavs, rom sferoebi urTierTSenacvlebulia, Janrebi aRreulia. anu seqsi dRes arsebobs ara mxolod seqsSi, rogorc aseTSi, aramed mis farglebs miRma, rom politika aRaraa koncentrirebuli politikaze da exeba yvela sferos: ekonomikas, mecnierebas, xelovnebas, sports. sportic gavida sportis miRma da igi biznesSicaa, seqsSic, politikaSic. sportis aseTi gansvla sakuTari Tavidan imaSi Cans, rom yvelaferi upiratesobis, Zalisxmevis, rekordis, infantiluri TviTgadalaxvis sportuli koeficientiTaa gaJRenTili. Sedegad viRebT erTian kulturul bulions, sadac aRar arsebobs diferencirebuli veli da gansxvavebuli sagnebi. es aris JanrTa aRrevis kanoni: yvelaferi seqsualuria, yvelaferi politikuria, yvelaferi esTetikuria. wignSi borotebis gamWvirvaloba vkiTxulobT: yvelafers, gansakuTrebiT 1968 wlidan, politikuri sazrisi eniWeba: yoveldRiuri cxovrebac, sigiJec, enac, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebic, survilebic politikuri xasiaTisani arian... amave dros, yvelaferi

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elizbar elizbaraSvili

seqsualuri xdeba, yvelaferi survilis obieqtia: Zalaufleba, codna... amavdroulad, yvelaferi esTetikuria; politika gadaiqceva speqtaklad, seqsi _ reklamad da pornografiad (borotebis gamWvirvaloba, gv. 16). magaliTad, endi uorholi esTetikis transvestitia, radganac igi xelovnebaTa da esTetikaTa universalur aRrevas axdens, misTvis yvelaferi esTetikuria. kulturuli bulioni niSnavs imas, rom TiToeuli sfero midrekilia sakuTari Tavis umaRlesi xarisxiT ganvrcobisaken. amiT ki, avtoris azriT, TavianT specifikas kargaven da yvela danarCenSi ganzavdebian. es aris saganTa paradoqsuli mdgomareoba, rodesac uaryofa da likvidacia siWarbiTa da sakuTar farglebs miRma gafarToebiT miiReba. Jan bodriarTan rogorc transpolitikurobaa politikurobis dasasrulis mauwyebeli, iseve transseqsualuroba _ seqsualurobis dasasruli. frangi avtori transseqsualurobis cnebas biologiur-anatomiuri CarCoebidan socio-kulturul ganzomilebamde afarToebs, romlis arsic simboloTa, niSanTa da organoTa aRreva-maskaradSi mdgomareobs. seqsualurobisa da transseqsualurobis gamijvnis erT-erTi mTavari kriteriumi isaa, rom seqsualuroba orientirebulia siamovnebaze, transseqsualuroba ki xelovnurobaze. CiColina, madona, maikl jeksoni popkulturis sivrcis transvestitebi arian, radganac isini cxovroben simboloTa, niSanTa da organoTa aRreviT, isini arian sqesebs Soris gadamrbenebi. seqsualuri gaTavisufleba orgiis etapia dasavlur kulturaSi, transseqsualizmi ki _ maskaradis dro, radganac, bodriaris azriT, survilebis gaTavisuflebas mosdevs seqsualurobis Cakargva gaurkvevel Teatralizebul zedmetobebSi. amitomac survilebis gandevnis strategia seqsualuri gaTavisuflebis dros erTia, xolo transseqsualizmis dros meore: survilebis Zveli, keTili represia icvleba am survilebis zedmeti, gadaWarbebuli demonstrirebiT. es meqanizmi, filosofosis azriT, ufro efeqturad gandevnis survilebs. Sesabamisad, transvestitis cxovrebis wesi `me varsebobi~-dan icvleba `me var danaxvadi~-T, `me var gamosaxulebi~-T. janmrTelobisaken miswrafeba icvleba sareklamo brwyinvalebiT. sabolood, bodriari askvnis, rom seqsualuri revolucia erTerTi etapia transseqsualizmisaken mimaval gzaze. nebismieri re-

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voluciis Semdeg dgeba gaurkvevloba, gangaSi da aRreva. seqsualuri revoluciis Semdgom dasavlur kulturaSi yvelaferi sqesTa aRrevisa da am gziT _ gaurkvevlobisaken warimarTa. esaa niSanTa dausrulebeli cirkulaciis etapi, sadac problema identurobaa. es ki aris seqsualurobis dasasrulis erTi aspeqti. misi meore aspeqtic seqsis yvelgan da yvelaferSi SeWraa. rogorc vxedavT, termin transpolitikas Jan bodriari, umTavresad, am ori aspeqtiT iyenebs. transpolitikaSi igi gulisxmobs politikis dasasruls Tanamedrove samyaroSi, romelsac ori mxare, ori momenti aqvs. pirveli isaa, rom politikuri agregati funqcionirebs cariel siCqareze da moCvenebiT arsebobaSia gadasuli. meore ki isaa, rom Tanamedrove kulturul sivrceSi Janrebia aRreulia, amis Sedegadac yvelaferi politikaa, anu aRaraferia politika. aseve iazrebs avtori termins transseqsualuroba: pirveli aspeqti simboloTa, niSanTa da organoTa arReva-maskaradia, xolo meore aspeqti _ JanrTa aRreva, anu seqsis yvelagan da yvelaferSi SeWraa. es ori aspeqti ganapirobebs seqsualurobis dasasruls. aseve, transesTetika esTetikaTa da xelovnebaTa aRrevaa, xolo meore aspeqti _ esTetikis, speqtaklurobis, warmodgeniTobis aseve yvelagan da yvelaferSi SeWra, yvelafris gaesTetureba xelovnebis dasarulia. magram, rodesac yvelaferi politikuria, maSin ukve aRaraferia politikuri, Tavad es sityvac hkargavs azrs. rodesac yvelaferi seqsualuria, maSin ukve aRaraferia seqsualuri da seqsis gageba SeuZlebelia ganisazRvros; rodesac yvelaferi esTetikuria, aRaraferia arc mSvenieri da arc sazizRari, am dros xelovnebac ki qreba (borotebis gamWvirvaloba, gv. 17). xelovneba qreba ara amaRlebul idealizaciebSi, aramed _ yoveldRiurobis srul esTetizaciaSi. xelovneba gaqra maSin, rodesac yovelive banaluri esTetikuri gaxda. xelovneba am dros ganzavda banalurobis transesTetikaSi. aRar arsebobs esTetikuri tkbobisa da msjelobebisaTvis oqros standarti (borotebis gamWvirvaloba, gv. 24). im qaosSi, romelic xelovnebaSi arsebobs, SesaZlebelia esTetikis saidumlo kodis darRveva amovikiTxoT iseve, rogorc simsivnea biologiuri organizmisTvis genetikuri kodis darRveva.

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saqarTveloSi, rogorc dasavluri socio-kulturuli sivrcidan aTwleulebis manZilze izolirebul sivrceSi, msgavsi maxasiaTeblebi istoriulad arasodes SeiniSneboda. magram Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi ki ukve SeimCneva bodriaris mier aRwerili erTiani kulturuli bulionis warmoqmnis cxadi tendencia. unda aRiniSnos, rom JanrTa aRrevis kanonze qarTul sivrceSi saubrobs ara romelime sociologi an filosofosi, an romelime mwerali-avangardisti, aramed _ mxatvar-performatorTa axalgazrduli jgufi, mizanmimarTuli konceptualuri saTauriT _ bulioni. jgufi daarsda TbilisSi 2008 wels (Sedgeba 6 mxatvrisagan). sakuTari koncepcia man swored Jan bodriaris aRniSnul Teoriaze (Janrebis aRreva) daafuZna. jgufis prezentacia am konceptis warmoCenaze iyo gaTvlili _ performansi bina-3. es jgufi xelovnebis eniT gadmoscems qarTul sociokulturul sivrceSi sferoTa gadaJonva-ganzaveba-aRrevas, razec frangi postmodernisti Tavis droze saubrobda. amis saukeTeso magaliTia 2009 wels Tbilisis saerTaSoriso festivalze artisteriumi (qarvasla) da 2011 wels laifcigis Tanamedrove xelovnebis muzeumSi dadgmuli performansi _ Zalosnebi. performansi jgufis erTwliani mzadebis finaluri etapi gaxldaT: mxatvrebma relurad gaiTamaSes ZalosnobaSi momzadebis, varjiSis da Sejibrebaze gasvlis yvela etapi. yvelaferi garegnulad ise gamoiyureboda, rogorc sporti: anturaJi, inventari, wesebi, magram nawarmoebis qveteqstebi politikur da socialur diskursebze migvaniSnebdnen. mxatvrebma sporti, politika da socialuri diskursi erTmaneTSi Segnebulad auries. amasve mianiSnebda aRniSnul formatSi seqsualuri diskursis Semotanis mcdelobac. artisteriumis CarCo Temac _ cvlilebebis manifesti da Sinagani gamocdileba _ am konteqsts warmoaCenda. ai, ra iyo, mxatvrebis TqmiT, am performansisas winaswar gaazrebul-dagegmili. isini werdnen:Mmxatvrebis jgufi ori kviris manZilze qalaqis erT-erT centralur sportul darbazSi daqiravebuli mwvrTnelis zedamxedvelobiT gaivlis fizikur momzadebas ZalosnobaSi: gamofenis gaxsnisas man unda SeZlos iseTi simZimis Zelis aweva, romelic manamde warmoudgenlad eCveneboda. Zelis simZimis standarti winaswar iqneba gansazRvruli. varjiSebi Catardeba dReSi orjer, erTsa da imave dros,

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sruli datvirTviT. Mmxatvrebi, yovel dRe erTnair sportul formas Caicvamen (maisurebs, romlebzec gamosaxuli iqneba momdevno ricxvebi evrokavSirSi Sesuli bolo qveynis Semdeg*. mag _ 28,29,30 da a.S. 2007 w. bulgareTi da rumineTi gaerTianda evrokavSirSi. rumineTi jerjerobiT bolo, 27-e qveyanaa:)Pperformansi Catardeba galereaSi, sadac Zelis garda, SejibrebebisTvis saWiro inventars miitanen. daskvniT etapamde, varjiSebis periodSi sportuli jgufi gamarTavs erT an ramdenime preskonferencias, sadac auditorias mimdinare wvrTnebis Sesaxeb acnobeben. warmodgenis am formas daskvniT etapze jgufis mier SemuSavebuli koncepcia axlda, romelic nawarmoebis organuli nawili iyo. koncepciaSi vkiTxulobT: namuSevris koncepcia CamovayalibeT sami mimarTulebiT. 1. movaxdinoT evrokavSirisaken swrafvis parodireba, am swrafvaSi urTierTkonkurencia da dadgenili standartebis Sesruleba gaviTamaSoT. 2. movaxdinoT dasavluri sazogadoebis korporaciuli eTikis parodireba. sportuli TamaSis wesebTan misi gaigivebiT gvsurs warmovaCinoT, Tu rogor gaxda korporaciuli eTikis mTavari elementi sportuli Jini. Cveni mizania, sazogadoebas davanaxoT, rom yvelaferi upiratesobis Zalisxmevis, rekordis, infantiluri TviTgadalaxvis sportuli koeficientiTaa gaJRenTili (J. bodriari). 3. movaxdinoT imis demonstrireba, Tu rogor SeiZleba saxelovnebo aqciasa da sportul Sejibrebebs Soris zRvris gadRabvna. am sami mimarTulebiT gvsurda Segvexeda evropisaTvis _ Signidan, dasavluri kulturuli tradiciis gaTvaliswinebiT gadagvelaxa provinciuli evropocentrizmi da arc antievropul poziciaze aRmovCeniliyaviT. jgufi `bulioni~ vizualuri xelovnebis eniT gvesaubreba imaze, rac filosofiisa da sociologiis kvlevis sagani unda iyos. mxatvrebi faqtis, procesis zogad konstatacias axdenen TavianT koncepciaSi da toveben metaforebs, miniSnebebs romlebic xsnian am TemasTan dakavSirebuli Warbi interpretaciis SesaZleblobas. Cven SegviZlia met-naklebi sizustiT movniSnoT

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elizbar elizbaraSvili

dRevandel qarTul droSi es gadRabvnis adgilebi da ganvsazRvroT am procesis siCqare qarTul socio-kulturul sivrceSi. dRevandeli qarTuli dro sportisa da xelovnebis, sportisa da mecnierebis, xelovnebisa da politikis sivrceTa aRrevis dasawyisiT xasiaTdeba. xelovnebisa da sportis diskursebis erTmaneTSi aRreva Cvens droSi marTlac saxezea. Tanamedrove saqarTvelos elitarul-avangardistuli Tu masobrivi mediakulturuli sivrceebi xelovanis, artistis warmoCenis, arsebobis da tiraJirebis iseT sistemas gvTavazoben, rodesac, bodriaris sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, yvelaferi upiratesobis, Zalisxmevis, rekordis, infantiluri TviTgadalaxvis sportuli koeficientiTaa gaJRenTili. mxatvrebi iqcnen sportsmen-mxatvrebad, poetebi _ sportsmen-poetebad, mwerlebi _ sportsmen-mwerlebad. garemo karnaxobs yvelas konkurentuli upiratesobis mopovebas nebismieri Zalisxmevis fasad, aCvenon mudmivad sarekordo maCveneblebi, akeTon is, rac maT SesaZleblobebs bevrad aRemateba, miaRwion pirad rekordebs. am sferoSi, rodesac sportuli Sejibris stiliT aris gaJRenTili yvelaferi, raodenoba amarcxebs xarisxs. raodenoba SesamCnevia, igi arsebobis da mzis qveS adgilis dasakuTrebis realuri ganacxadia, raodenobiT SeiZleba laparaki, xarisxi ki raodenobis gareSe SeumCnevelia, wamieri gaelvebaa, saidanac ver ilaparakeb: mediakulturas, Tanamedrove galereebisa da redaqcia-gamomcemlobebis mudmivganaxlebad konveiers sWirdeba mudmivi siaxle, bevri axali da farTomasStabiani produqcia. dRes erTi genialuri leqsi, CaTvaleT, rom arc arsebobs, aseve _ erTi genialuri tilo an romani. poeti iZulebulia, ara leqsebiT, aramed yovelwliuri krebulebiT (zogjer erTze metiT) gelaparakos, mxatvari _ ara tiloebiT, aramed seriebiT gesaubreba, prozaikosi yovelwliuri romanebiT, moTxrobaTa da piesaTa krebulebiT, da es imisaTvis, rom ubralod iarsebos, ar iyos daviwyebuli am saerTo-kulturul SejibrSi. SemoqmedebiT formaSi aseTi yofna Zalze waagavs sportsmenis cxovrebis grafiks, Tavisi kolosaluri datvirTviT, romelic jer swraf produqtiulobaSi gavarjiSebiT, Semdeg gadaRliT, Semdeg gamofitviT, sulieri travmebiT, da bolos meqanicizmiTa da formalur-zedapirulobiT mTavrdeba. sabolood, rogorc daviT CixlaZe ambobs _ isini arafers qmnian,

Jan bodriaris kulturuli bulioni da qarTuli `bulionis~ dro

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isini Widaoben TavianTi ofliani fexsacmelebiT (meti triqsteria saWiro. oRond marto SabaTis SouSi ara, cxovrebaSi, literaturaSi... `24 saaTi,~ 21.11.10). meore mxriv _ speqtakluroba, warmodgeniToba, sareklamo brwyinvaleba SeiWra sportSi. dRes yvela sportsmeni Sou-biznesmenobaze, modelobaze, warmodgenebSi, piar-saRamoebSi, mediasivrcis sareklamo rgolebSi, tokSouebSi monawileobaze ocnebobs. diskursTa aseTive aRrevaa samecniero da sportul sivrceebSic. Tanamedrove qarTuli sauniversiteto-samecniero garemo mecniers arsebobis iseT sistemas sTavazobs, rodesac, filosofosis sityvebi rom gavimeoroT, yvelaferi upiratesobis, Zalisxmevis, rekordis, infantiluri TviTgadalaxvis sportuli koeficientiTaa gaJRenTili. akademiur-samecniero wreebSi momuSave adamiani iZulebulia, mudmivad reitingebze da am reitingebis maqsimalurad swrafad zrdaze zrunavdes. unda aCvenos mudmivad sarekordo maCveneblebi konferenciebSi, monografiebSi, statiebSi, treningebSi, grantebSi da sxva samecniero koeficientebSi. mecnier-sportsmeni mudmivad sakuTari CV-is SesaZleblobebis zrdasa da konkurenti mecnier-sportsmenis damarcxebaze fiqrobs. yovelive es ki, rogorc aRvwereT, raodenobis sasargeblod ganapirobebs swraf svlas. raodenoba amarcxebs xarisxs da yvelaferi aqac meqanicizmiT da formalur-zedapirulobiT sruldeba _ ofliani fexsacmelebiT CempionatSi gasamarjveblad. aseve sportSic SeiWra mecnierebis diskursi: fizikuri kondicia, kvleva, eqsperimenti, Teoriuli analizi, testireba, analitikuri dapirispireba, fsiqologia. CvenSi diskursTa urTierTgadafena-gadRabvnis adgilia aseve xelovneba da politika. yvelaferi xdeba esTetikuri; politika gadaiqceva speqtaklad (J. bodriari). dRes politikuri, mediagasarTobi da Soubiznesis sivrceebi urTierTgadakveTilia. politikosi iqca msaxiobad, mediasaxed. sazogadoebis winaSe Tavis prezentireba-wardgena, gamosaxuleba, piari, imijTa gaTamaSeba sul ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba politikosisaTvis. amave dros, yvela sxva `cnobad~ adamianebTan erTad politikosebi avseben Sou-gasarTob da sareklamo sivrceebs mediaSi. politikis Ziri-

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elizbar elizbaraSvili

Tadi teqnologia xdeba dadgma, speqtakli, kargi anturaJi, damajerebeli TamaSi. Tavis mxriv, xelovnebis da kulturis sivrceSic SeiWra politika _ xelovanTa calkeuli jgufi-partiebi, gaerTianebaasociaciebi, mediasaSualebebi, produqciis promouSeni, reklama, momxre-fanebis moZieba, Zalauflebis demonstrireba, kuluaruli da Ria brZola, SantaJi, garigeba, konkursebi... asparezze gamosuli yoveli axali xelovani erTveba rTul politikur urTierTobebSi ukve Camoyalibebul kulturul infrastruqturasTan. yoveli xelovani aseve politikosia kulturul sivrceSi. iZulebulia, iyos politikosi. rac Seexeba mecnierebisa da xelovnebis sivrceTa gadRabvnas, mis magaliTad Tavad jgufi bulioni gamodgeba, romlis yoveli performansi, hepeningi Tu dadgma aseve garkveul Camoyalibebul kvlevas da mentalur Tu kulturul eqsperiments warmoadgens, romlis dasrulebasac axali Sedegebis molodini mohyveba xolme.

inga milorava ,,nivTi~, rogorc drois da kulturuli sivrcis simbolo modernistul teqstSi
mwerlis mier garkveul dro-sivrcul lokalSi moTavsebuli ,,nivTebi saSualebas aZleven mkiTxvels, srulad Cawvdes mis Canafiqrs, nawarmoebSi asaxuli dro-sivrcis arss, teqstis struqturis da saTqmelis CamoyalibebaSi drois da sivrcis gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas. modernistuli teqsti Tavisi mravalSrianobiTa da ,,mravalsafexurianobiT gamoirCeva. pirvel, sayrden sibrtyeze gamosaxul mxatvrul svrceSi TavianTi gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravT ,,nivTebs. maT sxvadasxva funqcia eniWebaT. Tu nivTi mxolod anturaJis, dekoraciis Sesaqmneladaa gamoyenebuli, maSin is am safexurzeve rCeba da mxolod dekoratiuli elementis funqciiT ifargleba. magram modernistul teqstebSi ,,nivTebi gadadian Tvisobrivad ufro maRal safexurze da eniWebaT ufro farTo esTetikuri da simboluri mniSvneloba _ isini drois Tvisobriobis da im kulturuli sivrcis formisa da Sinaarsis gamomxatveli niSnebi xdebian, romelTac ekuTvnian. am SemTxvevaSi ,,nivTi inacvlebs Semdgom, ufro maRal _ ,,filosofiur da ,,ideur doneebze.

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inga milorava

modernistul teqstebSi ,,nivTi gvxvdeba, rogorc drois Sinaarsis mkveTrad gamomxatveli niSani; sivrculi (reliefuri) simbolo; ,,winaT - ,,axla opoziciis ilustracia (sivrcis da misi Semavsebeli movlenebis yofiTi, filosofiuri da kulturuli cvlilebebis gamomxatveli); droTa kavSiris uzrunvelyofis saSualeba; teqstSi garkveuli tipis sivrcis SemokrebisTvis aucilebeli sakraluri da mxatvruli centri; xsovnis qronotopis sayrdeni da garkveuli filosofiuri ideis nawilobriv mainc xelSesaxebi dadastureba. nivTebs, sagnebs udidesi mniSvneloba aqvT adamianisaTvis. SeiZleba iTqvas, room civilizaciis istoria, garkveulwilad, `nivTebis~ Seqmnis, cvlilebis, ganviTarebis da gaazrebis vrceli da idumalebiT moculi ambavicaa, radgan `nivTebma~ uxsovar droSive gadalaxes utilitaruli mniSvnelobis farglebi da SeiWrnen adamianis warmosaxvaSi, rogorc garkveuli ideis aRmniSvneli da esTetikuri Rirebulebis mqone mxatvruli elementebi. `nivTs~ _ saTqmelis zustad, naTlad, xelSesaxebad gamoxatvis saSualebas iyenebs folklori, miTologia, literatura, mxatvroba... SeiZleba gavixsenoT uamravi SemTxveva, rodesac `nivTebi~, `sagnebi~ ikaveben centralur adgils mxatvrul naazrevSi, maT garSemo nel-nela iqsoveba mxatvruli qsovili, viTardeba movlenebi da swored nivTebi gamoxataven nawarmoebis ideas, filosofiur safuZvels, esTetikur koncefcias. TiTqmis yvela CvenTvis cnobil kulturaSi dasturdeba `nivTis~ amgvari funqcia. isini uxvad aris warmodgenili folklorSi, zRaprebSi. mravali miTis arss `nivTebi~ gansazRvraven, Tundac _ `oqros sawmisi~ an `pandores yuTi~. `nivTebis~ meSveobiTaa warmodgenili antikuri panTeonis warmomadgenelTa niSan-Tvisebebi. mogvianebiT dasavlur mxatvrul azrovnebaSi Cndeba `nivTi~-simbolo _ `graalis Tasi~, romelic evropuli saraindo romanebis erT-erT mTavar RerZad iqca. paralelurad `nivTebi~ inarCuneben meore, SedarebiT ufro martiv funqciasac, roca gamodian samkaulis, anturaJis, dekoraciis nawilis, samoqmedo sivrcis `Semavseblis~ rolSi. Tumca, aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom sakmaod rTulia, da gansakuTrebiT _ mxatvrobaSi, mkveTrad gaimijnos `nivTis~ ideur-simboluri da esTetikuri funqciebi. flamandiuri skolis mxatvarTa naturmortebSi, renesansul portretebSi Tu impresionistTa kompoziciebSi, erTi SexedviT, TiTqos umiznod moxvedrili `nivTebi~ moulodnelad bevrad ufro mets yvebian Semoq-

`nivTi~, rogorc drois da kulturuli sivrcis simbolo ...

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medTa grZnobebze, samyarosadmi damokidebulebaze, epoqaze, droze, vidre _ Tundac mkveTrad gamoxatuli siuJeti. `nivTebis~ metyvel enas TiTqmis yvela epoqisa da sxvadasxva literaturuli Tu xelovnebis mimdinareobis warmomadgenlebi iyenebdnen da iyeneben. zog SemTxvevaSi mxatvrul teqstSi `nivTi~ TiTqmis srulyofilebas aRwevs, srulad warmoCndeba misi simboluri mniSvneloba, filosofiuri azris saxierad gamomxatvelis funqcia, ideuri siRrme, esTetikuri daniSnuleba, da `nivTi~ xdeba nawarmoebis mxatvruli samyaros centri, romelic izidavs da Tavis orbitaze atrialebs movlenebs, personaJebs, fiqrebs, gancdebs da saSualebas aZlevs mkiTxvels, srulad, udanakargod Cawvdes mwerlis Canafiqrs, saTqmels da mwerlis mier gamosaxuli mxatvruli dro-sivrcis rogorc arss, ise _ mSvenierebas: Tundac _ rogorc balzakis `Sagrenis tyavSi~ an oskar uaildis `dorian greis portretSi~. bunebrivia, `nivTebis~ funqcias yuradReba miaqcia qarTulma mwerlobamac. droTa ganmavalobaSi icvleboda aqcentebi, Tumca yvela epoqam Tu calkeulma Semoqmedma Seqmna met-naklebad mdidari, magram, miuxedavad amisa, individualuri niSnebiT aRbeWdili da Zalze mniSvnelovani e. w. `nivTieri veli~. am TvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gansakuTrebiT Sedegiani XX s-is pirveli naxevris mwerloba, modernistuli mxatvruli azrovneba aRmoCnda. k. gamsaxurdias moTxrobaSi `porcelani~ faifuris Cais servizi simbolod gardaqmnili `nivTi~, sagani iWers `salonis~ sivrculi modelis centrs da moqmedebis mTeli azrobrivi datvirTvac masze gadadis. `nivTi~ sxvadasxva mniSvnelobas iZens. es aris uZvelesi nakeToba, droSi gadebuli xidi, sxvadasxva kulturis Sexvedris wertili, droTa kavSiris Semkvreli rgoli. igi Tavisi sinatifiTa da mSvenierebiT erTveba omiT, socialuri da sulieri ZvrebiT aborgebuli adamianebis cxovrebaSi, romelTa kuTvnili urbanistuli, racionaluri da civi samyaro Tavbrudamxvevi siswrafiT mieqaneba win, momavlisaken. magram aseTi ioli `CarTva~ da `SeTviseba~ moCvenebiTia. `nivTs~, romelmac simbolos funqcia itvirTa, Tavisi Sinaarsi aqvs, Tavisi grZnobadi veli, romelic gars akravs da mxatvruli qsovilis siRrmeSi Camaluli ideis Sesabamis gancdas iwvevs. `nivTi~ SekumSuli, gamkvrivebuli, sagnad qceuli dro-sivrcis saxea, romelic erTveba nawarmoebis mxatvruli drois dinebaSi da xels uwyobs

20

inga milorava

misi mtruli bunebis gaxsnas, drois damangreveli funqciis gamosaxavas. porcelanis muzeumis sacavSi, samarxSi gamoketvas, rac drois SeCerebas, statikaSi gadasvlas, sagnis WeSmariti daniSnulebis esTetikuri tkbobis miniWebis saSualebis mospobas gulisxmobs, mwerali aRiqvams, rogorc harmoniuli samyaros msxvrevas, WeSmariti silamazis daTrgunvas, faseulobaTa sistemis rRvevasa da Canacvlebas. marTlac rom `berwma evropam~ gayida rafinirebuli, unaklo silamaze porcelani da amiT gamoxata mSvenierebis gaufasureba-dakargvis aSkara safrTxe. `porcelanSi~ epoqis kvdomis, Sinagani ganxeTqilebis, erTi drouli plastis meoriT Secvlis mZime suraTi esTetis TvaliTaa danaxuli. `nivTis~ servizis Tvalsawieridan gaqrobiT gawyda kidev erTi Zafi, romelic adamianebs warsulTan, sxva kulturasTan, mSvenierebasTan akavSirebs da sakuTar TavTan gaucxoebis kedels gadaalaxvinebs. am SemTxvevaSi `nivTi~ TiTqos mxolod erTi patara wertilia uzarmazar samyaroSi, magram es aris materializebuli, xelSesaxebi mSveniereba, romelsac xavsiviT unda moeWidos adamiani, magram amasac arTmeven da mas sicariele, damcroba da gaufasureba elis. zog SemTxvevaSi swored `nivTebis~ ganlageba da mdgomareoba gamoxatavs nawarmoebSi asaxuli drois dinebas, is mianiSnebs droTa kavSiris arsebobaze an, piriqiT, xazs usvams droTa kavSiris rRvevas. n. lorTqifaniZis `dangreul budeebSi~ mwerali awmyos arss vizualuri deesTetizebis xerxiT warmoaCens, samagierod, imave sivrceze alag-alag `amagrebs~ naglej-naglej Semonaxul warsuls, romelic marTlac mSvenieria. am ori sapirispiro suraTis erT CarCoSi SeerTebiT iqmneba aRwerili movlenebidan miRebuli grZnobad-emociuri STabeWdilebis asaxvis da mxatvrul saxeebSi damajereblad gamosaxvis pirobebi. `dangreul budeebSi~ mxolod `nivTebis~ Sesabamisi ganlagebiTa da peizaJuri cvlilebebis aRweriT SesaZlebeli gaxda `winaT~ _ `axla~ opoziciis Sinaarsis srulad gadmocema, drois funqciis gansazRvra. mwerali ar asaxavs drois msvlelobas, naCvenebia mxolod Sedegi. Sedegebidan ki Cans, rom dro ngrevis wyaroa. da es aisaxa peizaJze da `nivTebze~, peizaJiTa da `nivTebiT~. peizaJi: `koSksa hgavs, magram igi gadamwvari saxlis gadarCenili buxaria~, `daRvremili Tone~, `TmagaCeCili nalia~, `mopranWulsaxian marans loTiviT guli gadauReRia~, `mZinare sawnaxeli~, `namexari xeebi~, sarevela, broweulis kokrebi da may-

`nivTi~, rogorc drois da kulturuli sivrcis simbolo ...

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vlis marcvlebi, rogorc tuCebi da cremlebi. ezo, kar-midamo, nagebobebi sulieri arsebebis Tvisebebs iZenen, itanjebian, xevdebian, kvdebian da awmyos Tvisobriobas TavianTi mdgomareobiT gamoxataven. `nivTebi~: `am oTaxSi ki namdvili zRapruli ambavi xdeboda. erTmaneTs Caxuteboda vercxlis gvirgvini, nazi xuTfolaqiani qalis sabalo xelTaTmani, damtvreuli skamebi, kubos farCa, lampis SuSa, uZvelesi xelnawerebi, aWedili patara kolofi, JangiT SeWmuli utar-uqarqaSo xmali, romelzedac grZel xelweraSi Zlivs gavarCie... `giorgi saakaZisagan~... savarZlebi, etlis baliSebi, da maT Soris Tixis veeberTela qoTanSi magnolia~ (lorTqifaniZe 1950: 295). sruli qaosia, iseTive, rogoric sufevs im samyaroSi, im `awmyoSi~, romelSic Tavi moiyares am `nivTebma~. magram aseT usistemo ganlagebas Sinagani kanonzomiereba da mizandasaxuloba aqvs: misi meSveobiT unda aRiZras sazogadoebrivi, socialuri, politikuri, zneobrivi, msoflmxedvelobrivi struqturebis msxvrevis SegrZneba da am procesis Tanmdevi imedis, mSvenierebis da harmoniis gaqrobis gancda. `nivTebis~ meSveobiT gadmocemulia adamianis sacxovrisis _ budis, misi kuTvnili droisa da Sinagani samyaros wesrigis ngrevis tragikuli suraTi. ngrevisa da gapartaxebis, faseulobaTa cvlilebis da ganwirulobis SegrZnebis gadmosacemad `nivTebis~ imave funqcias iyenebs mixeil javaxiSvilic `jayos xiznebSi~. marTalia, es ar aris modernistuli teqsti, magram, rogorc Cans, empiriuli dro-sivrce, realoba mTeli ZaliT iWreba mxatvrul qsovilSi da ukve TviTon sTavazobs mxatvrul saxeebad gardasaqmnel tipur suraTebs. `kedelSi Catanebuli muxis farTe ganjinebi, isic xaratiT nakeTebi, iaraRis aseTive saWurWle da sawigne savsea myrali loginiT, jagriT da matliT. aqa-iq gafantulia xevisTavTa gvareulobis ganTqmuli iaraRi: javSnebi, muzaradebi, perangebi, sabarkulebi da samklaurebi, Cafxutebi da asnairi Tofi da maxvili: laxvari orpiri, bungrZeli, pirprtyeli da bunzomieri; saTxedebi, xelSubebi, geonebi, xiStebi, zufanebi, libadakebi, gmierebi. sirma, siaTa, yirimi, franguli, damski, daRestnuri, gorda da mravalnairi xanjali da xmali.

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inga milorava

erTi pirmomtvreuli Zveli xanjali da gordas xmali aivanze eyarnen. saca fiCxsa da wnels gorda-xmliT sWridnen, ramdenime Zveli fari sarqvelis magivrad WurebisTvis da kasrebisTvis daexurnaT. Zveli franguli da yirimuli xarixebad gadaekeTebinaT da zed akidoebi CamoekidnaT. saxlSi arc erTi wigni aRar moipoveboda. Teimurazis mamis suraTi, feradebiT naxati da mSvenier mooqrovil CarCoSi Casmuli, xonCad aris gamoyenebuli. xatebi da uZvelesi wignebis ydebi mwnilebis da yvelis qilebisTvis dauxuravT. saxlis ukan gaSenebuli yvavilnari, sadac winaT iSviaTi jiSis vard-yvavili iyo moSenebuli, exla savsea didi yviTelwiTeli gogrebiT, mzesuWvriteTi, simindiT da lobioTi. winaT sanaxevrod micemuli da kargad napatronebi venaxi exla jagnarad gadaqceula, xexili da vazi gafarCxula da liaxvis Walas dahmsgavsebia~ (qarTuli... 2006: 232). aqac erT sivrcul modelSi paralelurad dafenilia `winaT~ da `exla~ (`axla~). peizaJi da `nivTebis~ ganlageba srulad gadmoscems imave tragikul ambavs epoqis rRvevis, fesvebis amoZirkvis, sakuTari budis ngrevis da adamianisTvis am samyaroSi adgilis warTmevis, warsulis sruli gaufasurebis suraTs. m. javaxiSvili amave teqstSi cota ufro adrec iyenebs `nivTebis~ _ drois maxasiaTeblebis funqcias. mis mier aRwerili maRaziaSi gasayidad gamotanili `nivTebis~ suraTi aRZravs ngrevisa da qaosis imgvarive SegrZnebas, rogoric `dangreul budeebSia~ mocemuli. Tumca am SemTxvevaSi mwerali iqve ganmartavs mizezs lukma puris arqonas da Seufaravad gamoxatavs movlenis Sinaarssac maRaziebSi saqveynod gamofenil, gasayidad gamotanil `nivTebTan~ erTad iyideba warsuli, awmyo da momavali, iyideba adamianebis cxovreba, maTi grZnobebi, iTeleba, knindeba da samudamod ikargeba epoqa, Rirseba, saZirkveli, imedi da sicocxle. `ra ar iyo am maRaziebSi saqveynod gatanili erT lukma purisTvis! kabebi da sacvali, WurWeli da suraTebi, wignebi da albomebi, samkauli da saTamaSo, naqargi da naqsovi, naCuqari da saxsovari, col-qmrobis, daniSvnis, jvrisweris, da-Zmobis, mamaSvilobis da megobrobis aTasnairi wvrilmani, uTvalavi mogonebiT aRsavse, natifi naxelovnebi, intimuri da Zvirfasi nivTi.

`nivTi~, rogorc drois da kulturuli sivrcis simbolo ...

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yovel nivTs _ beWedsa da sayures, samajurs da koxta sarkes, vercxlis saTuTunes, qalis naqsov xelis qisas, farCis korsetsa da qarvis krialosans, spilos Zvlis saTamaSos da brinjaos qandaks, faifuris vazas da moqargul oqronemsuls, fer-umarilis WurWelsa da atlasis saTamaSo qaRalds, saqorwilo TeTr kabas da abreSumis windebs uklebliv yvelafers hqonda Tavisi romani da warsuli, sixaruli da dardi, sicili da cremli, intimuri istoria da ucxo Tavgadasavali. imediani dasawyisi da sevdiani dasasruli~ (qarTuli... 2006: 210). swored es mizezTa mizezi _ lukma puri da drois damangreveli Zala _ udevs safuZvlad vasil barnovis moTxrobas `sadedoflo sartyeli~. mxatvruli qsovilis centrSi moTavsebuli `nivTis~ _ sadedoflo sartylis irgvliv gamkvrivda da Semoikriba droc da samoqmedo sivrcec. oRond am SemTxvevaSi mweralma kidev ufro siRrmiseul Sres miapyro mzera da ZiriTadi idea, mZime, tragikuli SegrZneba _ `amao amaoebaTa~ _ `nivTTan~ dakavSirebuli ori drouli segmentisa da lirikuli planis monacvleobiT gamoxata. pirvel SemTxvevaSi mTavari gmiri gogia axalgazrdaa, garemo _ mSvenieri, brwyinvale, bednieri. qorwilSi pirvelad gamoCnda sadedoflo sartyeli, rogorc _ naTeli, imediani, uRrublo samyaros nivTieri gamoxatuleba. lirikul gadaxvevaSi mweralma warmoaCina moTxrobis azrobrivi dasayrdeni: `naxe walkotSi zamTris susxiT danazrobi yvavilTa jgufi, agktiva guli: aRar damrCala arc nasaxi maT siturfisa. ager gamxmara, mtvrad qceula turfa, amayi; aha, Campala es surneli bilila nazi. amao amaoebaTa! magram...~ (barnovi 1962: 122). meore droul segmentSi ukve daberebuli, cecxldaSretili gogia maRaziaSi lukma purisTvis gasayidad gamotanil nivTebSi dainaxavs sadedoflo sartyels. bednieri samyaro, romelsac Tavis TavSi inaxavda sartyeli, daimsxvra, daxurdavda da maRaziaSi umweod gamoifina, gasayidad. am SemTxvevaSi sartylis `bedma~, `nivTma~ warmoaCina ara mxolod erTi epoqis tragedia, aramed, zogadad, adamianuri yofis, drois dinebis tragizmi _ `amao amaoebaTa!~. mweralma gamoiyena `nivTebis~ TiTqmis yvela funqcia; `sadedoflo sartyeli Tavis TavSi inaxavs gardasul dros, xsovnas. maRaziis vitrinebSi qaoturad ganlagebuli `nivTebis~ meS-

24

inga milorava

veobiT aRiZvris dangreuli epoqis SegrZneba: `yvelanairi nivTebi elaga farTo fanjrebSi~, ZvelisZveli simdidre saojaxo: mooWvili xmali, vercxlis CarCoiani sarke, vin icis, ramdeni saxe iyo mis minazed aRbeWdili? SeWedili dambaCa taliani, SirmiT morTuli savarZeli, bajaRlos farculi, muzaradi, raRaca warweriT, xmlis piri rom etyoboda Sublzed, isarTan... vin mosTvlis? (barnovi 1962: 124). `nivTebis~ gayidvis mizezis ganmartebam gasagebi gaxada epoqis Sinaarsi: `ici Sen, ra Rvarmac gamoitana es mZimed daculi simdidre salaroebidan da duqanSi gamoriya? iseTi Zala moipova mWadma, veRaraferi gaumagrda mas. cxraklituli rkinis karebebi Calewa misma Zlierebam. wamoacariela uryeveli saunjeebi~ (barnovi 1962: 122). sabolood ki am safuZvelze gamoikveTa siRrmiseuli, modernistuli msoflmxedvelobisTvis niSneuli daskvna: `amao amoebaTa!~ rogori bedic unda ergoT `nivTebs~ mxatvrul qsovilSi, isini TiTqmis yovelTvis inarCuneben erT-erT umTavres _ xsovnis Semnaxavis, droTa kavSiris Semkvrelis _ funqcias. v. barnovis moTxrobaSi `Zvirfasi Tvali~ `nivTma~ _ sagvareulo ganZma _ Zvirfasma Tvalma erTmaneTs daukavSira warsuli, awmyo da momavali. igi gulisxmobs gvaris Rirsebas, tradicias, gardasulis xsovnas da misi mfarvelobis ZaliT ikveTeba saimedo momavali (analogiur rols asrulebs modeli `miwa-mamuli~ n. lorTqifaniZis `dangreul budeebSi~). Zvirfasi Tvali, rogorc winaparTa sulieri monapovris nivTieri gamoxatuleba, awmyoSi gadarCenili da daculi, safuZvels uyris momavals. usaxuri awmyodan naTeli, bednieri warsulisaken gadebul xidad warmodgnen `nivTebi~ n. lorTqifaniZis miniaturebSi `biusti~ da `albomi~. biustma Semoinaxa werili-xsovna da `axla~, dangreul awmyoSi, uceb gacocxlda da aelvarda gardasuli dReebis samyaro. leo qiaCelis moTxrobaSi `Tavadis qali maia~ `nivTebi~ biografiul dros, xsovnas, gardasul movlenebs inaxaven. maias TiToeuli samkauli misi cxovrebis TiTo Tavia da erTad mTel sicocxles moicaven. `ai, es beWdebi SemrCa mxolod da es samajuri! maT TvalebSi Cemi bedis yvela safexuria aRbeWdili da sicocxle da sikvdili imdeni vaJkacis, ramdenic xelze beWedi maqvs da samajuri~ (qiaCeli 1985: 276).

`nivTi~, rogorc drois da kulturuli sivrcis simbolo ...

25

maia, romelic midis zRvasTan, raTa mis talRebSi povos aRsasruli, saTiTaod ixsnis am `nivTebs~. yovel maTgans Tavisi ambavi aqvs, maT irgvliv ganfenilia warmosaxviTi veli, romelSic mudmivad arsebobs gardasuli movlenebi da grZnobebi. Tavadis qali maia nel-nela atans zRvas Tavis samkaulebs, Tavis xsovnas, Tavis codvebs, siyvaruls, siZulvils... mTel sicocxles. yovlis ganmwmend wyalSi dainTqa `nivTebSi~ Senaxuli mTeli cxovreba da mxolod amis Semdeg miiRo zRvam da sikvdilma daSretili, sasomixdili qalis sxeuli. warsuls, gardasul dReebs inaxaven da acocxleben `nivTebi~ Tinos bebiisTvis (n. lorTqifaniZe, `Selocva radioTi~). am SemTxvevaSi SemorCenili ubralo `nivTebi~ awmyoTi SeZrul, TiTqmis ganadgurebul qals saSualebas aZleven ipovos Sveba, cota xniT mainc daubrundes bednier warsuls, xsovnis meSveobiT aRidginos sulieri simSvide. garemos, moqmedebis, movlenis arsis gadmocemisas da esTetizebulad gamosaxvis procesSi modernistul teqstSi saxeobrivi sistema iSleba da sam Tanmimdevrul doneze lagdeba: 1) samoqmedo sivrce; 2) `nivTebi~ _ yvela funqciiT; 3) adamiani, romlis mdgomareoba, bediswera, qmedebis motivacia da pirovnuli niSan-Tvisebebi ganisazRvreba da Semdeg TvalsaCino xdeba `nivTebTan~ mimarTebiT, maTi meSveobiT. roca samive done gaaqtiurebulia, saTqmelis zustad, xatovnad da lakoniurad gamoxatvisaTvis maqsimalurad xelsayreli garemo iqmneba. niko lorTqifaniZis miniaturaSi `ingliseli~ moqmedeba SemosazRvrul sivrceSi _ `yavaxana~ _ da ukiduresad dakumSul droSi xdeba, magram moicavs adamianebis mTel sicocxles. ramdenime wuTSi ingliseli eziareba udides siyvaruls da upasuxo grZnobis gamo kvdeba. aseve ramdenime wuTSi, `yavaxanidan~ gausvlelad, aRmoaCens qmari, rom misi umSvenieresi coli usulgulo, ugrZnobi arseba yofila da samudamod Sordeba. am ukiduresad dakumSuli mxatvruli dro-sivrcis centrSi moTavsebulia `nivTi~ _ beWedi, romelmac Semokriba mxatvruli qsovili da xeli Seuwyo saTqmelis srulad gamoxatvas. beWdis saSualebiT gamoTqva ingliselma Tavisi grZnoba, `nivTTan~ _ beWedTan mimarTebiT gamoCnda qalis WeSmariti saxe. swored `nivTis~ aqtiurma funqciobam misca saSualeba mwerals ukiduresad mozRudul samoqmedo sivrceSi moqceuli masStaburi movlena mwiri gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebiT srulad gamoexata. mTeli cxovreba `wamier~ STa-

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inga milorava

beWdilebebSi `Caetia~ da amasTan sruli mxatvruli damajerebloba mieniWebina ambisa da xasiaTebisaTvis. samive donea gaaqtiurebuli m. javaxiSvilis givi Saduris ciklis erT-erT moTxrobaSi `wiTeli Rili~. Tumca mweralma gaafarToa samoqmedo sivrcec, or damoukidebel nawilad gayo da aseve, or droiT segmentSi moaqcia tragikuli movlenebi, adamianebis mTeli cxovreba, grZnobebi, sikvdili. warsuls da awmyos erTmaneTTan swored pawawina xidi _ `nivTi~ _ wiTeli Rili akavSirebs, romelic inaxavs saidumlos da movlenebis gasaRebsac. is sasaflaos sevdian sivrceSi aelvarda, rogorc gardasulis, vnebis, codvis patara wiTeli naperwkali. am SemTxvevaSi `nivTis~ simbolur mniSvnelobas aRrmavebs wiTeli feri, romelsac Tavisi tradiciuli datvirTva aqvs. aseve nawarmoebis koncepcias gamoxatavs Savi xaverdis kaba m. javaxiSvilis moTxrobaSi `Savi kaba~. adamianis tanjvas, sikvdilis garduvalobis, unugeSo sevdis gamomxatveli sagnis kabis mniSvnelobis gamosakveTad Sav ferTan erTad faqturacaa moxmobili, xaverdi STanTqavs sinaTles. ASavi xaverdis kaba gamoxatavs adamianis gamouval mdgomareobas, romelSic imedis patara sxivic ki arsad Cans. saerTod, mxatvrul teqstSi `nivTebi~, sagnebi xSirad iZenen feriT funqcias. SesaZloa, maTi ferebs arc hqondes raime simboluri datvirTva, magram nawarmoebis samoqmedo sivrceSi ganlagebuli sagnebidan, `nivTebidan~ aRZruli feriTi asociaciebi qmnian samoqmedo garemos, ferwerulobis, feradovnebis SegrZnebas. SesaZlebelia sagnis, `nivTis~ meSveobiT feris konstruireba, kompoziciaSi moqcevac, rasac yvelaze xSirad k. gamsaxurdia iyenebs. sapirispirod _ sruliad konkretul, dasaxelebul da Tanac, Zireul ferebs aniWebs `nivTebs~ leo qiaCeli moTxrobaSi `scalade~. am SemTxvevaSi wiTel-yviTeli mosasxami da Savi niRabi ar Seicavs `nivTis~ arc erT funqcias: isini arc droTa kavSirs gamoxataven, arc drois Sinaarss, arc movlenaTa msvlelobas ganapirobeben da arc pirovnebis fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblis rolSi gamodian. `nivTebi~ _ mosasxami da niRabi karnavalis tradiciuli atributebi mwerals modernistuli azrovnebis sayrdeni filosofiuri ideis samyaros iluzorulobis, realobis Secnobis SeuZleblobis gamosaxatavad sWirdeba. `yoveli sinamdvile warmodgenaa da yoveli warmodgena sinamdvile~ (qiaCeli 1984: 340). es debuleba moTxrobaSi mosasxamis da niRbis meSveobiT dasturdeba, roca xeze Camokidebuli

`nivTi~, rogorc drois da kulturuli sivrcis simbolo ...

27

`nivTebi~ adamianebs cocxali qali hgoniT da qali ki am dros maTTan erTad dgas da mware sarkazmiT Sescqeris adamianebis umweobas, Seicnon arsebobis WeSmariteba: `rogor mogwons Cemi idea? ar gagonebs gana es suraTi TviT kacobriobas, mis brZolas, mis cxovrebas? ra kargia: gana ase tyuilad ar ibrZvis kacobrioba? gana ase TavdaviwyebiT ar epotineba raRac ideals, romelic bolos da bolos iseTive sisulelea, rogorc xeze Camokidebuli Cemi niRabi da wiTel-yviTeliani mosasxami?~ (qiaCeli 1984: 342). `nivTebma~ gamoxates zmanebisa da cxadis uxilav zRvarze gaSlili modernistuli samyaros tragikuli arsi: `Tvali gvatyuebs, miakuTvnebs ra mzis Tvisebas yvavils, romelsac Cven vumzerT; yuri gvatyuebs, miiCnevs ra haeris rxevas mowkriale zaris Tvisebad. mTeli Cveni cxovreba gvatyuebs...~ (briusovi 1973: 92). zmanebisa da cxadis, realuris da irealuris urTierTmimarTebis gamosaxatavad iyenebs `nivTebs~ xelovnur yvavilebs v. barnovi moTxrobaSi `yvavilebi~. am SemTxvevaSi xelovnuri yvavilebi `nivTis~ damaxasiaTebel mraval funqcias iZens. maTi meSveobiT mwerali mxatvrul qsovilSi gamosaxavs samyaros iluzorulobis SegrZnebas da misTvis Zalian mniSvnelovan metemfsiqozis ideasac, romelic saTaves platonis filosofiaSi iRebs. maxinji, kuziani babuca sruliad ucxo, martosuli da ubeduria, sicocxle azrs da fers kargavs misTvis. magram TandaTanobiT is iwyebs sxva, winare cxovrebis gaxsenebas, roca ulamazesi iyo. im miRmur samyaroSi Cadenili codvisTvis, siyvarulis uaryofisTvis daisaja da awmyoSi maxinji sxeuli Seisxa. igi cdilobs, gaixsenos is mSvenieri garemo, romelSic bednieri, srulyofili iyo, sadac mSvenieri yvavilebi ertya gars. zmanebismierTan damakavSirebel xidad iqcnen `nivTebi~ _ xelovnuri yvavilebi, romlTac babuca sakuTari xeliT qmnis. mweralma gamosaxa Semoqmedebis meSveobiT adamianis gadarCenis, Svebis Ziebisa da povnis suraTi, warmosaxviT, iluzorul samyaroSi `gaqceuli~ adamianis sulis moZraoba. `nivTebma~ _ xelovnurma yvavilebma SeiZines xsovnis funqcia, oRond es aris babucas winare cxovrebis xsovna. isini asruleben droTa kavSiris Semkvrelis funqciasac, magram es ara realuri warsulis, aramed idumali, amoucnobi, iluzoruli metafizikuri samyarosa da realuris kavSiria. marTalia, yvavilebma ferebi Semates babucas moqufrul, nacrisfer cxovrebas, magram isini xelovnuria, maSasadame,

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inga milorava

maTi feradovnebac da surnelic moCvenebiTi, yalbia. namdvili yvavilebi ki iq, im winare cxovrebaSi darCa, iq yvavian, iq afrqveven surnels. xilul, realur awmyoSi yvelaferi yalbia _ babucas sxeulic da yvavilebic, zmanebismier, irealur samyaroSi ki imaleba WeSmariteba. mxatvruli qsovilis sxva elementebTan erTad `nivTebic~ _ xelovnuri yvavilebic gamokveTs ideas, rom realoba mxolod miRmuris arasruli anareklia. modernistulma mwerlobam marTlac rom srulad da mravalmxriv gamoiyena `nivTis~ mxatvruli SesaZleblobebi, magram Semoqmedebis Sedegis Secnoba Zalze rTuli procesia da misi `mibma~ `nivTTan~ an mxatvruli qsovilis romelime sxva elementTan gadaWarbeba iqneboda. `nivTi~ mxolod erT-erTi Zafia mravalTagan, romlebic miemarTebian Semoqmedis warmosaxvaSi warmoqmnili samyaros siRrmisken. es samyaro ki bevrad ufro rTuladaa mowyobili, vidre erTi SexedviT an Tundac xangrZlivi ganWvretiT Cans. ase rom, `rodesac xelovneba esTetikuri intuiciis ZaliT gviSlis suraTs, romlis xilva silogizmisa da logikis saSualebiT ar ZalgviZs, unda davtkbeT am suraTiT da vlocavdeT im SemoqmedebiT niWs, romlis wyalobiT uxilavi xdeba CvenTvis xilulad da SeuZlebeli SesaZleblad~ (jorjaZe 1989: 47). damowmebani: barnovi 1962: barnovi v., TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. t. VI. Tb., gamomcemloba `sabWoTa mwerali~, 1962. briusovi 1973: ., . . VII. ., 1973. lorTqifaniZe 1950: lorTqifaniZe n., rCeuli Txzulebani. t. I. Tb., gamomcemloba `merani~, 1950. qarTuli... 2006: qarTuli literatura (XX s.)., qrestomaTia. Tb., gamomcemloba `ganaTleba~, 2006. qiaCeli 1984: qiaCeli l., Txzulebani. t. I. Tb., gamomcemloba `ganaTleba~, 1984. qiaCeli 1985: qiaCeli l., Txzulebani oTx tomad. Tb., gamomcemloba `merani~, 1985. jorjaZe 1989: jorjaZe a., werilebi. Tb., gamomcemloba `merani~, 1989.

ada nemsaZe kitriani aryis boTli / mzis amosvlis kunZuli


(ori qronotopuli simbolos analizisaTvis)
`mxolod simboloa maradiuli. anda, maradiuloba mxolod simboloebis saxiT arsebobs. ase rom, rac ufro meti simbolo gveqneba, miT ufro iolad gavitanT Tavs am gaZaRlebul wuTisofelSi~ (o. WilaZe).

oTar WilaZis mxatvruli sistemis centraluri RerZi sikeTe/borotebis maradiuli dapirispirebaa, rasac mwerali sxvadasxva romanSi gansxvavebul drosivrcul modelebSi asxams xorcs. qronotopis kvlevebSi aRniSnulia, rom `drouli da sivrculi koordinatebi warmoadgenen nawarmoebis ara marto karkass, aramed misi Sinaarsis organizebis yvelaze realur saSualebebs~ (gei 1975: 277). oTar WilaZe sikeTe/borotebis opoziciis mxatvruli gansaxovnebisaTvis erTgvar simboloebs qmnis, romelTac qronotopuli SeiZleba vuwodoT. swored maTSia mxatvruli teqstis mTavari saTqmeli kodirebuli. amjerad Cveni mizania ori konkretuli saxis analizi: mzis amosvlis kunZuli (`avelumi~) da kitriani aryis boTli (`rkinis Teatri~). o. WilaZis mxatvrul sistemaSi

30

ada nemsaZe

aseTi, erTi SexedviT, uCveulo saxeebi Tu pasaJebi arc moulodnelia da, miT ufro, arc SemTxveviTi. zemoxsenebuli ori simboluri saxec sabWoTa imperiis mier Seqmnili Caketili drosivrcis reprezentacias emsaxureba, erTi pirdapiri Cvenebis gziT (kitriani aryis boTli), meore ki sawinaaRmdego paralelebiT (mzis amosvlis kunZuli). tropis orive saxe Seicavs damatebiT gamaZlierebel elementebs (kitri, arayi, siSiSvle, kunZuli, mze, zRva...), rac kidev ufro afarToebs maT mniSvnelobebs. `avelumi~ `borotebis imperiis~ ngrevis siRrmiseuli analizis warmomsaxveli romania. aq sikeTe/boroteba ori imperiis saxiT upirispirdeba erTmaneTs, erTia `avelumis siyvarulis imperia~, meore ki - `sabWoTa imperia~; pirveli realurad arsebulia, meore mxolod gmiris personalur sivrceSia, Tumc, amis miuxedavad, igi gacilebiT saSiSia pirvelisaTvis, rogorc arsobrivad misi opozicia. amitomac iyo, rom `avelumis mikroimperiis, anu misi mravalsaxa, magram erT sul da erT xorc siyvarulis Cakvlasa da gabiabruebas gadahyva Tan msoflioSi erT-erTi udidesi saxelmwifo, umkacresi imperia~ (WilaZe 2007: 13). mwerali simboloebs damatebiTi qvesimboloebiT aZlierebs, romlebic siRrmiseulad da sivrculad iSlebian teqstSi da cxovrebis yvela realur Tu warmosaxviT sferos moicaven. sivrce aq yvelaze SexuTuli, viwro da arajansaRia, bednierebis misaRwevad yvelaze didi xelisSemSleli faqtori. mas ki qmnis erTmorwmune mezobeli, romelic xan `gubernias~ eZaxda moferebiT, xan `respublikas~. amasobaSi ki dRiTidRe ebzareboda da erRveoda saukuneobiT nagebi cixe-galavani zneobisa, patiosnebisa, kdemamosilebisa~ (WilaZe 2007: 297). erTmorwmune mezoblis mier samyaroSi SemosazRvruli sivrce SeuZlebelia, sakmarisi aRmoCndes erisTvis, rac unda didi iyos igi. radgan Tavisufleba TviTon awesebs sakuTar sazRvrebs, vinmes mier dadebuli ukve misi SezRudvaa. `imperiuli modelis warmosaxvas emsaxureba sabWoTa sivrcis warmosaxva saknad, romlis patimrebadac miiCneven Tavs avelumi da fransuaza. SemosazRvruli sivrcis mxatvruli saxea romanSi minosis labirinTic - es uzarmazari da Tan saocrad SezRuduli garemo, sadac Tavs verasodes grZnob bednierad, sadac sul viRac giTvalTvalebs, romlidan gamosasvleladac au-

kitriani aryis boTli / mzis amosvlis kunZuli

31

cileblad gWirdeba ariadnes Zafis gorgali, radgan marto amas ver moaxerxeb da bunebrivia, aseT sivrceSi verc verasodes miaRwev im netar gancdas, Tavisufleba rom hqvia~ (nemsaZe 2009: 114-115). uaRresad sainteresoa `avelumis~ sivrculi struqtura. aq erTiani sivrce ar gvaqvs, igi ramdenime nawiladaa daSlili, romlebic mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan. pirveli maTgani aris `sabWoTa imperia~, is adgili, sadac avelums uwevs cxovreba. aqedan wasvlis survilis SemTxvevaSic ki (Tuki aseT rames odesme isurvebs), igi ver datovebs mas, radgan aq mkacrad kontroldeba yvelaferi, TviT ucxoeTidan Semosuli sasiyvarulo werilebic ki, xolo aqedan samogzaurod mimaval moqalaqes uSiSroebis ramdenime agenti mihyveba Tan (gavixsenoT avelumis safrangeTSi samogzaurod wasvlis epizodi romanidan). meore sivrce aris sabWoTa imperiis gareT arsebuli samyaro, romelSi moxvedrac TiTqmis SeuZlebelia pirveli sivrcis mkvidrTaTvis. xolo mesame sivrced SesaZloa ganvixiloT personaJis personaluri sivrce, mxolod mis cnobierebaSi arsebuli da, aqedan gamomdinare, SeuzRudavi yovelgvari kanoniTa Tu normiT. swored am sivrceSi axdens avelumi sakuTari pirovnebis formirebas, aq SeuZlia mas fransuazas siyvaruli Tamamad, Tumc gare sivrceebi (vgulisxmobT Cven mier dasaxelebul pirvel da meore sivrceebs), yvelanairad uSlis xels am siyvarulSi. Cven mier gansaxilveli simboloc - mzis amosvlis kunZuli - meore sivrcis Semadgeneli nawilia da masSi fokusirebulia Tavisufali sivrcis yvela maxasiaTebeli. kunZuli fransuazas bebiam ipova da kurortad aqcia, wesebic TviTonve daudgina: aq dasasveneblad Camosul adamians ekrZaleba tansacmlis tareba. `SiSvlad siaruli fransuazas bebiam da misma megobarma daamkvidres Turme am kunZulze. maSin kunZuli jer kidev ukacuri yofila TiTqmis - mavTulxlarTebiT SemosazRvruli samxedrosazRvao bazis garda, sul ramdenime qoxmaxi mdgara... titvlebi imzadebdnen saWmels, titvlebi Wamdnen, titvlebs sZuldaT da titvlebs uyvardaT erTmaneTi... aq sxvisi siSiSvlisTvis yuradRebis miqceva iseve miuRebelia, rogorc tangauxdeli siaruli. rasakvirvelia, ZaliT aravin gagxdiT, magram TeTri viriviT gamorCeuli ki iqnebiT sul, axlos aravin gagikarebT, radgan Seni

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ada nemsaZe

Cacmuloba, upirveles yovlisa, maTi siSiSvlis gamomJRavnebas niSnavs. marili ki swored siSiSvlis arSemCnevaa, misTvis yuradRebis armiqcevaa da ara piriqiT...~ (WilaZe 2007: 117-118). mzis amosvlis kunZuli `borotebis imperiis~ mier SemosazRvruli totalitaruli sivrcis opoziciuri simboloa. aq pirovnuli Tavisuflebis umaRlesi xarisxi denotaciurad garegnuli utansacmlobiTaa gamoxatuli. gavixsenoT pirveli adamianebis yofa samoTxeSi: RvTaebriv arsTan erTianobis gancda pirvelma adamianma swored maSin dakarga, roca Sescoda da sakuTari siSiSvle sircxvilad aRiqva. amas mohyva bednierebis SegrZnebisa da RvTis mier misTvis Seqmnili samoTxis dakargvac. oTar WilaZis `avelumSic~ es bibliuri paradigma SeiniSneba. fransuazas bebia kunZulze qmris Ralatis Semdeg midis da axal cxovrebaSi poulobs simSvides. mzis amosvlis kunZuli is sivrcea, sadac bednierebis miRweva realuri xdeba. es simboluri saxe konotaciur doneze uamrav sxva maxasiaTebels moiazrebs. yuradRebas SevaCerebT erT detalze: safrangeTSi Casuli avelumi fransuazasTan erTad apirebs kunZulze gamgzavrebas, magram ver axerxebs. Cveni azriT, es, erTi SexedviT, umniSvnelo pasaJi didi da faruli datvirTvis matarebelia. `sabWoTa tusaRi~ (rogorc avtori uwodebs Tavis gmirs) Sinaganad ver Tavisufldeba, amitomac ver warmoudgenia mas, rogor unda gaiaros fransuazas mSoblebis winaSe sruliad SiSvelma. eris koleqtiur cnobierebaSi ise Rrmad sZinavs pirovnuli Tavisuflebis SegrZnebas, rom mis zedapirze amotanas Taobebis gamocdileba sWirdeba. avelumis Taoba amas ver axerxebs, am brZolas ekaekaterinekatos Taoba iwyebs. simboloTa leqsikonebSi aRniSnulia kunZulis ori gansxvavebuli simboluri mniSvneloba: erTi mxriv, igi izolaciisa da martoobis adgilia, meore mxriv ki _ usafrTxo, qaosis Zalebisagan daculi sivrce (simboloTa...). `avelumSi~ mzis amosvlis kunZulSi orive es mniSvneloba erTdeba da erTian dadebiT vels qmnis. igi kidev ufro Zlierdeba wylisa da mzis velebiT, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, sinaTlis, siwmindis, simarTlis, sicocxlis mniSvnelobebs Seicaven. amrigad, kunZuli mxolod horizontaluradaa dasazRvruli (vgulisxmobT SemosazRvrulobas sibrtyeze), vertikalur sivrceSi igi usasrulod iSleba mzisken, rac Tavisuflebis usazRvro gancdas badebs. rac Seexeba me-

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ore simbolur saxes - kitriani aryis boTls _ igi mkacrad aris sivrceSi SemosazRvruli yoveli mxridan. aq mxolod erTi opozicia SegviZlia ganvixiloT - SigniT/gareT. g. asaTiani oTar WilaZis Semoqmedebis analizisas aRniSnavs, rom mwerlis amosavali wertili aris simbolika. mis prozaSi mxatvruli saxeebidan gamorCeuli adgili uWiravs `simbolosken mimaval `naturas~ anu gasimboloebul `naturas~. `natura~ anu sagani gadaizrdeba simboloSi da ukve miRebuli simbolo aq kargavs Tavis pirvandel sagnobriv funqcias. aseTebia saaTis gasaRebi, bedias Toki, revolveri, friqses wyaro, germanelis baRi da a. S. (asaTiani 1977: 34). am simboloTa rigs uTuod daamSvenebs Cven mier saanalizod warmodgenili kitriani aryis boTlic. igi Jurulebis ojaxSi inaxeba da erTdroulad aris rogorc am erTi ojaxis cxovrebis metaforuli saxe, aseve - farTo mniSvnelobiT _ imperiis SezRuduli, dakanonebuli sivrcis niSanic. kitriani aryis boTli Jurulebis ojaxis sakuTrebaa da igi ara yoveldRiuri, aramed gansakuTrebuli daniSnulebis mqonea, mas stumrisTvis inaxaven. gaocebul elenes ase uxsnis maspinZeli am `saidumlos~: `sanam nayofi pataraa, boTlSi Seayofineben Tavs da Tavidanve boTlSi izrdeba~ (WilaZe 1987: 197). stumarze waruSlel STabeWdilebas tovebs igi, TiTqos raRac saidumlos miagnoo, TiTqos raRac winaswarmetyvelur miniSnebas inaxavda es Cveulebrivi sasmeli. `boTlis viwro yelSi patara, xorkliani nayofi SeyuJuliyo da TandaTanobiT izrdeboda, izrdeboda, sul ufro da ufro avsebda boTlis sicarieles. `verafriT veRar gamoeteva, sanam Sigve ar gamolpeba. araySi inaxaven, gvamiviT~, - fiqrobda SeZrwunebuli, amrezili. dariam rom hkiTxa, xom ar gegvesinjao, lamis Sehyvira; xeli uaris niSnad haerSi aasavsava, TiTqos gulisxmieri maspinZeli Sxams aZalebda~ (WilaZe 1987: 199). aSkaraa, simbolo iseTi Rrma konotaciuri mniSvnelobebiT aris daxunZluli, rom mxatvruli teqstis personaJisTvisac ki igi refleqsiis mizezi xdeba. raRac farul da, amave dros, avismomaswavebel miniSnebebze fiqrs elene iwyebs. amitom sruliad bunebrivia, rom aRmqmeli subieqtisTvis igi erTiorad saintereso xdeba. mkiTxveli aq personaJTan erTad aqtiurad erTveba fiqrisa da gansjis procesSi da mxatvruli sityvis azrobrivi potencialis wvdomas cdilobs. amis saSualebas xom Tavad mwerali

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uqmnis mas, roca `uflebas aZlevs, iyos misi gonebrivi muSaobis partniori~ (averincevi). o. WilaZis Semoqmedebis erT-erTi rusi mkvlevari tatiana meizerskaia wers: romanSi yovel gmirs Tavisi myari da mudmivi simbolo aqvs: cezaris toga - msaxiobs, pistoleti - gelas, mundiri - saba lafaCs, qolga da Savi vuali - elenes, kitriani aryis boTli - dimitris... (meizerskaia 1985: 143). Cven veTanxmebiT am mosazrebas, Tumc migvaCnia, rom velis gafarToeba aq usasrulod SeiZleba. simbolos azrobrivi potenciali xom yovelTvis ufro farToa, vidre misi mocemuli realizacia: `kavSirebi, romlebSic eSveba simbolo Tavisi gamoxatvis unaris wyalobiT ama Tu im semiotikur wreSi, ver amowuravs mis yvela azrobriv valentobas. es ki qmnis im azrobriv rezervs, romlis daxmarebiTac simbolos SeuZlia CaerTos moulodnel kavSirebSi, Secvalos Tavisi arsi da moaxdinos teqsturi wris deformireba~ (lotmani 1992: 194). am mosazrebis gaTvaliswinebiT, kitriani aryis boTlic rTuli simboluri saxea. boTli anu Sekruli sivrce, aris ganviTarebis mxolod sakuTari kanonebis karnaxiT SemosazRvruli adamianis sulis SemxuTveli garemo, Tavisuflebis damTrgunveli faqtori, amitom masSi sxvadasxva, erTmaneTisgan sruliad gansxvavebuli masStabis movlenebi SeiZleba moviazroT: imperiis marwuxebSi moqceuli saqarTvelo, raRac idumali bedisweriT Sekruli adamianis cxovrebis gza (mag., Tbiliseli msaxiobi, ojaxur borkildadebuli elene Tu am borkilebis damsxvrevis msurveli gela). nebismieri maTgani aq erTi saerTo niSniT isazRvreba: yvela moZraobs romeliRac Caketili wris irgvliv, romlidanac Tavis daxsnis survili maTi cxovrebis mTavari mamoZravebeli azria. wre anu Caketili, lokaluri sivrce eSmakis gzaa (rogorc amboben RvTismetyveli mamebi), RvTisken mimavali biliki ki sworxazovania. amitomac daiRupeba yvela, vinc am wridan (boTlidan) swor gzaze ver moaxerxebs gamosvlas. romanSi es marTlac asea: dimitri da daria erTaderT qaliSvils kargaven, elene - qmarsac da Svilsac, mxolod gela axerxebs Tavis daRwevas udidesi sulieri da fizikuri gansacdelis gavliT. pirovnebis Tavisufal sivrceSi gadasaxleba integraciis rTuli procesis Sedegia. Tavis monografiaSi `qronotopi antiutopiur romanSi~ i. ratiani wers: `mTavari gmiri

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mudmivad miiswrafis faseuli sazRvrisken, romelic mijnavs miwier, drois diqtatiT marTul samyaros sulieri, droisagan Tavisufali samyarosagan, romelic transformaciis gziT miiRweva. gza zedrouli da zesivrculi samyarosken TviTSemecnebaze, SiSze, sevdaze, monaniebaze, sikvdilsa da aRdgomaze devs~ (ratiani 2005: 160-161). boTlis Sida sivrce swored rom `drois diqtatiT marTuli samyaroa~, mTeli gare sivrce ki _ `sulieri da Tavisufali~. gela boTlidan Tavis daRwevis Semdeg poulobs sakuTar daniSnulebas. rac Seexeba avelums, misi socialuri roli ar aris iseTi aqtiuri, rom es winaaRmdegoba gadalaxos, amitomac igi gelasa da Tavisi Svilis, ekaekaterinekatosagan gansxvavebiT, `sabWoTa tusaRad~ rCeba. kitriani aryis boTli romanSi rogorc gamoxatvis, ise _ Sinaarsobriv planSi, sakuTar mniSvnelobebs flobs. am mniSvnelobaTa semiotikuri konteqsti mravalferovania da xSirad erTmaneTisagan sruliad gansxvavebuli, Tumc maT Sorisac SesaZloa gamovyoT erTi zogadi da, Cveni azriT, dominanturi mniSvneloba - kitriani aryis boTli totalitaruli sivrcis simboloa, romelSic mkacradaa zRvardadebuli arsebobis droc, moZraobis SesaZleblobac da, rac yvelaze mTavaria, azrovnebis wesebi. mzis amosvlis kunZuli ki, rogorc misi opozicia, Tavisuflebisa da bednierebis umaRlesi gamovlinebaa. damowmebani: asaTiani 1977: asaTiani g., poezia da proza, alm. kritika, Tbilisi., gamomcemloba `merani~, 1977. gei 1975: . ., // . ., . , . ., , 1975. lotmani 1992: . ., // . . 1. ., 1992. meizerskaia 1985: . . , 1985, 7. nemsaZe 2009: nemsaZe a. sivrcis identifikacia // identifikaciis problema oTar WilaZis romanebSi. Tbilisi: gamomcemloba `mwignobari~, 2009.

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ratiani 2005: ratiani i. droisa da sivrcis kategoriaTa mxatvrul-literaturul sistemaSi implantaciis Teoriuli paradigma // qronotopi antiutopiur romanSi. esqatologiuri antiutopiis interpretaciisaTvis. Tbilisi., Tsu gamomcemloba, 2005. simboloTa... http://mirslovarei.com/content_sim/ostrov587.html WilaZe 1987: WilaZe o., rCeuli Txzulebani 3 tomad, tomi mesame. Tbilisi., gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1987. WilaZe 2007: WilaZe o., avelumi. Tbilisi., gamomcemloba `arete~, 2007.

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drois fenomeni da misi metaforuli interpretacia enaSi


`Cvens garemomcvel bunebaSi amoucnob movlenaTa Soris yvelaze amoucnobia dro, radgan aravin icis, ra aris is da rogor unda marTos igi~ (aristotele). drois fenomenis wvdomasa da axsnas kacobriobis arsebobis dRidan cdilobdnen adamianebi. zogierTi mis arsebobas axlac uaryofs da ubralo abstraqciad miiCnevs. droisa da sivrcis idumalebis wvdomis survili gansxeulda msoflios xalxebis miTossa da folklorSi. gansakuTrebuli niWis adamianebis uCveulo unari, iwinaswarmetyvelon momavali, dRemde gaocebasa da SiSs iwvevs, radgan adamians SeuZlia mxolod awmyos SegrZneba da warsulis gaxseneba (isic garkveul zRvramde), momavali ki misTvis idumali da gaurkvevelia. drois fenomenis enobrivi interpretacia xSirad metaforulia da akumulirebulia xalxis rwmena-warmodgenebSi, folklorSi, xelovnebis nimuSebSi da es, Tavis mxriv, samyarosadmi ayalibebs specifikur damokidebulebas. erT-erTi qarTuli xalxuri zRapris gmiri, gulnatkeni imiT, rom sikvdili arsebobs, midis ukvdavebis saZebne-

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lad. bolos is erT mzeTunaxavTan aRmoaCens ukvdavebas da maradiul netarebas, magram mxolod im pirobiT, rom arasodes moindomebs Tavis axloblebTan dabrunebas. ymawvili, miuxedavad ukvdavad yofnis udidesi survilisa, am pirobas mainc ver Seasrulebs da TavisianebTan dabrunebas moisurvebs, Tumca icis, rom amiT sanetaro wadilTan dasabrunebel gzas iWris... magram, misda saubedurod, Turme imdeni dro gasula, rom yvela misi naTesavi da axlobeli gardacvlila. am zRaparSi vlindeba xalxuri sibrZne: drois fardobiToba, sxvadasxva samyaroSi misi aTvlis gansxvavebuloba, adamianis maradiuli natvra ukvdavebaze anu droze gamarjvebis survili da am ocnebis ararealuroba. msgavsi siuJeti gvxvdeba sxva xalxebis miTosSic. magaliTad, iaponur folklorSi aseTi idea jer kidev mexuTe saukunis erT TqmulebaSi gamovlenila. uraSimata taro, axalgazrda meTevze, Cadis wyalqveSa samyaroSi, zRvis fskerze agebul sasaxleSi, da iq erTi dRe rCeba. ukandabrunebuli ki aRmoaCens, rom samasi weli gasula. sofelSi ukve aRaravis axsovs, misi saxli dangreula, xolo axloblebidan cocxali aRaravinaa. qarTuli zRaparic da es Tqmulebac maSin Seiqmna, roca warmodgena ar hqondaT realurad drois fardobiTobaze. droSi mogzaurobis Tema arc gviani periodis literaturisTvisaa ucxo (gavixsenoT herbert uelsis wigni `drois manqana~, romelSic aisaxa adamianis ocneba, imogzauros warsulsa da momavalSi, dabrundes ukan da raRac Secvalos Tavis saqcielSi).

drois ganxilva SeiZleba mravalgvari aspeqtiT: istoriuliT, religiuriT, fsiqologiuriT, filosofiuriT, eTnografiuliT da a. S. CvenTvis sainteresoa misi enobrivi interpretacia, romelSic areklilia samyaros xati. bevri lingvisti dros miiCnevs enis erT-erT semantikur universaliad, romelic gaaCnia nebismier gamonaTqvams yvela arsebul enaSi (veJbickaia 1999, 172). istorikosi a. i. gureviCi wers: `cota Tu moiZebneba kulturis iseTi maCvenebeli, romelic im doniT axasiaTebdes mis arss, rogoriTac drois gageba. masSi gansaxierebulia da masTan dakavSirebulia epoqis msoflaRqma, xalxis qceva, misi Semecneba, cxovrebis ritmi, damokidebuleba sagnebTan~ (gureviCi, 1984, 15).

