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saqarTvelos semiotikis sazogadoeba

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

IX SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2011

2 UDC 8122

mTavari redaqtori cira barbaqaZe Editor-in-Chief Tsira Barbakadze

redaqtorebi Tamar berekaSvili Tamar lomiZe gia joxaZe

Editors Tamar Berekashvili Tamar Lomidze Gia Jokhadze

semiotikis kvlevis centri 2011 ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT: E-mail: tsira_barbakadze@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
enisa da literaturis semiotika
cira barbaqaZe drois universaluri konceptualuri metaforebi anu wrfeze da wreze moZravi dro guram baxtaZe ilia WavWavaZis saprogramo Txzulebebis kvali daTa TuTaSxiaSi konstantine bregaZe goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia zeinab gvariSvili keningebis semiozisis diaqronuli analizi amiran gomarTeli `sulikos~ semiotika anu kidev erTxel `sulikos~ saidumlos Sesaxeb Tamar lomiZe sosiuris anagramaTa Teoria da enobrivi eqsperimentebi futuristul poeziaSi 68 53 48 27 16 7

4 ada nemsaZe TeTri feris simboluri gaazrebisaTvis nino saluqvaZe bibliur simboloTa semiotikuri analizi d.h. lorensis SemoqmedebaSi 86 73

kulturis semiotika
xaTuna TavdgiriZe drakonis intronizacia. ZvelCinuri miTosur-filosofiuri kosmologia 92

maka laSxia erosis bunebis gansazRvreba platonis filosofiaSi 105

malxaz mayaSvili mcenareTa saxeldeba qarTul enaze 123

irakli mWedliSvili proeqciuli utopia da utopiuri proeqti 128

salome omiaZe yofis semiotikis sakiTxisaTvis 142

5 nana trapaiZe WeSmariteba, interpretacia da perspeqtivizmis problemebi nicSes ,,ase ityoda zaratustra mixedviT 150

guram yifiani Zveli samyaros geometriis anasaxebi arqiteqturul detalebze 158

qeTevan jiSiaSvili qalaquri sivrce da kulturis axali paradigma 171

revaz jorbenaZe xelmoweris grafiti _ urbanuli ena da mxatvroba 180

gia joxaZe maradi Suasaukuneebi 193

Targmani
rolan barti TxrobiTi teqstebis struqturuli analizis Sesavali (Targmna Tamar lomiZem) 212

enisa da literaturis semiotika a


cira barbaqaZe

drois universaluri konceptualuri metaforebi anu wrfeze da wreze moZravi dro


aucilebelia SevitanoT dro azrovnebaSi, raTa gamovitanoT azrovneba droidan. delezi To gaze at a river made of time and water And remember Time is another river. To know we stray like a river and our faces vanish like water. borxesi im wreSi, sadac axla vdgavarT, momavali ar imyofeba mTqnarebis wreSi. besik xaranauli

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis samagistro da sadoqtoro programebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori, SedarebiTi literaturis institutis mkvlevari. ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografiebi _ qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis lingvopragmatika (2003), qarTuli sakanonmdeblo stili (1996), poeziis semiotika (2009). interesTa sfero: semiotika, ritorika, poetika, kritika.

dro aris kulturis gansakuTrebuli maCvenebeli, masTan aris dakavSirebuli epoqis suli, adamianTa qcevebi, maTi cnobiereba, cxovrebis ritmi da sagnebTan mimarTeba; drois saidumlos wvdoma mxolod enis meSveobiT miiRweva. drois enobrivi reprezentacia xorcieldeba metaforaTa meSveobiT (am sityvis farTo gagebiT). Tanamedrove TeoriebiT, metafora ganixileba, rogorc mentaluri operacia, rogorc Semecnebis, samyaros struqturirebisa da aRqmis saSualeba.

cira barbaqaZe

kognitiuri mecnierebis poziciidan, metaforizacia efuZneba codnis or struqturas: sawyisis (source domain) da miznis (target domain) kognitiur struqturebs. metaforis mamodelirebeli funqcia imiT gamoixateba, rom metafora ara mxolod ayalibebs warmodgenas obieqtze, aramed gansazRvravs azrovnebis stils masze. metafora gvWirdeba ara mxolod imisTvis, rom, miRebuli dasaxelebis wyalobiT, Cveni azri sxvaTaTvis xelmisawvdomi gavxadoT; igi Tavad Cven gvWirdeba imisTvis, rom obieqti Cveni azrisTvis misawvdomi gaxdes... (xose ortega i gaseti). koncepti dro mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli eris kulturasa da enasTan. ena aireklavs kulturas, cvlilebebs kulturaSi, ena reagirebs am cvlilebebze drois bazisuri metaforuli modelebis cvliT. konceptualuri metaforebis Zala ganisazRvreba mis gaucnobierebel gamoyenebaSi. lakofis mixedviT, metaforaTa Tvisebaa, rom isini ki ar qrebian, aramed rCebian adamianTa cnobierebaSi, maTi moqmedebis logikuri Sedegebi ki vlindeba Cven mier samyaros aRqmis TaviseburebebSi. samyaroSi albaT ar arsebobs sagani, romelSic drois metaforuli gadatana ar moxerxdeba. kulturebs axasiaTebT rogorc universaluri, aseve individualuri drois gadatana. borxesi labirinTebSi ase axasiaTebs drois fenomens: dro aris substancia, romlisganac me var Seqmnili, dro mdinarea, romelmac wamiRo, magram es mdinare me var, dro cecxlia, romelic mwvavs, magram es cecxli _ me var....
dro _ moZraoba

drois universaluri konceptualur mimarTebaa dro _ moZraoba. es moZraoba ki gansxvavebulad realizdeba. drois metaforaa mdinare _ yvelaferi swored imitom miedineba, rom droSi arsebobs. metaforuli gadatanisas erTi sagnis an movlenis aRwera xdeba meore sagnis niSnebiT da TvisebebiT. ra saerTo maxasiaTeblebi uCndeba dros da mdinares? wylis (mdinaris) drosTan kavSiri universaluri metaforaa. am analogiiT enasa da kulturaSi mravali axali metafora ibadeba gansxavavebul enaze, gansxvavebuli sintaqsiT, magram saerTo ideiT, rac adasturebs kacobriobis fsiqikur da mentalur erTianobas da amave dros, gamoxatvis individualurobas.


drois universaluri konceptualuri metaforebi anu ....