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drois uZvelesi, miTologiuri gageba naivuria da TiTqmis yvela enobriv sinamdvileSi vlindeba anTropomorfuli an zoomorfuli saxiT. erTi qarTuli gamocana drois mdinarebasa da ciklurobas gamoxatavs xis saxiT, romelsac scviva foTlebi, magram mudam axali amosdis: `erTi alvis xe midgia, Tormeti toti abia, scviva da scviva foToli, isev imdeni abia~.

dro Zalze abstraqtuli fenomenia: TvaliT uxilavia, yuriT ar gvesmis, xeliT ver SevexebiT. amitomac aris misi aRqma ase mravalgvari da yvelafris momcveli. xalxis warmodgenaSi weliwadis droebi, dRe, Rame, sibere (rogorc drois mdinarebis kanonzomieri Sedegi) da sikvdili (rogorc misi sasruli) xSiradaa personificirebuli. magaliTad, erT-erT Tanamedrove leqsSi dro gaigivebulia cbier qalTan:
`dro flidi qalia, yovelTvis bolomde gvimetebs...~ (l. laCaSvili) gansxvavebulia drois religiuri aRqma, romelic mas sxva datvirTvas aniWebs: drois aTvla iwyeba RvTis mier samyaros SeqmniT da sruldeba RvTis samsjavroTi. TiToeuli adamianis dro (anu sicocxle) ki iyofa or nawilad: erTi _ amqveyniuri, miwieri, xorcieli cxovreba, romelsac aqvs sawyisi (dabadeba) da sasruli (sikvdili), meore ki _ imqveyniuri, zeciuri, maradiuli, romelic grZeldeba ukuniTi ukunisamde. suli maradiul sasufevelSi moxvdeba, Tuki adamiani miwier cxovrebaSi RvTis mcnebebis erTguli iqneba. es mxatvrulad asaxa d. guramiSvilma: `kacs mis meti ara aqvs-ra sikvdils ukan Tan sabargi, suls miuZRvis xorcT naqnari: avsa avi, kargsa kargi~. (d. guramiSvili) drois subieqturi aRqma yvelaze axlosaa mis filosofiur-fsiqologiur aspeqtebTan da xSirad iSveliebs metaforizacias. amiT vlindeba drois gagebis universalurobac. drois metaforaTa nawili bevr enaSi meordeba da garkveuli epoqis sulis gamoxatulebadac SeiZleba iqces. qarTul sinamdvileSic vxvdebiT drois mravalgvar metaforul gaazrebas: dro, rogorc marad moZravi, mimdinare, uwyveti da cvalebadi movlena; rogorc ganumeorebeli da mouxelTebeli ram; amas garda, dro ganmeorebadi da cikluri; misi batonoba yvelasa da yvelaferze

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(`droni mefoben da ara _ mefeni~); dro, rogorc damangreveli da gamanadgurebeli Zala; misi ganusazRvreloba, fardobiToba, arakonkretuloba da subieqtur aRqmaze damokidebuleba; dro, rogorc fasis mqone da amasTanave RirebulebaTa sazomi (anu calkeuli adamianisa Tu kacobriobis Rvawlis, istoriuli Rirebulebebis Semfasebeli movlena); dro, rogorc yvelafris mkurnali da sxv. (Sdr. baruzdina, 2008; SCerbina, 2006 da sxv.) vfiqrobT, qarTvelis azrovnebaSi gansakuTrebiT xSirad vlindeba damokidebuleba, rom dro daundobeli, yvelafris damangreveli, gamanadgurebeli, gulgrili da ganurCevelia Zalaa. didi sibrZnis Semcvelia qarTuli andaza: `yvelaferi dros elis, dro ki _ araferso~. amitomac dro xSirad gaigivebulia bediswerasTan, bedis borbalsa da wuTisoflis amaoebasTan. am saWirboroto sakiTxze bevri qarTveli poeti dafiqrebula. dro wyeulia, rogorc yovelgvari borotebis saTave: `hxedav, Cemo, viT gagvyarna sofelman da Jamman krulman?~ _ swers satrfos mravali ubedurebis momswre nestan-darejani. dro arafers ar indobs, yovelgvar naRvaws anadgurebs: `midis-modis es sofeli, qar-texilTa zRvisebr Relavs! ukan dasdevs dro da Jami, mis naqselavs qsovs da sTelavs. (d. guramiSvili) dro (igive Jami) xSirad Tavisi arsiT gaiazreba glovisa da mwuxarebis damTesad: `ganilevian amo glovani, Jamman JamobiT rac mogvasia~. (e. WiWiaSvili) drois uguloba da daundobloba Cveulebrivia, radgan is mudam midis: `ar Cerdebao dro, viRaca brZenma brZana... (n. gomelauri) imave poetTan vkiTxulobT: `wveTen wamebi, wuTebi. dro sisxls da saxsrebs mwovs. dros xom ver gaebutebi? xaTri ara aqvs dros...~ (n. gomelauri) dro da Jami spobs cocxalsa Tu aracocxals, celiani sikvdili yvelas miadgeba, mis klanWebs veravin dauZvreba, Tumca

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genialuri vaJa amaSi did kanonzomierebas xedavs, radgan sicocxle sikvdiliT fasdeba: `RmerTma giSvelos, sikvdilo, sicocxle mSvenobs SeniTa~. (vaJa-fSavela) adamiani miwaa da miwadve iqceva, dedabunebis wiaRs ubrundeba. dro gadis, cxovreba midis da es kanonzomieria: `viRaca tiroda, viRacas Sioda, viRacas cioda, da dro gadioda~. (m. maWavariani) dro efemeruli da warmavalia, sizmariviT gaielvebs da qreba: `is droeba sizmariviT wavida, odes bavSvi iyav moxetiale~. (g. tabiZe) anda: `gaqra zafxuli, ise, TiTqos ara iyo ra~. (n. ingoroyva) sainteresoa, rom drois enobrivi aRqma fardobiTia. misi aRmniSvneli TiToeuli leqsikuri erTeuli SeiZleba gamoiyenebodes gadataniT anu fardobiTad an metaforulad. maradiulobisTvis saukunec wamia da am gagebasTan aris dakavSirebuli sityva `wuTisofeli~ an `sawuTro~ _ dro, romelsac adamiani amqveynad atarebs: drois uwyveti da usasrulo mdinarebisTvis sicocxle mxolod wuTia, Tvalis daxamxameba: `wuTisofeli ra aris, agorebuli qva aris, rawams ki davibadebiT, iqve samarec mza aris~. qarTvelma kargad icis, rom adamianis sicocxle Zalze xanmoklea: `ra aris Cveni sicocxle, CitiviT gagvifrindeba~. axalgazrdoba ise swrafad gairbens, ukan moxedvasac ver vaswrebT: `daukariT! moaswariT, Torem heri... da siberec Zu mgeliviT mogvixteba~. (l. asaTiani)

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ivane wiklauris erT-erTi leqsi _ `ram damabera~ _ am problemas utrialebs: ratom berdeba adamiani? ra aris Cveni cxovreba? `ver micna Cemma sworferma, qalam Cem drosam, xnisama: _ ram dagabera, _ is miTxra, _ biWo, mzem Cemis Zmisama! _ Cem dabereba, qalao, welma qna samocisama, samoc-samocjer masvlama gazafxulisam, sTvlisama, ocdaerT aTas cxraasjer cazed amasvlam mzisama, gafrenam sizmariviTa Svidas ocisa Tvisama, Cem Tavzedac qna boini msajulma sicocxlisama...~ (iv. wiklauri) qarTvelma kargad icis, rom dros ver daiWer, qviSis saaTis qviSasaviT udrtvinvelad Caicleba. Semodgomas moaqvs daTovlili Tmebi, daRaruli Subli, Cacvenili kbilebi, akankalebuli muxlebi, aTasgvari seni da ubedureba. yvelanairi simdidrisa da sikeTis mqone rostevanic ki wuxs amas: `sibere mWirs WirTa ufro Znelia, dRes ara, xvale movkvdebi, sofeli asre mqnelia~. (rusTaveli) adamianis cxovrebis wamierebasa da miwieri yofis miraJulobaze bevri qarTveli Semoqmedi werda Tu xatavda. aq ASeiZleba gavixsenoT amerikaSi moRvawe SesaniSnavi qarTveli mxatvris, gulnara wiklauris, saocari eqspresiis mqone siurrealisturi suraTi `kanonzomieri metamorfoza~, romelzedac gamosaxulia orad gayofili saxe: erT naxevarze ulamazesi axalgazrda qalia daxatuli, meore naxevarze ki _ amave qalis damWknar-daRaruli, siberisgan damaxinjebuli saxe. Turme rasac Cven ulmoblobad aRviqvamT, is kanonzomieria! salvador dalis cnobili tilo `mudmivad moZravi droc~ gabrtyelebul-deformirebul saaTebs gamoxatavs da migvaniSnebs, rom dro mouxelTebeli, ganusazRvreli da aRuqmelia. drois maradiul dinebasa da amqveyniuri cxovrebis amaoebaze fiqrma Seqmna qarTuli filosofiuri lirika, romelSic poetebi cdilobdnen, sworad aexsnaT cxovrebiseuli faseulobebi. swored am iluzoruli drois dinebas da xorcieli silamazis warmavlobas daupirispira nikoloz baraTaSvilma sulieri mSvenierebis maradiuloba: `silamazea niWi mxolod xorcielebis da, viT yvavili, Tavis droze mswraflad daWknebis~.

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bolos poeti genialurad wyvets am maradiul Temas: `TviT ukvdaveba mSveniersa sulSi mdgomarebs, mas verc SemTxveva da ver xani ver daaberebs~. (n. baraTaSvili) sulieri simaRlisken, sulis mSvenierebisken swrafva aris ltolva maradiulobisken anu drois damarcxeba, masze gamarjveba. amas garda, dros TiTqos aqvs mijna, romlis gadalaxvac didi Semoqmedis ocnebaa: `gadavlaxavdi dro-Jamis mijnas, viqaTqaTebdi, viT alaverdi~. (m. maWavariani) dRes Rame cvlis, zamTars gazafxuli mohyveba, gazafxuls _ zafxuli, wuTi wuTs misdevs, TiTqos mudam ismis warmosaxviTi saaTis sabediswero wikwiki. viRac gviTvlis wlebs, Tveebs, dReebs, saaTebs, wuTebs, wamebs... da adamiani iwyebs ukvdavebisa da maradiulobis Ziebas siyvarulsa da xelovnebaSi: `da mainc ra aris ukvdaveba, Tu ara siyvaruli... (k. gamsaxurdia). `mxolod ostats ver eweva sikvdili... aTaseuli wlebi walekaven irgvliv yovelives. mxolod sveticxoveli darCeba rogorc RmerTTan da sikvdilTan mebrZoli iakobi~ (k. gamsaxurdia). amitomac droze gamarjvebul Zeglebad dagvrCa: sveticxoveli, varZia, alaverdi, jvari, gelaTi, bagrati, qarTuli poezia, `tyapuWiani, xelkombliani~ glexis Seqmnili poeturi margalitebi, ubiri glexisa, romelic kacobriobis maradiul problemebze ubadlo sisadaviT msjelobda. xelovani cdilobs daarRvios drois Cveuli dineba, gamoigonos irealuri, iluzoruli samyaro, imogzauros warsulsa Tu momavalSi, realoba ki mxolod subieqtur aRqmaSi datovos, radgan warsuli da momavali mxolod abstraqciaa. amitomac hqonda galaktions ufleba, rom eTqva: `me arc warsulis, arc momavlis ar meSinia!~ (g. tabiZe)

poetis kiTxva _ `romeli saaTia?~ konkretul dros ar miemarTeba, SeiZleba droidan gaqcevis cdac iyos da mtkivneuli, sisxliani epoqis gamoZaxilic. ugulo, ulmo-

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beli dro suls fleTda da daWril guls sisxlisgan wretda: `xanma undobarma, gza rom SeeReba, uxvad moitana sisxli da cxedrebi~. (g. tabiZe)
xelovan adamians ki marTlac Tavisi dro aqvs: `SemoqmedebiTi dro swrafad mihqris. laparakia im droze, romelic saxelovnebo situaciaSi ki ar arsebobs, aramed sakuTar TavTan da faseulobebTan mimarTebaSi. Seni dro TavisTavad Zalze aCqarebulia~ (r. amaRlobeli). mxolod geniosTan aRiqmeba dro gansxvavebulad. marTalia, is arasodes Cerdeba, magram geniosis winaSe mainc uZluria: `...roca mocarti notebs arCevda, droebiT Sercxva dros da gaCerda...~. (n. gomelauri) Tanamedrove poeziaSi gansakuTrebiT mravalferovani da mistikuria drois aRqma: is maradiuli, mouxelTebeli, fardobiTi, subieqturi da cvalebadi movlenaa. poets SeuZlia sakuTari cxovrebis areuloba metaforulad Seadaros moumarTav saaTs: `dauqoqavi saaTi, viTxov Rirseul wres. drosTan gavmarTe kamaTi, dro ar Cerdeba, wveTs...~ (n. gomelauri) enis prizmaSi gardatexili samyaros xati drosa da sivrces subieqturad aRiqvams. uiliam Seqspiri werda: `dro sxvadasxva adamianisTvis gansxvavebulad midis~. marTlac, gansakuTrebiT TvalSi sacemia, rom yofiT situaciaSi drois aRmniSvneli TiTqmis nebismieri leqsikuri erTeuli SeiZleba gamoviyenoT rogorc konkretuli, pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, ise gadataniT, zogadad, drois an zogjer _ epoqis mniSvnelobiTac. magaliTad, Semodgoma gadataniT siberes aRniSnavs, gazafxuli _ axalgazrdobasa da yvavilobas... yvelam icis, vinme roca gvpirdeba, am wuTas movalo, viciT, rom gvaZlevs male mosvlis pirobas da ar gulisxmobs konkretulad imave wuTs. didi xnis unaxav megobars sayveduriT veubnebiT, saukunea, ar SevxvedrivarTo da vgulisxmobT xangrZliv dros (SeiZleba, erT weliwads an ramdenimes). xSirad viyenebT sityvebs: `wuTi~, `wami~ da `saukune~. ada-

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mians sWirdeba drois monakveTebis subieqturi aRqmis xazgasma da fardobiTad warmoCena, amitomac yvelaze mcire monakveTis aRsaniSnavad iyenebs `wuTs~ an `wams~, xolo xangrZlivi monakveTisTvis _ `saukunes~. cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi ar igulisxmeba konkretuli dro: saaTis an wuTis mesamocedi nawili an zustad 100 weli, aramed ganusazRvreli dro _ Zalian mokle an Zalian grZeli: sicocxle wamia (wuTia)! saukunem wamiviT gairbina. xvalindeli dRis imediT vcocxlobT!

drois mdinareba marTlac subieqturad aRiqmeba. henri van daiks uTqvams: `momlodinesaTvis dro miizlazneba, SiSiT SepyrobilisaTvis _ miqris, mwuxarisaTvis _ aRar Tavdeba, mxiarulisaTvis wamSi gaivlis; SeyvarebulisaTvis ki igi usasruloa~. amitomacaa, rom adamiani xSirad wuwunebs, dro swrafad gadiso:
`isev ise garbis dro, ar gvanebebs Tavs, gaumaZRar siyvaruls es cxovreba hgavs~. (ir. Carkviani)

amboben, bednierebs saaTi ar sWirdebaTo. umaRlesi bednierebisa da netarebis Jams adamiani ver grZnobs drois arsebobasa da mdinarebas, magram zogjer dro autanlad iWimeba da miizlazneba, rasac xelovani kidev ufro mtkivneulad ganicdis:
`dro miizlazneba, ar midis arsaiT da Zlivs imeorebs andante andantes... ho, aq Caivlian dReebi, kvirebi, Tveebi, wlebi da Caivlis yvela dro~ (g. alxaziSvili).

anda: `sizmarTa asxmam fiqrni dalesa da Zils mZivebad esxa zmanebac, xan Cqara garbis dro, uCqaresad, xan ZlivZlivobiT miizlazneba~. (d. gogibedaSvili)

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miuxedavad adamianis cxovrebis xanmokleobisa, Cven mainc daudevrad veqceviT RvTis mier boZebul dros da xSirad mas uazrod, umiznod vflangavT. erT metad saintereso Tanamedrove poetTan vxvdebiT am problemis moulodnel da originalur interpretacias: `dros maSin vpoulob, roca vkargav, an _ roca vflangav...! ...ar vici axla _ vflangav, vxarjav Tu vpoulob dros...~ (c. barbaqaZe) amboben, dro yvelafris mkurnaliao. am sityvebiT isev drois dinebas esmeba xazi, rom gaivlis xani da didi ubedurebac ki daaviwydeba adamians, mineldeba misi tkivili da gauferuldeba simwvave, magram zogjer esec araa nugeSis momtani: `dro yvelafris mkurnalia, oRond Cemi ara. saocari unaria dardi wara-mara. rasac vfiqrob, gadmovisvri umartives leqsad~. (n. gomelauri) xSirad vimeorebT, rom Cven vcxovrobT epoqaSi, sadac dro fulia (cnobili gamonaTqvami `dro fulia~ 1748 wels gaCnda, misi avtori benjamin franklinia). Sesabamisad, yvelafers vakeTebT imisTvis, rom dro davzogoT, rac xSirad, rogorc Cans, sakuTari janmrTelobis fasad gvijdeba. es gamoTqma saqmianma epoqam moitana, raTa xazi gaesvaT drois fasisTvis, rom aravis gaeflanga is fuWad. qarTul sinamdvileSi ki mainc SedarebiT axali Semosuli Cans. bolos _ SeiZleba iTqvas, rom drois qarTuli msoflaRqma mravalferovania da moicavs rogorc mis realur, ise mistikur da filosofiur gaazrebas.

literatura baruzdina, 2008 _ . ., "" (

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): . . . , , 2008. gureviCi, 1984 _ . ., / . . . 2- ., . . . : , 1984. 350 . veJbickaia, 1999 _ ., , ., 1999. SCerbina, 2006 _ . ., "" : . . . , , 2006.

maia jaliaSvili

drois metafizika qarTul modernistul romanSi


qarTul modernistul romanebSi drois metafizika warmodgenilia adamianis Sinagan samyarosTan kavSirSi. es romanebi, upirvelesad, sulis biografiebia da, aqedan gamomdinare, erTi, ucvleli, sulis dro e.i. maradisoba vlindeba konkretul sivrceSi, rac mis awmyod, warsulad Tu momavlad saxeldebas ganapirobebs. `ra aris dro? kiTxulobs Tomas mani `jadosnur mTaSi~ da iqve pasuxobs: `saidumloeba usaxelo da yovlismZle, movlenaTa samyaros ganmsazRvreli piroba, moZraoba, gadajaWvuli da Serwymuli sivrceSi sxeulebis ganlagebasa da moZraobasTan. iarsebebda ki dro, moZraoba rom ar yofiliyo? an moZraoba ki iarsebebda drois gareSe? kiTxva kiTxvad rCeba. aris Tu ara dro sivrcis funqcia, an piriqiT? an iqneb isini erTmaneTis identurni arian? aqac mxolod kiTxvas vsvamT! dro moqmedia. mas zmniT gamosaxatavi Tviseba gaCnia: igi `iwvevs~, magram ras? cvlilebas! `axla~ da `maSin~ erTi da igive ar aris. `aq~ ar aris `iq~, radgan maT Soris moZraoba Zevs, magram vinaidan moZraoba, risi meSveobiTac dros vzomavT, wriulia da Tavis TavSi Caketili, ami-

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tom aseTi moZraobisa da cvlilebisTvis aseve Tavisuflad SeiZleboda simSvide da uZraoba gvewodebina `maSin~ xom gamudmebiT meordeba `axlaSi~, `aq~ ki cnebaSi `iq~ (mani 1984: 5). dro qarTul modernistul romanebSi gvevlineba, rogorc `movlenaTa ganmsazRvreli piroba~. Tomas maniseuli SekiTxvebi drosTan dakavSirebul yvela problemas moicaven. Tu rogor ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs `aq~ da `iq~, `maSin~ da `axla~, qarTvel modernistTa yuradRebis saganicaa. `yovel civilizacias gansakuTrebuli Sexeduleba hqonda droze: bevri mas maradiul gameorebad miiCnevda. mas xan swor xazad warmoidgendnen, xan ki spiraliseburad. platonikosTaTvis weli wriulia da srulyofili, TiTqos zeciuri sxeulebis moZraobas imeorebs. qristianebisTvis dro apokalipturia da sworxazovani, indoelTaTvis iluzoruli mxolod gardasaxvaTa realoba. XIX saukune dros maradiul, ganuwyvetliv progresad aRiqvams~ (pasi 1999: 2). sazogadod, romanis dro gamoirCeva sisavsiT, radgan aq xdeba Cveulebrivi yofis Zlieri dramatizacia. romanists personaJi gamohyavs Cveulebrivi yofis sazRvrebidan, raTa cxovreba mTlianad, mTeli sisavsiT ganacdevinos. TviTon cxovrebis prozas xSirad amgvari sisavse aklia. personaJi ki, umetesad erTbaSad, uamrav sawinaaRmdego vnebaTa WidilSi cxovrebas mTlianad SeigrZnobs. amitomac dro Cqardeba. mcire monakveTSi imdeni movlena xdeba, rasac Cveulebriv yofaSi wlebi dasWirdeboda. m. prusti wers, rom romanSi erTi saaTis ganmavlobaSi adamianSi Relavs uamravi sixaruli Tu naRveli, cxovrebaSi ki amas wlebi moundeboda. Tanac ise, rom mxolod zogierTis Secnobas moaxerxebda kaci. arseboben gancdani, fiqrobs prusti, romelTac verc ki aRviqvamT, radgan maTTvis damaxasiaTebelia imgvari Senelebuloba, rac `droSi~ Zneli mosaxelTebelia (prusti 1993: 112). modernist mwerals, upirvelesad, adamianis `me~ ainteresebs da `drois xlarTebi~ mxolod imisTvis sWirdeba, rom es `me~ rac SeiZleba, mraval ganzomilebaSi warmoaCinos. `gvelis perangis~ pirvelive Tavis epigrafad wamZRvarebuli sityvebi: `Cemi Zma aryofili viTar miyvardis, umetes mzisa da umetes xmalisa, rameTu iyo igi sxvai Cemi~ simboluri mravalmniSvnelovnebis Semcvelia, romelTagan gamorCeulia pirovnebis `mes~ damokidebuleba Tavisave idealur `sxva mesTan~.

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herman hese werda: `Tqven ise laparakobT, TiTqos `me~ cnobili obieqturi sidide iyos, magram es sruliadac ar aris swori. TiToeul CvenganSi ori `mea~ da vinmem rom icodes, sad iwyeba pirveli da sad mTavrdeba meore, brZenTabrZeni iqneboda. Cven subieqtur, empiriul, individualur `mes~ rogorc ki davakvirdebiT, maSinve vnaxavT, rom igi cvalebadia, Wirveulia, sul advilad ganicdis yovelgvar garegan gavlenas... magram aris meore `mec~, dafaruli pirvel `meSi~. masTan gadaxlarTuli, magram isini erTmaneTSi ar unda avurioT. es meore umaRlesi, wminda `mea~ (indoelTa `atmani~, Tqven mas `brahmasTan~ aigivebT), mas ar gaaCnia piradi sazrisi. igi moaswavebs imas, ramdenad wilnayari varT RmerTTan, cxovrebasTan, mTelTan, upirovnosTan, zepirovnulTan~ (yaralaSvili 1988: 144). romanis gmiris gza, upirvelesad, amgvarad warimarTeba adamiani midis Tavis dakargul, gaucxoebul `mes~-Tan. `Seimoseba~ Sinagani adamianiT amgvarad ubrundeba RvTaebriv sawyiss. TavisTavad, es gzac mravalSriania da erTdroulad moicavs ramdenime aspeqts: 1. adamianis dabruneba RmerTTan, 2. fesvebTan (realuri mama, samSoblo), 3. sakuTar TavTan. amaTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovania adamianis `dabruneba~ RmerTTan. drouli TvalsazrisiT, es gza wamsac gulisxmobs da maradisobasac. grigol robaqiZe wers: `RmerTi `adgens~ Tavis Tavs samyaroSi, garna am `dginebiT~ ar `Tavdeba~ igi. yoveli mqmedi acxadebs kidev meti: amyarebs Tavis arsebas naqnarSi~ (robaqiZe 1991: 243). misi azriT, `qceulSi~ RvTis aqti dasrulebulia, aqedan gamomdinareobs ucvleli kanoniereba mineralur, mcenareul Tu cxovelur sxeulebSi. adamianSi ki es aqti RvTisa Canasaxia TiTqo, romelic adamianma TviTon unda ganasxeulos. `aq marxia adamianis RvTiurziaryofiloba. adamians SeuZlia asec imoqmedos da isec Tavisufleba RvTiurobis niSania. xolo: radgan adamiani RmerTi ar aris mainc, amis gamo sicocxle misi cdaa Sinagani, cda romelsac `cdena~ `cdomad~ Tan axlavs mudam Jam. SesaZloa vidodes adamiani RvTiuri geziT, SesaZloa gadauxvios man am gezs da ai, gvevlineba igi: sworad an mruded, waRmarTad an ukuRmarTad, marTlad an umarTlod, kargad an avad, keTilad an borotad. igi yovel wels gzajvaredinzea mimdgari: marjvniT marji, anu misi RvTiuri modgmis `ganaRdeba~, marcxniT marcxi anu Tavis Ralati da ganadgureba. es usaSinelesi da Tanve unayofieresi Wimi Tu Zabuli RvTiurisa da araRvTiurisa adamianis

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bunebaSi maister ekhartma gamohkveTa erT sworupovar TqmaSi: `TumcaRa sruliad sxva, igi, RmerTi ufro axloa CemTan, vidre me TviTon Cem TavTan~ (robaqiZe 1991: 244). `sruliad sxvas~ grigol robaqiZe Tvlis transcendentad, `ufro axlos~ ki imanentad. `me var namdvili mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac CemSi xorcieldeba igi: `sruliad sxva~, anu RmerTi~. mwerali aqedan daaskvnis: `adamiani `qceulia~, radgan igi naxevrad nivTier samyaros ekuTvnis, igi Tanve `qcevadia~, radgan meore naxevriT Tavisi bunebisa igi RvTiur Taursaa ziarebuli: mqmneli da mqnadi erTad. qcevadi samyaro ara samyaro, erTxel da samudamod qmnili, aramed iseTi, romelic mudam Jam iqmnis aris are adamianis TviTmxilebis da TviTmyarebisa. viTareba am areSi ubralo `procesSi~, anu naturaluri dgena mineralis, mcenaris, cxovelis, aramed qmediTi `istoria~, savse dramatiuli xveuliT da ganfeniT. `istoria~ ese moiTxovs ara marto winxedvas: saiTken, aramed ukan gaxedvasac: `saidan~ (robaqiZe 1991: 245). es vrceli citata imitom movixmeT, rom `gvelis perangSi~ swored es `qmediTi istoriaa~ gadmocemuli. `gvelis perangis~ personaJebi SeiZleba gaviazroT, rogorc arCibald mekeSis sulieri Ziebis gzaze TviT misive Sinagani impulsebi (Sesabamisad, damabrkolebelni Tu xelSemwyobni). amitomac es romani gaJRenTilia religiur-mistikuri intonaciebiT, radgan umaRlesi, wminda `me~, romliskenac miiswrafis romanis gmiri, masSive arsebuli RvTaebrivi naperwkalia, romelic adamians akavSirebs RmerTTan, transcendentur samyarosTan. drois robaqiZiseuli metafizika am romans samyaros erTgvar modelad aqcevs. konkretuli movlenebi ganzogaddeba da arCibald mekeSis `Tavgadasavali~, saerTod, adamianis bedad aRiqmeba. drois msvleloba romanSi or gansxvavebul ganzomilebaSi warmodgeba: 1. es aris dro horizontalze arCil mayaSvili droSi moZraobs, gadaadgildeba. xdeba movlenaTa drouli cvla. arCibaldi garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi mamaze fiqriT dawyebuli da misi `povniT~ damTavrebuli uamrav SemTxvevaTa monawilea. igi xvdeba sxvadasxva personaJebs, iZens gamocdilebas da sxva. imavdroulad, arCibald mekeSi sxva ganzomilebaSic moZraobs Tavis Sinagan samyaroSi. aq xdeba drois CaRrmaveba vertikalurad~ garegani movlenebi gmirs xels uwyobs am `CaRrmavebaSi~. yoveli axali garegani gamocdileba mis sibrZnes amravlebs da exmareba sakuTari arsebisa Tu samyaros gaazrebaSi.

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mkiTxvels romanSi warmoudgeba `kacadqmnis~ rTuli da Rrma procesi, romelic gare samyaroSi ki ara, aramed adamianis SigniT mimdinareobs, amitomac romanSi warmodgenili sinamdvile irealuri elferiT imoseba da magiurad aRiqmeba (literaturaSi arsebobs termini `magiuri sinamdvile~, romelic herman heses ekuTvnis). sulier procesebs xilul movlenaTa saxe eniWebaT da realuri sagnebi `magiuri sinamdvilis~ simboloebad warmodgeba. iqmneba erTgvari Caketili, SemosazRvruli sivrce, xdeba erTgvari `hermetizacia~. vfiqrobT, `gvelis perangi~ hermetul romanTan garkveul siaxloes amJRavnebs. nicSe saubrobs sulis sam cvalebaze, romelic droSia. suli `iqmneba~ jer aqlemad, mere lomad da bolos bavSvad. `Sen movale xar~, es aris sulis cvalebis is safexuri, roca adamianSi Warbobs morCileba, uneboba. Semdeg suli icvleba lomad, romelic gamoxatavs adamianis daumorCileblobas, transcendentur samyarosadmi eWvs, gaorebulobas. misi mTavari principia `me msurs~. Tumca igi axal Rirebulebebs ver qmnis, magram `Tavisuflebis mopoveba axali qmnadobisTvis~ warmoadgens lomis Zlierebas. erT dros wmidaTawmidaSi adamiani hpovebs `Secdomasa da Tavnebobas~ da Tavisufali xdeba, magram aq ar mTavrdeba yvelaferi. suli icvleba `bavSvad~, radgan bavSvi `umankoebaa da daviwyeba~, axali dasabami, laRoba (TamaSi), TviT Zruli borbali, pirveli Zvra, Tqma RvTaebrivi dasturisa~ (nicSe 1993: 25). bavSvobaSi mTavaria swored `daviwyeba~ da `RvTaebrivi dasturi~ yvelaferi iwyeba Tavidan, Tanac RvTaebrivi wesrigiT. `lomi, iseve rogorc aqlemi, nicSes naazrevSi kacobriobis istoriis garkveul epoqaze migviTiTebs, esaa Tavad `zaratustras~ avtoris Tanadrouli epoqa. uSfoTveli, mSvidi, morCili aqlemi iqca lomad, romelic RvTaebriv `aras~ eubneba yvela Zvel maRal Rirebulebas, movaleobas! Zveli ingreva, hkargavs fass. ra unda akeTos adamianma am RirebulebaTa vakuumSi? Zveli, Secdomebze agebuli Rirebulebebi unda Secvalos axalma, yvelaferi unda daiwyos Tavidan~ (buaCiZe 1993: 253). `yvelafris axlidan~ dawyebis surviliT aris gamsWvaluli qarTuli modernistuli romanis gmirTa goneba. gvelis mier perangis gaxdis metaforis erTi aspeqti amasac gulisxmobs. `me msurs~ nicSesTvis ar aris calsaxa da erTmniSvnelovani, amisTvis saWiroa TviT survilis Secnoba. es ki rTuli da

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xangrZlivi procesia. igi gulisxmobs, upirvelesad, TviTSemecnebas, etapobriv amaRlebas. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi emzadeba arCibald mekeSi `survilis~ mamis povnis ocnebis Sesasruleblad, magram amisTvis `did gzas~ gaivlis, xdeba misi sulis `cvaleba~, amaRleba. survilis Secnoba misTvis samyaros Secnobasac eTanabreba. savarsamiZis saxeSic mkafiod irekleba sulis amgvari cvalebadoba mamisgan gaqceviT man Tavisi neba gamoxata aqlemi lomad iqca, morCileba TavisuflebiT Seicvala. Tumca mas bolomde srulyofilad ara aqvs gacnobierebuli, ra surs. TviTon am survils `ver cnobs~, amitomac sulis cvaleba `bavSvad~ metad nela da mtkivneulad mimdinareobs. farvizis sikvdilis Semdeg TiTqos mokvda masSi `lomi~ da daiZra fiqri axal RirebulebaTa Sesaqmnelad, gasaRviZeblad. axali cxovrebis dasawyisad, Tumca Zala ar eyo da kvlav survilis tyveobaSi darCa, amgvarad, kvlav `lomis~ gaurkveveli, aramdgradi, meryevi poziciis tyveobaSi aRmoCnda. uiliam folkneri werda: `dro medinia, romelsac ar gaaCnia sxva arseboba, garda pirovnebaTa wamieri gardasaxvisa. ar arsebobs `iyo~, arsebobs mxolod `aris~. `iyo rom arsebuliyo, wuxili da dardi ar iqneboda~ (folkneri 1984: 69). `pirovnebaTa wamieri gardasaxvani qarTvel modernist romanistTa umTavresi fiqris sagania. savarsamiZe xandaxan cdilobs drois gareSe cxovrebas. amas igi axerxebs italiaSi jenetTan erTad ganmartoebisas. qveynis drtvinvas moSorebuli albano mas `amoagdebs~ drois Cveuli mdinarebidan. jibis saaTic ki uCerdeba. saxlis kedelze amoWrili mzis saaTiT misdevs dros, an kidev maxlobeli eklesiis zarebis rekva mianiSnebs drois garkveul monakveTebs. Tumca, aRar aRelvebs, sazogadod, dro. mamlis yivilze Tendeba, mzis Casvlisas Ramdeba. dro TiTqos am or wertils Soris moeqceva, Tavis TavSi Caiketeba. am gziT savarsamiZe cdilobs gare samyaroSi gafantuli mzeris sulSi Cabrunebas. iseTi gancda aqvs, TiTqos arasdros utrialia cxovrebis SuagulSi, ar `gasdevnebia~ dros. amitomac iyo, rom swored albanoSi SeZlo Tavisi sulis bneli ufskrulebis moxilva. arCibald mekeSi cxovrobs `droSi~ da ara `sivrceSi~. sivrce aq meoreulia. `sad~ yofnas yovelTvis gadaswonis `rogor~ mdgomareoba. arCibald mekeSi yvelafers ganicdis, Wvrets,

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gznebs da ara _ ubralod aRiqvams. amgvarad, `gvelis perangis~ drois koncefcia emsgavseba bibliurs, sadac cxovreba warmoCndeba, rogorc maradiuli, dausazRvravi dineba RmerTisken momavali xsnisken. s. averincevma drois es mdinareba saxeldo, rogorc _ `olami, romelic TavisTavSi Seicavs yvelafers. samyaro, rogorc istoria~. `arCibaldis saqarTvelosken mogzaurobas Tan axlavs iseTi miTologiuri motivebi, romlebic mis moZraobas qristianuli simbolikis konteqstSi aTavseben. am simbolikis Sesabamisad, igi miimarTeba vertikalurad aRma, anu qvesknelidan zesknelisken, sibnelidan sinaTlisken. amas adasturebs romanSi gamoyenebuli mravali bibliuri motivi. maT Soris, yvelaze mniSvnelovania aRTqmuli miwisken ebraelTa ormocwlian mogzaurobasTan dakavSirebuli aluziebi~ (kiziria 1989: 6). drois Zalian saintereso mxatvruli koncefcia SemogvTavaza xorxe luis borxesma moTxrobaSi: `baRi, romelSic bilikebi itotebian~. moTxrobis erTi gmiris azriT, samyaro hgavs gantotvil bilikTa baRs, sadac es TiToeuli biliki dros ganasaxierebs. `ara swamda erTiani, absoluturi droisa. igi xedavda droebaTa uTvalav rigebs. xedavda gantotvil, Tanmxvedr da paralelur droTa TviTmzard bades~ (borxesi 1994: 34). am SemTxvevaSic xdeba `mes~ ganvrcoba, Sinagani sulieri samyaros garkveul fizikur sivrced gadaqceva, gancdaTa gasagnobriveba. Cven davxetialobT Cvensave TavSi da sxvadasxva bilikze vxvdebiT gansxvavebul adamianebs Cveni vnebebisa da survilebis xorcSesxmul saxeebs. erTi ram ki ar icvleba Cven yovelTvis vxvdebiT Cvensave Tavs. `gvelis perangSi~ arCibald mekeSi poulobs sakuTari Tavisken mimaval gzas, magram yoveli povna warmoSobs Ziebis axal gzebs. arsad ar aris am gzaze wertili Sesveneba. bevrs sagulisxmos igznebs ZiebaTa am rTul xlarTebSi arCil mayaSvili. umTavresi ki mainc sulSi RvTaebrivi naperwklis gznebaa: `me Seni var, mamav~... `Sen CemSi xar, mamav~. `gvelis perangSi~ warmodgenili drois metafizika samyaros fantasmagoriad aqcevs, sadac araferia umniSvnelo. aq yvelafers Tavisi funqcia aqvs. swored dro aris is magiuri Zala, romelic romanis gmirs samyarosTan erTobis tkbil-mware bednierebas agrZnobinebs. amiran gomarTeli wers: `gvelis perangis~ avtoris azrovneba, misi Ziebebic qarTvelobis arsis dasadgenad swored rom

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zeistoriulia. miuxedavad imisa, rom romans konkretuli drois lokali aqvs iwyeba 1917 wlis zafxulSi hamadanSi da mTavrdeba 1918 w. zafxulSi sairmeSi, magram drois amgvari aRqma mxolod realur plans Seexeba. mTlianad romanis, misi yvela plastis mimarT ki formaluria. robaqiZis msoflmxedvelobis areSia ara mxolod es erTi weli, aramed aTaswleulebi kacobriobis istoriisa~ (gomarTeli 1997: 164). gmiri fiqriTa da gancdiT gadaswvdeba am istorias da dros ganicdis, rogorc `mes~ sxvadyofnas. ralf emersoni werda: `me vxedav saberZneTs, italias, espaneTs Cems gonebaSi. es `xedva~ ara mxolod aerTebda sxvadasxva geografiul adgils, aramed sxvadasxva drosac. wami itevda maradisobasac. `Tu wamis maradisobas CavwvdebiT, amiT mTel cxovrebas gaviazrebT~ (emersoni 1989: 486). `yovel droSi Zevs saidumlo, fiqrobda Tomas mani, radgan saidumlo zedroulia, magram zedroulobis forma arsebobs axla da aq... radgan arsi cxovrebisa awmyoa~ (mani 1989: 489). ase xdeboda awmyos warmosaxviT garRveva da zedrouli saidumlos gzneba. a. losevis azriT, dro ar aris wminda xangrZlivoba, radgan igi an odesme mTavrdeba an arasdros. dro aris `alogikuri Camoyalibeba maradisobisa~. amitomac, dro, erTdroulad, aris da ar aris kidec maradisoba, radgan maradisoba ar aris gansazRvruli da SemosazRvruli. losevi saubrobs drois gansxvavebuli xarisxiT mudmivobaze. didi moZraobisas sxeuli kargavs moculobas, igi erTdroulad moicavs mTel usazRvroebas es aris ideis maradiuloba es ki eTanabreba platonis ideas, romelic erTdroulad yvelgan aris da arsad. aqedan gamomdinare, a. losevi sainteresod daaskvnis: `miTologiaSi yvelaferi xorcielia da, imave dros, ar aris xorcieli~ ( 1990: 475). misive azriT, erTi da igive sagani SeiZleba warmodges da gamoixatos usazRvro formebiT, imis mixedviT, Tu romeli sivrculdrouli yofis planSi moviazrebT. igi asaxelebs antikuri kosmosis xuT rigs: cecxli (pirveli, erTiani), Suqi (goneba, idea), haeri (suli, samSvinveli), miwa (sofiuri sxeuli), wyali (meoTxe sawyisis xarisxi). aqedan gamomdinare ki, arsebobs sivrcis xuTi tipi da sxeulis xuTi tipi: cecxlis sxeuli, naTlis sxeuli, haeris, miwisa da wylisa.

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iseve, rogorc realurad, aseve irealuradac SeiZleba am sxeulebis cvalebadoba. losevis azriTve, `imdeni droa, ramdenic sagani. sagani ki, ufro zustad, misi saxeobani imdenia, ramdenic _ azri da idea~ ( 1990: 473). `axali epoqis dro qristianuli drois pirmSoa, pirmSo da uaryofa: igi sworxazovania da Seuqcevadi, magram mas ara aqvs dasawyisi da arc dasasruli eqneba, igi arasdros SeuqmniaT da arc arasdros daemxoba. misi mTavari moqmedi piri codvili suli ki ara, adamianTa modgmis evoluciaa _ saxelad istoria. Tanamedroveobis fundamentSi ormagi paradoqsia Cadebuli. erTi mxriv, yofierebis sazrisi unda veZioT ara warsulSi an maradisobaSi, aramed momavalSi. swored amitomaa, rom istorias progressac uwodeben~. `Cven dros ar gaaCnia arsi, ufro metic, misi pozicia nebismieri arsis kritikaSi mdgomareobs~. `axali dro axali miTologiaa: Tanamedroveobis udidesi qmnilebebi servantesidan joisamde da velaskesidan marsel diuSanamde sxva araferia, Tu ara drois kritikis Sesaxeb miTis gansxvavebuli variantebi~ (pasi 1999: 4). oqtavio pasi Tvlis, rom `RvTaebrivi komedia~ qristianuli sazogadoebis yvelaze srulyofili da gamTlianebuli nawarmoebia, `don kixoti~ ki axali samyaros yvelaze didi qmnilebaa. servantesis romanSi adamianis sulzea saubari, magram ara ukve dacemul, aramed gaucxoebul sulze. misi gmiri codvili ki ara, SeSlilia. igi zogadsakacobrio xvedris miRma dgas, radganac gawyvita kavSiri samyarosTan. don kixotis istorias ver uwodeb kacobriobis istoriis gansaxierebas. igi gamonaklisia. igi ironiuli msoflaRqmis magaliTia, romelic aqamde uaryofiT midis: igi iseTi araa, rogorc yvela sxva adamiani. lamanCeli raindis xetiali ar aris RmerTis rCeuli xalxis TavgadasavalTa alegoria. esaa gzasacdenili, martoxela adamianis alegoria (pasi 1999: 4). am TvalsazrisiT, don kixoti konstantine savarsamiZis arqetipadac SeiZleba gaviazroT. qarTul modernistul romanebSi xdeba droSi `CaRrmaveba~. am gziT Seicnoba drois arsi. Jan-pol sartri folkneris roman `xmauri da mZvinvarebis~ droze dakvirvebisas SeniSnavs: `awmyo gatenilia xvrelebiT, saidanac warsuli ambebi gayinulni, uZravni da mdumareni iWrebian masSi. gmiris cnobiereba `warsulSi vardeba~ da isev wamoiwevs, raTa kvlav Cavardes. awmyo ar arsebobs, is modis~ (sartri 1984: 8).

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drois aseTi xvrelebiT aris savse qarTuli modernistuli romanebi, romelTagan zogs miTis, zogs zRaprisa da legendis, zogs istoriis, zogs raime konkretuli ambis siRrmeSi mihyavs mkiTxveli. `sanavardoSi~ warsuli mxolod imitom SemoiWreba, rom awmyos ubadrukobas gaesvas xazi. Tavad yaramanis gvari `grgvinavda warsulSi. gvaris mematiane daSvra WilaZeTa gmiruli warsulis aRweraSi. es gvari flobda didebul WyondidelTa kverTxs da zviadad ganagebda sanavardos, saWilaos, marans, orpirs, qoreisubans~. yaramans ki warsulidan mxolod sagvareulo seni SemorCa. amitomac gvariT Tumca amayobda, imavdroulad, adanaSaulebda gvarsve Tavisi Svilis ubedurebaSi. saqarTvelos warsuli ki didad ar anaRvlebda. `saqarTvelos dardsa da warsul didebas RvinoSi Tu moigonebda~ (Sengelaia 1983 :6). warsuli, yaramanis mamis saxiT SvilSi bondoSi gansxeulda TiTqos. sazogadod, XX saukunis literatura gamoirCeva drois mxatvruli xatebis ZiebiT. `Tanamedrove mweralTa umetesoba, wers Jan-pol sartri, prusti, joisi, dos pasosi, folkneri, gaidi da virjinia vulfi _ Seecada, TiToeuls, Taviseburad daemaxinjebina dro. zogierTma gamoiyvana dro warsulidan da momavlidan da wamis wminda intuiciamde Seamcira. sxvebma, dos pasosis msgavsad, is meqanikur da SezRudul mogonebad aqcies. prustma da folknerma, ubralod, Tavi mohkveTes dros. maT uaryves momavali ase vTqvaT, sazomi Tavisufali arCevanisa da qmedebisa~ (sartri 1984: 120). qarTveli modernisti mwerlebic `TviTneburad~ epyrobian dros. isini Tavisuflad gadaanacvleben drois Tanmimdevrul monakveTebs, warmosaxvaSi `ureven~ da am gziT swvdebian adamianis droSi arsebobis saidumloebas. maT ainteresebT adamiani universalur droSi maradiul awmyoSi. arCibald mekeSis gonebas xSirad moicavs xolme burani da TvalRia sizmars miecema. am SemTxvevaSi xdeba CaRrmaveba. arCibald mekeSi mogonebiT midis sadRac Sors. mesopotamia sparseTi: es uaxlesi gzaa. magram swored am gzis mogonebiT gavla uSoresia. mesopotamia akvania kacobriobis. aq TviTon niadagSia aseTi guneba. aq TiTqo yvelaferi bavSvia kidev, magram ramdeni gauvlia am bavSvs. swored bavSvis xanis mogonebaa rTuli. radgan misi xana ugrZelesia yvela xanaze. didi tolstoi hoi ra marTalia. pirveli wlidan mexuTe wlamde xani ufro grZelia,

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vidre mexuTe wlidan meoTxmoce wlamde. ugenialesi sinamdvile. vin icis. egeb ukan pirveli wlis ukan, saSosken xani kidev ufro metia. uTuod metia~. arCibald mekeSs sakuTari fesvebis Zieba sxvadasxva mxareSi gadaisvris fiqrebiT Tu realurad. yvelgan grZnobs saocar erTobas rogorc zogadad adamiani, magram rogorc konkretuli rasis pirovneba, ver isvenebs da Tavis sakuTar miwas daeZebs. ase magaliTad, mesopotamiaSi, romelic mas kacobriobis akvnad warmoudgeba, igi grZnobs miwis sinorCes. `aq aris pirveli miwa: pirveli sicocxle~. swored aq igznebs Tavis Zirebs, rogorc adamiani. arCibald mekeSi mTeli romanis manZilze ase `mogzaurobs~ droSi. xan midis `Sors~, xan modis `Soridan~. xolo es `Sors~ xan egviptea, xan siria, xan `samoTxe~ amitomacaa, rom mis arsebobas, cxovrebas, azrovnebasa da gznebas ganapirobebs uZveles xalxTa warmodgenebi samyaros arsze. mis fiqrTa mdinarebaSi irekleba egvipturi, induri Tu sparsuli sibrZne. xdeba Zvel aRmosavlur swavlebaTa erTgvari sinTezi. baRdadidan hamadanamde arCibald mekeSma mravaljer daadga fexi im balaxs, romelic, gadmocemiT, adamians gzas urevs. `arc iqiT. arc aqeT. arc win. arc ukan. arc zemo. arc qvemo. gza abneuli. atomi retdasxmuli... mekeSi eZebs Tavis Tavs. ver naxulobs fesvebs~. arCibaldi xSirad `dneba~ sivrceSi. erTi aseTi `gadnobisas~ man igzno, rom: `mTeli are: erTi udidesi arsi aryofili miTosidan: romelic galeSili Tvlemidan erkveva~ da am `gamorkvevisas~ arCibalds `eZleva~ codna, rogorc saswauli. igi grZnobs erTobas yvelaferTan, rac mis irgvlivaa. igi erwymis yovelives, TiTqos iSleba mTeli misi arseba da samyaroSi ganzavdeba, oRond imgvarad, rom Tan ar hkargavs TavisTavs. `TviTeuli da mTeli. mTeli ara grova calkeulebis aramed: sxeuli TviTeulebis TviTeuli marto: TiTqo mTels gamoyofili TviTeuli sxvebTan: TiTqo mTelSi gaxsnili qva. mcenare. wyali. cxoveli. kaci. yoveli am rigiT da am saxiT~ (robaqiZe 1989: 231). amgvari Serwymis gziT ki igi miagnebs im `erTs~, romelic `yvelafers hqmnis~. `erTi didi usaxelo. ruaxh elohim: sunTqva

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usaxelosi~. is `erTi~ aris da Tan `mravali~. `igi ar aris arc materia da arc suli. an ukeT. igi am dayofis maRla dgas~. msgavsi SegrZnebebi aqvs mTaze ganmartoebul hans kastorps (T. manis `jadosnuri mTis~ gmirs): `am dros erTbaSad Tavisi cxovrebis im adreul wlebSi gadavida, am ramdenime Ramis win nanaxi uaxlesi STabeWdilebebiT aRZrul sizmars rom edo safuZvlad. iseTi Zlieri, mTliani da dro-Jamisa da sivrcis gamauqmebeli iyo es gadasvla cnebebSi `iq~ da `maSin~, rom Tamamad SeiZleboda geTqvaT, aq, zeviT, CanCqeris piras, Zelskamze usulo sxeuli wevs, xolo namdvili hans kastorpi gardasul Jamsa da garemoSi imyofeba, Tumca, ubralo, magram mainc saxifaTo da gulisamaCqrolebel situaciaSio~ (mani 1984: 197). arCibald mekeSis CaRrmaveba droSi irubaqiZeTa gvaris istoriis gzneba aris sakuTari arsebis Caketili `sivrceebis~ gasaRebi. gavixsenoT epizodi: xelnawerebiT savse kolofs zed ewera: `gaxseni kolofi maSin, roca erTi fiqriT iqne liToniviT avsili~. `erTi fiqriT~ avsebas arCibaldma sicocxlis TiTqmis naxevari moandoma. dro jer Setborda TiTqos erT adgilas da Semdeg `CaRrmavda~ es ar aris ubralod warsuli Cavlili da gardasuli. am `CaRrmavebul~ droSi dro ar aris gayofili monakveTebad, aramed mTliania, amitomac warsuli erTdroulad awmyoc aris da momavalic. arCibaldma sakuTar TavSi unda igrZnos gardasul irubaqiZeTa `vneba~, da es marTlac ase xdeba. romanSi `wami~ da `maradi~ erTmaneTSi gadadis da erTurTs enacvleba. erT epizodSi, varskvlavian RameSi, arCibaldi usmens sferoTa musikas es musika `droSia~, amitomac aris, rom igi usmens `wams~ da `miriads~ erTdroulad swvdeba drois Sobis saidumloebas. romanSi Tumca kalendaruli dro ar gamqrala, magram misi funqcia minimumamdea dayvanili. Sinagani dro, romelic gansazRvrulia gmiris fiqrebiT, gancdiT, gansjiT gadafaravs `garegnul~ dros. drois es umciresi, obieqtur da astronomiul droSi fiqsirebuli monakveTebi usazRvvrod farTovdeba cnobierebis nakadis, asociaciebis, personaJTa fiqrebisa da azrebis, warmodgenebisa da xilvebis wyalobiT, wers rezo yaralaSvili joisis `uliseze~ dakvirvebisas, gmiris cnobierebas mkiTxveli gadahyavs uSores warsulsa da momavalSi, istoriasa da miTosSi, sxvadasxva qveyanasa da mxareSi. aseTi teqnikis saSualebiT sul mcire droc saocrad tevadi xdeba. awmyos yoveli

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wami mTel samyaroebs moicavs, rac drois sruli gaqrobis, `axlas~ dausrulebeli denadobis SegrZnebas warmoSobs. es yovelive SesaZlebeli xdeba cnobierebis moZraobis mikroskopuli analizis, azris umciresi niuansebisa da detalebis naturalisturi aRnusxvis meSveobiT~ (yaralaSvili 1984: 75). `gvelis perangSi~ awmyo ar aris mkafiod gamijnuli warsulisa da momavlisagan. is iracionaluria Tavisi arsiT. yvelaferi warsulSi momxdaria, magram isev xdeba awmyoSi. dro ar misdevs qronologias, aramed impulsebs, STabeWdilebebs, emociebs, SegrZnebebs. imavdroulad, romanSi wamotivtivdeba `wminda dro~, romelic gamoricxavs drois mdinarebas qronoss. grigol robaqiZe axdens drois berZnuli (miTosuri) da bibliuri koncepciebis Serwymas, amgvari sinTezi ki ganapirobebs arCibald mekeSis mxatvruli saxis siRrmesa da sirTules. `wminda droSi~ inaxeba Tesli, romelic profanulSi gamovlindeba, rogorc `mama~ an `Svili~. Tesli es aris `me~, `is~ da `sxva~ erTad xolo `gamovlenilSi~ _ cal-calke. Tan am ganyofisas `is~ ar ikargeba da rCeba, rogorc `sxva aryofili~. `warmomSobi Zala kosmiuri. mama da Svili erTad. erTimeoreSi. mama. `erTi~. Svili mama da Tan `sxva~. jeims joisi wers ~uliseSi~: `is, rac momavalSi unda moxdes, axlave afens sakuTar Crdils~. `gvelis perangis~ personaJi taba-tabai ambobs: `raRac suni sdis momavals~. grigol robaqiZe wers romanSi: `warsuls mxolod iynosav, sxvarig mas ver aiTviseb. gardasuls surnelis gzneba Tu moabrunebs~. swored amgvari `surnelis~ gznebiT abrunebs mwerali warsuls iransa Tu sparseTSi. `sparseTis titvel napralebTan, RamiT, roca mTvare aTovda fantasmebs, arCibaldma igrZno, rom daibada qveynis meore piri: usaxelo usxeulo xeluxlebi orali. dRidan gamoyolilma mzis cxelma surnelma masSi `gaacocxla~, ori aTasi wlis winaT rogor Seagdo aleqsandrem Tavisi bucefali ekbatanis simagreebSi. imavdroulad, warmosaxvaSi wamotivtivdeba soleiman brwyinvalis mier cxenis Segdeba aia-sofiis taZarSi. ori sxvadasxva `sivrcisa~ da `drois~ movlena gmiris cnobierebis `maradiul droSi~ SeerTda orsave SemTxvevaSi gznebas aRvivebda `vneba da gadalaxva~, rom `kacuri marTlac scildeba aq kacuris kidurs~.

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marsel prustmac surneliT daabruna warsuli. igi werda: `is, rasac goneba gvawvdis warsulis saxeliT, marTla warsuli rodia. sinamdvileSi Cveni cxovrebis yoveli wuTi iseve rogorc micvalebulTa sulebi zogierT xalxur legendaSi sikvdilisTanave saxierdeba da Tavs afarebs romelime materialur sagans. datyvevebulia, samudamod datyvevebuli, sanam am sagans ar gadaveyrebiT. misi meSveobiT ganvlil wuTs SevicnobT, vuxmobT da vaTavisuflebT~. CaiSi Cambali orcxobilis gemom da surnelma mweralSi saswaulebrivi gancda gamoiwvia: `uecrad mexsierebis mijnebi moirRva, Cems gonebaSi agarakze gatarebuli wlebi SemoiWra da Tan moiyola zafxulis mravali dila, bednieri wuTebis uwyveti nakadi~ (prusti 1993: 3). Tu prusti amgvari gziT Tavis piradad gancdil, konkretul warsuls abrunebda da dakargul dros kvlav moipovebda, grigol robaqiZe zogadad adamianis, kacobriobis warsuls `iynosavs~ da acocxlebs, igznebs. netari avgustine Tavis `aRsarebanSi~ wers: `aris sami dro-awmyo warsulisa, awmyo awmyosi da awmyo momavlisa. es raRac sami dro mxolod Cvens sulSi arsebobs da sxvagan versad ver vxedavT maT. awmyo warsulisa-mexsierebaa, awmyo awmyosi uSualo Wvreta, awmyo momavlisa ki molodini~ (netari avgustine 1996: 2). arCibald mekeSi swored amgvarad ganicdis dros igi awmyoSia, Tan warsulsa da momavalSi, radgan mudmivad ixsenebs warsuls, mudmivad Wvrets da mudmivad elodeba. drois amgvarad ganmcdeli adamianisTvis samyaro gamWvirvale xdeba da dafaruli xelSesaxebi. xorxe luis borxesi musikas drois idumal formad miiCnevda. `Sopenhaueri ambobs: musikas ZaluZs iarsebos sivrcis gareSe, musika droa. me gavagrZele es azri da vifiqre, rom RmerTs ar Seuqmnia sivrce, man Seqmna dro, an Seqmna Tanmimdevroba. asec SeiZleba iTqvas. ase rom, SesaZlebelia, iarsebos sityvebis, musikis, bgerebis meSveobiT erTmaneTTan urTierTobaSi myofma cnobierebaTa samyarom, romelic ar saWiroebs sivrces. igi sivrcis gareSe dgas, Tu ar CaTvliT, rom es gansazRvreba TviTon warmoadgens sivrcobriv saxes. advilad warmosadgenia pirwmindad droismieri samyaro, pirwmindad sivrcobrivis warmodgena SeuZlebelia~ (borxesi 1996: 117).

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`dro-Txrobis stiqia~, ase uwodebs dros Tomas mani `jadosnur mTaSi~. misi azriT, moTxrobas orgvari dro aqvs: sakuTari, musikalur-realuri dro, romelic mis srbolas, mis gamovlenas ganapirobebs da meorec, Sinaarsiseuli dro, romelic perspeqtiulia, oRond am TvalsazrisiT ise sxvadasxvagvari, rom moTxrobis moCvenebiTi dro lamis savsebiT emTxveva Tavisave musikalur dros. Tomas mans magaliTad mohyavs xuTwuTiani valsis xuT wuTSi Sesruleba, `xolo moTxroba, romlis Sinaarsiseuli drois xangrZlivoba xuT wuTamde aRwevs, am xuT wuTs zedmiwevniT keTilsindisierad Tu Seavsebs, SeiZleba aTasjer metxans gagrZeldes da xanmoklec gveCvenos, Tumca Tavis moCvenebiT drosTan SedarebiT SeiZleba Zalze gaxangrZlivdes kidec. meore mxriv, isic SesaZlebelia, im moTxrobis Sinaarsiseulma drom, romlis sakuTari xangrZlivoba Semoklebis wyalobiT ganuzomeli xdeba. diax, Semoklebas vambobT, raTa warmovaCinoT is iluzoruli, anu ufro naTlad rom vTqvaT, avadmyofuri elementi, rac aq zedgamoWrili gvgonia, radgan swored im hermetul magiasa da droismier zeperspeqtivas, zogierT aranormalur da aSkarad zegrZnobadi sferos momcvel realur gamocdilebas mogvagonebs~. Tomas mans am SemTxvevaSi Triaqis mwevelis magaliTi mohyavs, xanmokle transis dros aT, ocdaaT da meti wlis momcvel sizmrebs rom xedavs (mani 1984: 24). xulio kortasaris `mdevarSi~ warmoCenilia musikisa da drois originaluri urTierTdamokidebuleba. saqsofonisti joni musikas ganicdis, rogorc Zalas, romelic `drois nakadSi iTrevs~. `roca vukrav, dros ar vwydebi, mxolod viTqvifebi masSi~ (kortasari 1984: 123). igi uceb dakvras Sewyvets da ambobs: `amas me ukve xval vukrav~. `vinaidan joni yovelTvis `xval~ ukravs, mis mier im wuTSi dakruli ki ukan rCeba, rCeba swored im `dRes~, romelsac iolad usxlteba igi Tavisi musikis pirvelive bgerebiT~ (kortasari 1984: 122). `me vteni xolme mTel Cems musikas im mcire droSi, roca vukrav~, ambobs joni. mas ukvirs, rogor SeiZleba, rom `saaTis meoTxedi fiqrobde da amasobaSi mxolod wuTnaxevari gavides?~ `metroTi mgzavrobisas ise vgrZnob Tavs, TiTqos zed saaTze vijde. sadgurebi wuTebi. gesmis, es Cveni droa, Cveulebrivi dro. magram me vici, arsebobs sxva droc da vcdilob, rame gavugo mas~ (kortasari 1984: 1270. joni ase hyveba dakvrisas gancdilze: `ar arsebobda CemTvis arc dro da arc Semdeg. ar arsebobda araviTari `Semdeg~.

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raRac wamiT maradisobaSi aRmovCndi da fiqradac ar momsvlia, rom es yovelive sicrue iyo, rom musikis gamo damemarTa ase, rom musikam gamiyolia da damaxvia Tavbru... dakvra rogorc ki davasrule, imave wuTSi sakuTar Tavs davubrundi~ (kortasari 1984: 167). joisis `ulises~ meTxuTmete epizodSi fantasmagoriulad ixateba dro. TiTqos igi musikis saSualebiT Tavisufldeba yovelgvari `artaxebisgan~ da gapirovndeba. profesori gudvini roialze ukravs. mTeli sameZao saxli Seipyro moZraobis poeziam~ (ase uwodebs joisi cekvas), dromac TiTqos dro ixelTa: kunWulidan dilis saaTebi gamofrTxialdebian, oqrosTmianebi, tankenarebi, msubuq sandlebSi, qalwulebriv iisferebSi gamowyobilni, ubiwo xelebiT. moxdenilad cekvaven, saxtunela bawars atrialeben. maT qarvaoqrosfersamosiani SuadRis saaTebi mosdeven. mxiarul ferxulSi Cabmulni, didroni savarcxlebis brWyvialiT, xelebs maRla sweven da anci sarkeebiT mzis aTinaTs iWeren~. `mwuxris saaTebi erTmaneTSi ixlarTebian, erTmaneTs rkalad gadaaWdoben mklavebs, ileTebis mozaikas qmnian~ (joisi 1983: 75). `nebismieri sazogadoeba sakuTar `msoflxats~, `samyaros models~ ayalibebs. es modeli aracnobieris sferoSi iSveba da igi drois Sesaxeb Taviseburi warmodgenebiT sazrdoobs~, wers oqtavio pasi. misi azriT, dro udides rols TamaSobs samyaros modelirebaSi. adamianebi arasodes aRiqvamen dros, rogorc wminda xangrZlivobas. igi mowesrigebuli, marTvadi, garkveul Sedegze mimarTuli procesia. adamianuri qcevebi da sityvebi droisganaa nakeTebi, isini droa: moZraoba aqeT an iqiT, mniSvneloba ara aqvs, rogori iqneba realoba aRvniSnavT mas `aq~Tu `iq~, an Tundac `arsad~. dro-sazrisis sacavia~ (pasi 1999: 4). floberis prozaze dakvirvebisas J. Jeneti SeniSnavs dumilis momentebs. misi azriT, aRwerebis simdidres floberTan iwvevs Wvretis siyvaruli, aRwera xSirad viTardeba aRwerisTvis, moqmedebis xarjze. amgvari `dumilis momentebi~ xSiria qarTul modernistul romanebSi. am dros Txroba TiTqos Cerdeba da qvavdeba `saganTa gamaqvavebeli mzerisagan~ (sartri). Jenetis azriT, aq aris ormagad usityvo momentebi: pirvel rigSi, imitom, rom personaJebma Sewyvites laparaki da usmenen samyaros xmebs da Tavis ocnebebs. meored imitom, rom es Sesveneba dialogSi

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aCerebs TviTon romanis metyvelebas, raRac drois xangrZlivobas ganazavebs munj kiTxvaSi. aris erTgvari musikaluri momentebi, roca Txroba ikargeba da daiviwyeba mWvretelobiT eqstazSi. aseTi Sesvenebis udroo xasiaTi xazgasmulia zmnis axlandel droze gadasvliT (Jeneti 1998: 229). misive azriT, floberma pirvelma daiwyo kritika naratiuli funqciisa, rac dRemde safuZvelia romanisa. Txrobis amgvar `usiyvarulobaSi~ Cans Tanamedrove literaturis erTi aspeqti. aRwera aRwerisTvis xSirad gvxvdeba qarTul modernistul romanebSi. aqac Sesustebulia naratiuli funqcia. Wvreta Warbobs moqmedebas. es ki iwvevs drois gauqmebasa da maradisobis SegrZnebas. `tramvai mixrialebs. rusTvelis prospeqti mzeSia gaSxvarTuli. prospeqtze kaci midis (Suagul quCaSi: qvafenils gaurbis). acvia rusuli `surTuki~ moxelis folaqebiT: ukve gacveTili. fexebze getrebi: esec gacveTili. sayeloze farTo yelsaxvevi Zirs gaSlili. kaci maRali tanisaa. Tavze `kakardiani~ qudi. magram midis rogorc oskar uaild. adamianTa maRla ixedeba. Semogxedavs (ara: Tvals mogkravs) da uecrad aileweba: tani igrixeba da maRldeba. kaci odnav gaiRimebs. Semdeg isev Sors iwyebs cqeras~ (robaqiZe 1989: 215). am kacs sxvagan romanSi aRar SevxvdebiT, miuxedavad amisa, mwerali dawvrilebiT aRwers mis nakvTebsa da moZraobebs. ai, ase aRwers savarsamiZe baronesas sasaxles: `garedan es saxli TvalsaCino rames ar warmoadgenda. tipiuri antiuri sasaxle, romelsac zedve etyoba mravalgzisi restavracia. wina nawilis SuagulSi Cveulebrivi romauli atriumi. SuSiT gadaxuruli erdo. ukana korpusSi gayviTlebuli doriuli svetebiT Semortymuli romauli peristoli~ (gamsaxurdia 1992: 171). Sarl bodleri wers `xelovnur samoTxeSi~: `ras warmoadgens adamianis tvini, Tu ara ukidegano da bunebriv palimfsests? Cemi tvini palimfsestia da Tqvenic, mkiTxvelo, agreTve. azrTa, grZnobaTa uamravi Sre Tqvens tvinSi dadebulia erTmaneTze, erTimeoris miyolebiT msubuqad, rogorc sinaTle. TiTqos yovel momdevnos unda daemarxa wina, magram sinamdvileSi arc erTi ar momkvdara. daviwyeba aRmoCnda wuTieri da romeliRac sazeimo wuTebSi, SesaZloa, swored sikvdilisas, an saerTod, Zlieri aRgznebisas, romelsac qmnis opiumi, es usazRvro

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da rTuli palimfsesti xsovnisa datrialdeba erTdroulad, yvela SriT, dabalzamirebuli saidumlo TemebiT, romelTac Cven daviwyebas vuwodebT. imis msgavsad, rom nebismieri moqmedeba, samyaroSi gasrolili, TavisTavad Seuqcevadi da aRudgeneli, rogorc nebismieri azri waruSlelia. xsovnis palimfsesti daurRvevelia~. am `palimfsestis~ yvela Sres, ra Tqma unda, Tavisi dro aqvs da roca romelime maTgani zedapirze wamotivtivdeba, is Tavis drosac moiyolebs. rac ufro rTulia xasiaTi, miT ufro ulevia palimfsestis SreTa raodenoba. qarTuli modernistuli romanis gmirTa xsovnac palimfsesturi figuralobiT warmoudgeba mkiTxvels. zedapirze arsebuli qceva xSirad ganpirobebulia am xsovnis palimfsestis romeliRac miviwyebuli SriT. magaliTad, savarsamiZis aRzrdam erTgvarad ganapiroba misi gaorebuloba warmarTobasa da qristianobas Soris. bavSvobis `dro~ masSi ar waiSala da Sesabamis pirobebSi ifeTqebs xolme. xom ambobs kidec erTi personaJi iohanes noiSteti: `yoveli adamiani mudam erTsa da imaves ganicdis... mxolod sxvadasxva variaciiT, bavSvobis pirvel Rimilidan pirvel vnebamdis, pirveli vnebidan pirvel sikvdilamdis~. sikvdili ganicdeba, rogorc maradiulad arsebuli dro adamianSi dabadebidan `bolo sikvdilamde~. `Cven sicocxleSive mravaljer unda movkvdeT. Cven bavSvobaSi vcocxlobT mxolod namdvili cxovrebiT. sxva danarCeni adamituri ucodvelobis mogonebaa da adrindel bednierebaze dardi. me sisxli meyineba, roca gavifiqreb, rom Cven sikvdilisgan dadaRuli vibadebiT, merme Cvens tuCebze aTasi Rimili ielvebs da sikvdili yvelas ise walekavs, rogorc qviSaze frinvelis nakvalevs qari~ (gamsaxurdia 1992: 235). sikvdilis SiSs ganapirobebs adamianis mier momavlis ucodinrobac. bianka eubneba savarsamiZes, rom maTi saxlis win gamxmari nuSi erTi wlis darguli iyo. `moulodnelad mokvda is nuSis xe, misgan Civili aravis gaugonia! ai, netav Cven SegveZlos viswavloT uCivlelad sikvdili~. droSi CaRrmavebiT qarTuli modernistuli romanebis gmirebisTvis naTeli xdeba konfliqti maTsa da dros Soris. axalma drom moitana imgvari ram, rac maT xels uSlida transcendentalur samyarosTan kavSirSi. RmerTTan misasvleli gza TiT-

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qos gaSualda (es gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba konstantine savarsamiZisa da bondo WilaZis saxeebSi). `miwa da ca, romelic filosofiam RmerTebis gareSe datova, TandaTan saSinelma teqnikurma konstruqciebma daikava. mxolod erTia, rom es qmnilebebi arafers gamoxataven da arsebiTad, metyvelebis unarsac moklebulni arian. romanuli taZrebis, budisturi safexurebis, meqsoamerikuli piramidebis safuZvelSi drois ideaa Cadebuli da maT formaSi samyaros Sesaxeb warmodgenaa ganxorcielebuli: arqiteqtura TiTqos kosmosis simboluri oreuli iyo. barokuli sasaxle mrude xazebis monologi, romelic itoteba da erTdeba, netarebisa da sikvdilis monologi, mogoneba, romelsac daviwyeba cvlis, indoelTa taZari qvis erotikuli Sambnari... ras gveubnebian Cven rkinigzis sadgurebi, dawesebulebaTa Senobebi, qarxnebi da sazogadoebrivi Zeglebi? eseni ver metyveleben eseni funqciebi arian da ara mniSvnelobebi, energiis centrebi, nebisyofis Zeglebi, Zal-RoniT aRsavse niSnebi magram ara sazrisi. Zveli qmnilebebi sinamdvilis Sesaxeb warmodgenebs gamoxatavdnen rogorc realuris, ise warmosaxviTis. teqnikis qmnilebani sinamdvileze Zaladobaa~, `samyaro rogorc modeli, rogorc xati, qreba~ (pasi 1999: 4). damowmebani borxesi 1994: borxesi x., baRi `romelSic bilikebi itotebian. J. `XX saukune~, #1, 1994 borxesi 1996: borxesi x., enigmaTa sarke. Tb., 1996 buaCiZe 1993: buaCiZe T., fridrix nicSe da misi `ese ityoda zaratustra~. wignSi `ese ityoda zaratustra~. Tb., 1993 gamsaxurdia 1992: gamsaxurdia k., dionisos Rimili. Txz. 20 tomad. t.II. Tb., 1992 gomarTeli 1997: gomarTeli a., qarTuli simbolisturi proza. Tb., 1997 emersoni 1989: emersoni r., esseebi, Tb., 1989 kiziria 1989: kiziria d., grigol robaqiZis `gvelis perangi rusul-evropuli simbolizmis konteqstSi. gaz. `liter. saqarTvelo~, 2 ivnisi, 1989 kortasari 1984: kortasari x., mdevari, Tb., 1984

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losevi 1990: losevi a., samyaros dialeqtika, Mm. 1990 (rusul enaze) mani 1984 : mani T., jadosnuri mTa. Tb., t. I. Tb., 1978, t. II. Tb., 1984 mani 1989: mani T., esseebi, Tb., 1989 netari avgustine 1996: netari avgustine., dro. gaz. `liter. saqarTvelo~, 23 30 agvisto, 1996 nicSe 1993: nicSe, f., ese ityoda zaratustra. Tb., 1993 pasi 1999: pasi o., axali analogia. poezia da teqnologia. J. arili~. 8-21, aprili. 1999 prusti 1993: prusti m., wignis kiTxva. Tb., 1993 Jeneti 1998: Jeneti J., figurebi, m. 1998 (rusul enaze) robaqiZe 1991: robaqiZe gr., saqarT. saTaveni J. `liter. da xelov..#2, 1991 robaqiZe 1989: robaqiZe gr., `gvelis perangi~, `falestra~. Tb., 1989 sartri 1984: sartri Jan-pol., dro folkneris romanSi xmauri da mZvinvareba~. folkneri 1984: folkneri u., saubrebi, Tb., 1984 Sengelaia 1983: Sengelaia d., sanavardo. rC. Tb., 1983 Sengelaia 1960: Sengelaia d., Txz. 2 tomad, t. II, Tb., 1960 yaralaSvili 1984: yaralaSvili r., drois gauqmeba jeims joisis da herman heses TxrobaSi. wignSi: jeims joisi100~. Tb., 1984 yaralaSvili 1988: yaralaSvili r., aRsarebiTi prozis tradicia da Tanamedrove `centriskenuli~ romani. wignSi: `dasavleT evropis literatura~, Tb., 1988 joisi 1983: joisi j., ulise. Tb., 1983

zeinab kikviZe

eris cnobierebaSi arsebul idiomaTa dro-sivrculi semantemebi


droisa da sivrcis semantemaTa gagebisas, upirvelesad, asociaciurad cnobierebaSi warmoCindeba universumis Seqmnis faqti. adamianuri goni leqsemaTa ganmartebisas konkretuli mniSvnelobis miniWebis funqcias aRsaniSns ukavSirebs, radgan aRsaniSni yovelTvis iTxovs aRmniSvnels. misi funqcia ki gacilebiT ufro meti xdeba, vidre ubralod sagnis, an movlenis fiqsacia. aq aucileblad unda gavixsenoT Carlz pirsis cnobili gamoTqma: cnobierebaSi niSani axdens sagnis reprezentacias da enacvleba mas [pirsi 2000:]. mecnieris ganmartebiT, elementaruli niSnuri urTierTobisaTvis, anu imisaTvis, rom niSani niSnad CaiTvalos, aucilebelia triaduli anu samwevra mTlianoba: aRsaniSni sagani, niSani da Semecneba, romelic gonebaSi mimdinareobs. pirsis TeoriaSi es sami pozicia ase gamoiyureba: niSani anu reprezentanti warmoadgens aRqmisaTvis misawvdom elements, romelic obieqts enacvleba; interpretanta_am obieqtis mentaluri anu cnobierebis Sesatyvisi xati da TviT obieqti anu referenti [kvaWantiraZe 2008:97].

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pirsiseul interpretantaSi kodis saxiT Cadebulia is kulturul-msoflmxedvelobrivi damokidebuleba, romelsac iCens esa Tu is piri garemomcveli samyarosadmi. calkeul pirovnebaTa pozicia swored droisa da sivrcis urTierTzemoqmedebis Sedegad ayalibebs eTnosis, eris, saxelmwifos damokidebulebas aRsaniSnis mimarT, rac uSualo kavSirSia eTnokulturuli poziciis CamoyalibebasTan. eTnokultura ki formdeba enis wiaRSi. ena ar SeiZleba ganixilebodes, rogorc mxolod sakomunikacio saSualeba; masSi diaqronulad da sinqronulad vlindeba eTnoazrovnebis umniSvnelovanesi gamoxatulebani. enis es unikaluri fenomeni saSualebas gvaZlevs vikvlioT masSi arsebuli idiomebi, rogorc ara mxolod mxatvruli enis gamovlinebani, aramed _ rogorc msoflmxedvelobrivi koncepti. ,,enis Seswavla mis bunebriv mdgomareobaSi gulisxmobs yuradRebis gamaxvilebas im kulturul sivrceze, romelsac asaxavs da romelSic moqmedebs ena, rogorc garkveuli erovnullingvo-kulturuli erTobis ena. es sivrce erovnul-kulturulia, igi am enis matarebelTa masobrivi (koleqtiuri) cnobierebiT asaxuli kulturaa, romelic eris sametyvelo moqmedebis, enobrivi cnobierebisa da komunikaciis Taviseburebebs avlens [omiaZe 2008:72]. enis arsebobis istoria afiqsirebs yvela epoqalur movlenas, adamianTa cxovrebis wess, gardaqnis maT enobriv erTeulebad da leqsikur saganZurSi uCens adgils. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom enaSi aRdgeba warsuli, romelic xSirad paradgimulad meordeba da TanamedroveobisTvis iZens myarad arebuli arqetipis funqcias. qarTvel mwerals jemal qarCxaZes Tu davesesxebiT, adamiani ibadeba droSi, sivrcesa da enaSi. es sami faqtori erTmaneTTan gansakuTrebul urTierTobas qmnis da ayalibebs erTian mTlianobas, romelSic TiToeul komponents garkveuli funqcia eniWeba. adamianis dabadebis drois gagebisas gasaTvaliswinebelia ori aspeqti: erTi, Tavad konkretuli TariRi, roca esa Tu is individi evlineba qveyanas, da dro, Jami, romelic arsebobs am momentisaTvis, rogorc garkveuli epoqis maxasiaTebeli. aseTive gansazRvra Seesabameba sivrcesac,_ is moiazreba, rogorc konkretuli adgili, sadac adamiani ibadeba, da im socio-kulturuli ganfenis gamoxatuleba, romelSic Sedis am adamianis dabadebis konkretuli sivrce. Tu sivrcesa da drois kategoriebs am or-

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mag funqcias mivaniWebT, maSin isini enaSi unda erwymodnen erTmaneTs. Sesabamisad adamiani myofobs enaSi, mocemul drosa da mocemul sivrceSi. enaSi inaxeba identobisa da mentalobis gamomvleni sazomebi. xolo maTi CatvirTva enis mexsierebaSi, ra Tqma unda, ar ifargleba mxolod erTi empiriuli qronotopiT. is yalibdeba mudmivad, TavisTavad ganicdis maradiul cvlilebas da qmnis myar semantemebs, romelTa mniSvnelSi kodirebulia damokidebulebiT mimarTebaTa variaciebi. yofiereba, rogorc aRsaniSni, iTavsebs dros, rogorc aRmniSvnels. xolo maTi mudmivi cvlileba formdeba konotaciurad. davubrundeT zemoxsenebul frazas. masSi Cadebuli sazrisi SeiZleba gadavitanoT erze im logikiT, rom erTi sivrcisa da drois, Sesabamisad _ erTnairi genetikuri kodebis, mentalobis mqone adamianebis gaerTianeba qmnis ers. maSin SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom eri myofobs droSi, sivrcesa da cnobierebaSi. radgan swored cnobierebaSi xdeba niSnisa da sagnis mimarTebebis varireba da dadgineba. Tumca aqac unda dazustdes, ra unda vigulisxmoT drosa da sivrceSi. martin haidegeri miiCnevda, rom yofiereba yovelTvis drois TvalsazrisiTaa wvdomadi. arsebobis konkretuli monakveTi Tavis adgils poulobs Jamis usasrulo mdinarebaSi. filosofosis azriT, ,,munyofierebis ZiriTadi istoriuloba Tavad misTvis dafaruli rCeba. magram igi SeiZleba garkveuli saxiT iqnas aRmoCenili da Taviseburad movlili. munyofierebas SeuZlia tradicia aRmoaCinos da aSkarad misdios mas. tradiciis aRmoCena da imis axsna, Tu ras ,,gadmogvcems igi da rogor gadmogvcems, SeiZleba gagebuli iqnas, rogorc damoukidebeli amocana. munyofierebas aseve Seaqvs Tavisi Tavi JamTaaRmwerlur kiTxvebsa da gamokvlevebSi. magram JamTaRmwerloba _ rogorc SemkiTxveli munyofierebis wesi _ SesaZlebelia mxolod imitom, rom igi Tavisi yofierebis safuZvelSi istoriulobiTaa gansazRvruli [haidegeri 1989:41]. eris myofobis istoriuli safuZvlisa da misi sivrcedroiTi parametrebis Sesaxeb enobrivi konteqsti amouwurav masalas iZleva. miT ufro, rom ena aris sazogadoebis mexsiereba da eris cnobierebis gamomvleni niSnebSi. amrigad, sivrce-drois semantemaTa gagebisas, upiratesad unda ganixilebodes ara mxolod empiriuli, xiluli dro da

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sivrce, aramed gonSi Cadebuli, cnobierebis mier aRqmuli universumi, rogorc usasrulo gaerTianeba konotaciebisa. adamianisa Tu eris monawileoba msoflio arsebobaSi gaiazreba im fsiqologiuri damokidebulebiT, romelsac drois lokali sTavazobs sivrcis lokals. drois lokalSi vgulisxmobT filosofiur, kulturul-esTetikur, politikur, ekonomikur elementebs; xolo sivrcis lokalSi moviazrebT eTnoss, ers, sociums, saxelmwifos. pirvelis dinamikuroba moqmedebs meoris statikurobaze. aseve, gansazRvravs sazogadoebis msoflmxedvelobriv principebs. orive faqtori umniSvnelovanesia arsebobisaTvis. Tu samuSao hipoTezad miviCnevT im mosazrebas, rom binaruli struqturebi ganapirobeben arsebobis wess, maSin SesaZlebelia vimsjeloT qarTul erovnul cnobierebaSi Camoyalibebuli idiomebis droisa da sivrcis kategoriebTan mimarTebaze. roca binarul struqturaze vsaubrobT, am SemTxvevaSi vgulisxmobT sxvadasxva epoqaSi qveynis damokidebulebasa da CarTulobas msoflio arsebobaSi. saocaria, magram faqtia, rom saqarTvelos ama Tu im dros (drois politikuri azrgagebiT _z.k) or, radikalurad gansxvavebul saxelmwifosTan, religiasTan, mentalobasa Tu msoflmxedvelobasTan uxdeboda urTierToba, da es ar iyo mxolod politikuri arsebobis wesi. qveyana mudmivad idga arCevanis winaSe: gaevlo ,,scilasa da ,,qaribdas Soris, rom aecilebina maTi mtruli damokidebuleba. xSir SemTxvevaSi ki, iZulebuli iyo, mieRo romelime maTganis SemoTavazebuli pozicia, rom gadarCeniliyo rogorc fizikurad, ise _ mentalurad. xangrZlivi drois Sedegad arsebulma mdgomareobam Tavisi asaxva hpova eTnosis cnobierebaSi. mudmiv brZolebsa da daZabulobaSi yofnam saocnebo da sasurveli sivrcis referents enaSi Sesabamisi aRmniSvneli gamouZebna, romelic myar konceptad dafiqsirda qarTul zepirmetyvelebaSi. saocnebo, bednieri areali imyofeboda ,,cxra mTisa da cxra zRvis iqiT. SesaZloa, es frazeologizmi uZveles, miTosur droSic ki gaCeniliyo, radgan miTosuri epoqa ar icnobs eTnosur dros da masSi Sesabamisad arc sivrcis faqtobrivi konstatacia xdeba. amitom es e.w. sasurveli sivrce, magram mainc araadgili, cnobierebaSi aucileblad unda gamovleniliyo da mieRo interpretantas funqcia.