yvelaferi, rac arsebobs, dros miaqvs... Tumca zogs inaxavs dro, zogs ki _ swrafad aqrobs da iviwyebs. mas Semdeg mravalma wyalma Caiara _ ityvis qarTul enaze molaparake da mraval wyalSi, bunebrivia, dros igulisxmebs, anu _ didi dro gavida... Sesabamisad, frazeologiaSi arsebobs sintagma: cxovrebis dineba (iseve, rogorc drois dineba). raki dro mdinarea, xolo cxovreba droiT gansazRvruli, maSasadame, cxovrebac mdinarea, anu dineba, romelsac zogi mihyveba, zogs miaTrevs es dineba, xolo zogisTvis morevad iqceva. aqedan _ kidev erTi farzeologiuri sintagma: cxovrebis morevi.... (barbaqaZe, 2006:31). dro-mdinaris metaforuli gadatanis Sedegia Semdegi frazeologizmebic: drom waiRo, drom wamoativtiva, drom CaZira... raki dro moZraobaa, is metaforizdeba gzis konceptiTac. rogorc mdinaris, aseve gzis metaforizebis SemTxvevaSi, dro wrfivia... Sesabamisad: dro midis, Cerdeba, mirbis, migoravs, mifrinavs, miizlazneba... aseT SemTxvevaSi, drom, romelmac gza unda gaiaros, aqvs dasawyisi da orientacia (mimarTuleba). aRniSnuli modeli udevs safuZvlad drois qristianul gaazrebas. dro _ RmerTis saCuqaria... uflis mier adamianis Seqmnidan dro iwyeba da miemarTeba gansasjelisken, saidanac mas ori gza aqvs: samoTxe da jojoxeTi. es aris adamianis cxovrebis religiuri gaazrebis safuZveli. Tu adamiani gzidan gadauxvevs da daikargeba (rogorc uZRebi Svili), aseT SemTxvevaSi ityvian, rom adamiani gzas acda.... Semdeg xdeba gzasacdenilis dabruneba swor gzaze (Sesabamisad, swor droSi). dro moZraobs wrfivad (qristianuli drois modeli) da dro moZraobs agreTve wreze (astronomiuli, miTologiuri). swored drois wreze moZraobis gamomxatvelia qarTulSi frazeologizmi: drois brunva. vah, sofelo, raSigan xar, ras gvabruneb, ra zne gWirsa! yovlimc Seni mondobili niadagmca Cemebr stirsa; (SoTa rusTaveli) an damisxi, damalevine, e Rvino oxer-tiali, egeba waRma vifiqro soflis ukuRma triali! (vaJa_fSavela)

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dReebi brunavs, viT kamaTeli... (galaktioni)
dro _ fulia

cira barbaqaZe

dro uflis saCuqridan iqca resursad, romelsac gonivruli gamoyeneba sWirdeba. dro ajildoebs mas, vinc sasargeblod iyenebs. am pragmatuli mimarTebis gamomxatveli universaluri konceptualuri metaforaa _ dro _ fulia! aRniSnul metaforebs kargad ganixilaven jonsoni da lakofi naSromSi: metaforebi, romlebiTac vcxovrobT. Tanamedrove inglisur enaSi isini aRniSnuli metaforuli mimarTebis Semdeg frazeologizmebs gamoyofen (lakofi, jonsoni 1990:387) TIME IS MONEY _ dro fulia You are wasting my time _ dros marTmevT This gadget will save you hours _ es saSualeba dagizogavT bevr dros I don't have the time to give you _ dro ara maqvs, rom dagiTmoT How do you spend your time these days? _ rogor xarjavT dros am dReebSi? That flat tire cost me an hour _ es CafuSuli saburavi erTi saaTi damijda I've invested a lot of time in her _ didi dro Cavde masSi I don't have enough time to spare for that _ ara maqvs sakmarisi dro amisTvis You're running out of time _ Tqven amowureT drois rezervi You need to budget your time _ Tqven unda gaTvaloT Tqveni dro Put aside some time for ping pong _ gamoyaviT dro ping-pongisTvis Is that worth your while? _ Rirs drois dakargvad? Do you have much time left? _ bevri dro dagrCaT? is living on borrowed time _ is cxovrobs sxvisi drois xarjze You don't use your time profitably _ Tqven dros sasargeblod ar xarjavT I lost a lot of time when I got sick _ bevri dro davkarge avadmyofobisas Thank you for your time _ gmadlobT daxarjuli droisTvis


drois universaluri konceptualuri metaforebi anu ....

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warmodgenili frazeologizmebi TiTqmis universaluri xasiaTisaa. qarTul enaSic maT Sesabamisi Sesatyvisebi daeZebneba. raki dro fulia, dros igive emarTeba, rac fuls: ikargeba, nawildeba, iwureba, ixarjeba, inaxeba, izogeba, ideba (saqmeSi), igegmeba da sxva. dro izomeba (rogorc sivrce) _ aqvs simaRle, sigane, siRrme, fskeri da igi ufskerocaa (drois simaRle, drois fskeri, drois ufskruli); frangi lingvisti gustav giiomi Tavis naSromSi dro da zmna (1929) _ gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom dro agebulia sivrcis msgavsad, amitom mas aqvs: simaRle, siRrme, sigane... giiomis azriT, drois warmodgena sivrcis gareSe SeuZlebelia, igi wers, rom drois universumebi gamoixateba zmnebiT, xolo sivrcisa _ saxelebiT. dro, rogorc istoria, warmogvidgeba wrfivad _ es SeiZleba iyos: drois isari an drois spirali, magram aucileblad Seuqcevadobis efeqtiT (giiomi). dros aqvs orientacia, mimarTuleba: warsuli (ukan darCenili dro), momavali (win), awmyo (aq). aberdinis universitetis mecnierebma daadgines, rom, roca adamians sTxov warsulis movlenebi gaixsenos an momavali warmoidginos, misi sxeuli qvecnobierad asaxierebs metaforebs, romlebsac Cveulebriv drois mdinarebis warmosaxvisas viyenebT. roca eqsperimentis monawileebi warsul wlebze fiqrobdnen, isini odnav ukan ixrebodnen, momavlis warmosaxvis dros ki _ win. "roca drois Sesaxeb vlaparakobT, xSirad sivrciT metaforebs viyenebT, magaliTad, Im looking forward to seeing you ["mouTmenlad veli SenTan Sexvedras". sityvasityviT: "Seni naxvisaken win viyurebi"] an Im reflecting back on the past ["warsulze fiqrebSi var". sityvasityviT: "fiqrebi maqvs ukan warsulze"], _ ambobs linden mailsi, romelmac aRniSnuli kvleva luiz naindTan da nil makreisTan erTad Caatara, _ sasiamovno iyo imis SegrZneba, rom SesaZlebelia sxeulis moZraobiT gamoxato iseTi abstraqtuli cneba, rogoricaa dro".
metafora: wuTisofeli

drosTan aris dakavSirebuli qarTul enaSi iseTi enobrivi

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cira barbaqaZe

metafora, rogoricaa: wuTisofeli, romelic ara mxolod aRniSnavs cxovrebas, aramed avlens eris SefasebT damokidebulebas am cnebisadmi: wuTisofeli ra ari? agorebuli qva ari... (xalxuri) dro _ CitiviT gafrenili droa qarTul folklorSi: bindisferia sofeli, ufro da ufro binddeba, ra aris Cveni sicocxle, CitiviT gagvifrindeba; ............... wuTia wuTisofeli daxamxameba Tvalisa; .................... sofelo mieT-moeTo sabrunavisa maxeo, zogsa caTamdis aiyvan zogsa ukuRma dahxeo...;
metafora _ m z e

drois universaluri metaforaa m z e. es metafora gasakviric araa, mzis saaTiT xom drois aRricxva xdeba. amitom iqca mze drois (sicocxlis) metaforad. mzis erT-erTi mTavari funqcia drois aRniSvnaa... metaforulad mze saaTia, amqveynad yvelaferi droSi da droiT cxovrobs... yvelafers Tavisi dro aqvs... TiToeul adamians cxovrebis garkveuli, Tavisi wili, Tavisi saaTi, poetebis TqmiT ki, rom Tavisi mze aqvs... is dro, romelic mziT aRiricxeba, aris sicocxle, amitom aseT SemTxvevaSi mze droa da es udris sicocxles. swored es semantika Cans ficis formulaSi: Sens mzes vficav... rac niSnavs: Sens sicocxles vficav... ara marto adamians aqvs Tavisi dro, anu mze... aramed yvela dRes, Tves, faqtebsa da movlenebs, awmyos, warsulsa da momavals... yvelafers aqvs Tavisi mze (dro, anu sicocxle), Tavisi `sakuTari mze aqvs agreTve adgilsac... mze erTia, romelic dedamiwas anaTebs da aTbobs, magram igi sxvadasxva mxareSi sruliad gansxvavebulad ganicdeba da aRiqmeba, miTumetes _ poetebis mier. amitom erTi mze SeiZleba bevric iyos, gaaCnia, ras gulisxmobs poeti. magaliTad, galaktioni wers: magram Tvalma daTvala bevri mze da cxraTvala... oh, mziT gadanacxaro, cxra muxa da cxra wyaro! (barbaqaZe, 2003:149).


drois universaluri konceptualuri metaforebi anu ....