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ra SeiZleboda yofiliyo cxra mTasa da cxra zRvas iqiT? pasuxi ver iqneba erTi mniSvnelobis Semcveli. igi SeiZleba gaviazroT: rogorc azrovnebiTi wvdoma kacobriobis saukeTeso monapovrebisa, an rogorc miuwvdomeli bednierebis gamomxatveli, an kidev TviTdadginebis sazomi adgili. ra mniSvnelobac unda vigulisxmoT, es Sesityveba mkafiod gveubneba, rom sasurveli obieqti iyo sadRac Sors, daukonkretebel alagas, sadac moxvedra dabrkolebaTa gadalaxvis Sedegad problemaTa gadaWras iTvaliswinebda. azrovnebis aseTi wesi ar iyo mxolod sakuTriv qarTuli. argonavtebis miTis mixedviT, peliasma iazoni ,,cxra mTisa da cxra zRvis aqeT, kolxeTSi gamoistumra, rom, Tu zRvaze xifaTs gadaurCeboda, aietis mrisxanebas daeRupa. Tumca is, rac peliasisaTvis ZmiSvilis gasanadgurebeli saSualeba iyo, iazonisaTvis xelmwifobis mosapovebel gzad iqceoda. oqros sawmisis dauflebiT iniciaciis SesrulebisaTvis aucilebeli yvela dabrkoleba gadailaxa da bedniereba gacxadda. magram umTavresi mainc is aris, rogor azrovnebda qarTveli da ras ukavSirdeboda es azrovneba, arsebobis aziur Tu evropul wesebs? am sivrciTi arealebis religiur Tu msoflmxedvelobriv denotatebs? ras iTvaliswinebda erovnuli identobis Ziebisas? qarTuli eposebis gmirebi, xSir SemTxvevaSi adgebodnen gzas, romelic midioda ,,cxra mTisa da cxra zRvis iqiT, es iyo erTgvari iniciaciuri svla, rituali sakuTari, pirovnuli identobis fiqsaciisaTvis. rusTavelis gmiric imeorebs am rituals da misi simRera aerTianebs maSindeli samyaros civilizacias erT sivrcul fokusSi, romlis mixedviTac, saqarTvelo saxelmwifoTa gzajvaredinze moiazreboda. am SemTxvevaSi qarTuli dro da sivrce erTiandeba erT konceptualur velSi, romlis arsebobas gansazRvravs renesansisaTvis niSneuli humanisturi azrovneba. TiTqmis iseTive mniSvnelobiT mkvidrdeba idioma ,,bewvis xidze gavla. masSi nagulisxmevi azris mixedviT, subieqtisaTvis miznis asrulebis SesaZleblobani didi riskisa da Zalisxmevis Sedegad miiRweva. frazis arsi Teologiuria da misi gamoyeneba maxasiaTebelia qristianuli da islamuri doqtrinebisaTvis. T. saxokias ganmartebiT, es gamoTqma momdinareobs xalxis Zveli rwmenidan: ,,saiqioSi, sanam samoTxeSi an jojoxeTSi Sevidodes kaci, gzaze daxvdeba aduRebuli kupris zRva, zed gadebulia bewvis xidi da amaze unda gaiaros, Tu adamiani codvilia, bewvi

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Cauwydeba, karg kacs ki misi namoqmedari sikeTe da madli mSvidobiT gadaatarebs bewvis xidze [saxokia 1979:55]. aseTive Sexeduleba fiqsirdeba hadisebSi: ,,bewvis xidze (siraT) zogni sinaTlis xtomiT, zogni cxenis Wenebis msgavsad, zogni ki daoTxilni (xelebisa da muxlebis meSveobiT), zogni naxevrad cecxlmokidebulni, zogni ki saerTod ver gaivlian da jojoxeTSi amohyofen Tavs. [http://www.iman.ge/] ,,bewvis xidis sivrculi gamoxatuleba cnobierebaSi myofobs da is aSkarad konotaciuri mniSvnelobisaa. ilia WavWavaZis ,,mgzavris werilebSi mas erwymis Sesityvebis ,,oTxi weliwadis funqcia. masSi arsebuli denotaciuri mniSvneloba (mwerlis mier ruseTSi gatarebuli wlebi) gardaiqmneba konotaciurad da es xerxdeba swored ,,oTxi weliwadis ,,bewvis xidTan dakavSirebiT. ,,oTxi weliwadi iyo, rac me ruseTSi vimyofebodi da Cemi qveyana ar menaxa. oTxi weliwadi! ici, mkiTxvelo, es oTxi weliwadi ra oTxi weliwadia! pirveli, rom mTeli saukunea misTvis, vinc Tavis qveyanas moSorebia. meore, eg oTxi weliwadi cxovrebis saZirkvelia, cxovrebis wyaros saTavea, bewvis xidia, sibnelisa da sinaTlis Sua bedisagan gadebuli... o, Zvirfaso oTxo weliwado, netavi imas, visac Sengan gadebuli bewvis xidi fexTa-qveS ar Caswydomia, netavi imas, vinc Sen rigianad mogixmara [WavWavaZe 1984:198]. mwerals eris cnobierebaSi arsebuli drois kategoriis gansazRvris axleburi gageba Semoaqvs, romelic dakavSirebulia ganaTlebasa da misi moxmarebis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobasTan. am SemTxvevaSi drois aRmniSvneli ,,oTxi weliwadi upirispirdeba adre gaCenil idiomas ,,Savi dro, romelic gvian Sua saukuneebs ukavSirdeba da literaturaSi mkafiod Tavs iCens romantikosebTan. miT ufro, rom empiriulobis dasaxasiaTeblad romantizmis logikur, saazrovno sferoSi Tavsdeba da upirispirdeba koncepts ,,cisferi, romlis semantikuri mniSvneloba asaxavs samyarosadmi (sivrcisadmi) romantikul damokidebulebas, sasurveli gaitanos empiriis miRma, idealurSi. Savi, rogorc dro, da cisferi, rogorc sivrce, iqceva erTmaneTTan mWidrod dakavSirebul konceptebad, maTSi antinomiurad aisaxeba drosivrculi aRsaniSnebi. Tu cisfers vaniWebT Savis antonimur mniSvnelobas, es imas niSnavs, rom masSi gaTvaliswinebulia TeTris, naTlis denotatic, rac TavisTavad ukve konceptia iliasTan. mwerali umoqmedobas, uswavlelobas (anu sibneles) upirispirebs qmedebas, ga-

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naTlebas (anu sinaTles), rasac, 60-ianelTa TvalsazrisiT, umTavresi roli eniWeboda eris vinaobis garkvevisa da aRdgenisaTvis. amave konteqstSi logikurad Tavsdeba koncepti ,,bewvis xidi, rogorc erTgvari sademarkacio xazi. drois konceptis aRmniSvneli ,,oTxi weliwadi, masSi kodirebuli miznobriobiT, emsaxureba evropul sivrcesTan eris msoflmxedvelobriv miaxloebas. amitom is unda miviCnioT rogorc ,,qarTuli drois aRmniSvneli, romlis ganzomilebac SesaZloa mTel saukunes itevdes. ilia WavWavaZis nawerebidan enaSi mkvidrdeba koncepti ,,Tergdaleulebi. misi mniSvnelobis gaazrebisas aucileblad unda gaviTvaliswinoT msoflio kulturisaTvis kargad cnobili da simboluri funqciurobiT tevadi mdinaris koncepti. masSi Semavali arqetipebidan ramdenimeze SevCerdebiT. bibliis mixedviT, mdinare gaazrebulia, rogorc erTgvari sazRvari Zvelis dasasrulisa da axlis dasawyisisa. ormoci wlis ganmavlobaSi udabnoSi moxetiale israelis SvilebisaTvis iordanes gadalaxva erTgvari ideafiqse iyo, riTac wertili unda dasmoda egvipteze mogonebebs da ,,aRTqmuli qveynis damkvidreba dawyebuliyo. berZnul miTologiaSi qvesknelis mdinareebs (stiqsi, leTa, xaroni) amqveyniuri cxovreba unda daeviwyebinaT gardacvlilebisaTvis da suleTSi gadaeyvanaT. daaxloebiT aseTive mniSvnelobis unda iyos qarTuli miTologiis simuris wyalic. Tumca frazeologizmi ,,Cailuris wyali dalia ufro mkafiod asaxavda sicocxlisa da sikvdilis sazRvars. Tergis wylis ,,daleva(simboliuri gagebiT) niSnavda adamianis mier am mdinaris Tvisebebis (isev iliadan _ ,,giJi, gadareuli, mRvrie, daumonavi Tergi, z.k.) miRebas. Tu isev Carlz pirsis samwevra mTlianobas moviSveliebT, Tergi aris referenti, misi, rogorc mdinaris, miTosur-empiriuli mniSvneloba _ reprezentanti, xolo am konceptis dedaaazri, romelic damkvidrda eris cnobierebaSi, rogorc mentaluri xati _ interpretanta. Tergdaleulebs uwodebdnen im pirovnebebs, romlebic ruseTSi iRebdnen ganaTlebas, eziarebodnen demokratiul ideebs da cdilobdnen TavianTi gamocdileba qveynis sasikeTod da warmatebisaTvis gamoeyenebinaT. am SemTxvevaSi ,,Tergdaleuloba aRiqmeba evropul sivrcesTan Tanaziarobis gamomxatvel konceptad.

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mogviano periodSi _ XX saukunis dasawyisSi _ evropul civilizaciasTan ziareba ruseTSi tranzitis gareSe gaxda SesaZlebeli, Tu XIX saukuneSi saqarTvelosaTvis ganaTlebis evropulobas ruseTis universitetebi qmnidnen, gasuli saukunis pirvelive wlebSi Cveni qveynisaTvis evropulobis sazomad TviT evropulobis sivrce iqca, rac umal Seimosa enobriv qsovilSi_Tergdaleulobas raindaleuloba Caenacvla. evropulma, kerZod ki _ germanulenovani filosofiis principebma, qarTul sulierebaSi amoZebna daviwyebuli arqetipebi da modernistul literaturaSi sawyisTan mibrunebis impulsebi gaamZafra. konstantine gamsaxurdia werda: ,,me davibade msoflios umcires da umokles mdinaris pirad... rogorc winaT miRebuli iyo, me momixda ramdenime universitetSi swavla. yvelgan da yovelTvis mixdeboda gajibreba germanelebTan, ebraelebTan, polonelebTan, amerikelebTan, frangebTan. aravis vumxeldi, magram Cem Tavs veubnebodi: Sen, hei, msoflios umcires mdinaris piras Sobilo biWo, ar gajobon didi mdinareebis pirad dabadebulTa [gamsaxurdia 1985:511]. am amonaridSic ikveTeba mdinaris, rogorc konceptis, ZiriTadi arsi. masSi Cadebuli simbolika mianiSnebda saqarTvelos simcires msoflios wamyvan qveynebTan SedarebiT. magram Tu simcire teritoriuli da politikuri mniSvnelobis gamomxatveli Tviseba iyo, mis Svilebs marTebdaT mentalur doneze amodgomodnen gverdiT msoflio civilizacias da sakuTari adgili ganesazRvraT. Tu Tergisa da rainis arsi erTi kontinentis toposur idiomas qmnida da masSi, ZiriTadad, ganaTlebis, esTetikuri principebisa da saqarTvelos Zveli mentalobis aRdgenis ideas ganasaxierebda, TanamedroveobaSi idiomaTa semantikuri areali gascda ,,beber kontinents da igive principebi sivrculad da azrobrivadac axla ufro meti masStabebiT gamosaxa. ,,Tergdaleulebisa da ,,raindaleulebis msgavsad gaCnda koncepti ,,okeanedaleulebi (atlantdaleulebi). magram misi masStaburoba referentis sididiTa da vrculobiT ar gansazRvrula. masSi Caido adamianTa damokidebulebebi, cxovrebis wesi, mentaluri niSnebi, kulturul-filosofiuri orientirebi, politikur-ekonomikuri urTierTobebi. am SemTxvevaSi difuzia ganicada triadulma mTlianobam (aRsaniSnma saganma, niSanma da Semecnebam). referentis vrculoba gadavida reprezentantisa da interpretantas funqciebze.

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qarTuli msoflmxedvelobrivi orientirebis qronotopuli fiqsacia, faqtobrivad, erTi ZiriTadi arsis gamomxatvelia. arsebuli drois kvaldakval semantema ,,evropuli sivrce mianiSnebs Sesabamis aRmniSvnels da modificirdeba calkeuli epoqis Sesabamisad. Tumca masSi gaazrebuli erovnuli cnobierebis xati ar icvleba, _ interpretanta gardaiqmneba erTgvar mudmivad, romelSic myofobs qarTuli mentalobis ganmsazRvreli dro-sivrculi orientirebi. gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. 2. Abrams 1999: Abrams M.H., A Glossary of Literary Tearms (seventh edition). Cornell University. 1999 gamsaxurdia 1985: gamsaxurdia k., sityva, warmoTqmuli saiubileo saRamoze, zaqaria faliaSvilis saxelobis TeatrSi, Txz. t. VIII, Tb., 1985 kvaWantiraZe 2008: kvaWantiraZe m., enis semiologiuri kvlevis meTodologiisaTvis, XX saukunis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri koncefciebi da mimdinareobebi (T. doiaSvilisa da i. ratianis redaqciiT), Tb., 2008 raSi gmoixateba bewvis xidis WeSmariteba? http://www.iman.ge/ omiaZe 2008: omiaZe s., bunebrivi ena da kultura_ eris cocxali mexsiereba, semiotika #4, 2008 pirsi 2000: . ., , ., 2000 saxokia 1979: saxokia T., qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani. Tb., 1979 WavWavaZe 1984: WavWavaZe i., Txzulebani, Tb., 1984 haidegeri 1989: haidegeri m., yofiereba da dro (g. TevzaZis Targmani), Tb., 1989.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

salome omiaZe

punqtualuroba, rogorc drois konceptis erT-erTi Semadgeneli


dro erT-erTi ZiriTadi konceptia nebismieri lingvokulturis konceptosferoSi. mis mravalganzomilebian struqturaSi gamoiyofa droiTi sizustisadmi damokidebuleba anu punqtualuroba, romlis enobrivi reprezentaciis Seswavlac mniSvnelovania konkretuli enobrivi erTobis samyaros suraTis dasaxasiaTeblad. `punqtualuroba~, iseve rogorc sxva kulturuli konceptebi, ZiriTadi da meorexarisxovani aRmniSvnelebiT gamoixateba. misi ZiriTadi aRmniSvnelia saxeldobr `punqtualuroba~ da mocemuli cnebis sinonimebi, xolo konceptis yvela danarCeni Semadgeneli misi meorexarisxovani aRmniSvneli gaxlavT. qarTul enaSi franguli warmomavlobis am sityvas erTkomponentiani zusti Sesatyvisi ar moepoveba. `punqtualurobiT~ aRniSnuli cnebis gamosaxatavad yvelaze xSirad kvlav ucxo Ziris (laTinuri) sinonimuri sityva `akuratuloba~ an orkomponentiani leqsemebi: `metismeti sizuste~, `ukiduresi sizuste~ `zedmiwevniT moqmedeba~ gamoiyeneba. TiTqos SemTxveviTi arc aris, rom am cnebis qarTuli saxeli ara gvaqvs. punqtualu-

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roba, rogorc qcevis norma, qarTul kulturaSi dominanturi arasodes yofila. drois mofrTxileba maSin daviwyeT, roca `dros fasi daedo~, roca `dro gaZvirda~, es ki savsebiT axali movlenaa Cvens realobaSi. ukanasknel xans yofiT metyvelebasa Tu mediadiskursSi sul ufro xSirad gvxvdeba fraza _ `dro fulia~. fasdadebulma drom, ufro zustad ki _ drois fasdaudeblobis SegrZnebam, bevri ram Secvala Cvens yoveldRiurobaSi. aRniSnulis miuxedavad, qarTul diskursSi koncepti `punqtualuroba~ sakmaod mdidari struqturiT xasiaTdeba, romlis erTeulebsac droiT sizustesTan asociaciurad dakavSirebuli leqsemebi da paremiebi warmoadgens. pirvel rigSi unda davasaxeloT Sesityveba `zusti dro~ da misi stilistikuri alternantebi _ daTqmuli an SeTanxmebuli dro /vada/, TariRi; zedsarTavi saxelebi: punqtualuri, akuratuli, zusti, mowesrigebuli, wesieri, keTilsindisieri, saimedo, sando ... ; zmnizedebi: pasuxismgeblobiT, zedmiwevniT, ganuxrelad ... ; zmnuri sawyisebi: SeTanxmeba, molaparakeba, moswreba, miswreba, CamorCena, dagvianeba ... da maTi piriani formebi. sagangebod unda SevCerdeT daagvianda // Seagvianda wyvilze. romlis pirveli cali, saleqsikono definiciis mixedviT, mxolod imas aRniSnavs, rom viRac daniSnul droze gvian mivida sadRac, xolo Se- zmniswiniani `Seagvianda~ cota xniT dagvianebulze iTqmis. Se- zmniswini ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi odnaobiTobasTan erTad unebliobis semantikasac gamoxatavs, amas mowmobs konteqstebi pirveli piris monawileobiT, rodesac mTqmeli ar gaurbis imis winaswar aRniSvnas, rom punqtualuri ver iqneba, magram am azris verbalizebisaTvis `Semagviandebas~ irCevs nacvlad `damagviandebasi~ da amiT sakuTari pasuxismgeblobisa Tu danaSaulis Semsubuqeba, adresatisagan gagebisa da TanagrZnobis mopoveba surs, rom mkacrad ar gansajon. Segvianebaca da dagvianebac warsulSi ufro SeiZleboda, vidre dRes. adre punqtualurobas mxolod im SemTxvevaSi viCendiT, Tu sapirispiro qmedebas garkveuli sanqciebi unda mohyoloda. magram sanqciebis damwesebel-gamtarebelnic yovelTvis ver axerxebdnen wesebis ganuxrelad dacvas, radgan isinic imave sazogadoebis wevrebi iyvnen, sazogadoebisa, romelsac drois dinebisadmi Taviseburi, gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba hqonda. im droSic nebismieri dramatuli Teatrisa Tu kinodarbazis salarosTan ekida abra, romelic iuwyeboda, rom dagvianebuli mayu-

punqtualuroba, rogorc drois konceptis erT-erTi Semadgeneli

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reblebi ar daiSvebodnen, magram yovel speqtakls, yovel kinoseanss, sauniversiteto leqciasa Tu saskolo gakveTils punqtualurebTan erTad arapunqtualurebic eswrebodnen. droiTi sizustisadmi germanelebis damokidebuleba sayovelTaod cnobilia. qarTul diskursSic gvxvdeba am faqtis amsaxveli iseTi Sesityvebebi, rogorebicaa: `germanuli punqtualuroba~, `germanuli sizuste~, `germanuli droiT~. qarTvelebis mimarTeba droiT sizustesTan da am niSniT germanelebTan maTi kontrastuloba kargad Cans Semdeg stereotipur situaciebsa da konteqstebSi, magaliTad, xuT saaTze mipatiJebis pasuxad: `xuTze germanulad Tu qarTuli droiT?~ an daniSnul dros zustad misuli stumrebis danaxvisas: `germanelebs gaumarjoT!~ da sxv. germanul kulturaSi punqtualuroba absoluturi Rirebulebaa, qarTulSi ki igi SefardebiTia. qarTuli stumarmaspinZloba is ganzomilebaa, romelSic drois saTvalavi saerTod ar arsebobs. es erTnairad exeba rogorc maspinZels, aseve _ stumars. maspinZlis droisadmi amgvar damokidebulebas mowmobs miwvevis Semdegi teqstebi: `iqiT kviraSi SemogviareT~, `xval gelodebiT~, `ocdasamSi gvewvieT~ da misT., SedarebiT konkretulad SeiZleba mogveCvenos: `diliT saqmeze gavdivar da mere Tqveni var!~, `naSuadRevs Sin viqnebiT~ an `saRamos SemogviareT~ da sxv. aqve isic aucileblad unda aRvniSnoT, rom TiToeuli qarTvelisaTvis dilac, SuadReca da saRamoc sul sxvadasxva dros SeiZleba niSnavdes. konkretuli drois daTqmas zogjer maspinZeli Takilobs, ras hqvia, stumrobis dro SemovusazRvro vinmeso. xSirad stumaric ukadrisobs, dro Tu daTvlili aqvs, ras mepatiJebao. aq kidev erTi saintereso detalia saxsenebeli, zogjer stumrobis dro zustad ki aris gansazRvruli, magram mainc qarTuli dro moqmedebs. amitom kargma diasaxlisma gemrieli kerZebis momzadebis garda isic unda icodes, 5 saaTze dapatiJebul stumrebs cxeli xaWapuriT romel saaTze Seegebos. qarTuli xasiaTis ambivalenturoba cnobili faqtia da amas punqtualurobasTan dakavSirebiTac vavlenT. Tamada, ara aqvs mniSvneloba Tavad droze movida Tu ara, arCevisa Tu daniSvnis wuTidan arapunqtualurebis dasjaze iwyebs fiqrs da maspinZelTan erTad gansxvavebul sasmisebs arCevs dagvianebulTaTvis. Tumca, paradoqsuli is gaxlavT, rom igive Tamada Semoswrebulebs anu dagvianebulebs sagangebod adRegrZelebs da sufris wevrebisaganac imaves moiT-

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xovs. ganxiluli stereotipuri situaciebi kvalifikaciis mxriv koncept `punqtualurobis~ meorexarisxovan Semadgenlebs warmoadgens, magram mentaluri TvalsazrisiT umniSvnelovanes informacias Seicavs. Cvens Tanamedrove realobaSi dasaqmebis erT-erT aucilebel pirobad kadris punqtualuroba saxeldeba, rasac damsaqmebelTa Tu samsaxuris maZiebelTa internetgancxadebebic mowmobs. punqtualurobis moTxovnam, mkacrad gansazRvrulma samuSao saaTebma sayovelTao drois sartyelSi mogvaqcia, rasac, Tavis mxriv, koreqtivebi Seaqvs Cvens yofiTs cxovrebasa da mentalitetSi. gadatvirTuli samuSao dRis Semdeg gaiSviaTda Sua kviraSi daupatiJeblad stumroba, adamianebi, dasavluri qcevis wesebis mixedviT, winaswar uTanxmeben erTmaneTs mosalodnel vizits. mkvidrdeba `paraskevi saRamos~ fenomeni, sxva datvirTvas iZens SabaTi, momavali samuSao kvirisaTvis mosamzadebeli dRis statuss iZens kviradRe da sxv. dasaxelebuli tendenciebi axal elementebs matebs, erTgvarad avsebs koncept `punqtualurobis~ semantikursa da formobriv struqturebs. amdenad, verc erTi konceptis aRwera verasodes iqneba sruli: konceptSi moqceuli lingvokulturuli informacia mudam ganaxlebadia da, Sesabamisad, mudmiv kvlevas moiTxovs.

tariel daTiaSvili

uZravi da moZravi (globaluri da lokaluri) dro


arc ise didi xnis winaT, cira barbaqaZis poeziis kiTxvisas aseT sityvebs gadavawydi: dros maSin vpoulob, roca vkargav. yovelTvis mindoda, am sakiTxis Sesaxeb meTqva rame gansakuTrebuli, gamomeTqva originaluri azri... Tumca, dro icvleba da mec karga xania, ukve sxva enaze vmetyveleb, CemSi emocia ase aRar upirispirdeba azrovnebas, rogorc teqstis arsebobis SesaZleblobas. teqsti erTgvari piramidaa, labirinTuli tipis nageboba, romlis Sida kedlebi moxatulia. Sinaarsi, rogorc globaluri dro, rogorc samyaros erTiani suraTi, mxolod da mxolod am kedlebze mimofantuli fragmentebis aseTi Tu iseTi dakavSirebaa (romelTa raodenoba usasruloa)... is arc dafarulia, e. i. arc imqveynad momlodine saukuno WeSmaritebaa da arc _ vasrkvlaviani ca sfinqsis Tavze... sabolood, es imas niSnavs, rom am uZveles sityvebTan dakavSirebiT (romlebic bolo ori saukunea, gamudmebiT trialebs enebSi, sxvadasxva tipis teqstebSi, aTasnairi ritmiT, paTosiT, konfiguraciiT), ar SeiZleboda gamCenoda raime originaluri azri, rameTu drois

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aseTi wakiTxva TavisTavad, Tavis SinaarsSive auqmebs siaxlis saWiroebas, originalobas, rogorc esTetikur politikas, istorias da a. S... magram isic faqtia, rom adamians arasodes tovebs wadili, iyos originaluri, gamorCeuli, misi suli mudmiv swrafvaSia, mudam ukeTess, axals, gansakuTrebul mdgomareobas eltvis... maS ra vqnaT, ra unda vTqvaT am SemTxvevaSi, Tuki arsebobs faqti drois uwyveti mdinareba, magram ar arsebobs aranairi universaluri momavali, romlisken swrafvac ganapirobebs drois Sesaxeb konkretulad aseTi warmodgenis arsebobas? dRevandel teqstebs ar gaaCniaT ganaxlebis aranairi moTxovnileba, sityvebi mxolod sakuTar TavSi arian CaxlarTulni, romlebic ar saWiroeben azris daxmarebas garedan, rom iyvnen gagebulni... jer kidev mecxramete saukuneSi adamianma saintereso gamosavals miagno (raSic istoriulma mexsierebamac didi roli iTamaSa), Ziebis sadaveebi mTlianad intuicias, wminda moTxovnas, nebas miando, romelic arasodes Cerdeba, arasodes wyvets Ziebas, maSinac ki, rodesac cnobilia, rom povna SeuZlebelia (is ar arsebobs), da es mas sulac ar aSfoTebs, miT umetes, veraviTar nakls ver xedavs Ziebis usazrisobaSi, radgan Zieba (procesi) ukve aris misi eqsistenciuri yofiereba, rac ukve napovnic aqvs, ukve Tavis TavSi aqvs es yofiereba (Cven viciT, rom yofnis Rirebulebac swored drosTan aseTma damokidebulebam ganapiroba)... qalbatoni ciras sityvebSic es gancdaa ganaskvuli. ra Tqma unda, araviTari Sinaarsi aq ar arsebobs; azri ar aqvs azris gamoTqmas; uadgiloa im mizniT msjelobis warmarTva, rom movlenebi daalago. ubralod, aq Tvali unda adevno gamofenas, mis Sida moxatul kedlebs da fragmentebis saukeTeso kavSirebis ZiebiT (rac mxolod cdis Semadgenelia) daxato suraTi. amasTan erTad, es suraTi imis gamo ki ar aris WeSmariti, rom erTaderTia, ganumeorebelia (e. i. gamoyofilia mravlisagan, rogorc gansakuTrebuli), rac suraTs, naxats aqcevs xatad, xatebad; aramed is aris mravlis gamorCeuli konfiguracia, ra Tqma unda, gamoirCeva, gamoiyofa sxva kavSirebisgan, magram ara mravlisagan (mravali masSi TavisTavad monawileobs, swored mravlisagan iqmneba es kavSirebi)... amitom WeSmariteba aq drosTan wminda esTetikuri mimarTebaa. sityvebSi dros maSin vpoulob, roca vkargav sruli qaosia, maTSi mobinadre azri Tavisuflad SegviZlia SevamkoT epiTe-

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tiT gamouTqmeli, romelTan miaxloeba mxolod mxatvruli saxeebis moxmobiT Tua SesaZlebeli. zogadad is gamoxatavs adamianis dausrulebel xetials Cveni drois mier xelaxla aSenebul minosur labirinTSi... rasakvirvelia, cnebaSi Cveni dro vgulisxmob sxva, Cveni kulturis Tu enisagan (droebisagan) gansxvavebul moZraobas, xolo Tavis mxriv, gansxvavebaSi, ra Tqma unda, vgulisxmob imave drois moZraobisa da sivrcis moazrebis wesebs Soris gansxvavebas (saboloo jamSi, rasakvirvelia, is raRac wesrigis formasa da Sinaarsze mianiSnebs). ra Tqma unda, Cveni dro (da zogadad, wesrigi) ar aris awmyo, anu iseT konkretul movlenebTan yoveldRiuri Sexeba, romelic arsebobis gancdas, sruliad realur emociebs tovebs (raRac xdeba Sens Tavs, maSasadame _ arsebob). mokled, es ar aris mxolod lokaluri dro, amasTan erTad, is globaluri droa (is ar xdeba piradad Sens Tavs, lokalur droSi, Sen ubralod misiT arsebob, cocxlob, zogadad), e. i. is aris lokaluri drois aucilebeli moazreba raRac garemoSi, imave globalur droSi, imave sivrceSi. amasTanave, globaluri dro ar aris dro, rogorc aseTi, is ar aris ganyenebuli moZraoba kulturisagan, enisgan da a. S. magaliTad, Cveni dro, ra Tqma unda, globaluri droa; marTalia, is gamoxatavs istoriis dasrulebul suraTs, is erTgvari drois amowurvaa, romelsac axasiaTebs e. w. yovlismomcveloba, ise iqceva, TiTqos yvelaferi misi sakuTrebaa, rac istoriul wignebSi weria; saboloo jamSi, yvela drom misTvis imuSava... momavlisken mimavali misi gzac warsulis gameorebaa da a. S., magram yovelive es mainc Cveni konkretuli drois niSania, es suraTi mxolod da mxolod Cveni enis mier aris daxatuli, misi mravalenovneba mxolod da mxolod am erT enaze saubris wesia, romelsac aqvs mxolod am enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Janri, moZraobis unari da mTlianobis miRwevis wesi. mokled, Cveni dro sxva araferia, Tu ara garkveuli istoriuli periodi (rogorc vTqviT, is RirebulebaTa sistemaze dafuZnebuli garkveuli wesrigia), romlis wiaRSic moviazrebiT Cven, rogorc _ movlenebi, rogorc _ enisa da kulturis nawilebi, gnebavT, personaJebi. erT kulturaSi erTdroulad ramdenime Cvenma drom SeiZleba iarsebos, magram istoriis sazrisSi arsebobs mxolod ori mTavari dro, romelTa monacvleoba (wina-

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tariel daTiaSvili

aRmdegoba da erTianoba) ganapirobebs nebismieri wesrigis arsebobis SesaZleblobas. maT urTierTobebSi xdeba SesaZlebeli WeSmariteba da a. S. es ori dro erTmaneTisgan, rogorc vTqviT, uamravi niSniT gansxvavdeba, magram mTavari am ganmasxvavebel niSnebs Soris aris minc e. w. procesi (mas SegviZlia vuwodoT msjelobis warmarTvis wesic). es ambis Cveulebrivi Txzvis procesia. dro igive msjelobaa, is arsebulis da ararsebulis dialeqtikuri moazrebaa, amitom kulturis siRrmeSi misi arseba ganisazRvreba ambis moyolis xasiaTiT, Sesabamisad, droc am enebSi ise moZraobs, istoriac ise miedineba, rogorc iqmnebian ambebi. magaliTad, cnobilia, rom bibliur ambebSi movlenebi ar icvleba. arsebobs Teologia, ara rogorc interpretaciis SesaZlebloba, aramed rogorc interpretatorebis Zalaufleba, magram is dialeqtikuri diskursia da mTlianad obieqturi drois, klasikuri metafizikis farglebSia moqceuli. miTebs ki interpretaciebi praqtikulad ar gaaCniaT (yovel SemTxvevaSi, sokrate-platonamde interpretireba ar iyo RmerTisa da organizaciis saqme, piriqiT, aq RmerTebi da organizaciebi iZlevian niSnebs, interpretacias ki, msjelobis saSualebiT, adamianebi axdenen). interpretireba mxolod ambis koreqciiT warimarTeba da ara sazrisis aRmoCeniT, ideis mowodebiT da a. S. ase iqmneba, magaliTad, miTologiuri labirinTi... miTebSi, bibliuri igavebisagan gansxvavebiT, siuJeti erTmaneTzea gadaxlarTuli da arasodes sruldeba. ambebi gamudmebiT gadadian sxva ambebSi. sakmarisia, moyve erTi ambavi, rom jaWvuri reaqciiT mTeli miTologiuri siRrme zedapirze amoifrqveva. sruliad SemTxveviTi adamianebis neba-surviliT am uzarmazar arakontrolirebad sivrceSi siuJetebi gamudmebiT Cndebian da qrebian zustad iseve, rogorc caze Tanavarskvlavedebi, xomlebi da galaqtikebi. miTologia socialuri qselis msgavsi iseTi sazogadoebrivi sivrcea (rogorc, magaliTad, interneti), sadac xalxis nebismieri saxis gancda fiqsirdeba. aq iyris Tavs ubralod anekdotebi, useriozulesi Teologiuri Sexedulebebi, ganmsWvalulebi uRrmesi religiuri grZnobebiT da namdvili aTeisturi (volterianuli) gesliT wamosrolili komentarebi, wminda literaturuli teqstebi, politikuri moTxovnebi da a. S. ambis aseTi wesiT Txzva mTeli kulturis Sinagani struqturis maCvenebelia, sadac drosTan dakavSirebuli wesrigisa da

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WeSmaritebis sakiTxebi sruliad SemTxveviT garemoebebze xdebian damokidebulni. gaxsovT, albaT, rogor daedevna erTxel, beotiaSi, kefales mwevari tevmesiis melias. tevmesiis melia RmerTebis sasjeli iyo, is Tebeelebze ganrisxebulma dionisem mouvlina beotias. rodesac amfitrionma alkmenes xeli iTxova, mas aseTi piroba wauyenes alkmenes mogaTxovebT, Tu tevmesiis melias mogvaSorebo. RmerTebisagan iyo dadgenili, rom tevmesiis melias veraferi unda daweoda dedamiwis zurgze. amfitrionma daxmareba sTxova kefales, romelsac hyavda artemides mwevari. agreTve RmerTebis mier iyo dadgenili da bedisweriT gadawyvetili, rom lelaposs (ase erqva kefales mwevars) veraferi unda gaqceoda dedamiwis zurgze; rasac daedevneboda, unda daweoda. erTi SexedviT, am ambebs erTmaneTTan araniri saerTo ar aqvT, magram erTxel viRac geniosma gadawyvita daecina RmerTebisTvis da moewyo ise, rom kefales mwevari dadevneboda tevmesiis melias... am sruliad SemTxveviT kavSirze ideaTa mTeli kolizeumi aSenda. magaliTad, erT-erTi racionalisturi versiis mixedviT, saxelganTqmuli monadire kefale varskvlavian cas aris Sedarebuli, xolo eosis (ganTiadis qalRmerTis) mier misi motaceba gagebulia rogorc azrovnebis dRis Suqze gamotanis rituali (religiur eqstazs, ukvdavebisadmi, maradiul gancxromaSi yofnisadmi adamianur ltolvas berZnebi yovelTvis upirispirebdnen wminda adamianur warmaval faseulobebs. rogorc viciT, varskvlaviani ca swored dakvirvebasTan, samyarosadmi racionalur damokidebulebasTan asocirdeba). agreTve, prokridas dakargva-gamoCena mTvaris Casvla-amosvlasTan aris Sedarebuli da a. S. es samyaros, ambis, istoriis wminda daialeqtikuri moazrebaa, azrovnebis warmmarTveli ki kulturaTa gansxvaveba-Sepirispirebaa. mokled, am ambavSi gadamwyveti swored drois Rirebulebaa, rogorc wesrigis cvlis procesisaTvis xazgasma. morali: RmerTebi gamudmebiT ewinaaRmdegebian sakuTar Tavs da nangrevebze batonoben. daakvirdiT: zevsis multikulturuli dro iqamde dasrulda, sanam daiwyeboda, radgan Cveni drois msgavsad, is ar aris dialeqtikuri safuZveli yovelivesi. movlenebi wrfeze ar moZraoben erTmaneTis miyolebiT, Tanmimdevrulad, logikurad, miTebis Txzvis procesi arasodes dasruldeba, vidre iarsebebs zevsis Zalufleba da wesrigi (aq herakle zustad im dros xde-

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tariel daTiaSvili

ba heraklidebis winapari, rodesac heraklidebi qmnian herakles). amitom es dasrulebuloba misi Sinaarsis ganuyofeli nawilia, aq wesrigi qaoturia (swored qaosia RvTaebrivi wesrigi) da pirobiTobaa misi arsebobis erTaderTi SesaZleblobac. maSasadame, dros maSin vpoulob, roca vkargav... ideaSi zevsis mier damyarebuli wesrigis bedi maSin gadawyda, rodesac lelaposi daedevna tevmesiis melias, da es moxda manamde, vidre elinebi TavianTi kulturisaTvis safuZvlis Cayras daiwyebdnen. am periodisTvis jer heraklec ki ar aris dabadebuli, troas arsebobis Sesaxeb ki araferi ician berZnebma; ufro metic, zevsis Zlaufleba jer kidev ar aris myari da RmerTebis omebic ar dasrulebula da a. S... mokled, es gariJraJia, da es wesrigic, rogorc vTqviT, swored dasawyisSive imsxvreva, sruldeba. zevsma SemTxveviT mohkra Tvali am suraTs da maSinve gaaqvava orTave arseba, magram es ar aris problemis gadawyveta, misi mxolod gaqvavebaa (dakonservebaa). es bedisweraa, RmerTebis nebasurviliT es arsebebi ukvdavebi arian, amitom adre Tu gvian isini daibruneben dros (cnobierebas, sakuTar Tavs), lelaposi daeweva an ver daeweva melias da wesrigic daimsxvreva. berZnulma kulturam swored gardauvali msxvrevis, am gaqvavebuli SesaZleblobis wiaRSi iarseba da, amdenad, zevsis wesrigic absoluturad pirobiTi wesrigi, droebiTi wesrigi iyo. gamoTqma: zevsi iyo, aris da iqneba mxolod da mxolod am wesrigis kedlebSi ismis... is dasasruliT daiwyo, droc zustad maSin aris napovni, roca is daikarga... amdenad, yvela dro droebiTia (eqsistenciac ki ar aris am gansazRvrebis miRma). dro arasodes ar gvaqvs, mas yovelTvis vkargavT, radgan swored droebiToba aniWebs yovelives moZraobas da maradisobas. es aris ara erTiani uwyveti xazi usasrulobisken, aramed mudmivi wyvetebi (dro rom mqondes, am mosazrebas ucileblad parmenidesa da Zenonis argumentebiT gavamyarebdi). dro adamians hgavs, yvela adamiani mokvdavia, magram kacobrioba _ ukvdavi. droc zustad aseTi individualuri erTeulebisagan Sedgeba. es nawilebi (periodebi) Cndebian da qrebian, isini adamianebiviT sikvdilis Svilebi arian, magram zogadad dro, rogorc erTiani suraTi, maradiulia. obieqturad, rasakvirvelia, es suraTi ar arsebobs, Cven mas mxolod viazrebT (xan Tanmimdevrulad, xan erTdroulad) mxolod im niSnebis wardgeniT,

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romelTac, magaliTad, sazogadoebriv urTierTobebSi viyenebT iseve. rogorc kacobriobis arsebobis Sesaxeb vaskvniT im sagnebis mixedviT, romlebic erToblivi ZalisxmeviT Seqmnila (mag, xidebi, caTambjenebi, omebi da a. S), drois Sesaxeb vaskvniT istoriis mixedviT, mxolod imiT, rac iyo da rac SeiZleba iyos momavalSi, rogorc istoriuli perspeqtiva, rogorc istoriis sworxazovani gagrZeleba. rodesac fizikosebi amboben dro ar arsebobs! _ isini amiT aristoteles obiqtur dros uaryofen (dro fardobiTobis farglebSi moeqca, sadac iseTi sagnebic ki amoZravdnen, romlebic obiqturad uZravni arian). magram e. w. wriuli drois daSvebis SesaZlebloba zustad obiqturi drois arsebobazea damokidebuli. ramdenadac dro obieqturia da misi gza momavalSi gadis, amdenad is ukve gavlilia, dasrulebulia, rogorc obieqturi dro, da axla mxolod sakuTari Tavis imitirebas axdens. amdenad, is erTdroulad dakargulicaa da napovnic. Cvens epoqas, Cvens dros dRes swored es imitirebuli dro miaCnia Rirebulad da ara obieqturi dro, Tumca maT Soris arsebuli mimarTeba arasworia, mas sruliad axleburad sWirdeba Camoyalibeba... imisaTvis, rom imitirebuli dro ar gadaiqces obieqtur drod (da, amave dros, obiqturi droc ar gadaiqces imitirebulad, garkveuli politikuri struqturis, garkveuli enis nawilad), saWiroa, dro gyavdes yovelTvis gverdiT, e. i. dro unda dazogo da sityvebSi Caasaxlo. drom arc unda gaaswros yofierebas da verc unda daewios mas, da es, upirvelesad, drois aseT gansazRvrebebSi unda moxdes: imitirebuli dro swored obieqturi drois imitaciaa, is mxolod obieqturi drois arsebobis SemTxvevaSi xdeba jer SesaZlebeli da mere Rirebuli. magram is unda iyos aucileblad ukve dasrulebuli, gaqvavebuli, rom absoluturi WeSmaritebisa da ideologiis Semqmnelebi ar warmoSvas. amisaTvis ani-dan hoe-mde gavlebuli wrfe unda rogorme moxaro, moZraoba gadaitano wreze, istoria sabolood gaxado dausrulebeli da amiT daasrulo is, rogorc obieqturad arsebuli da dileqtikurad adamianis bedis ganmsazRvreli. mokled, tevmesiis melias (imave _ obieqtur dros), romelic mudam gagvirbis da verasodes veweviT (ris gamoc, is adamianebs RvTis risxvad eqca), daedevna imitirebuli dro, lelaposi, romelic aseve ukvdavia, magram mxolod adamianuri urTier-

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Tobebis (siyvarulis) SenarCunebisTvis aris Seqmnili. Cveni epoqac zustad maT gaqvavebas cdilobs, cdilobs winaswarve amowuros sakuTari dro, winaswarve dainaxos sakuTari Tavis dasasruli (dasasrulis koSmari yovelTvis Cveni kulturis yvelaze sayvareli Tema iqneba). es adgilis garkvevaa, mxolod aq da am droSi SeuZlia mas iarsebos... mokled... dros maSin vpoulob, roca vkargav. am sityvebs mecxramete saukunis surneli dahkravs (Sopenhaueri)... es aris pirveli nabijis gadadgma iracionalizmSi, saidanac azrovnebis dabneuloba iwyeba. e. i. sityvaTa aseTi ukufena mianiSnebs, rom drom aRar icis, saiT wavides win Tu ukan. drom win da ukan uazro mimosvla maSin iwyo, rodesac racionalizmma waiforxila da cneba progresis SinaarsSi arsebulma winaaRmdegobam iCina Tavi. Tumca, istorias svla ar SeuCerebia. Semdeg ki, rodesac ukan mibrunebac progresis (idealuri istoriis) samsaxurSi Cadga, saerTod, istoriis dasasrulze, gaCerebaze daiwyes fiqri (am tendenciam, marTalia, imave mecxramete saukuneSi iCina Tavi, magram gansakuTrebuli aqtualoba meore msoflio omis Semdeg SeiZina). msgavsi Sinaarsis teqstebi axlac xSiria da isini yovelives dasasruls ki ar aRniSnaven, aramed erT wertilSi droTa kvanZebis ganaskvas cdiloben (es wertili, rasakvirvelia, eqsistenciaa). Cveni epoqis akviatebuli azri, daZlios rogorme e. w. aristoteluri metafizika, ioli Sesasrulebeli sulac ar aRmoCnda. aristoteles sityvebi Cvenamde drois uwyvet mdinarebas moaqvs. ese igi, aq saubaria iseT sityvebze, romlebsac aqvT mniSvneloba da kiTxviTi mimarTuleba saiT mivyavar sityvebis dros?; es mniSvnelobebi gamoxatulia, rasakvirvelia, sazrisis ZiebaSi. ara aqvs mniSvneloba, risi sazrisia, mTavaria, rom sityvebs yovelTvis aqvT pasuxi. Semdeg, am sazrisis moZiebisTvis saWiroa, rom dro gansazRvro sworad, swor droSi moxvde. zustad aq aris kvanZic. ramdenadac dro materiis arsebobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi formaa, romelic movlenebis kanonzomieri monacvleobiT gamoixateba, xolo klasikuri metafizikis mixedviT, sagnebi Tanmimdevrulad aris Cawyobili movlenaTa mwkrivSi, amdenad, raime, riskenac Cven mivemarTebiT, mzamzareuli, WeSmariti saxiT Zevs momavalSi. Cveni adamianuri amocanaa, sworad aviRoT gezi misken. swor droSi movxvdeT. swored am dialeq-

uZravi da moZravi (globaluri da lokaluri) dro

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tikis daZlevas cdilobs Cveni epoqa (konkretulad, qarTul azrovnebaSi am mxriv didi qaosia, romlis amsaxvel SesaniSnav nimuSs warmoadgens qalbatoni ciras leqsi). rogorc vTqviT, dasawyiss SopenhauerTan mivyavarT (simboluri aRniSvnaa). is ase ityoda: dros rom vpoulob, maSin vkargav. aq ar aris, ra Tqma unda, metafizika gauqmebuli, mxolod idealis eSmakuri (hermesuli) xasiaTia xazgasmuli (moCvenebas emsgavseba). Tumca, dialeqtikuri wrfis moxra mainc iwyeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, am wrfis ori wertili sabolood froidTan erTdeba (Tumca, amaze mTeli meoce saukune muSaobda). meoce saukunis azrovnebis mTavari amocana iyo mkvdar eqsistenciaSi drois faqtoris Setana (iseve, rogorc racionalizmis amocana iyo meqanikur samyaroSi, usicocxlo materiaSi pirveli biZgis mimcemis, imave _ drois aRmoCena)... es ra Tqma unda, calke sakvlevi Temaa... e. i. is, rac SeiZleba iyos (rasac vxedav) momavalSi, ukve aris CemSi (Cems xedvaSi) da a. S. gavixsenoT: dros maSin vpoulob, roca vkargav... drois dakargva imas niSnavs, rom SeuZlebelia swor droSi moxvde, saiTac Cemi sityvebis dros mivyavar _ araferia, da amis gancdiT, me dros vkargav... magram rogorc ki is qreba iq, Cndeba CemSi (rogorc gancda), da me mas isev vpoulob... da is, rac CemSia, maiZulebs viaro win _ sakuTari Tavisken (sakuTari Tavis Secnobisaken, srulyofisaken), radgan is CemSi, mxolod da mxolod, myofobs, rogorc momavalSi myofi... amitom aris, rom muWSi wyaliviT arasodes miCerdeba...

nino gogiaSvili

gzis semiotika qarTuli masalebis mixedviT


sintagma gza midis myaradaa damkvidrebuli qarTul saliteraturo da sasaubro metyvelebaSi. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom gza dinamikuria da adgilmdebareobas icvlis garemos Sesabamisad, xolo am sityvaTSeTanxmebis irgvliv myofi personaJebi uZravebi da fiqsirebulebi arian. Ggza adamianis mier ganvlili cxovrebis simboloa, gezis aRmniSvneli, gamosavlis maCvenebelic da sasowarkveTilebis gamomxatvelic, konteqstidan gamomdinare. amas gvidasturebs Tqmebi, sityvaTSeTanxmebebi da kompozitebi: swor gzas adgas, gza maswavle, gza gaikvala, gzasacdenili, gza ar Cans, gzas daadga, ugzoukvlod, gzagasayari, gzidan gadauxvia, gza gamoCnda da a.S. aseve farTodaa gavrcelebuli kiTxva: `gza saiT wamiyvans?~ `gza midis da mihyavs Tavisi mgzavrebi~. aseTi saxis azrovneba qarTuli mentalitetisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli, romelic yvelaze ukeT enaSi vlindeba. aq saubaria personaJis SedarebiT pasiur mdgomareobaze, rodesac ar xdeba movlenebis forsireba, da gzasayolili mgzavrebi gzis nebas misdeven. adamiani gzas rom daagdeba, iqiT wava, gza saiTac waiyvans. am SemTxvevaSi gza bedisweracaa, romelic marTavs

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adamianebs, da mis mier ukve gaWril da dakanonebul msvlelobazea damokidebuli maTi bed-iRbali. uremi rom gadabrundeba, gza farTo maSin gamoCndeba, _ gvaxsendeba yvelasaTvis nacnobi qarTuli andaza, romelic gulisxmobs: rodesac xdeba negatiuri movlena (urmis gadabruneba), maSinRa xedaven adamianebi, Tu rogor unda moqceuliyvnen sworad (gzis gamoCena). gzis gamoCena swor gzaze dadgomis sawindaria. rodesac gezi nacnobia, misi mimarTulebiT svla ukve arc ise Znelia. swori gza swor cxovrebiseul qmedebas aRniSnavs, farTo gza ki misi danaxvis SesaZleblobas. viwro da ekliani gza dabrkolebebisa da winaaRmdegobebis simboloa, Tumca, marTlmadidebluri swavlebis Tanaxmad, isic viciT, rom sasufevelTan misasvleli gza viwro ars, anu, sulis cxonebis ucilobeli piroba sulis gamowrTobaa. gza gaexsna da bedi gaexsna erTi da imave azris aRmniSvnelia. aq gza bedsa da bediswerasTan asocirdeba, radgan gza ki ar gaixsna Tavad subieqtma, aramed gza gaexsna misgan damoukidebeli obieqturi Tu subieqturi mizezebis gamo. am dros subieqti, TiTqos, kadrs miRma rCeba da Zalauneburad gvefiqreba im mistikur da idumal movlenebze, romelTac es faqti gamoiwvies. aq TvalSisacemia gzis magiuri anu fascinaciuri Tviseba; imoqmedos personaJebze amouxsneli ZaliT. baraTaSvilis bedi-mdevaric gzis meSveobiT sdevs leqsis lirikul gmirs, da am SemTxvevaSic SegviZlia gzisa da bedis erTmaneTTan dakavSireba. sxva gza aRar maqvs niSnavs adamianis mdgomareobas, rodesac mocemul momentSi mocemul qmedebas ver gadauxvevs, da es mdgomareoba sakiTxisadmi misi principuli midgomidan ki ar gamomdinareobs, aramed _ sxva qmedebis SeuZleblobidan. gamonaTqvami mkacrad gansazRvrul, mxolod subieqtis mier damyol mdgomareobaSi arsebobas miuTiTebs, romlis iqiTac gza Tavdeba, anu arseboba wydeba. sxva gza aRar maqvs Tqmis definicia SegviZlia aseve qarTuli andaziT gamovxatoT: CaTrevas Cayola sjobia. TiTqmis yvela zRapruli fiqcia, romelic qarTul xalxul zRaprebSi gvxvdeba, ase iwyeba: bevri iara Tu cota iara an personaJi gzas daadga. zRaprul qronotopSi dro da sivrce Tanmxvedria da fabulis veqtori yovelTvis gziskenaa mimarTuli an misgan radikalurad sapirispirod ixreba. am dros

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zRapris gmirs gzaze viRac Semoeyreba da swored es geografiuli Tanxvedra gansazRvravs kompoziciis ganviTarebas, kvanZis Sekvrasa Tu gaxsnas, da finalis hefi ends. Aaq dro da sivrce erTiandeba, da dro, romelic ar brundeba, sivrceSi realizdeba, da, rogorc m. baxtini ambobs: ... sivrces ki, raRac WrilSi, gzis simbolo gansazRvravs da mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi iSleba moqmedebis areali, sadac zRapris kompozicia viTardeba. qarTuli gzis arsi da Sinaarsi ki yvelaze ukeT qarTul gamocanaSi vlindeba: vkece, vkece, ver davkece. Ggzas arc dasawyisi aqvs da arc dasasruli, is yofierebis sivrceSi wrfesaviT miemarTeba. Mmas ver amowurav, Tavsa da bolos ver mouZebni, ver miscem formasa da mimarTulebas: midis personaJi, gza ki ar ileva. zRapris imaginaciuri planis mTavari dekoracia gza da masTan dakavSirebuli elementebia: gzispira qoxi, saxli gzasTan axlos, gzajvaredinis mistika, gzis arCevani ramdenime gzas Soris (am gzaze waxval, inaneb, am gzas daadgebi ar inaneb), Tumca, gzas bolo arasodes uCans, radgan gza cxovrebaa da is maradiulad arsebobs sivrceSi. gzajvaredinis mistika or simbolos emyareba da ormagi datvirTviT xasiaTdeba: pirvelia gzis simbolo, xolo meore jvris. jvris formis gza gansakuTrebul xasiaTs iZens da interpretirdeba rig sakiTxebSi. magaliTad, naTelmxilvelebi da mkiTxavebi xSirad urCeven adamianebs gasaRebis, naWrebis Tu sxva mojadoebuli atributebis gzajvaredinze gadagdebas, garkveuli magiuri ritualis Semdeg, raTa isini gaTavisufldnen avi Tvalisa da negatiuri energiisagan. yvela Sexvedra gzaze xdeba da amitom es cxovrebis gzaa. swored gzis diaqronul WrilSi fiqsirdeba personaJebis Sexeba da, aqedan gamomdinare, eyreba safuZveli maT Semdgom msvlelobas. Mm. baxtini Tavis kvlevebSi gamoyofs gzisa da Sexvedris qronotopebs da aRniSnavs, rom Sexvedris qronotopi ufro emociuri da faseuli intensivobiT xasiaTdeba, gzis qronotopi ki ufro moculobiTia. Ggzis qronotopi Seicavs Sexvedris qronotopsac da ara marto mas. qarTul mentalobaSiAadamianis gauCinarebac ki gzis gaqrobasTan asocirdeba: `ugzoukvlod daikarga, mis gzasa da kvals ver miagnes da a.S. rasac ver vityviT rusul gamonaqvamze: , _ sadac subieqtis gauCinareba masze informaciis ararsebobidan gamomdinareobs, gan-

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sxvavebiT qarTuli gauCinarebisagan, sadac gzis uqonloba adamianis ararsebobasTan asocirdeba, radgan gza aris is sibrtye, romelzec moZraobs da romlis meSveobiTac sivrcesa da droSi gadaadgildeba adamiani. Cemi cxovrebis gza sizmaria, _ wers galaktion tabiZe. Mmisi araordinaruli da daxvewili poeturi plasti gverds ver uvlis gzis sayovelTao da trivialur mniSvnelobas da pirdapir cxovrebis gzad moixseniebs, romelic imgvaria, rogorc nawvimar silaSi vardi. Cemi cxovrebis naxevargzaze SemomaRamda, _ wers dante. naxevargza aq Suagzis aRmniSvnelia da naxevari cxovrebis gavlaze miuTiTebs. Ffraza mlianad metaforizebulia, da Tu naxevargza naxevar cxovrebas aRniSnavs, SemoRameba srul dabneulobas, usasoobas, uimedobas asaxavs, rodesac usinaTlobisas gza aRar Cans da kvalic ikargeba. irgvliv bindia Camowolili da gza xsnisa arsad Cans. mirbis, mimafrens ugzo-ukvlod Cemi merani, da gza uvali, Sengan Telili, merano Cemo, mainc darCeba, _ wers nikoloz baraTaSvili. tatos merani jer isev gaukvalav gzaze midis da mxedars am dros gzis siZneles imedi uadvilebs, rom mis mier gaWrili gza maradiulad iarsebebs, da adamianTa modgmas cxovrebas gauadvilebs. axali gzis gakvalva axal idealebTan ziarebas niSnavs, es gza sulier metamorfozebsa da ZvrebTan asocirdeba, rac udidesi wvlilia kacobriobis mier ganvlil gzaze Setanil cvlilebebSi. axali gzis aRmoCenasa da, miT ufro, gakvalvas, didi Zala, niWi da energia sWirdeba, es ki mxolod geniosTa xvedria. geniosebi kacobriobis gzamkvlevebadac SegviZlia movnaTloT. qarTuli gza droSi da drosTan erTad moZraobs, da dro Cerdeba mis gverdiT. es gza mec vici, saiTken midis, _ wers muxran maWavariani da aqcents akeTebs cxovrebiseuli gzis konceptze. poetma icis, saiT midis geografiuli gza, romelic misi mSobliuri mxaris soflebs kveTs, Tumca man ar icis, sad mihyavs cxovrebis gzas, romelic cxovrebiseul sivrceSi moiazreba da sicocxlesTan erTad moZraobs. dRes mowyenili mivdivar gzaze, minda, TbilisSi sul ar davbrunde, minda, bolomde gavyve rkinigzas, Zvirfaso, vdgavar gzajvaredinze da vici, Cemi gza romelia, me davbrundi isev, gamoviare gveliviT daklaknili gzebi, wers terenti graneli. grZeli, Sori gza da ocneba usazRvro gzebze, gza did sicocxlis dagiamos vardma, iama, _ wers ti-

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cian tabiZe. mwuxare mgzavro, Rame naxe da aqviTindi, ar aris SenTvis gza bneli da gaubedari, _ wers paolo iaSvili. qarTul literaturul masalebSi gza cxovrebasTan, mimarTulebasTan, bedTan asocirdeba. igive SegviZlia vTqvaT evropul da msoflio literaturaze; magaliTisaTvis gavixsenoT odisevsis, don kixotis da sxvaTa gzebi. aqve saWiroa gavakeToT fizikuri da sulieri gzebis diferenciacia, rodesac pirveli garegan efeqtebsa da Zvrebzea dafuZnebuli, meore ki Sinagan, Cabrunebul procesebs asaxavs da gareSe TvalisTvis xSirad uxilavia, Tumca, droTa ganmavlobaSi, is fizikur sivrceSi transformirdeba da fizikur gzaSi aisaxeba. am SemTxvevaSi fizikuri da sulieri gzebi droSi erTmaneTs scdebian, Tumca udroobisa da maradiulobis sivrceSi erTmaneTidan gamomdinareoben da erTmaneTs ganapirobeben. ra gzas davadge? kiTxulobs sasowarkveTili qarTveli, da Znelad SegviZlia gavixsenoT sxva iseTi Tqma, romelic aseTi bukvaluri sizustiT gamoxatavdes umweobisa da ususurobis SegrZnebas. enis plastikuroba da yovlisSemZleoba aq mTeli Tavisi ZalmosilebiT cxaddeba, radgan niSanTa yvelaze srulyofilsa da gavrcelebul sistemas warmoadgens ena (manana kvaWantiraZe). oTar WilaZem ki axali gza gaWra qarTul literaturul sivrceSi da gzas ki ar waayvanina mgzavrebi, aramed gzaze waiyvana kaci (romani gzaze erTi kaci midioda). WilaZis polifoniuri romani ganfenilia udroo sivrceebSi, sadac moqmedebis mTvari areali gzaa. am mravalgmirian romanSi TiTqos mxolod erTi magistraluri gza ikveTeba, sadac monacvleobiT miemgzavrebian da cxovroben personaJebi. romanSi arsebulUuamrav saxes, niSansa da simbolos Soris MmTavari mainc gzaa. gzis simbolur semantikas uzustesad gamoxatavs saxarebiseuli igavi gzaabneuli cxvari. ra ggoniaT Tqven, kacs rom asi cxvari hyavdes da erT maTgans gza rom daebnas, gana mTebSi ar miatovebs oTxmocdacxramets da ar wava gzaabneulis mosaZebnad? (luk.15.4) Tundac mxolod am igavidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom gza Cveulebrivi saxidan gadasulia simbolos kategoriaSi da is SesaZlebelia saxarebiseul saxe-simbolod CaiTvalos. niSnisa da simbolos konceptebi erTmaneTTanaa daaxloebuli, Tumca simbolo aRmatebiT xasiaTs iZens da aqvs privilegia fundamenturi gavlenebis moxdenisa literaturaSi, azrovnebasa da komunikaciebSi, rasac ver vityviT niSanze. gza ni-

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Sanicaa da simboloc, radgan simboloebiT urTierToba cxovrebiseul diskursebSi ar amarTlebs da, xSir SemTxvevaSi, saxifaTocaa, radgan, rogorc pirsi ambobs, simbolo mTlianad damokidebulia interpretatorze, niSani ki komunikaciebis saukeTeso atributia da mas sayovelTaooba axasiaTebs, rac zustad miesadageba gzas da masTan dakavSirebul Tu misgan gamomdinare Tqmebs. me var gza da WeSmariteba da visac surs cxoneba, aiRos Tavisi jvari da gamomyves me, _ ambobs ieso. jvris simbolo mxolod iesoseul gzaze iZens Tavis namdvil mniSvnelobas da Tavis funqcias gansazRvravs. is dakavSirebulia saxarebiseul ideasTan da misgan gamomdinareobs, rogorc saxareba gamomdinareobs jvris mistikuri da sakraluri Sinaarsidan. yvelas, visac esmis sityva sasufevelze da gonebiT ar Caswvdeba, miuxdeba boroti da mostacebs mis gulSi CaTesils: ai, ras niSnavs gzispiras daTesili, _ vkTxulobT maTes saxarebaSi. radgan gzaze bevri adamiani moZraobs da mudmivi dinamikaa, gzispirasac bevri fexi xvdeba, amitom gzispiras daTesili arasaimedoa. aq Zalian kargadaa gamoyenebuli gzis uZvelesi simbolo. simbolo arasdros ekuTvnis kulturis romelime erT sinqronul Wrils igi yovelTvis vertikalSi msWvalavs am Wrils, warsulidan mosuli midis ra momavalSi. simbolos mexsiereba ufro Zvelia, vidre misi arasimboluri teqsturi garemos mexsiereba, wers iuri lotmani. saxarebiseul SemTxvevaSi gza zustad miesadageba lotmanis mier ganmartebul simbolos arss. goeTe ambobs: yoveli, rac xdeba, aris simbolo. rodesac frenk sinatra, devid boui, nina hageni da uamravi sxva, mRerian hits My Way, swored cxovrebis gzas gulisxmoben, Tumca qarTuli gzagansxvavebuli, specifikuri da grZelia evropul gzasTan SedarebiT, isev da isev qarTuli cnobierebidan da azrovnebis individualobidan gamomdinare.

gia joxaZe

xsovna da istoria
xsovnis istoria ukanasknel xans respeqtabeluri diskusiis sagnad iqca, da es istoriuli anTropologiis damsaxurebacaa. albaT, imitom, rom Tanamedrove kulturaSi tradiciis danawevrebis Sedegad ,,koleqtiuri mexsierebis gaqrobam gza gauxsna warsulze alternatiul Sexedulebebs. axal amocanad iqca warsulis Zieba _ individebisa da socialuri jgufebis, gansakuTrebiT _ marginalTa dasaxmareblad, hpovon sakuTari identoba, gaarkvion, ra da vin hgoniaT Tavi (hatoni 2003). mexsierebis, xsovnis erT-erTi gansazRvreba gveubneba, rom mexsiereba warsulis Semqnelia da misi istoriuli Taviseburebaa _ myofobdes droSi. universaluri mniSvnelobiT, esaa informaciis gadarCeva, Senaxva da gamoxatva. cneba ,,xsovna, mexsiereba miemarTeba adamians da sxva arsebebs, romelTac aqvT fsiqika, radgan mexsiereba ara mxolod inaxavs informacias, aramed ayalibebs gamocdilebas, warsuls awmyosa da momavals uTanadebs, individualurs _ tomobrivs, erTeuls _ sayovelTaos, gardamavals _ maradiuls da sxv. (Skuratovi 1997). mexsierebis problema, ra Tqma un-

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da, samyarosaviT Zvelia, igi araerTxel ganuxilavT. antikur droSi moazrovne adamianebi fiqrobdnen, rom Cvens sulSi aris cvilis naWeri, muzaTa dedis _ mnemosines _ mexsierebis mfarvelis _ ZRveni. roca vxedavT, gvesmis an roca viazrebT rasme, am cvilis naWers Cvens grZnobebsa da azrebs vufenT qveS da imavenairad aRvbeWdavT maT, rogorc beWedi tovebs xolme Tavis kvals. amgvarad, arsebobs codna, romelic ar gamomdinareobs Cveni grZnobiTi STabeWdilebidan; Cvens mexsierebaSi inaxeba ideaTa formebi da Sablonebi, romelic sulma manamde icoda, vidre CvenSi moikalaTebda. WeSmariti codna niSnavs im nakvaleviT operirebas, romlebic grZnobebma dagvitoves. rogorc xedavT, ,,kvali, ,,nakvalevi, misi urTierToba imasTan, risi nakvalevicaa, Zalian mniSvnelovania mexsierebis TeoriaSi. mark blokic xom ambobda, rom istoria aris mecniereba, romelic nakvalevTa kvalobaze iqmneba! (platoni 1953: 251; rikeri 2004). antikur droSive arsebobda sxva mosazrebac: yvelanairi codna Cveni grZnobebisagan, maTi STabeWdilebebidan momdinareobs. aRqma, romelic grZnobis xuTi organoTi gveZleva, Tavdapirvelad gardaiqmneba warmosaxvis meSveobiT, xolo Semdeg es Camoyalibebuli saxeebi eZleva Cvens inteleqtualur SesaZleblobebs. gaixseno raRac _ niSnavs, ucqiro sulSi aRbeWdil fantazmebs, saxeebs, maT miRma ki imas, risi anabeWdebic arian isini. warmosaxva mosdevs mexsierebas da cnobierebaze imgvarad zemoqmedebs, rom aiZulebs mas, xelmeored, xelaxla ganicados warsulis grZnobismieri impulsebi. magram mexsierebis es tipi mainc warsulis gaxsenebaa, warsulis xsovnaa. awmyos momentSi awmyos ver gavixsenebT. awmyo miiRweva gancdiT, momavali _ winaswarWvretiT, warsuli _ mexsierebiT. Zalian martivad rom vTqvaT, raRacis Secnoba gaxsenebaa. raRac gvaxsovs, raRacas viviwyebT. magram es codna ganagrZobs arsebobas, filosofiuri msjelobiT ki SesaZlebeli xdeba misi aqtualizeba. fizikuri obieqtebi exmarebian suls, koncentrireba sakuTar Tavze moaxdinos, daubrundes dasabamTa dasabams, xelaxla daeuflos Tavdapirvel codnas, romelic hqonda manam, vidre CvenSi daibudebda. Sesabamisad, sikvdili sawyisTan, srulyofil arsebobasTan dabrunebaa, arsebobasTan, romelsac suli drodadro kargavs xolme, imitom, rom gardaisaxeba (aristotele

98
2004:25; eliade; platoni 1993:81).

gia joxaZe

Suasaukuneobriv tradiciaSi mexsierebas, xsovnas aRniSnavdnen laTinuri terminiT ,,Memoria, romelic mraval Sres Seicavda: religiuri TvalsazrisiT, es iyo cocxlebis mier micvalebulTa gaxseneba, socialuri mniSvnelobiT _ mkvdrebisa da cocxlebis erTianobis, Tanamyofobis damkvidreba. memoria aris mexsiereba, romelic ayalibebs erTianobas. es adamianis cnobierebis niSandoblivi Taviseburebaa, Seinaxos codna gardasulze, adamianebze, gardacvlilebze... magram es gaxsenebacaa, cnobierebaSi warsulis xat-saxeTa da movlenaTa amotivtiveba, aseve, mogoneba im socialuri qmedebebisa, romlebSic es mogoneba manifestirdeba (arnautova 2003:23). rogor gamoixateboda Memoria? sxvadasxvagvarad: werdnen biografiebs, ukveTdnen gardacvlilTa portretebsa da skulpturebs, amzadebdnen saflavis qvebs... istorikosebma daiwyes istoriografiuli, gamomsaxvelobiTi, monumenturi formebis Ziebaca da gamoyenebac. amgvarad, memoria aris gansazRvruli epoqis im azrovnebisa da qmedebis forma, romlebiTac regulirdeboda mkvdarTa da cocxalTa urTierToba. erTi wminda mama aseT klasifikacias gvaZlevda: adamianuri goneba Sedgeba gagebisagan, siyvarulisagan da mexsierebisagan. Cvenc SegviZlia memorias mniSvnelobaTa serias samgvarad mivudgeT: pirveli. socialuri mexsiereba aris procesi, romlis meoxebiTac sazogadoeba warsuls aRiqvams, rogorc sakuTari identobis ganuyofel nawils; aq moiazreba e.w. liturgikuli praqtika, istoriografia, genealogia, zepiri tradicia, kulturuli aqtivobis sxvadasxva forma, romelTa farglebSi individebi da jgufebi sakuTar warsuls exebian; meore. mexsierebis, xsovnis istoria aris mexsierebis treningi, romelic exmareba inteleqtualebs, daimaxsovron da gaixsenon informacia. dabolos, mexsierebis istoriis uarsebiTesi aspeqti _ kavSiri istoriasTan. an iqneb TviT istoriac mexsierebaa? memoria, rogorc specifikuri kultura, qreba axali drois dadgomasTan erTad. icvleba cocxlebsa da mkvdrebs Soris urTierToba, icvleba ,,micvalebulTa, ase vTqvaT, ,,sazogadoeb-

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rivi statusi. axalma istoriulma mecnierebam, romelsac istoricizmsac uwodeben, Camoayaliba koleqtiuri maxsovrobis mamoZravebeli Zalebi: saxeebi da ideebi. civilizaciis sxvadasxva etapebze saxe da idea Serwymuli iyo arqauli adamianis cnobierebaSi. adamianebi metaforulad azrovnebdnen, es metaforebi ki iolad gamosaxati da dasamaxsovrebeli unda yofiliyo. aq moiazreba kavSiri adgilebsa da saxeebs Sorisac. cnobiereba abstragirebs da Sesabamisad, manZili saxesa da adgils Soris farTovdeba. mexsierebis am xelovnebaSi poetebi warmosaxvis saSualebiT iyalibebdnen samyaros aRqmas anu mexsiereba iqmneboda saxeebiT, romelTac forma da sazrisi unda mieniWebinaT samyarosaTvis. gansakuTrebuli sazrisiT imuxteboda zepiri kulturac, romlidanac teqstebi, iribi mowmobebi, wyaroebi iqmneba. mas merec, rac Caweres, isini mainc gadaicemoda zepiri gziT. Tanarsebobda cocxali mexsierebac da werilobiTi komunikaciac (viko 1994). XIX saukune istorizmis xanaa, da mexsierebac sxva araferia, Tu ara adamianisa da sazogadoebis moTxovnileba, da am mniSvnelobiT _ istoriis Tavisebureba. erTi marqsistuli yaidis filosofosi ambobda, rom radgan tradiciasTan kavSiri gawyda (XIX saukunes swored tradiciebisagan gaTavisuflebis epoqad moiazrebdnen), amitom dasangrevic aRaraferi darCeniliyo. axla mxolod unda daxriliyavi da narCenTa grovidan Zvirfasi namsxvrevebi gamogerCia (beniamini 2000:83). XX saukunis ocian wlebSi sociologebma SemogvTavazes, mexsiereba koleqtiur socialur fenomenad gangvexila: mexsiereba sicocxlisa da sazogadoebis gadarCenis aucilebeli elementia. is ayalibebs sazogadoebas, rogoradac ayalibebs; is aris misi identobis safuZvelTa safuZveli... magram erTi mniSvnelovani detalic: es gaxlavT opozicia istoria _ mexsiereba; koleqtiuri mexsiereba erTmaneTs ukavSirebs warsulsa da awmyos, maSin, roca istoria angrevs am memkvidreobiTobas, awesebs gansxvavebas warsulsa da awmyos Soris. mexsiereba moqmedebs emociebze, mexsierebis es magia acocxlebs warsuls. isto-

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ria ki cdilobs, warsuli ise gadmosces, rom misi kavSiri awmyosTan emociisagan daclili iyos. mexsiereba ukavSirdeba, Cveulebriv, rigiT movlenebs, istoria _ gamorCeulT, RirsSesaniSnavT. istorias saqme aqvs iseT warsulTan, sadac cocxali mexsierebis natamalic ki aRar arsebobs. aseTi warsulis aRdgena SesaZlebelia sarwmuno wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, magram mentalobas veRar gavacocxlebT (halbvaqsi 2005). magram... nuTu ase uimedodaa saqme? aris raime xerxi, rom istoriam mexsierebaSi SeaRwios da _ piriqiT? aris. es gaxlavT avtobiografiuli mexsiereba. ras vgulisxmobT? warmovidginoT, rom arsebobs ori saxis mexsiereba: Sinagani da garegani, piradi da socialuri, avtobiografiuli da istoriuli... pirveli iyenebs meores, radgan Cveni cxovrebis istoriac istoriis nawilia. magram meore, bunebrivia, pirvelze farToa. igi warmogvidgens warsuls mxolod Semoklebuli da sqematuri formiT, maSin, roca Cveni cxovrebiseuli mexsiereba gvTavazobs ufro uwyvet da ufro msuye suraTs. Tumca mexsiereba Zalian arasaimedo winamZRvaria warsulis realobis dasadgenad. Semdeg, XX saukunis 70-80-ian wlebSi, saerTod uaryves tradicia, rogorc istoriuli kvlevis safuZveli: roca istorikosi tradicias mimarTavs, igi Tavs ver aRwevs warsulis koncefciebs. tradiciebi qmnian erTianobis iluzias, imeoreben adrindel inteleqtualur orientirebs... am xanis adeptTa azriT, istorias, rogorc gaxsenebasa da Secnobas, unda dapirispireboda parodireba da ngreva; istorias, rogorc tradicias _ identobis rRveva; istorias, rogorc Semecnebas _ WeSmaritebaTa msxvreva da Sewirva. istoria saerTod unda gaTavisuflebuliyo mexsierebis modelisagan. istoriisagan unda SeeqmnaT kontrmexsiereba da masSi, Sesabamisad, drois sxva forma ganefinaT. ufro gvian, eWvqveS daayenes Tavad istoriuli realobis cneba. gTavazobT gaazrebas: Tu is, rac Cemamde iyo, CemTvis ucxoa, Tu ar vici da arc minda vicode, maSin vkargav identifikacias Cemamde arsebul Tao-

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bebTan, ara? magram isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Sinaganad, eqsistenciurad, me araferi makavSirebs maTTan _ istoriis personaJebi arc ucxoni arian CemTvis, arc _ nacnobni. istoria, rogorc obieqturi procesi, ar aisaxeba Cems sazogadoebriv da kulturul Tvalsazrisze da ar ayalibebs mas. CemTan mimarTebiT istoria oden garegania, kargavs Sinagan aucileblobas da amitomac meZleva, rogorc nebismieri konstruqcia _ SeiZleba misi manipulireba; SeiZleba masze imoqmedos gareatmosferom, ideologiurma impulsebma, piradma swrafvebma da a.S. (fuko 2003:554). bolo xans, rac ufro did rols TamaSobs mexsiereba, miT ufro saSuri xdeba masa da istorias Soris kavSiris dadgena. frangma istorikosma pier noram aRadgina termini ,,koleqtiuri mexsiereba da gadawyvita Seerigebina isini erTmaneTisaTvis. SemogvTavaza, mentalobasaviT Segveswavla koleqtiuri mexsiereba: Segveswavla topografiuli, monumentaluri, simboluri, funqcionaluri ,,adgilebi, romlebTanac sazogadoeba akavSirebs Tavisebur memorialTa istorias. noram SemogvTavaza, xelmeored gagveazrebina TviT mexsierebis cneba. is aRar aris warsulis elementTa erTianoba, romelic unda davimaxsovroT, raTa movamzadoT niadagi sasurveli momavlisaTvis; misi saSualebiT Cven sakuTari awmyo unda gaviazroT. Tavis wignSi ,,xsovnis adgilebi nora gvirCevs warsulis Zegli vaqcioT xsovnis adgilad, memorialad, romelSic mexsierebam unda gaiRviZos. muzeumi, romelsac aTvaliereben, unda iqces muzeumad, romelSic cxovroben, romelSic eqsponatebTan uSualo da aqtiuri kontaqti aqvT. am process hqvia warsulis prezentatiulad gamoyeneba. mecnieris midgomis Tanaxmad, erTmaneTisagan unda gavarCioT memorialebi da is, rasac nora uwodebs ,,xsovnis adgilebs. memorialebi isaa, romlebsac qmnis oficialuri sazogadoebrivi gaerTianebebi an mTavroba, raTa Semoinaxon raRacis xsovna: quCebis saxelwodebani, veteranTa asociaciebi, omis msxverplTa Zeglebi; yovelive es memorialebia. roca istorikosi amuSavebda cnebas ,,xsovnis adgilebi, misi, rogorc mecnieris, amocana iyo, gaeazrebina mexsierebis, xsovnis gageba, eCvenebina, rom arsebobs mexsierebis sivrce, romelic gacilebiT farToa, vidre memorialebSi asaxuli Sexeduleba warsulze. ,,mexsierebis adgilad SeiZleba iqces sityva,

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institucia. magaliTad movitanoT safrangeTis akademia. igi XVII saukuneSi aages, raTa leqsikoni SeeqmnaT, enobrivi normebi daemkvidrebinaT. safrangeTis akademiisaTvis mexsierebis kulti Zalian mniSvnelovania _ roca mis wevrs irCeven, Tavis Sesaval sityvaSi momavalma akademikosma unda moixsenios igi, vis adgilsac ikavebs. veravin uwodebs am ceremonias ,,memorials _ es swored rom xsovnis adgilia. an ganvixiloT safrangeTis revoluciis devizi ,,Tavisufleba, erToba, Zmoba ... es ar aris memoriali... aravis ukvlevia misi istoria. saerTod, safrangeTis ZiriTad simboloTa istoria aravis ukvlevia. noram swored am simboloTa _ himnis, droSis da sxv. _ kvleva daiwyo. Semdeg misi TvalTaxedvis areSi moxvda cneba ,,Taoba. rogoria am popularuli terminis istoria? am cnebis gamoyeneba safrangeTSi revoluciis droidan daiwyes. manamde jer kidev Zlieri iyo mamaTa avtoriteti. roca monarqia daingra, gaCnda e.w. horizontaluri solidaroba, magaliTad, SesaZlebeli gaxda, mSoblebis uneburad daqorwinebuliyavi da memkvidreoba mainc migeRo (manamde memkvidreoba pirmSoobis uflebas gulisxmobda). ,,Taobis koncefcia viTardeboda, icvleboda 1968 wlamde, vidre axalgazrdebma ar Seqmnes erTgvari axali tipis Taoba. manamde safrangeTSi yovelTvis ambobdnen, vTqvaT, ,,pirveli msoflio omis, ,,saxalxo frontis, ,,gaTavisuflebis Taoba. 1968 wels gamoCnda wigni ,,Taoba, romelic gamodioda yvela Taobisa da avtoritarulobis yvela formis winaaRmdeg. bevrs laparakobdnen imazec, rom Taobaa erTi asakisa da saerTo mexsierebis xalxi. am koncefciiT wignebic ki iwereboda. mark bloki ambobda, rom sityva Taoba istorikosma ar unda gamoiyenos, igi umniSvneloa, rogorc inteleqtualuri, ise _ demografiuli TvalsazrisiTo. pier nora piriqiT moiqca, raTa gaexaza winaaRmdegobis yvela sirTule da eCvenebina, rom es sityvac (,,Taoba) xsovnis erT-erTi adgilia, is adgilia, romelsac granitis memorialiviT SeuZlia xsovnis Senaxva (nora 1999). sabolood, SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom, rogorc Cans, istoriuli identobis Zieba yvelgan da yvelaferSi SeiZleba.

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literatura:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

, . . ., 2003 , . . . ., 1997 . / // . .: 4 . ., 1993. . 2. , . , , . ., 2004 . // . 2004. 7.

6. , . . ., 2000. 7. . / // . .: 4 . ., 1993. . 2. 8. , . . . , 1994. 9. , . // . 2005. 2. 10. , . , , // : . / . . . ., 2003. 11. , ., , ., , . , , . / . . . . ., 1999

nino abakelia

ornamentizebuli dro da sivrce saqarTvelos teritoriaze dacul brinjaos artefaqtebze


mkiTxvelis yuradReba gvinda gavamaxviloT saqarTvelos teritoriaze dacul adrebrinjaos xanis gravirebul sartylebze (Zv.w.IX-VII saukuneebi. romlebic, aseve, gvxvdeba dRevandeli somxeTisa da azerbaijanis teritoriebze), vizualuri masala, werilobiT wyaroebsa da zepirsityvier masalasTan erTad, miTebis Seswavlis uniSvnelovanesi wyaroa. aRniSnuli sartylebis gravirebuli scenebi istoriebs mogviTxroben da, Sesabamisad, droisa da sivrcis arahomogenur struqturaze migvaniSneben. zogadad, sartyeli, rogorc nivTi, droSi, sivrcesa da kulturis konteqstSi funqciobs. sartyels, rogorc materialur nivTs, iseT semiotikur sistemaSi CarTvisas, rogoric ritualia, eZleva niSnis funqcia, xolo sistemidan gamovardnis SemTxvevaSi, isev nivTad iqceva. misi semiotikuri statusi, SesaZloa, arsebiTad Seicvalos droSi, sxvadasxvanairad funqciobdes, rogorc erTi eTnosis SigniT, aseve _ gansxvavebuli eTnikuri warmonaqmnisaTvis da icvlebodes situaciis mixedviT.

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zogadad, sagani da, konkretulad _ sartyeli, ramdenadac simboluri xdeba, imdenad zebunebriv Rirebulebebsa da formebze mianiSnebs. aRniSnuli sartylebis maRali semiotikuri statusi Cans mis ramodenime maxasiaTebelSi: a) dekorSi, romelic esTetikur CarCoebs scdeba; b) uZvelesi kosmologiis anareklSi; g) mis reglamentirebul xmarebaSi da sxv. is, rogorc semiotikuri statusis mqone sagani, garkveuli saxis miTebTan, anu sakralur istoriebTan, narativebTanaa dakavSirebuli. Tu rwmena-warmodgenebsa da ritualSi monawile sartyeli niSania (da is namdvilad niSania), es gulisxmobs masSi kodirebul aqtualur informacias, Setyobinebas, romelic unda gaiSifros. mas adresati hyavs. brinjaos sartylebma aRmoCenisTanave mravali mecnieris yuradReba miipyro. isini Seiswavleboda, upirveles yovlisa, rogorc xelovnebis nimuSebi da, Sesabamisad, mkvlevrebs ainteresebdaT maTSi formisa da stilis ganviTareba. mecnierebs, aseve, ainteresebdaT, Tu sad da vin atarebda amgvar qamrebs: mezobeli urartuelebi, xeTebi Tu sxvebi1, qalebi Tu mamakacebi, meomrebi, warCinebulni, Cinianni Tu uCinoni da sxv. (kozlovi, uruSaZe, 1994; xidaSeli 1984,2001, 2005; surgulaZe 1987; yifiani, 2000) (magram aucileblad migvaCnia imis aRniSvnac, rom TiToeuli sartyeli gansxvavebulad aris gaformebuli da, Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva informaciis matarebelia). mecnierebi sxvadasxva dros dekoratiul detalebs xan nayofierebis simboloTaAsferos miakuTvnebdnen, xan agrikulturas ukavSirebdnen, xanac amiranis eposs. mag.; jvaredinad gravirebul rombisebur formebs an kvadratebs miiCnevdnen kultivirebul yanebad, gravirebuli Strixebi wvimasTan, xolo dawinwkluli samkuTxedebi mTis meurneobasTan kavSirdeboda, yuradReba maxvildeboda iremsa da xarze, rogorc sameurneo cxovelebze da sxv. maT, aseve, agrikulturul kalendarTan, da Sesabamisad, pirveli
1

qamrebi, faqtobrivad, berZeni gmirebis atributebia literaturasa da xelovnebaSi geometriuli (Zv.w. 900-700 ww) da orientalizebuli (Zv.w. 730-600 ww.) periodebisTvis. miSel benetis mixedviT, homerosis `iliadaSi~ brZolis dros sartylebi icaven gmirebs sikvdilisgan. srtylis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia mefis gamorCeva ubralo mokvdavTagan. sartyeli megobrobis niSnad gaicvleboda. mas atarebdnen mokriveni, meetleni, moWidaveni da sxv.

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kvalis gayvanasTan, TesvasTan, mosavlis aRebasTan da sxv. akavSirebdnen (kozlovi, uruSaZe 1994), bolo dros ki _ sakralur nadirobasa da purobasTan (xidaSeli 1984, 2001, 2005; surgulaZe 1987). sartylebze Cvens winaSe iSleba: naratiuli scenebi adamianTa stilizebuli gamosaxulebebiT; aseve ornamentebi, romlebic geometriuli stilisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. aRniSnul nivTebSi aqcenti ufro nadirobis scenaze iyo gadatanili da naklebi yuradReba eqceoda anturaJs, sadac es scena viTardeba, an, ufro zustad, sxvagvarad iyo interpretirebuli, vidre qvemoT warmovadgenT. sartylebze gvaqvs Setyobineba, romelic ganlagebulia rogorc realur sivrceSi, asevev warmosaxvaSi da iqmneba, v. toporovs rom davesesxoT (romelic, Tavis mxriv, hartmans emyareboda), mimarTeba: teqsti, sivrce da sivrce/teqsti (toporovi 1983, 227-284), romelic aseve ilustraciaa propoziciisa, romlis mixedviTac, teqsti sivrculia. sivrcis Wvretisas marTlac yvelaze mniSvnelovani da paradoqsuli isaa, rom cnobiereba sivrces warmogvidgens, maSin rodesac TviTon cnobiereba Tavisi yvelanairi SinaarsiT usivrcoa (toporovi, iqve). samonadireo rituali gulisxmobs ramdenime tipis sivrcul garemos (Sinas da gares), da, Sesabamisad, sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, Semogvaqvs termini _ liminaluric ( anu zRvruli), romelic Tavis droze anTropologiaSi van genepma Semoitana socialuri da individualuri yvelanairi cvalebadi procesis Sesaswavlad droiT da sivrcul planSi. mas Cven ganvavrcobT samonadireo ritualzec da Sesabamisad, naSromi organizdeba sakiTxebis garSemo: a) Tu ras SeiZleba niSnavdes liminaluri zemoT xsenebul artefaqtebSi, romlebic naratiul xatebad warmogvidgeba. Tumca liminaluris ganxilvamde, ramdenime sakiTxze gavamaxvileb yuradRebas. kerZod, aRniSnuli sartylebis Setyobinebis gacnobierebas, Cveni azriT, SevyavarT adamiani/buneba-s Soris arsebuli komunikaciis arsSi da, Sesabamisad _ sivrcul mimarTebebSi, rogorebicaa opoziciebi: Sina/gare, saiqio/saaqao, da droiT mimarTebebSi: amieri/imieri, warmavali/waruvali. qarTul percefciaSi, romelic araCveulebrivad kompleqsuria Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare, es opoziciebi dakavSirebulia mokvdavTa realobasTan. Sesabamisad, sivrcul da droiT parametrebSi Sina da

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gare samyaroTaAsivrculi mimarTebebi mocemulia istoriebSi, romlebic exeba mogzaurobas, sanadirod wasvlas, miaxloebas sakralur centrTan (n. abakelia, 2006). es gadasvlebi, romlebic liminaluri zonebis gadalaxvas gulisxmobs, aseve droSi mogzaurobebicaa. gavixsenoT farTod gavrcelebuli idea, rom xanmokle mogzauroba iq, Seesabameba ufro xangrZliv droiT intervals aq (Tumca inversiuli SemTxvevebic mravladaa), rodesac drois xangrZlivoba iq ufro didia, vidre aq, amierSi. saiqioSi Sesvla (gasvla) SesaZlebelia: a) TuU individi iniciaciagavlili da rCeulia; b) sakralur dros (magaliTad, dResaswaulis dros), an g) nadirobis daSvebis dros, rac sakraluri centris mflobel nadirTpatrons ukavSirdeba (n. abakelia, 2006, 201-13) da sxv. rogorc specialuri literaturidan kargadaa cnobili, sivrcisa da drois centrebi erTmaneTs ukavSirdebian. amitom sivrcis nebismieri aRwera gulisxmobs aq da axla-s, xolo yvelanairi orientacia droSi gulisxmobs orientacias sivrceSi. sivrcis dayofa mimarTulebebad da zonebad paraleluria drois dayofisa fazebad (toporovi, 1983). sartylis dekoridan da funqciebidan gamomdinare migvaCnia, rom gravirebuli sartyeli monadiris samosis atributi da Sesabamisad, misi statusis maCvenebelic unda yofiliyo. sartylis tareba, iseve rogorc monadiris mier magiuri beWdis floba, romelsac tyis dedofali aZlevs monadires, rogorc Tavis rCeuls, migvaCnia, rom bed-iRbalTan aris dakavSirebuli (abakelia: 2006, 201-213). raWa-leCxumSi SemorCenilia ritualuri saferxulo simRera (qalsa visme erqva SroSanao...~), romelic nadirTpatrons, saxelad _ SroSanas eZRvneba (dawvrilebiT analizi teqstisa ix. n. abakelia 2006, 201-212. iqve literatura). aRniSnuli ritualuri teqstis analizma gviCvena, rom saweso simRera ufro didi miTis nawils warmoadgens, romelic nadirobas, monadirisa da qalRvTaebis sasiyvarulo urTierTobas da rCeulobis instituts ukavSirdeba. saweso leqsis ufro farTo konteqstSi ganxilva masTan dakavSirebul axal informaciul nakadebs warmoSobs. qalis saxeli SroSana, romelic mTis TeTri surnelovani yvavilis (liliis) aRmniSvnelia, mas, erTi mxriv, odoristul kodSi rTavs, xolo meore mxriv, yvavilis centridan gamomavali furclebis gamo, romelic centridan ga-

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mosxivebas SeiZleba SevadaroT, genoniseuli gagebiT, mas samyaros simbolizmTan akavSirebs (gavixsenoT egviptur Sesaqmis miTSi an induistur tradiciaSi lotosi, rogorc samyaros gamovlineba, romelzec RvTaebaa gamosaxuli da sxv.). Cveni gamokvlevebidan gamomdinare (2006, 2010 178-187), qalRvTaeba SroSanasTan ramdenime azrobrivad Tanxvedrili simbolo asocirdeba. mag., yvavili da beWedi. orives (beWedsa da yvavils), rogorc wris manifestacias, wris yvela miTologiuri mniSvneloba miuRia da maT Soris TviTobisac anu sicocxlis yvelaze arsebiTi aspeqtic, iungiseuli gagebiT (TviTobaze ix.: iungi: 2005), romelic yovelTvis mis absolutur sisruleze mianiSnebs. sxva simboloTa agebuleba, romelsac teqstSi vxvdebiT, efuZneba wrisa da RerZis gamosaxulebas. Tvliani beWedi, rogorc wre, samyaros warmosaxviTi suraTxatia. mis centrSi amosuli naZvis xe RerZuli simbolikis mniSvnelobisaa (centris da RerZis simbolizmTan dakavSirebiT ix. eliade: 1958) Sesabamisad, wreSi (moZraobis simbolo) amosuli xe (uZraobis simbolo) moZravisa da uZravis mimarTebis maCvenebelia. horizontalur proeqciaSi xe, zogadad, samyaros Wipad aris miCneuli, xolo vertikalSi _ samyaros RerZad (genoni: 2000). mciremasStabiani samyaros modelis struqturas, romelsac beWedi iZleva, kosmiuri aspeqti aqvs, xolo beWedi im suraTxats gvaZlevs, romelSic dro da sivrce (aq da axla) iWreba, da iqmneba realoba, mTlianoba. amrigad, monadire sazogadoebis is privilegirebuli piria, romelsac qalRvTaebis keTilganwyobis gamo, SeuZlia, neba eZleva mivides sakralur centrTan, miaRwios samoTxiseul mdgomareobas da droebiT daeuflos mTlianobas. monadiris gasvla gareT da Sexvedra qalRvTaebasTan, masTan satrfialo xelSekrulebis dadeba da amiT bedis mopoveba ukve mis gansakuTrebul sensitivobaze miuTiTebs. praqtikulad, monadiris araCveulebrivad gamaxvilebuli grZnobebis meSveobiT vlindeba sakraluri samyaro sazogadoebisTvis. monadire am SemTxvevaSi gansxvavdeba sazogadoebis sxva wevrebisgan sakuTari religiuri gancdebis intensivobiT. misi sulieri cxovreba faruli unarebis gamo ufro Rrma da Sinaarsiania, vidre sxva danarCeni xalxisa. monadiris Sexvedrisas qalRvTaebasTan xdeba misi transformacia Cveulebrividan araCveulebrivSi _ rCeulSi.

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mTlianoba zemoT motanili wriuli saferxulo ritualiTac gamoixateboda. eTnologebis mier Seswavlil ferxulebSi (zemyrelo, saxato ferxulebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi) samyaros wrebrunvis ideaa gamoxatuli samyaros RerZis garSemo, cisa da miwis kavSiri sakralur centrSi, drois cikluri mdinareba, rac samyaros wesrigs, nayofierebas, keTildReobas da sxv. ukavSirdeba (alaverdaSvili: 2004,.24; 2005). magram sxvadasxva konteqstSi moqceuli TiToeuli ferxuli gansxvavebuli simboluri mniSvnelobisaa.

ras SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes samonadireo ciklSi CarTuli ferxuli da risi simbolo SeiZleba iyos igi? amaze SeiZleba teqstma gvipasuxos, romelic realurad qalRvTaebis invokaciaa, da Sesrulebis wesma: ferxuls mTeli sofeli asrulebs. orive, rogorc verbaluri, aseve araverbaluri qmedeba erTmaneTs avsebs da exmareba, orive erTad ki _ monadires. saferxulo moZraobebiT daxatuli forma, Cveni azriT, SesaZloa identificirebul iqnas labirinTTan, xolo cekva _ labirinTul cekvasTan. aRniSnul konkretul situaciaSi cekvis mizania, gaamxnevos monadire da gauZRves mas uxilav bilikze, romelic warmavalidan waruval sferoSi miemarTeba (Sdr. Samanebis cekvas, romelic exmareba Samans, gavides sulier samyaroSi an Sivas cekvas cecxlovan wreSi, romelic Sesaqmes ukavSirdeba). magram ras unda niSnavdes am konkretul SemTxvevaSi invokaciis Semcveli ferxuli? Tu gaviTvaliswinebT sakraluri cekvebis sxvadasxva funqcias da, aseve, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT im geometriul naxazs, romelic am cekvebiT iqmneba, maSin SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom aRniSnul saferxulo sakraluri cekvis mizani iyo im bilikis, im gzis daxatva, romelic unda gaevlo monadires da romelic SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc labirinTuli cekva (cekva-labirinTi) an sulier samyaroSi gasasvleli simboluri gza. sakraluri cekvis mizani iyo, gaemxnevebina monadire da gaecilebina igi uxilav bilikze, romelsac is unda gaeyvana warmavlidan waruval samyaroSi. Cveni azriT, igive idea unda iyos

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gamoxatuli adrebrinjaos xanis gravirebul sartylebzec. zemoT xsenebul gravirebul brinjaos sartylebis (Zv. w. IX-VII saukuneebi) kideebze SesaZlebelia labirinTis jvaredini modelis identificireba, romelsac ukve eTnografiul doneze gamokveTili religiuri mniSvneloba hqonda qarTvelebisTvis.
Cveni azriT, labirinTis modeli (romelic SeiZleba Sedgebodes koncentruli wreebisagan, kvadratebisa an romelime sxva geometriuli figurisgan) SeiZleba identificirebul iqnas zemoT xsenebuli brinjaos gravirebuli sartylebis kideebze Seqmnil gamosaxulebebTan; labirinTis modeli eTnografiul doneze avlens gamokveTil religiur funqciebs qarTvelTa rwmenawarmodgenebSi. magram ra SesaZlebeli mniSvneloba SeiZleba hqondes brinjaos sartylebs, romelnic mecnierebis mier gaigivebulia RvTiuri nadirobis da purobis scenebTan? sartyeli Tavad miuTiTebs mis mflobelze e.i. monadireze, romelsac imisaTvis rom enadira, samoTxismsgavs sakralur centrSi qalRvTaebis gulis molboba da Tanxmoba esaWiroeboda, rac ar iyo advili saqme da sadac misvla mxolod qalRvTaebis rCeuls SeeZlo. aRniSnuli rwmena-warmodgenebis fonze gasagebi xdeba, Tu ratom sruldeboda saferxulo simRerebi mTeli soflis mier, rac gulisxmobda qalRvTaebis invokacias, romelsac monadirisTvis iRbliani nadiroba unda uzrunveleyo. ferxulebis zogadi elementebi moicavs moZraobebis spiralur kompleqsurobas, gameorebiT reversiebs (erT mxares brunvas, SeCerebas da Semdeg sapirispiro mxares trials), TiTqosda ganmeorebadi winaaRmdegobebis gamo SeCerebebis Semdeg xelaxal formad qmnas, romlebic simbolurad SeiZleba daxveul bilikebs warmoadgendnen. misadgomebi sakralur centrSi rTuli iyo da gmirs (am konkretul SemTxvevaSi _ monadires) unda daeZlia labirinTuli siZneleebi. Cveni azriT, swored saferxulo simRerebis qoreografia avlens labirinTuli konstruqciebis simbolizms. amgvarad, aRniSnuli ferxulis teqsti qalRvTaebisadmi mowodebaa; xolo rac Seexeba qoreografias, is Zneli gzis sirTuleTa magiuri daZlevis saSualebaa, romelic unda daxmareboda monadires gzis gavlaSi. Cveni azriT, ferxulis Tu magiuri labirinTis Sesruleba / warmodgena, magiuri da damcavi sartylis floba (SesaZloa, ma-

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giur beWedTan erTad) unda daxmareboda monadires sakraluri centris saxifaTo Ziebasa da miRwevaSi. zemoT Tqmulis analizi im varaudis saSualebas iZleva, rom sakraluri nadiroba uSualod dakavSirebuli iyo sazRvris garRvevasa da, Sesabamisad, labirinTis daZlevasTan (romelic, rogorc liminaluri zona, rTuli da saxifaTo gzis daZlevis simboloa). brinjaos sartylebze gravirebuli sakraluri labirinTi mogviano ganviTarebis Sedegad SesaZloa Secvliliyo Wviruli balTebiT (a.w. III-II ss.); es ukanasknelni, Cveni azriT, Zalze lakoniurad aCveneben sakraluri centris simbolizms da mis mflobel tyis dedofals zoomorful ipostasSi (igi SesaZloa warmodgenili yofiliyo garkveuli saxeobis cxovelis an hibriduli arsebis saxiT) da, aseve, labirinTis abreviaturas. amgvarad, sartyeli-balTis kompleqsi, warmoaCenda ra kontrasts warmavalsa da waruval samyaroebs Soris, iwereboda samyaros modelSi, romelic asocirdeboda garkveul miToritualur kompleqsebTan. isini, Cveni varaudiT, mianiSneben misi mfloblis statusze (rCeuli monadire, tyis droebiTi meufe da meuRle sakraluri centris mfloblisa da mcvelisa) da Zalauflebaze, xolo maTi gakeTeba da moxsna dakavSirebuli iyo saiqioSi gasvlasa da iqidan dabrunebasTan, Sesabamisad _ erTi modalobidan meoreze gadasvlasTan. literatura: abakelia: nino abakelia, simbolo-analogiebi da implicituri TeologiaerT saweso saferxulo simReraSi, kavkasiur-axlo aRmosavluri krebuli, Tb., 2006. abakelia: nino abakelia, sartyeli-balTa kompleqsis sakulto da kosmologiuri ganzomilebisaTvis qarTul miToritualur sistemaSi, anTropologiuri kvlevani, Tb., 2010. alaverdaSvili: qeTevan alaverdaSvili, wriuli ritualuri ferxulebis simbolikisaTvis qarTuli eTnografiuli masalis mixedviT, masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, 25, Tb., 2005. genoni: , ., ., 2002. eliade: Mircea Eliade, Pattens in comparative religion, N.Y., 1958. iungi: karl gustav iungi, fsiqologia da alqimia, Tb., 2005 kozlovi, uruSaZe: Arielle Kozloff and Nino Urushadze, Animal Style

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Bronze Art and its Closest Parallels: A Bronze Belt and Axe Head. The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum Art. Vol. .81.No.5.pp. 118-139. surgulaZe: irakli surgulaZe, xalxuri ornamenti, Tb., 1987 toporovi: .. , : ..,1983. xidaSeli: manana xidaSeli, centraluri amierkavkasiis grafikuli xelovneba adreul rkinis xanaSi (brinjaos grafikuli sartylebi). gamokvleva da katalogi, Tb., 1982. xidaSeli: manana xidaSeli, samyaros suraTi arqaul saqarTveloSi, Tb., 2001. xidaSeli: manana xidaSeli, rituali da simbolo arqaul kulturaSi, Tb., 2005. yifiani: guram yifiani, brinjaos Wvirul balTaTa atribuciis sakiTxebi, kavkasiis macne, # 1, 2000.

semiotika a

da

sxva

lali guledani `mamaTa Segonebanis~ ideurTematuri Taviseburebani


`mamaTa Segonebani miSnis mcire zomis, magram SinaarsiT mdidari traqtatia. miSnis periodis literatura moicavs Cv. w. I-VI saukuneebs, roca ebrauli, arameuliT Seviwroebuli, magram jer kidev rabinTa cocxali salaparako enaa. maT Seqmnes akademiuri literatura: bibliis komentarebi da bibliuri kanonebis damatebani, romlebic, ZiriTadad, iuridiuli da religiuri xasiaTisani arian [2,70]. saxelwodeba `miSna momdnareobs zmnidan `Sana, romlis sawyisi mniSvnelobaa `ganmeoreba. bibliur literaturaSi man miiRo mniSvneloba `iswavla, `aswavla zepiri gadmocemiT da ara _ werilobiT. Aam sityvis axali mniSvneloba ganapiroba im faqtma, rom garkveuli codnis miReba xdeboda xSiri zepiri gameorebis gziT [1, 64]. sxva mosazrebiT, TviT ebraelebi `miSnas xsnian, rogorc `meore kanons, iqidan gamomdinare, rom ricxviTi saxeli ori ebraulSi imave Zirisaa. amave dros, `pirvel kanonad ebraelebi Tvlian `Toras _ moses xuTwigneuls, `miSnas ki isini uwodeben `zepir Toras, `dawerili Torasagan (e.i. moses

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xuTwigneulisagan) gansxvavebiT, ramdenadac `miSna moses xuTwigneulSi moTavsebuli kanonebis ganviTareba, maTi ganmartebaa. igi iqmneboda palestinis skolebSi II taZris epoqaSi. `miSna moicavs `halaxebs (halaxa sakulto da saRvTismetyvelo-iuridiuli normaa). `miSnaSi mocemulia am normebis axsna da sistematizacia avtoritetuli swavlulebis mier [4, 17]. `miSna iyofa eqvs did ganyofilebad anu ( wesrigi), romelic moicavs 64 traqtatsa ( )da 524 Tavs (.) TiToeuli Tavi iyofa paragrafebad ( )an halaxebad (.]231 ,5[) traqtatebis ganlageba ar aris Tanmimdevruli. Mmxolod is SeiniSneba, rom moculobiT didi traqtatebi win uswrebs momcroebs. TiToeul seders Tavisi daniSnuleba aqvs, Tumca xSiria Temidan gadaxveva. magaliTad, pirveli ganyofileba ixsneba traqtatiT RvTismsaxurebis Sesaxeb. aseve moulodnelia meoTxe sederSi ( )iseTi Txzulebis CarTva, rogoricaa e.w. `mamaTa Segonebani, romelSic Tavmoyrilia sxvadasxva droSi moRvawe brZenTa zneobrivi Segonebebi, didaqtika, sentenciebi. `mamaTa Segonebani religiur-zneobrivi gamonaTqvamebisa da aforizmebis krebulia. Aaq gadmocemulia uZvelesi saukuneebidan Cv. w. III saukunemde mcxovreb brZen mamaTa cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis filosofiuri naazrevi. traqtati Sedgeba xuTi Tavisgan, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, paragrafebad iyofa. pirvel oTx TavSi mocemulia 60 yvelaze ufro cnobili mqadageblis swavlebani. TiToeuli maTgani warmodgenilia sxvadasxva ideis mqone maRali zneobrivi datvirTvis erTi an ramdenime aforizmiT. Tumca aris iseTi nimuSebic, roca erT gamonaTqvamSi gaerTianebulia saerTo ideis mqone cxovrebiseuli wesi. aforizmebis gadmocemis sistema damyarebulia qronologiur principze, anu wminda simonidan moyolebuli mowafeebisa da mowafeTa mowafeebis Tanmimdevroba qronologiurad daculia. mexuTe TavSi bolo oTxi paragrafis gamoklebiT, ZiriTadad, anonimi avtorebis swavlebania mocemuli, xolo meeqvseSi-Toris swavlebis mniSvnelobis qadageba. me-5 Tavis bolo da me-6 Tavi mTlianad ganekuTvneba im periods, roca miSnis redaqtireba damTavrebuli iyo. rogorc Cans, es monakveTi am krebulSi mogvianebiT CarTes [6, 494-495]. miSnis sxva traqtatebisagan gansxvavebiT, mamaTa swavlebani ar Seicavs praqtikul miTiTebebs, aramed qadagebs zneobriv da

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qcevis normebsa da maRal sulier Tvisebebs. Segonebebs Soris yvelaze mravalricxovania Torasa da mis swavlebasTan dakavSirebuli gamonaTqvamebi. am Temas exeba mamaTa Segonebanis pirveli oTxi Tavis umetesi muxli da meeqvse Tavi mTlianad. pirveli Tavi iwyeba mimarTviT, rom Tora, romelic mosem miiRo RmerTisagan sinais mTaze, gadaecaT uxucesebs, uxucesebisgan winaswarmetyvelebs, xolo maTgan _ didi krebis warmomadgenlebs, saWiroebs dacvasa da misi swavlebis gafarToebas. aq aris mowodeba wminda wignis mcodneTa mimarT, raTa gaavrcelon Toris swavleba, vinaidan samyaro dgas sam safuZvelze: Toraze, RvTismsaxurebasa da qvelmoqmedebaze [10, 1.2]. imisaTvis, rom naTeli gaxdes, am Temaze ra xasiaTis Segonebani gvxvdeba krebulSi, warmovadgenT maTgan zogierTs Cveneuli TargmaniT (krebulis Tematuri mimoxilvisaTvis zedmetad miviCnieT gamonaTqvamebis avtor brZenTa saxelebis miTiTeba): - ... ar emsaxuro ufals viTarca mona, romelic raime jildos elis, aramed viTarca mona, romelic uangarod, RvTismoSiSebiT emsaxureba mas [10, 1.3]. - ... iyos Seni saxli brZeni adamianebis TavSesayar adgilad. daujeqi maT ferxTiT da daewafe maT sityvebs [10, 1.4]. - ... SearCie maswavlebeli da SeiZine megobari, visTan erTadac (Toras) Seiswavlidi. keTilad moixsenie yoveli adamiani [10, 1.6]. - ... ipove maswavlebeli da agcdeba saeWvo mdgomareoba (anu: yvela saeWvo mdgomareobaSi mimarTe maswavlebels). sadac sizustea saWiro, daicavi da nu iqnebi zedapiruli [10, 1.16]. - ... kargia Toris Seswavla, roca es xdeba sxva praqtikul saqmianobasTan erTad, vinaidan aseTi ormagi Sroma gangaSorebs codvebs. Tu Toris Seswavlas ar axlavs samuSao, igi bolos da bolos Sewydeba da gamoiwvevs raime codvas. yvela, vinc muSaobs sazogadoebisaTvis, amas unda sCadiodes zeciuri Zalebis saxeliT, damoukideblad. ar unda waadges mas winaprebis damsaxureba. am SemTxvevaSi misi Sromis fasi gaizrdeba da umwikvloba daufasdeba [10, 2.2]. - ... nu itrabaxeb ToraSi ganswavlulobiT, vinaidan amisaTvis xar gaCenili [10, 2.9]. - ... gaufrTxildi Seni moyvasis qonebasa da fuls, rogorc sakuTars. moamzade Seni Tavi Toris Sesaswavlad, rameTu is mem-

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kvidreobiT ar gadmova Senze da mTeli Seni saqmianoba uflis saxelze warmarTe [2.17]. aq yuradReba gamaxvilebulia sam faqtorze, romelTa meSveobiTac SeiZleba adamianma sulier srulyofas miaRwios: 1. damokidebuleba moyvasis mimarT, 2. damokidebuleba sakuTari Tavis mimarT, 3. damokidebuleba gamCenis mimarT... sxvis sarCos sakuTariviT unda moufrTxilde, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mas safrTxe emuqreba... icode, rom Tora ar aris materialuri qoneba, igi memkvidreobiT ar gadadis... uzenaess surs, rom mas locviT mivmarToT, rameTu locva sulis ganwmendis instrumentia adamianisaTvis) [3]. - ... iyavi punqtualuri da yuradRebiani Toris kiTxvisas (anu: waikiTxe is Tavis droze), nu iqneba Seni locva danaSaulis SegrZnebiT, aramed xvewna da mudara aRavline RmerTisadmi, rogorc naTqvamia: rameTu Sembrale da gulmowyalea is, mravlismomTmeni da didad mwyalobeli, da cudsac apatiebs. da nu CaTvli Tavs codvilad [10, 2.18]. - ... Tu ori adamiani zis da maT Soris ar aris sityvebi Toridan, es masxarebis Sekrebaa. naTqvamia, qarafSutebis Sekrebas is (RmerTi) ar eswrebao, magram Tu isini saubroben Toraze, Sexina maT Sorisaa. naTqvamia: roca erTmaneTs RvTismoSiSni esaubrebodnen, Seismina maTi ufalma da daiwera Rirssaxsovari wigni, romelic maT winaSea - RvTismoSiSTaTvis, romelnic pativs miageben mas (RmerTs) [10, 3.3], - ... is, vinc Toris uRels idgams, Tavisufldeba amqveyniuri uRlisagan, xolo vinc ar daidgams Toris uRels, moeqceva amqveyniuri uRlis qveS. (anu: adamiani, romelic did dros uTmobs Toris Seswavlasa da mcnebebis Sesrulebas, Tavisufldeba cxovrebiseuli siZneleebisagan) [10, 3.6]. - ... roca aTi adamiani zis da ToriT aris dakavebuli, maT Soris Sexinaa (e.i. RmerTi exmareba maT Toris gagebaSi), rogorc ityvian, ufali aris uflis sazogadoebaSi (ebrauli tradiciis mixedviT, morwmuneTa sazogadoebad iTvleba minimum aTi kaci). Tu xuTi Seikriba? naTqvamia: Tavis kavSiri daamyara man miwasTan. Tu samia? mainc, radgan naTqvamia: msajulTa Soris qmnis samarTals (rabinTa sasamarTlo 3 kacisagan Sedgeba). Tundac orni iyvnen, vinaidan naTqvamia: rodesac RvTismoSiSebi erTmaneTTan saubrobdnen, ufalma Seismina maTi da gaigona [10, 3.7].

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- ... nu gamoeyofi sazogadoebas, damcvelis rolSi nu iqnebi. nu daamzadeb misgan (Torisgan) gvirgvins, raTa misi meSveobiT amaRlde, da nurc niCabs, raTa Txaro igi. Toris gvirgvinis borotad gamomyenebeli aRigveba miwis pirisagan. yvela, vinc gamoiyenebs Toras piradi miznebisaTvis, gaqreba am qveynidan [10, 4.7]. - ... is, vinc pativiscemiT epyroba Toras, dafasebulia xalxisagan, xolo is, vinc wabilwavs mas, sayovelTao siZulvils imsaxurebs [10, 4.8]. - ... vinc asrulebs Toras siRaribeSi, droTa ganmavlobaSi Seasrulebs mas simdidreSi, da vinc arRvevs Toras simdidreSi, bolos da bolos daarRvevs mas siRaribeSi 10, [4.11]. - ... Seamcire Seni saqmeebi da dakavebuli iyavi ToriT. mokrZalebuli iyavi TiToeulis mimarT (nu CaTvli, rom sxvam Senze naklebi icis), Tu mowydebi Toris Seswavlas, yovelTvis iarsebebs mravalnairi gasamarTlebeli, magram Tu Sen bevrs iSromeb masze geqneba uxvi saCuqari [10, 4.12]. - ... gadasaxldi iq, sadac Toras Seiswavlian. Nnu ifiqreb, rom is TviTon mova SenTan an Seni axloblebi Seasruleben mas Sens nacvlad. nu daeyrdnobi Sens mosazrebebs [10, 4.18]. - ... gadafurcle Tora isev da isev, vinaidan yvelaferia masSi. CauRrmavdi mas. daberdi da gaWaRaravdi masTan erTad da nu ganeSorebi mas, radgan ar arsebobs masze ukeTesi [10, 5.28]. RvTismoSiSebisa da RvTisadmi valdebulebebis Semcveli qadagebani: - ... gaiTvaliswine sami ram, raTa ar Caidino cudi saqcieli: icode, saidan modixar da saiT miemarTebi da vis winaSe mogiwevs angariSgeba. saidan moxvedi? myrali wveTidan. saiT miemarTebi? iq sadac ferfli, xrwniloba da matlebia. vis winaSe xar angariSvaldebuli? mefeTa mefis, wmindanis winaSe, kurTxeuli iyos misi saxeli [10, 3.1]. - ... iloce uzenaesis keTildReobisTvis, vinaidan Tu ara SiSi mis winaSe, adamianebi cocxlad STanTqaven erTmaneTs [10, 3.2]. - ... misiT, visiTac xalxi kmayofilia, RmerTic kmayofilia, xolo visiTac xalxi ukmayofiloa, RmerTic ukmayofiloa [10, 3.13].

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- ... yvela, vinc wabilwavs RmerTis saxels farulad, Riad daisjeba. ar ganirCeva, uneblieT Tu winaswar ganzraxviT ibRaleba RmerTis saxeli (igulisxmeba, rom marTlmorwmune da is, vinc Toras Seiswavlis, ufro metad pasuxismgebelia Tavis saqcielze RvTis winaSe) [10, 4.5]. - ... erTi mcnebis Semsrulebeli (erTi madlis Camdeni) iZens TavisTvis erT damcvels, xolo erTi codvis Camdeni iZens erT bralmdebels (RmerTTan). mobruneba-monanieba da keTili saqmeebi faria sasjelis winaSe [10, 4.13]. - ... yvela Sekreba, romelic RmerTis saxeliTaa, bolos da bolos gaZlebs, xolo Sekreba, romelic RmerTis saxeliT ar aris, ganwirulia [10, 4.14]. - ... dabadebulebi gardaicvlebian, micvalebulebi mkvdreTiT aRsdgebian, xolo cocxlebi samsjavroze warsdgebian. iqneba uwyeba da gacnobiereba imisa, rom is aris RmerTi, is aris Semoqmedi, is aris Semqmneli, is aris mWvreteli, is aris msajuli, is aris bralmdebeli da igi aris is vinc gansjis momavalSi [10, 4.20]. - ... roca Seni mteri ecema, ar gaixaro, Tu is waborZikda, arc maSin miece sixaruls, RmerTma rom ar dainaxos, imitom, rom (aseTi saqcieli) ar aris kargi mis TvalSi da misi risxva gadmova Senze [10, 4.24].
brZenTa da sibrZnesTan dakavSirebuli Segonebani:

- ... me vizrdebodi brZenTa Soris da veraferi aRmovaCine


sxeulisaTvis imaze ukeTesi, vidre dumilia. mTavaria ara swavla, aramed moqmedeba. mravalsityvaobas codvamde mivyavarT (am alegoriis axsnaa: sulisaTvis Toris Seswavla, locvis sityvebi keTilnayofieria, xolo moqmedeba, mcnebebis Sesruleba - yvelaze mniSvnelovani) [10, 1.17]. - ... visi keTili saqmeebic aRemateba mis sibrZnes, sibrZne myaria, xolo visi sibrZnec aRemateba mis keTil saqmeebs, sibrZne ar aris xangrZlivi [10, 3.12]. - ... is, visi ganswavlulobac aRemateba mis keTil saqmeebs, gavs xes, romelsac bevri toti aqvs da mcire fesvebi. dahberavs qari, amoTxris mas fesvebianad da miwas daanarcxebs. is iqneba, rogorc xvia velze, romelic ver dainaxavs momaval sikeTes gamomSral, ukacriel da unayofo udabnoSi. xolo visi keTili

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saqmeebic aRemateba ganswavlulobas, msgavsia mciretotiani da mravalricxovani fesvebis mqone xisa. msoflios yvela mxridan rom dahberon qarebma, Zvras ver uzamen mas. naTqvamia: is iqneba, rogorc xe darguli wyalTan, romelsac fesvebi CaSvebuli aqvs wylis nakadSi. SeumCneveli iqneba misTvis papanaqeba. misi foTlebi gamwvandeba. Ggvalvis dros ar SeSindeba is da mudam gamoisxams nayofs [10, 3.22]. - ... Svidi ram axasiaTebs sulels da amdenive brZens. brZeni gaurbis saubars im pirTan, romelic sibrZniT aRemateba an asakiT ufrosia. sityvas ar awyvetinebs moubars, ar Cqarobs pasuxis gacemas. droulad svams kiTxvas da arsebiTad pasuxobs. pirvel rigSi pirvel kiTxvas pasuxobs da bolos _ bolo kiTxvas: Tu ver gaigebs raimes, ityvis: ver gavige. aRiarebs simarTles. sulelis maxasiaTeblebi amis sapirispiroa [10, 4.9].

samarTalsa da samarTlianobasTan dakavSirebuli gamonaTqvamebi:

- ... nu gamoxval damcvelis rolSi, roca sasamarTlo mimdinareobs. orive mxare CaTvale damnaSaved, sanam ganaCens gamoitanen. Ddae, Sens TvalSi gamarTldes is, vinc daemorCileba sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas [10, 1.8]. - ... zedmiwevniT dakiTxe mowmeebi da iyavi frTxili Sens sityvebSi, raTa maT (sityvebma) ar ganapirobon maTi (mowmeebisa an mxaris) tyuili [10, 1.9]. - ... sam safuZvelze dgas samyaro: WeSmaritebaze, marTlmsajulebasa da mSvidobaze [10, 1.18]. - ... is, vinc gaurbis sasamarTlomde saqmis miyvanas, Sors aris mtrobisagan, yaCaRobisa da crumowmeobisgan, xolo is, vinc gaurbis mosamarTled yofnas, sulelia, upatiosno da amayi [10, 4.9]. - ... nu gansji erTpirovnulad, vinaidan erTpirovnulad mxolod erTi (RmerTi) gansjis. Nnu etyvi danarCen mosamarTleebs: miiReT Cemi mosazreba, vinaidan amis ufleba aqvT maT da ara Sen (igulisxmeba, rom sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba miiReba xmaTa umravlesobiT) [10, 4.10].
Aadamianis pasuxismgeblobisa da samagieros mizRvis Tema:

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- ... iyavi gulmodgine Toris Seswavlisas. SesZeli mkvaxed upasuxo urwmunos. gaxsovdes, vis winaSe xar valdebuli, vin aris Seni damsaqmebeli, romelic aanazRaurebs Sens Sromas (igulisxmeba RvTaebrivi wyaloba) [10, 2.19]. - ... Sen ar xar valdebuli, daasrulo mTeli samuSao, magram arc Tavisufali xar uaris gancxadebaze. rac mets iswavli Toridan, meti mogezRveba. saimedoa Seni damsaqmebeli (darwmunebuli iyavi), rom gadaixdis Seni SromisaTvis. icode, marTlmorwmunes miezRveba momavalSi (im samyaroSi) [10, 2.21]. - ... yvelaferi winaswar aris gansazRvruli (sityvasityviT: nawinaswarmetyvelebia), magram arsebobs arCevanis Tavisufleba, (igulisxmeba, rom marTalia, RmerTisTvis yvelaferi winaswar aris cnobili, magram adamians eZleva borotebasa da sikeTes Soris arCevanis Tavisufleba), samyaro ganisjeba sikeTiT (anu: yvelaferi ganisazRvreba keTili saqmeebis simravliT da ara calke aRebuli erTi romelime saqcielis mniSvnelovnebiT) [10, 3.19]. - ... yvelaferi gaicema pasuxismgeblobiT. bade gadaSvebulia yvela cocxal arsebaze. farduli gaxsnilia da mflobeli (igulisxmeba RmerTi) mas debs valSi. valebis wigni gaxsnilia da xeli wers. yvelas, visac sesxis aReba unda, dae aiRos. Tanxis amkrebni mudmivad, yoveldRiurad Camoivlian da miaqvT vali nebarTviT an unebarTvod; da maT aqvT amis safuZveli (alegoriis moralia: marTalia, adamiani Tavisufalia, icxovros Taviseburad, magram yvelafrisaTvis pasuxi unda agos. yovelTvis ver acnobierebs, risTvis atydeba Tavs esa Tu is ubedureba, radgan bades veravin gaeqceva) [10, 3.20]. Mmegobrobis TemasTan dakavSirebuli Segonebani:

- ... amoirCie maswavlebeli da SeiZine megobari da gansaje yoveli keTilad [10, 1.6]. - ... moeride cud mezobels, ar imegobro codvilTan da nu idardeb gaWirvebis gamo (igulisxmeba, roca xedav warmatebul codvils) [10, 1.7]. - ... iyaviT frTxilni xelisuflebaSi myofebTan urTierTobisas. isini megobrebad gaCveneben Tavs, roca maT es sWirdebaT da gverdiT ar udganan adamians, roca mas esaWiroeba [10, 2.3]. Bbolo Segoneba Tematurad ukavSirdeba Semdegs:

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- ... giyvardes Sroma, gZuldes Zalaufleba, da nu ecdebi, imegobro Zalauflebis mqonesTan [10, 1.10].
swavlis mniSvnelobis Semcveli qadagebani: - ... is, vinc miiltvis saxelis gandidebisaken, Tavis saxelsac kargavs. visac ar surs codnis momateba, kargavs imasac, rac gaaCnia. visac swavla ar surs an codnis sxvisTvis gadacema, sikvdilis Rirsia [10, 1.13]. - ... is, vinc swavlobs (Toras) imisaTvis, rom sxvas aswavlos, eZleva swavlisa da swavlebis saSualeba, xolo is, vinc swavlobs Toras mcnebebis Sesrulebis mizniT, eZleva saSualeba iswavlos, aswavlos da daicvas (mcnebebi) [10, 4.6]. - ... iyavi frTxili swavlebisas, radgan gauazrebeli Secdomac ki winaswar ganzraxulis tolfasia [10, 4.16]. - ... is, vinc swavlobs bavSvobaSi, msgavsia sufTa furclisa, romelzec weren melniT. xolo is, vinc swavlobs sibereSi, msgavsia furclisa, romelzec uwindeli naweri waSlilia da Tavidan aris dasaweri yvelaferi [10, 4.25]. - ... is, vinc axalgazrdasTan swavlobs, emsgavseba imas, vinc Wams mkvaxe yurZens da svams dauduRebel Rvinos, xolo is, vinc moxuc xalxTan swavlobs, emsgavseba imas, vinc mwife yurZens Wams da Zvel Rvinos svams [10, 4.26]. rogori unda iyos mowafe: - arsebobs moswavlis oTxi tipi: male iTvisebs da maleve kargavs Rirseba dafarulia nakliT. Znelad iTvisebs da didxans ar iviwyebs nakli dafarulia RirsebiT. male iTvisebs da didxans ar iviwyebs es saukeTeso xvedria. Znelad iTvisebs da maleve iviwyebs es yvelaze mZime xvedria [10, 5.16]. - ... arsebobs oTxi tipi, romelic warsdgeba RmerTis winaSe: Rrubeli, Zabri, sawyuri da saceri. Rrubeli aris is, vinc iwovs (anu iTvisebs) yvelafers. Zabri aris is, vinc iRebs erTi mxridan da uSvebs meoridan (anu is, vinc iTvisebs da male iviwyebs), sawuri is aris, romelic uSvebs Rvinos da ikavebs naleqs (is, vinc analitikosia anu arCevs kargsa da cuds). saceri is aris, vinc atarebs fqvilis mtversa da tovebs fqvils (anu praqtikosi, romelic kargs itovebs da cuds yris) [10, 5.19]. Aadamianis xasiaTisa da Tvisebebis gamomxatveli Segonebani:

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- ... aris oTxi saxeoba adamianisa. is, vinc acxadebs: Cemi Cemia da Seni Seni es saSualo tipia (anu axasiaTebs umravlesobas). is, vinc ambobs: Cemi Senia da Seni Cemi umecaria; Cemi Senia da Senic Senia- keTilsindisieria. Dda vinc ambobs: Cemi Cemia da Senic Cemia borotmoqmedia [5. 14]. - ... aris oTxi saxeoba temperamentisa: ficxi, magram sificxe male gadauvlis nakli RirsebiTaa dafaruli; brazobs iSviaTad, magram Znelad gadauvlis Rirseba dafarulia nakliT; brazobs iSviaTad da swrafad gadauvlis RvTismosavia; ficxia da Znelad gadauvlis sificxe borotmoqmedi [5. 15]. - ... aris oTxi tipi qvelmoqmedisa: is, vinc gascems, magram ar surs, rom sxvamac gasces Suriani; upiratesobas aniWebs, sxvam gasces da ara man Zunwi; TviTonac gascems da sxvasac waaqezebs keTilsindisieri; arc TviTon gascems da ar surs, rom sxvam gasces borotmoqmedi [5. 17]. sxvadasxva sibrZnis Semcveli qadagebani: - ... ar ugulebelyo aravin da uyuradRebod nu datoveb nurafers, radgan yovel adamians aqvs Tavisi dro da yvela sagans aqvs Tavisi adgili [4. 3]. - ... avi Tvali, ukeTuri ganzraxva da xalxis siZulvili uswrafebs adamians sicocxles [10, 2.16] ... Suri, vneba da ampartavneba uswrafebs adamians sicocxles. [10, 4.3] - ... Cveni samyaro hgavs momavali samyaros winkars. moemzade winkarSi da daimsaxure Sig Sesvla [10, 4.21]. - ... siyvaruli, romelic ganpirobebulia raimeTi, Camoscildeba Tu ara piroba, gaivlis. xolo siyvaruli, romelic arafriTaa ganpirobebuli, maradiulia[10, 5.20] SevniSnavT, rom mamaTa Segonebani saintereso Sedegebs iZleva paramiologiuri kvlevebis dros, radganac qadagebaTa krebuli mravali cnobili ebrauli andazis wyaro aRmoCnda. Cvens mier andazebisa da Segonebebis teqstebis Sepirispirebam gamoavlina, rom mamaTa Segonebanis ama Tu im muxlSi vrclad gadmocemuli qadageba andazebSi mokled, sxartad da kompaqturad TiTqmis ucvleli SinaarsiT gadmoicema [2,70]. ra xasiaTis andazebi iReben saTaves `mamaTa Segonebidan? amis dasadgenad maT warmovadgenT wyarodan Sesabamis citatebTan erTad: `mamaTa Segonebanis erT-erT mniSvnelovan postulatad iTvleba brZeni hilelis fraza, romelic andazis sa-

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xiT aris gavrcelebuli: ... ,8[ gv.3]. andaza qarTulad Semdegnairad iTargmneba: `Tu ara me CemTvis, vin CemTvis... igi imdenad popularulia, rom xSirad sauniversiteto an sxva saswavlo saxelmZRvaneloebSic vxvdebiT. am frazis sibrZnes rom CavwvdeT aucileblad unda ganvixiloT igi Sesabamis konteqstSi (9, gv.150,14): - ... `Tu me ara CemTvis, maS vin CemTvis? da Tu me mxolod CemTvis, maSin vin var me? da Tu ara axla, maSin rodis? am paragrafSi laparakia imaze, rom moyvasi moyvasisTvis unda iRvwodes mudam (alegoria Semdegnairad aixsneba: Tu me ar vizruneb sakuTari Tavis srulyofilebisaTvis, sxva aravin izams amas Cems nacvlad. da Tu me dakavebuli var mxolod sakuTari TaviT, rad vRirvar?) A andaza: Targmani: `Tu ar aris fqvili, ar aris Tora nawyveti Sesabamisi paragrafidan (9, gv.158 & 21): `...Tu ar aris codna, ar aris gageba, Tu ar aris gageba, ar aris codna, Tu aris fqvili (anu kveba), aris swavla da Tu ar aris swavla, ar aris fqvili (adamiani, romelic mSieria, ar aris ganwyobili swavlisaTvis da aseve, Tu materialurad uzrunvelyofili adamiani ar miecema Toris Seswavlas, misi cxovreba azrs moklebulia). A andaza: ? Targmani: `vin aris mdidari? is, vinc moxarulia Tavisi wiliT. Sesabamisi nawyveti wyarodan (9, gv. 159 &1): ...vin aris mdidari? is vinc moxarulia Tavisi wiliT. rogorc ityvian, Tu ikvebebi Seni xelis SromiT, bednieri xar Sen da sikeTe geqneba... Aandaza: Targmani: `nu ucqeri doqs aramed imas ucqire, rac masSia. Sesabamisi pasaJi wyarodan (9, gv.162 &27): `ucqire ara doqs, aramed imas, rac masSia. xdeba, rom axali doqi Sevsebulia ZveliT (RviniT), xolo ZvelSi axalic ki ar aris. andaza: Targmani: `morcxvi ver iswavlis da pedanti ver aswavlis. nawyveti Sesabamisi paragrafidan (9, gv.152, &6): `uswavlels ar eSinia codvis, umecari aris RvTis mosavi, morcxvi ver iswav-

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lis da zedmetad mkacri ver aswavlis da is, vinc zedmetad dakavebulia saqmeebiT, ver gaxdeba ufro Wkviani... andaza: Targmani: `iyavi kudi lomebisa da nu iqnebi Tavi meliebisa. paragrafi `mamaTa swavlanidan (9, gv. 161, &20): `pirveli miesalme yvela adamians. ukeTesia iyo kudi (anu bolo) lomebTan da ara Tavi meliebTan(alegoriis azri is aris, rom jobs iyo ukanaskneli Rirseul adamianebs Soris, romelTagan sibrZnisa da simarTlis miReba SeiZleba, vidre pirveli uRirsTa Soris). andaza: sityva-sityviT ase iTargmneba: `nu gansji Sens amxanags, vidre ar mixval mis adgilamde. Nnawyveti Sesabamisi paragrafidan (9, gv.152 &5): `nu gancalkevdebi sazogadoebisgan, nu endobi Sens Tavs sikvdilamde, nu gansji Sens amxanags, vidre mis adgilas ar aRmoCndebi da nu ityvi iseT rames, romlis mosmena sxvebisTvis ar SeiZleba, radgan bolos da bolos yvelaferi mosmenili iqneba. Dda nu ityvi, roca meqneba dro, maSin viswavli. SeiZleba dro aRar iyos (moralia: nu iqnebi zedmetad TviTdarwmunebuli da nu gaandob megobars saidumlos im imediT, rom sxva veravin gaigebs. is aucileblad gaxmaurdeba). andaza: Targmani: `Tqvi cota da gaakeTe bevri. paragrafi wyarodan (9, gv.150 &15): `gaxade Seni swavla (saqmianoba) mudmivi (ZiriTadi). ilaparake cota da gaakeTe bevri. miiRe yvela adamiani gulTbilad. andaza: Targmani: `dRe moklea da saqme mravali Sesabamisi paragrafi (9, gv. 154, &20): `dRe moklea da saqme bevri. arabejiT momuSaveebs, radgan gadasaxadi maRalia, patroni aCqarebs andaza: .] 7[ Targmani: `brZenno, gafrTxildiT Tqvens sityvebSi. Sesabamisi paragrafi (9, gv.150,&11) `brZenno, gafrTxildiT Tqvens sityvebSi, raTa ar daimsaxuroT (sasjeli) gadasaxleba da ar iyoT gandevnilebi adgilebSi, sadac cudi wyalia da daleven Tqvens Semdgomi mowafeebi mas da mokvdebian... (alegoriis azri

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isaa, rom brZeni xalxi unda moeridos iseT qadagebas, romelic arasworad SeiZleba iqnas gagebuli. maSin maTi mowafeebi araswor gzas daadgebian da es RmerTis saxels SebRalavs). andaza: - Targmani: `zRude sibrZnisa _ siCumea. Sesabamisi paragrafi (9, gv.157, &17): `sicili da Tavqarianoba aCvevs xalxs garyvnilebas. Ggadmocema (zepiri) zRudea Toris, aRTqma zRudea TavSekavebis, zRude sibrZnisa _ siCumea. andaza: Targmani: `meti qoneba _ meti sazrunavi. Sesabamisi paragrafi (9, gv.152,&8): `meti xorci-meti lpoba, meti qoneba _ meti sazrunavi, meti qali _ meti grZneuleba, meti monaqali _ meti garyvnileba, meti mona _ meti taceba, meti swavla _ meti cxovreba... da ase Semdeg. amrigad, mamaTa Segonebani Tematurad mravalferovani da ideuri TvalsazrisiT saintereso krebulia. simravliT da paTetikiT gamoirCeva TorasTan da mis swavlebasTan dakavSirebuli gamonaTqvamebi, sadac aRiarebulia Toris upiratesoba, misi swavlis aucilebloba sibrZnis dauflebisa da codvebis acilebis mizniT, rac aaxloebs adamianebs RmerTTan. gansazRvrulia Toris swavlis pirobebi. xazgasmulia is, rom RvTismoSiSebis grZnobiT Toris daufleba ganaridebs adamians yvela ubedurebisagan, vinaidan RmerTi samarTliania, yvelafers xedavs, yvelafers Seafasebs da yvelas Tavisi miezRveba. is, vinc did yuradRebas uTmobs Toris Seswavlasa da mcnebebis Sesrulebas, Tavisufldeba cxovrebiseuli siZneleebisagan da mas Sroma sikeTiT aunazRaurdeba. Toris swavlebis Temas mWidrod ukavSirdeba brZenTa mimarT gamoTqmuli Segonebani, romelTa ZiriTadi mizania, Seaxsenos brZenebs, raoden didi misia akisriaT maT. rogori frTxilebi unda iyvnen isini qadagebisas, raTa maTi sityvebi arasworad ar iqnas gagebuli. axsna imisa, Tu ra aris namdvili sibrZne, SegonebebSi zogjer alegoriuli formiT gadmoicema. Toris swavlebis Temas xSirad Tan sdevs samarTalsa da samarTlianobasTan dakavSirebuli gamonaTqvamebi. ZiriTadi azri is aris, rom samyaro sam safuZvelze dgas: WeSmaritebaze, marTlmsajulebasa da mSvidobaze. zogjer qadagebaSi miTiTebulia, Tu rogor unda moiqce sasamarTloze, rogor unda daikiTxos mowmeebi da a.S. rac mTavaria, ar unda gansajo erTpirovnulad, vinaidan amis ufleba aqvs mxolod erTs (RmerTs).

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Toris swavlas ukavSirdeba megobrobis Tema. swavlis dros didi mniSvneloba aqvs, vis SearCev megobrad. qadageba gveubneba, rom unda moerido cud mezobels, xelisuflebaSi myofsa da ar unda imegobro codvilTan. aseve, ar unda gansajo megobari, vidre sakuTar Tavs mis adgilze ar daayeneb. zogadad swavlis mniSvnelobasa da mowafis tipebs eZRvneba ramdenime Segoneba. mxatvrulad aris gadmocemuli mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom swavla axalgazrdobaSi sjobia da ara sibereSi, rom axalgazrda maswavlebelze ukeTesad _ gamocdili, xandazmuli aswavlis, Tumca iqve amis sapirispiro mosazrebaa gamoTqmuli, romlis mixedviTac, mniSvneloba ara aqvs imas, rogor gamoiyureba maswavlebeli, aramed imas, Tu ra aqvs mas TavSi. SegonebanSi alegoriulad aris daxasiaTebuli mowafis 4 tipi. aseve, adamianis 4 tipic xasiaTis, temperamentisa da qvelmoqmedebis gacemis sxvadasxvanairi unariT. saintereso da sasargeblo rCevebia mocemuli yvela sxva brZnul qadagebaSi. mamaTa Segonebanis Tematuri mravalferovneba erTi ideiT aris ganmsWvaluli: adamianebma unda Seisminon brZen mamaTa qadagebani TavianTi zneobriv-moraluri da eTikuri normebis dasaxvewad da sulieri srulyofis misaRwevad. literatura: 1. guledani l., ebrauli enis ganviTarebis meore periodi _ miSnis ebrauli, ~sazrisi, 2005 w. 2. guledani l., ebrauli andazebis erT-erTi wyaros `mamaTa swavlanis~ Sesaxeb, perspeqtiva XXI, saq. mecn. akademia, Tbilisi, 2005 3. z. SafToSvili, ebrauli sibrZne mamaTa Segonebani, Jurnali ebrauli samyaro, #10 4. k.wereTeli, bibliis ebrauli (gramatika, qrestomaTia, leqsikoni), Tsu, 2001 w. 5. , 11, - 6. , , . -, 1992 7. 1999 ,. , , 8. 1989 . , 9. 1996 - , 10. "' ", ,

rusudan mircxulava

simbolos namdviloba art-sesiaze (art-Terapiasa da fsiqologiur art-TreiningSi)


xelovnebis simboluri enis aRmocenebas magiasTan akavSireben. gavrcelebuli SexedulebiT, niRabi, rogorc samonadireo magiis atributi, bunebis mibaZvis, bunebaTan gaigivebis swrafvas ukavSirdeba; irgebda ra nadiris niRabs, monadire Tavis msxverpls da, globalurad, bunebas erwymoda. am mistikur identifikacias, sxva miznebTan erTad, sruliad pragmatuli safuZveli hqonda da msxverplis sisxlis uflebis mopovebas, sisxlis gamoTxovas iTvaliswinebda. magram niRabi ara mxolod bunebis mibaZvis, aramed aseve, misgan gancalkevebis, misi dauflebis da, Sesabamisad, arabunebrivis, xelovnuris gamoxatulebadac iqca. xelovnebismieri realoba bunebrivi realobis antagonistad Camoyalibda. es antagonizmi, tradiciulad, realurisa da fsevdo-realuris (magiuris an warmosaxulis) dapirispirebad aRiqmeba, xolo niRabi da, zogadad, simbolo _ rogorc obieqturi realobis vualirebis, SeniRbvisa da iluziebiT TamaSis instrumenti. realobis vualirebis calsaxa

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midgomas safuZveli ecleba, Tuki gaTvaliswinebiT, rom niRabsa da simbolos polisemantika, Sinaarsobrivi siRrme axasiaTebs da rom pirvelyofili ritualebic ara erTmniSvnelovani, aramed multirakursulia. simbolosa da ritualis polifunqciuroba, maT mier religiuri, ideologiuri, socialuri, fsiqologiuri Tu samedicino funqciebis gamTlianeba fsevdo-realobis ideas eWvis qveS ayenebs da mas niRbis upiratesobis ideiT anacvlebs; namdviloba (auTenturoba) ara realur (Cveul da yoveldRiur) obieqtTa Soris vlindeba, aramed mxolod xelovnebisa da simboloTa i-realobaSi. e.w. fsiqologiuri art-teqnikebis (art-Terapiis, art-reiningis) fenomeni simbolos auTenturobis (namdvilobis) sakiTs axal mniSvnelobas aniWebs. fsiqologiuri art-teqnika simbolosa da zogadad, xelovnebis funqciebs praqtikuli da kerZod, fsiqo-koreqciuli miznebisTvis gamoiyenebs. Sesabamisad, fsiqoTerapiis es mimdinareoba simbolos namdvilobaze dakvirvebisa da misi Seswavlis unikalur SesaZleblobas iZleva. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, am mxriv, art-sesiis (art-Terapiis, art-Treiningis) farglebSi mimdinare komunikaciis sakiTxi; art-sesia mxatvruli niSnebiT komunikaciaa da misi Terapiuli efeqti bevradaa damokidebuli mis procesSi gamdinare komunikaciuri arxebisa da damyarebuli socialuri kavSirebis auTenturobaze. j. morenom Tavis meTods, Tanamedrove art-Terapiuli arsenalis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes monapovars, fsiqodramas (an Seqspiriseul fsiqiatrias) Sexvedra uwoda da amiT meTodis swored socialur funqcias gausva xazi. fsiqodramis e.w. triadul sistemaSi (sociometria, fsiqodrama, jgufuri Terapia) gamorCeuli mniSvneloba eniWeba Terapiuli jgufis socialuri kavSirebis gamovlenas, maT Seswavlas da marTvas (an maTze kontrols) rogorc diagnostikuri, aseve Terapiuli TvalsazrisiTac. fsiqodrama, rogorc Sexvedra, adamianebs Soris namdvili komunikaciis arenaa, sadac simbolo da niRabi ara SeniRbvas, aramed Sinaganisa da farulis gareT gamotanas, obieqtur realobaze proecirebasa da mis gaziarebas (ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom fsiqodramis finalur etaps gaziareba shering ewodeba) emsaxureba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom fsiqodrama (da sazogadod, art-Terapia) xelovnebis socialuri funqciis erTgvari hiperbolaa. ra ganixileba mxatvrul niSnad an simbolod art-sesiis manZilze? _ praqtikulad, yvelaferi. kerZod, 1. warmodgenili

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sivrce; is, Tu sad viTardeba mxatvruli moqmedeba da sad iqmneba mxatvruli produqti (oTaxi, darbazi, ezo, baRi, quCa), 2. monawileni (kerZo participanti, mTlianad jgufi, fsiqoTerapevti, Treineri), 3. qmedeba _ ras saxis, rogor aqtivobas (zogadad) da mxatvrul aqtivobas (konkretulad) aqvs adgili, 4. urTierTqmedeba _ ra saxis socialuri mimarTebebi vlindeba jgufis wevrebsa da fsiqoTerapevts (Treiners) Soris. art-sesiis procesSi simboluri teqstis saxiT gaigeba ara mxolod mxatvruli produqti (naxati, instalacia, dramatuli kompozicia da sxv.), aramed, aseve, mxatvruli aqtivoba (xatvis procesi, instalaciis damzadebis procesi, dramatuli moqmedeba da sxv.), sazogadod aqtivobis nebismieri forma (rogor moZraoben da urTierTqmedeben jgufis wevrebi sesiis procesSi, mxatvruli aqtivobisgan damoukideblad) da mTliani art-sesiac. (rogor mimdinareobs sesia da ra specifika gamoarCevs mas). magaliTad, semionia ara mxolod naxati, aramed xatvis procesi, participantis mTliani moqmedeba da xatviTi-sesia. aseve, semionia ara mxolod Sesrulebuli roli, aramed aseve, misi Sesrulebis forma, participantis moqmedeba sesiis ganmavlobaSi da mTliani drama-sesiac. magaliTi: jgufisa da art-sesiisadmi sakuTari damokidebulebis gamosaxatad participanti skamebisgan kedels aRmarTavs, iatakze jdeba kedlis miRma da Tavs muxlebSi Cargavs. niSnis funqcias iZens ara mxolod participantis poza Tu kedeli, aramed mTlianad sesiis sivrcec da jgufis wevrebisa da fsiqoTerapevtis (Treineris) ukukavSiric. mxatvrul simbolos qmnis jgufis urTierTqmedeba, romelSic ganmsazRvrel funqcias participantis poza da kedeli asrulebs; es erTgvari CamrTavi meqanizmebia, stimulatorebi, romlebsac moqmedebaSi mohyavT jgufi da sesia. fsiqologiuri art-teqnika mxatvruli niSnebiT manipulirebas da ufro konkretulad, simboloebiT komunikacias efuZneba; aq igulisxmeba TviTkomunikacia, aseve, jgufis wevrebTan, fsiqoTerapevtTan da zogadad, garemosTan komunikacia. art-sesiis monawile pirdapir ar amxels saTqmels (sakuTar gancdas, Sexedulebas, damokidebulebas) da mas simbolos saxiT warmoadgens. verbalizebas art-sesiis bolo safexurebze mimarTaven; mas Semdeg, rac ukve Seiqmneba mxatvruli produqti da ganxorcieldeba mxatvruli qmedeba. verbalizeba SemoqmedebiTi procesisa da

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misi produqtis obieqtivirebas, saxeldebasa da kategorizebas axdens. verbalizeba da, masTan dakavSirebuli, interpretacia komunikaciisa da TviTkomunikaciis procesebSia CarTuli. simbolosaTvis mniSvnelobis miniWebas, participanti jgufsa da sakuTar TavTan aqtiuri da zogjer mtkivneuli komunikaciis safuZvelze axdens. art-sesiaze ganxorcielebuli simbolizebis 4 magaliTi: magaliTi 1: zerka morenos cnobil fsiqodramatul sesiaze participanti (protagonisti-mTavari moqmedi piri) sakuTari bavSvobisadmi damokidebulebas Teatralizebuli scenis saSualebiT gaiTamaSebs (spontanurad, Tavisufali improvizebiT); patara-me da didi-me avtomanqanaSi sxedan da davoben, Tu romeli maTgani miujdeba saWes da romeli ivaldebulebs manqanis wayvanas. scena avtomanqanaSi simboloa, romelic participantis sakuTari bavSvobisadmi an bavSvis rolisadmi damokidebulebas niRbavs da imavdroulad, asaxavs. ufro metic, scena manqanaSi asaxavs (da niRbavs) sazogadod, aqtualur me-koncepcias, misi samomavlo cvlilebisa Tu participantis pirovnuli zrdis perspeqtivasac. vin daikavebs adgils saWesTan (didi Tu patara me), rogor moxdeba maT Soris SeTanxmeba, ra saxis reagirebas moaxdens participanti ukve Sesrulebuli scenis mimarT - es yovelive semionia, romlis amokiTxvis procesSi monawileobas participantTan erTad mTeli jgufi da fsiqoTrapevtic (rogorc jgufis wevri) iReben. simbolos wakiTxvisas jgufi da fsiqoTerapevti SesaZloa Setevazec gadavidnen (morenos perifrazirebiT, duelSi gamoiwvion participanti), raTa man gulaxdilad (upirveles yovlisa, sakuTar TavTan gulaxdilad) SeZlos simbolos devualizieba da amiT Terapiuli efeqtis miReba. magaliTi 2: sociometruli savarjiSos monawileni maTi neba-surviliT sxvadasxva cxovelebs gaiTamaSeben. arCeuli roli (cxovelis gaTamaSeba) simboloa, romelic sesiis monawileTa socialur rolebsa da socialur mimarTebebs erTdroulad niRbavs da asaxavs. magaliTad, lomis, kurdRlis, bus, TuTiyuSis, Tagvis da a.S. rolebi mniSvnelovan fsiqo-socialur informacias atareben. simboloTa interpretaciis etapze art-sesiis monawileni msjeloben, Tu konkretulad ras SeiZleba gulisxmobdes maT mier SerCeuli roli da misi Sesrulebis manera. magaliTad: ratom airCia participantma lomis roli, ratom cdilobda sesiis sivrceSi centraluri adgilis dakavebas, ratom mimarTavda

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mxolod mglis rolis Semsrulebels da ratom cdilobda jgufze zemoqmedebas mglis rolis Semsruleblis daxmarebiT? magaliTi 3: participanti TviTprezentacias axdens SerCeuli an mis mier Seqmnili musikaluri kompoziciis (erTi notis, ramdenime notis an SedarebiT rTuli musikaluri Canaxatis) saSualebiT. musikaluri kompozicia pirovnebis simboluri gamoxatulebaa; is erTdroulad pirovnebis (da ara mxolod misi aqtualuri emociuri fonis) gamxelaa da, amave dros, Tavis arideba pirdapiri gamxelisgan. mniSvnelobas iZens is, Tu TviTprezentaciisas romeli musikaluri instrumenti SeirCa, ra melodia Sesrulda da ra ritmsa Tu tempSi. magaliTi 4: saxviTi art-sesiis monawileni Tavisufali arCevaniT, ferebisa da formebis manipulirebiT antagonistur kompoziciebs (dRe da Rame) qmnian. saxviTi kompoziciebi (dRe da Rame) simboloebia, romlebiTac participantTa damokidebuleba (maTi ganwyobebi, gancdebi, Sexedulebebi) TiTqmis nebismieri antagonisturi wyvilebis (sicocxle-sikvdili, sikeTe-boroteba, silamaze-simaxinje da sxv.) mimarT gamoixateba da, amave dros, iniRbeba. konkretulad ras unda gulisxmobdes fsiqologiur artteqnikebSi simbolos auTenturoba? mis gancdasTan (da saerTod, fsiqikur SinaaarsebTan) mimarTeba-kavSirs Tu mis eqspresiul, socialur, kognitur da Terapiul potencials? albaT, yvelafers erTad. simbolos zemoqmedebaSi (anu mis auTenturobaSi) ganmsazRvrel rols simbolos mier SeniRbva-asaxvis antagonisturi wyvilis gamTlianeba (erTgvari asaxva- SeniRbviT) unda asrulebdes. simbolo-paradoqsi sxva Sinaarsebsac dialeqtikurad amTlianebs. m.anderson-uoreni da r. greinjeri (drama-TerapiaSi momuSave avtorebi) niRbisa da dramis paradoqsze msjelobisas maT struqturaSi iseT winaaRmdegobebs asaxeleben, rogorebicaa TviTasaxvisa da SeumCnevlad darCenis, individualobisa da masaSi aRrevis, mZafri gancdebisa da usafrTxoebis, axali gamocdilebis miRebisa da siaxlisgan ganridebis moTxovnilebebi. es CamonaTvali simbolos, rogorc ganzogadebul niRabsac, unda mieweros. niRbis-simbolos maintegrirebeli, gamamTlianebeli potenciali fsiqologiur art-teqnikebSi Terapiuli zemoqmedebis saxiT vlindeba. simbolo-paradoqsi ara mxolod dualuria, aramed polise-

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manturic; mniSvnelobaTa garkveuli fiqsirebuli CamonaTvalis miuxedavad (romelic TvalsaCinod aris xolme warmodgenili simboloTa leqsikonebSi), simbolos maxasiaTebelia Sinaarsobrivi siRrme da dialeqtikuri mTlianoba. ase magaliTad, cecxlis simboloSi gamTlianebulia dapirispirebuli wyvilebi: sicocxle-sikvdili, Seneba- ngreva, siyvaruli- mrisxaneba, ucodveloba- codva, siwminde-vneba. antagonistebis am CamonaTvalis gagrZeleba TiTqmis usasrulodaa SesaZlebeli. fsiqologiuri artteqnika (art-Terapia, art-Treiningi) cdilobs gamoiyenos simbolos dialeqtika Sinagani Tu garegani konfliqtebis gadawyvetisa da winaaRmdegobriv, konfliqtur fsiqikur Sinaarsebze (rogoricaa dapirispirebuli gancdebi, azrebi, ambivalenturi emociebi, e.w. kognituri disonansi) muSaobis procesSi. simbolos mravalmniSvnelovneba integraciulsa (socialuri mTlianobis) da TviT-integraciul (fsiqologiuri mTlianobis) procesebs aRZravs, xels uwyobs fsiqologiuri Tu socialuri Sinaarsebisadmi multirakursuli (relativisturi, Semwynarebeli) midgomis Camoyalibebas. fsiqoTerapiul jgufSi simboloze muSaoba (misi qmna da gageba) tolerantobis (rogorc sxva adamianebisadmi, aseve sakuTari Tavisadmi) stimulad iqceva; mravalmniSvnelovani simbolo gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebis (azrebisa Tu grZnobebis) gaziareba _ miRebas optimalur pirobebs uqmnis. simbolosa da arqetipebis Zireul maxasiaTebelTa Soris karl iungi maT Terapiul potencials asaxelebda; koleqtiuri aracnobieris ideam, romelSic energetikuli muxtis Semcveli arqetipebi da polisemanturi simboloebi igulisxmeba, k. iungi logikurad miiyvana art-Terapiamde. fsiqologiuri art-teqnikebis zemoqmedebaSi gamoyofen grZnobad, azrobriv da socialur komponentebs. es sami komponenti, erTis mxriv, art-teqnikis iaraRia; fsiqologiuri artteqnika zemoqmedebs grZnobiT, azriTa da socialuri mimarTebebiT. aqtiuri socialuri urTierTqmedebis procesSi is axdens grZnobebisa da ideebis stimulirebas. amave dros, aRniSnuli komponentebi art-teqnikis zemoqmedebis SedegSic amoicnoba; Terapiul efeqts is grZnobad, azrobriv da socialur sferoebSi cvlilebebis stimulirebiT axdens. sxva fsiqoTerapiuli mimdinareobebisgan gansxvavebiT, fsiqologiuri art-teqnika aRniSnul samsaxovan Sedegs sakuTriv simboloTa, mxatvrul niSanTa resursiT aRwevs.