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ymawvilqalobam waiRo mzeebi, oqromfinarni, neta ki vinme momgondes, rom umisoba vinano; (ana kalandaZe) garindebulxar aprilis mzeze...; oqtombris mzeSi aSoltili verxvebis rigis da RvTaebrivi askilis xati dgas gulsa Sigan...; oh, rogor midis axalgazrdoba, daundobeli survili lomis da yovelive rogor nazdeba, roca axloa mze Semodgomis; (galaktioni) magram Seni mze sibneles gaxevs da daadgeba Subls naTeliviT...; mzeo, TibaTvisa, mzeo, TibaTvisa, locvad muxlmoyrili graals Sevedrebi...; o, yoveldRe mzeebi qimerebSi vardeba, qaravani dReebis mZimed miemarTeba; Tu gazafxulis mziTa var mTvrali; (oTar WilaZe) icinis gogo da miabijebs sakuTar mzeSi, sakuTar mzeSi da puris mtverSi; Cemi wili mtkvari daSra, Cemi wili mze Cavida...; mamam cecxli damabara, var Cemi mzis anabara...; (jansuR Carkviani)

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Turme garbodnen lamazi wlebi, Cven rom gvegona gavrbodiT mzisken; Cven isev zeviT mivdivarT Seni mzis mosagoneblad...;

cira barbaqaZe

mze aqauri miduRs me sisxlSi; (muxran maWavariani) ra Seedreba am Cvens mxaresa?! am Cvens mzesa da am Cvens mTvaresa?!; xval diliT sxva mze amova...; (lado asaTiani) Sen Cemi wigni saxsovrad gqondes, _ me mzis qarTulis miTqvams sicxovle... (murman lebaniZe) warmodgenl nimuSebSi kargad Cans agreTve dro-sivrcis ganuyofloba. konkretuli dro yovelTvis mibmulia konkretul sivrcesTan. mze _ droa dakavSirebuli adgilTan (sivrcesTan). dro ganfenilia yvelaferSi, rogorc mze. yvelaferi, rac am samyaroSia, atarebs drois niSans, romelic zogjer konkretulia, zogjer _ abstraqtuli da zogjer, ubralod, elifsisia (gamotovebuli), magram yovelTvis arsebobs. drois aseTi aRqma-gageba drois wrfivi aRqmis paradigmaSi jdeba. bunebrivia, enasa d kulturaSi paralelurad arsebobs drois sxvagvari aRqmebic: drois maradiulobis paradigma, romelic ZiriTadad damaxasiaTebelia miTologiuri SinaarsebisaTvis, poeziis enaSic arsebobs. miTi aris drois ganadgurebis manqana (levi-strosi). awmyo-maradi swored drois amgvar aRqmad SeiZleba gavigoT. isec SeiZleba, rom konkretuli teqsti atarebdes rogorc drois wrfiv, aseve wriul gagebasac, erTdroulad aRniSnavdes dros da udroobas. qarTul frazeologiaSi da idiomatikaSi gavrcelebulia drois Semdegi metaforuli gamonaTqvamebi da sintagmebi: drois mokvla, drois gacocxleba, drois nakvalevi, drois fasi, drois ekonomia, drois maragi, drois gamocda, drois manqana, dros gauswro, dros CamorCa, dros daewia, dros Sehyurebs, dro gauvida, dro moWama, droni mefoben, dro ixelTa, dro gaatara, dro dakarga, drois brunva, droSi dabruneba, droiT isargebla, dro


drois universaluri konceptualuri metaforebi anu ....

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yvelafris mkurnalia... agreTve zmnizedebi: erT dros, udroo dros, bolo dros, droiT, drodadro, droze... kompozitebi: dromoWmuli, drogadasuli, drogamoSvebiT, drogacveTili da sxva. zemoCamoTvlili sintagmebis da farazeologizmebis analiziT SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom gadatana (metaforizeba) xdeba sxvadasxva niSniT, dro aris: sulieri, moZravi, roca midis, kvals tovebs, aris resursi da sxv. metaforizebuli mniSvnelobebi aris rogorc neitraluri, ise dadebiTi da umetesad _ uaryofiTi emociuri Sinaarsis matarebeli. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa drois aRqma-gaazreba Tanamedrove qarTul poeziaSi, rac calke kvlevis sagania. literatura barbaqaZe 2003: cira barbaqaZe, qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis pragmatika, Tbilisi. barbaqaZe 2006: cira barbaqaZe, poeziis semiotika, Tbilisi. giiomi 1992: . . ., . lakofi da jonsoni 1990: . , . , ( . _ ., 1990. _ . 387-415). haidegeri 1997: , . / . . . : 1997. 452 .

guram baxtaZe

ilia WavWavaZis saprogramo Txzulebebis kvali daTa TuTaSxiaSi`

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: sivrcis identifikaciis rRveva oTar WilaZis romanSi gzaze erTi kaci midioda; oTar WilaZis yovelman Cemman mpovnelman: TviTidentifikaciis krizisi; identobis problema Tanamedrove qarTul mwerlobaSi; Txa da gigos postmodernuli versia. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, kritika, semiotika.

cnobilia, rom ilia WavWavaZis samoRvaweo asparezze gamosvlam qarTuli mwerloba ganviTarebis axal safexurze aiyvana. Mmisma literaturul-esTetikurma koncefciam naTelyo sityvakazmuli mwerlobis funqcia; Seafasa qarTuli literaturis erovnuli mniSvneloba. gaafarToa misi asparezi. `mwerloba Cveni, 30-ian wlebSi xelaxlad fexadgmuli, pirvel xans ufro Sinauri saqme iyo, vidre sayovelTao, ufro Sesaqcevari, vidre garjiT mkvlevari. Sinaurs vambobT, radganac SnaurobaSi ibadeboda da isev Sinaurobis mokle wreSi htrialebda, imitom, rom maSin arc Jurnal-gazeToba iyo, arc Cveuloba calke wignad beWdvisa da swored mogaxsenoT, arc saTqmeli hqonda sayovelTao, radganac sayovelTao sagani axlad axilebul mwerlobis TvalisaTvis miuwvdeneli iyo~ ( 1986:185), SeniSnavs ilia da iqve ganmartebis saxiT dasZens: `aq pirveldawyebiTad vracxT am saukunis mwerlobis dasawyiss da gadaviwyebuli ara gvaqvs wina saukuneebis cudad Tu bevrad saxelovani mwerloba,


ilia WavWavaZis saprogramo Txzulebebis kvali `daTa TuTaSxiaSi~

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romelic TiTqmis meTvramete saukunidam Sewyda am saukunis ocdaaTian wlebamde~ ( 1986: 185). ilias mwerloba miaCnia cxovrebis or did totTagan erT-erTad: `cxovreba yovelTvis or did totad dadis. erTi toti moazre cxovrebaa, meore mosaqme, romelnic ise arian erTmaneTze damokidebulni, rom xan erTia meorisgan warmodgenili, xan meore pirvelisagan. TviT azric sxva ara aris ra garda imisa, rom saqmea jer ganuxorcielebeli~ ( 1986:183). am brZnuli sityvebis avtorma mwerloba gadaaqcia im Zalad, romelsac adgilidan unda `daeZra SeCerebuli azri~ da pasuxi unda gaeca kiTxvaze: `vina varT? rani varT?~ ( 1986:185). mas xelovnebad ar miaCnia iseTi poezia, romelic `TiTo mwerlis gulTa wva-dagvas, Wirsa da lxins gvigalobs da ara moazre cxovrebis azrTa svlas da warmatebas~ ( 1986: 186). ilia WavWavaZem `sakuTari mxrebiT azida droebis tvirTi.... gaSala Tavisi Zlieri frTa da rogorc mze, gamobrwyinda cxovrebis gasanaTleblad ... Tavisi gamWriaxi TvaliT Tavidan bolomde gansWvrita yvelaferi da yovels cxovrebis kiTxvas misca Sesaferisi pasuxi~ (i. W. `saqarTvelos moambezed~). umTavresi kiTxva ki, romelic man dasva iyo: `vina varT? rani varT?~ da mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi am kiTxvis pasuxs eZebda.Aam Ziebas mkiTxvelisTvis unda gaecnobierebina kiTxvis arsi, raTa igi `mibruneboda Tavis Tavs da eRvawa Tavisi enis, wes-Cveulebebis, tradiciebis, istoriis da sxva faseulobaTa SeswavlisaTvis. rasac manamde ver amCnevda miZinebuli erovnuli cnobiereba. gamoeCina, siyvarulis sagnad eqcia is, riTac erovnuli grZnoba ganicdeba, rogorc raRac siRrmiseuli miswrafeba Tavisi xalxisaken, rogorc Tavis povna sxvebTan erTianobaSi~ ( 1987: 171). intensiuri akulturaciis procesSi ilias mowodebebi erTaderTi Zala iyo, romelsac SeeZlo gadaerCina qarTveloba iseT eTnikur jgufad gadaqcevisagan, romlis mexsierebaSi waSlilia yovelgvari kulturul-istoriuli warsuli~ ( 1987: 170). me-19 saukuneSi, gansakuTrebiT, 40-50-ian wlebSi, ruseTis Sovinisturi Zalmomreobis morig safexurze Cveni eri ucxo kulturuli gamocdilebis pirispir aRmoCnda: gamarTlda solo-

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guram baxtaZe

mon leoniZis (nikoloz baraTaSvilis) mWmunvare winaswarmetyveleba: ` , .~ TviT ilias sityvebiTve rom vTqvaT: ruseTs `qarTvelobasTan araviTari kavSiri da erToba ara hqonda da arc surda, rom hqonoda~ ( 2001: 19). daiwyo erovnuli TviTSegnebis erTgvari gaoreba, romelic iwvevs TavsTavSi daurwmuneblobis grZnobas. `Svilebis~ gamoCenamde literaturaSi mkvdari sezoni dadga~ ( 2002: 8). ilias SemoqmedebiT-esTetikur koncefcias, romelic ZiriTadad Semdeg qrestomaTiul qmnilebebs efuZneba: `mgzavris werilebi~, `poeti~, `oriode sityva...~, `saqarTvelos moambezed~, `aCrdili~ _ gadamwyveti zegavlena hqonda me-19 saukunis 60-70iani wlebisa da Semdgomi periodis qarTuli mwerlobis ragvarobis gansazRvraze. am mxriv ilias mxars umSvenebda akaki wereTeli. ilias Rrma azrebs Cveuli sisadaviT axmovanebda Aakaki da ufro met sicxades sZenda maT. am RvTiurma tandemma erovnuli azri gaaRviZa da gansazRvra mwerlobis mniSvneloba qarTveli mkiTxvelis cnobierebis CamoyalibebaSi. ilia WavWavaZis SemoqmedebiTi programa ar iyo mxolod misi, individualuri moRvaweobis gegma, aramed igi mTel qarTul mwerlobas usaxavda konkretul strategiebs: pirvel rigSi ki, saWiro iyo literaturis asparezis gafarToeba. kerZod, isev da isev imis axsna da ganmarteba `rani viyaviT da rani varT?~ ase Seiqmna eris sulieri mamis mdidari literaturulpublicisturi memkvidreoba, romelic kvlavac unda darCes umTavres saxelmZRvanelod eris politikuri elitis Tu nebismieri qarTvelisaTvis. `iliaseuli koncefcia politikur miznebsac, cxadia, gulisxmobda magram, masSi es mxare sagangebod aqcentirebuli ar yofila~ ( 2009: 227). ilias ZarRvianma da guliTadma sityvam, aseve pirovnulma magaliTma, didi rezonansi gamoiwvia mxatvrul da publicistur azrovnebaSi; Seiqmna mTeli rigi Txzulebebisa, romelTa avtorebi ilias mier dasmul sakiTxTa gaSla-gafarToebas cdilobdnen. iliaseuli erovnuli koncefciis Sesabamisi gaazreba, metwilad, misma sulierma memkvidreebma SeZles. ramdenadacMmxolod did SemoqmedTa xvedria, gaugon TavianT winamorbedT; wai-


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kiTxon (da aseve Semoqmedebis Temebad aqcion) mxatvrul saxeTa siRrmiseuli qveteqstebi. maT erTurTTan idumali dialogi akavSirebT. `kargad ician, sad SeCerdnen mamebi~. swored es uwyvetoba qmnis erovnul literaturas, romlis Sesaxebac werda korneli kekeliZe: ` . , -, , ~ (. . . 1960: 3). magaliTad, ai, ras aRniSnavs akademikosi giorgi gaCeCilaZe: `ilia WavWavaZis mier dasmuli kiTxvebis realizacia yazbegis SemoqmedebaSi ganxorcielda. Yyazbegma axali furceli gadaSala qarTul mwerlobaSi~ ( 2002: 8). literaturaTmcodneebs araeTxel miuTiTebiaT vaJasa da ilias SemoqmedebiT dialogebze: `sruliad bunebrivi iqneboda, rom vaJas poeziaSi erTgvari gamoZaxili epovna ilias, rogorc poetis, Semoqmedebas. sinamdvileSi es asec moxda~ ( 1989: 292). ilias sulier memkvidreTa Soris, romlebmac mis mier dasmuli problemebis aqcentireba klasikuri literaturis doneze ganaxorcieles, erT-erTi gamorCeulia Wabua amirejibi. Mmeoce saukunis qarTuli literaturis bestseleri _ `daTa TuTaSxia~ iSviaTi originalurobiT asaxavs epoqis realobas. romanis erT-erTi umTavresi mizani qarTveli eris socialuri, moraluri da politikuri dinamikis Cvenebaa. `daTa TuTaSxiam~ kidev erTxel dagvayena im faqtis winaSe, rom~ , , , ~ ( 2009: 7-8).