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simboluri qmedebebis (da kerZod, ritualebis, ceremoniebis) Sesrulebas art-sesiis jer kidev sawyis (moTelviT, morenos terminologiiT _ Sexurebis warming-up) etapze eniWeba didi mniSvneloba. maTi mizania ndobisa da TanagrZnobis atmosferos Camoyalibeba, empaTiuri procesebis stimulireba, xelisSemSleli dacviTi meqanizmebis moxsna da mxatvruli aqtivobisadmi mzaobis formireba. jgufis fsiqo-socialuri momzadebis umniSvnelovanesi (da albaT, ganmsazRvreli) komponentia im mxatvruli garemos an, ufro sworad, garemosadmi `mxatvruli damokidebulebis stimulireba, romelSic nebismieri faqti da movlena simbolur datvirTvas SeiZens. moTelviT etapze formirebul mxatvrul ganwyobas an TamaSis nebas j. morenom xatovnad magiuri viTom uwoda. art-sesiis moTelviT etapis ritualebia: wreSi xelCakidebiT triali, ficis dadeba, misalmeba, problemebisgan gaTavisufleba, bavSvobaSi dabruneba da sxv. TiToeuli es qmedeba simbolur datvirTvas iZens maSinac ki, rodesac participantebi misi mniSvnelobis obieqtivirebas ar an ver axerxeben. magaliTad, wriuli triali da wris simbolika maSinac uwyobs xels jgufis wevrebis gamTlianeba-gaerTianebas, rodesac misi Sesabamisi interpretireba ar xdeba. ferxuli (wreSi cekva), rogorc simbolo, moqmedebis procesSi an moqmedebis saSualebiT zemoqmedebs; amTlianebs jgufs da mas erToblivi mxatvruli aqtivobisTvis amzadebs. aseve, aucileblad miiCneva Sesabamisi simboluri qmedebebis (damSvidobebis ritualebis) Sesruleba art-sesiis finalur etapzec. am daskvniT ceremonias j. morenos skolaSi Terapiuli siyvarulis rituali ewodeba. TamaSis garemo (sagulisxmoa, rom art-sesias zogjer iwyeben mowodebiT: modi, viTamaSoT!) participantisa da mTeli jgufis daculobis garantad iqceva; realoba-irealobis zRvarze momdinare moqmedeba (magiuri viTom), simboloTa mieri SeniRbva-asaxva da Tavisufali TamaSis atmosfero fsiqoTerapiul process erTgvarad umtkivneulos xdis. savsebiT seriozuli da, ufro metic, mtkivneuli movlenebi, j. morenos sityvebiT, warmosaxvis damcav velSi eqcevian da amiT paTogenuri zemoqmedebis unars kargaven. am velSi mimdinare simboloebiT komunikacia konkretuls, piradulsa da kerZo pirovnuls scildeba; is tovebs or (an met) realur individs Soris realuri sivrciTdroiTi kavSiris viwro farglebs da zogad, universalur, sxva

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sityvebiT, simbolur datvirTvas iZens. komunikaciuri arxis es zogadoba sulac ar gulisxmobs emociur simSrales; piriqiT, mxatvruli niSani komunikacias afeqturad muxtavs da komunikantebs afeqturi, emociurad damuxtuli kreaciis procesSi rTavs. simbolos polisemantikas iseTi Tvisebebi ukavSirdeba, rogorebicaa dinamikuroba da mudmivi qmnadoba. simbolos Riaobagaxsniloba an komunikabeloba misi SemoqmedebiTi manipulirebisa da Tavisufali interpretirebis SeuzRudav SesaZleblobebs iZleva. analizuri fsiqologiis mixedviT, simbolo energiis wyaroa da fsiqikuri dinamikis (aqtivobis, qmnadobis) stimulatori. es Tavisufleba (rogorc qmediTi, aseve gancdiseuli) artsesiaze simboloTa Seqmnisa da interpretaciis procesebs TamaSis saxes aniWebs, rac kidev ufro amZafrebs analogias mxatvrul studiasTan. simbolos Terapiul efeqtSi mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravT proeqcia-obieqtivaciis procesebsac. simbolo distancirebuli, gareT gatanili fsiqo-socialuri Sinaarsia. Sesabamisad, is fsiqikur da socialur Sinaarsebze garedan dakvirvebis, maTi Seswavlis, koreqciisa da marTvis saSualebas iZleva. e.w. proeqciuli naxatismieri testebi (h. rorSaxis melnis laqis meTodi, g. ridis Tavisufali naxatis testi, a. vengeris naxatismieri testebi da sxv.) swored aRniSnul kanonzomierebas efuZneba. am testebSi naxati proecirebuli an masze gadatanili da asaxuli fsiqikuri Sinaarsis (gancdis, midrekilebis, ganwyobis da sxv.) saxiT gaigeba. swored amitom eniWeba proeqciul naxatismier testebs diagnostikuri mniSvneloba. mxatvruli niSnebiT efeqturi manipulaciisa da maTi zemoqmedebis gazrdis mizniT fsiqologiuri art-teqnika saxviTi, dramatuli da musikaluri xelovnebis mravalferovan SesaZleblobebs mimarTavs. Tanamedrove art-Terapiasa da art-TreiningSi ukve tradiciuli meTodebis gverdiT (rogorebicaa fsiqodrama, sociodrama, forum-Teatri, musiko-Terapia, xatviT-Terapia) SedarebiT axali meTodebic gamoiyeneba ; aseTia instalacia-Terapia, pantomima-Terapia, performans-Terapia, TojinebiT-Terapia, zRapriT-Terapia, simbolo-Terapia da miTodrama. magram nebismier SemTxvevaSi, art-sesiis principebi da meqanizmi ucvleli rCeba. nebismier SemTxvevaSi fsiqologiuri art-teqnika simboloTa kodireba-dekodirebis procesebs an semiosiss efuZneba. art-teqnikebSi simboloTa kodireba-dekodireba socialur,

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eqspresiul, inteleqtualur funqciebs atarebs. funqciebis ganxorcieleba maT efeqtur urTierTkavSirzea damokidebuli. funqciaTa am sistemaSi gamorCeuli mniSvneloba socialur, komunikaciur funqcias unda mieniWos. j. morenos cnobili, lakoniuri gamonaTqvamiT, fsiqodrama Sexvedraa! is ori adamianis, adamianTa jgufis da, aseve, sakuTar TavTan Sexvedraa! SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sazogadod, fsiqologiuri art-sesiis procesSi swored komunikaciur arxebSia Canergili aRniSnuli meTodis eqspresiul-afeqturi da kognitur-SemecnebiTi funqciebi; komunikacia kognitur da afeqtur funqciebsac moicavs. umberto ekos perifrazirebiT: mxatvruli fenomeni komunikantia! TviT mxatvruli eqspresiis, mxatvruli niSnebiT TviTgamoxatvis funqciac socialur datvirTvas atarebs; is gaigeba, rogorc komunikacia sakuTar TavTan. fsiqologiur art-teqnikebSi (art-Terapiasa da art- TreiningSi) niRbis-simbolos auTenturoba (namdviloba) am meTodebis funqciebsa da SedegSi vlindeba; simboloTa kodireba-dekodirebis gziT miRweuli Terapiuli efeqti emociuri, kognituri da socialuri apeqtebis regulirebas efuZneba. aspeqtTa am triadaSi gamorCeuli mniSvneloba mxatvrul komunikacias unda mieniWos, radganac swored is qmnis safuZvels sxva (eqspresiuli Tu kognituri) aspeqtebis aqtivaciisTvis. fsiqologiuri art-teqnika da misi efeqturoba empiriuli argumentia im poziciis sasargeblod, romlis mixedviTac xelovneba WeSmariti komunikaciaa! art-Terapiasa da art-TreiningSi simbolo-niRabi ara Tu niRbavs realobas (kerZod, realur fsiqo-socialur movlenebs) da amaxinjebs realur socialur mimarTebebs, aramed piriqiT, qmnis optimalur pirobebs maTi gamovlenisa da realizebisaTvis. iluziebiT TamaSi iluziebisgan gaTavisuflebis an iluziaTa realobad qcevis misteriad iqceva.

dali baxtaZe

germanuli da qarTuli kulturis semiotika xatovani azrovnebis enobriv subsistemebSi


1. Sesavali. rogorc cnobilia, semiotikas, rogorc filosofiis SemecnebiTi Teoriis nawils, yovelgvari saxis niSani ainteresebs. es aris zogadi Teoria niSnis arsze, warmoSobaze (semiozisi) da gamoyenebaze. semiotikur frazeologias ori amocana aqvs gadasaWreli: 1) bunebrivi enis ganviTarebis procesSi kognitiuri modelebis gamokvleva; 2) im modifikaciebis (semantikuri gardasaxvebis) kvleva, romelSic xdeba frazeologizaciis kategoriebis, niSanTvisebebis realizeba. es modifikaciebi gvaZleven idiomatur, imave figuralur / metaforul / gadataniT / ikonur / xatovan mniSvnelobas (Donalies 2009:19). rogorc vxedavT, naklebad gvaqvs saubari frazeologizmis, rogorc semiotikuri niSnis kvlevaze. sadavo ar aris, rom idiomatikis kognitiuri kvleva saSuria, radgan igi saSualebas iZleva mivuaxlovdeT da avsxnaT frazeologizmebis enaSi funqcionirebis bunebrivi, realuri procesebi. Tu aqamde arsebuli frazeologia da idiomatika aRweriT-mare-

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gistrirebeli disciplina iyo, axla igi semantikuri procesebis siRrmiseuli meqanizmebis amxsnel disciplinad iqca1. saxezea lingvisturi da kognitiur-gnoseologiuri doneebis urTierTmimarTeba. 2. frazeologiuri niSani. frazeologiuri niSani ormagi nominaciis mqonea. frazeologizaciaSi es procesi gamorCeulia: a) frazeologiuri niSani, rogorc enobrivi inventari, obieqtad iRebs ara sagans, aramed situacias, saqmis viTarebas, romlis ikonuroba _ xati konkretuli situaciis nominaciaa, xolo interpretanti, anu niSnis gageba (semiozisi) _ remuli daniSnulebisaa, Cvens SemTxvevaSi _ frazeologiuri predikaciis matarebeli. b) frazeologizmSi enobrivi niSania ara sityva, aramed sityvaTa kompleqsi. igi miemarTeba ara saganTan, aramed situacias, saqmis viTarebas (pirveladi nominacia, denotati). am denotats Tan axlavs kognitiuri procesebi, romlebic ganapirobeben situaciis simboluri monacemebis abstragirebas, frazeologiur niSnad gardasaxvas. niSani SeiZleba iyos motivirebuli an zogjer aramotivirebuli (meoradi nominacia). pirveli interpretanti, rogorc niSani, meore niSnis semiozisis safuZvelia. es meore niSani (interpretanti) gamorCeulia metaforul kognituri procesebiTa da simboluri motivaciiT. es aris frazeologizmis semiotikuri niSani. rogorc TvalnaTelia, es ar aris semiotikaSi miRebuli filosofiuri kategoriebis (enobrivi SesaZleblobebis, sinamdvilisa da gonis _ Mglichkeit, Wirklichkeit, Vernunft) ubralo urTierTmimarTeba. idiomatikasa da idiomatikiT warmarTul komunikaciaSi procesebi rTuli da kompleqsuria: sakuTriv Sidaenobriv procesebTan erTad Tavmoyrilia gareenobrivi _ xatis ganmapirobebeli _ jer erTi, cnebiT _ semantikuri da azrovnebiTi procesebi da meorec, rac mTavaria, so-

babenkos frazeologzmebis siRrmiseuli procesebis axsnisaTvis aseTi magaliTi mohyavs: frazeologizmis `Tote Hose~ xatia `mkvdari Sarvali~, magram niSnavs `saSinel momabezrebel mowyenilobas~. es saxeli dairqva germanulma modurma pop-jgufma. ruseTSi gastrolebisas rusulma presam saxelwodeba pirdapir Targmna: ` ~. daikarga frazeologiuri metafora, gverdze darCa idiomaturoba ( 2000: 1)

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cialuri garemo. amrigad, mocemulia Sidaenobrivi sistemis, gareenobrivi faqtorebisa da azrovnebiTi/gonismieri procesebis substrati (Denksubtrat) (Dobrovolskij 1988: 25-28), rac gvaZlevs srulyofil frazeologiur niSans, enobrivi suraTebiT Camoyalibebuls. es frazeologizmis Sida formaa, igi yovelTvis aisaxeba aqtualur mniSvnelobaze, magram aqtualuri mniSvnelobis yvela Tavisebureba rodia ganpirobebuli frazeologizmis Sida formiT ( 2007: 82-94). g) frazeologiur niSans msWvalavs kulturis fenomeni. me20 saukunis 70-iani wlebidan semiotikuri niSnis yvela Taviseburebam Tavi moiyara komunikaciis TeoriaSi terminiT Kode. sosiuris mimdevrebi niSans aanalizeben konotaciurad da teqstobrivad gafarToebulad (Metzler Lexikon Sprache 2000: 625).

3. xatovani/metaforuli azrovnebis enobriv sistemaSi (frazeologiaSi) gadmocemuli kulturis semiotika


frazeologizaciis procesi, anu frazeologizmis semiotikur niSnad qcevis meqanizmebi yvela enisaTvis universaluria. maS ra ganapirobebs am mravalkomponentian gamonaTqvamSi kulturis semiotikas? _ xatisaTvis SerCeuli simbolo. igi informaciis Camoyalibebis procesSi zogadsakacobrio principebTan erTad yoveli enis tipologiur da kulturul Taviseburebebs asaxavs, ara mniSvnelobis CvenebiT, rogorc aseTi, aramed im meqanizmebiT, romlebic mniSvnelobis manifestacias axdenen, kerZod ikonurobisa da simbolurobis sinTeziT. es frazeologizmis Sida formaa. ra igulisxmeba ikonurobisa da simbolurobis sinTezSi? _ frazeologizmSi xati da simbolo asociaciebisa da abstraqciebis maRali xarisxiTaa warmodgenili: xati realuri denotatis aRqmaa, simbolo _ konvencionaluri denotatia, azrobrivi suraTia, romelic sinamdviles, sagans, movlenas, situacias mokled da xatovnad axasiaTebs (Schlerduden 2009:406). ernst kasirerma Tanamedrove filosofiaSi simbolos cneba centralur/ZiriTad cnebad wamoswia. kasireris azriT, adamianis Tvisebaa, iyos ~animal simbolicum~, anu simboloebis Semqmneli da gamomyenebeli arseba. usimbolo, `faqtobrivi~ samyaro, misi azriT, mxolod uazroa, radgan saganTan mimarTeba unda xasiaTdebodes ara uSualod, aramed SualobiTi niSniT. kasireri cdilobs, ada-

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mianTa kulturuli moRvaweoba simboloTa sistemebad ganixilos da sul ufro metad semiotikuri interesebis sferodan warmoadginos (samtomeuli. Kassirer 1996, aseve l. ramiSvilis Targmani 1983: 59). es gonismieri SemoqmedebiTi procesi qmnis xats, romelic sinamdviles mxolod konvencionalurad Seesabameba. nicSe ambobs, rom ena xatovani, metaforuli elementebisagan Sedgeba. adamiani mas mudmivad qmnis, es adamianis ZiriTadi instinqtia, Tumca adamiani ver acnobierebs Tavisi enobrivi Semoqmedebis metaforul xasiaTs ( 1990). _ yuradsaRebia is faqti, rom erovnuli enis semantikur konvenciurobas konceptualuri struqturebi ganapirobeben. isini qmnian samyaros erovnul suraTs, xats, romelic mentaluri konceptebis sistemebisagan Sedgebian. realuri sinamdvilis amsaxveli swored es metaforuli xati sxvadasxva aqvs Tavisi struqturiT gansxvavebuli eTnokulturis mqone xalxs. _ aseve unda aRiniSnos meore mniSvnelovani lingvisturi kategoria _ Sefaseba. igi enobrivi informaciis organizebaSi arsebiT rols TamaSobs, erovnuli niSnis matarebelia da eTnokulturuli pragmatikis nawils warmoadgens ( 2004: 5255). Sesabamisad ena, kultura da pirovneba erTmaneTTan mudmiv urTierTobaSi imyofebian. nebismier frazeologizmSi saxezea metaforul-simboluri motivacia, romelSic am sazogadoebis kulturaa asaxuli. simbolos konceptualur daniSnulebaze zemoT ukve iTqva. enaTmecnierebaSi igi azriT datvirTuli niSania da mas niSnisa da suraTxatis rigSi ganixilaven, oRond simbolos niSansa da suraTs Soris Sualeduri adgili uWiravs ( 1988). simboloSi daunjebulia kulturuli specifika, istoriuli viTarebis gamoZaxili, enobrivi niSnis motivacia, mag.: Jm goldene Berge versprechen _ oqros mTebis dapireba (ganuxorcielebeli, zedmetad gazviadebuli dapirebebi; qarTulSi gvaqvs `cixe-koSkebis ageba~. `oqro~, rogorc simdidris simbolo, sxva gamoTqmebSic gvxvdeba: mit einem goldenen Lffel im Mund geboren sein. (pirSi oqros kovziT dabadeba/: reich geboren sein _ qudbediani, Tavidanve simdidriT aRsavse. `oqrom~ SemdgomSi sxva datvirTvac SeiZina: goldene Mitte, goldene Regel. xolo baironma gamoTqma das goldene Zeitalter (`don JuanSi~) im periods miusada-

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ga, roca oqros daxarbebuli maZieblebi jer kidev ar arsebobdnen (Bastian 2009: 84). saintereso faqtia, rom germanul enaSi ar moiZebna iseTi Sidaformis idiomi, sadac simboloa `tvini~ da masTan dakavSirebulia Sesabamisi qmedebebi: gamolayeba, waReba, amorTmeva, amowova, gamoTayvaneba, gamobentereba, gamoCerCeteba, anu momabezrebeli, fuWi saqmianoba (qarTuli enis ganmart. leqsik. ax. redaqcia 2010. t.2: 783, 828). am bolo dros gavrcelda idiomi `tvinis gamorecxva~, romelic Tavisi SidaformiT `tvinis gamolayebas~ waagavs. `tvinis gamorecxvaSi~ sxva konceptualuri struqturaa mocemuli, kerZod, specialurad SemuSavebuli teqnologiebiT: propagandiT, reklamiT, piariT, mediasaSualebebiT `zedmeti~ (arasasurveli) azrebis, informaciis waSla, gaqarwyleba, raTa vinc agensia, iman zegavlena iqonios paciensze: Seasustos misi gonebrivi unari da advilad marTvadi gaxados igi. arsebobs e.w. fsiqotropuli farmakologiac, roca `tvinis gamorecxviT~ SeiZleba adamiani mowamlo, daaSino da a.S. ( 2007:90). sayuradReboa Tanamedrove frazeologiur leqsikonebSi saleqsikono statiis axleburi gaazreba: adre metwilad idiomis ganmarteba, Sinaarsi iyo warmodgenili, zogjer etimologiac. bolo dros saleqsikono statia Seicavs frazeologiur mniSvnelobas, gramatikul monacemebs, Sexamebis (sintagmatur) unarsa da mis gamoyenebas. maSasadame, axleburi moTxovnebiT saleqsikono statia unda iyos zonebad, monakveTebad dayofili: 1) frazeologiuri erTeuli, misi propoziciuli forma, axsna; 2) gramatikuli Taviseburebebi (konstruqciebi), 3) sxva erTeulTan Sexameba _ valentoba da kolokacia, sailustracio magaliTebi. es iZleva yoveli idiomis naTel semantikur-gramatikulpragmatikul suraTs; roca erTi konceptis aRmniSvnel idiomTa sinonimuri rigi gvaqvs, es gvaZlevs TiToeuli frazeologizmis mier aRniSnuli semantikuri saxeobebis Tu niuansebis daxasiaTebis saSualebas. frazeologiis semiotikuri kvleva uSualo kavSirSia enis tipologiasTan, mravali konkretuli enobrivi movleniT Camoyalibebuli ganzogadebul kanonzomierebebTan (Dobrovolskij 1988:7,8). meore mniSvnelovani sakiTxi isaa, rom orenovan frazeologiur leqsikonebSi zemoCamoTvlil saleqsikono statiis zonebsa Tu monakveTebSi mocemuli iyos mag.: germanuli da qarTuli ene-

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bis enobriv-tipologiuri maxasiaTeblebi; saxeldobr, ra Sedegs mogvcems ori TiTqos erTnairi frazeologiuri erTeulis Sepirispireba. jm Sand in die Augen streuen _ TvalSi nacris Seyra. qmedeba erTnairia, xati _ msgavsi, magram ara identuri: sila da nacari. adresati valenturi kavSiriT dativis/micemiTis iribi obieqtia. germanulSi am gamoTqmas refleqsuri gamoyenebac aqvs: (sich) Sand in die Augen streuen. germanul gamoTqmaSi xati mofarikaveTa Tu sxvaTa orTabrZolebidan warmoiSva. Zveli xriki iyo, mowinaaRmdegisaTvis silis Seyra, rom misi brZolisunarianoba SeesustebinaT (Duden 2008:647). raSi mdgomareobs frazeologiuri niSnis semiotikuri arsi da Tavisebureba? mravalma mecnierma damajereblad axsna, rom motivaciasa da xatovanebaSi arsebobs konkretulis mimarTeba abstraqtulTan da enobrivi erTeulis abstraqtulad qcevisaTvis konkretulis moxmoba (ix. Hessky 1995: 293; Baldauf 1997; Dobrovolskij 1997; Lakoff/Jonson 1998: Liebert 2002; Rolf 2005; Soehn 2006; Masiulionyt 2007; citirebulia Donalies 2009:25). aq amave dros marTebulia struqturul-tipologiuri meTodebis gamoyeneba, radgan ixsneba korelaciebi frazeologiuri subsistemis Sida organizaciasa da enis sxva subsistemebs Soris, romlebic frazeologizmis semiotikur niSanSi: _ gamoacalkevebs Sidaenobriv process gareenobrivisagan, anu gaimijneba sakuTriv frazeologiuri leqsikur-semiantikurisagan. _ moaxdens sakuTriv frazeologiuri parametrebis seleqcias, rac TiTqmis ukvlevi sferoa: esenia freazeologiuri erTeulis mravalwevriani forma da meoradi xatovani nominaciiT momxdari semantikuri transformaciebi. _ warmoaCens yoveli enis da am enis matareblis unars, `iazrovnos suraTebiT~ (Wandruszka 1979: 960), rac fsiqolingvisturi ganmartebiT, asociaciebisa da motivaciebis safuZvelze ayalibebs frazeologizmis semiotikur niSans. _ frazeologizaciis kanonzomierebebsa da frazeologiur gardasaxvas ganixilavs rogorc logikur-fsiqologiur fenomens, semantikuri transformaciis meqanizmebSi metaforul da metonimur gardasaxvebs _ rogorc mniSvnelobis gafarToebas, xolo xatovanebis gradacias (Sesustebas-gaZlierebas) _ rogorc enobrivi suraTis eqspresiulobis xarisxs.

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es is arsebiTi struqturul-semantikuri niSnebia, romlebic enis tips udevs safuZvlad. literatura 1. , .. 1988: .//. . . 2. , .. 2000: D. Dobrovolskij: Idiome im mentalen Lexikon. Ziele und Methoden der kognitivbasierten Phraseologieforschung. Verlag WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag. Trier 1997.// 2000 1. 3. Bastian, Till 2009: Treppenwitz mit Stein im Brett. 88 Redensarten, Metaphern, Floskeln - wo sie herkommen, was sie sagen. Hirzel Verlag. Stuttgart. 4. baxtaZe, dali 1992: frazeologiuri predikaciis problemebi. gamomc. `sarangi~, quTaisi. 5. Dobrovolskij, Dmitrij 1988: Phraseologie als Objekt der Universalienlinguistik. Linguistische Studien. Verlag Enzyklopdie. Leipzig. 6. Donalies, Elke 2009: Basiswissen. Deutsche Phraseologie. A. Francke Verlag. Tbingen. Basel. 7. Duden 2008: Redewendungen. B. 11. Dudenverlag. Mannheim u.a. 8. Kassirer, Ernst 1996: Versuch ber den Menschen. Einfhrung in eine Philosophie der Kultur. Felix Meiner Verlag. Hamburg. kasireri, ernsti: ra aris adamiani. cda adamianuri kulturis filosofiis agebisa. germanulidan Targmna lamara ramiSvilma. gamomc. `ganaTleba~, Tbilisi, 1983. 9. Metzler Lexikon Sprache 2000: Hrsg. von Helmut Glck. 2. erweit. Aufl. Stuttgart. Weimar. 10. , 1990: 2- ., . 1: . . 11. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni 2010: axali redaqcia. t.2. Tbilisi. 12. Schlerduden 2009: Philosophie. 3. vll. neu bearb. Aufl. Hrsg. und bearb. von der Redaktion Schule und Lernen. Dudenverlag Manheim. Leipzig. Wien. Zrich. 13. , .. 2004: , .// 2004 3.

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14. , .. 2001: .// . 19. . 4 (2001). 15. Wandruszka, Mario 1979: Kontrastive Idiomatik.//Hffler, Manfred/Vernay, Henri/Wolf, Lothar (Hg.): Kurt Baldinger zum 60. Geburtstag. Festschrift. B. II. Tbingen (1979): 951-963.

daviT SavianiZe

sizmris semiotika eTnografiul masalebsa da mxatvrul literaturaSi


sizmris analizis safuZvelze mecnierebaSi damkvidrebulia azri, rom sizmari cnobierebis abstraqtuli gancdaa; sizmarSi aisaxeba garedan mocemuli sinamdvile, cnobier ganwyobasTan SeuTavsebeli, idumali survili; sizmrebis axsna aris Via Regina, anu qvecnobieris Secnobis samefo gza. iungma Seqmna sizmrebis axsnis meTodologia. uzarmazari Sroma gaswia sizmrebis fenomenis asaxsnelad1; froidis mixedviT, sizmari es aris gandevnili survilebis, moTxovnilebebis SeniRbuli asruleba; sizmari es aris werili Cveni aracnobierisgan; qarTul eTnologiur literaturaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebiT, sizmris naxvis etapze garkveuli sqemis amoqmedebidan, anu gadamuSavebis situaciidan xdeba sizmris prezentaciuli simboloxatebis naxva, aRqma-damaxsovreba, gaRviZebis etapidan ki maTi axsna-interpreti-

man araerTi wigni dawera sizmris problemasTan dakavSirebiT. SeiZleba gamovyoT sizmrebis ganmartebebi da sizmris analizis praqtikuli gamoyeneba

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reba (d. uznaZe, k. g. iungi, z. froidi, q. xuciSvili). sizmari Cvenebad, molandebad, xilvad aixsneba, misi mnaxveli ki Cvenebis mxilvevlia (i. abulaZe, 1973, gv. 390; qegl, 1980, gv. 504; d. CubinaSvili, 1984, gv. 1171; i. imnaiSvili, 1986, gv. 778; http://urakparaki.com/?m=4&ID=45705; http://anuuushkebi.ucoz.com/blog/2009-07-07-11; http://sisi.ge/index.php?newsid=142l). migvaCnia, rom fsiqologiuri momentidan gamomdinare, centraluri nervuli sistemisagan marTuli cnobierebis Taviseburebebis Sedegi _ sizmari individualuri da subieqturia; sizmari Sedegia ganwyobisa, romelsac qmnis konkretuli pirovnebis TavSi, Tu zogadad TemSi, qveyanaSi arsebuli sinamdvile; sinamdviliT ganpirobebul sizmris mimdinareobaze gavlenas axdens sqesi, asaki, moTxovnilebebi, cxovrebis pirobebi, profesiuli saqmianoba2... eTnografiuli masalebis mixedviT: sizmari moCvenebaa, xilvaa. yvelaferi uflis nebaa, aba sxvas vis SeuZlia daZinebul adamians rame miganiSnos. sizmari fiqris Sedegia, STagonebaa. sizmari winaswarmetyveluria. saWiroebis miRwevis gza xSirad sizmrad gvevlineba. sizmris mimdinareobaze gavlenas axdens konkretuli pirovnebis Tavs, TemSi, Tu qveyanaSi arsebuli sinamdvile, mdgomareoba, saqmisadmi damokidebuleba, asaki... sizmarSi mTavaria misi mnaxvelis samyaro. sizmari gvimuSavebs Cvevebs, gavlenas axdens yofa-cxovrebaze; sizmris naxviT misi mnaxveli grZnobs momavals. adamianebs sizmris swamdaT. ra Tqma unda misi mindoba da misi dajereba yovelTvis ar SeiZleba, magram faqtia, sizmris rwmenas ver gaeqcevi. igi Zalian xSirad axsnadi da axdenadia. mxatvrul literaturaSic da eTnografiul yofaSic gvxvdeba marcxis, sikvdilis momaswavebeli da keTilis winaswarmetyveluri sizmari. luarsabis (kacia adamiani?!), mzias (gvelis mWameli), ujuS emxas (haki aZba) da platonis (samaniSvilis dedinacva-

sizmari yofaSi warmoadgens komunikaciis saSualebas individsa da sazogadoebas Soris, sazogadoebebs, cnobiersa da aracnobiers, mikro da makro samyaroebs, warsuls, dRevandelobasa da momavals, saaqaosa da saiqios Soris, rac aqtualurs xdis mis Seswavlas (q. xuciSvili, 2009).

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li) sizmarSi maTi bedi sikvdilTan, marcxTan asocirdeba. luarsabi didad ar ganicdis uSvilobas, sakuTari memkvidreobis sakiTxs, magram sizmarSi xedavs sakuTari cxovrebis finals. sizmrad xedavs rom, Tavis saflavze Zmis sikvdiliT gaxarebuli daviTi cekvavs da xalisobs, rom qoneba daviTs darCa. sizmrad naxuli axda, luarsabis cxovreba ukvalod gaqra; mzias sizmari im mdgomareobas asaxavs, rac misi qveynisTvis mindias sibrZnis dakargvas unda mohyves (qarTveli mwerlebi skolaSi, w. V, nawili II, 2001, gv.271). mzias mier sizmrad nanaxi sikvdili realuri xdeba; ujuS emxas mier sizmrad nanaxi saSinelebac qveynis marcxiT da misi sikvdiliT mTavrdeba. RvTis samarTali mzias sizmarSi cxaddeba... Rvari zenaiT moasqda, rogorc RvTis sasjeli, romelsac unda waeleka da moeSTo codvismoqmedni. mzia balRebiTurT da Semdeg mindiac wyals miaqvs. mindia imitom, rom uflis winaSe scoda, mzia da balRebi imitom, rom maT gamoa Cadenili codva... (Tamaz Cxenkeli, qarTveli mwerlebi skolaSi, w. V. naw. II, 2001, gv. 287). luarsabi RmerTs mimarTavs: me ki _ RmerTo, xom ici _ arafers ar davuZlevivar, rad miwyrebi? imisaTvis, rom TeleTSi wasvlazed WoWmanoba daviwye? aki maSinve movinanie!; platon samaniSvili uRvTo fiqriTaa SeZruli. momavali ubedurebis gancda, rom dedinacvali elene mas qonebis gamyofs gauCens, xdeba platonis sizmris safuZveli. platons esizmreba is uRvTo dedakaci. esizmreba da enac erTmeva, gonebac ekargeba da sisxlic uSreba. platons cxadSic igive emarTeba. luarsabis, platonisa da mzias, haki aZbas mixedviT ki _ xalxis qmedeba RvTis sawinaaRmdegoa da amitom problema problemad rCeba. eTnografiuli masalebiT: uflis yvedreba marcxis niSania. Tu RvTisagan STagonebul keTil saqmes ar akeTeb, Seni nakeTebi da sakeTebeli sxvisTvis sasargebloa da viRacis, an raRacis gamo mas Tavs anebeb, aucileblad damarcxdebi. RmerTs ar unda awyenino. sasikeTo saqme RvTisaganaa nakarnaxevi da igi zogjer gesizmreba kidec. dimitri uznaZe werda: "mTeli Cveni cxovrebis forma, saxe sikvdilma warmoSva. amitom igi ganuyreli darajiviT mudam Tan gvsdevda da kidevac gvsdevs (d. uznaZe, Sromebi, t. IX, 1986, gv. 16).

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aRvniSnavT, rom cudis, uaresis, sikvdilis SiSi namdviladaa garkveuli stimuli. igi azrs aZlevs adamianis moRvaweobas. sikvdilze gamarjvebis survilma unda gaaZlieros sulis ukvdavebis tradiciuli swrafva. kvirias (baxtrioni), mRvdlis (baSi-aCuki), aludas (aluda qeTelauri) winaswarmetyvelur sizmrebSi, marTalia, msxverpli Cans, magram TiToeulis sizmari keTilis momaswavebelia. Temis azri aludasagan mtrisadmi zurgis qcevaze rom gaqarwyldes, mindia aludas survilis sapirispirod iqceva da mokveTs mklavs mucals. nervuli sistemis TaviseburebiT da mdgomareobiT ganapirobebuli aludas sizmari mucalisTvis mklavis mokveTiT, anu sikvdiliT gamowveuli wuxilis qvecnobieri gagrZelebaa3 (r. siraZe, qarTveli mwerlebi skolaSi, w. V, nawili II, gv. 59). aluda kuratis SewirviT sakuTar azrs icavs. marTalia, Temidan mokveTes, magram gamarjvebuli rCeba imiT, rom vaJkacisTvis mklavis armokveTis wesi momavalSi TemisTvis wesad iqceva; kvirias sizmari aixsna, arss luxumi mixvda (ewyina luxums sizmari, cremlebi mosdis wyvilada). kviria msxverpli gaxda, qarTvelebma ki brZolaSi gaimarjves; mRvdlis (luxumSi da mRvdelSi zecnobieri moqmedebs) sizmarSi alaverdis monasters samkecad Semoxveuli gveleSapis mokvla (baSi-aCuki) qarTvelTa gamarjvebis niSania. eTnografiul yofaSi gvxvdeba masala, sadac saubaria sizmris ganeitralebis, misi keTilad axdenis SesaZleblobaze, mTvaris fazebis mniSvnelobaze mis axdena-araxdenasTan dakavSirebiT4. mTxrobelTa TqmiT: sizmrebi raRacis ecvlis aucileblobisaken migvaniSneben. zogjer xdeba, rom kargi sizmari bednieri momavlis garda msxverplzec winaswarmetyvelebs da mas cxadSic xedav, magram sizmris axsnis Semdeg danaxuli kargisTvis (mTxrobelebs mxedvelobaSi aqvT sazogado saqme, d. S.), msxver-

migvaCnia, rom sizmari aludas winaTgrZnobis amsaxvelia. saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis mkvidrTa rwmeniT: sizmris ganeitraleba SeiZleba cecxlis alis Tavze SemovlebiT, an sizmris wylisTvis moyoliT ise, rom aravis daelaparakebi. cud sizmarze araferi unda axseno. axal mTvareze dasizmrebuli ar axdeba.
4

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daviT SavianiZe

pladSewirulis saqmisTvis Tu imoqmedeb, msxverplis gamo wvevnuli cremli da dardi sixarulad geqceva. samecniero literaturaSic aRniSnuli, rom sicocxlis siyvaruliTa da sikvdilze gamarjvebis ocnebiT nasazrdoebi qarTuli xalxuri koleqtiuri cnobiereba icnobs sizmriT nawinaswarmetyvelebi sikvdilis acilebis motivsac, rac gmiris (bedisweris adresatis) mier gamoCenili sikeTiT miiRweva (T. SioSvili, 2002, gv. 140). cnobilia, rom semiotika ikvlevs niSanTa sistemis funqcionirebis kanonzomierebebs, semiotikis erT-erTi dargi semantika ki niSnebs formis, Sinaarsisa da gamoyenebis mxriv. ikvlevs sazriss, romelsac es niSnebi gamosaxaven. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa saskolo programiT Sesaswavl nawarmoebebSi aRweril sizmrebSi asaxuli moRvaweTa Rvawli, jvrebi, simboloebi, eklesia-salocavebi, sxvadasxva cxovelebi da frinvelebi. rogorc mxatvrul literaturaSi, ise eTnografiuli masalebSi aRwerili TiToeuli maTganis Sinaarsi erTeuli SemTxvevis garda ZiriTadad erTnairad ixsneba. magaliTebi literaturidan da eTnografiuli yofidan: yoili, xSiri yoili dafeniliyo gzazeda (baxtrioni). Cveni yvela eTnografiuli masaliT yvavili sasixarulo, sasiamovno ambavs moaswavebs; gavxede mindvrad mocuravs Savi veSapi qSeniTa (baxtrioni). qvewarmavali dagesizmreba ucxos, mters naxav, cudi ambavia; mtris acilebaa, miT ufro Tu moklav. zogi masalis TanaxmaT Savi feri cudia, dardia, varamia, sevda-glovas moaswavebs. sxva masaliT sixarulis niSanicaa, kargia. ganiSnebs, rom saqme saSavod ar geqces; gveleSapmoxveuli alaverdis taZari (baSi_aCuki) dapyrobili saqarTvelos simboloa. baSiaCukis da baxtrionis mixedviT, xalxi wuxs, rom maTi samSoblo mtris xelSia. taZris gaTavisufleba Zneli da safrTxiloa, Tumca saSuri. eklesia, taZari samoTxis niSania, jvars iwer, rigdebi benierebaze. momavalSi mSvidobianobaa. javri da dardi saqmis mogvarebaze miganiSnebs; qveS mego TeTri logini tkbilada saZinebeli (baxtrioni); kiriles sizmris gmiri TeTr cxenzea amxedrebuli (baSi-aCuki). eTnografiuli masalebiT TeTri feri samoTxeSi moxvedrasa miganiSnebs, Tumca zogjer, rogorc dardi, isea dacdili; mzis amobrwyineba da misi wiTeli Suqis danaxva sasaqarTvelos saqmis gadarCenis simboloa

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(baxtrioni). mze da wiTeli Suqi, eTnografiuli masaliT, sixaruls, warmatebul momavals, gabrwyinebas da bednier cxovrebas miganiSnebs. avtoriteti agimaRldeba, saxeli dagrCeba erSi; vidre gaigebs mamamze erisTavi, rom misi Svili mowamvlis Sedegad daiRupa, esizmreba mis saflavze dadebuli jvari, romelic Sexebisas gvelad iqceva (didostatis marjvena). jvari qristianobis gamarjvebis simboloa. gaTxovebazec ganiSnebs. sxva masalebiT, jvaris dasizmrebiT SeiZleba avi saqmec geniSnos. jvarze cudis fiqri, misi xelyofa codvis damZimebis niSania; aluda qeTelauri sizmrad kacis wverian xorcs Wams (aluda qeTelauri). eTnografiuli masaliT: wveri naxo, Snoeba da saxeli mogematos. wveri Sens mier axlis damkvidrebas, axali azris Seqmnas niSnavs. wveris gaparsva sevda-naRvelia. xorcis naxva kargia, misi Wama ki cudis niSania. axloblis cudsac niSnavs; cxenze amxedrebul mxedarTa brZola (baSi-aCuki, baxtrioni) gamarjvebas moaswavebs. cxeni Zalian kargia, gamarjvebaa. Tu sizmrad brZolaSi Caebmebi, cxadSi warmateba dagrCeba. omi kargia, gansacdelis gadatanaa, yvela gaWirveba mogSordeba, cxovrebaSi gamarTlebaa. sizmari xSirad gxvdeba bibliaSi, rogorc Zvel, ise axal aRTqmaSi (sizmrebs vxvdebiT budizmSi, islamSi, daoizmSi), miuxedavad amisa, SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom marTlmadidebloba5 araer-

abrams ZilSi amcnobs RmerTi, rom misi STamomavloba mdgmurad icxovra sxva qveyanaSi da sxvaTa mier damorCilebuli iqneba oTxasi wlis ganmavlobaSi (dabadeba. 15:12-16); iakobi sizmarSi xedavs miwaze mdgar kibes, sadac angelozebi adian da Camodian, xolo kibeze mdgari ufali esaubreba iakobs (dabadeba. 28:12); Zvel aRTqmaSi aRwerilia iosebis ramodenime sizmari, (dabadeba. 37:9). garda amisa, Zvel aRTqmaSi Cans, rom iosebma icis sizmris axsnac igi jer sapyrobileSi, faraonis meRvinesa da mepures uxsnis sizmars, Semdeg ki _ TviTon faraons. bibliis Tanaxmad, sizmrebs xedaven ezekieli, solomoni, gedeoni, danieli, romelmac aseve Zalian kargad icoda sizmrebis axsna. axal aRTqmaSi sul cxra sizmars vxvdebiT, aqedan xuTi maTgani gvxvdeba maTes saxarebaSi, xolo oTxi ki mociqulTa saqmeebSi; magaliTad, iosebi, qmari mariamisa, sizmarSi ramdenimejer xedavs uflis angelozs, romelic jer amcnobs, rom man colad unda moiyvanos mariami, Semdeg ki angelozi amcnobs, rom igi col-SvilTan erTad egvipteSi unda gaiqces; mogvebs, romlebic beTlemSi iesos inaxuloben da Tayvans

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daviT SavianiZe

Tgvarovnad uyurebs sizmars da misi axsnis sakiTxs. igive dasturdeba mecnieruli azriT. sizmris axsna, misdami damokidebuleba eTnografiuli masalebiTac xSirad individualuria. aRniSnulTan erTad swavlebis dros gasaTvaliswinebelia mecnierebaSi gamoTqmuli azri da eTnografiul yofaSi dadasturebuli masalebi ferebis, simboloebis (aRniSnul sakiTxze msjelobisaTvis ixile: g. buRaZe, Jurnali ciskari, 1988, #9, gv. 153; q. xuciSvili, 2009, gv. 51-52) mniSvnelobaze; gasaTvaliswinebelia skolaSi Sesaswavl nawarmoebebSi aRwerili sizmrebis, misi simboloebis da eTnografiuli masalebiT dadasturebuli sizmrebis da misi simboloebis identuroba. yovelive aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sizmris fenomeni frTxil da sworad gaazrebul midgomas saWiroebs miT ufro, rom qarTvel mweralTa nawarmoebebSi xSirad gvxvdeba arsebuli sinamdvilis, Znelad dasaZlevi viTarebis amsaxveli, amxsneli winaswarmetyveluri sizmrebi. skolaSi Sesabamisi adgilebis swavlebisas mwerlis Canafiqris (Tu ra datvriTva aqvs mis mier gamoyenebul sizmars, ra Sinaarsi sizmris simboloebs) marTebul gagebaSi bavSvs daexmareba Sesabamisi donis eTnologiuri codna. gamoyenebuli literatura i. abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, 1973 d. uznaZe, folkloruli saubari, sikvdili. Sromebi, t. IX, 1986 qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, 1980 qarTveli mwerlebi skolaSi, w. V, nawili II, 2001 d. SavianiZe, okriba (istoriul-eTnografiuli narkvevi), 2005

scemen, sizmarSi mosdiT gafrTxileba, rom herodesTan aRar unda dabrundnen; sainteresoa pilate pontoelis colis sizmari. am qals, apokrifebis mixedviT, klavdia erqva. maTes saxarebis 27-e Tavis me-19 paragrafSi pirdapir vkiTxulobT: da roca samsjavro savarZelSi ijda (saubaria pilate pontoelze), colma kacis piriT SemouTvala: nurafers dauSaveb mag marTals, vinaidan wuxel sizmarSi bevri vitanje mis gamo.

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T. SioSvili, qarTuli folkloris zneobrivi samyaro, 2002 d. CubinaSvili, qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, 1984 q. xuciSvili, sizmari rogorc komunikaciis saSualeba (eTnografiuli monacemebis mixedviT), qarTveluri memkvidreoba III, 1999 q. xuciSvili, sizmari qarTul yofaSi, 2009 Jurnali ciskari, 1988, @#9 qarTveluri dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi institutis masalebi http://urakparaki.com/?m=4&ID=45705; http://anuuushkebi.ucoz.com/blog/2009-07-07-11; http://sisi.ge/index.php?newsid=142l. mTxrobelebi: elisabed CitiZe-lomTaZe, anJeli xvadagiani, mariam xvadagiani, ariadna forCxiZe-gabadaZe, julieta qaTamaZe, izolda merkvilaZe, lola suliaSvili, lena zosiaSvili, nargiza ivaneiSvili, naTela merkvilaZe, TinaTin gorgiZe...

maia miqautaZe, giga qamuSaZe

sametyvelo kodTa SereviT gamowveuli semantikuri Taviseburebani imerxevelTa metyvelebaSi


XVI-XVII saukuneebidan moyolebuli saqarTvelos istoriuli kuTxeebi: klarjeTi, SavSeT-imerxevi, eruSeTi, lazeTi, speri, kola, tao... mowyvetilia dedasamSoblos da TurqeTis respublikis SemadgenlobaSia. imerxevSi, Turqul enobriv velSi xangrZlivi cxovrebis pirobebSi, dRemde SenarCunebulia qarTuli ena da tradiciebi, Tumca, bunebrivia, sxvadasxva enis, mrwamsis, tradiciebis mqone qarTveli da Turqi xalxebis mravalsaukunovani urTierToba aisaxa ara mxolod imerxevelTa socialur Tu eTnografiul yofaze, aramed maT metyvelebazec. saukuneebis manZilze samwignobro qarTuls daSorebuli imerxevel qarTvelTa metyveleba sainteresoa rogorc sakuTriv gramatikuli, aseve leqsikuri TvalsazrisiTac. Turquli enis gavlena met-naklebad yvela doneze SeimCneva: fonetikaSi, morfologiaSi, sintaqsSi, leqsikaSi... Turquli enobrivi elementebis moZaleba gansakuTrebiT leqsikaSi igrZnoba. naSromSi ganxilulia qarTuli sa-

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literaturo enis imerxeul dialeqtSi qarTuli da Turquli enebis, zogadad, kulturaTa interferenciis Sedegad da Turquli enis gavleniT saerToqarTveluri leqsikuri erTeulebis semantikuri cvlilebis SemTxvevebi. imerxevel qarTvelTa metyveleba Zalze saintereso suraTs xatavs swored sametyvelo kodebis Serevis TvalsazrisiT. Turqul enobriv samyarosTan xangrZlivi Tanaarsebobis Sedegad, dRes TiTqmis yvela imerxeveli (zogierTi Rrmad moxucis garda) flobs saxelmwifo enas Turquls. swavla-ganaTleba, bunebrivia, Turqul enazea; aseve, sakmaod xSirad iyeneben Turquls ojaxebSi Tu Cveulebrivi yofiTi urTierTobebis dros. imerxeulSi kod-sviCingis (ingl. Switching gadarTva) xuTive ZiriTadi qvetipia warmodgenili. ramdenadac cnobilia, kod-sviCingi spontanuri, gauazrebeli procesia da gvxvdeba mxolod sruli bilingvizmis an diglosiis SemTxvevaSi. winamdebare naSromSi yuradRebas vamaxvilebT kalkur gadarTvaze (Calque switching), romelic gulisxmobs _ enaSi/dialeqtSi, enis/dialeqtis gavleniT, leqsikur-gramatikuli kalkebis spontanurad warmoqmnas (m. labaZe, 2010, gv. 114). Ggaanalizebulia rogorc zmnuri, aseve saxeluri fuZeebi. saanalizod warmodgenilia 2006-2011 wlebSi akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis qarTveluri dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi institutis mier organizebuli eqspediciebis dros imerxevis sxvadasxva soflebSi (iveTi, imfxrevli, qoqlieTi, bazgireTi, ziosi, diobani, wyalsimeri, weTileTi, surevani, farnuxi...) Cawerili dialeqturi masala. masalis mopovebis dros vafiqsirebdiT qarTveluri enobrivi samyarosaTvis uCveulo formebs, konteqstebsa Tu mniSvnelobebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi respondentebs vTxovdiT, aRniSnuli winadadebebi Tu sityvaformebi Sesabamisi TurquliT gadmoecaT. isini, faqtobrivad, daufiqreblad Targmnidnen magaliTebs. aRmoCnda, rom imerxevelTa metyvelebisaTvis esoden damaxasiaTebeli, xolo qarTuli saliteraturo enisa Tu sxva dialeqtebisaTvis uCveulo, konteqstebi Tu mniSvnelobebi, swored Turquli enis pirdapiri zegavlenis Sedegia. sailustraciod ganvixiloT rogorc zmnuri, aseve saxeluri fuZeebi. gaReba zmnuri fuZis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba imerxevelTa metyvelebaSi, sxva qarTveluri qvesistemebis msgavsad, aris gax-

154

maia miqautiZe, giga miqautiZe

sna, gaReba. mag.: gaaRe erTi kari, gameitane cicxvi (xis didi kovzi) da anaxe ragvaria; qalman gaaRo fenjere, gadmuagdo zir (Zirs)... igive zmna imerxeulSi dadasturda qarTulisaTvis uCveulo konteqstebSic: buRdi fquil Tu ar gaaRebT lamazaT, biSi ar gamocxveba; buRdi fquils gavaReb, iqSi movasxam iaR, gamuacxof faxlavas... mocemul magaliTebSi gaReba forma gamoiyeneba comis gabrtyelebis mniSvnelobiT. aseTi mniSvnelobiT aRniSnuli zmna sxva qarTvelur qvesistemebSi ar dasturdeba. imerxeul dialeqtSi comis gayvana-gabrtyelebis aRsaniSnad gaReba formis gamoyeneba pirdapiri kalkia Turquli zmnisa amak (gaReba, gaxsna), romlis erT-erTi mniSvnelobacaa swored comis gabrtyeleba. Sdr.: mag. Turq. n amak comis gabrtyeleba. moyvana _ zmnis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba imerxevel qarTvelTa metyvelebaSi, saliteraturo qarTulisa da sxva qarTveluri dialeqtebis msgavsad, aris raRacis an viRacis moyvana. mag.: moiyvana mezobelma i kaci, amuSavna da misca bevri fara; taias uTxari, momiyvane-ia Sevxedo ragvaria, or dRe ukan gevxede da fena lamazad ar mohyavs i RarWi!.. igive zmna imerxevelTa metyvelebaSi, ZiriTadi mniSvnelobis garda, aRniSnavs Seqmnas, gakeTebas; mag.: ase brunavs variai, ima mohyavs iaRi [akeTebs, amzadebs karaqs]... respondentebs specialurad CaveZieT, xom ar gulisxmobdnen amoyvana formas, romelic aseT konteqstSi Cveulebrivia sxva qarTveluri qvesistemebisaTvis. Sdr.: karaqis amoyvana, kremis amoyvana... uaryofiTi pasuxis miRebis Semdeg, maT vTxoveT, winadadebebi Turqulad eTargmnaT. respondentebi iyenebdnen Turqul zmnas getirmek. forma moyvana damzadebis, gakeTebis aRsaniSnavad qarTul saliteraturo enasa Tu dialeqtebSi ar dasturdeba. igi kalkia Turquli zmnuri fuZisa getirmek, romlis erT-erTi mniSvnelobaa swored Seqmna, warmoeba. mikvra imerxeul dialeqtSi zmnuri fuZis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba, qarTuli saliteraturo enisa da sxva qarTveluri dialeqtebis msgavsad, aris mikvra. mag.: mivida tadom (ufrosma Zmam) da xeze miakra i kaci; miakra unda TaxTebi (ficrebi) lamazad ... forma ZiriTadi mniSvnelobis garda, qarTulisaTvis uCveulo konteqstebSic gvxvdeba; mag.: harfebs (asoebs) vcnobilob da

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ver mimikravs-ia [erTmaneTs ver vukavSireb, vabam, vaerTeb], ro vikiTxo... CakiTxvis Semdeg respondenti konteqstSi mimikravs formas ase azustebs: ver mimibams-ia. mocemul magaliTSi mimikravs formis gamoyeneba mibma-mierTebis aRsaniSnad aris kalki Turquli zmna balamak-is, romlis mniSvnelobebia: Sekvra; mibma; ganaskva; Sexveva; gaxveva; gadaxveva; SeerTeba... Sdr.: mag.: Turquli boyunba balamak halstuxis gamonaskva. gaWra imerxeulSi zmnuri fuZe da misgan nawarmoebi mimReoburi formebi gaWrili, gasaWreli... qarTuli saliteraturo enisa da sxva qarTveluri qvesistemebis msgavsad, ZiriTadad, gamoiyeneba swored raRacis an viRacis gaWris aRsaniSnavad. mag.: avad viyav, gaWrili var; unda gaWra mere i puri Suazed, mere daWri wuril-wurilaT... garda amisa, imerxevelTa metyvelebaSi gaWra forma aRniSnavs sikvdils, daxocvas, amowyvetas. mag.: ar gamuslemanda da gaWres somxebi; omi ragvaria da fena cudia, bevr insnebs gaWrian-ia... mocemuli mniSvnelobiT gaWra formis gamoyeneba kalkia Turquli zmnuri formisa bimek (gaWra), romelsac erT-erT gadataniT mniSvnelobad udasturdeba swored daxocva, mocelva tyviamfrqvevis jeriT. ASdr.: mag.: Turq. Dmanlar bimek mtris amoxocva. msurs/momsurda zmna imerxevelTa metyvelebaSi gvxvdeba qarTuli saliteraturo enisa da sxva qarTveluri dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ZiriTadi mniSvnelobebiT: survili, ndoma. natvra. mag.: zalian surda gurjistanSi gadasvla, pasaforti gaakeTa da wevda da; fara ver miSovnia, baTum wamevde, ise fena msurs da vnaxoT-ia ... amasTan, momsurda forma davadastureT gansxvavebul konteqstSic: ana-babai momsurda da aqeT gamoviqeco (hyvebian qalze, romelic baTumSi iyo gaTxovili da, sabWoTa kavSiris Seqmnisa da sazRvrebis daketvis Semdeg, TurqeTSi gaqceula, sadac daupatimrebiaT). mocemul magaliTSi monatrebis aRsaniSnavad momsurda formis gamoyeneba sxva qarTveluri qvesistemebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ar aris, vinaidan aq kargad aris diferencirebuli sulier da usulo saganTa monatreba/mosurvebis gadmosacemad gansxvavebuli fuZeebis gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi. kerZod, usulo sagnis monatreba/mondomeba SeiZleba gadmoices msurs, minda, menatreba formebiT, magram rodesac adamianis monatrebazea sauba-

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ri, am SemTxvevaSi mxolod momenatra forma gamoiyeneba. sulieri sagnis monatrebis aRsaniSnavad momsurda formis gamoyeneba pirdapiri kalkia Turquli zmnuri fuZisa arzulamak survili (surs), ndoma (unda), swrafva (eswrafvis), natvra (natrulobs). Sdr.: mag.: Turq. Ailemi arzuluyorum ojaxi menatreba. gamomcxvari imerxeul dialeqtSi mimReoburi forma, qarTuli saliteraturo enisa da dialeqtebis msgavsad, ZiriTadad aRniSnavs gamomcxvar sagans. Mmag.: anais gamomcxvari puri fena germelia; axla martivi sobefSi vacxofT, kecefSi gamomcxvari ufro momwonda... forma, ZiriTadi mniSvnelobis garda, davadastureT qarTuli saliteraturo enisa da sxva qarTveluri qvesistemebisaTvis aradamaxasiaTebeli, uCveulo aRmniSvnelis rolSi. adgilobrivTa metyvelebaSi is aRniSnavs akvanSi gazrdil bavSvs: akvanSi gazrdili baRvi gamomcxvaria. zmna pimek TurqulSi aRniSnavs: moxarSva (moixarSeba); gamocxoba; Sewva; gamowrToba (gamoiwrToba); gamowvrTna; gamocdilebis SeZena. rogorc Cans, imerxeuli forma gamomcxvari-s gamoyeneba zemomotanil konteqstebSi warmoadgens Turquli pimek zmnis erT-erTi mniSvnelobisgan (gamowrToba) miRebuli mimReobis kalkirebul formas. mag.: Turquli Ticarette kkten pimek lazim vaWrobaSi bavSvobidan gamowvrTnaa saWiro. beWdis TiTi forma araTiTis, usaxelo TiTis aRmniSvnelia. am TiTs Turqul saliteraturo enaSi aRniSnavs forma adsz parmak, rac aseve iTargmneba: araTiTi, usaxelo TiTi. sityvasityviT, forma yzk parma (beWdis TiTi) davadastureT Turqulis saliteraturo enis erT-erT dialeqtSi; swored aRniSnuli formis kalkia araTiTis aRsaniSnad imerxeul dialeqtSi gamoyenebuli beWdis TiTi... zemoT gaanalizebuli zmnuri Tu saxeluri fuZeebis magaliTze davinaxeT, rom maTi semantikuri gansxvavebuloba-Tavisebureba swored sametyvelo kodTa SereviT aris ganpirobebuli. am formaTa safuZveli ki imerxevel qarTvelTa sruli bilingvizmia. ganxilulma masalam aseve aCvena, rom qarTuli enis imerxeul dialeqtSi, romelic oTx saukuneze metia mowyvetilia danarCeni qarTulenovani samyaros gavlenas da Turqulenovan samyarosTan mWidro kavSiri aqvs, Turquli saliteraturo enisa Tu

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dialeqtebis gavlenis Sedegad, aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis doneze kalkuri gadarTva spontanurad xdeba, ris Sedegadac saxeze gvaqvs sityvaTa semantikuri cvlilebebi... Maia Mikautadze, Giga Kamushadze Akaki Tsereteli State University Semantic peculiarities caused by mixing the speech codes in Imerkhevian speech The speech of Imerkhevian Georgians according to the mixture of the speech codes is essentially interestings. According to the co-existence with the Turkish lingual world nearly all the Imerkhevians (except some elderly people) speak the state language - Turkish. Education process is naturally in Turkish language, and it is also used in families and everyday communication. There are all main five subtypes of code-switching in Imerkhevian. As far as it is known, code-switching is the spontaneous, not acknowledged process and is met in the specific cases of bilingualism. In the given work we pay main attention to the callque switching, that implies the spontaneous existence of the lexical-grammar Calques in language/dialect. The theme of analyses is the material gained by the expedition of Kartveluri Dialectology Research Institute at Akaki Tsereteli State University in different villages of Imerkhevi (Iveti, Impkhrevli, Korkileti, Bazgireti, Ziosi, Diobani, Tskalsimeri, Tsetileti, Surevani, Parnuxi...) in 2006-2011. The verb gaReba (gageba) to bring besides its main meaning means to create, to do. But this form with the meaning of doing and creating is not given in Georgian literary language and dialects. It is the calque of the Georgian verbal root getirmek, that can be defined as to create, make something. The form moyvana (mokvana) to stick except its main meaning are met in the unusual contexts for the Georgian language; e.g. I know the letters but I cant stick (to connect with each other) them to read. In the given example the use of this verb is the calque of the Turkish verb balamak that means: to sew; to tie together; to knot; to wrap up; to rewind; to join... mikvra (mikvra) - Baked form except its main meaning has unusual meaning. In the local speech it means a child grown up in a cradle: Child grown up in the cradle is baked

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gamomcxvari (gamomtskhvari) -The verb pimek in Turkish language means: to boil; to bake; to fry; to temper; to school; to experience. As it can be seen from the example Baked used in the given context is the calque of the Turkish verb pimek. beWdis TiTi (bechdis titi) The ring finger denotes fourth finger, ring finger. In Turkish literary language it is adsiz parmak, has the same translation - fourth finger, ring finger. Word for word, the form yzk parma (ring finger) is met in one of the dialects of the Turkish language, the calque of which is revealed in Imerkhevian dialects. The work deals with the forms of verbs and nouns, semantic peculiarities of which are caused by mixing the codes. Analyzes material revealed that in Imerkhevian, with the influence of Turkish literary language and dialects, calque switching is the spontnaneous process that resulted with the semantic changes of words. literatura 1. bokamba-eiamba, 1989 _ George Bokamba-Eyamba, "Are there

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

syntactic constraints on code-mixing?". World Englishes 8 (3): pp. 277292; London-New York, 1989. li vei, 1998 _ Li Wei, "The 'Why' and 'How' Questions in the Analysis of Conversational Code-switching". In Code-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction, and Identity: pp. 156176; London, 1998. qlaini, 2000 _ Michael Clyne, "Constraints on codeswitching: how universal are they?" in The Bilingualism Reader: pp. 12-30, London, 2000. Turqul-qarTuli leqsikoni Trke-Grcce Szlk, lmi kontrol ve redaksiyon Lia LADZE, stanbul, 2001. mixeil labaZe, qarTvelur dialeqtur kodTa Serevis sakiTxisaTvis murRulis xeobaSi (TurqeTis respublika), weliwdeuli II, quTaisi, 2010 (gv. 114-118). maia miqautaZe, sametyvelo kodebis Serevis ramdenime sakiTxi imerxeulSi, "lingvisturi qarTvelo-

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logiisa da afxazologiis aqtualuri problemebi", II Tb., 2010 (gv. 210-217). 7. maia miqautaZe, sityvawarmoebis ramdenime sakiTxisaTvis imerxeulSi, krebuli "didaWaroba, 2010 (gv. 92-93); Sps sezani. 8. maia miqautaZe, eka dadiani, kompozitTa warmoebisaTvis imerxeulSi (2006-2007 ww. eqspediciis masalebis mixedviT), qarTul-Turquli kulturuli paralelebi I, Tb., 2009 (gv. 103111); gamomcemloba meridiani. 9. e. dadiani, m. miqautaZe - qarTul-Turquli enobrivkulturul urTierTobebisaTvis imerxeulSi (dalocva-wyevlis formulebis mixedviT), qarTveluri memkvidreoba, XII; quTaisi, 2008 (gv. 88-91); gamomcemloba quTaisis saxelmwifo universiteti.

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scenur-sivrciTi metaforis semantika robert sturuas speqtaklSi mefe liri


robert sturuas konceptualuri reJisuris umniSvnelovanesi Tviseba is aris, rom yvelaferi _ scenografiiT dawyebuli, mxatvruli ganaTebiT damTavrebuli _ erT mTavar ideas, azrs efuZneba. sturuas msoflaRqma garkveuli movlenebisa da Temebisadmi mizanscenebis garda, upirveles yovlisa, scenografiaSi vlindeba garkveuli niSnebis saxiT. es sturuas Teatraluri metaforis da niSnebis enaa. am mxriv mis SemoqmedebaSi gamorCeuli speqtakli Seqspiris mefe liria, romelic man 1987 wels dadga rusTavelis Teatris scenaze. (mxatvari mirian SveliZe). Seqspiris mefe liramde robert sturuam mirian SveliZesTan erTad Seqmna Tavisi politikuri Teatris Sedevrebi, romlebic gajerebuli iyo Teatraluri aso-niSnebiT. mxatvar mirian SveliZis filosofiurma saxviTma enam farTo masStabiT warmogvidgina adamianis sulieri xrwnis nairsaxeoba, rogorc samyaros tragikuli ngrevis safuZveli. mirian SveliZe mefe lirSi inarCunebs misTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-simboloebiT saubris Cvevas.

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sturua-SveliZis scenografiuli samyaro mTlianad gamoricxavs yovelgvar yofiTs, Tumca yofiTi niSnebi mis speqtaklebSi pirdapiri daniSnulebis garda, simbolur-metaforul datvirTvas iZens. mefe lirSi scenografiuli sivrce gadawyvetilia, rogorc ganzogadoebuli samoqmedo adgili, xolo Seqspiris Sexeduleba samyaroze _ mTeli samyaro Teatria _ gansaxierebulia dekoraciebSi, romlebic agrZeleben realur Teatralur ares rusTavelis Teatris darbazs, iarusebs da sxva Teatraluri arqiteqturis komponentebs; finalSi personaJuli scenografiis funqcia savsebiT mJRavndeba, iarusebis konstruqcia iSleba mayureblisaken, rogorc liris samyaros CaZiruli gemi, xolo dekoraciebis amoZravebuli masebi aRiqmeba gordon kregis tragikuli geometriis garkveul reminiscenciad [kuznecova-gunia 2005:33]. maRali tragediis paTosi, romliTac gamoirCeva mefe liris scenografia, warmoaCens mxatvris tragikul msoflaRqmas, mis mcdelobas, SemoqmedebiTad gaiazros warmavali epoqa, idealebis msxvreva da dasasrulis dasawyisi. formisTvis Teatri TeatrSi mxatvarma zust, adekvatur da originalur sivrciT gadawyvetas mimarTa. mirian SveliZis scenografiac TiTqos scenasa da mayurebelTa darbazs erT mTlianobaSi kravs, ufro sworad, rusTavelis Teatris mayurebelTa darbazi TiTqos sarkiseburad aisaxeba scenaze. es principi Semdgom viTardeba, oRond ukve sxva TvalsazrisiT. glosteris ojaxuri da pirovnuli tragedia, TiTqos liris tragikuli istoriis sarkiseburi asaxvaa, miaCnia Teatrmcodne manana gegeWkors [gegeWkori 1993:64] . mayurebelTa darbazisa da scenis gaerTianeba Caketil sivrces qmnis, erTgvar wres, romlis SigniTac moqceulan liris Teatris msaxiobebi da mayurebeli. isini uneblieT aRmoCndnen sacirko arenaze. scena TiTqos carielia. centrSi samefo taxti - saxrCobela dgas, masze maimuni zis. igi TiTqos cinikurad dahyurebs am saSinel qveyanas, sadac sisastikisa da Suris meti araferi darCenila. adamianTa sulSi Rrmad Camarxuli, miZinebuli zneobisa da humanizmis namsxvrevebi veraviTari Zalis zemoqmedebis Sedegad ver gamofxizldeba. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom scenidan xan grgvinva moismis, xan damabrmaveblad aelvardeba si-

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naTle, xan raRac mrisxaned gugunebs, TiTqos miwisZvra iwyebao. sruli qaosi gamefebula. grgvinva, TvalismomWreli sinaTle, dedamiwis guguni _ swored esaa gafrTxileba, romelsac TiTqos raRac zegardmo Zala iZleva, raTa adamianebi gons moegon, daufiqrdnen TavianT saqciels, mis Seclas Seecadnon, gaanalizon da gaacnobieron sakuTari qmedebebi da am qmedebiT gamowveuli Sedegebi, magram yovelive amaoa. marTalia, adamianebs eSiniaT, am ZalTa gamovlena maT panikaSi agdebT, magram maTi moqmedebis Secvla ukve sruliad SeuZlebelia, samyaro katastrofisken mieqaneba. Seqspiris scenuri interpretaciebis mkvlevars paola uruSaZes miaCnia, rom Tvalsazrisi liris universalurobaze, mis apokalifsur mocemulobaze TvalsaCinod aris gamoxatuli speqtaklis scenografiaSi: mxatvari aerTianebs mayurebelTa darbazs scenasTan, qmnis TiTqmis Caketil sivrces, romelSic dekoraciebi darbazis interieris mxolod ramdenime saxeSecvlil ganmeorebas warmoadgens~ [uruSaZe 1988:75]. scenis marjvena naxevarsfero, ise rogorc mrude sarke, mayurebelTa darbazis anarekls warmoadgens. reJisorma da mxatvarma am formiT mayurebeli TiTqos saTeatro amfiTeatrSi moaqcies. Caketili wridan verc msaxiobebi da verc mayurebeli Tavs ver daaRweven. mayurebeli avtomaturad erTveba moqmedebaSi, rogorc meTvalyure, rogorc monawile am tragediisa. am formiT reJisori mayurebels liris totaluri saxelmwifos moqalaqed aqcevs. swored amas gulisxmobda paola uruSaZe, rodesac werda: Cvens winaSea qveyana, romelSic Sesvla jer kidev SesaZlebelia, magram iqedan gamosavali aRar aris. aq (ise, rogorc tenesi uiliamsis kamino realSi) TiTqosda, SemTxveviT SeaRwia kentma (msaxiobi murman jinoria), sxva samyaros adamianma da Cvenc TiTqosda misi TvaliT vakvirdebiT saxelmwifos gayofis ritualis samzadiss, romelSic erTnairad Semosili usaxuri adamianebi monawileoben [uruSaZe 1988:75]. speqtaklis sivrculi gadawyveta naTlad xatavs im samyaros, romelsac reJisori moqmedebiT warmoadgens. mkacri kanonebis da totaluri saxelmwifos gamoxatvis mcdelobaa dekoraciis yvela detalSi. mag., samefo taxti, romelsac fuZed dazga

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emsaxureba. kacobriobis istoriaSi es sagnebi mtkiced aris gadajaWvuli erTmaneTTan, adamianTa xelebi da goneba mravali saukunis manZilze erTgul samsaxurs uwevda Zalauflebasa da sikvdils, da is iaraRic, romlis afeTqeba aTas mzeze kaSkaSa naTebas warmoSobs, maTi Seqmnilia. scenis marcxena mxaris gaswvriv liandagebis Zelakebi hkidia. es rkinis qanqarebi gamudmebiT moZraoben da mxolod isini amxelen am erTi cida miwis monakveTze adamianze amxedrebuli bunebis Zalas, qariSxlis scenaSi swored maTSia koncentrirebuli gamZvinvarebuli stiqiis mTeli mrisxaneba, maT nel da mZime rxevaSi, da bolos saxrCobelaze mokalaTebuli maimuni, koSmaruli moCveneba, romelsac gonebis Zili warmoSobs, is damRupveli Zili, romlis Sedegadac isadgurebs sicariele, qaosi [uruSaZe 1988:76]. simboloebi, metaforebi, da zogadad, alegoriuli azrovneba robert sturuas konceptualuri reJisuris umniSvnelovanesi Semadgeneli nawilia. scenaze xSirad vxvdebiT butaforiul statikur nivTebs, romlebic sturuas simbolur-metaforuli azrovnebis detalebia, magram xSir SemTxvevaSi speqtaklis ideuri gadawyvetis gasaRebic xdeba. Teatris mkvlevrebSi konkretuli simbolo cxare kamaTis da dapirispirebis saganic ki gamxdara. simbolurad anawilebs liri samefos. mas inglisis ruka uWiravs xelSi da ingliss pirobiTad, sam nawilad hyofs. mTeli samefo sturuam sami furclis patara naglejSi moaqcia, amiT xazi gausva liris damokidebulebas am formaluri aqtisadmi. is ambobs: gadavwyvite nebieri sibere mqondes, de axalgazrdebma zidon mZime tvirTi samefos marTvis da izrunon masze [Seqspiri 1986: 123], Tan dasZens imas, rac isedac yvelam icis, rom mis survils win veravin aRudgeba. erTi SexedviT, ucxo da ucnauri, TiTqos Seusabamo detalebi TandaTan orazrovan simbolur Sinaars iZenen: Tundac liandagi (Cixi vagonetiT, imave qoxiT), liris saboloo sadgurad rom iqceva da mis gamouval mdgomareobas gamoxatavs. liandagi ki asociacias aRZravda sabWoTa kavSiris dros xalxis gadasaxlebasa da daxvretasTan. aseve taxti-saxrCobela, romelzec kidia yoveli maTganis bedi (cxadia, warmosaxviTi), sinamdvileSi ki qvabi, romelSic codva duRs da gadmoduRs.