savsebiT veTanxmebiT am Tezisis avtors, romelic aRniSnavs: `, - , , ~ ( 2009: 7-8). winamdebare statiis mizanic _ vaCvenoT, ra mniSvneloba mieniWa ilia WavWavaZis

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guram baxtaZe

naazrevs Wabua amirejibis `daTa TuTaSxias~ erT-erT finalur epizodSi _ am moTxovnilebiTaa nakarnaxevi. vfiqrobT, yvelaze xelsayreli meTodi, romelic aRniSnulis cxadyofaSi dagvexmareba, interteqstis Teoriaa. mas sakmaod xSirad mimarTaven Tanamedrove literaturaTmcodneobaSi. profesori mirian ebanoiZe mokled ase ganmartavs aRniSnuli meTodis arss: `, , , , . , . , , , a , , , , , . , , . , . _ ...~ ra Tqma unda, zemoTqmuli absoluturad gamoricxavs `literaturul gavlenas,~ Tu gnebavT, epigonizms. Aaq saqme gvaqvs gacilebiT saintereso sulier-fsiqologiur-esTetikur kavSirebTan. saerTo idealebis Camomayalibebel faqtorebTan, romelTa kvelevac, vfiqrobT, aramarto literaturaTmcodneobis sagania. Mmkvlevari iuza evgeniZe n. baraTaSvilis Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb msjelobisas aRniSnavs: `axali drois xelovnebisaTvis niSandoblivi `romantikuli avadmyofuroba~ (goeTes gamoTqmaa. i.evg.) is xerxemalia, romelic aerTianebs Seqspirs, goeTes, bairons, mickeviCs, edgar pos, puSkinsa Tu baraTaSvils~ (


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1982: 195). am SemTxvevaSi gavimeorebT am frazas: kiTxva _ `rani varT?~ is xerxemalia, romelic aerTianebs , ilia WavWavaZes da Wabua amirejibs. i. evgeniZisave sityvebiT rom vTqvaT: Cven ar vcdilobT am ori avtoris `mxatvruli individualobebi erT mniSvnelobamde daviyvanoT, rac ukve TavisTavad aris mwerlobisadmi literaturaTmcodneobiT midgomaze uaris Tqma~ ( 1982: 197), aramed gvsurs, xazi gavusvaT imas, rom sadReisod kvlav aqtualuria erovnuli TviTSecnobis sakiTxi, romelsac mudam gansakuTrebuli yuradRebiT ganixilavda Cveni mwerloba.(mag.: gavixsenoT giorgi merCulis sityvebi: `qarTlad friadi queyana~). dRes, roca, qarTvl ers masobrivi kulturis mZlavri Semotevis epoqaSi uxdeba cxovreba, saWiroa meti gulisxmierebiT ganvixiloT qarTvel klasikosTa literaturuli memkvidreobani da aseve _ tradiciuli erovnuli Sexedulebebi. aq gvinda SevexoT `daTa TuTaSxias~ ramdenime mxatvrul pasaJs, sadac avtori QTiTqmis saukunis Semdeg qveyanas Seaxsenebs, rom ilias mier dasmuli kiTxvebi jer kidev pasuxgaucemelia. `rani varT dRes?~ _ ganskuTrebuli aqcentiT ikiTxa nano TavyeliSvili-Sirerisam qarTvel inteligentTa erT-erTi Tavyrilobis dros ( 2003: 248). mkiTxvelma kargad icis, rom es kiTxva ilias mTel Semoqmedebas gasdevs laitmotivad (Tavis mxriv ki, mas SeiZleba daviT guramiSvilis sityvebi _ ` : , , , ?~ da am sityvebis pirvelwyaro _ biblia asazrdoebdes). nano TavyeliSvils sandro kariZe damajerebeli toniT pasuxobs:~eri daemsgavsa saZovarze miSvebul naxirs... qalbatono nano, rani varTo, rom brZaneT, udides bodiSs vixdi, magram simarTle unda mogaxsenoT: saSovars gadagebuli, gaTiTokacebuli, yofili eri~ ( 2003: 250.) gavixsenoT ilias mosazreba am sakiTxTan DakavSirebiT: `ganvTviTeuldiT, cal-calke daviSaleniT, aso-asod davWeriT... ganvimeoreb, ganvTviTeuldiT, da TviTeulis zurgma veRar zida is didi azri mamulisa. ...am saxiT TviTeuli Cvengani Tavis SemoRobilSi Seiketa~ ( 1986: 72-73). aq sakamaTo ar unda iyos frazeologiur-ideuri Tanxvedra.

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guram baxtaZe

agreTve, cnobilia, rom ilia gansakuTrebul YyuradRebas amaxvilebda qarTvelTa wvlilze qristianobis dacvaSi. igi `aCrdilSi~ werda: `jvarcmuli RvTisTvis TviT jvarcmulo da wamebulo, eklians gzazed Senebr sxvasa romels uvlia? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------O ori ram iyo risTvisac Ze Seni ibrZoda, bedma uwyalom sxva saqmisTvis ar moacala, oriv daicva, magram yvela mas anacvala ( 1988: 85) am sityvebis mniSvneloba rom kvlav gacocxlebuliyo qarTveli mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi, miT ufro bolSevikuri aTeizmis epoqaSi, mwerali klasikosi Wabua amirejibi `daTa TuTaSxias~ imave epizodSi gansakuTrebuli msjelobis sagnad aqcevs, raTa sayovelTao uRmrTobis droSi maprovocirebeli JReradoba SesZinos maT: qristianobis dacvas sandro kariZe qarTveli eris umTavres funqciad da amave dros, qarTuli saxelmwifos arsebobis mTavar winapirobad miiCnevs. damoukideblobis dakargvam winaT saomar yaidaze awyobili qristianobisdamcveli qveynis mkvidr xalxs daakargvina zneobac _ cxovrebis momwesrigebeli Zala, romelic qristianul morals efuZneboda. sandro kariZe swored zneobis dakargvas mistiris (amirejibi 2003: 246-247). unda aRiniSnos, rom Wabua amirejibma mizanmimarTulad gaSala i. WavWavZis mier gamokveTili zneobis Tema, romelsac araerT nawarmoebSi Seexo ilia. maT Soris, literaturul werilSi _ `zogierTi ram,~ _ `raki is didebuli qarTvelobis azri, is sayovelTao saxeli gonebidan gamogvecala, Cveni goneba daifuya, suliT da xorciT davkuwmawdiT~ ( 1986:71), _ ambobs ilia da mxatvruli saxeebiT gvaCvenebs eris `dakuwmawebas~, gaTiTokacebas.Aaxalma droebam Secvala Tanacxovrebis tradiciuli modeli. rogorc g. gaCeCilaZe SeniSnavs: `ilia WavWavaZem da yazbegma mxolod is ki ar dagvanaxes, rom gabrom SurisZiebis mizniT mokla daTiko, zaqrom _ batoni, kobam _ girgola da dianbegi, aramed is, rom damTavrda qarTveli eris socialuri Tanayofis `avTandil-Sermadinis~ Targze awyobili cxovrebis dro~ ( 2002: 8). `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ arCili (ilia) tiris dakarguli naxevris gamo. `am mizeziT yoveli azri, fiqri, survili, grZnoba dagvinamcecda, _ agrZelebs ilia _ gonebi-