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sturuas mefe liris umTavresi simboluri butaforiuli atributi galiaa, romelic scenaze lirs Semoqvs misi gamoCenis pirvelive epizodSi. vasil kiknaZis azriT, galia es kordelias gamomwyvdeuli sulia [kiknaZe 1987: 19], TiTqos axirebaa mefis xelSi kverTxis nacvlad galia CitiT. grZeli da grZneuli pauzis Semdeg liri gamodis asparezze, romlis atributi galiaa, oRond SemTxveviT ki ara, misive replikidan gamoWedili. robert sturuas Semoqmedebis mkvlevari dali mumlaZe wers: liri im CitiviTaa galiaSi gamoketili, romelic lirs Semoaqvs scenaze, Semdeg mziTvis sanacvlod atans sakaro ritualis xelyofis gamo gaZevebul kordilias. igi adamianis sulis karibWesTan modaraje im samoTxis Citad Tu lurj frinvelad aRiqmeba, marad da yvelagan Tan rom sdevs adamians, rogorc misi arsebis is saswaulebrivi niWi da unari, romelsac Tavad unda miagnos, Cawvdes da didi sicocxlisTvis gareT gamoixmos [mumlaZe... 1987:25]. galia erTgvari sapyrobilecaa, romelSic datyvevebuli Citi-kordiliaa gamomwyvdeuli. qarTveli Seqspirologi niko yiasaSvili galias kordiliasTan aigivebs. igi werda: galia da Citi TiTqos kordilias simboloa (Tanac es namdvili, cocxali Citia, romelic ebaaseba lirs, TamaSobs da Tan imdenad simboluria, rom arc aRiqmeba, rogorc naturalisturi elementi), amitom ar aviwydeba kordilias, es erTaderTi mziTeviTan waiRos safrangeTSi da finalSi, roca lirs uWirs Tavisi qaliSvilis cnoba, kenti mas galiaSi gamomwyvdeuls daanaxvebs da am Taviseburi fsiqoanalitikuri seansis wyalobiT gaaxsenebs usamarTlod gandevnil Svils [yiasaSvili 1987]. galia speqtaklSi lirisa da kordilias sulis unazesi kavSiris gamomxatvelicaa. galia rom kordiliasTan asocirdeba, mxolod imiT rodi dasturdeba, rom lirisgan gandevnil kordilias safrangeTSi swored es galia miaqvs, aramed imisaTvis, rom avadmyofi liri, jer kidev buranSi myofi, galias miSterebuli warmoTqvams: mapatie, Seminde Svilo. lirsve ekuTvnis Semdegi sityvebi: sjobs, rom axlave gamogvketon samyaroSi, rogorc Citebi galiaSi, ise vicxovrebT da vigalobebT [Seqspiri 1986:176]. mweralma giorgi xuxaSvilma liris galiaSi cxovrebis maradiulobis niSani dainaxa: TevziT da CitiT gaCenili

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samyaros asociaciebi ise ubralod ibadeba, TiTqos milion wlebs ar gaevlos dedamiwaze, arc idos drois zRvari pirvelyofilsa da dRevandel kacs Soris [xuxaSvili 1987:34]. pirvelive scenaSi vxvdebiT peplis, Tu Tevzis saWer bades, romelic, amjerad, kordilias Semoaqvs. es rekviziti, ise rogorc galia, or personaJs: lirsa da kordilias Soris monacvleobs. dali mumlaZis azriT, bade, romelic lirs xelSi uWiravs, erTgvari tyveobis iaraRia. lirma mSvenivrad icis isic, rom am badeSi TviTonacaa gamomwyvdeuli didi TevziviT. am ideidan modis swored aRniSnul scenaSi ramaz CxikvaZe-liris ironiul, umal sarkastuli toni [mumlaZe...1987:13]. samefos ganawilebis scenis dasrulebis Semdeg bade gloster-edmundis xelSi aRmoCndeba, romelic speqtaklis bolomde rCeba liris da kordilias atributad, xolo Tevzis saWer bades ki glosterisa da edmundis xelSi davinaxavT. am detaliT reJisori da mxatvari kidev erTxel usvamen xazs liris tragikuli istoriis paralelizms glosteris istoriasTan. liris Teatris warmodgenas Tavidanve eswreba cxovrebis Teatris qandaraze Semomjdari maradiuli mayurebeli swored mayurebelia moTvalTvale, utyvi mowme im sabediswero TamaSis, ZlierTa ama qveynisaTa rom gaumarTavT; mis am Caurevlobasa da indiferentizmSi ganiWvriteba samyarosa da adamianis tragikuli aRsasruli. am krebiT personaJs fexqveS ecleba niadagi, engreva arc Tu ise myarad nagebi bude qandaraze. saxrCobelaze atyorcniliviT rCeba caSi gamokidebuli da es scenuri metafora aRiqmeba, rogorc damsaxurebuli sasjeli Cadenili danaSaulisTvis [mumlaZe...1987:17]. Tumca maradiuli personaJis funqciam azrTa sxvadasxvaoba mainc gamoiwvia Teatrmcodneebs Soris. Teatris zogierTi mkvlevari masSi gulisxmobs reJisors, zogi liris Teatris ukanasknel mayurebels, romelic boloSi, sxvebTan erTad samyaros qaosSi dainTqmeba. Teatris mkvlevar nodar gurabaniZes miaCnia, rom es personaJi personificirebul _ moTvalTvale sazogadoebis metaforaa. misi azriT, uTuod raRac Sinauruli kavSiri arsebobs am mayurebelsa da saxrCobelas Tavze wamomjdar grZelkudian maimuns Soris. maTi maradiuli yofna li-

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ris samyaroSi SeiZleba swored cxovrebis warmavlobas gulisxmobdes da gamoxatavdes skepsiss adamianur dramaTa, vnebaTa amaoebis gamo [gurabaniZe 1997:555]. mefe lirSi vxvdebiT iseT niSnebs, romlebic reJisoris sxva adrindel speqtaklebSic (seilemis procesi (1965), yvaryvare (1974), kavkasiuri carcis wre (1975), riCard III (1979), as ergasis dRe (1985)) gvxdeba. es aris skami. sturuasTan uaryofilia yovelgvari samefo taxti. aq misi adgili ubralo skams uWiravs, romelic taxtis funqcias zedmiwevniT kargad iTavsebs. scenaze Camwkrivebuli carieli skamebi liris pirvel scenaSi gamoucnobis molodiniT gvavsebs, werda nodar gurabaniZe, _ auxsnel SiSs da krZalvas gvinergavs. aq raRac mniSvnelovani unda moxdes - fexakrebiT, Cumad, mosiarule glosteri (msaxiobi avTo maxaraZe) da edmundi (msaxiobi akaki xidaSeli) kidev ufro amZafreben am metaforul SiSs, xolo roca edmundi skamebs Soris daiCoqebs da raRac sagans ipovis, es warmoSobs mistiur SiSs [gurabaniZe 1997:521]. uZveles sagan arqetipTa rigs miekuTvneba agreTve kibe. ritualebSi da folklorul TamaSobebSi kibes metaforulad gamoxatavs kavSir mdabals, qveda sknelsa (qvesknels) da amaRlebuls (zesknels) Soris. amgvarad gaazrebul kibes vxedavT lirSi. edmundia (msaxiobi akaki xidaSeli) kibis saganTa TamaSSi CamrTveli. mudam amaRlebisken, gandidebisken miswrafebuli edmundi kibeze Semdgari (romelic SavebSi Cacmul or msaxurs uWiravs) gviziarebs xolme Tavis sanukvar ocnebebs. amave kibeze Semdgari elaparakeba maRla scenis loJaSi gadamalul Tavis Zmas edgars (msaxiobi gia ZnelaZe), TviT edgaris gaqceva mamiseuli saxlidan am kibis meSveobiT xdeba. maRali loJidan kibeebze dauSveben edgars, tomaraSi gaaxveven da pirdapir ufskrulSi qveda sknelSi CauSveben. amave azrs aviTarebs xelovnebaTmcodne maia gurabaniZe Tavis naSromSi: yvaryvare da axali etapi qarTul scenografiaSi: avtori kibes sxva datvirTvas aniWebs da Seqspiris metaforaTa logikur nawilad miiCnevs. igi wers: robert sturuas speqtaklebSi moqmedeba sam sibrtyeze mimdinareobs, rac qvesknelis, zesknelis da sknelis mniSvnelobiTaa gamoyenebuli. es sknelebi, rogorc wesi, erTmaneTs ukavSirdebian kibeebiT (yvaryvare (1974), mefe liri (1987), To-

scenur-sivrciTi metaforis semantika robert sturuas speqtaklSi `mefe liri~

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kiT (seCuaneli keTili adamiani (1969), lamara(1997), saqaneliT (makbeti (1995). [gurabaniZe 2006:67]. maSasadame, kibe is saSualebaa, romelic adamians akavSirebs samyaros sam sknelTan. simbolur-pirobiTia liris Teatris msaxiobTa sasceno kostiumebi. kostiumebis simbolur-metaforuli funqcia mefe lirSi kidev ufro masStaburad aris warmodgenili. aq ukve mTavari sasaxlea unificirebuli _ vidre liris tirania mZvinvarebs, yvelani erTnair, asketur samosSi arian gamowyobilebi, rogorc ki samefo iSleba, sadave eSveba qveSevrdomTa morCilebasac da zenits aRwevs gamofituli sulierebis kidev ufro daknineba, simdidrisa da gancxromis gafetiSeba. mxatvari yvela personaJs ucvlis samoss, romelic logikurad ukavSirdeba maTi xasiaTis cvlilebebsac. liris qaliSvilebi gonerila da regana asketur tanisamosSi, ucnaur uniformaSi gamowyobilebi Cndebian samefos ganawilebis scenaSi. rogorc ki isini Tavisuflebas moipoveben da mefisgan damoukideblebi xdebian, myisve sxva kostiumSi gvevlinebian. gonerila aRmosavlur, Tavisufal tanisamosSi wardgeba mayureblis winaSe. aq mxatvari Seubraleblad dascinis usulo mdidarTa fantazias, gansakuTrebiT, mamis uarmyofel qaliSvilTa kostiumebis saxiT [kuxianiZe 2001:42]. mamis diqtaturisgan gaTavisuflebuli liris qaliSvilebi scenaze Wrel, TiTqmis ugemovno samosSi Cndebian. sanam qveyanaSi liria mmarTveli, yvela mis qveSevrdoms usaxo da uferuli uniforma acvia. amiT reJisori da mxatvari garegnuladac ki usvamen xazs imas, rom mefis tiranuli mmarTvelobis mizani adamianis pirovnebis daTrgunva, yvelas gaTanabrebaa. unificirebis es procesi yvelaze mkafiod swored CacmulobaSi vlindeba da iwyeba samyaros daSla-daqucmaceba. magram rogorc ki liri samefos hyofs, misi erTmmarTveloba ispoba. adamianTa tkboba miRebuli TavisuflebiT ukve veraviTar sazRvrebSi veRar eteva da srul aRviraxsnilobaSi gadadis. amis gamosaxatavad mxatvari araCveulebrivad lamaz, feradovan, sxvadasxva epoqisa da stilis kostiumebiT mosavs Tavis gmirebs [gegeWkori 1993:66]. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom erTnairi kostiumebi mxolod liris samefos wevrebs acviaT, imaT viszec liris mmarTveloba

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vrceldeba. burgundiis mTavari (msaxiobi guram saRaraZe) da safrangeTis mefe (msaxiobi soso laRiZe) tradicul, erovnul samosSi Cacmulebi Semodian, maT kostiumebs saerTo ara aqvT sasaxleSi mcxovreb didgvarovanTa CacmulobasaTan. speqtaklis apokalifsuri finali iyo metafora Zaladobaze agebuli saxelmwifos ngrevis, xolo liris fizikuri sicocxle kidev ufro tragikuls xdida am metaforis arss. Teatrmcodne vaxtang qarTveliSvils miaCnda, rom liri sturuas interpretaciaSi cocxali unda darCeniliyo. gaevlo mowamebrivi gza da tanjvaSi aRexila Tvalebi. am aqtis gansaxorcieleblad ramaz CxikvaZis gmiri TiTqos brundeba bavSvobaSi. mxolod bavSvurad cnobismoyvare lirs SeiZleboda gasCenoda kiTxva: mainc ra iwvevs Weqa-quxils?, speqtaklSi igi TandaTan axalgazrdavdeba kidec, fizikuradac TandaTan ufro mxned gamoiyureba-Tu pirvelad gamofratunda scenaze, mere xeljoxze amxedrebulic ki darbis [mumlaZe...1987:23]. sturuam moaxerxa, masStaburad gadmoeca da gaeazrebina liris tragediis arsi. Tuki evropaSi misi winamorbedi saxelovani reJisorebi lirs yvelasgan mitovebuls xatavdnen (mxolod jorjo streleris speqtaklSi SeiniSneba am miTis mciredi ngreva-transformaciaa), evropulma Teatrma, kerZod ki _ qarTvelma sturuam XX saukunis miwuruls liris istoriis axali miTis Seqmna SeZlo. amrigad, sturuas speqtaklSi mefe liri vxvdebiT niSnebs, romlebic metaforul-simbolur datvirTvas Seicavs da speqtaklis konceptualuri gadawyvetis mTavari instrumentebia.

Tamar kiknaveliZe

patris pavis Teatraluri leqsikonis mniSvneloba Tanamedrove TeatrmcodneobaSi


dRes drosa da sivrceSi ganvrcobili, sityviT Tu plastikiT gadmocemuli warmodgenebi ganixileba erTgvar Setyobinebad, romlis gamtarebelgamavrcelebelic Teatraluri jgufia, xolo mimRebi, gnebavT, adresati Teatraluri mayurebeli. Tanamedrove publika gansakuTrebul interess iCens araverbaluri sanaxaobebisadmi, romelTa gamomsaxvelobac sityvaze ki ar aris dafuZnebuli, aramed gamosaxvis sxva enaze, xerxebsa da formebze. warmodgenaTa semiotikurma kvlevam rom udidesi mniSvneloba SeiZina, samagaliTod cnobili frangi Teoretikosis patris pavis da misi Sromebis, gamorCeulad ki, Teatraluri leqsikonis dasaxelebac kmara, razec ufro dawvrilebiT mogvianebiT visaubreb. manamde Teatris semiotikuri Seswavlis mimarTulebiT dagrovil gamocdilebas Zalian mokled gagacnobT. Teatris semiotikur kvlevas xangrZlivi istoria ara aqvs. am mimarTulebiT gamorCeulia, ZiriTadad, sami skola: polonuri, italiuri da franguli, romelTagan TiToeulma saxeli

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calkeul mecnierTa naSromebisa da kvlevebis Sedegad gaiTqva. dramisa da Teatris semiotikuri Seswavla XX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi, ufro zustad ki _ 1931-1941 wlebSi, praRis lingvisturi wris warmomadgenelTa mier daiwyo. axali mimarTulebis fuZemdeblebi iyvnen: otakar zixi (1879-1934), ian mukarJovski (1891-1975) da piotr bogatirevi (1893-1971). zixma Tavis dramatuli xelovnebis esTetikaSi (praRa, 1931 weli), xolo mukarJovskim statiebSi, wina planze Teatris fenomenis niSanTa sistemis Seswavla daayena. kompozitori da pedagogi otakar zixi ganixilavda dramas, rogorc wminda Teatralur movlenas, Camoyalibebuls optikuri da akustikuri niSnebisgan. niSanTa sistemis Seswavlas mniSvnelovani adgili praRis wris erTerTma wamyvanma Teoretikosma, piotr bogatirevmac miuZRvna. xelovnebis dargebis enaTa semiotikuri koncefcia, gasuli saukunidan moyolebuli, ramdenime mecnierma Camoayaliba. erT-erTi gaxldaT cnobili frangi Teoretikosi, kritikosi da semiotikosi rolan barti (1915-1980), romlis mosazrebiTac, ena, lingvisturi gagebiT, literaturis masalaa, maSin rodesac xmovani ena Teatraluri xelovnebis sakuTrebaa. Tavdapirvelad, Teatraluri niSnis gagebis ori koncepcia arsebobda: analitikuri da integracionaluri, sadac Teatralur niSanTa erTobliobas ganixilavdnen. erTmaneTTan mWidrod dakavSirebul orive koncepciaze werda ana iubersfeldi (19182010) wignSi Teatris Sesaxeb. aRsaniSnavia, rom ana iubersfeldi swored is avtoria, romelsac patris pavis Teatraluri leqsikonis winasityvaoba ekuTvnis. verbaluri da araverbaluri niSnebis matarebeli xelovnebis Sesaxeb italiuri skolis warmomadgenlebic werdnen. Tumca, gamorCeuli da gacilebiT Camoyalibebuli warmodgena Teatraluri semiotikiT dainteresebulT mainc franguli skolis warmomadgenlebma Seuqmnes naSromebiT, romelTa mimarTac interesi ar qreba. amis magaliTia, Tundac, zemoT ukve naxsenebi ana iubersfeldi, romelic, sxvebis msgavsad, cdilobda ganesazRvra da daedgina speqtaklis minimaluri semiotikuri erTeuli. sabolood ki iseT daskvnamde mivida, rom Teatraluri ena Zalian rTuli qsovilia da minimaluri erTeulis dadgena TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. zemoT CamoTvlili mecnierebis mcdelobaTa Seswavlagaanalizeba calke kvlevis sagani SeiZleba gaxdes. maT gamocdilebasa da Sromebs, rogorc Cans, ukvalod ar Cauvlia, ramdenadac Tana-

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medroveni, romlebic semiotikis mimarTulebiT muSaoben, TavianT naSromebSi TiToeulis damsaxurebasac aRniSnaven da maT mosazrebebsac xSirad imowmeben. dRes ukve Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Teatris semiotikuri kvleva da franguli skola ver ganviTardeboda, rom ara Tanamedrove Teatris mkvlevari, Teoretikosi da kritikosi patris pavi da misi ,,Teatraluri leqsikoni (1980), Teatraluri semiologiis problemebi (1976), ,,Teatri kulturis gadakveTaze (1990) da a.S. SromebSi mecnieri Teatraluri niSnis problematikaze xazgasmiT saubrobs da svams SekiTxvebs, razec Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi da Teatrmcodneebi kritikul Tu publicistur werilebSi xSirad vsaubrobT. manamde Tu kiTxvebis dasmasa da kiTxviTi niSnis gamoyenebas mecnierebi eridebodnen da Teatralur niSanTa sistemis Camoyalibebasa da zed zusti gansazRvrebebis miyolebas cdilobdnen, patris pavi Teoretikos andre elboze ufro mkafiod da sayuradRebod gvekiTxeba: arsebobs ki Teatris semiotika? Tumca, misi winamorbedisgan gansxvavebiT, pavis SekiTxva ritorikuli ar aris da mis mier Catarebuli kvlevebic swored dasmul SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis yvelaze warmatebul cdebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. vidre patris pavis Teatraluri leqsikonis mniSvnelobaze gavamaxvilebde yuradRebas, aRvniSnav, rom andre elbo Teatris specifikurobas mis sam TaviseburebaSi _ dadgmaSi, dramaturgiasa da droze sivrcis dominirebaSi xedavda. amas emateboda dramaturgiuli intuiciis mniSvneloba, msaxiobisa da scenografis gansakuTrebuli roli. elbo aRniSnavs, rom niSnebi garkveul tipologias unda daeqvemdebaros. amasTan, niSnebi iyofa simptomebad, xatebad, indeqsebad, simboloebad, saxelwodebebad da a.S. amis garda, TeatrSi gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobs stereotipebi, e.i. aRniSnul elementTa nakrebi, ganmtkicebuli tradiciiTa da dakavSirebuli gansazRvrul mniSvnelobasTan. magaliTad, stereotips gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs Comedia del arte-s dramaturgiaSi. wlebis ganmavlobaSi dagrovili codnisa da kvlevebis magaliTze, mecnierebma gamoitanes daskvnebi, rom Teatraluri semiologia es aris analizis meTodi da / an warmodgenebi, rac maT formalur struqturas faravs, ganixilavs ra ganviTarebis dinamikasa da niSanTa formirebis procesis aRdgenas, romelic speqtaklis Semqmnelisa da publikis monawileobis gareSe ver warimarTeba.

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ra aris Tanamedrove Teatraluri semiologiis mTavari sakiTxi? minimaluri semiologiuri erTeulis gansazRvra, anu is, Tu ra SeiZleba miviRoT da sruliad marTebulad miviCnioT niSnad Teatralur xelovnebaSi. am SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas polonuri, italiuri da franguli skolebis warmomadgnelebi didxans cdilobdnen da SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mocemuli sakiTxi sabolood gadawyvetili jer kidev ar aris. Tumca, ana iubersfeldisgan gansxvavebiT, mecnierebi kvlevebs ganagrZoben. problemaze saubrisas xSirad axseneben sirTuleebs, rac Teatraluri xelovnebis aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT kvlevas arTulebs da ufro fragmentuls xdis. TeatrSi niSnebi SeiZleba nebismieri sxva niSanTa sistemidan gamoiyenon, riTac mocemuli sferos analizi Zneldeba. amasTan, TeoretikosTa azriT, TeatrSi niSnebi sufTa saxiT iSviaTad Cndeba, TiToeuli CarTulia gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis (intonacia, mimika, moZraoba, grimi da a.S.) erTian kompleqsSi. poloneli semiologis TadeuS kovzanis koncefciis Tanaxmad, Teatraluri nawarmoebis analizi SeiZleba vertikaluri an horizontaluri dayofiT, speqtaklis xazobriv erTeulebad danawevrebiT, an gansaxvavebul sistemaTa niSnebis Tanwyobis gamoyofiT. kovzanma gamoyo 13 niSniani sistema, romelic Semdeg 5 jgufad gaaerTiana: 1. teqstis warmoTqma: (metyveleba, toni), 2. msaxiobis moZraoba (mimika, moZraoba, msaxiobis moZraoba sasceno sivrceSi), 3. msaxiobis garegnuli saxe (grimi, varcxniloba, kostiumi), 4. scenis iersaxe (aqsesuarebi, dekoraciebi, ganaTeba), 5. xmis araverbaluri efeqtebi (musika, xmovani efeqtebi); Tumca, aRniSnuli Teoria, ZiriTadad, primitivizmis gamo, negatiurad iqna aRqmuli. cnobil TeoretikosTa CamonaTvalSi ar SeiZleba ar vaxsenoT vsevolod meierxoldi (18741940), romelic amtkicebda, rom Teatrs SeuZlia komunikacia daamyaros ara sityvebTan SeTanxmebiT, aramed maTgan damoukideblad da samagaliTod yveba: ori adamiani saubrobs amindze, xelovnebaze. mesames ki, romelic maT gverdidan akvirdeba, SeuZlia zustad gansazRvros, Tu vin arian es adamianebi erTmaneTisTvis. amis gansazRvra ki JestebiT da sxeulis moZraobiT SeuZlia. Jestebi, pozebi, gamoxedvebi, dumili adamianTa urTierTdamokidebulebis sinamdvilis maniSnebelia. sityva smenisTvis, plastika mxedvelobisTvis. meierxoldis azriT, mayurebelze xedviTi da smeniTi STabeWdilebebi

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moqmedebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi, semiotikur enad iTvleba ara mxolod sityva, aramed misi ararsebobac, anu dumili. patris pavim Teatraluri teqstebis kvlevaSi gamoiyena konkretizacia, funqcionireba, teqstis odeologizacia da teqstualuri ideologia. masTan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania pirveli gageba, anu konkretizacia. pavi konkretizaciis sakuTar programas gvTavazobs da ambobs, rom aucilebelia gaugebari zonebis gansazRvra, maTi identifikacia da lokalizacia teqstSi. Teatralur xelovnebaSi niSani xSirad gamoiyeneba, ramdenadac Tavad sasceno xelovnebis buneba gvTavazobs situaciebs, movlenebs, romlebic mniSvnelovania mxolod gansazRvrul momentSi. cnobili andazis Tanaxmad, Tu scenaze pirvel moqmedebaSi kidia iaraRi, mesameSi aucileblad unda gaisrolos! amis miuxedavad, Teatraluri niSani ar aris gamokveTili, naTeli, ramdenadac sasceno dadgmaSi SeuZlebelia izolireba im minimaluri niSnisa, romelic misi sazomi erTeuli iqneboda. am dros niSani SeiZleba iyos skami, magram, aseve, dadgmuli skami, msaxiobi, magram, aseve, msaxiobis Jesti, fraza, mis mier naTqvami, dekoraciis elementi, magaliTad: kibe da a.S. niSani aseve SeiZleba iyos: sityva, ganmeorebiTi sityvebi, fraza, riTma da a.S. patris pavis damokidebulebis mixedviT, TiToeuli dadgmis TiToeuli warmodgena aris unikaluri, ar meordeba da, aqedan gamomdinare, moiTxovs Zalian individualur, gaTTvicnobierebul da mgrZnobiare mayurebels, romelic erTi warmodgenis erTi ganumeorebeli Cvenebis dros Tavmoyril niSanTa sistemis zemoqmedebis Zalas SeigrZnobs. misi komentarebiT aris gajerebuli Teatraluri leqsikoni, romelic parizSi 1987 wels gamoica, xolo rusulad 1991 wels iTargmna da moskovSi daibeWda. misi Sesavali, rogorc ukve aRvniSne, saxelwodebiT _ winasityvaobis nacvlad, ana iubersfelds ekuTvnis. patris pavisTan Teatri ganxilulia, rogorc kodirebuli praqtika. Sesabamisad, kodebis gaSifrva aucilebelia. leqsikoni, romelic Teatris istoriis, avtorebisa da nawarmoebebis cnobari ar gaxlavT, iTvaliswinebs Teatraluri formebis evoluciasa da meTodebs imisaTvis, rom isini daafiqsiros. naSromSi avtori cdilobs gamoavlinos arsi Tanamedrove revoluciis, romelic humanitarul mecnierebebSi xdeba da mxolod erTi Te-

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atraluri disciplinis sazRvrebs scdeba. mxatvruli universumis kvlevis axali instrumenti xdeba lingvistika da semiotika, sadac erTmaneTs erwymis enobrivi saSualebebi da nebismiseri usityvo mxatvruli praqtika. misTvis Teatri warmoadgens yvelaze gansxvavebuli vizualuri, xmovani, statikuri da dinamikuri, verbaluri da araverbaluri niSnebis sistemas. pavis leqsikoni aris midgomaTa erTgvari kiTxvari, romelic mravalsaxovani niSnebis dafiqsirebis saSualebas gvaZlevs. amasTan, mniSvnelovania, rom axlisadmi Riaoba patris pavis sulac ar uSlis xels, moaxdinos formulireba Zveli ritorikisa da Teatraluri xelovnebisa. Teoretikosi arc literaturis Janrebs iviwyebs. misi komentarebi da SekiTxvebi kritikis gamorCeuli nimuSebia. Teatraluri leqsikoni imaze metia, vidre arsebuli masalis wesrigSi moyvana an gadakeTebao, aRniSnavs avtori. misi azriT, Teatri aris yvelaze nazi, efemeruli, RrubeliviT Semwovi xelovnebis dargi. pavi aqcents akeTebs Tanamedrove mayurebelze, romlis darbazSi `daWera~ da Sokireba ioli aRar aris, ramdenadac Cveni drois mayurebels didad aRraferi aRelvebs. aRiqvams ki adamiani, bolos da bolos, Teatrs seriozulad, CaTvlis Tu ara mas mniSvnelovnad da avtonomiur xelovnebad da ara literaturis filialad, kinos gauaresebul variantad an sabazro fokusnikobad? es is SekiTxvaa, romelsac pavi Tanamedroveebs utovebs gansjisaTvis, dasafiqreblad da Teatraluri xelovnebis semiotikuri kvlevis gasagrZeleblad, raTa Teatralur niSanTa sistemis zemoqmedebis gaanalizebiT sakuTar STabeWdilebaze ise daviwyoT wera, rogorc aqamde ar gviweria. TiToeuli dadgmis warmodgenas ise SevxedoT, rogorc ganumeorebels. patris pavis leqsikoni, rogorc Tavad aRniSnavs, ufro meTodologiuri Ziebaa, vidre terminologiuri wesrigis damyarebis cda. naSromi umTavresad exeba dasavlur Teatralur tradicias, aristoteledan moyolebuli bob vilsonamde da ar moicavs araevropul formebs, ZiriTadad, aRmosavleTis tradiciul Teatrs, romelic misi azriT sruliad axlebur, sxva RirebulebaTa gegmas miekuTvneba. is Semofarglulia sakuTriv TeatriT da gamoricxavs Serwymul sanaxaobiT formebs, magaliTad: cekvas, cirks, pantomimas, operas, Tojinebis Teatrs da a.S. es formebi ganxilulia mxolod im kuTxiT, romliTac Teatrs ukavSirdebian. patris pavi gansakuTrebul adgils uTmobs masobrivi sain-

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formacio saSualebebis: umetesad, kinos, televiziis da radios gavlenas, rac imdenad maRalia, rom maTi niSnebis gamovlena saWirod CaTvala sxvadasxva statiaSi. leqsikoni moicavs umniSvnelovanes problemebs dramaturgiaze, esTetikaze, Teatralur semiologiaze. leqsikonisTvis arCeuli terminebi avtorma 8 sistemur kategoriad daajgufa: 1. dramaturgia, romelic swavlobs moqmedebas, personaJebs, sivrcesa da dros, yvela sakiTxs, romelsac xelewifeba Seqmnas Teatraluri praqtika; 2. teqsti da diskursi warmodgenis ZiriTadi komponentebi da Sinagani meqanizmebi; 3. msaxiobi da personaJi; 4. Janrebi da formebi; 5. reJisura mayureblamde azris mitanis saSualeba da piesis mniSvneloba; 6. struqturuli principebi da esTetikis sakiTxebi, marTalia, pirdapir ar aris dakavSirebuli TeatrTan, magram rigi SekiTxvebis gasaazreblad aucileblad gansaxilvelia; 7. speqtaklis aRqma mayureblis TvalTaxedviT; 8. semiologia, romelic niSanTa sistemas, maT aRqmas ukavSirdeba. aRniSnuli gamocemiTa da damokidebulebiT, patris pavi gvTavazobs, gadaixedos Teatris praqtikisa da Teoriis sakiTxebi, axleburad gaanalizebis procesSi ki moxdes calkeul sakiTxTa semiotikuri Seswavla da sistemaSi moqceuli Teatraluri niSnebis zemoqmedebis dafiqsireba recenziebsa Tu kritikul werilebSi. gamoyenebuli literaturis sia: , , , , 1991. Patrice Pavis, Dictionnaire du theatre, Messidor Editions Sociales, Paris 1987. , , , , , 1989. . . - : "A.D.&T.", 2000. http://www.odris.ru/analyz/analyz_1460.html http://proceedings.usu.ru/?base=mag/0035(01_092005)&xsln=showArticle.xslt&id=a05&doc=../content.jsp http://az.lib.ru/m/mejerholxd_w_e/text_0030.shtml

luiza xaWapuriZe, ia xaWapuriZe

kulturaTa integracia da enobrivi desemantizacia


(megobari/Seyvarebuli/boifrendi) sazogadoebaSi arsebuli socialur-politikuri, kulturul-ekonomikuri cvlilebebi da Sesabamisi fsiqologiuri faqtorebi iwvevs cnobierebis formirebas, rac yvelaze ukeT aisaxeba enaSi... xdeba sityvis mniSvnelobis cvla an Canacvleba axali leqsemiT. yovelive es sazogadoebis ganviTarebis da misi ucxo kulturasTan urTierTobis Tanamdevi procesia. saanalizod aviReT ori sityva (Seyvarebuli, megobari), romelic dResdReobiT yvelaze metad ganicdis semantikur cvlilebas, Tumca es procesi jer kidev araa dasrulebuli. sailustracio magaliTebad gamoviyeneT rogorc gamoqveynebuli samecniero literatura da internetsaitebi, aseve Cven mier saqarTveloSi Cawerili da ucxoeTSi (amerika, inglisi, italia, safrangeTi, espaneTi) internetqseliT (gamokiTxvis gziT) mopovebuli masalebi. respodentebad SevarCieT 18-dan 45 wlis CaTvliT adamianebi, raTa ukeT gamogvevlina sakvlev leqsemaTa desemantizaciais procesi.

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qarTulSi megobari ganimarteba, rogorc guliTadi amxanagi, Wirisa da lxinis moziare, axlobeli adamiani: "megobari siZisai... sixaruliT uxarian" (parxlis oTxTavi, ioane 3,29); "ukeTu glocvides moyuare Seni" (gelaTis, II Sjuli 13,6); moyvareni Cemni da megobarni Cemni Cems winaSe momeaxlnes da dadges" (fs.37,12); "mas Ramesa erTgan iyvnen Svenierni amxanagni" (rusTaveli, 1986, 673,4); yvelas gvaxsovs sulxan-sabas sityvebi amxanagis Sesaxeb: "amxanagi zRude maRalia, simagre daurRvevelia..." i. abulaZis leqsikonidan Cans, rom Zvel werilobiT ZeglebSi sayvareli adamianis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneboda terminebi sayvareli, moyvare, megobari, trfialebuli (Seyvarebuli): "ese ars Ze Cemi sayuareli _ maTe 3,1" (i. abulaZe,1973), ~kaci igi axalnergi, Seyuarebuli _ esaia 3,7" (iqve), "qristesmierno sayvarelno" (ioane oqropiri, 1990),gangaSores Sen trfialebulTa SenTa - ierem. 4,30" (i. abulaZe,1973). vefxistyaosanSi sayvarlad iwodeba agreTve Seyvarebuli qali an kaci: "Cven ver Wvreta sayvarlisa Wirsa Zvelsa gagviaxlebs" (rusTaveli,1986, 840,1), "magra SevkrTi, sayvareli Cemi vnaxe Zilsa Sina" (iqve, 512,2), "aw, sayvarelsa miuwers gulamoskvnili, mtirali"(iqve, 1292,1)... qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis mixedviT, sayvareli ramdenime mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba: 1. vinc an rac uyvarT "sayvareli Svili; sayvareli maswavlebeli", "mSobliuri Cemo miwav, Sens sayvarel saxels vficav" (g.tab.); sayvarlad _ lamazad, moxdenilad, mSvenivrad "sayvarlad morTavs balaxs" (vaJa), "zeda tuCi sayvarlad aburcvoda" (k. gams) 2. satrfo, mijnuri _ "cnobs sayvareli sayvarlisa guls" (akaki); 3. vinc vinmesTan qorwinebis gareSe, farul kavSirSi imyofeba "Sen qmars Ralatob, sxvisi sayvareli xar" (W. lomTaT.), "roca qmari Sin ar egulvis, qali sayvarels epatiJeba" (g. qiqoZ.) 4. sityvis masala _ "vai, sayvarelo, ra bednieri dReebi melis!" (a. quTaTel). qarTulSi erTmaneTis paralelurad gamoiyeneboda siyvarulidan nawarmoebi formebi: RvTismoyvareoba, kacTmoyvareoba, sibrZnismoyvareoba... _ vercxlismoyvareoba, siZvismoyvareoba, gemoTmoyvareoba... magram unda aRvniSnoT, rom termini sayvareli, mem-

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ruSe adamianis mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba mxolod me-19 saukunidan, manam am semantikiT gamoiyeneboda leqsemebi: aSiyi/arSiyi, xarWa/xasa, meZavi, mruSi (ganirCeoda mruSi _ qorwinebaSi myofTa faruli kavSiri, meZavi - piriqiT) "aSiki urcxv da uridebuli (z. sarjvelaZe, 1995), "saulisa sumul iyo xarWi erTi _ II mef. 22,24"(i. abulaZe, 1973), "Seiyuara ufrois colTa da xarWaTa misTa _ II neSt.11, 21" (iqve), zogjer am mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba motrfialec: motrfiale/aSiyi "Wabuki igi motrfiale ganxurvebuli" (i. abulaZe, 1973), "trfialeba sxua arara ars Tvinier daxSireba nebisa wadilisasa (sulxan-saba, 1993). rogorc ganxiluli magaliTebidan Cans, dRemde arakanonier sqesobriv kavSirSi myofi qali da mamakaci iwodebodnen sayvarlebad. xolo sufTa, wrfeli urTierTobis mqoneni ki Seyvarebulebad. megobrad ki moixseneba gverdiT mdgomi, Wirisa da lxinis moziare amxanagi. aqve SevniSnavT, rom sityva amxanagi komunisturi mmarTvelobis dros gacveTili terminia da dResdReobiT naklebad gamoiyeneba. dRes dasavleTidan Semosul literaturasa da filmebSi Seyvarebulad da megobrad (boyfrend-girlfred) iTargmneba saqmro, romelTanac qorwinebamde seqsi nebadarTulia. gamomdinare iqidan, rom Seyvarebuli dRiTi-dRe kargavs Zvel mniSvnelobas, sazogadoeba cdilobs enobrivad mouZebnos mas gansxvavebuli niSani. Tu Tvals gadavavlebT internetforumebs, vnaxavT, rom axalgazrdebi e.w. Tineijerebi leqsikonebsac ki mimarTaven saWiro sityvis sapovnelad. mag. moviyvanT mcire amonarids: "Seyvarebuls viRa iyenebs, cota bavSvuricaa, Tan kide sayvarlis pontSic xmaroben da ar miswordeba. ra unda davarqva biWs, romelic mesimpaTiureba? sulxan-sabac ki vnaxe, mara iq amis Sesaferisad Coylayi weria da texavs, an rogor unda warvadgino, gaicaniT, es Cemi Coylayia-Tqo :))" (http://forum.tsu.ge /lofiversion/index.php/) an kidev qarTul Sesatyviss veZeb. ar momwons "gel/boifrendi". "Seyvarebulis statusis" mere "pwit ami"s rogor ityodi qarTulad? megobari' xo, magram im megobars ras uSvebi, vinc ubralod megobaria da ara megobari megobari. bolo-bolo saxeli xom unda daerqvas fenomens, romelic arsebobs?! mokled, ra davarqvaT? (http://forum.rustavi2.com/ lofiversion/index.php/)

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eklesiurma sazogadoebam gamosavlis sapovnelad klasikur qarTuls mimarTa da wamoiRo iqidan sityva mijnuri, raTa Seyvarebuli anu dRevandeli gagebiT seqsualuri partniori da wrfeli, sufTa urTierToba gaemijna (Srd. "mijnuroba sxva ramea, ar siZvisa dasadari...." rusTaveli) (aqve SevniSnavT, rom morwmuneni RvTismSoblis xats "uWknobi yvavili", romelic gadmocemiT ojaxis Seqmnas akurTxebs, "mijnurobis" xatad moixsenieben). rac Seexeba megobars, dRes igi xSir SemTxvevaSi enacvleba inglisuridan Semosul boifrends (boyfrend-girlfred). ase moixseneben adamians, romelTanac iziareben sarecels da romelic SemdgomSi, SeiZleba, gaxdes saqmro/sacole. Tumca isic SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom megobari erTgvari evfemizmia sayvarlis aRsaniSnad. masalaze muSaobisas aseTi faqtis momswrec gavxdiT: erT ojaxs axalgazrda qal-vaJi estumra, maTi wasvlis Semdeg mezobelma am ojaxis wevrs uTxra: "es biWi Tqveni naTesavis megobaria, xom?" razedac upasuxes - "ara, megobari ar aris, saqmroa". rac Seexeba saqarTvelos periferiebs, aq jer kidev mTlad ar momxdara saanalizo sityvaTa desemantizacia, gansakuTrebiT 35 wlidan zemoT respondentebSi, isini tradiciuli gagebiT gvxvdeba (megobari _ axlobeli Zmakaci, daqali). Eeklesia, SeiZleba iTqvas, erideba kidec axlobeli mamakacis Tu qalis misamarTiT sityva "megobris" xsenebas da cdiloben, mis nacvlad damkvidrdes Sesityvebebi: qristesmieri megobari / namdvili megobari / sulieri da-Zma an terminebi: Zmobili / Zmakaci / Zmadnafici, dobili / daqali. Tu ucxour presas, mxatvrul literaturas an internet saitebs gadavxedavT, analogiur situaciaSi imyofebodnen evropelebic gasul saukuneSi: pirvelad sityva boifrendi, uqorwinebelTa seqsualuri urTierTobis aRsaniSnavad, gvxvdeba 1889 wlis erT-erT britanul gazeTSi, kerZod britaneli mwerlis, dramaturgisa da mTargmnelis nil bartletis werilSi vin iyo es adamiani?, romelSic avtori aRSfoTebas ver malavs termin megobris Sinarsobrivi degradaciis gamo (http://www.tititudorancea.com/z/boyfriend.htm) dResdReobiT evropul enebSi terminologiurad met-naklebad gamijnulia namdvili megobari da boifrendi.

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luiza xaWapuriZe

Cven facebook-is, tagged-sa da skype-s meSveobiT sagangebod gamovkiTxeT ucxoeli (frangi: - olivie ordekeni, qristof matei, Jan-rene udo, cedriq bigo, olivie sinola; ingliseli qristeanson zed, katrina Lle Mmadeni, Jose Dduarte, gordon korniSi... holandieli miSel mikano zaali, sabrina holsderveri... espaneli _ alfonso ramiresi, xuan-antonio rivasi, xose domingesi... italieli _ antonio dalesio, juzepe maizano, andrea moro... rusi katia vaxmianina, anna iogurceva, igor masalkini, nina vasilceva... da a. S.) megobrebi; daaxloebiT 25 adamiani, TiTo eTnosidan 5 kaci. mag.: espanurSi boifrendis mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba terminebi: novio (mamr.sqes.), novia (mdedr.sqes). italiurSi: convivente, fidanzato. Tumca amave semantikiT gamoiyeneben terminsac amico (megobari), xolo namdvili megobris aRsaniSnavad gvxvdeba Sesityveba amico intimo (uaxloesi megobari), anu sityva megobari msazRvrelis gareSe TiTqmis aRar gamoiyeneba, raTa ar moxdes Sinaarsobrivi aRreva. frangulSi boifrendis mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba: sa femme / son homme (misi qali/kaci) an une petite amie (patara megobari). aqac, msgavsad italiurisa, msazRvrels (petite-patara) akisria definiciis funqcia. Tu ami namdvil megobars aRniSnavs, petit ami boifrendi megobaria. daqorwinebulTa faruli intimuri urTierTobis aRsaniSnavad ki gamoiyeneba leqsema: un amant sayvareli (miRebulia zmnidan aimer - siyvaruli). aRsaniSnavia, erTi garemoeba: Cven mier gamokiTxuli yvela ucxoeli respondenti, ganurCevlad erovnebisa, SeniSnavs: raoden gasakviric unda iyos, arseboben Seyvarebuli wyvilebi, romelTac religiuri mosazrebidan gamomdinare, ara aqvT seqsualuri urTierToba. maT ewodebaT, ubralod, Seyvarebulebi (mag. safrangeTSi amoureux , italiaSi - inamorati ). evropeli megobrebis garda gamovkiTxeT rusebic, aRmoCnda, rom qarTulis msgavsad aqac leqsikuri desemantizaciis procesi mimdinareobs. rusul internet forumebze erTmaneTs mouwodeben, daicvan rusuli ena da sityva (megobari) boifrendi mniSvnelobiT ar gamoiyenon. mis nacvlad ixmaron arsSi misi fardi rusuli sityvebi, rogorebicaa: , (, ), radgan boifrends sinam-

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dvileSi araviTari kavSiri ara aqvs sufTa megobrobasTan (http:// kubuntu.ru/node/3380 - , , ... ?). msgavsad evropuli enebisa, aqac sityvas - diferenciisaTvis Tan axlavs msazRvreli, mag.: - niSnavs boifrends, xolo uaxloes megobars. aRniSnul terminTa semantikis rRveva mimdinare, jer kidev daumTavrebeli procesia (igi ise aqtiuri araa periferiebSi, rogorc _ saqarTvelos centralur qalaqebSi). sazogadoebis cnobierebaSi faseulobaTa gadaxaliseba xdeba. dRes Tu ara xval yvelaferi es saTanado niSniT gamoixateba enaSic. literatura 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. i. abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tb., 1973 SoTa rusTaveli, vefxistyaosani, Tb., 1986 sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, t. II, Tb., 1993 ioane oqropiri, oqros wyaro, ganmeorebiTi gamocema, Tb., 1991 z. sarjvelaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tb., 1995 qegl _ qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, rvatomeuli (arn. Ciqobavas redaqciiT), Tb., 1950-1964 fsalmunni mefis daviTisa, Tb., 1989 http://forum.tsu.ge/lofiversion/index.php/t7945.html http://forum.ge/?f=20&showtopic=34034495&st=90 http://forum.rustavi2.com/lofiversion/index.php/t5143-50.html http://kubuntu.ru/node/3380 http://www.enotes.com/topic/Boyfriend http://www.tititudorancea.com/z/boyfriend.htm

nana trapaiZe

veragoba da/Tu siyvaruli


(winasityvaoba daTo barbaqaZis esses ,,trfoba wamebulTa germanuli gamocemisTvis)
trfoba wamebulTa araa Cemi gabedulebis sabuTi, is nebismieri gabedulebis usazrisobis xazgasma da mravalmxriv daqsaqsuli Cemi gabedulebis dasasrulia, esaa yoveli SesaZlo gabedulebis Tavmoyra usastikes (da ara ukidures) realobaSi, naturalizmis gadaqceva metaforad, saidanac gasaZvromebi ar arsebobs. Cemi Sinagani cxovrebis yvelaze ufro dramatul wuTebSi, es nawarmoebi moulodnelad uCinardeba, saerTod qreba da aRar arsebobs, mere TiTqos arsaidan Cndeba, Tavis Tavs paradoqsulad aRmomaCeninebs da uCveulo siamovnebas ganvicdi imis gamo, rom am teqstis avtori me var. es araa aRtaceba, sixaruli, bednierebis gancda. ubralod, esaa Sveba, romelic, SesaZloa, sulac ar iyos moklebuli mazoxistur TviTgvemas, gajerebuls metad usiamo vnebiT, gaorebuli tkbobis yovelTvis xelaxla ganmeorebadi procesiT, romelic yovelTvis xelaxla inaxeba.

daTo barbaqaZe, 1998 weli


daTo barbaqaZis esse ,,trfoba wamebulTa gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebis dasawyisSi daiwera. teqsts maSinve mohyva didi xmauri. inteleqtualur wreebSi kargad axsovT teqstis prezentacii-

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sas publikis erTi nawilis mier datovebuli universitetis saaqto darbazi da negatiuri kritika. bevrisTvis dResac gaugebari rCeba am Txzulebis mxatvruli mniSvneloba da misi adgili literaturul procesSi. samkiTxvelo stereotipi, romelic Tavisi bunebiT konservatulia, Seuvali aRmoCnda am teqstis misaRebad. es stereotipi mxolod socialur da inteleqtualur wreds ar qmnis, ar aris ubralod mxatvruli gemovnebisa da kulturis gamoxatuleba. igi specifikur kulturul-ideologiur klimatSi yalibdeba, romelic adamianis mxatvruli aRqmis hermetizebas axdens, rac aqveiTebs mis inteleqtualur imunitets da mgrZnobiares xdis mas ,,sxva, saeWvo mimarTulebebisadmi... sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg saqarTveloSi axali politikuri da kulturuli identobis Zieba mwvave Sida da gare politikur procesebs ukavSirdeba. SexedulebaTa da interesTa konfliqti samoqalaqo dapirispirebaSi gadaizarda. SeiZleba iTqvas, es iyo TviTganadgurebis talRa, romelic Sedegad mohyva saqarTvelos, rogorc damoukidebeli qveynis, pirvel nabijebs... am dros iqmneba daTo barbaqaZis ,,trfoba wamebulTa. mwerali laSa buRaZe am teqsts Semdeg konteqstSi ganixilavs: ,,Tavdapirvelad iyo damoukidebloba. Semdeg iyo daTo barbaqaZis ,,trfoba wamebulTa da pirveli omi (,,cxeli Sokoladi, 2010, maisi). aseve: vfiqrob, rom Tanamedrove qarTuli literatura swored am teqstiT iwyeba (,,cxeli Sooladi, 2010, 63). ar iqneba gadaWarbeba, Tu vityviT, rom, ,,trfoba wamebulTa iyo naRmi, romelzec dasangrevi unda dangreuliyo da gadasarCeni gadarCeniliyo. Aam TvalsazrisiT, teqsti, mTeli Tavisi ,,Seuwynarebeli arsebobiT, dafarul mxatvrul siRrmeebSi met optimizms avlens, met ndobas ucxadebs sakuTari literaturuli da kulturuli tradiciis sicocxlisunarianobas, vidre misi ,,kritikosebi... literatura saqarTveloSi sinamdvilis racionalizebis, TviTanalizis rols dominanturad asrulebda. am mxriv man istoriulad SeiTavsa filosofiis funqcia, romelic mas (filosofias) swored sinamdvilis racionalizebis, erTgvari inteleqtualuri mentoris rolSi warmoadgens da romelic mas saqarTveloSi ara hqonia...

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politikis avtoritets aq yovelTvis epaeqreboda literaturis avtoriteti. amitom istoriuladac literatura politikis keTebis adgili gaxda, oRond ara rogorc politikis gagrZeleba-danamati, rogorc tribuna da ,,mowinave ideologia, aramed - rogorc misi alternativa. rogorc Cans, xalxi kargad grZnobda, sad dgindeboda misi arsebobis ufro utyuari dokumenti: politikaSi Tu literaturaSi. es unda mianiSnebdes weris aqtis mimarT gansakuTrebul damokidebulebas sxva moqmedebiT aqtTan SedarebiT. asecaa: yvela moqmedeba sabolood weraa da rCeba mexsierebas, an ar aris wera da daviwyebaSi ikargeba. istorias, sinamdviles qmnis ara [sxva] moqmedeba, aramed wera. amitom wera umTavresi moqmedebiTi aqtia, is erTgvari moqmedebaTSorisi aqtic aris momxdarsa da mosaxdens Soris, romelic weraSi (droiTi ganzomilebiT _ awmyoSi) uRldeba xolme uxilavad. garda amisa, literaturis gavlenebs mudmivi koloniuri sinamdvilec uwyobda xels, radgan literatura Tavisuflebis, gansjis da imedebis erTaderT adgilad rCeboda... sinamdvilisgan literaturis (Tu literaturisgan sinamdvilis) ,,Casaxvisa da ,,dabadebis aqtebs Soris manZili metafizikuri azris garda [zogjer] did istoriul dros moicavs da mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirTa Zebna istoriisa da literaturis Rrma arqeologias moiTxovs. amdenad, qveynisa da literaturis istoria sinamdvileSi, droSi Ria Tu farul konteqstTa monacvleobiT, ,,paralelurad iwereba. ufro swori iqneboda, ase gveTqva: istoria da literatura erTad iwereba. konteqsti ki yovelTvis mianiSnebs literaturisa da sinamdvilis ganuyoflobis faqts. weris (literaturis) da moqmedebis (sinamdvilis, politikis) mTlianobas warmoadgens uZvelesi qarTuli saistorio krebuli ,,qarTlis cxovreba. es aris 11 avtoris 12 istoriuli Txzulebisgan Semdgari krebuli, romelic moicavs sxvadasxva qronikebs Zv.w-is me-4-3 saukunidan vidre me-18 saukunemde. ,,qarTlis cxovrebis werilobiTi struqtura niSandobliv azrobriv Sreebs moicavs. ideologiuri kliSeebis gverdiT aq aris kodebi, romelic enobriv sinamdvileSi inaxeba. SeiZleba vTqvaT, es garkveuli azriT winaswarmetyveluri narativia, romelic enobrivad aris lokalizebuli da Tavis droze aucileblad (mo)axdens gareenobriv aqtualizacias namdvilyofis sxvadasxva formebSi....

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daTo barbaqaZis ,,trfoba wamebulTas erT-erTi mxatvrulideuri safuZveli ,,qarTlis cxovrebaa. erTi mxriv, avtori axdens ,,qarTlis cxovrebis enobriv-poetikuri struqturis dekodirebas, meore mxriv, sinamdvilis, istoriis (gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis) poetikur konservacias istoriuli da kulturuli procesebis Sinagani uwyvetobis, aseve _ literaturisa da politikis/sinamdvilis, _ ori sxvadasxva labirinTis, gadakveTis konteqstSi. es postmodernistuli introversia auqmebs droisa da sivrcis empiriul logikas da metafizikur planSi gadahyavs: aq warsuli mosaxdenia, xolo momavali momxdari. [Tu] adamianad yofnis umaRlesi forma weraa (Semoqmedebaa), igi sZlevs yvelafers, rac gzad eRobeba. amdenad, literatura Tavisi bunebiT keTilia. weris gamarjvebac niSnavs sikeTis gamarjvebas. gamarjvebis es faruli (eTikuri) `Sifri teqstis (farTo mniSvnelobiT _ sinamdvilis) ukufenaa, romelic winaswarganusazRvrelia da did droSi ixsneba masSi akumulirebuli yvela ganfenilobiT da mosalodneli Tu moulodneli SedegiT. ,,trfoba wamebulTas siuJeturi da enobriv-arqiteqtonikuli safuZveli saxareba, ,,qarTlis cxovreba da ramdenime saeklesio Txzulebaa im qarTvel wmindanTa Sesaxeb, romlebic adrefeodalizmis xanaSi moRvaweobdnen. dekonstruqciis roli romanSi Zvel qarTul saliteraturo enas akisria. politikuri da Teologiuri narativis mxatvrul-siuJeturi mTlianobac Zveli qarTuli enis poetikuri ganvrcobis sferoa; rac ideurad niSnavs _ asaxos adamianis Sinagani dramatizmis (ara)istoriuli Sinaarsi, _ gamoTqvas, rac ara marto warsulSi, aramed momavalSi moxda. ,,gardacvlili RmerTis da ,,gardacvlili drois (,,berwi awmyos) drama gadmocemulia ara mxolod rogorc ambavi, aramed _ rogorc enobrivi ambavi, _ mocemuli, rogorc evfemizmis enobrivi ukuprocesi. skabrezi, evfemizmis sapirispirod, xsnis religiur praqtikaSi dawesebul moralur filtrs, romlis mizansac, cnobilia, jer kidev warmarTul ritualebSi warmoadgenda _ ar momxdariyo sakraluri aqtis Seferxeba/Sebilwva. da radganac aRar arsebobs sakraluri (igi ,,mSvenivrad Secvala abstraqtulma), sruliad uadgilo da zedmetia moralur-enobrivi filtric, romelic Tanamedrove adamianisTvis sinamdvilesTan urTierTobaSi meqanikur barierad gadaiqca. amitomac, gasagebia avtoris fiqri mkiTxvelis reaqciasTan dakavSirebiT, rom is ar Tvlis, TiTqos sxva enaze werdes. teqstis gagebisTvis mniS-

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vnelovani is aris, rom sityvaTa Tanamedrove mniSvnelobebi mTeli semantikuri momcvelobiT maTi etimologiis konteqstSi mniSvnelobs. esec drois gauqmebis enobrivi faqtia da parodirebis safuZveli, Taviseburi enobrivi interteqstic. ,,esreT ra moaores tfilisi, iwyes rbevad, tyuenvad, ocad da klvad somxiTisa da kambeCianisa da ioris pirTa. qarTls da TrialeTs, javaxeTs da artaans, zogi samcxes da taos, karniforas da anisis mimdgomTa queyanaTa. (...) xolo iwyes Senebad, da zamTars daibanakian bardavs, mtkurisa pirsa, ioris pirTa da aRmomarT gagamde, da motyuenvidian, arbevdian qarTls da samcxes da javaxeTs da aRmarT saberZneTamde, kaxeTs da hereTs darubandamde. (...) esreT moisra da tyue iqmna suli mravali samcxes da bevri eri moikla (JamTaaRmwereli, aswlovani matiane). religiuri uwyeba wmindanTa cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb teqstSi warmodgenilia, rogorc ramdenime ojaxis istoria, romlebic erTmaneTTan gadajaWvulni arian ,,siyvarulis bedisweriT. mTavari zmnis ZvelqarTuli etimologiis mixedviT, erTi adamiani meoris pativisa da Rirsebis amyrelia, moraluri mkvlelia, mamcirebelia da mparavi. jer kidev eqvTime aTonelTan (955-1028) gvaqvs ,,..iyo mtyvenavi eklesiisa, rac niSnavs mZarcvels. teqstSi aRwerili seqsualuri interaqcia ,,imeorebs ,,dabadebis genealogiur sqemas (,,abram Sva isak, isak, Sva iakob, iakob Sva iuda da misni Zmani...) da, rogorc refreni, reminiscenciis gaZlierebas emsaxureba. aq aris ara marto 90-iani wlebis samoqalaqo yofis mxatvruli modelireba, aramed Tanamedrove samyaros eqsistenciac aRiwereba: cxovrebas ki ar moaqvs sikvdili, rogorc dasasruli yvelafris, rac dro-sivrceSi amowuravs Tavs, aramed sikvdils moaqvs sicocxle, rogorc sicariele - rogorc yvelaze didi tyuili formebisa da materiis Sesaxeb, - arsebobis Sesaxeb, radgan usulo sagnebi bunebaSi ar arseboben! gamodis, sicocxle brWyalebSi unda Caisvas, radgan igi aq (teqstSi) sinamdvileSi ar arsebobs. sikvdili sicarielis, ararsebobis maskaradia ,,sicocxlis niRbebiT... amitomac misi formebi veragulad mravalferovania, maSin, roca sicocxle siyvarulis (ara)mosawyen erTferovnebazea gamoskvnili...

veragoba Tu siyvaruli?! RelvebSi sxva alternativa ar ,,trfoba wamebulTa aris toriuli da eqsisitenciuri

politikur da moralur vnebaTaarsebobs. teqsti adamianur veragobaTa issinamdvilis Sesaxeb, - teqsti

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ararsebuli, gamqrali siyvarulisa da arsebuli, namdvili veragobis Sesaxeb. trfoba wamebulTa msxverplTa samyaros aRweris daufaravi mcdelobaa da es mas mxatvrul-politikuridan mxatvrulfilosofiur ganzomilebaSi gadaanacvlebs. aRwera iseTi cxovrebisa, roca ara mxolod urTierToba aRar aris siyvaruli (da arc am urTierTobis dasrulebis mere darCeba siyvarulis istoria) da sxeulTa mier erTmaneTisken ltolva da Sejaxeba aRar warmoqmnis erotikul mTels, aramed roca aseTi cxovreba gacnobierebuli da cnobierebis mierve legitimirebulia, politikur kritikas uunaros xdis (daTo barbaqaZe). da Cven vdgebiT tragediis winaSe, romelic saTanadod ar Sefasebula. ar Sefasebula rogorc erovnul-politikuri tragedia, arc _ rogorc pirovnuli tragedia. an, ufro swori iqneboda gveTqva, imdenad yovelwuTierad fasdeba, rom niSnavs: araferi fasdeba. SefasebaTa (SeSfoTeba/aRSfoTebis) politikur kliSeebSi simarTle lRveba, rCeba mxolod mSrali faqti, romelic Tavis Tavzec veRarafers iuwyeba. simarTlegamoclili, igive mkvdari faqti ki saWiroebs ,,gacocxlebas. es aris Tanamedrove mediasistemebis sakvebi _ politikuri piari, rogorc meore sicocxle, _ mowyvladi da ,,saimedo.... am azriT, literatura, xelovneba es aris (mediisa da poli-

tikis sapirispirod) arapolitkoreqtuli uwyeba saganTa da movlenaTa ,,wina cxovrebis Sesaxeb, anu uwyeba tragediis, rogorc samyarosa da adamianis erTaderTi umaRlesi xvedris, Sesaxeb, romelsac veRaravin swvdeba, radgan Zalian ,,qvemoTaa da warsulSi - istoriisa da sulis siRrmeSi...
literatura enisa da sinamdvilis urTierTSeqcevadobis kanonzomierebiT gamowveul rxevebs aRwers. Sua saukuneebis originaluri mwerloba, naTargmni aRmosavluri eposi da ,,qarTlis cxovreba enobriv-kulturuli drekadobis faqts gamoxatavs. sxvaTa Soris, es sakiTxi jer kidev saTanado Seswavlis momlodinea... Sua saukuneebis qarTuli mxatvruli samyaro ar yofila erTgvarovani. masSi gadaikveTeba aRmosavluri poeziis, bizantiuri mxatvruli da filosofiuri mwerlobis, saeklesio prozis da folkloris gavlenebi, gvian SuasaukuneebSi ki _ rusuli kulturuli gavlena. Sua saukuneebis literatura enobrivad aRibeWdavs am gavlenebs sparsizmebis, arabizmebis, bizantinizmebis,

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somxizmebis da _ gvian _ rusizmebis saxiT. (am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi gaxmaurebuli sargis Tmogvelis mier Targmnili sparsi poetis faxr al-din asad gorganelis samijnuro Txzuleba ,,visramiani- X s. (sparsizmebi, arabizmebi), romelic klasikuri enis nimuSad iTvleba; sagmiro-safalavno Txzuleba ,,amirandarejaniani _ XI-XII (romelSic sparsizmebi ara marto leqsikur, aramed frazeologiur doneze gvxvdeba; mag; orTaviani kaci, romelic gmirebs xvdeba, sparsulad ambobs: ,,me cali Tvali ara maqvs); feSangis ,,Sahnavaziani XVII s. (somxizmebi, sparsizmebi). arCil mefes (XVII- XVIII ss.) Tavad Semoaqvs rusizmebi, rasac is winamorbeds, Teimuraz mefes, sayvedurobs. xolo Teimuraz I (XVI-XVII ss.) sparul enas poetur muzad acxadebs: ,,sparsTa enisa sitkboman masurva musikobani. aRarafers vambobT ,,vefxistyaosanze, romelSic mTavari sityvakoncepti ,,mijnuri (Seyvarebuli) enobriv nasesxobas warmoadgens, rogorc arabuli sityva, rac niSnavs ,,Smags, xels). daTo barbaqaZis teqsti Zvel qarTul mwerlobas ara marto siuJetur, aramed enobriv pirvelwyarodac iyenebs. mag; ,,da Semdgomad samisa dRisa jimSeris daCazed ixila ladom miranda da wadierebai gulisa misisai aRavso ufalman, da eZiebda adgilsa da drosa krZalulsa (,,trfoba wamebulTa). Tavad avtori Tavis mxatvrul Canafiqrs ase ganmartavs: ,,msxverplTa hagiografia wmindanTa hagiografiis nacvlad; erT teqstSi mravali msxverplis cxovrebis JamTaaRmwerloba erTi an ramdenime wmindanis cxovrebis aRweris nacvlad; hagiografiuli amocanis gadawyveta saraindo romanebis Zveli qarTuli TargmanebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli texili eniT... es da bevri sxva teqnikuri xerxi, saboloo jamSi, mainc kritikis gamZafrebas emsaxureba. teqstSi enobrivi da kulturuli ,,texilebi, feodaluri da demokratiuli (ufro zustad, yovel droSi Semxvedr Zvel da axal paradigmaTa) kulturuli sistemebis ideologiuri mijnebis gadaskvniT, aqcentebs sapirispiro polusebiT svams. da aq, amiT, teqstis amgvari TviTrealizacia, _ sruli enobrivi avantiura (Tu piriqiT), acdenaTa parodirebaSi tragediis bgerebs aJRerebs. swored am Sesa(Seu)ZleblobaTa gamo irCevs es teqsti _ iyos agiografiuli ,,qronika da ara raime sxva... agiografiuli siuJetebis mixedviT, pirovneba (ZiriTadad, erTi) Tavs swiravs umaRles Rirebulebebs, rwmenas, RmerTs, upirispirdeba mters (rac ZvelqarTul teqstebSi da, saerTod, qristianul swavlebaSi ,,eSmakis metaforaa). ,,trfoba wamebul-

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TaSi msgavsi araferia. Ees adamianebi, romelTa ricxvic teqstSi dauTvlelia (riTac naTqvamia pirovnuli Zalisxmevis sruli atrofireba da masobrivi infantilizmi), arc arafers ewirebian da arc aravis mier iwirebian. maT aravin tanjavs. Uubralod: am adamianebs mteri ara hyavT. teqsti aRwers sinamdviles, romelSic adamianebi mxolod sakuTari Tavis mier arian dasjilni. amitom, aqedanaa es teqsti fsevdoagiografia da interteqsturoba, rogorc mxatvruli meTodi, rogorc gamoxatvis Sinagani forma mTlianad Slis mas qarTuli literaturis sawyisebamde, romelic sulieri cxovrebis, rwmenis, mterTan (eSmakTan) brZolis sinamdviles aRwers. namdvili omi qvesknelisa da zesknelis ZalTa omia. samyarom amgvari mistikuri omis rwmena dakarga. Yyvelafers (omsac) gamoecala sakraluri safuZveli. Sesabamisad, adamianis Sinagani cxovrebis siRrmec melodramatulamde daviwrovda, rac imas niSnavs, rom mas ara aqvs tragizmis araviTari sanugeSo perspeqtiva, radgan sikeTisa da borotebis dapirispireba (am dapirispirebis gaazreba) ,,acdenilia, cnobierebisgan (Tu cnobierebis mier) veragulad gamsxltaria... rolan bartma Tanamedrove samyaroSi kulturisa da tragediis mimarTeba erTgan xatovnad ase ganmarta: ,,berZnul scenaze msaxiobebi koturnebs atarebdnen, romlebiTac isini Cveulebriv adamianur simaRleze maRlebi Candnen. imisaTvis, rom Cven gvqondes ufleba vxedavdeT tragedias samyaroSi, es samyaro unda Sedges koturnebze da Tundac odnav aiwios nacrisfer yoveldRiurobaze. aviRoT Cveni epoqa: is, ra Tqma unda, sevdiania, dramatulic ki. Mmagram es kidev ar metyvelebs imaze, tragikulia is Tu ara. dramas ganicdian, tragedias ki imsaxureben, iseve, rogorc yvelafers, rac WeSmariti da didia (rolan barti, ,,kultura da tragedia). ..trfoba wamebulTa adamianuri yofierebis srul absurdulobasa da dacemulobas, tragediis vergancdas, misgan ugono gaqcevis dramas warmoadgens tragediad. eqsistenciuri simZime ,,wamebulTa mdgomareobisa teqstis erT-erTi Srea. SeiZleba iTqvas, RerZic. yoveldRiur eqsistenciur SeWirvebaSi imaleba Tanamedrove adamianis SiSi, romelic avtoris azriT, ,,SesaZloa, ufro aqtiurad gvabrunebdes Cveni winaprebis seqsualur cxovrebasTan, vidre kulturuli kodebis maragi, romelic garedan struqturul wakiTxvas da modelirebas moiTxovs.

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yoveli axali kulturuli mutacia seqsualobis marTvas efuZneboda. Tavis droze qristianobam swored aq moaxdina ,,revolucia. warmarTuli RmerTebis ukidegano Tavisufleba sulieri simaRlis, tanjvis eTikiT Secvala, risTvisac unda miebaZa adamiansac; RmerTi TviTon aris siwminde, adamiani - saxe da xati misi... sabWoTa mutacia (ufro adreulic, ganmanaTleblobis xanidan...) gamoTavisuflebul seqsualobas adamianis, rogorc socialuri muSaxelis, Seqmnas usabamebs. xolo Tanamedrove sinamdvileSi seqsualobisadmi esoden farTod karis gaReba adamianis socialur-kritikuli unarebis moSlas emsaxureba... mokled, seqsualobis marTva politikuri marTvis meqanizmia, ,,mutaciuri alqimiis saidumlo. ,,mocaleoba religiuri kontrolidan socialur kontrols daeqvemdebara. ,,adamianis dro, mis mebrZol asakSi, unda gadanawilebuliyo saxelmwifosTvis sasargeblo samuSaos Sesrulebasa da seqss Soris; anu religiismieri cenzura Seicvala seqsismieri cenzuriT, ramac kidev erTxel daacila adamiani erotikis samyaros, erotikuli tkbobis sferos, gayina igi seqsualuri siamovnebis xangrZliv fazaSi, xolo adamiani, romelic seqsualuri siamovnebis Ziebasa da fizikur gadarCenas Soris moZraobs, kapitalizmisTvis saSiSi arasdros iqneba (daTo barbaqaZe). Zvel qarTuli saeklesio teqstebTan erTad (iakob xucesis ,,SuSanikis wameba- V s: aRwerilia religiur da politikur safuZvelze gaTamaSebuli colqmruli drama, giorgi mcires ,,cxovreba giorgi mTawmindelisa - XI s: giorgis mamis, iakobis, daojaxebis ambavi; eqvTime aTonelis ,,abukura, XI s: ambavi beris sulieri siZlierisa, romelic abdal maliq xalifas cols, seidas, Seuyvarda. ucnobi avtoris Txzulebis ,,aTcamet asurel mamaTa ciklidan daviT garejelis ,,cxovreba- X s: qalis mier beris gamocxadeba Svilis mamad, misi dawyevla da qvis dabadeba. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia giorgi merCules agiografiuli Txzuleba grigol xanZTelis ,,cxovreba (951 w): zenonis ambavi, romelmac dis Semcdeneli kacis mokvlas amjobina saeklesio cxovreba, mefe bagratis colis gamonazvneba da aSot mefis sasiyvarulo ambavi,; grigol xanZTeli monazvnad aRkvecs mefis sayvarels. metic, mxatvruli asaxvis siRrme da sizuste pirovnebis, mefis, suraTs aRwers da ara - codvis naklovanebas...), ,,qarTlis cxovrebac uxvad warmoadgens ,,sasiyvarulo ambebs. daTo barbaqaZe am sakiTxs ara marto mxatvruli, aramed Teoriuli refleqsiis sagnad aqcevs da mas ganixilavs erovnuli TviTcnobierebis erT-erT fundamentur aspeqtad: ,,JamTaaRmwerlebis sul sxva mimarTulebiT

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warmoebuli religiuri cenzurac ar tovebs SeumCnevels maTsave fsiqologiur rxevebs. aRarafers vambob saero literaturaze, gansakuTrebiT ki aRmosavluri sasiyvarulo romanebis Targmanebze, romlebic gankuTvnili ar iyo liangisTvis da mxolod momxmarebelTa SedarebiT viwro wris interesebs akmayofilebda. (...) vefxistyaosanSi daxasiaTebuli idealuri mijnuris tipi ki, arc meti da arc naklebi, srulfasovani seqsualuri molxenisTvis saWiro idealuri tipis modelirebas axdens, xolo am sistemaSi mocaleobas (rac usaqmurobas Tu ara, fizikuri da inteleqtualuri Sromis artaxebidan gamoTavisuflebas namdvilad unda gulisxmobdes) erT-erTi gadamwyveti roli ekisreba. erTi sityviT, es is sistemaa, romlis miRma cxovrebac uxdeboda mdumare umravlesobas... Tanamedrove adamianis cnobierebaSi misi winaprebis seqsualuri cxovrebis miviwyeba, masze refleqsiis arndoma daufaravi samxilia mis mier Tavisi rTuli memkvidreobis gacnobierebis, sadac seqsi da ekonomika ara imdenad gansazRvravdnen yovelTvis erTmaneTs, ramdenadac ganapirobebdnen. ,,trfoba wamebulTa sakuTar Tavs iazrebs, rogorc ,,qarTlis cxovrebis axal ,,proeqts, amdenad is bunebrivad aris (unda yofiliyo) hiperteqsti. SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom teqsti amad yofnis movaleobas warmatebiT asrulebs. rac Seexeba ,,gulubryvilo kiTxvas teqstis samomavlo funqciis Sesaxeb, vityviT: aris teqstebi, romlebisTvisac dro mxolod xdomilebaTa ganbnevaa sivrceSi, istoria _ wera-kiTxvis permanentuli aqti, romelSic aRniSnuli moqmedebebi (wera-kiTxva) urTierTmoZrav semiotikur mruds qmnis. es erTi kosmiuri wrea, romlis geometrias acdenebi, wyvetebi, mcdari traeqtoriebi ver cvlis. SeiZleba iTqvas asec: wera/sityva centria, moqmedeba wiri, romlis diapazonic centrismieri vibraciiT ganizideba usasrulobaSi... (,,pirvelad iyo sityva...). amasTan, kiTxvisa da gagebis rac ufro naklebad masobriv sinamdviles qmnis wigni, miT ufro metia misi kulturuli Zalaufleba. romanis eqsistenciuri da kulturuli gamowvevebis Sesaxeb Tavad avtori ase msjelobs: ,,dedamiwis zurgze orad ori adamiani arsebobda, romlebsac aqtiurad viTvaliswinebdi trfoba wamebulTaze muSaobis dros: ilia WavWavaZe da mixeil javaxiSvili. es aris Cemi mexsierebis yvelaze ufro cnobieri, dauviwyari gamocdileba da swored amitom aRvniSnav amas xazgasmiT.