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Tad, zneobiTad davpataravdiT~ ( 1986: 71). da, cxadia, eris zneobiTad dakninebis mizezad saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dakargvas gulisxmobs. `mgzavris werilebSi~Mavtori moxeve lelT Runias piriT axmovanebs Tavisi drois uRimRamo cxovrebis mizezebs: `rusobaCi yofnam~ ers funqcia daakargvina, uxmari satevari daiJanga; gaqra vaJkacobis stimuli _ `gmiris dambadi didi sagani~ moispo (`aCrdili~).Anano TavyeliSvilis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT: `saxelmwifoebriobis siyvaruli daikarga,~ rac momxdurTan brZolis, saxelmwifos Senaxvis pirobad miaCnia Wabua amirejibs. axla mxolod saSovarze gadis gaTiTokacebuli qarTveloba. saTqmeli ufro aSkarad gamoikveTeboda, statiis moculoba teqstebidan vrceli amonaridebis motanis saSualebas rom iZleodes, magram, vimedovnebT, mkiTxveli Tavad daamyarebs xsenebul nawarmoebTa Soris interteqstualur kavSirebs. aqve Zalian mokled SevexebiT romanis mTavari gmiris _ daTa TuTaSxias _ mxatvruli saxis struqturis i. WavWavaZis TxzulebaTa zogierT personaJTan mimarTebis sakiTxs, rac kidev ufro naTels gaxdis am or avtors Soris arsebul sulier kavSirs: `oTaraanT qvrivis~ giorgi Tavisi zneobrivi, gulwrfeli, moqalaqeobrivi patiosnebis gamo irgvliv myofTaTvis gamocanadaa qceuli. mas ar SeuZlia Tvali aaridos adamianuri e. i. qristianuli zneobis darRvevis faqts, miuxedavad imisa, exeba Tu ara es piradad mas. irgvliv myofT es aRizianebT da sazogadoebis garkveul miTqma-moTqmas iwvevs. Tumca is mainc ar Ralatobs Tavis zneobriv principebs. avtori migvaniSnebs, rom giorgis SemorCa `Zveli, tradiciuli zneoba, romelic umdgradesia sulier RirebulebaTa Soris~ ( 2003: 251). magram dasanania, rom giorgisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi ukve aRar aris sayovelTao, amitom igi aris cocxali nimuSi, xorcSesxmuli magaliTi, imisa, Tu rogori unda iyos qarTveli kaci. `igi ,, ~ (.). , `. iliam moxuc glexs _ petresac ki ar apatia moqalaqeobrivi pasuxismgeblobis bolomde ver gacnobiereba (moTxroba _

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guram baxtaZe

`sarCobelazed~), gamovlenili ugulisxmierobisa da pasiurobis gamo, brali dasdo mas. ilia WavWavaZem `madlismqneli pirovnebis koncefcia~ (akaki baqraZis sityvebia) mkafiod Camoayaliba dimitri yifianisadmi miZRvnil werilSi: `WeSmariti kacoba arqona codvisa ki ar aris, aramed qona madlisa, kacuri kacobis niSani minimum-i saTnoeba ki ar aris, romelic arcodvis sazRvaria, aramed maxsimum-i, romelic madlis samflobeloa da saufliswulo. ...amas didi Rone unda sulisa, didi SeZleba gulisa da yvela kacs ar moekiTxeba. visac eg Rone da SeZleba aqvs, igi miT nawilia yvelasi... imitom, rom igi Cems, Tqvens, sxvis bednierebaSi eZebs mxolod da hpoulobs Tavis sakuTar bednierebas. ...es iseTi Zneli gasadebi xidia, es iseTi mZime da ekliani gzaa, rom TiToeuli biji Rvawlia da msxverpli.~ ilias `kacTa sazogadoebis~ (samoqalaqo sazogdoebis) arsebobisaTvis aucilebel safuZvlad `TviTgankiTxva~ miaCnia. misi azriT, sazogadoebriv Wirsa Tu lxinSi sakuTari wvlilis TviTgansja `zneobiTad mwvrTnelia, yoveli amisTana SemTxveva cotad Tu bevrad hzrdis TiToeuls kacs da, maSasadame _ sazogadoebasac~ ( 1990: 11-12). (SeadareT: `bunebaSi, albaT, araferia ise pirdapir damokidebuli, rogorc pirovnebaze _ misi eris bed-iRbali, moqalaqis zneobaze _ misi saxelmwifos av-kargi da piruku. zneoba is Sinagani Zalaa, romlis wyalobiTac pirovneba saqciels iwesrigebs, romlis wyalobiTac Tavis pirad moTxovnilebebs erisa da misi saxelmwifos saWiroebebs uTanxmebs~ ( 2003: gv246). iliaseuli `madlismqneli pirovnebis koncefciis~ fonze sagulisxmoa Wabua amirejibis sityvebi: `visgan da saidan wamovida wminda giorgis Tqmuleba, amas nu SevexebiT. Tqmulebis dedaazri, mogexsenebaT, sadaa: Tu vinmes uWirs, Tavi gawire, magram ixsenio! es aris da esa~ ( 2003: 256). rogorc vxedavT, arc aq Sordeba iliasa da `daTa TuTaSxias~ avtoris ZiriTadi saTqmeli erTmaneTs; kredo erTia! aseve unda iTqvas, rom motanili fraza `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ sakuTari saxelis _ giorgis da misi dabadebis dRis (qristeSoba) SeTxzvis masazrdoebel wyaros, mis ideur-esTetikur Rirebulebas,


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( 1978: 55-56).G`giorgi xom mTeli wignia cxovrebisa (i.W.)~, romelsac wakiTxva sWirdeba! zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom `DdaTa TuTaSxia~ eris `suliT da xorciT dakuwmawebis, gaTiToebis~ (ilias sityvebia), iSviaTi poeturi ostatobiT gansaxovnebuli mxatvruli tiloa. xolo, am gaTiTokacebis yvelaze naTeli magaliTi ki TviT daTa TuTaSxiaa. es is mware realobaa, romlis obieqturma gaazrebam `guli -.~ gavixsenoT durus duqanSi datrialebuli tragedia da daTa TuTaSxias piradi damokidebuleba momxdarisadmi: _ `araa Cemi saqme, aRaraferi araa Cemi saqme, Tu me ar mexeba, me!~ samwuxarod, daTas ar aRmoaCnda `didi Rone sulisa, didi SeZleba gulisa~ (i.W.). amaoa iase-beris Segoneba: `vinc RmerTs ganudga, vinc kacTaTvis ar aRasrula is, ris aRsrulebac Zaledva, vinc RvTis Svils gansacdelSi xeli ar gauwoda _ igi laCaria, man Tavis Tavi martoobisTvis gaswira. Tu Sen ar ginda kacni, arc kacTa undixar Sen da xvedri Seni _ momwyvdeuli nadiris xvedri aris!~ (:166). rasakvirvelia, daTa TuTaSxias mxatvruli saxis literaturuli analizi gacilebiT vrceli da sapasuxismgeblo Temaa,Mmagram vfiqrobT, erTi ram cxadia: mas ilia WavWavaZis personaJebTan dialogis safuZvelze Zerwavda avtori. es garemoeba ki kidev ufro mkafiod waroaCens Wabua amirejibis, rogorc mwerlisa da moazrovnis sidiades,Dradganac `daTa TuTaSxia~ ilia WavWavaZiseuli SemoqmedebiT-moqalaqeobrivi koncefciis axleburi xorcSesxmaa. gamoyenebuli literatura: i.WavWavaZe, Txz., t. 3. Tb., sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1986. i.WavWavaZe, Txz., t. 4. Tb., sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1987. ak. yulejiSvili, kulturologia, Tb., universali~,2001. g. gaCeCilaZe, al. yazbegi da `inteleqtualuri Ralatis~ problema Tanamedrove sarkeSi~, gaz. `Cveni mwerloba~,N# 36, 12-8 seqtemberi, 2002gv. 8. m. CxartiSvili, nacionalizmis ideologiis universaliebi ilias SemoqmedebaSi da sazogadoebriv moRvaweobaSi~,