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faqtobrivad, trfoba wamebulTa iyo im kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis survili, Tu ratom dawera erTma bednieri eri, meorem ki jayos xiznebi... Cemi samuSao mdgomareobda im tkivilis ara mxolod daTmenis, aramed gaazrebis mcdelobaSi, romelsac CemSi yovelTvis iwvevda bednieri eris da jayos xiznebis TviT arsebobis faqtic ki, rom araferi vTqva maTTan Cems dialogze, maTi saTqmelis gagebis moTxovnilebaze (anu, me mainteresebda ara maTmieri kritika, aramed is metafizikuri baza, romelsac maTi es kritika efuZneboda; araxiluli, metic, poeturi mxare). Cemi teqsti iyo ara imdenad pasuxi, ramdenadac SekiTxva, ukeT, garkveuli mxatvruli formiT Camoyalibebuli SekiTxva. (...) xolo ratom ver gavcemdi pasuxs sul sxvadasxva gamocdilebis mkiTxvelis erTaderT SekiTxvas, Tu ratom arsebobs es teqsti saerTod, es TavSive vTqvi: trfoba wamebulTa Tavad aris SekiTxva. da es SekiTxva piradad me teqstis gareT sulac ar mtovebs (rac CemTvis principuli sakiTxia). erTi, cnobili aluziiT, daTo barbaqaZis mxatvruli ambicia aseTia: pirveli, vinc qarTvel ers sila gaawna, iyo ilia WavWavaZe, leqsiT ,,bednieri eri (romelSic ,,bednieri satirulad akninebs qarTvel ers), meore _ mixeil javaxiSvili, romaniT ,,jayos xiznebi (am romanis mTavari Tema kulturis dasasrulia, gamoxatuli cxovrebis uunarobaSi, unayofobaSi, faqtobrivad zezeur sikvdilSi, romelic erTi infantiluri da keTili inteleqtualuri kacis piradi tragediiT aris gadmocemuli. romanSi sabWoTa epoqaSivea naCvenebi (ramac Seiwira kidec avtori me20 saukunis 30-iani wlebis sabWoTa represiebis dros, aseve mokles ilia WavWavaZec amave saukunis dasawyisSi swored sabWoTa sistemis ideologiurma mesveurebma...) pirvelyofili Zalis perspeqtivebi axal samyaroSi, romelSic sabWoeTic Sedis da romlis msxverplic nawarmoebSi gamodis Zveli qarTuli kultura axali sabWoTa demokratiis xelSi...) da mesame _ daTo barbaqaZe fsevdohagiografiuli qronikiT ,,trfoba wamebulTa. ,,me mqonda imedi, rom trfoba wamebulTa ar iqneboda aRqmuli uxamsobad, sul mcire, moazrovne adamianebis mier. vfiqrobdi, rom im stadiis gavlis mere, romelic mosdevs xolme msgavsi formebiT saTqmelis gamoxatvas, teqsti daubrundeboda Tavis Sinagan dinebas da gadarCeboda gadasarCeni, rogorc yovelTvis xdeba literaturaSi. erTaderTi, visdami SiSic drodadro Tavs maxsenebda (es ukve mere, teqstis gamoqveynebis momdevno wleb-

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Si), iyvnen e. w. patriotebi da fundamentalist-marTlmadideblebi, romlebsac TavianTi erTgulebis gamosavlenad SeiZleboda saqme gaCenodaT Cemi saxiT (anu meSinoda mxolod fizikuri angariSsworebis). iqve, Tavs vimSvidebdi imiT, rom am teqstisTvis didxans ver moiclidnen saqarTvelos ukeTesi momavlisTvis brZoliT dakavebuli, yvelaze ufro uxeSi Zalebi... me gacnobierebuli mqonda politikursa da mxatvruls Soris winaaRmdegobis ara garduvaloba am teqstSi, aramed misi makonstruirebeli funqcia (nebismieri teqsti avtoris daumTavrebeli, wertildausmeli Sinagani winaaRmdegobebis moZraobaSi erTi garkveuli monakveTis kristalizebas axdens; sxvagvarad SeuZlebeli iqneboda cnobierebis gadanacvleba axali teqstis Sesaqmnelad; xSirad xom wertili yvelaze ufro Seusabamo momentSi ismis ara mxolod cxovrebaSi, aramed teqstSic, da aseTi wertili misi pirobiTobis xazgamsmeli ufroa, vidre dasrulebis aRmniSvneli (daTo barbaqaZe). ,,silis gawvna adrec da axlac bevrma miiCnia advil da daudevar saqmed, Tumca araferi imden sifaqizes, erTgulebas (naTelmxilvelur Wvretas da rwmenis Zalas) ar moiTxovs, rogorc ,,silis gawvna, _ siyvarulis es yvelaze dafaruli da yvelaze gacxadebuli, yvelaze uxeSi da yvelaze faqizi aqti, radgan amgvari biologiurobamde Rrma sensitivuroba mxolod sakuTari nawilis mimarT SeiZleba arsebobdes. faqtia, arafris mimarT adamianebi ise ar ucxovdebian, rogorc _ sakuTari nawilis mimarT. amitom gamorkvevis, xelaxali cnobis pasuxismgeblobas is iRebs, visi mexsierebac pirveladi mTlianobis xats inaxavs. pirvelad xatTan, mTlianobasTan, daSoreba-daaxloebis pozitiur saTqmelad aRbeWdva zogjer ukiduresi negaciis gziT mJRavndeba. aq (iseve, rogorc ilia WavWavaZesa an mixeil javaxiSvilTan) es ar aris epataJi. es gamoxatvis metafizikaa, romlis mizania ukiduresi sizuste. sizuste ki uxamsobamde ukompromisoa. igi mxolod SiSveli simarTlisken iltvis da gzad arRvevs yvelafers, riTac adamianTa ,,keTili gulebi yofierebis usaxur siSiSvles faraven. swored aseTi teqstia ,,trfoba wamebulTa. es aris erTgvari eqsistencialur-Teologiuri apofatika RmerTisa da siyvarulis Sesaxeb. eqsistenciuri kritika, romanis es ideuri safuZveli, avtoris ganmartebiT, ,,ra Tqma unda, mtkivneul religiur sakiTxebs utrialebs, Tundac cnobierad Tu gaucnobiereblad yvela qar-

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TvelisTvis Tanamdev tradiciul siamayes mariam RvTismSoblis wilxvedrobaSi saqarTvelos gadacemisa da am siamayis miuxedavad (da iqneb Sedegadac) adamianTa savsebiT gasagebi praqtikuli cnobismoyvareobisa, Tu sad gadis RvTismSoblis moTminebis sazRvari da ra unda Caidinos saqarTvelom iseTi, rom RvTismSobelma igi miatovos, anu: marTla yvelaferi epatiebaT qarTvelebs? iqneb, Tavisdagaucnobiereblad, saqarTvelo aseTi Tamami eqsperimentis obieqtic aris da organizatoric? yovel SemTxvevaSi, xedvis kuTxis arSecvla da mudmivad xazgasma imisa, rom saqarTvelo mariamis wilxvedri qveyanaa da RmerTi mas arasdros miatovebs, trfoba wamebulTa-Si satiruli SekiTxvis saxiT Semobrunda: rogor miatovebs RmerTi imas, rac ukve miatova?... (daTo barbaqaZe, 2003 weli). TviTgaucxoebis ukiduresad kritikuli viTareba trfoba wamebulTa-Si aseTive mxatvrul ukiduresobamdea miyvanili. ukiduresobamdea miyvanili TviTon literatura, rogorc faqti da rogorc procesi. rac imas niSnavs, rom is mokvda, misi sikvdili aRsrulebul iqna, raTa xelaxla daibados. es ,,saqme qarTul literaturaSi daTo barbaqaZem gaakeTa. amis iqeT mxolod Semobrunebaa (yvelaferi sxva, mxolod sikvdilis adgilis tkepnaa, an ubralod, adgilis sruli ucodinroba), radgan aq ukve dasasrulia, _ gza aRar aris. dabolos, werili minda davamTavro daTo barbaqaZis sityvebiT misive essedan ,,Semxvedri winaaRmdegobebi, romelic trfoba wamebulTa-s Seqmnidan ori wlis mere, 1994 wels, aris dawerili da teqstis sabaziso Teoriuli sayrdenebis Sejamebas warmoadgens. kidev ufro mniSvnelovania esseSi mocemuli mwerlis gamWoli mzera literaturuli procesebis mimarT, romlebic Cvens sinamdvileSi axla cnobierdeba, Tumca zustad 17 wlis win iqna moniSnuli sruliad garkveviT da zustad, im dros, roca postmodernistuli bumi (arafers vambob mis krizisze) jer kidev gasavleli gza iyo CvenSi: ,,garkveuli tradiciiT ganmtkicebuli sistemis rRvevisken da axal sistemad misi transformirebisken mimarTuli samuSao yovelTvis improvizaciuli saxis matarebelia da, aqedan gamomdinare, misTvis niSneuli radikalizmic mxolod operacionaluri sayrdenis rols asrulebs, romelic, adre Tu gvian, aucileblad unda gadailaxos... Tu kants verwmunebiT, rom esTetikuri Wvreta sruliad gulgrilia misi sagnis arseboba-ararsebo-

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bis mimarT, maSin unda vaRiaroT, rom Cveni dro, meoce saukunis miwuruli, erTsa da imave dros, esTetikis sruli hegemoniis drocaa da misi sruli kraxis Jamic. kirkegoris definiciasac Tu gavixsenebT, maSin aseT suraTs miviRebT: XX saukunis miwuruls esTetika sabolood mowyda eTikas da marto aRmoCnda. albaT, amasac gulisxmoben postmodernis Teoretikosebi, roca realobis agoniurobaze miuTiTeben. magram CemTvis gansakuTrebiT axlobelia kasireris SeniSvna, rom miTebi, gansxvavebiT xelovnebisgan, sulac ar arian gulgrili realobisadmi. Cemi Rrma rwmeniT, ukve aris imis niSnebi, rom sul male dasabami miecema sruliad axlebur xedvas, axal reaqcias, da es iqneba reaqcia swored realobis gaqrobaze, magram axali iqneba igi imdenad, ramdenadac aRar dakmayofildeba gamqral realobaSi cxovrebiT da TamaSiT, da am araras aujanydeba. dRes ara mxolod aradamakmayofilebeli, aramed dogmaturi da agresiulic kia gamqrali realobis metaforiT operireba. axla realobis aRdgenaze zrunvaa mTavari. amaSi, albaT, sruliad arauwyinar da araumniSvnelo rols Seasrulebs axali naturalizmi da axali empirizmi. vfiqrob, es procesi racionaluri da hermenevtikuli wiaRsvlebis paralelurad da vizualuri cnobierebis sapirispirod warimarTeba. Cveni epoqa anu drois is monakveTi, romelic ukve didi xania Tavis TavSi brunavs, totaluri vizualizaciis epoqaa, roca racionalizmis Cixidan adamianis gamoTavisuflebis mowadine da am mizniT Signidan gareT, siRrmidan zedapirze orientirebuli aTasgvari teqnika, kadrebis swrafmonacvleoba da siCqare, ierarqiebis ngrevis paTosi da pirveladsa da meorads Soris sazRvrebis waSlis politika adamianis gadarCenisave sapirispiro tendenciad Semoiqca. istoriaSi ucvleli paradigmebi ar arse-

bobs, magram paradigmebis monacvleobis procesi ucvlelia. aris dro, roca siRrme zedapirma unda gaamJRavnos. esaa postmodernis epoqa. magram dgeba dro, roca siRrme siRrmiTve unda gamJRavndes da gacnobierdes. es ukve is xanaa, romelic postmoderns moxsnis da Seinaxavs (daTo barbaqaZe, ,,Semxvedri winaaRmdegobebi, Tebervali, 1994 weli; xazi Cvenia - n. t.) baTumi, 2011 weli

irine CaCaniZe

sqesi da genderi: leqsikografiuli panorama

qali da mamakaci es is ori notia, romelTa gareSec adamianis sulis simebi ver mogvcemda zust da srulyofil akords. juzepe maZini

genderi, rogorc termini, qalTa kvlevebSi gamoCnda samociani wlebis miwuruls. igi Semovida laTinur enebSi gramatikuli sqesis aRmniSvneli sityva gender-isgan da SeiZina socialuri sqesis mniSvneloba. genderuli da feministuri kvlevebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebia genderi, biologiuri da gramatikuli sqesi. mocemul SemTxvevaSi mivmarTavT dasavleTSi warmoqmnil da samecniero mimoqcevaSi ukve sakmaod aprobirebul cnebebs; gramatikuli sqesi warmoadgens sxvadasxva metyvelebis nawilisaTvis damaxasiaTebel kategorias, romlis mixedviTac sityvebi jgufdeba, ZiriTadad, or an sam klasad. es klasebi ki zogjer erTgvar korelacias amJRavnebs biologiur sqesTan. rac Seexeba mesames _ genders, igi sociokulturul sqess warmoadgens da mis farglebSi gamoiyofa ara mdedri da mamri, aramed qaluroba da mamakacuroba,

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xolo kvlevis Sesabamisi dargi miznad isaxavs zemoaRniSnulis gamovlinebis Seswavlas sazogadoebisa da kulturis sxvadasxva sferoSi. Tu biologiuri sqesi ganasxvavebs mdedrobiTsa da mamrobiTs, socialuri sqesi ki qalurobasa da mamakacurobas, e.i. genderuli identifikacia SeiZleba moxdes kulturis, droisa da sivrcis faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT (kikviZe 2010:14). genderi rTuli kompleqsia, romelSic gadajaWvulia kulturuli, fsiqologiuri da socialuri aspeqtebi. Ees aspeqtebi ki, Tavis mxriv, ganapirobebs erovnuli enobrivi pirovnebis qcevas, rac genderTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs lingvistebisaTvisac sainteresos xdis. genders, rogorc enisa da kulturis movlenas, Seiswavlis axlad Seqmnili disciplinebi: lingvokulturologia, genderlingvistika da genderpoetika (omiaZe 2010). erT-erTi aqtualuri sakiTxi, romelic ganixileba saenaTmecniero axali mimarTulebis WrilSi, sqesisa da genderis leqsikografiuli aRweraa. aRniSnuli sakiTxi ganpirobebulia rigi faqtorebiT; moxdes leqsikaSi arsebuli aqtiuri procesebis gaazreba da dafiqsireba, romlebic asaxavs sazogadoebaSi socialur cvlilebebs, kulturuli faseulobebis cvlas, da aseve axal lingvistur monacemebs, miRebuls enis Tanamedrove kvlevis procesSi da, maT Soris _ lingvistur genderologiaSi. genderi enaSi warmoaCens qalisa da mamakacis metyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Taviseburebebs. aqedan gamomdinare, genderuli lingvistika swavlobs qalebisa da mamakacebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel sametyvelo stereotipebs. gansxvaveba qalisa da mamakacis metyvelebaSi odiTganvea SemCneuli, rasac, umetes SemTxvevaSi, socialuri faqtoriT xsnian. pirvelad, sqesis gramatikul kategoriasTan erTad, biologiuri sqesis faqtori enis kavSirTan mimarTebiT warmoiSva antikur xanaSi. gramatikuli sqesis funqciobis erT-erTi uZvelesi Teoria simbolikur-semantikuri hipoTezaa, romelic safuZvlad udevs biologiuri kategoriis sexus-isa da gramatikuli kategoriis genus-is Tanafardobas. simbolikur-semantikuri hipoTezis momxreebi (herderi, grimi. v.f. humboldti) Tvlidnen, rom gramatikuli sqesi warmoiSva bunebrivi zemoqmedebis Sedegad. arsebobda miTologiuri azrovnebis or ZiriTadi Tavisebureba: animizmi (pirvelyofil xalxTa rwmena, rom yvela sagans

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aqvs suli) da anTropomorfizmi (RvTaebis warmodgena adamianis saxis mqoned). maTze damyarebuli hipoTezis Tanaxmad, unda aRiniSnos, rom mamrobiTi sqesis saxelebi iTvleboda pirvelxarisxovnad, radgan igi ganasaxierebda Zlevamosilebas, aqtiurobasa da energias. xolo, mdedrobiTi sqesis saxelebi, piriqiT, xasiaTdebodnen pasiurobiTa da morCilebiT. axlo aRmosavleTis adreuli epoqis xalxTa civilizaciaSi SemCneulia mdedrobiT da mamrobiTi gramatikuli sqesis gansxvavebani. ase, magaliTad, Sumerul enaSi arsebobda dedis, mamis, disa da Zmis aRmniSvneli sityvebi, magram RmerTs ewodeboda dingir, xolo qalRmerTs ki _ dingir.ama (sityvasityviT _ qalRmerTi-deda); vaJs ewodeboda dumu, xolo qaliSvilsdumu.mi (mdedrobiTi sqesis Ze). .SesaZlebelia,RmerTi mama dapirispireboda qalRmerT-dedas, xolo mamrobiTi sqesis Zeki _ mdedrobiTi sqesis Zes. es aixsneboda imiT, rom msoflioSi pirveli samwerlobo ena fiqsirebuli iyo viwro, mZime da mSral Tixis firfitebze da mokle Canawerebi aucileblobas warmoadgenda. magram am SemTxvevaSic Cans, rom damatebiTi aRniSvnebi swored mdedrobiTi sqesisaa. rac Seexeba aqadur fleqsiur enaSi vaJs ewodeboda maru,xolo qaliSvils _ mar-t-u; Zmas a-hu, das ki _ ah-at-u. swored qalis aRmniSvnel Ziriseul morfemaSi Caismeba mdedrobiTi sqesis maCvenebeli t: qals aqadurad ewodeboda sinnish-tu. zogadad, aqaduri enis leqsikuri Semadgenloba hgavs Tanamedrove frangul enas, romelsac ori sqesi aqvs: mamrobiTi, romlisTvisac ar gamoiyeneba sqesis ganmsazRvreli maCvenebeli da mdedrobiTi, romelic saWiroebs Casmas. qalTa da mamakacTa sametyvelo gansxvavebebis fiqsaciis erT-erT uZveles SemTxvevad SeiZleba CaiTvalos Zvel babilonSi Sesrulebuli Cvenamde moRweuli zogierTi leqsikografiuli naSromi: Cveulebrivi Sumeruli saliteraturo enis garda (Sum.ene-K U, an kidev -eme-girx) arsebobda aseve gansakuTrebuli qaluri Sumeruli ena-eme-sal, romelic gamoiyeneboda qalRmerTTa kultSi. amis Sesabamisad Seadgines samenovani eme-saleme-KU-aqaduri leqsikoni,dimmer=dingir=ilu (samive sityva niSnavs RmerTs am sam enaze) diakonovi, 1980, gv. 23). iqve, sqolioSi avtori SeniSnavs, rom es qaluri ena gamoiyeneboda

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(werisas) qalRmerTebisa da qalebis, aseve saWurisTa metyvelebis gadmosacemad (kikviZe 2010:15). mdedrobiTi da mamrobiTi sqesis gansxvavebani SemCneulia uZvelesi kulturis mqone qveynebis miTebSic, egvipteSi, SuamdinareTSi, saberZneTsa da ZvelindoeTSi. magaliTad, egviptis RmerTebi ganasaxierebdnen bunebis Zalebs _ RmerTebi cisa, dedamiwisa da wylisa. egviptis mdore sazogadoebaSi jer kidev ar iyo Zleuli matriarqatis gadmonaSTebi im dros, roca yalibdeboda bunebis ZiriTad ZalTa es kulti. amitomac cis RvTaeba egviptelebs warmodgenili hyavdaT qalRmerTis saxiT, romelsac warmosaxavdnen xolme an qalad an Zroxad. xolo dedamiwa maT warmodgenili hqondaT ara mdedrobiTi sawyisis, aramed mamakacis saxiT. cis qalRmerTs egvipturad ewodeboda nuti, xolo dedamiwis RmerTs gebi. matriarqatis niSan-kvali imaSic gamoixateboda, rom nilosi warmosaxuli hyavdaT, rogorc naxevrad mamakaci da naxevrad dedakaci (struve 1946:242). sqesze damokidebuli damwerlobis diferenciacia specifikuri movlenaa, romelic sxvadasxva samwerlobo enebSi arsebobs. es movlena ganpirobebulia kulturuli garemos religiuri, socialuri da sxva faqtorebiT. magaliTad, iukagirebisTvis damwerlobis tradicia da piqtografiuli niSnebiT sargebloba qalebis wilxvedria. tuaregebis uZvelesi damwerloba tifinagi gamoiyeneba ZiriTadad qalebis mier, mamakacebi ki sargebloben arabuli damwerlobiT. mecnierebisTvis cnobilia SemTxvevebi, rodesac qalebis damwerloba gansxvavdeboda klasikurisagan. magaliTad, Cinuri ideografiuli kaligrafiis erT-erTi saxeoba nu-Su Camoyalibda me-3 aTaswleulSi Cv. eramde, rodesac CineTis mmarTveloba ukrZalavda qalebs ganaTlebas. aRniSnuli mizezis gamo, qalebma Seqmnes sakuTari, saidumlo ena da damwerloba, romelic mamakacebisaTvis sruliad gaugebari iyo. erT-erT pirvel moculobiT da sistematizebul naSromad ki, romelSic asaxulia qalTa da mamakacTa enobriv-genderuli dapirispireba, iTvleba 1964 wels gamosuli karaibul-franguli leqsikoni (romlis avtori misioneri beri, vinme roSfori gaxldaT), sadac moTxrobilia imis Sesaxeb, rom mcire antilis kunZulebis mkvidri qalebi iqauri mamakacebisagan gansxvavebul enaze saubroben, risi mizezic is yofila, rom, rodesac karaibebma daipyres es kunZulebi, maT amoxoces yvela iqauri mamakaci,

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xolo qalebi ki colad SeirTes (iesperseni, 1922,gv.237). sagulisxmoa, rom ufro gviandeli periodis mkvlevrebma msgavsi veraferi daafiqsires aRniSnul regionSi (kikviZe 2010:16). vladimer dalis rusuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi mamrobiToba (mamakaci) asocirdeba sityvasTan marcxena, xolo mdedrobiToba (qali) _ marjvena. rusuli xalxuri Tqmulebis mixedviT, Tu marjvena warbi giTamaSebs, Tavi unda dauxaro mamakacs, Tu marcxena _ qals. mamrobiTobas aqvs egzoteruli, eqstravertuli mniSvneloba (Signidan gareT), xolo mdedrobiTobas ki _ ezoTeruli, intravertuli (garedan SigniT): kaci da ZaRli mudam ezoSia, xolo dedakaci da kata samudamod qoxSi. modis colis naTesaoba _ gaaRe WiSkari, modis qmris naTesaoba _ dakete WiSkari. qali, zogadsimboluri warmodgenebiT deformirebuli, cvalebadi sawyisia: cols irTavs, xelaxla ibadeba. mamrobiTi sqesis sityva iTvaliswinebs rTul qvewyobil, ierarqiul damokidebulebas: saxe damokidebulia sqesze, rogorc gvari saxeze. davaJkaceba _ jansaRad gaazreba, _ rogorc Seefereba kacs, _ vkiTxulobT leqsikonSi. ( 1980:10). yvela es maxasiaTebeli srul TanafardobaSia kulturogenetikur TvisebebTan erTad. jer kidev antikur xanaSi gramatikuli sqesis arsebobisa da garCevis sakiTxma gamoiwvia didi interesi da kamaTi. igi dResdReobiTac rCeba diskusiis sagnad. ukve me-5 saukuneSi Cv.eramde Zveli berZeni sofisti protagora yofda arsebiT saxelebs sami sqesis mixedviT: mamrobiTi, mdedrobiTi da nivTis. igi aRniSnavda, rom niSan-Tvisebebi, romlebic damaxasiaTebelia mamakacebisaTvis, miekuTvneba mamrobiT sqess. mag. risxva mamrobiTi sqesisaa, vinaidan es Tviseba maT axasiaTebT. protagora sqesis garCevisas gamoiyenebda aseve morfologiur kriteriumebsac, radgan sqesis kategoria gamoixateba artiklebisa da atributuli SeTanxmebis saSualebiT. protagoraa avtori terminisa jevos- sqesi, romelic gamoiyeneboda berZnul gramatikaSi gramatikuli da biologiuri sqesis aRsaniSnavad. xolo romaelebma SemoiRes ori termini: sexsus _ biologiuri sqesi da genus _ gramatikuli sqesi. Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebaSi ki, a. evgenevas leqsikonis mixedviT, biologiuri sqesi cocxali organizmis TvisebaTa erTobliobaa, romelic ganayofierebas eqvemdebareba da romlis mixedviTac ganirCeva mdedrobiTi da mamrobiTi individe-

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bi. gramatikuli sqesi ki warmoadgens arsebiTi saxelis leqsikur - gramatikul kategorias, romelic sami klasisagan Sedgeba: mdedrobiTi, mamrobiTi da saSualo sqesi ( 1981-88). frangma mkvlevarma tereza de lauretisma genderis kategoriis Taobaze Seadgina mcire eqskursi sxvadasxva qveynebis leqsikonebis mixedviT. inglisuri enis memkvidreobis amerikul leqsikonSi (American Hieritage Dictionary of English Language) sityva genderi gansazRvrulia pirveli mniSvnelobiT, rogorc klasifikaciuri termini, aseve morfologiuric (gramatikuli sqesi~). meore mniSvnelobiT ki ganmartebulia, rogorc biologiuri sqesis klasifikacia. romanul enebSi gramatikasa da biologiur sqess Soris aseTi siaxlove ar arsebobs. espanur genero, italiur genere da frangul genere-s ar gaaCniaT araviTari kavSiri adamianis biologiur da gramatikul sqesebTan. amis nacvlad gamoiyeneba sxva sityva _ seqsi (sex). lauretisis ganmartebiT, sqesisa da genderis sistema warmoadgens Tanadroulad sociokulturul konstruqtsa da semiotikur instruments, romelic gulisxmobs identifikacias, prestiJs da statuss socialur ierarqiaSi (Laureris T. de. Technologies of Gender. Bloomington, 1987). Tavis lingvistur terminTa leqsikonSi o. axmanova gvaZlevs sqesis ganmartebas, rogorc arsebiTi saxelis leqsikurgramatikuli kategoriisa. igi gamoyofs Semdeg aRniSvnebs: gramatikuli sqesi (grammatical gender) _ sqesi, rogorc formaluri kategoria; bunebrivi sqesi (natural gender)- sqesis bunebrivi da enobrivi kategoriebis Sexameba; usulo sqesi (inanimate gender)mamrobiTisa da mdedrobiTis sapirispiro, romelic gaerTianebulia sulier sqesSi; arasaSualo sqesi (non- neuter gender)kategoriul formaTa erToblioba, romelic sapirispiroa saSualo sqesisa. saerTo sqesi (common gender) _ sqesis mniSvneloba, romelic Seesabameba rogorc mamrobiT, aseve mdedrobiTsac. sulieri sqesi (animate gender) _ mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi sqesi erTad. ( 1966). unda aRiniSnos, rom axmanova Semoifargleba mxolod terminTa ganxilviT da ar miuTiTebs maT opoziciur principebze. qarTulma enam gramatikuli sqesi ar icis, sityvis mniSvenlobiT irkveva biologiuri sqesi: mamakaci da dedakaci, mamani da

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dedani, mamali da dedali, vaJi da qali, biWi da gogo, xvadi da Zu, Ze da asuli. sulxan-saba orbeliani Tavis leqsikonSi sqess ganmartavs, rogorc gamyofels: sqesi ars viTarca kibe rame, gina niSani ram(e) gamyofeli, viTarca ganeyof(v)is aRsavali STasavalsa sqesiTa, ukeTu xelovnebisa mier, viTar igi moZRvrisa mowafisa mi-marT... (sulxan-saba orbeliani 1949:330). mis leqsikonSic Cans cda qarTulSi gramatikuli sqesis aRniSvnisa. cdilobs, e. w. mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi sqesis formebi erTmaneTs daboloebiT daupirispiros: mamrobiTi mdedrobiTi CCli da CCla usuari da usuara ninveli da ninvala yrma da yrma Wabuki da Wabuka moxucebuli da moxucebula qarTuli enis enciklopediuri leqsikonis mixedviT, genderi ganmartebulia, rogorc socialuri sqesi, romelic enaSi warmoaCens qalisa da mamakacis metyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Taviseburebebs. `aqedan gamomdinare, genderuli lingvistika swavlobs qalebisa da kacebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel sametyvelo stereotipebs (qarTuli ena, enciklopedia (2008:109). multilingvur ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebul terminTa ganmartebiT leqsikonSi genderi mecnierebaSi socialuri sqesis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba. sqesi dakavSirebulia qalsa da mamakacs Soris fizikur, sxeulebriv gansxvavebebTan, cneba `genderi~ ki miuTiTebs maT fsiqologiur, socialur da kulturul Taviseburebebze. sqesi biologiurad aris gansazRvruli, genderi ki socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebiT aris ganpirobebuli da aRniSnavs qalisa da mamakacis socialurad naswavli qcevebis, Tvisebebisa da damokidebulebebis nakrebs (multilingvur ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebul terminTa ganmartebiTi leqsikoni 2008:32)

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dasasrul, genderuli midgomebis TvalsazrisiT, leqsikografiuli wyaroebis analizma SesaZlebloba mogvca migveRo informacia sqesisa da genderis Sesaxeb, romelic aRwerilia sacnobaro masalebSi, informacia imis Taobaze, Tu rogoraa gaazrebuli maTSi konceptebi qaluroba da mamakacuroba. damowmebuli literatura kikviZe 2010: zaal kikviZe, ena, genderi da nacionalizmi, Tbilisi omiaZe 2010: salome omiaZe, erTi genderuli stereotipis Sesaxeb poeziis enaSi (ana kalandaZe, muxran maWavariani) Jurnali semiotika, Tbilisi struve 1946:v.struve, Zveli aRmosavleTis istoria, Tbilisi 1936, - lauretisi 1987: Lauretis T. de. Technologies of Gender.Bloomington http://www.rbardalzo.narod.ru/text_gram_slovar1.html#__ leqsikonebi axmanova 1966: .. , dali 1980: . , evgeneva 1980: .. , , enciklopedia 2008: qarTuli ena, Tbilisi multilingvur ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebul terminTa ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, 2008 orbeliani 1949: sulxan-saba orbeliani, sityvis kona qarTuli, romel ars leqsikoni, Tbilisi

SoTa barbaqaZe

`Ria~ adamianebi `Ria sazogadoebaSi~


M mecnierebis yvela dargi dResac qalwulebriv mdgomareobaSia. amitom adamiani qmnis, amowmebs, afasebs da avrcelebs kulturas kvlevisa da swavlebis gziT. swavleba da kvleva urTierTisagan ganuyofelia, raTa saswavlo procesi ar CamorCes sazogadoebis cvalebad moTxovnebsa da samecniero codnis miRwevebs; adamiani mudmivad miiswrafis universaluri codnisaken. mis winaSe mdgari amocanebis Sesrulebisas igi scildeba geografiul da politikur sazRvrebs da adasturebs sxvadasxva kulturaTa urTierTSecnobisa da urTierTgavlenis sasicocxlo aucileblobas. kulturaTa gansxvavebis miReba-aRiarebas, axal kulturasTan adaptacias, integracias orive (mSobliur da axal) kulturaSi. aseTi procesebi kulturaSi dadebiT rols TamaSobs, vinaidan xels uwyobs kulturaTa urTierTqmedebasa da urTierTgamdidrebas, tradiciul kulturaSi sxva kulturul elementTa integracias, kulturaTa Riaobis zrdas. anu unda gafarTovdes, gamravldes da gamravalferovndes kulturuli alternativebi, raTa amaRldes Sinagani Tavisuflebis xarisxi. ar SeiZleba Seyu-

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Julni viyoT sakuTari ideologiis javSanSi. kultura maSin wyvets zrdas, roca axali araferi Cans, yoveli mxridan perspeqtivebis uCveulo simwirea, mxolod araerTxel daWaSnikebuli gaxunebuli debulebebis jiriTs vumzerT `kulturis ipodromze~. dabinduli da bundovania yvela ambis dasawyisi, magram kvlevis Sedegad _ ara maTi bolo. nebismieri sferos kritikuli Tu pozitiuri istoria gamomdinareobs ara ideebidan, aramed faqtebidan, kvlevis progresidan. kvlevis mravalferovneba gvkarnaxobs, rom animistur samyaroSi vcxovrobT, azrebi garSemortymulia tabus mTeli meseriT. azrovneba ar aris Tavisufali rogorc viwro kulturuli kliSeebisagan, ise _ religiuri Stampisagan. plebeuri, izolacionisturi, Caketili, kriteriumebisa da Rirebulebebis samyaroSi yvelaferi SeiZleba moxdes sigiJis mdgomareoba, retdasxmuli sicocxle da bakxanaluri Wvreta. amitom saWiroa yvela civilizebuli xalxebis kulturasTan urTierToba. m. verbicki ganmartavs, rom: `marginalebi, romelTa ricxvi mudmivad izrdeba, amovardnilebi arian yvela konteqstidan da verafriT Tavsdebian `kulturaSi~. amis Sedegad Cndeba konspirologiuri Teoriebi, uazro kultebi da sxva eniT auwereli, ucnauri post-kulturuli artefaqtebi. Tumca aqtualuri socialuri situaciis gasagebad, koleqtiuri bodvis es artefaqtebi ufo adekvaturi, saintereso da gamosadegia, vidre `kulturis~ produqtebi mosawyeni stereotipebis gawonasworebuli koleqciebi~. amitom kamilo xose sela ambobs: `yvelaze didi jildo aris is, roca ici, risi Tqma SegiZlia, xma gamosce, sityvebi gamocra emociis, movlenebisa Tu sagnebis aRsaniSnavad. sityvebi sxva araferia, Tu ara is SeTanxmeba, romelsac xalxi erTaderTi mizniT aRwevs: gaugon erTmaneTs~. xolo bertold brexti ambobs: `mxolod bgerebi, adamianTagan momdinare. amiT vkmayofildebi. kargia damoukideblobis grZnoba, subieqturobis gazrdili mniSvneloba, individualizmis progresi, magram adamianebi unda gaTavisufldnen damyayebuli uZraobisagan, alibisturi sifrTxilisagan, uSinaarso stereotipebisagan, utopiis gulmodgine aRmSeneblobisagan, unda Seiqmnas moqmedebis warmatebuli Targebis da subieqturi gamocdilebis urTierTdamokidebulebaTa pirovnebaTaSorisi komunikaciis modeli, romlis mizania xalxs aswavlos efeqturi komunikacia. komunikaciisa da informaciis urTierTgadamkveTi sistemebi qmnian urTierTdamokidebulebis qsels.

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emociuri tkivili, Tu is saxezea, gamowveulia sazogadoebrivi cru Sexedulebebisagan. samwuxarod bevri siyalbe, farisevloba, pirobiToba da ritorika dagrovda. yovelive amis winaaRmdeg janyi bunebrivia. siyalbis da farisevlobis winaaRmdeg protestis gverdiT axali siyalbe da farisevloba gaCnda, rasac SegviZlia vuwodoT socialuri gandevna, usiamovnebis Sirma. ar aris aucilebeli, dadges WeSmariti realizmis era, pirveladi realobebis gamoaSkaraveba da garegani saburvelis Semoxsna. pirobiTi garegani morali, ganyenebuli ideologiuri Teoriebi kargaven TavianT odindel mniSvnelobas. mTavaria, vicodeT is, rac bertran raselma icis: `arc erTi Cveni Sexeduleba ar aris absoluturi WeSmariteba, yvela maTgani atarebs ganusazRvrelobisa da gaurkvevlobis anabeWds. Cveni Sexedulebebis WeSmaritebis xarisxis gazrdis meTodebi kargadaa cnobili: is mdgomareobs yvela mxaris mosmenis cdaSi, sakiTxis Sesaxeb arsebuli faqtebis dadgenis cdaSi, kamaTisas piradi mikerZoebis moTokvaSi, agreTve unda SegveZlos uarvyoT nebismieri hipoTeza, Tu ki cxadad damtkicdeba misi siyalbe. aseTi midgoma erTaderTi saSualebaa romelic yvelanairi xelovnebisa da adamianuri miTis sumirebas axdens im filosofiiT, romelsac SeuZlia miiRos `sxva~ Tavisi gansxvavebulobiT. `totaluri Riaobis~ Sedegad adre srulebiT tabuirebuli qcevis wesebis socialurad miReba SesaZlebeli gaxdeba. socialuri tabus daurRvevlad, pirovnuli ridisa da uxerxulobis barieris gadaulaxavad, adrindelze ufro metad, SesaZlebeli iqneba saubari enobriv, kulturul, seqsualur, religiur umciresobaTa Tu umravlesobis problemebze. mTavari devizi unda iyos: TanamSromloba, partnioroba, kavSiri da ormxrivi survilis SemTxvevaSi arc gaerTianeba unda gamoiricxos. erToba mravalferovnebaSia. nu movTxovT erTmaneTs sakuTari azrebis, ideebis, miznebis gaziarebas, rameTu `Cveneulis~ aRqma ar aris sagnis sarkiseburi, pasiuri da sruliad obieqturi, ucvleli asaxva. garkveul farglebSi igi pirovnebiseul xasiaTs atarebs. erTsa da imave movlenas subieqti garkveul farglebSi gansxvavebulad aRiqvams imis mixedviT, Tu rogoria misi gamocdileba am movlenis mimarT, ra icis mis Sesaxeb, ra ainteresebs mas am movlenaSi, yovelive amis mixedviT, icvleba Tvalsazrisi, romliTac aRiqmeba movlena, icvleba pirovnebis pozicia mis mimarT. xorxe luis borxesi cxadyofs, rom `sazrisi~ socialuri kategoriaa. mas mi-

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kuTvnebuli subieqti warmoadgens erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli adamianebis pluralobas, maTi urTierTobiT miiReba niSnebi, romlebsac isini erTmaneTs gadascemen aseve, sazriss da imTaviTve swored sarTo sazriss. yovel calkeul adamians surs garkveuli zomiT Secvalos is, magram Tu is am SecvlaSi Zalze Sors wava, dakargavs Tavisi niSnebis komunikaciurobas da, amasTan, mis sazrissac. aseve, fuWia mcdeloba, calke aRebuli individis cxovrebaSi veZeboT sazrisi, imisagan damoukideblad, aqvs Tu ara mniSvneloba am cxovrebas sxva adamianebisaTvis. adamianebs sWirdebaT imis SegrZneba, rom jer kidev sabolood ar dakarges mniSvneloba sxva adamianebisaTvis. borxesis am pasaJis Semdeg metad niSandoblivia opicis sityvebi:` dae, nu movimki bevrs, Tu meqneba keTilSobili Rvino, msurs sxvebTan erTad vimxiarulo, Tu axlave marto unda movkvde. grZnobebs marTaven da Jestebs awesrigeben. magram Senive ena Sens jaSuSad gadageqceva. zemoT Tqmuli Riaobis, urTierTSerwymis, mosmenis, gagebis, pativiscemis, inteleqtualuri kavSirebis, adamianTa Soris civilizebuli, daxvewili, rafinirebuli, megobruli urTierTobebis damyarebis Camoyalibebis sawyisia ena, romliTac Cvens azrebs, ideebs, ideologiebs, miswrafebebs, survilebs, miznebs, SesaZleblobebs, rogorc gonebriv materialurs, ise _ fizikurs, sityvierad gadmovcemT. enis meSveobiT xSirad vcruobT, vtrabaxobT, vbaqiobT, maxes vugebT mowinaaRmdeges, Wors vavrcelebT, cils vwamebT, varRvevT mcnebas: moyvares pirSi uZraxe, mters pirs ukanao da mas vayalibebT antimcnebad: moyvares pirSic da zurgs ukanac vuZraxoT, xolo mters win ukan, zeviT-qeviT, marcxniv-marjvniv, zecaSi Tu qvesknelSi sakuTari eniT diTiramebi, groteskuli sentenciebi mivuZRvnaT TiToeuli CvenganisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli individualuri, sxvagan jer ar mosmenili, jer ar nanaxi, jer ar gancdili JReradobis eniT. promeTes arwivi jijgnis, titioss qori kortnis, atlass zurgze cis TaRi adgas, adamians ena `amZimebs~. rameTu mis gamo vdgavarT xolme Rrmad daeWvebuli Cveni mdgomareobis simyareSi. enis amoqmedebiT cruvdeba xolme yvela molodini. ucnaurad ireva erTmaneTSi bundovaneba da verc erTs ver endobi. ena aris azris analizi, enas sWirdeba aRiareba da ara adamianTa mier Seqmna. ena aanalizebs, ena laparakobs. amitom is uSualod iWreba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sferoSi, socialur

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institutebSi, is aRmniSvnelia adamianis ganviTarebis donis maxasiaTeblis, ena aris sazogadoebis maregulirebeli normebis sistema, socialuri gamocdilebis gadacemis meqanizmi. magram enas, rogorc mixail bulgakovi ambobs, SeuZlia, simarTle damalos, Tvalebs ki _ arasodes. ai, magaliTad, uecrad raRacas gekiTxebian, Tqven arc ki krTebiT, wamis uswrafesad iazrebT yvelafers, Tavs ereviT, iciT, ra unda TqvaT simarTlis dasafarad, damajerebladac cruobT, saxeze ZarRvic ar gitokdebaT, magram vai, rom am kiTxviT SeSfoTebuli simarTle sulis siRrmidan wamierad Tvalebs aaskdeba da Tqveni TvalTmaqcobac mTavrdeba. TvalebSi gamkrTal SiSs amCneven da giWeren!~ bulgakovis es pasaJi naTlad asaxavs SoTa rusTavelis `gvelsa xvreliT amoiyvans, ena tkbilad moubaris~ princips. enis qmnileba, pirmSo da Ze aris sityva. uiliam Seqspiris `hamletSi~ sityva ufiqrod ver miswvdeba cas verasodes. da moswrebuli sityva regvenis yurs ver gamoaRviZebs. magram sityva mainc sunTqvaa, sunTqvas kidev sicocxle mosdevs. `romeo da julietaSi~ sityvis saSinelebas ar aqvs bolo, arc sazRvari da arc zoma. amitom sityvaze metad sxva simdidres flobs siyvaruli julietasTvis. igi amayobs arsiT da ara samkaulebiT. qonebas Tvisas, julietas azriT, maTxovrebi iTvlian mxolod. sistyvis Rirseba daujerebeli Worebis gavrcelebaa. mxolod garyvnilebs moswonT igi. isic WkuamaxvilobisaTvis ki ara, aramed flidobisaTvis. Seqspiris `aurazauri arafris gamo~ gadmogvcems, rom uxamsi sityvebi mxolod qaria, uxamsi qari orWoli qari, orWoli qari ki mavnebelia. ai, `meTormete Rame~ ki gveubneba, rom sityvebma Zala dakarges mas Semdeg, rac isini valdebulebam Seryvna. `riCard mesameSi~ sityva sevdis veqilia, tanjvis nugeSi. memkvidre aris uanderZod mkvdar sixarulis da bedkrulobis damcvelia TavgamodebiT. Tavisufali gza sityvas! Tumc aras gvSvelis, magram gulis dards gvimsubuqebs. enis raobaze sakuTar interpretacias leqsad Txzavs hanrix haine: `roca movkvdebi, vici, am enas amomaglejen qenjnil gvamidan, radgan SiSoben, rom qveynad isev davbrundebi da enas avidgam. adam mickeviCis azriT: `daiklakneba sityva, rogorc mgudavi gveli, gveli, romelic daxveula morig msxverpls elis. erTi espanura simRera Semdegs gvauwyebs sityvis raobaze:

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`iloce! itire! sityva Sobs monebs, simRera _ sinaTles. nizam ganjeli `sityvis zvirTebs azvirTebs da CanCqeriviT giJmaJobs. mas `sityvebi gulis quraSi aqvs ganacxelebi.~ Tumca `sityva misTvis wyaros wyalsa hgavs, bevri WiWyiniT gagWyipavs da guli mogeyirWeba. Semdeg `rogorc ki enas auSveb, daniT mogsxepen iqave. rainer maria rilkes SetyobiT: `iq, sadac sityvis vani iyo, Sanarni dian. jefri CoserisTvis `ar iyofa sityva da kaci da `enas Suaze gauyvia TviT da-Zmis facxac, megobrebze rom araferi aRar Tqvas kacma. flandrielebis SegonebiT: `iq aris lxena, sadac naklebad awvaleben sityvas da enas. ovidius nazonis `metamorfozebSi~ Sxami sdis enas. Tumca macTuri sityviT paeqroba jobia xelCarTul brZolas. magram ena veluri zeTisxilis simwares mainc igrZnobs, nayofi Tan dahyveba warmoTqmuli sityvebis gemos. plutarqes `rCeul biografiebSi-paralelur biografiebSi sityva miuxedavad imisa, rom moklea, advilad xvdeba mizans da msmenelTa gulsa da suls. da amitom unda SevudgeT sakuTari mWevrmetyvelebis, rogorc aucilebeli iaraRis, alesvas. lorens sternisTvis arsebobs naRdi, Tavisufali sityva romelic, ginda cxens aiZulebs, ginda saxedars, ginda jors, aiaros aRmarTi, nebavs Tu ara: rac unda gakerpebuli iyos. oTar WilaZisTvis sityvamde rom miva saqme, gaCumeba sjobs. imitom, rom `sityvis qneva ufro saxifaToa, vidre xmlisa. xmlis erTi dakvriT, didi-didi, erTi kaci mokla, sityviT ki erTbaSad SegiZlia daaqcio mTeli qveyana. misi `labirinTis~ erT-erT gmirs arafris ise ar eSinia, rogorc sityvis. ar ityvi Saria, ityvi _ uaresi. `waTes wiTeli waRebis~ mixedviT, marTalia, laparaki marto adamians SeuZlia, magram xandaxan adamianis piridan amosul sityvas gvelis Sxamic axlavs xolme, qaTmis sibecec da kameCis mouqnelobac. magram isev `waTes wiTeli waRebSi~ vlindeba enis saWiroeba: niWi zariviTaa, enas Tu Camoxsni, ginda yofila da ginda ara. WilaZis guli mainc savsea, misi bage metyveli, radganac gulis sisavsisagan metyvelebs bage, rogorc TviTon brZanebs. giorgi merCule `cxovreba grigol xanZTelisaSi~ ambobs: `sulelni metyveleben, brZeni duman. SoTa rusTavelma brZana: `sityvani vavaqileniT, ver gavaCineT marTali, visarCleT, viTakileniT~. swored amitom ganavrco Semdeg moswrebulad: `saubar-

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man umecarman Smagi ufro gaaSmagos. sulxan-sabam ki, `adamians sityva tkbili unda hqondeso, gamwyrali daawynaros, ara Tu mxiaruli gaawyros, piridan avi sityva ar waicTunos, sityvis Tqmis Jami icodes, rac Tqvas, yovel kacs moawonoso. daviT guramiSvilis azriT `rac sityva tkbilad urCiva, ferxT qveS Ralatobs yvelasa. guramiSvilma sityvas `sityva yifur-amayuri~ uwoda. ilias azriT, `enam gulisa unda Tqvas, fer-umarili ra saWiroa. mlorad paviCis moxsenebiT: `RmerTma, qveynierebis Semqmnelma, angelozsa da cxovels Soris Semqna adamiani, metyvelebiTa da gonebiT gamoyo igi cxovelTagan, xolo mrisxanebiTa da avxorcobiT angelozTagan, da am TvisebaTa gziT is uaxlovdeba an umaRlesT, an umdablesT. moliers miaCnia, rom `enas mravali boroteba Caudenia. deil karnegisTvis damajereblad laparakis xelovnebis daufleba umoklesi gzaa dawinaurebisaken. uebsters wavarTaT yvelaferi, davutovoT mxolod misi metyveleba da sul male yvelafers daibrunebs, rac ki gaaCnda. monteskiesTvis sawyenia, roca maxvili sityva regveni msmenelis yurSi kvdeba. sokratem rom daginaxos, unda ametyvelde. hemingueis miaCnia, rom enasac Wkua moekiTxeba. ai, Smuel agnoni sakmaod Rimilis momgvrel winadadebas gvTavazobs: roca muceli amovsebulia, sufras ra aklia? ena da saubari. boris pasternaks miaCnia, rom sityvis meoxebiT drois SeCerebaa SesaZlebeli. franc kafkas ar sWirdeba oratoris dideba, is misTvis miuwvdomelicaa. misi survilia, mxolod sajarod amxilos socialuri uwesrigoba. amerikeli novelistebisTvis basri ena erTaderTi mWreli iaraRia, romelic mudmivi xmarebiT ufro fxiani xdeba. moris meterlinks miaCnia, rom `sityvebad rom gveTargmna is grZnoba, romelic gmirs Tavis gmirobas adeninebs, bevrs verafers miviRebdiT. sityvis meterlinkiseuli ganmarteba meterlinkze adre aqvs Camoyalibebuli Teodor draizers: `xalxi metad did mniSvnelobas aniWebs sityvebs. maT hgoniaT, sityvebs didi Sedegebi mohyveba. sinamdvileSi sityvebs yvelaze susti damajerebeli Zala aqvT. mxolod Zalian bundovnad gadmoscemen im did, mSfoTvare gancdebs, romelic maT ukan imaleba da guli maSin ugdebT yurs, roca ena xels ar uSlis. anu ena maTTvis ar aris `azrebis mTargmneli biuro~ da TiTqmis araviTari SesaZlebloba ar arsebobs, sityvierad gamoixatos is bundovani procesebi, rac TavSi xdeba. sityva dasazRvrulia, fiqri ki usazRvro. Jan-Jak rusosTvis ena mdumarebs, mxolod gulebi metyve-

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leben. bevrma alersiani sityviT gadalaxa Seqmnili mdgomareobis siZnele, radgan maTTvis, erTi Wkviani kacis Tqmis ar iyos, arsebobs sityvebi, viT buki, viT naRara, viT jambazis poezia, da romelTac iseTi Tilisma aqvs, rom yvelaze uxeSi sulis adamianebsac ki ajadoebs. maTTvis ena gulis cocxia. romen rolanisTvis sityvas qmedebis Jruanteli uvlis, xolo maiakovskis miaCnia, rom erTi grami mxatvruli masalis misaRebad saWiroa aTasobiT tona sityvis nedleuli gadaamuSavo. daTo turaSvilma SeZlo da ipova sityva, romelic kacobriobas erTsulovnad sZuls, es sityva aris _ `ara~. enas aqvs marSisaTvis Zlieri fexebi, mamaci guli da didi gambedaoba, magram tvini... tvinic _ swored amitom ena yovelTvis cdilobs sazogadoebis taSiscema daimsaxuros. ena arasodes laparakobs imas, rasac adamiani realurad fiqrobs, aramed imas, rac adamians surs, sxvas STaagonos Tavisda saxeirod. sworad SeniSna cira barbaqaZem, rom ena azris gaformebis saSualebaa. aqedan gamomdinare, rogorc herodotes monaTxrobSi erT-erTi personaJi ambobs, adamianebs yurebi ufro urwmuno aqvT (enis gamoisobiT, misi mudamJam cruobis gamo), vidre Tvalebi. xolo kiross arasodes eSinoda iseTi xalxis enisa, romelsac qalaqis SuagulSi aqvs Sesakrebad gankuTvnili adgili imisaTvis, rom iq erTmaneTs eficebodnen da Tan atyuebdnen. egeni sxvis gasaWirze ki ar iybedeben, aramed sakuTarzeo. es pasaJi naTlad metyvelebs cru enis ganzraxvaze. netav vin ityvis im jadosnur sityvas, romelsac SeuZlia, pirquSi samyaro mSvidobis sauflod gadaaqcios... es iseT kulturul samuSaos hgavs, rogoric Tundac sidris zRvis daSrobaa, magram unda scado... XXI saukune, milorad paviCis SegnebiT, Cvens winaSe svams aseT moulodnel sakiTxs: SevZlebT ki enisagan literaturis gadarCenas? erTi SexedviT, kiTxva absurduli Cans, magram problema ukve karze gvikakunebs. am kiTxvis pasuxi masTan unda veZeboT. kerZod, misi azriT, `sityvani modian ara Tavidan da ara sulidan, aramed webovan enaTa da myral pirTa samyarodan, isini mudmivi ReWva-coxnisgan jer kidev karga xnis winaT arian daRrRnilni, dakvnetilni da damarilebulni. sityvas didi xania, rac Tavisi saxe aqvs dakarguli, auracxeli piris kbilTagan arian isini gaqleSil gaqlesilni. miSel fukos miaCnia, rom ena ar aris mxolod ena, igi azris mqonea. sityva aris enis mdedruli mxare, misi pasiuri inteleqti; aqtiuri inteleqti

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`mamruli sawyisi~ enisa aris damwerloba. imisaTvis, rom sityvas SeeZlos imis Tqma, rasac ambobs, saWiroa ekuTvnodes masTan mimarTebiT pirvelads, arsebiTsa da ganmsazRvrel gramatikul mTlianobas. swored masSi, vinc warmarTavs diskurss da Rrmad flobs sityvas, Tavs iyris mTeli ena. azrs azrovneba SeuZlia enis meSveobiT da enaSi. aseTia enis miSel fukoseuli `mrwamsi~. seferisis azriT, `Cveni enobrivi problemebi im drois pirmSoa, roca antikuri SedevrebiT monusxulma aleqsandrielma filologebma weris mkacri wesebis SemuSaveba daiwyes, anu sxva sityvebiT, purizms daudes saTave da daiviwyes, rom ena cocxali, mzardi organizmia. cnobilia, rom saxarebac saxalxo eniTaa Cawerili. mociqulebi cdilobdnen, gasagebi yofiliyvnen, raTa advilad gaekvliaT gza adamianTa gulebisaken... mecnierebi TavianT nawers rTuli ritorikuli figurebiT amkobdnen, mdabioni ki, swavlulTa mimarT mowiwebis miuxedavad, gamoxatvis Taviseburi maneris erTgulebi rCebodnen. mravali mecnieri, poetis sityviT, `winaparTa neStiT savse uzarmazari urnebiT iyvnen damZimebulni. iuri lotmanis debulebiT: `ena win uswrebs teqsts, teqsti ibadeba enis mier. kulturis saerTo sistemaSi teqstebi ukidures SemTxvevaSi asruleben or ZiriTad funqcias: mniSvnelobis adekvatur gadacemas da axal mniSvnelobaTa warmoSobas. adamians, viqtor anris Tanaxmad, ZaluZs saxeldeba, saxelis warTmeva ki ara; mas SeuZlia enaSi cvlilebebi Seitanos, magram ara ise, rogorc moesurveba. horaciusis `poeturi xelovnebis mixedviT~ (70-72 taepi): `bevri gardasuli sityva kvlav aRdgeba xolme, xolo is sityva-Tqmani, axla rom Rirseba pativSia, daviwyebas miecema, Tu es moisurva Cveulebam, romlis xelTaa Zala, samarTali da metyvelebis wesi da rigi. swored SeniSna erTma Wkvianma kacma, rom TandaTanobiT xdeba yvelafris `tipizireba~, `individualizireba~, dramatizireba, prozaizireba, grandiozireba, analizireba, poetizireba, kolosireba, angelozireba, neologizireba, tragedireba. ras izam, xandaxan ena unda moitexo, rom gamoTqva axal-axali ucnauri sityvebi, romelTac zogi `inteligenti~ xmarobs. bevrma `cxelma Tavma~ ver gaigo, rom ena spontanuria: erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi bazrobebze, daxlebze, marketebSi, ufro meti sametyvelo konstruqcia iqmneba, vidre mravali dRis ganmavlobaSi

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akademiur Tavyrilobebze. xorxe luis borxesis Tqmisa ar iyos, Cven yovelTvis amoxsnis wyurvili gveqneba. Tumca robert pen uorenma ukve amoxsna, rom Cven _ sakuTari myviralobisagan dayruebul sazogadoebaSi _ savsvebiT mogvicva metyvelebis nakadma; magram es damdablebuli metyvelebaa, romelSic SemTxveviT-miaxloebiTi sityvebiT aviwroeben namdvil, zust sityvebs. uaresi ki isaa, rom ena iqceva mxolod saganze miTiTebis moxerxebul saSualebad. amisgan ena xundeba, kargavs misTvis niSnul gamomxatvelobas. igi wyvets gancdilis an Tanagancdilis nawilad yofnas, metyvelisa da mkiTxvelis an msmenelis fizikurad rom SeigrZnobs sxvisi sityvebis rxevas sakuTar xorxSi, _ realurobis maCveneblobas, `swrafi kiTxva~ _ SesaZloa, zogierT specialur mizanTaTvis gamosadegi meTodi, _ es ukanaskneli da saboloo degradaciaa enisa.

Tamar lomiZe

ucnaurisa da gaucnaurebis cnebaTa semantika XX saukunis 10-20-iani wlebis kulturaSi


viqtor Sklovskim _ literaturaTmcodneobis formaluri skolis erTerTma fuZemdebelma da Teoretikosma, SeimuSava gaucnaurebis () cneba, romelic formalistebis erT-erT ZiriTad analitikur kategoriad iqca. gaucnaureba aris samyaros xedvisa da aRweris sagangebo xerxi, romelic gulisxmobs sagnis `amoglejas~ Cveuli konteqstidan. gaucnaurebuli sagani aRiqmeba, rogorc uCveulo, ucnauri. es cneba waagavs `rasas~ Zvelindur ideas, agreTve _ enaTesaveba platonis ideas gaocebis, rogorc Semecnebis saTavisa da stimulis Sesaxeb. Sklovskis yuradReba miipyres XVI-XVIII saukuneebis iseTma evropelma mwerlebma, rogorebic iyvnen uiliam Seqspiri, migel de servantesi da, gansakuTrebiT, lorens sterni, lorens sternis Semoqmedebis seriozuli Seswavla daiwyo mxolod XX saukuneSi. erT-erTi pirveli mkvlevari, romelmac sternis romanebSi Txrobis agebis xerxebis aqtualizacias miaqcia yuradReba, iyo viqtor Sklovski. Sklovski amgvarad axasiaTebda sternis romanebis stils: `sternis Se-

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moqmedeba zogjer xumrobad gveCveneba...~ (Sklovski 1983: 197); `sternTan SeimCneva araseriozulis, saxumaros, TiTqos parodiulis mravali elementi~ (Sklovski 1966: 254); `rodesac sterni werda Tavis romanebs, samyaros Zveli aRqma, romanis Zveli struqturebi misTvis ukve parodiuli iyo, is gandevnida maT parodirebis, mxatvruli SegrZnebis simZafris, axali cxovrebiseuli Sefasebebis simZafris aRdgenis meSveobiT, risTvisac iyenebda paradoqsul agebas... mTeli sterni _ esaa romani remontis dros: Zveli qvafenilebi dangreulia. Zveli Sefasebebi, zneobis, Cvevebis, emociebis Sefasebebi ukuRmaa gadmotrialebuli, rogorc gacveTili qsovili~ (Sklovski 1983: 204). gaucnaureba sternTan, Sklovskis azriT, imaSi vlindeba, rom mTeli yuradReba koncentrirebulia Txrobis formalur mxareze _ Txrobis danawevrebis xerxebze. romanebis nawilebi aq imgvaradaa SekavSirebuli, rom aSkarad Cans `nakerebi da winaaRmdegobriobebi~ (Sklovski 1966: 240). cnobilia, rom sternis romanebis formalur specifikas warmoqmnis Txrobis xazgasmuli pirobiTobebi, erTi siuJeturi xazidan meoreze gadasvlebi, uamravi analefsisi (Tu naratologiis termins gamoviyenebT), romelTa funqcias, Sklovskis azriT, warmoadgens ukve avtomatizebuli, magram realurad arsebuli movlenebis urTierTgansxvavebulobis SegrZnebis gamZafreba: `sternTan yvelaferi imgvaradaa organizebuli, rom mkiTxveli Seejaxos Zveli romanis formebs, rom isini fexqveS moedon mas~ [Sklovski 1966: 239]. da, vinaidan Zveli romanis formebi sternamde `avtomatizebulad aRiqmeboda, amdenad, sternis Zalisxmeva mimarTuli iyo maTi deavtomatizaciisa da gaucnaurebisken.1

winamdebare naSromSi yuradRebas vamaxvilebT, ZiriTadad, sternis Semoqmedebis Sklovskiseul analizze, radgan swored sternis romanebis Sesaxeb msjelobisas vlindeba gaucnaurebis cnebis Sklovskiseuli gaazrebis mTeli specifika. Tumca, gamomdinare iqidan, rom Sklovski xazgasmiT aRniSnavda (siuJetis miseuli gagebis Sesabamisad): `mxatvruli nawarmoebi aRiqmeba sxva nawarmoebebis fonze da maTTan asocirebis gziT. mxatvruli nawarmoebis forma ganisazRvreba sxva, manamde arsebul formebTan mimarTebiT...ara mxolod parodia, aramed, sazogadod, yoveli mxatvruli nawarmoebi iqmneba, rogorc romelime nimuSis paraleluri da opoziciuri ram. axali forma Cndeba ara imisTvis, rom ga-

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aSkaraa, rom Sklovskis mier saanalizo masalis _ am SemTxvevaSi sternis Semoqmedebis _ SerCeva (da, erTi SexedviT, misi koncefciis Seqmnac) ganpirobebuli iyo am masalis, e.i. sternis Semoqmedebis garkveuli niSan-TvisebebiT2, Tumca Sklovski, rogorc vTqviT, gaucnaurebas xelovnebis universalur principad miiCnevda. Seqspiris da servantesis Semoqmedebasac Sklovski miiCnevs im literaturul faqtebad, romlebSic gaucnaureba organul Tvisebas warmoadgens. is SedarebiT vrclad saubrobs servantesis romanis stiluri Taviseburebebisa da, agreTve, Seqspiris tragediebis im TaviseburebaTa Sesaxeb, romelTa meSveobiTac miiRweoda gaucnaurebis efeqti. aq unda gavixsenoT, rom formalistebis, da, kerZod, Sklovskis kvlevebis aSkarad deklarirebul miznad aRiarebuli iyo mecnieruli, `zusti~, obieqturi meTodologiis Seqmna, rac unda ganxorcielebuliyo literaturaTmcodneobaSi lingvisturi meTodebis Semotanis meSveobiT. b. eixenbaumi werda: `literaturaTmcodneTa mier kulturis an sazogadoebis istoriaze, fsiqologiasa da esTetikaze Cveuli orientaciis nacvlad formalistebma orientacia aiRes lingvistikaze, rogorc im mecnierebaze, romelic sakvlevis masalis TvalsazrisiT uaxlovdeba poetikas~ (eixenbaumi 1987: 83). magram gaucnaurebis (romelic literaturuli xerxis saxiT, rogorc vTqviT, aswleulebiT ufro adre gamoiyeneboda, vidre moxdeboda misi gacnobiereba literaturaTmcodneobaSi) analitikuri kategoria SklovskisTan araa SemuSavebuli lin-

moxatos axali Sinaarsi, aramed imisTvis, rom Caenacvlos sxva formas, romelic gaZarculia mxatvrulobisgan~ (Sklovski 1966: 18), mis gamokvlevebSi iSviaTad gvxvdeba izolirebuli mxatvruli teqstebis analizis nimuSebi, aramed _ ganuwyveteli gadasvlebi erTi avtoridan _ meoreze, erTi nawarmoebidan _ meoreze. 2 `sterni iyo pirveli mwerali, romelsac mouxda adamianTa urTierTobebis mTeli sirTulis ganmarteba. man Secvala aRweraTa masStabebi, msxvili planiT gadaiRo umniSvnelo movlenebi. man Secvala drois saaTi xelovnebaSi. amisTvis sterns mouxda romanuli drois parodireba~ (Sklovski 1983: 119). Sklovski aRniSnavs imasac, rom puSkinma da lev tolstoim bevri ram iswavles sternisgan. tolstois sternis Targmnac ucdia.

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gvisturi meTodebis analogiiT. lingvistikaSi gaucnaurebis cnebas analogi ar moepoveba. amdenad, Sklovskis mier am cnebis Semotanis mizezi ar unda yofiliyo literaturaTmcodneobis daaxloeba zust mecnierebebTan da es `universaluri~ analitikuri kategoria unda SemuSavebuliyo raRac sxva mizezis karnaxiT, da ara sizustisken miswrafebis zegavleniT (Tumca, Cveulebriv, formalisturi skolis mier SemuSavebuli koncefciebis Sesaxeb msjelobisas `gaucnaurebas~ ar ganixilaven rogorc iseT kategorias, romelic aSkara gamonakliss warmoadgens formalisturi skolis analitikuri meTodebis arsenalSi3. sainteresoa, rom 1919 wels, rodesac gamoqveynda Sklovskis statia `xelovneba rogorc xerxi~ (romelSic Camoyalibebulia koncefcia gaucnaurebis Sesaxeb), gamoica z. froidis gamokvleva `Semzaravi~ (Das Unheimliche)4. A am ori naSromis urTierTSejerebisas m. epSteini aRniSnavs: `Tavis formalur enaze Sklovski ambobs imaves, rasac ambobs froidi fsiqoanalizis enaze: imas, rom Cveuli da nacnobi gardaisaxeba uCveulod da warmoqmnis ucnaursa da Semzaravs...~ amasTan, `gaucnaurebisTvis saWiroa samyaros aRqma Seuryvneli TvalsazrisiT, misi danaxva `pirvelad~, miukerZoeblad, erTgvari stumroba sakuTar saxlSi. Semzaravis aRqmisas Cven winaSea akrZalulis sfero: is imaleba... aracnobieris sardafSi, Semdeg ki gaqceuli katorReliviT texs urduls da iWreba saxlSi... ucnauri _ gulubryvilo stumaria, Semzaravi ki _ mkvleli, gamta-

sainteresoa isic, rom sxva rusi formalistebis gamokvlevebTan SedarebiT, Sklovskis naSromebs yvelaze naklebad axasiaTebs `sizuste~ da yvelaze metad _ midrekileba eseisturi stilisadmi. 4 froidi amgvarad axasiaTebs Semzaravs: `Semzaravi... aris imTaviTve Cveuli sulieri cxovrebisTvis; is, rac cnobierebisgan gaucxoebul iqna mxolod gandevnis procesis Sedegad~ (froidi 1995:275). amgvarad, is, rac Semzaravis saxiT warmogvidgeba, Tavdapirvelad aucileblad unda yofiliyo CvenTvis nacnobi, Cveuli, magram (rogorc xazs usvams froidi) _ faruli, idumali, sxvebisTvis miuwvdomeli (misawvdomi mxolod CvenTvis), e.i. is iyo Cveuli, magram _ iseTi Cveuli, romlis gamJRavnebac sxva adamianebisTvis Cven ar SegveZlo. Semdeg aseTi sulieri movlena ganidevneba aracnobierSi da ukve faruli, idumali xdeba CvenTvisac. da rodesac is kvlav brundeba cnobierebaSi, warmogvidgeba rogorc ucxo, Semzaravi.

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cebeli, gamryvneli... magram esaa gansxvaveba xarisxSi, intensivobaSi, maSin, rodesac `ucnauri~ da `Semzaravi~ struqturulad erTmaneTis izomorfulia. gasakviria, rom erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad orma mkvlevarma _ fsiqoanalitikosma da literaturaTmcodnem _ SeimuSava esoden msgavsi Teoriebi, romlebmac mZlavri zemoqmedeba moaxdines maT disciplinebze~.5 gansxvavebul mecnierebebSi _ literaturaTmcodneobasa da fsiqologiaSi _ ori iseTi koncefciis warmoSoba, romlebic emyareba izomorful, e.i. mxolod xarisxis mixedviT gansxvavebul cnebebs, niSnavs, rom am cnebebis SemuSaveba ganapiroba ara mxolod konkretulma (ama Tu im mecnierebisTvis) amocanebma, aramed, zogadad, erTgvarovanma msoflaRqmam, da, kerZod, iseTma, romelic gulisxmobs samyaros, rogorc ucnauris, uCveulos, idumalis, Seucnoblis aRqmas6. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom amave periodSi unda arsebuliyo gaucnaurebis analogiuri cneba an, zogadad, Sklovskis koncefciis analogiuri koncefcia, romelic daadasturebs mecnieruli koncefciebisa da msoflaRqmis homogenurobas XX saukunis dasawyisSi. Cveni azriT, amgvar koncefciad SeiZleba miviCnioT m.m. baxtinis mier SemuSavebuli karnavalizebuli literaturis koncefcia, romelic avtorma Camoayaliba jer kidev 1929 wels gamocemul wignSi `dostoevskis Semoqmedebis problemebi~. karnavali, baxtinis miTiTebiT, _ esaa `gadatrialebuli samyaro~, romelSic gauqmebulia Cveulebrivi cxovrebis warmmarTveli wesebi da kanonebi; yovelgvari distancia adamianTa Soris; sazogadoebis tradiciuli ierarqiuli wyoba. ZiriTad karnavalur qmedebas warmoadgens karnavaluri mefis kurTxeva da Semdeg gvirgvinis axda.

sainteresoa isic, rom sxva rusi formalistebis gamokvlevebTan SedarebiT, Sklovskis naSromebs yvelaze naklebad axasiaTebs `sizuste~ da yvelaze metad _ midrekileba eseisturi stilisadmi. 6 es ki niSnavs, rom literaturisadmi xazgasmulad racionalisturi midgomis miuxedavad, Sklovski an mkveTrad mijnavda erTmaneTisgan realobas (mistikurs, Seucnobels) da literaturaTmcodneobas (Semecnebads, racionalurs), an kidev _ mis mier aSkarad deklarirebuli miznebi da Sexedulebebi gansxvavdeboda misive WeSmariti (SesaZloa, gaucnobierebeli) mimarTebebisgan.

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,,brbosTan Serwymis saSualeba, _ aRniSnavs Jan deliumo, _ agreTve _ normatiuli gonisa da yofiTi wesebis droebiTi gauqmeba, sruli Tavisufleba (gansakuTrebiT _ seqssa da nayrovanebasTan mimarTebaSi), xmaurisa da Zalmomreobis mokle periodi, lanZRva-ginebisa da mkrexelobis nebadarTuloba, ierarqiis Setrialeba, sakralur wes-CveulebaTa gamoyeneba burleskuri miznebiT, niRbebi da niRbosnebi _ yovelive es asrulebda ,,damcavi sarqvelis" rols mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi Sekavebuli instinqtebisTvis [deliumo 2003: 165]. baxtini Tavis naSromSi `fransua rables Semoqmedeba da Sua saukuneebisa da renesansis xalxuri kultura~, groteskis Sesaxeb saubrisas, miuTiTebs, rogor viTardeboda sasacilos formiT warmodgenili ucnauri saSiSisa da Semzaravisken: `Suasaukuneobrivi da renesansuli groteski, romelic ukavSirdeba sicilis xalxur kulturas, icnobs saSinels mxolod sasacilo safrTxobelebis saxiT, ese igi, rogorc sicilis meSveobiT ukve damarcxebul saSinels. is aq yovelTvis warmogvidgeba, rogorc sasacilo da mxiaruli~... `groteskis maorganizebeli sicilis gadagvareba, misi amaRorZinebeli Zalis dakargva ganapirobebs romantikuli groteskis arsebiT gansxvavebas Suasaukuneobrivi da renesansuli groteskisgan. es gansxvavebebi yvelaze TvalsaCinod vlindeba Semzaravisadmi mimarTebaSi. romantikuli groteskis samyaro _ met-naklebad Semzaravi da adamianisTvis ucxo samyaroa. yovelive Cveuli, nacnobi, yofili, mkvidri, iqceva ucxo samyarod~ (baxtini 1965: 331). moyvanili citatebi aaSkaravebs, rom baxtini ubralod ucnaurs, uCveulosa da Semzaravs homogenur cnebebad gaiazrebda7. amgvarad, zemodasaxelebul or koncefcias unda davumatoT mesame, anu baxtiniseuli karnavaluri literaturis koncefcia.8 sagulisxmoa, rom kulturis amgvari gaazreba refleqtirebulia

bunebrivia, rom is, rac Cveulia, arc ucnaurad da arc saSiSad ar aRiqmeba. 8 aq ar SevCerdebiT xelovnebaSi warmoSobil analogiur movlenebze, magaliTad, imaze, rom simbolizmis literaturuli mimdinareobis msoflmxedvelobriv safuZvels warmoadgens samyaros, rogorc Seumecneblis, zogjer ki _ rogorc Semzaravis aRqma.

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baxtinis sxva naSromebSic. kerZod, aseTia baxtiniseuli dialogizmis koncefcia. `dialoguri mimarTebebi, _ wers baxtini `dostoevskis poetikis problemebSi~ _ ... msWvalavs adamianis mTel metyvelebas, agreTve _ adamianis cxovrebis yovelgvar mimarTebebsa da gamovlinebebs, saerTod, yvelafers, rasac mniSvneloba da sazrisi aqvs...iq, sadac iwyeba cnobiereba,... iwyeba dialogic~ (baxtini 1972: 71). rodesac froidi acxadebs, rom `Semzaravi... aris imTaviTve Cveuli sulieri cxovrebisTvis; is, rac cnobierebisgan gaucxoebul iqna mxolod gandevnis procesis Sedegad~, es niSnavs, rom `mes~ TviTSemecneba xorcieldeba misive gaucnaurebul (gandevnil, Semdeg ki Secvlili saxiT dabrunebul) ltolvebTan an warmodgenebTan dialogis meSveobiT. mxolod ase xdeba SesaZlebeli sakuTari `mes~ wvdoma _ misi, rogorc sxvis, gaazreba. cxadia, Sklovskiseuli gaucnaurebac, rogorc xelovnebis universaluri kanonzomiereba, erTaderTi SesaZleblobaa am ukanasknelTan dialoguri mimarTebis damyarebisa _ mxolod amgvar situaciaSi (da ara `Signidan~) xdeba SesaZlebeli misi srulyofili gaazreba. baxtiniseuli dialogizmis koncefcia gulisxmobs, agreTve, rom sakuTari kulturis srulyofili aRqma da gaazreba SesaZlebelia mxolod `garedan~, mxolod masTan dialoguri mimarTebebis damyarebis gziT, anu misi gaucnaurebis (sakuTaris, rogorc sxvis, aRqmis) meSveobiT. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ucnauri warmoadgens sakvanZo (msoflmxedvelobrivi datvirTvis mqone) cnebas XX saukunis dasawyisis kulturaSi. gamoyenebuli literatura: baxtini 1972: ., . .,1972. baxtini 1965: ., .., 1965. eixenbaumi 1987: . . . . ., 1987. epSteini 2003: . . . .. gamoqveynebulia

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veb-gverdze www.russ.ru/krug/razbor/20030314_ep.html. 2003 wlis 14 marts. froidi 1995: . . . ., , 1995. Sklovski1983: . . ., 1983. Sklovski 1966: . . ., 1966.

aTinaT mamacaSvili

winaaRmdegobis gamomxatveli sityva fransis ponJis da giorgi leoniZis SemoqmedebaSi


saWiroa xmis amoReba: am sakiTxebze gaCumeba qveynad yvelaferze ufro saSiSia. yvelafrisgan motyuebuli vrCebiT maSin, sabolood _ xafangSi Cavardnilni. saWiroa xmis amoReba, dalaparakeba da am momentSi naklebad aqvs mniSvneloba, Tu ras vityviT, mTavaria raimes Tqma. ragbis TamaSisas Serkinebis msgavsad: saWiroa miawve sityvebis gamoyenebiT, sulerTia _ rogoriT, Tan waiyolo isini, jikaviT, Tundac daasaxiCro kidec1.

fransis ponJi

winamdebare kvleva agebulia poetur teqstebze dayrdnobiT, romlebic Seqmnili iyo gansxvavebul istoriul, kulturul da socialur konteqstSi. kvlevis mizania, gamovavlinoT, Tu romeli meTodologiuri da konceptualuri xerxebis meSveobiT axerxeben poeturi teqstebis avtorebi gadalaxon istoriuloba (miuxedavad mWidro kavSirisa konkretul istoriul momentTan), raTa teqsti gardaiqmnas wminda literaturul movlenad da vice versa.

Francis Ponge, Promes , Pages bis , uvres Compltes, t. I, Gallimard, 1999, p. 212. yvela franguli teqstis Targmani Sesrulebulia statiis avtoris mier.

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nawarmoebSi fiWvis tyis Canawerebi (1940) fransis ponJi exeba sagans, romelic, erTi SexedviT, aranair istoriul niSans ar atarebs, Tumca avtoris eqsplicituri ganacxadebis zusti analizi2 saSualebas iZleva, dadgindes garkveuli konkretuli drois faqtorTan dakavSirebuli urTierTmimarTeba. fiWvis tyis maxasiaTeblebis gamovlenis meSveobiT ponJi gadaaadgilebs imave maxasiaTeblebs im veqtoris mimarTulebiT, romelic agreTve miesadageba poeturi miznis gamoxatulebas. maSasadame, is poeturi sagnis aRmniSvneli terminebis adaptirebas axdens poeturi miznis koncefciasTan, rac, Tavis mxriv, meore msoflio omis periodSi mis sityvas winaaRmdegobis matarebel sityvad aqcevs. swored analogiur meTods mimarTavs giorgi leoniZe Tavis leqsSi ole, romelic 1931 wels xis mimarT gamoyenebuli terminologiis meSveobiT sabWoTa totalitaruli reJimisaTvis winaaRmdegobis gawevis ideas gamoxatavs. brZolaSi, romelic agreTve xelovnebis gadarCenisken aris mimarTuli, sityva warmoCndeba, rogorc umTavresi cneba, maSinac ki, rodesac saqme exeba wminda poetur Semoqmedebas an devualirebul politikur angaJirebas poeturi sityvis meSveobiT. fransis ponJis SemoqmedebaSi es ori koncefcia erTi meorisagan ganuyofelia. saWiroa xmis amoReba, _ ambobs ponJi jer kidev ocdaaTian wlebSi da amas imeorebs aTi wlis Semdeg, meore msoflio omis periodSi. gaCumeba masTan gaigivebulia, rogorc arsebul safrTxeTa Soris umTavresi, rodesac adamianis identobac ki kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgeba. umTavresia, rom adamiani ar gaCumdes, Tundac Tavdapirvelad erTi meoreze miyrili sityvebi warmoTqvas _ Tundac nakleb mniSvnelovani, arasaWiro. sityva ponJis mier gagebulia, rogorc Zalis matarebeli qmedeba. miawve sityvebis gamoyenebiT _ sadac termini miwola gadmoscems gaSmagebas da Zaladobasac ki _ gulisxmobs erTgvarad agresiul Tvisebas (vinaidan ragbi, romelzedac ponJi axdens referirebas, agresiuli TamaSia). Zalis da miswrafebis am gamoxatviT, sityva a priori fiqsirdeba, rogorc qmediTi movlena. xmis amoReba /saubari _ moqmedeba _ zemoqmedeba _ es aris is qmediTi movlenebi, romlebic erTi meores mohyebian verbaluri aqtis Semdeg (Tu

Leo Strauss, La perscution et lart dcrire, trad. de langlais et prsent par Olivier Sedeyn, Paris, Gallimard, 2009, p. 60.

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gaviTvaliswinebT qmedebas misi ormagi mniSvnelobiT) da romlebTac moaqvT ara mxolod individualuri gacnobierebis momenti, aramed sxvebis mxridanac gulisxmobs qmedebas gacnobierebis, gaazrebis saxiT. swored am konteqstSi SegviZlia gavaanalizoT ponJis naazrevi nawarmoebSi fiWvis tyis Canawerebi, romelic 1940 wliT TariRdeba: bolos da bolos, ra aris tye? _ erTdroulad monumentic da sazogadoebac (iseve, rogorc xe erTdroulad aris arsebac da qandakebac). cocxali monumenti, arqiteqturuli sazogadoeba. magram xeebi arian ki socialuri arsebebi?3. sagnis Cawvdomis mizniT midgoma gansxvavebulia imisda mixedviT, es ukanaskneli moiazreba gancalkevebulad, misTvis damaxasiaTebel individualobaSi, Tu mTlianobasTan4 urTierTmimarTebaSi. ponJi ansxvavebs fiWvis tyes euli fiWvisgan: [...] arsebobs Tvisebebi, romlebic axasiaTebs fiWvs, da gansakuTrebuli Tvisebebi, romlebic axasiaTebs fiWvs, romelic fiWvis tyis nawilia5. ponJi ubrundeba am ganmasxvavebel Tvisebebs da sagnis modifikaciaze axdens aqcentirebas (am SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa visaubroT identobis modificirebaze), rodesac es ukanaskneli miekuTvneba erTobliobas, anu sazogadoebas: sazogadoebaSi ganviTareba normalizebulia, amave dros es badebs kidev sxva rames : tyes6. kavSirs erTobliobasTan, TemTan, moaqvs sxva arsis Seqmna, romelic aRar warmoadgens fiWvs, aramed _ tyes. magram sanam ganvixilavdeT Tvisebebs, romelTac ponJi miakuTvnebs fiWvis tyes Tavis erTobliobaSi da sanam gavcemdeT pasuxs kiTxvaze _ warmoadgens Tu ara xe socialur arsebas _ davubrundeT poemis Tavdapirvel intencias, mis urTierTmimarTebas poetur saganTan: imisTvis, rom dagibruno Seni Tavazianoba, imisTvis rom Sens delikaturobas mivbaZo, Sens taqts (instinqturad aseTi var) _ SenSi aranair iseT azrs ar Cavdeb, romelic SenTvis ucxo iqneba, me mxolod Senze movaxden meditire-

Francis Ponge, Le Carnet du Bois de pin , uvres Compltes, t. I, Gallimard, 1999, p. 400. 4 (nawilebis daqvemdebareba mTlianobasTan. ki, magram rodesac TiToeuli nawili arsebaa, individi: xe, cxoveli [adamiani], an sityva, an winadadeba, an Tavi - maSin es dramatuli xdeba!). Ibid., p. 401. 5 Ibid., p. 399. 6 Ibid., p. 402.

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bas7. da rodesac poeti fiqrobs, rom CamoSordeba Tavis inicialur fiqrs, _ anu fiqrs, romelic fiWvis tyisTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli, _ maSinve asworebs azrs: maSasadame, davubrundeT rac SeiZleba swraf Ziebas, Tu ra SeiZleba iTqvas fiWvis tyis Sesaxeb da mxolod mis Sesaxeb8. ponJi ramdenjerme akeTebs aqcentirebas, rom Tavisi leqsiT is qmnis fiWvis tyes, iZleva mis garegan suraTs da masTan erTad _ Sinagans, xolo miSel pontrmolis werilSi Semdegs wers: saqme exeba am tyis erT kuTxeSi ara leqsis dabadebas, aramed ufro metad misi sagnis mier leqsis ganadgurebis mcdelobas (romelic Sors aris warmatebiT dasrulebisgan)9. magram sanam am ganadgurebis fenomenis mizezebs ganvixilavdeT, davubrundeT fiWvis tyis poetur kreacias, sadac sagani (fiWvi-tye) leqsis dabadebas uwyobs xels da piriqiT, enis meSveobiT, nela da TandaTan ibadeba sagani-tye. erTdroulad Zlieri da wiwviani, mwvane girCebiT, yvelanairi mxviara lianisgan daclili, warmosadegad asvetili da daZabunebuli, daavadebuli kenweroebiT _ aseTia fiWvis tyis gare iersaxe, rogorsac ponJi iZleva da romelic, amave dros, hbadebs siamis grZnobas. rac Seexeba mis interiers an Sinagan saxes, upirvelesad, aRsaniSnavia tyeSi seirnobis, mosvenebis SesaZlebloba. amave dros, adamianSi, romelic SeaRwevs mis wiaRSi (interieri/Sinagani buneba), ibadeba daculobis SegrZneba. vinaidan interieri/Sinagani arsi aseve aRniSnavs fiqris, azrovnebis unars, ponJis xec agreTve moazrovne arsebaa: o, bunebrivo sanatoriumo, sabednierod, sxeulis armqone taZaro [], meditaciis an musikis salono _ adgilo, sadac adamiani marto rCeba bunebaSi, sakuTar fiqrebTan, raTa mieces meditacias10. sanam sagnis Sinagan mxares warmoadgenda, ponJi qmnis adgils, romelic meditacias uwyobs xels, xolo am terminis gameoreba (romelsac meditacia ukve gulisxmobs) aRniSnuli qmedebis seriozulobasa da mniSvnelobaze miuTiTebs. maSasadame fiWvis tyis midamo, upirvelesad, warmoadgens adgils, sadac adamiani Tavs igrZnobs

7 8

Ibid., p. 381. Ibid., p. 399. 9 Correspondance , De lauteur M. P. , Ibid., p. 409. 10 Le Carnet du Bois de pin , Op. cit., p. 381.

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Tavisuflad da daculad imisaTvis, rom fiqrs mieces11. reziumirebisas SesaZlebeli xdeba davaskvnaT, rom fiWvis tye warmoadgens, erTi mxriv, Tavisuflad saseirno, da, meore mxriv, meditaciisTvis gankuTvnil adgils12. TiTqos yvelaferi mimarTulia imisken, rom moxdes poeturi sagnis mTlianobaSi aRwera. ferebi, bgerebi da surneli am suraTs sicocxles STaberaven da frenhoferis mier qalis figuris Seqmnis analogiur STabeWdilebas iZlevian, rodesac es ukanaskneli naxats acocxlebs13. rac mniSvnelovnad mimaCnia sakuTar TavTan mimarTebaSi, es aris seriozuloba, romliTac me vudgebi sagans da meore mxriv _ eqspresiis Zalze didi sizuste. magram unda Tavidan moviSoro tendencia, romelic mdgomareobs trafaretul/miRebul da banalur saTqmelSi. amisTvis namdvilad ar aqvs azri weras. fiWvis tyeebo, gamodiT sikvdilis, SeumCnevlobis, aracnobieri14 mdgomareobidan!15 SevCerdeT sagnis (fiWvis tyis) garegan niSnebze: gamoyenebuli terminebi danamdvilebiT mianiSneben safrangeTis suraTze an ufro dazustebiT _ im adamianebze, romlebic qveyanaSi daCaCanakebul mdgomareobamde misulni, daZabunebuli arian maTi umoqmedobis da uZraobis gamo (maSin, rodesac xeebis sxeulis
11

tixrebis da zigzagiseburi gzis usasruloba fiWvis tyisgan qmnis adamianebis meditaciisa da Tavis Tavisuflad SegrZnebisTvis bunebis erT-erT saukeTesod kombinirebul nawils. Ibid., p. 382. 12 aq moxerxebulia a) seirnoba: / aranairi totebi dabal simaRleze / aranairi maRali balaxi/ ar aris lianebi. / msxvili xaliCa. ramdenime klde avsebs mas. / b) da meditacia: / Suqis, / qaris Sezaveba. / delikaturi surneli. / xmauri, Cumi musika. / jansaRi atmosfero. / kulisebSi, ganze cxovreba./ wynari musikaluri CaxSuli akompanementi. Ibid., p. 383. 13 Cf. Honor de Balzac, Le chef-duvre inconnu, Paris, Flammarion, 2008. 14 am SemTxvevaSi originalSi naxmari termini non-conscience aRniSnavs rogorc aracnobier, gaucnobierebul mdgomareobas, aseve usindisobas. am ormagi azris meSveobiT, ponJi gacnobierebas da sindiss, maSasadame, xmis amoRebas da sindiss erTimeores ukavSirebs. 15 Francis Ponge, op. cit., p. 384.

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Ziri mTlianad uZravia16) omis winaSe. Zlieri arseba iRebs gacrecil qicvian iers, Tumca arsebobs SesaZlebloba, rom im ierisgan gaTavisufldnen, romelic Zalian waagavs sikvdils (maTi totebi iZarcvebian da maTi tani iqercleba17). statikuri, gaxevebuli mdgomareoba agreTve xazgasmulia termin sanatoriumiT, romelic kidev ufro aZlierebs dasvenebis an uZraobis am kondicias qmedebis sapirispirod. analogiuri idea aqvs ponJs gatarebuli esseSi Wadari, romelic ori wliT ufro gvian aris dawerili da romelic Wadris suraTSi gadmoscems, erTi mxriv, safrangeTis okupacias da, meore mxriv _ viSis reJims. sagnis poeturi suraTis Seqmnisas ponJi komentatoris18 msgavs teqnikas mimarTavs, rac Tavidan xis mxolod garegani deskrifciis suraTs iZleva, sanam avtori mis Sinagan samyaros, suls CauRrmavdeba da misgan cnobier arsebas gaxdis: fiWvis tyeebo, gamodiT sikvdilis, SeumCnevlobis, aracnobieri mdgomareobidan!. magram gacnobiereba ponJisTvis pirdapir kavSirSia xmis amoRebasTan, sityvasTan, warmoTqmul sityvasTan: gamovlindiT, fiWvis tyeebo, gamovlindiT sityvaSi!19; da cota ufro qveviT: Tu Cven davaxlovdiT bunebis am calkeul alagebTan, Tu maT dabadebisas miecaT Sansi, sityvis unari hqonodaT, es moxda ara mxolod im mizniT, rom Cven am siamovnebis anTropomorfologiuri angariSi CavabaroT, aramed imitom, rom amiT ufro seriozuli Semecneba miviRoT Sedegad20. ponJis fiWvis tye, romelic ZiriTadad mwvane ferisaa (gamoyenebul terminebi: mwvane, nefriti _ mwvane kenwero, nefritis xaliCa), uecrad icvlis qromatul Seferilobas im momentidan, rac mas sityvis, xmis amoRebis unari eZleva da maSin erTferovan mwvanes arRvevs wiTeli. xmis amoRebaze gadasvlas simetriulad Semoaqvs feris cvlileba _ mewamuli Semodis mas Semdeg, rac ponJi xes sityvis unars aniWebs. cnobieri xe, romelic xmas iRebs, gamodis

Ibid., p. 382. Ibid., p. 377. 18 termins davesesxebiT rober maJors, romelsac es ukanaskneli xmarobs pol-mari lapuantis leqsis xeebi analizisas, in Paul-Marie Lapointe, le combinateur et le jazzman , Voix et Images, vol. 6, n 3, 1981, p. 400. 19 Ibid., p. 385. 20 Ibid., p. 387.
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16

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sikvdilis mdgomareobidan - da es sityva iqceva logosad (termini naxmaria TviT avtoris mier) - anu winaaRmdegobis gamwev sityvad 1940 wlis zafxul-Semodgomis mijnaze. xis Sesaxeb an fiWvis Sesaxeb dawera sabolood scildeba poeturobis ubralo mniSvnelobas da xis identobis konstruqciis, misi Seqmnis sinonimuri xdeba. mwerali sagnis am identobas SeimuSavebs gansxvavebuli sityvis (enis) meSveobiT, rac esadageba adamianis identobis sityvis meSveobiT konstruqciis fenomens, da rac, am SemTxvevaSi, utoldeba weris qmedebas, aqts. meditaciis Tavisufleba, sameditacio ganwyoba, romelsac iwvevs fiWvis tye, ormagi meditaciis ganzomilebas iRebs: dafiqreba-meditacia (mkiTxvelis mier) imaze, Tu ras aaSkaravebs dafaruli azris miRma nawarmoebi, rodesac sagnad iRebs fiWvis tyes, rogorc cocxal organizms (rac, Tavis mxriv, miniSnebulia xis identobis SemuSavebiT), da meore mxriv, dafiqreba, meditacia fiWvis tyeSi yofnisas, maSin rodesac am tye-sagans qmnis nawarmoebi da, rac, Sesabamisad, niSnavs dafiqrebas poetur sivrceSi da poeturi sagnis Sinaarsze. qarTveli simbolisti poeti - giorgi leoniZe Tavis leqsSi ole fransis ponJis msgavs gzas mimarTavs da STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom mkiTxvelis Tvalwin agebs xes, maSin, rodesac saqme exeba ormag poetur xerxs, sadac mxatvruli sityva dasabams aZlevs nonkonformizmis da ara-asimilaciis dafarul azrs. leoniZis xe oqrosferi xmiT saubrobs: oqrosxmian simReraSi Tvals hxuWav da hxedav,Senzed marto arvin ari Senze ufro metad21. leoniZe aqcents akeTebs sityvis implikaciaze, Semoaqvs ra am ukanasknelis sinonimuri gameoreba: oqrosferi simReris nacvlad is simReras aZlierebs xmis terminis damatebiT [oqrosxmiani simRera]. xis

21

giorgi leoniZe, ole, http://lib.ge/body_text.php?8632, aq unda aRiniSnos, rom xedva am SemTxvevaSi sinonimuria gacnobierebis, - termini, romelic naxmaria fransis ponJTan.

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martosuli identoba gamoirCeva Tavisi oqrosferi xmiT sxva xeebs Soris, romlebic warmodgenilni arian erTferad - mwvane tonalobaSi. sazogadoebis aRmniSvneli mwvane feri Seesabameba xeebis anu adamianebis masas, romelTac jer ar dadgomiaT gacnobierebis Jami [ tye geZaxis mwvane mxridan22 ] da rasac rikiori naSromSi kritika da mrwamsi kacobrioba-masasuwodebs: radgan riTi vcnobT mas [totalitarizms]? ra aris misi bunebrivi miswrafeba? es aris, pirvel rigSi, adamianuri urTierTobebis totalizeba ise, rom moxdes yvela socialuri kavSiris gawyveta; es aris kacobrioba-masis warmoqmna imgvarad, rom is aRar daemorCilos aranair sxva organizaciul princips, garda saxelmwifosi, romlis inkarnaciasac beladis persona warmoadgens. maSasadame, SemTxveviTi ar iyo, rom totalitarizmma eqsterminacia warmoqmna, anu masobrivi sikdilis misja: adamianTaSorisi urTierTobebis destruqciiT, kacobrioba xdeba massa perdita, sadac momakvdavi da mkvdari TiTqmis ganurCevelia23. leoniZesTan martosul xes ar surs asimilireba, mas unda sakuTari identobis SenarCuneba, rac kidev erTxel xazgasmulia gansxvavebuli qromatulobiT _ oqrosfriT (da, amgvarad, is sapirispiro xdeba pol rikiorTan naxmar ganurCevlobasTan mimarTebiT): magram cisken iyureba/ Seni oqros Tavi. ole, ole, martoxeo, dRisiTa da RamiT; Signidanve gamomwvaro martoobis SxamiT.

Ibid. Paul Ricur, La critique et la conviction, Entretien avec Franois Azouvi et Marc de Launay, Calmann-Lvy, 1995, p. 165-166.
23

22

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poets Semoaqvs martosuli xis cneba, romlis suli damwvaria da gamomSrali swored Signidan, is gatexilia Signidan, aqedan gamomdinare saqme exeba mis identobas, romelic kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgeba. es xati adamians sakuTari saxis anarekls ubrunebs: dgaxar, rogorc saxrCobela TviT gaxrCoben mTebi; dakidebul arwivs hgevxar momsxvreuli frTebiT. Signidan ganadgurebuls, gare samyaro gamudmebiT emuqreba da misi daxrCoba surs. yvelaferi, irgvliv arsebuli, am egzekuciaSi iRebs monawileobas: qaris eSvebs, yinvas, wvimis Subs, Semwvel, cofian mzes, setyvas, grigals misi moTxra, dabrmaveba, amoZirkva surT24. zevidan qveviT dakidebuli xe im arwivs waagavs, romelsac frTebi aqvs motexili; moCexili da tanjuli, igi identobis im suraTs uxmobs, romelic 1930ian wlebSi sabWoTa totalitaruli reJimiT aris ganadgurebuli. ismis SekiTxva: aris Tu ara leoniZis xe socialuri arseba? cxadia, rom is sxvadasxva WrilSi gansxvavdeba ponJis fiWvisgan. leoniZis mier daxatuli xe Tavidanve warmodgenilia, rogorc sakuTar martoobaSi izolirebuli, romelic wamoWimulia, anu vertikalur mdgomareobaSia kldis Tavze, tyisgan moSorebiT (da ara tyeSi), da miuxedavad gare eqstremaluri safrTxisa, agrZelebs cisken swrafvas, raTa gaTavisufldes borkilebisgan. wadi, Zebne megobari, _ mimarTavs mas poeti, rome-

24

zRvidan qari wamovida da Rrubeli bundrad, caSi elva Seiklakna, Senken Semobrunda. qaris eSvebs, mexi breSas, Seni moTxra undaT! yinvis karCxi Tvals gikawravs, laJvards veRar umzer, wvimis Subi galesili gikakunebs gulze;

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lic Sewuxebulia xis tanjvis gamo, da maSinve amatebs Semdegs: vis gascqeri, vis moeli? / [...] vis miaRwevs Seni xmebi, vis keramde miva?, da amgvarad mianiSnebs garkveul pesimizmze adamianTa mimarT. leoniZe eWvqveS ayenebs imas, Tu ramdenad realuria, rom xis es oqrosxmiani, ajanyebuli sityva sxvebis cnobierebamde miaRwevs da gamoafxizlebs maT. is darwmunebulia: imisTvis, rom moxdes identobis SenarCuneba, Tundac es identoba ukve bzaris Semcveli iyos, aucilebelia uaris Tqma am erTfer, erTgvarovan (mwvane) sazogadoebasTan yvelanair asimilaciaze da efemeruli (fesvebisgan gaTavisufleba - cisken swrafva), ocnebisken miswrafeba ukeTesia, vidre Tanamedrove drosTan morgeba. poeti, paolo iaSvilis msgavsad, Tavis Tanamedrove sazogadoebas gamoyofs warsulisagan, romelic, amave dros, moiazrebs gansxvavebuli adamianis tipis arsebobas: Sen liaxvis kldeze dgaxar / Zveli mosasxamiT. xe warmoCndeba, maSasadame, sabolood da ormagad martosuli, rac agreTve misi drosTan da sazogadoebasTan gansxvavebuli mikuTvnebidan momdinareobs: is Zvel mosasxams atarebs. sainteresoa _ termini mosasxami gulisxmobs mxolod Tanamedroveobisgan gansxvavebul garegnul fizikur mikuTvnebas, Tu saubaria agreTve mis Sinagan gansxvavebulobaze? xe brundev da xe marTalo, _ wers poeti da cxadi xdeba, rom ukuRmarTad yofna moicavs SewinaaRmdegebas Tanamedrove samyarosTan, romelic, Tavis mxriv, upirispirdeba simarTles da sxvebisgan ganze ayenebs marTal, gulwrfel xes. is Tanamedroveoba, anu Tanamedrove dro da sazogadoeba, romelic Tavisken eZaxis martosul xes [tye geZaxis mwvane mxridan] da romelzedac es ukanaskneli uars ambobs, am xisgan WeSmaritebis matarebel inkarnacias qmnis, cnebas, romelic mxolod Zveli drois damaxasiaTebelia. raSi mdgomareobs, sabolood, leqsis mizani? ra aris am martoobis arsi, Tu asocialuri arseba Tavis simarTleSi Caketili rCeba? sanam am SekiTxvas gavcemdeT pasuxs, ganvixiloT izolaciis ponJiseuli koncepti, romelic ikveTeba fiWvis tyeSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom misi fiWvi bunebiT socialuri xea25. fiWvi gansxvavdeba imis mixedviT, izolirebulad cxovrobs igi Tu sazogadoebaSi. is gansxvavebulia ag-

25

Francis Ponge, Op. cit., p. 401.

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reTve imis mixedviT, tyis ganapiras dgas Tu tyeSi, romlis nawilsac qmnis. da Zalian miyvars es tyis piras mdgari fiWvebi, romlebic garkveul msxverplze midian tanis im nawilTan, romelic tyisken aris Sebrunebuli, xolo Tavisuflad viTardebian im mxares, romelic velebs, sicarieles, aragatyevebul samyaros uyurebs. maT ekisrebaT funqcia, gars Semoertyan sakuTar sazogadoebas, dafaron maTi saidumloebebi, maTi Sinagani nakli (simkacre, msxverpli, naklovanebebi) tanis qveda nawilebis ganviTarebis meSveobiT: isini naklebad mkacrni unda iyvnen maTi Tanmimdevruli eqspansiis TvalsazrisiT mkacrni unda iyvnen maTi Tanmimdevruli ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, socialur fiWvTan mimarTebaSi (sruliad socialur fiWvTan). maT neba eZlevaT, rom mexsiereba SeinarCunon da maTi warsuli zrda gamoaCinon26. miuxedavad imisa, rom izolirebuli fiWvis saxe misi kvlevis pirdapir sagans ar warmoadgens, ponJi mainc akeTebs am figuris monaxazs socialur fiWvTan mimarTebaSi. leoniZis analogiurad, ponJis tyis napiras mdgomi fiWvi garkveulad daSorebulia tyisgan da swored es distancireba qmnis fizikur da Sinagan gansxvavebulobas (eqsterieri/garegani saxe: tanis qveda nawilebis ganviTareba; Sinagani: mexsierebis SeinarCuneba da warsuli zrdis gamoCena) izolirebul individsa da im individebs Soris, romlebic erTad, sazogadoebaSi cxovroben. rac Seexeba maT valdebulebas27 anu funqcias, is Semdegia: dafaron saidumloebebi anu sazogadoebis naklovanebebi maT mier sityvieri Tavisufali egzibiciis meSveobiT. termini warsuli/Zveli, iseve, rogorc mexsiereba, mianiSnebs analogiur anti-Tanamedroveobis konteqstze, romelsac leoniZe usvams xazs:

26 27

Ibid., p. 399. SegviZlia Tu ara visaubroT uflebebze da valdebulebebze? ratomac ara? valdebulebebze?, Ibid., p. 401.

winaaRmdegobis gamomxatveli sityva fransis ponJis da giorgi leoniZis...

233

maTma erTobliobam Seaswora Secvala es arsebebi, romlebic martoobaSi sasowarkveTisgan an mowyenilobisgan (an Tundac eqstazisgan) daigrixebodnen, romlebsac sakuTari Jestebis mTliani simZimisTvis unda gaeZloT, rac bolos warmoqmnida tanjuli gmirebis Zalian lamaz qandakebebs. magram maTma erTianobam isini gaaTavisufla mcenareuli wyevlisgan. maT aqvT Tviseba, pirveladi gamoxatulebebi/grZnobebi gaanadguron, aqvT daviwyebis ufleba28. ponJi aanalizebs individis da sazogadoebis urTierTobas, sadac es ukanaskneli xasiaTdeba calkeuli identobebis modificirebis unariT. SeiniSneba Semdegi tendencia: socialur arsebas, martosulisgan gansxvavebiT, uRvivdeba Tviseba _ sxvebs mibaZos da imis magivrad, rom gaaRviZos sindisi-cnobiereba (tanjuli gmirebi), is egueba daviwyebas da aRar ganicdis. am SemTxvevaSi ibadeba kiTxva: SesaZlebeli iqneboda Tu ara safuZvelSi tyis danawevreba ise, rom TiToeuli individis amputaciis safrTxe ar Seiqmnas?29. monumenti _ qandakeba _ fesvebi _ gana es sityvebi ar gvafiqrebineben im suraTze, romelic sikvdilis Semdeg rCeba? gana mexsiereba ufro mniSvnelovani ar aris, vidre sicocxle? gana ponJi ar gulisxmobs, rom amputirebul identobaSi mTeli kacobriobis momavali dgeba kiTxvis niSnis qveS? ramdeni ramis Sesaxeb meqneboda dasaweri, ubralo mwerali rom vyofiliyavi..., da iqneb asec unda movqceuliyavi ? [...] Cemi azrebi politikuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb safrangeTsa, da, zogadad, msoflioSi, istoriulad aseT mniSvnelovan etapze; fiqri Cvens sakuTar mdgomareobaze, arastabilur momavalze...

28 29

Ibid., p. 401. Ibid., p. 402.

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aTinaT mamacaSvili

magram Cemi garkveuli nakli amis saSualebas ar maZlevs, rac mxolod sizarmace ar aris an SiSi siZneleebis winaSe: mgonia, rom ver SevZleb eqskluziurad _ da Tanmimdevrulad verc erT am Temaze yuradRebis SeCerebas, rac friad saWiro iqneboda. [...] da instinqturad fiWvis tyes vubrundebi, Temas, romelic yovlismomcvelad mainteresebs, romelic Cems pirovnebas mTlianad ipyrobs, da romelic bolomde iyenebs gamoxatvis yvela Cems SesaZleblobas30. imis magivrad, rom mimdinare politikur mdgomareobaze moaxdinos koncentrireba (rac TanamedroveobaSi CarTulobas gulisxmobs), ponJi acxadebs, rom mas mxolod Tavis leqsze SeuZlia mimarTos mTeli yuradReba; amrigad, mwerals SeuZlia mxolod literaturul sityvaSi amowuros sakuTari Tavi da poeturi gamoxatulebis meSveobiT aagos teqsti fiWvis tyeze, da mxolod da mxolod fiWvis tyeze, sadac, miawers ra sityvebs fiWvs, amiT Tavis poetur saTqmels gamokveTs: sulerTia, ra Tqvas _ ubralod ar Caimalos siCumeSi _ referirebas axdens poeturi enis usargeblo sityvaze, sadac usargeblo konceptSi moiazreba swored nawarmoebis, erTi SexedviT, usargebloba/Seusabamoba mimdinare istoriul da politikur konteqstSi. sityvebi, romlebic miemarTeba fiWvs an miekuTvneba xes, absoluturad amovardnili Cans XX saukunis ormociani wlebis periodis konteqstidan, magram avtoris eqsplicituri gancxadebis zusti analizi teqstis gansxvavebul ganzomilebas warmoaCens. da swored es ganzomileba axorcielebs leqsis ganadgurebas Tavisi sakuTari sagnis mier [igulisxmeba fiWvi], Semoaqvs ra politikuri konteqsti da moqmedebs, rogorc poeturi sityva, sadac Tanamedroveobis arsi ormagad aris gagebuli. am TvalsazrisiT, leoniZis da ponJis poetur-politikuri demarSi erTmaneTis msgavs wminda literaturul winaaRmdegobis gamwev Zalas gamoxatavs swored literaturul agebulebaze dayrdnobiT da ara _ faqtobrivi politikuri konteqstis CarTviT.

30

Ibid., p. 405.

cira barbaqaZe

dagineba da furTxeba qarTul sabWoTa poeziaSi wakiTxvis Semdeg mieciT Delete


teqstebi, romlebsac eris cnobiereba qmnis, atareben am eris mentalitetis niSnebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi, arca aqvs mniSvneloba, rogoria es teqsti, mxatvruli, naklebadmxatvruli, Tu, saerTodac, mxatvrulobas moklebulia. Tu Cven am teqstebs (Sesabamisad, avtorebs) xSirad vimeorebT da vaRiarebT, maSasadame, avtoris teqstebis ganzogadebac SeiZleba, anu: is mxolod avtors aRar ekuTvnis, is ekuTvnis mkiTxvelsac da kulturasac. teqstebi semiotikur fenebad SeiZleba davSaloT da aRmovaCinoT masSi, rogorc palimfsestSi, sxvadasxva fena da Sre... erT-erT Sres socialuri fena namdvilad warmoadgens. isec SeiZleba moxdes, rom am Sris garda teqsti sxvas arc arafers Seicavdes... erTi sityviT, sabWoTa poetebis teqstebi savsea kliSeebiT da ar gagikvirdebaT, Tu erTi aseTi kliSe iyo paTeTikuri, uazro da xmamaRla wasakiTxi leqsebi. SeiZleba, rom xmamaRla kargi leqsebic eweraT, magram, am SemTxvevaSi, sakuTriv ugemovno da aramxatvrul teqstebze visaubrebT. aqve aRvniS-

236

cira barbaqaZe

nav, rom avtoris saxeli da gvari aseT dros arafers wyvets, Cveni analizis mizani mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi am viTom poeziis gaaqtiureba, gadafaseba da waSlaa... radgan am nagvisgan gaTavisuflebis gareSe Cveni cnobiereba didxans darCeba WaobSi da arasdros ar iqneba mzad axlis misaRebad. arwivi qarTvelebisTvis (da ara mxolod qarTvelebisTvis) gansakuTrebuli frinvelia da daviwyoT leqsiT arwivi. am arwivs rom vaJas arwivTan iribi kavSiri SeiZleba da pirdapiri kavSiri ara da ar aqvs. arwivi mze roca Cadis, mze roca Cadis... da swored maSin gadmomiqrolebs. amqveynad damaqvs me Cemi dardi,_ arwivze ratom unda vfiqrobde?! mze roca Cadis, mze roca Cadis... frTas yurisZirTan gamtylaSunebs, radganac vici arwivis yadri papis naCuqar adaTs vasruleb. movzide mSvildi, isari vtyorcne, miwaze gdia zecis patroni... me daWril arwivs TvalebSi vkocni, mere frTebs vuSli da mxrebs vatoleb. am striqonebis avtors amqveynad daaqvs Tavisi dardi da TviTonve ukvirs: arwivze ratom unda vfiqrobdeo?!... magram es fiqri avtomaturia da masac efiqreba, ra hqnas? vaJkacuri buneba iTxovs am fiqrs... radganac poetma icis arwivis yadri (da aq albaT mkiTxvels gaaxsendeba arwivi _ Tavisuflebis, siZlieris, simaRlis simbolo), papis naCuqari adaTis Sesrulebas daapirebs.. netav ra iqneba es adaTi...? Semdegi striqonis wakiTxvamde guli ufancqalebs mkiTxvels... mere cota eWviT uyurebs, roca mSvilds mozidavs poeti.... viTom xumrobs...? iqneb xumrobs...? o, araa... isari styorcna (ra vuTxari Sens marjvenas...?) da arc meti da arc naklebi _ miwaze gdia zecis patroni... es namdvili moulodnelobis efeqtia... magram amiT yvelaferi ar sruldeba... finali kidev ufro moulodnelia... warmoidgineT suraTi: daWril arwivs bednieri poeti mivardeba, TvalebSi akocebs da... ai, amis warmodgena ki namdvilad gagiWirdebaT: frTebs gauSlis da mxrebs daatolebs... da ra kiTxva gagiCndebaT am suraTis Semyures? arwivis frTebma Tu poetis mxrebs gadaaWarba,

dagineba da furTxeba qarTul sabWoTa poeziaSi

237

ukve xom iciT, ras Caidens avtori...? ver mixvdiT...? mkvdar arwivs frTebs daumoklebs... diax, diax, namdvilad ase izams. am leqsis wakiTxvis Semdeg Tqven aucileblad CagafiqrebT leqsis idea... mainc risi Tqma undoda am striqonebiT avtors...? arwivis mokvliT Tavisufleba moipova Tu dakarga poetma...? eeh, papis naCuqaro adaTo, arwivis mokvla rogor aiZule SviliSvils...? aq marTla gagaxsendebaT vaJas arwivis sityvebi: vah, dedas Tqvensa, yovebo, cud dros CagigdavT xelada, Toro vnaxavdi Tqvens bumbuls gaSlils, gafantuls velada! Semdegi leqsi, romliTac unda gagaocoT, aris jokonda. jokonda yvelaferi Zvirfasia, amave dros mZimea, silamaze vin aswia_ Tumc yvavilze mcirea. ras ar mived-movedebiT, ra saqmes ar veweviT, roca ar varT poetebi, varT ubralod berwebi. jer sicocxliT vin damTvrala, mSobeli daiginos, gaixede, Se calTvala, pawawina pingvino... WeSmaritad marTalia froidi, roca is wamocdenebs aanalizebs... me is mikvirs, rom wamocdenebs Tavad poetic ver SeniSnavs xolme... am abdaubdas ratom hqvia jokonda, mxolod froidma uwyis... Cven ki mTavar wamocdenas gavimeorebT: roca ar varT poetebi, varT ubralod berwebi... Cven ki viciT, poeto, berwi sityvebiT da azrebiT romaa savse Tqveni leqsebi da netav mxolod Tqveni leqsebi... am leqsebs dedebi da mamebi skamze da magidaze Semxtar Svilebs amayad aambobinebdnen... da mere es mkvdari sityvebi da frazebi Cveni cnobierebis sarevelad iqceoda... amave leqsSia dRevandel qarTul politikaSi daginebis tradiciis fesvebic... ara da, sul gvikvirda, saidan...saidan modioda... ager, am jokonda leqsidan: jer sicocxliT vin damTvrala, mSobeli daiginos... daigines poetebma xaSlamian-xinkli-

238

cira barbaqaZe

an sufraze, dagineba gaagrZeles leqsebSi... leqsebidan gadavida xalxSi da ase... gadadioda, gadadioda da ase mivida greCexamde da axla greCexas dagineba gagikvirdes mitingze... yvela, yvela da...jokondasTan calTvala pingvinis kavSirs Tu axsniT, dedas gaficebT, gamagebineT... eh, marTlac, ras ar mied-moedebiT, ra saqmes ar eweviT... es leqsi ki arc meti, arc naklebi, cud kacs eZRvneba: cud kacs kacebi, vici, mSvidoba mogvmadles, axla TamaSidan gadian. Tu gamzrdeli xar, gamzrdeli iyav, Tu gadia xar, gadia... iqiT rom iTxov Tayvaniscemas, aqeT ra wminda sulis xar? erTi Cvenskenac Camoasxi, Sens stomaqSi rom sul isxam. Sua striqonSi mominda Sors gapurWyeba da gaWyirtva, arwivs marTve ar gamoadga, adga da Sig budeSi gaWylita. am Tavidan bolomde margaliti leqsis finali sruliad ganumeorebelia: poetebi ara mxolod sufraze ipurWyebian da iWyirtvebian (aseTi sityva leqsikonSi ar aris, poetis TviTSemoqmedebaa), leqsebSic igive emarTebaT, Tanac, Sua striqonSi... an TavSi yofiliyo, an _ boloSi... ara, Sua striqonSi... aqedan mkiTxveli versad gaiqceva... da mouwevs poetis naxSirorJangis sityvebiT CasunTqva, sxva ra gzaa... leqsis idea bolo or striqonSia gamJRavnebuli Segonebis saxiT, pirdapir da mkafiod. mokled, roca SeatyobT, rom SeiZleba momavalSi Svili ar gamogadgeT da Tu kargad daakvirdebiT, aucileblad SeatyobT (koWebze gadaitaneT gamWoli mzera) ... arwivad Tavi warmoidgineT, marTved _ Tqveni Svili da nuRar gamameorebinebT, rogor unda moiqceT... es iqneba spartanuli aRzrdis klasikuri magaliTi... civ wyalSi Cagdebas isev gaWyletva sjobs... ratom...? ufro humanuria! cudi kacis definicia ki am striqonebis mixedviT SegviZlia CamovayaliboT: erTi Cvenskenac Camoasxi, Sens stomaqSi rom sul isxam... cudi kacia is, vinc ar usxams poets da ar meriqi-

dagineba da furTxeba qarTul sabWoTa poeziaSi

239

feobs da, Sesabamisad, aseTi kaci akvanSi unda gagudo... rom mere sufraze nervebi ar mouSalos poets da eris mamas. ggoniaT, rom es leqsebi gangeb avarCie...? ara da ara..! erTi poetis erTi rCeuli krebulia da aq TiTqmis yvela erTi meoreze ukeTesia... ki, batono, sxva Temas Semovitan, ager leqsi vnaxe poetze da mTlianad gagacnobT, aq arcerTi sityva ar unda gamotovoT, konceptualuri datvirTva aqvs yvelas: poeti gesmis?! yivili sisxlisferi_ daWril mamlisa, CaCexil xevSi gelodeba xrova ZaRlebis... magram, mgosano, mjdomare xar marjvniv mamisa... da vici, zeciT rom amaRldebi! daWrili mamlis sisxlisferi yivili Tu mogesmaT da CaCexil xevSi ZaRlebis xrovac warmoidgineT... gadadiT Semdeg kadrze: mgosani zis uflis (mama-RmerTis) marjvniv (mxari ar gecvaloT da ar agerioT, es mniSvnelovania!) da haerovnad maRldeba... leqsis dasasruli... da Tu mijnurTa cecxli iSviaTad ratom swvavda mgosans, axlave gaigebT am gulwrfeli leqsidan: sayveduri Sen msayvedurob: _ nakleb iwvi mijnurTa cecxliT, naklebad gSvenis siyvarulis lurji arSia! naklebad ismis Sens leqsebSi JRurtuli mercxlis... _ Cemo Zvirfaso, mogaxseneb, saqme raSia: es Cemi gorda, lekursa da sparsuls Seacvda, kacs ar uwvnia imodena, me rom viwvale, mamulis gamo ar vyofilvar mona diacTa. mindoda, magam ver movicale... verafers ver ityvi am striqonebis Semdeg: mamulis gamo ar vyofilvar mona diacTa. mindoda, magam ver movicale... mokled, iseTive rTuli kiTxvaa: rogorc Sorena Tu sveticxoveli...? es ara, is Sorena... didostatis marjvenaSi. mouclelobis gamo (Tu es moucle-

240

cira barbaqaZe

loba mamuls ukavSirdeboda) poets ver gavasamarTlebT da es leqsi mSvidobianad gaviaroT da gadavideT Semdegze... mama-Svilis saubari speqtaklis Semdeg: TeatrSi _ ra mosawonia, mama, ra mogwons am ubedurebis? komediaa Tu drama, Tu cirki aris durovis? _ Sen, Cemo sisxlo da xorco, vcdilob, rom gamovsworde, suyvelaferi momwons, rac unda ar momwondes! am striqonebs mTlad wamocdenilsac ver davarqmevT... adamiani (poeti) ambobs, rom rac ar unda moswondes, yvelaferi moswons da Tanac, gamosworda... namdvilad zedmetia komentari. arc es striqonebia wacdenili: am qveyanaze suli ver vicxone, cota vigiJe da bevri vidinje. ise frTxilad da SiSiT vicxovre, tyvia ra aris... tyvia ver viglije! aq cruobs poeti, piriqiT: bevri igiJa da cota idinja... da tyvia ara, magram verc kalami gamostaca veravin xelidan... esec finalisTvis, mets ver gavuZlebT: mavris motivi ai, kaxpebis Tvaliseiri, qveviT Txebi da zeviT _ virTxebi... gTxovT, gamomxedoT, farisevelno, me vifurTxebi, me vifurTxebi... viciT, batono, viciT.... magram amdeni.... ra sakadrisi iyo?

daviT TinikaSvili

drois aRqma avgustinesTan anu SenSi, sulo, Cemo, vzomav dros

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi adamianebi aRfrTovanebulni iyvnen drois saidumloebiT. is xSirad ganixileboda rogorc abstraqtuli mocemuloba, romelsac TavisTavad ar moaqvs raime praqtikuli Sedegi. Tumca droTa ganmavlobaSi adamianebma misgan xelSesaxebi sargeblis miRebac iswavles. Tanamedrove adamianisTvis dro fulia. 21-e saukunis satelevizio biznes-gadacemebi xSirad mTavrdeba sityvebiT: gamoiyeneT dro sarfianad. Tuki winaT Goodbye-s mniSvneloba kargad esmoda yvelas, vinc am sityvas iyenebda (rac niSnavs God be with you), an misalmebis bibliuri versia mSvidobis Tu Sinagani simSvidis survils ukavSirdeba, amJamad popularobas ixveWs sruliad sxva mniSvnelobis gamoTqma: momgebian dRes gisurveb, romelic, pirvel rigSi, swored materialuri mogebas gulisxmobs. miuxedavad imisa, rom dRevandeli cxovrebis ritmi aranormalurad aCqarebulia, romelsac uaxlesi teqnologiebic uwyobs xels, Tanamedrove adamiani mainc uCivis drois ukmarisobas. is ver aswrebs imdenis gakeTebas, ramdensac

242

daviT TinikaSvili

isurvebda. amgvar pirobebSi, rasakvirvelia, mas arc imis dro aqvs, rom dafiqrdes drois, - yofierebis am umniSvnelovanesi kategoriis, - arsisa da bunebis Sesaxeb. warsulSi TiTqmis yvela cnobil filosofossa Tu Teologs dauweria raime drois fenomenis Sesaxeb. zogni mis pozitiur xasiaTze miuTiTebdnen, zognic negatiurze. aRmosavlur religiebSi dro iluzorulad aris miCneuli. sxva, ufro dasavlur, civilizaciebSi dros aqvs SemoqmedebiTi potenciali. Cven aq SevexebiT drois gaazrebas iseT cnobil dasavlel filosofosTan da RvTismetyvelTan, rogoric iyo netari avgustine (354-430). drosTan dakavSirebuli avgustineseuli refleqsia, romelic mocemulia mis cnobil TxzulebaSi aRsarebani (wigni me-11), ukavSirdeba RvTis mier samyaros arafrisgan Seqmnis ideas. avgustine acxadebs, rom RmerTma samyaro Seqmna ara droSi (in tempore), aramed drosTan erTad (cum tempore). dro manamde ar arsebobda. is da samyaro orive Seqmnilia. am azriT, maT unda hqondeT erTmaneTTan kavSiri da SeeZloT erTmaneTze zemoqmedebis moxdena, rogorc erTi mTliani samyaros organul nawilebs. sxvaTa Soris, aRniSvnis Rirsia, rom ainStainis relatiurobis Teoriac miuTiTebs drosa da sivrces Soris mWidro kavSirsa da urTierTdamokidebulebaze. am Teoriis mixedviT, dros SeuZlia aCqareba an Seneleba, romelic damokidebulia moZravi obieqtis mimarTulebaze sivrceSi ukiduresi siswrafis dros. avgustinemde da mis Semdgomac arsebobda Semdegi SekiTxvebi: Tu samyarom arseboba daiwyo drois garkveul periodSi, maSin ra mizeziT ar moxda es am periodze ufro adre? Tu samyaros warmoSoba dakavSirebulia RmerTis survilTan, gaugebaria, mxolod garkveul momentSi ratom gauCnda RmerTs es survili, romelic manamde ar hqonda? Tu samyaros Seqmnis idea keTilia, maSin ratom adre ar gauCnda es idea yovladkeTil RmerTs? Tuki RmerTi arafers akeTebda manamde, rodesac man ca da miwa Seqmna, maSin ar SeiZleba mas vuwodoT RmerTi absoluturi gagebiT, radgan is umoqmedod iyo; da Tuki is ar iyo umoqmedod, maSin ratom ar qmnida arafers? an rogorc avgustine gadmogvcems erT-erT aseT kiTxvas: raSi moepriana [RmerTs, d.T.] raRa-

drois aRqma avgustinesTan anu `SenSi, sulo Cemo, vzomav dros~

243

cis Seqmna, Tuki arasdros arafers ar akeTebdao? avgustines pasuxi aseTia: Seagnebine maT ufalo, ras bodaven; gaumJRavne sacodavebs, rom iq, sadac ar aris dro, sityvas arasdros araviTari azri ara aqvs (11:40) . bunebrivia, amgvari SekiTxvebi, ZiriTadad, warmoiqmneboda gare-eklesiur filosofiur wreebSi, radgan elementaruli saRvTismetyvelo aqsiomas warmodgens RmerTis ucvleloba rogorc Tavis bunebaSi da TvisebebSi, ise mis qmedebebSi. Tumca isic marTalia, rom zogierTi platonisti amtkicebda kidec samyaros maradiul arsebobas, mis Seuqmnelobas, raTa Tavidan acilebuli yofiliyo azri imis Sesaxeb, rom ucvalebel RvTaebriv gonebaSi axali azri gaCnda. avgustines mtkicebiT, samyaros Seqmna aris RmerTis maradiulobaSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebis, ase vTqvaT, aqtualizacia: gamoricxulia RvTaebriv gonebaSi moulodneli gadawyvetilebebis warmoSoba (ix. 11:12). amitom iseTi SekiTxvebi, rogoricaa ratom manamde ara? an ratom umoqmedobda RmerTi manamde? azrs moklebulia. avgustines miTiTebiT, am SekiTxvis avtorebi azrovneben droSi, amitom droze amaRleba da ze-drouli, maradisobaSi myofi RmerTis gageba maT ar SeuZliaT. aRniSnuli sakiTxis avgustineseuli gadawyveta sakmaod popularuli gaxda Semdgom, Sua saukuneebSi. zogierTi filosofosis azriT, dro aris moZraoba, kerZod, varskvlavTa moZraoba, rom drois msvleloba ganpirobebulia ciuri sxeulebis moZraobiT. avgustine ar eTanxmeba am debulebas, radgan moZraoba, misi azriT, aRiqmeba droSi da ara piriqiT - dro moZraobaSi. drois daxmarebiT Cven SegviZlia gavzomoT ciuri sxeulebis moZraobac da araviTar SemTxvevaSi piriqiT. Cven viciT, rom Tavad varskvlavebis moZraoba SeiZleba iyos swrafi an neli, amis gansazRvrisTvis ki unda arsebobdes sazomi. amitomac dro aris ara moZraoba, radgan Tavad moZraoba arsebobs droSi. am Sexedulebis sailustraciod da misTvis meti sicxadis misacemad avgustine bibliur magaliTzec miuTiTebs: maS nuRaravin metyvis, rom dro ciur sxeulTa moZraobaa. roca erTma kacma locviT SeaCera mze, raTa gamarjvebiT daesrulebina brZola, mze idga, dro ki midioda... amrigad, me vxedav, rom dro

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erTgvari vrceulobaa Tu ganfenilobaa. magram marTla vxedav Tu meCveneba, rom vxedav? (11:30). sainteresoa, rom zogadad am sakiTxze gamoTqmul avgustines Sexedulebebs xSirad kiTxviTi forma aqvs, is ar aris darwmunebuli da mxolod varaudis saxiT gamoTqvams sakuTar mosazrebas. sakiTxi drois arsebobis Sesaxeb sakmaod rTuli da ucnauria. roca raimes arsebobaze vsaubrobT, Cven vsaubrobT mis arsebobaze droSi. magram rogor unda visaubroT Tavad drois arsebobaze? SesaZlebelia, rom dro arsebobdes droSi? avgustine msjelobs uflis zedroulobasa da maradisobaze, qmnilebis droze daqvemdebarebulobaze, mis droebiTobaze da Tavad drois dasabamze. kerZod, avgustines awuxebs drois gazomvadobis sakiTxi. Cven vsaubrobT xangrZlivi da mokle periodebis Sesaxeb. magram awmyos ar aqvs xangrZlivoba, is ar aris arc grZeli da arc mokle (11:18-20). dro ukan midis, warsulisken, ise rom awmyo permanentulad wyvets sakuTar arsebobas da xdeba warsuli. avgustines mixedviT, drois gazomva SesaZlebelia adamianis cnobierebiT, romelsac momavlis molodini aqvs, warsuli axsovs da awmyos ki uSualod aRiqvams (11:26; 11:33). avgustine wers: es raRac sami dro mxolod Cvens sulSi arsebobs da sxvagan versad ver vxedav maT (11:26), anu realurad isini ar arseboben, radgan warsuli ukve aRar arsebobs, momavali ki jer ar damdgara. amitom mxolod awmyos Secnobaa SesaZlebeli. magram sad aris es awmyoc? Tavidan avgustine wers, rom awmyod SegviZlia miviCnioT weliwadi, romelSic arsebobs warsuli da momavali. Semdeg SeiZleba am cnebis Seviwroveba Tvemde, kviramde, dRemde saaTamde, wuTamde da sabolood Cven mivdivarT erT wertilamde. magram roca ki vecdebiT am wertilis Sepyrobas, is xelidan gvisxlteba: is ukve warsulad gardaiqmneba. Cven vcdilobT gavigoT momavali, magram aseve isic gvisxlteba xelidan. dro arsebobs an awmyoSi an warsulSi. ...xangrZlivi warsuli mas Semdeg gaxda xangrZlivi, rac ukve ganvlo, Tu manamde, roca jer kidev awmyo iyo? misi xangrZlivoba mxolod maSin iqneboda SesaZlebeli, roca arsebobda raRac iseTi, rasac SeeZlo xangrZlivi yofiliyo. magram warsu-

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li xom ukve aRar aris; maS rogorRa SeiZleba xangrZlivi iyos is, rac saerTod ar aris? (11:18). am striqonebis Semdeg avgustine wers, rom xangrZlivad ara warsuli dro, aramed awmyo unda movixsenioT. Tumca 27-e paragrafSi is kiTxulobs: ranairad SegviZlia gavzomoT awmyo, romelsac xangrZlivoba ar gaaCnia? awmyo, romelic, praqtikulad nulis tolia. Cveni unari drois xangrZlivobis gazomvisa dafuZnebulia Cvens SesaZleblobaze am xangrZlivobis gonebaSi gatarebisa, romelic unda ganvicadoT. amrigad: drois gazomva mxolod maSin SegviZlia, roca is mimdinareobs, da SegviZlia swored imitom, rom mis msvlelobas vgrZnobT. gana SeiZleba gazomo warsuli, romelic ukve aRar aris, an momavali, romelic jer kidev ar aris? vin gabedavs imis mtkicebas, rom SeiZleba gazomo ararsebuli? ase rom, sanam dro mimdinareobs, is SeiZleba SeigrZno da gazomo kidec; magram roca man ganvlo, es ukve SeuZlebeli xdeba, radganac dro aRar aris (11:21). avgustines mixedviT, obieqturi samyaro droSi arsebobs, amitom is ufro metad ixreba im Tvalsazrisisken, rom dro arsebobs Cvens sulSic da obieqturadac, magram dro aris ara materialuri mocemuloba, aramed sulis Tviseba. aRsarebanSi avgustine wers: Cemis azriT, dro erTgvari ganfenilobaa, magram risi ganfeniloba? - es ki ar vici. iqneb sakuTriv sulisa? (11:33). rogorc vxedavT, avgustine ar gvTavazobs drois filosofiur an Teologiur gansazRvrebas. ra aris dro? es avgustinesTvis, saboloo jamSi, rCeba saidumlod. erTaderTi rasac is ambobs amis Sesaxeb, aris is, rom dro aris sulis erTgvari gangrZobiToba, gaxangrZlivebuloba. is cdilobs aCvenos, Tu rogor vacnobierebT dros da rogor SeiZleba aixsnas drois arsi mxolod fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT. marTalia, avgustines mier SemoTavazebuli drois amgvari fsiqologiuri Teoria ar aris originaluri, magram mis mcdelobaSi mainc aris garkveuli

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siaxle drois SegrZnebis ilustrirebisas mexsierebisa da molodinis (winaTgrZnobis) cnebebis gamoyenebiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom avgustines ufro drois fsiqologiuri gaazreba ainteresebs, magram is aseve iyenebs zogierT mTavar ideas antikuri filosofiidanac. ramdenadac avgustine ganixilavs dros rogorc naturfilosofiis sakiTxs, bunebrivia, misi Sexedulebebi aristoteles mimdevarTa da stoikosebis naazrevTan msgavsebasac amJRavnebs. avgustinec uSvebda, rom dro usazRvrod dayofadi Tanmimdevrulobaa (11:20); rom dro da moZraoba sxvadasxva ramaa, miuxedavad imisa, rom moZraoba ar arsebobs droisgan damoukideblad (11:31; 12:14). avgustine Tavis msjelobas amTavrebs fraziT: SenSi, sulo, Cemo, vzomav dros. amrigad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom avgustines damokidebuleba drois fenomenisadmi apofatikuria. am mxriv mis daskniT Sexedulebad SegviZlia miviCnioT Semdegi sityvebi: ...ra aris dro? Tu aravin mekiTxeba amas, diaxac vici, ra aris dro, magram Tu movindomeb SemkiTxvels avuxsna drois raoba, maSin ki araferic ar mesmis (11:17).

gamoyenebuli literatura: netari avgustine. aRsarebani. laTinuridan Targmna da SeniSvnebi daurTo baCana bregvaZem. gamomcemloba nekeri 1995

lali zaqaraZe

merab mamardaSvili: evropuli identobis aRqma _ gza TviTgamorkvevisken


evropuli identoba, evropuli sazogadoebis arsi da evropuli kulturis buneba! _ es is problemebia, romlis Sesaxeb ganazrebebi mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravda merab mamardaSvilis azrovnebisa da filosofosobis stils. am problemebis analiziT qarTveli filosofosi sabWoTa filosofiaSi iSviaT gamonakliss warmoadgenda, riTac moxibla kidec evropuli inteleqtualuri sazogadoeba. am `sawyisi wertilidan~ filosofosobas mamardaSvili sakuTari gamocdilebisa da azrovnebis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes faqtorad miiCnevda; radgan es iyo filosofiuri praqtika im adamianis piradi gamocdilebisa, romelic `evropaSi ki ara, aramed sxvagan iRviZebda _ erT provinciul qveyanaSi~, sadac igi sakuTar Tavs, Tavis qveyanasa da kulturas acnobierebda. winamdebare statiaSi gaanalizebul sakiTxTa speqtri eyrdnoba merab mamardaSvilis mier evropuli Tematikisadmi miZRvnil naSromebs, gansakuTrebiT ki, mis mier 1989 w. barselonaSi wakiTxul

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moxsenebas `evropuli pasuxismgebloba~, romlis srulyofili versia pirvelad gamoqveynda mamardaSvilis 80 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnil saerTaSoriso konferenciis masalebSi1. mamardaSvilis filosofosobis stili evropul filosofiasTan Sinagan kavSirs avlenda; mas SemTxveviT ar uwodes `qarTvelebis sokrate~2, an `frangi qarTul [`sabWoTa~] filosofiaSi~, an kidev `antikuri kolxeTis elinisturi filosofiis WeSmariti memkvidre~3; is TiTqmis erTaderTi iyo sabWoTa totalitarizmis saazrovno sivrceSi, romelic evropuli identobis sakuTar gagebas/aRqmas sruliad konkretuli miznebisTvis iyenebda: eCvenebina sabWoTa adamianis tragikuli cnobierebis Zirebi, gamoevlina azrovnebis Tavisuflebisa da mentaluri aqtivobis xelSemSleli faqtorebi, sabWoTa ideologiiT gajerebul araTavisufal sivrceSi Tavisuflebis suli Semoetana da `homo sovietikusad~ Camoyalibebul adamianebSi pirovneba gaeRviZebina. zemoT dasmuli problemebis analizi dakavSirebulia evropuli pasuxismgeblobis gacnobierebasTan, rac evropuli kulturisa da Rirebulebebis, evropuli identobis fesvebis wvdomas gulisxmobs. mamardaSvilis azriT, evropul identobas asaki ar gaaCnia, is mudam dabadebis procesSia; Tuki mamardaSvilis msjelobas Tanmimdevrulad mivyvebiT, maSin cxadi gaxdeba, rom evropuli identoba ori elementis _ berZnul-romauli samyaros samoqalaqo ideisa da qristianobis, kerZod, saxarebis ideis _ sinTezs warmoadgens. aq mniSvnelovania samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos romauli koncefcia. samoqalaqo samarTali romSi gasaocar simaRles aRwevs da adamianis, rogorc moqalaqisa da pirovnebis formirebaSi ganuzomlad did rols TamaSobs. aq ganxorcielda Tavisuf-

`evropuli pasuxismgebloba~. merab mamardaSvilis 80 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis masalebi, redaqtorSemdgeneli: T. iremaZe, Tbilisi, `nekeri~, 2011. 2 Sdr. J. p. vernani, qarTveli sokrate, Targmna m. xarbediam, ix.: `arili~, 12 oqtomberi (Tbilisi, 2000w.), gv. 6-8. 3 J. Bastenaire, Le Francais de la philosophie sovietuque // `evropuli pasuxismgebloba~, ... gv. 16-23.

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lebis ideis progresi. miuxedavad imisa, rom rom `romaeli xalxis gansja moklebulia gonsa da suls, misi meSveobiT mainc xorcieldeba Tavisuflebis progresi~, rac, saboloo jamSi, swored pozitiuri samarTlis Seqmnas ukavSirdeba. Tu hegelis samarTlis filosofiis ZiriTad principebs gavixsenebT, `aRmosavluri da nawilobriv berZnuli imperiisagan gansxvavebiT, romaelebma4 SemoiRes samarTlis axali principi, romelic formasa da formalizms efuZneba; [...] swored grZnobasa da suls moklebuli obieqturi norma iqca imad, rac SesaZlebebls xdis sulis, mrwamsis, zne-CveulebaTa da religiis Tavisuflebas~5. aRsaniSnavia, rom am procesis paralelurad viTardeboda azris Tavisufleba filosofiaSi. romis samarTlebrivi saxelmwifo naTeli magaliTia imisa, Tu rogor SeiZleba socialuri anu samoqalaqo idea, usasrulo ideali, ganxorcieldes realurad, konkretul sazogadoebaSi. saqarTvelo arasodes ar yofila romauli samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos memkvidre. am konteqstSi mamardaSvili sakuTar qveyanas postkoloniurs uwodebs: radgan `qveyana, sadac me davibade, aris eqsimperiis moxetiale paradoqsi da imavdroulad postkoloniuri [...]~6. evropuli identobis meore elementi, mamardaSvilis azriT, saxarebaa; saxareba adamianSi aris idea, Sinagani xma, sindisi; saWiroa am xmis gagoneba da mis kvaldakval svla. `saWiroa praqtikuli mxardaWeris, raime garantiis gareSe siaruli, svla mxolod Sinagani xmis kvaldakval. ase vlindeba adamiani, rogorc simSvidis damrRvevi elementi, rogorc moqmedi elementi, rogorc elementi, romelic qmnis istorias~7.

aRmosavleTi da Zv. berZnebi ki samarTlis principad zneobriv kavSirmimarTebebs da partikularul subieqturobas miiCnevdnen. 5 ix.: h. Snaideri, Tavisuflebis istoria hegelTan // h. Snaideri, l. zaqaraZe, g. TavaZe, d. labuCiZe, T. iremaZe, ra aris Tavisufleba? didi moazrovneebi Tavisuflebis arsis Sesaxeb, Sarl lui monteskie, Jan Jak ruso, georg vilhelm fridrix hegeli, herbert spenseri, erix fromi, Tbilisi, `nekeri~ 2011, gv.50-51. 6 m. mamardaSvili, evropuli pasuxismgebloba, ... gv. 209. 7 iqve, gv. 209.

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saxarebiseuli elementis analiziT mamardaSvili xazs usvams evropuli kulturis Taviseburebas: es aris TvalsaCino sxvaoba, Sinagani principi, TiToeul adamianSi arsebuli rwmena, rasac metyvelebis Zalas uwodeben. adamianis Sinagani principidan momdinare enis, metyvelebis uflebamosileba mamardaSvilTan arsebiT mniSvnelobas iZens da is adamianis Zalisxmevasa da brZolas gansazRvravs. adamianis yvelaze arsebiTi miswrafeba sakuTari Tavis realizebaa. es ki mxolod sametyvelo, artikulirebuli sivrciT aris miRwevadi. adamianis udidesi nawili, mamardaSvilis azriT, misi adamianobis miRmaa da metyvelebis sivrceSi arsebobs. `.[..] adamiani arsebobs SiSveli da marto sityvis winaSe, ... adamiani mxolod maSin aris adamiani, rodesac arsebobs sivrce cocxali agorisa, _ savse sametyvelo artikulaciiT [...]~8, rac mas saSualebas aZlevs Camoayalibos Tavisi azrebi, ifiqros is, rasac fiqrobs. evropeli adamianis istoria swored am ori elementis urTierTobiT yalibdeba. am TvalsazrisiT is maradiuli Zalisxmevaa da mudam ganaxlebadia. mamardaSvilisTvis evropuli kultura aris pirveli da, SesaZloa, saboloo pasuxi mniSvnelovan kiTxvaze _ SesaZlebelia Tu ara cvlileba msoflioSi, SesaZlebelia Tu ara, rom borkildadebul mdgomareobaSi myofi adamiani ganTavisufldes am mdgomareobidan, ganviTardes, amaRldes da adamianis srulyofili ideali ganaxorcielos. aRsaniSnavia, rom evropuli kulturis upiratesobebis win wamoweviT, mamardaSvili erTgvarad fridrix nicSes `didi evropuli politikis~ koncefcias exmianeba9. adamianis arsebobis safuZveli da sicocxlis saSualeba istoriaa. evropuli Zalisxmeva istoriuli formiT adamianis mier sakuTari Tavis realizaciis Seuwyveteli mcdelobaa, rac, saboloo jamSi, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis aRorZinebas iwvevs. mamardaSvilis azriT, swored samoqalaqo sazogadoebaa aucilebeli imisaTvis, rom adamiani istoriaSi iyos. misi Sexedulebebi samo-

8 9

iqve, gv. 212. ix.: T. iremaZe, evropuli Zalisxmeva // evropuli pasuxismgebloba, ... gv. 201.

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qalaqo sazogadoebis Sesaxeb cnobierebasa da istoriaze Rrma filosofiuri dakvirvebidan momdinareobs10. visac ar gaaCnia samoqalaqo sazogadoebis srulyofili sistemis istoria, mas unda esmodes, rom `es aris is, rac unda gvqondes~ da, amasTan, is SesaZloa gvqondes istoriuli perspeqtivis saxiT. evropa is samyaroa, sadac SesaZlebelia istoriis progresuli Zalebis da sakuTari arsebobis safuZvlebis aRorZineba. mamardaSvilTan adamianic evropuli identobis konteqstSia gaazrebuli. adamianic mudmivad sakuTari Tavis formirebis procesSia. Sesabamisad, istoriac adamianad gaxdomis mcdelobis istoriaa. `adamiani ar arsebobs, igi iqmneba~11. marTalia, evropelebi da araevropelebic erTsa da imave istoriul momentebSi arseboben, magram maTi istoriuli momentebis qronologia erTmaneTs ar emTxveva. mamardaSvilis azrebi ufro momavlis azrebi aRmoCnda, radgan is dRevandelobas exmianeba. is, rac niSandoblivia evropuli kulturisTvis, is `axla~ xdeba CvenTvis da Cvenc, SesaZloa, imave safrTxeebisa da pasuxismgeblobis winaSe aRmovCndeT. es safrTxe, upirveles yovlisa, axali, modernuli, Tanamedrove barbarosobaa, mas SeiZleba kulturuli barbarosobac vuwodoT; es is mdgomareobaa, roca adamians ar eZleva saSualeba yovelive imis gamoTqmisa, rasac ganicdis, rasac grZnobs, rac surs da rasac fiqrobs. amgvari cxovreba `CanasaxSive mkvdari dabadebaa~, es aris Tavisuflebasa da azrovnebaze uaris Tqma, rac sikvdilis tolfasia, rac sakuTar Rirsebaze uaris Tqmas niSnavs. `istoria, xSir SemTxvevaSi, aris sasaflao imisa, rac darCa arSobil sulTa enaSi~12. sapirispirod amisa, evropeloba mudam ganaxlebis mdgomareobisadmi mzaobas niSnavs. es adamianis `bunebrivi mdgomareobaa~. es aris mudmivi, dauRalavi Zalisxmeva srulyofisa da ukeTesis damkvidrebisken. evropul kulturaSi es erTgvari universaluri

10

L. R. Fletcher, A slow reading of The Civil Society: An Interview with Merab Mamardashvili // evropuli pasuxismgebloba, ... gv. 96. 11 evropuli pasuxismgebloba, ... gv. 211. 12 iqve, gv. 213.

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kanonis saxes iZens: iyo samarTliani, mihyve Sinagan xmas da arasodes waxvide sakuTari sindisis winaaRmdeg. aq Tavisufali azrovneba da srulyofilebisken swrafva, kantianuri _ sakuTari sindisis xma CemSi _ da qristianul-saxarebiseuli principebi erTmaneTs xvdeba. evropuli identoba am principebis erTgulebas gulisxmobs. amdenad, gamosavali erTia: imgvari Zalisxmevis aRorZineba an xelaxla Seqmna, romlis simtkiciTaa daRdasmuli evropuli qmediToba. es imgvari sivrcis Seqmnis tolfasia, sadac nebismieri adamiani SeZlebs sakuTari jansaRi Zalebis mobilizebas Tavisuflebis cnobierebis misaRwevad, imave ZalisxmeviT daelodeba sakuTar Tavs da moaxerxebs TviTgamorkvevas.

Tamar berekaSvili

identobis problema dro da sarke

am qveyanaze arsebobs ori mocemuloba, romlebic, TiTqosda, yvelaze Cveulia, yoveldRiuria, mudam CvenTan aris, Tan gvdevs da amasTan rCeba amoucnobi da idumali. esaa dro da sarke. ucnauria da aralogikuri drois da sarkis erTad ganxilva, rogorc msgavsis an erTi bunebis movlenebis. isini marTlac sruliad gansxvavebul mocemulobebs Tu ideebs warmoadgenen, magram amasTan, orive adamianis realobis nawilia da misi arsebobis predikati. orive erTgvar rols asrulebs adamianis identobis povnasa da ganmtkicebaSi da mimarTeba orive am cnebisadmi, Cveni azriT, naTels hfens identurobis problemas. adamiani Tavisi arsebobis manZilze cdilobs Tavisi adgilis, mniSvnelobis, daniSnulebis gacnobierebas. nawilobriv is amas axerxebs da axdens TviTidentobis meSveobiT. warmoudgenelia, rogor unda SesZlos adamianma zogadad adamianis, adamianurobis gaazreba, Tu ar Camoyalibda TviTon garkveul `med~, subieqtad, ar ganmtkicda TviTgancdaSi da ar Seafasa Tavisi gansakuTrebuloba. es, TiTqosda, bunebrivi da sruliad logikuri procesi arc Tu iseTi martivia.

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uamravia adamiani, romelic ibadeba, cxovrobs, kvdeba da srulebiT ar fiqrobs Tavis daniSnulebaze da, miTumetes, ar cdilobs Tavisi adgilis, gansakuTrebuli adgilis damkvidrebas. TviTidenturobis problemis saintereso interpretacias iZleva frangi filosofosi pol rikiori (1), romelic Tavis xedvas odisevsis magaliTis meSveobiT gadmogvcems. is miiCnevs, rom identurobis problema, romelic yvela moazrovne pirovnebas udgeba, gulisxmobs ara marto mis pirovnul TviTgamorkvevas, Tavisi saSualebebis da unarebis wvdomas, aramed agreTve cnobas sxvebis mxridan. ar aris sakmarisi, me vicode vina var da ra SemiZlia, Semdegi nabijia _ sxvebis mxridan Cemi meobis aRiareba, Cemi cnoba aseTad Tu ar moxda, Cemi meoba, Cemi TviTidentoba ver gansaxierdeba, ver ganmtkicdeba. amis karg magaliTs marTlac odisevsi warmoadgens, romelic mravali wliT mowyda saxls, samSoblos da brundeba Sin, rogorc ucnobi. Tavad manac erTgvarad dakarga TviTSegrZnebis Zveli, Cveuli xati da Tavidan uxdeba Tavisi meobis TviTgamorkveva, misi SesaZleblobebis sazRvrebis dadgena da sxvebisTvis amis kidev erTxel damtkiceba. rasakvirvelia, es procesi ar iwyeba am SemTxvevaSi sufTa furclidan. odisevs aqvs warsuli, saidanac mohyveba TilismasaviT mexsierebis suraTebi da utyuari simboloebi, romlebic mxolod misia, misi Taviseburebis, erTaderTobis niSnebia. aTi wlis manZilze odisevsi modis saxlSi, iTakaSi, da am aTi wlis manZilze is uamrav gansacdels xvdeba, rac misgan moiTxovs gonierebas, erTgulebas, vaJkacobas, simamaces, moTminebas, imeds da rwmenas. marTalia, am grZel gzaze mas exmareba qalRmerTi aTena, magram imitomac exmareba, rom es odisevsia, an unda gaxdes odisevsi. amasTan mtrebic hyavs da erT-erTi maTgani yovlisSemZle zRvebisa da okeaneebis RmerTi- poseidonia, romlis winaaRmdegobis daZlevas gansakuTrebuli pirovnuloba sWirdeba, swored odisevsoba sWirdeba. homeross araferi aqvs naTqvami, ramdenad mniSvnelovania dro am TviTidentobis povnasa da ganmtkicebaSi. ramdenad mniSvnelovania is imisTvis, rom imis Semdeg, rac odisevsi `Tavs gaitans~ da SeinarCunebs, miiyvans miznamde, aiZulebs sxvebsac, scnon misi meoba, misi erTaderToba, misi uflebebi, misi odisevsoba. drois mniSvnelobaze arc rikiors aqvs raime naTqvami. TviTidentobis mtkiceba es aqtia, ufro swored, aqtebis mTeli

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wyeba. da am aqtebs zurgs umagreben simboloebi, niSnebi, romlebic mniSvnelobas iZenen am aqtebis fonze, magram maT gareSe arafris mTqmelebia. odisevsis SemTxvevaSi, magaliTad, es simboloebia: naiarevi wvivze, an saidumlo odisevsis da penelopas sawolze, romlis Seqmnis istoria marto maT ician. maS ase, dro: dro, romelic uxilavia da mas veravin xedavs, Tumca mis Zalas da gavlenas yvela grZnobs. Znelia, SeuZlebeli umtkico garemocvas, rom igive xar oci wlis Semdegac. aq, marTlac, damatebiTi simboloebi da saidumlo mogonebebi mniSvnelobas iZenen, magram mainc gadaulaxavi zRudeebi Cndeba. berZnebisTvis dro yovelTvis warmoadgenda did problemas. dro araracionaluria maTTvis da saWiroa misi moSoreba. berZnebi dros ganixilavdnen an rogorc ciklur dros~, romelic ar viTardeba. es aris maradisoba, romelic moZraobs wreze, an rogorc `miTiur dros~, rodesac dros ar gaaCnia Tanmimdevroba da aqvs dabrunebis unari. odisevsisTvis, TiTqosda, dros arca aqvs mniSvneloba. es misi xvedria, rac droze ar aris damokidebuli, is yvela SemTxvevaSi moxdeba da es faqtobrivad aris mudmivi gameoreba, romelic amjerad odisevs uweria ganasaxieros. qristianobam kardinalurad Secvala antikuri, berZnuli midgoma droisadmi. qristianobisTvis TiToeul suls aqvs Tavisi gansakuTrebuli istoria, romlis winaswarganWvreta SeuZlebelia. dro aq warmoadgens gadasvlas, rodesac xdeba misi daniSnulebis gansaxiereba. Cveni bedi ar ganisazRvreba winaswar raRac niSnebiT, magaliTad, zodiaqos niSnebiT, da Cveni daniSnuleba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor gamoviyenebT dros, dros, romelic Tavisufalia, an Cveni damrTgunvelia. Cveni materialoba igive droa, romelic SezRudulia da swored es is xanaa, is periodia, romelic me maqvs imisTvis, rom Cemi identoba davamkvidro da movipovo maradisoba. da Cemi identoba, romelic maradisobas miqadis, mtkicdeba sxvaTa aRiarebiTac, cnobiT, Cemi identurobis niSnad qceviT. egzistencialistebis da, kerZod, haidegeris (2) SexedulebiT, dro adamianis yofierebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia. dro ara marto dakavSirebulia zogadad yofierebasTan, aramed swored adamianis yofierebasTan. dros, romelic adamianTanaa dakavSirebuli, haidegeri uwodebs `pirvelsawyis dros~, xolo dros, romelic ar aris

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uSualod dakavSirebuli adamianTan, `warmoebul dros~. dros romelsac adamiani ganicdis, haidegeri uwodebs `droebiTobas~, romelic yofierebis rogoroba ki ara, aramed Tavad yofierebaa, anu iqceva Tavad subieqtad. droebiToba yovelTvis Cvenia da CvenSia, misi meSveobiT ixsneba yofiereba. droebiTobas haidegeri axasiaTebs iseTi niSnebiT, rogorebicaa: sasruloba, eqstatiuroba, horizontaloba, sikvdilisken mimarTeba. sasruloba dakavSirebulia adamianis arsebobis sasrulobasTan. eqstatiuroba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom warsuli, awmyo da momavali arseboben erTdroulad da warmoadgenen `eqstazebs~ - adamianis subieqturi gancdebis momentebs. horizontaloba niSnavs imas, rom `pirvelsawyisi~ dro ar aris dakavSirebuli ganviTarebis procesTan. mas axasiaTebs ara imdenad ganviTareba, rogorc ganmeoreba. haidegeri miiCnevs, rom Tanamedrove filosofiaSi xdeba awmyos absolutizireba. sinamdvileSi ki warsuli, awmyo da momavali urTierTganapirobeben erTmaneTs, xdeba maTi urTierTSeRweva. warsuli mudam arsebobs da zemoqmedebs awmyoze da momavalze, romlebic agreTve yovelTvis arseboben da zemoqmedeben erTmaneTze da warsulze. ganixileba ra rogorc awmyo, dro ganixileba rogorc mudmivi yofna, xolo momavlis formiT is dakavSirebulia SiSTan, molodinTan, movaleobasTan. marto mimarTeba momavlisken aniWebs pirovnebas namdvil arsebobas. adamianis arseboba, haidegeris mixedviT, aerTianebs drois sxvadasxva momentebs, aerTianebs yofierebas da dros. metic, adamiani Tavad aris drois Semqmneli, vinaidan awmyo da momavali, da, amdenad, warsulic, determinirebulia misi qceviT da samomavlo gegmebiT. drois gareSe adamiani ver iqneboda calkeuli arseba, me igivuri gaxdeboda RmerTis. xangrZlivoba, droebiToba me maZlevs saSualebas viurTierTobo RmerTTan da amasTan maSorebs mas. xangrZlivobas axasiaTebs qmnadoba, is aris arsebulis arsebobis saSualeba. drois TiToeuli momenti maradisobis gamovlenaa. haidegeris idea warsulis, awmyos da momavlis Tanaarsebobis Sesaxeb kargad eTanadeba Tanamedrove midgomebsac. xangrZlivoba warmoadgens swored im cnebas, romelic yvelaze kargad gamoxatavs drois arsebobas adamianisTvis da misi am sami saxis (warsuli, awmyo, momavali) arsebobis gamijvnis pirobiTobas. dRes

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laparakia imaze, rom warsuli aris momavlis momavali (laveli) da ar gansazRvravs momavals. piriqiT, warsuli gamudmebiT icvleba momavlis gavleniT. marTlac, ganusazRvreli momavlis SemTxvevaSi adamiani Seborkilia, is kargavs am momavals, imitom rom ver xedavs warsuls. mxolod Camoyalibebuli pirovneba, romelic identobis damkvidrebis Sedegad xedavs warsuls, flobs momavals. marto warsulis gamijvniT SesaZlebelia win svla da mxolod momavals SeuZlia gansazRvros warsulis romeli movlenaa mniSvnelovani. Tavisufali adamiani ukan ar ixedeba, ambobs oskar ualdi, magram warsulisgan gaTavisufleba SesaZlebelia mxolod misi gacnobierebiT. warsuli gvaZlevs Cven STabeWdilebebs, Sefasebebs, imedebs, gvixsnis im gzebs da sferoebs, sadac Cveni meobis yvelaze sruli gamoxatvis SesaZleblobaa, magram amasTan warsuli sasowarkveTilebis grZnobis udidesi wyaroa. Amdenad, momavali ara mexsierebaa warsulis momentebze, aramed maTi gaxsenebis da gamoyenebis unaria. gamoketva warsulSi ar warmoadgens sicocxlis gaxangrZlivebas. xangrZlivoba, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, mudmivi qmnadobaa. am TvalsazrisiT, istoria es perspeqtivaa, romelic moqceulia warsulisken, magram mis centrs yovelTvis warmoadgens awmyo. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom es centri mudam gadaadgildeba, amitom istoriac icvleba. Jan lakrua sainteresod axasiaTebs drois da maradiulobis urTierTmimarTebas; (4) misi SexedulebiT, es mimarTeba kargad gamoixateba sindisis qejnisa da monaniebis analizSi. sindisis qejna mimarTulia warsulze da aq yovelTvis SeiZleba moxdes ise, rom is gadaiqceva sasowarkveTilebad. marTlac, gamoketva warsulSi, marto misiT cxovreba, misi uaryofiTi mxareebis mudmivi gadasinjva da uunaroba misi gadalaxvisa sxva araferia, Tu ara sasowarkveTileba. iudasa da wminda petres Soris gansxvaveba ara maTi Secodebis xarisxSia, aramed imaSi, rom iuda moiqca warsulisken, ver gadalaxa is da sasowarkveTilebaSi Cavarda, ramac TviTmkvlelobamde miiyvana. xolo wminda petrem Tavisi mzera momavlisken miapyro, imedisken, sasowarkveTili adamiani Tavisi warsulis tyvea. sainteresoa agreTve, rom momavlisken svla, monanieba, qmnadoba Zalian xSirad sazogadoebaSi dabrunebaa, adamianebTan da adamianebisTvis yofnaa. monanieba mimarTulia momavlisken. es metafizikuri grZnobaa, romelic gadalaxavs dros da maradiulobas Seefarde-

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ba. uneburad maxsendeba van-gogis mier moyvanili ambavi kaci midioda salocavad da fiqrobda: RmerTo, iqneb mTeli Cemi Canafiqri amaoa?! vin icis, Rirs Tu ara raimis keTeba? an Tu gavakeTeb kidec, ramdenad SesaZlebelia Sedegis miReba? an ki movaswreb am Sedegis miRebas? aseT fiqrebSi garTuls Semoesma xma. moiqeci ise, TiTqos ukvdavi xar da yvelaferi kargad iqneba. magram aseTi midgoma samarTliania da qmediTi saqmis dawyebisas. sinamdvileSi, sicocxle es mudmivi dasawyisia. warsulis gadalaxva dasawyiss niSnavs; Caketili samyarodan gareT gasvlaa, komunikaciis, urTierTobisTvis mzadyofnaa da am mzadyofnis mospoba momavlis CaxSobis tolfasia. warsulidan gamosvla momavlisken, maradiulisken svlaa. aq Cndeba axali saSiSroeba, samomavlo cru mzadyofnis gancda, romelic uSedegoa da warmoadgens mauvaise foi, cru arCevans an yalb arCevans. aq ar SeiZleba ar gavixsenoT CiCerinis araCveulebrivi fraza mocartze: `mas yovelTvis axsovda, rom mokvdavia~. yofiereba, romelic igive droSi yofnaa, gansaxierebuli paradoqsia, erTi mxriv, adamiani mudam laxavs warsuls da momavlisken miemarTeba, maradiulobaSi, da, meore mxriv ki, mas mudam axsovs, rom mokvdavia, rom yoveli wuTi SeiZleba ukanaskneli aRmoCndes da mxolod am ori gancdis gamTlianebiT adamiani iqceva pirovnebad da poulobs Tavis identurobas. aq ar SeiZleba ar SevniSnoT, rom warsulSi aris faqtiuri movlenebi, romelTa Secvla SeuZlebelia, magram faqtebi es materialuri sferoa. adamiani ki ganisazRvreba ara faqtebiT, aramed aqtebiT. marTalia, momxdari faqti ar SeiZleba Seicvalos, Tundac monaniebiT, magram SeiZleba Seicvalos misi sazrisi. adamianis cxovrebaSi araferia saboloo, gayinuli, araferia warsuli. awmyo, romelic maradiulis amwuTieri arsebobaa axal da sakuTar mniSvnelobas aniWebs warsulsac da momavalsac. da es svla warsulidan momavlisken xangrZlivobis wyalobiT niSnavs adamianis maradiulobasTan wilxvedrobas, rac igivea, rac misi identobis mudmiv mtkicebas droSi dauRleli aqtebiT, SromiT. Cven aRvniSneT, rom identobis damkvidrebisTvis aucilebelia sxvebis aRiareba, erTgvari dasturi garedan, rac, rogorc ukve iTqva, momavlis TvalsazrisiT warsulis gansazRvracaa da Tavisi erTaderTobis niSnebis, simboloebis dafiqsirebac, rac cnobili da miRebuli iqneba im garemocviT, adamianis an adamian-

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Ta jgufis mier, romelic aucilebelia Cemi identobis gansamtkiceblad. aq Cndeba sarkis mniSvneloba adamianisTvis da misi meobis formirebisTvis. sagangebo moments warmoadgens adamianisTvis is periodi, rodesac bavSvi iwyebs Tavis cnobas sarkeSi, anu Tavisi gamosaxulebis da Sinagani meobis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebas. sarke, erTi mxriv, adamians exmareba Tavs Sexedos garedan, obieqturad da, meore mxriv, saSualebas aZlevs mas garegnobis usiamovno nakvTebi Secvalos, dafaros. anu sarke, TiTqosda, Signidan gareT sasurveli niSnebis gamotanisa da gamosaxvis saSualebaa da Semdeg Sinagani gamoZaxilis mixedviT, am gare gamosaxulebis koreqtirebis saSualebacaa. sarke idumalebis Semcveli sagania aseTi nacnobi, misawvdomi da amasTan, uamravi saidumlos Semcveli. uamravi miTi, zRapari, Tqmuleba swored am mimarTebas asaxavs sarkisadmi. micvalebulis saxlSi dasvenebisas, sarkes afareben tilos, Ria karebSi sarke ar unda Candes, sarkeTi mkiTxaoben, yvebian mis jadosnur unarze. amboben, rom sarkeebis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia drois SekumSva da piriqiT, drois gawelva. am TvalsazrisiT tibetSi arsebul kldovan sarkeebs (bunebriv sarkeebs) zogierTi mogzauri da mkvlevari `drois manqanas~ uwodebs. Easea Tu ara, magram ueWvelad unda vaRiaroT, rom sarke garkveuli idumali energiis wyarod iqceva, Tu masTan dakavSirebul uamrav legendas da istorias gavixsenebT. is iqca iseT simbolod, romelic Tavis TavSi uamrav geStalts atarebs, Tu SeiZleba es fsiqologiuri termini am SemTxvevas mivusadagoT. Znelia imis gansazRvra, Tu ramdenad mistiuria sarke, magram is aseTi gaxda misi sagangebo funqciis da misdami damokidebulebis gamo. is, vinc sarkeSi iyureba, Zalian xSirad aigivebs sarkeSi arsebul gamosaxulebas realobasTan. es problema warmoadgens im tradiciuli gansxvavebis magaliTs, romelic arsebobs moCvenebiTobasa da realobas Soris, rac bertran raselis azriT, `erT-erTi iseTi gansxvavebaa, romelic iwvevs filosofiaSi yvelaze did problemebs~. amrigad, sarke, romelSic adamians Tavisi realuri, WeSmariti saxis danaxva surs, SeiZleba moCvenebiTobis da, amdenad, yalbi warmodgenis safuZveli gaxdes. adamiani, romelic sarkis win met-naklebi warmatebiT iqmnis Tavis garegnul imijs, SeiZ-

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leba am imijis tyve gaxdes da misiT Seanacvlos Tavisi Sinagani pirovnuli arsi, anu miswrafeba qmnadobisken, WeSmariti `mes~ Zieba gadaifaros sarkeSi warmodgenili xelovnuri gamosaxulebiT. uneburad gvaxsendeba miTi narcisze, romelmac Tvali ver mowyvita Tavis gamosaxulebas wyalSi da misi mTeli cxovreba am gamosaxulebis tkbobad gadaiqca. sinamdvileSi adamianebs gvsurs nozikis sityvebiT: `viyoT gansazRvruli saxiT gansazRvruli pirovnebebi~ (6.) anu gvsurs namdvili arseboba, namdvili identobis povna, namdvili qmedeba, maradisobasTan Sexeba. SeuZlebelia adamiani pirovnebad Camoyalibdes, Tu man ar gadalaxa Tavisi warsuli viTarebebi, Tavisi wina, arasrulyofili, cdomili meobebi (razec ukve visaubreT). magaliTisTvis SeiZleba moviyvanoT Cveni mozardobis droindeli suleluri, xSirad ulmobeli qmedebebi, magram bevri adamiani amas laxavs da yalibdeba sakmaod dadebiT pirovnebad. magram amisTvis aucilebelia namdvili gamocdileba, sakuTar Secdomebze sindisis qejna da monanieba. aristotelec Tavis `nikomaqes eTikaSi~ aRniSnavs, rom evdemonia anu xangrZlivi namdvili bedniereba da keTildReoba es iseTi ramea, rac SeiZleba davaxasiaToT rogorc moRvaweoba, qmedeba. namdvili adamiani, pirovneba aris ara adamiani, rogoric is aris, aramed rogoric is unda gaxdes qmnadobis procesSi. davubrundebiT ra sarkes, unda SevniSnoT, rom sarke ase Tu ise mainc gviCvenebs, ra gvsurs, rogori gvinda viyoT, ra grZnobebi gvinda aRvbeWdoT Cvens garegnobaSi, rogor gvinda movaCvenoT Tavi Cvens irgvliv myofebs. Tu SevizRudebiT mxolod garegnuli imijis SeqmniT da amiT davkmayofildebiT, rasakvirvelia, Cvens SesaZlo WeSmarit pirovnulobas verasodes movipovebT. sarkeSi xelovnurad Seqmnili saxe xom yovelTvis raRac mza-mzareuli xatia, kalkia ukve viRacis mier Seqmnili xatisa, es morgebaa sxvisi ieris, ucxo simbolos gamravlebaa. aucilebelia sakuTari simboloebis, sakuTari niSnebis da idumali gamocdilebis arseboba, rac pirovnulobis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes atributs Seadgens. sarkeSi maTi aRmoCena an Seqmna SeuZlebelia; isini Tavad iqmneba adamianis realuri qmediTi cxovrebiT da xSirad srulebiT ar emTxveva sasurvels, Tumca ki yovelTvis arsebobs maTi Secvlis da srulyofis saSualeba warsulis gadalaxviT da momavlisken swrafviT. xdeba isedac, rom damdgari awmyo ufro mSvenieria da mdidari, vidre adamians SeiZleba war-

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moedgina. sarkeSi danaxuli Tavisi saocnebo gamosaxuleba am SemTxvevaSi axal cdunebad iqceva warsulad qceul awmyoSi dasarCenad. warsuli ki, rogorc iTqva, mkvdaria da ararsebuli, Tu mas momavali ar gardaqmnis. literatura 1. . . . 2010. 2. . . 1997. 3. - // . . 1989. 4. . . . . . 2004 5. Lavelle L. Du temps et de lternit. Aubier, 1945. 6. .Nozick R. Anarchy, State and Utopia. N Y 1974 N7.

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gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19,
E-mail: universal@internet.ge

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