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ilia WavWavaZis saiubileo krebuli, literaturis instituti, Tb., 2009. qarT.lit ist. t.1., rusTavelis sax. qarT. lit. in-ti, Tb., 1960. gr. kiknaZe, vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedeba~, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, 1989. m. ebanoiZe, klasikuris kvleva araklasikuris epoqaSi~, quTaisi, 2009. i.evgeniZe, qarTuli romantizmis sakiTxebi~, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1982. W. amirejibi, daTa TuTaSxia~, Tb., Wabua, 2003. i. WavWavaZe, leqsebi poemebi, Tb. nakaduli~, 1988. d. yifiani, memuarebi, T., sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1990. ak. baqraZe, marad da yvelgan, saqarTvelov, me var SenTana~, Tb. 1978.

konstantine bregaZe

goeTes urfenomenis (URPHNOMEN) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia


I. goeTes SemecnebiTi diskursi
rogorc cnobilia, germanelma mweralma da moazrovnem, iohan volfgang goeTem (1749-1832) Tavisi koncefcia urfenomenze (Urphnomen), anu pirvelmovlenaze (gr. robaqiZis mixedviT Taurmovlenaze), bunebismetyveluri kvlevebis, kerZod, botanikuri kvlevebis dros ganaviTara, rodesac man pirvelmcenaris (Urpflanze) idea wamoayena. unda iTqvas, rom goeTes dainteresebas botanikiT wmindad zogadSemecnebiT-ontologiuri konteqsti edo safuZvlad da misi mizani sruliadac ar iyo sakuTriv konkretuli empiriuli mecnierebis (botanikis) sferoSi kvlevebis warmoeba da mcenareTa morfologiis sakiTxebSi axali aRmoCenebis keTeba. konkretuli empiriuli mecnierebis (botanikis) farglebSi goeTe Seecada ramdenadme ganesazRvra da Seemecnebina wmindad ontologiuri, anTropologiuri da egzistencialuri problematika: mcenareTa morfologiasa da maT metamorfozaze dakvirvebis safuZvelze goeTes surda ganesazRvra yofierebis arsis, adamianis arsebobisa da

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis asistent-profesori. S. rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis komparativistikisa da literaturis Teoriis ganyofilebis mecnieri TanamSromeli. goeTesa da novalisis saerTaSoriso sazogadoebebis wevri. ZiriTadi naSromebi: novalisis saxismetyvelebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi, 2001. novalisis enis filosofia, 2003. literaturisa da enis filosofiuri narkvevebi (novalisi, goeTe, v. f. humboldti...), 2009. Targmanebi: novalisi: Ramis himnebi (2007); novalisi: sumbulisa da vardkokoris zRapari (2008). interesTa sfero: germanuli romantizmi, hermenevtika, enis filosofia.

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konstantine bregaZe

yofierebisa da adamianis urTierTmimarTebis problematika. Tavis pirad mdivan, iohan peter ekermanTan (1792-1854) saubrisas goeTe swored am garemoebaze amaxvilebda yuradRebas:
sakuTriv botanikaSi CaRrmaveba Cemi mizani sulac ar iyo, es sxvebisTvis damiTmia, romlebic am dargSi Cemze bevrad ukeT erkvevian. ubralod, Cemi mizani iyo calkeuli gamovlinebisaTvis erTi sayovelTao fundamenturi kanoni mimeyenebina [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Eckermann 1994: 246).

amgvarad, Tavisi botanikuri kvlevebis dros goeTes umTavresi Semecnebiseuli amocana iyo calkeul gamovlinebaSi (die einzelnen Erscheinungen), anu, empiriul sinamdvileSi gamovlenil mcenareul samyaros mravalferovan formebSi miegno zeempiriuli sayovelTao kanonisaTvis, anu zeempiriuli pirvelsawyisisaTvis, e. i. pirvelmcenaris ideisaTvis, romelic yoveli calkeuli empiriuli mcenaris saxeobas daedeboda sayovelTao safuZvlad, rogorc metafizikuri sawyisi. Sesabamisad, amgvarad ganviTarebuli SemecnebiTi diskursi Tavisi arsidan gamomdinare mimarTulia ara mxolod empiriul mcenareTa samyaros Semecnebisa da araempiriuli pirvelmcenaris Wvretisaken, aramed impliciturad mimarTulia bunebaSi arsebul yvela organul da araorganul fenomenTa Semecnebisaken, da maT Soris, adamianis arsis Semecnebisaken: anu, Tuki goeTe saubrobs pirvelmcenareze, amavdroulad, impliciturad saubaria pirvelcxovelze, da, ra Tqma unda, pirveladamianze. swored am garemoebaze miuTiTebda goeTe italiidan (sadac igi Seudga mcenareTa kvlevas da sadac SeimuSava man pirvelmcenaris koncepti) herderisadmi gagzavnil werilSi (17. V. 1787): pirvelmcenare (Die Urpflanze) samyaros gasaocari qmnileba da misi gasaRebia. [...] am modelis mixedviT SesaZlebelia mcenareTa usasrulo gamogoneba. es imas niSnavs, rom: is mcenareebi, romlebic axla arc ki arseboben, SemdgomSi SeZleben arsebobas. da es poeturi da ferweruli gamonagoni ki ar aris, aramed WeSmariti da ucilobeli realobaa. amave kanonis misadageba yvela sxva danarCen cocxal arszea SesaZlebeli [citatis
Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Goethe 2000c: 323324).

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

29

Aamgvarad, aq goeTe saubrobs sakuTari mecnieruli kvlevebis SemecnebiTi meTodis Taviseburebaze, rac efuZneba Semecnebisa da kvlevis obieqtis mTlianobrivi da totaluri Wvretis princips analogiis safuZvelze: anu, konkretuli obieqtis Semecnebisas (mag. imave mcenareTa samyaros Semecnebisas) gaTvaliswinebuli da winaswar daSvebulia misi Sinagani, arsobrivi mimarTeba organuli bunebis sxva calkeuli individebisadmi da saxeobebisadmi (mag. cxovelTa samyarosadmi, adamianis anTropologiuri arsisadmi) da erTmaneTisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sayovelTao, anu saerTo da msgavsi arsobrivi maxasiaTeblebis mocemuloba (analogiis principi). aqedan gamomdinare, Tuki kvlevisa da Semecnebis obieqtia mcenareTa samyaro da pirvelmcenare, maSin analogiis principis safuZvelze, kvlevis Sesabamisad, Semecnebis procesi da misi Sedegebi imTaviTve iTvaliswinebs da moiazrebs bunebasa da yofierebaSi mocemul sxva organul fenomenebTan Sinagan arsobriv kavSirsa da msgavsebas:
urfenomenebi: idealuri, realuri, simboluri, identuri. empirea: misi (e. i. urfenomenis _ k. b.) usazRvro da usasrulo gamravleba da ganvrcoba. urfenomeni: idealuri _ ramdenadac is Semecnebis ukanaskneli sferoa, realuri _ ramdenadac is empiriulad Seimecneba, simboluri _ vinaidan is yvela SemTxvevas (anu, empireaSi gamovlenili organuli bunebis yvela formas _ k. b.) moiazrebs da moicavs, identuri _ vinaidan mis wiaRSi yvela SemTxveva erTmaneTis msgavsia
(aqac, yvela SemTxveva/alle Flle empireaSi gamovlenili organuli bunebis yvela formas gulisxmobs _ k. b.) [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Goethe 2000d: 366).

aqedan gamomdinare, pirvelmcenaris koncepti impliciturad gulisxmobs pirvelcxovelisa da pirveladamianis konceptebsac da piriqiT, ramdenadac, erTi mxriv, TiToeuli maTgani saerTo urfenomeniseuli sinamdvilidan warmodgeba, da meore mxriv, TiToeul maTgans empireaSi gamovlenisa da ganviTarebis saerTo da msgavsi (goeTes mixedviT _ identuri/identisch ) modeli udevs safuZvlad _ metamorfozisa da zeaRsvlis (ix. qvemoT).

30

konstantine bregaZe

II. kantis transcendentaluri sqemis ukugdeba


imave ekermanTan saubarSi irkveva, rom goeTe bunebismetyveluri (botanikuri) kvlevebis konteqstSi Semmecnebeli subieqtisa da Sesamecnebeli obieqtis urTierTmimarTebis fundamentur problematikasac ganixilavda, anu, sakuTriv transcendentaluri filosofiis (kanti) sakiTxebs. Sesabamisad, goeTes Semecnebis sferoSi impliciturad Semodis subieqtis egzistenciis problematikac. Tumca, aqve unda iTqvas, rom goeTesTan subieqti, upirveles yovlisa, aris empiriul sinamdvileSi gamovlenili bunebis calkeuli fenomeni, saxeoba (Gattung, Gestalt), xolo obieqti _ ara mxolod movlenaTa sinamdvile, saganTsamyaro (Dingwelt), aramed, upirveles yovlisa, ideaTa samyaro, pirvelfenomenis sfero:
kantis Sromebs gacnobili arc ki viyavi, roca Cemi mcenareTa metamorfoza davwere (goeTe aq gulisxmobs Tavis gamokvlevas
mcenareTa metamorfozis axsnis cda (Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklren) [1790], romelic goeTem italiaSi botanikuri kvlevebis safuZvelze daiwera _ k. b.).

Tumca es Sroma mis moZRvrebasTan axlos dgas. subieqtisa da obieqtis gamijvna da Tvalsazrisi, rom yoveli qmnileba (Geschpf) Tavisi TviTobis gamo arsebobs [...], swored es hqonda kants CemTan saerTo da am punqtSi masTan Sexvedra Zlier maxarebda. mogvianebiT ki davwere moZRvreba cdaze (goeTe aq
gulisxmobs Tavis narkvevs cda, rogorc subieqtisa da obieqtis Suamavali sfero (Der Versuch als Vermittler von Objekt und Subjekt) [1793] k. b.), romelic unda gaviazroT rogorc su-

bieqtisa da obieqtis kritika, xolo cda, rogorc am ori mocemulobis Suamavali rgoli [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Ekermann 1994: 256-257).

aq, rogorc vxedavT, goeTes Semecnebis meTodi diametrulad gansxvavebulia kantiseulisagan, anu, igi aposteriorulia da ara _ aprioruli: Tuki kantTan pirveladia _ wminda gonebis mier warmarTuli wminda refleqsiis procesi, goeTesTan pirveladia imTaviTve cdiseul monacemebze agebuli da damyarebuli refleqsiis procesi:

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

31

mxedvelobidan ar gamomrCenia, bunebas analitikuri meTodiT davkvirvebodi, misi ganviTareba erTi cxovelmyofeli da idumali mTelidan gamomeyvana. Semdeg bunebaze dakvirvebas sinTezuri midgoma cvlida, rodesac sruliad gansxvavebul da erTmaneTisagan sruliad ucxo mocemulobaTa daaxloeba da dakavSireba xorcieldeboda [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis
k. b.] (Goethe 2000e: 27).

amgvarad, Tuki kanti winaswar afuZnebs cdis, cdiseulisagan miRma arsebul wminda ideiseul kategoriebs da am kategoriebis dafuZnebaSi cdiseulis (grZnobadobis) rols ukuagdebs, goeTes es metafizikuri kategoriebi, upirveles yovlisa, cdidan, cdiseuli midgomidan, empireaze dakvirvebidan gamohyavs, goeTe mudmivad cdilobs cdisa da refleqsiis, cdiseulisa da Wvretiseulis, apriorulisa da aposteriorulis mTlianobriv, sinTezur da erTdroul dafuZnebas: mTeli Cemi cxovrebis manZilze, roca vqmnidi da vakvirdebodi, sinTezur da analizur meTods movimarjvebdi xolme da maT arasodes vmijnavdi erTmaneTisagan (Goethe 2000e: 27). Sesabamisad, goeTesTan subieqt-obieqtis urTierTmimarTeba pirvelmcenaris, da zogadad, urfenomenis (pirvelmovlenis) ideis konteqstSi ukve gulisxmobs transcendirebisa da emanaciis erTobliv process, (da ara wminda Semecnebis process), rodesac obieqti, anu pirvelfenomeniseuli sinamdvile, sxvadasxva formebiT vlindeba calkeul empiriul formebSi (mcenare, adamiani), xolo calkeuli (subieqti) sakuTari enteleqiis safuZvelze a priori iswrafis (transcendirebs) Tavisi WeSmariti arsebobisaken _ pirvelsawyisisaken, anu urfenomeniseuli yofierebisaken. amgvarad, Tavis urfenomenis koncefciaze dayrdnobiT, goeTes transcendentaluri filosofiis subieqt-obieqtis wminda SemecnebiTi procesi, e. w. kantiseuli transcendentaluri sqema, gadaaqvs empiriul fenomenTa da araempiriul, metafizikur urfenomenTa urTierTmimarTebis dialeqtikur procesze, rodesac araempiriul monacemTa WeSmariteba dgindeba cdiseuli Semecnebisa da dakvirvebis safuZvelze, da piriqiT, cdiseuli Semecnebis meTodi imTaviTve mimarTulia metafizikuris, transcendenturis wvdomisa, da ara empiriul sinamdvileSi fenomenTa urTierTmimarTebebis dadgenis, empiriuli sinamdvilisaTvis damatebiTi monacemebis dagrovebisaken.

32

konstantine bregaZe

Semecnebis cdiseul process goeTe uwodebs erTdroul svlas win (vorwrts) da ukan (rckwrts), rodesac svla win niSnavs araempiriulis gamovlinebas empiriulis sferoSi da Semdgom am empiriul fenomenebze dakvirvebisa da maTi Semecnebis Sedegad kvlav araempiriuli sferos wvdomas, anu kvlav metafizikuris sferoSi dabrunebas, rac ukve aris svla ukan. swored es meTodia intencirebuli goeTes cnobil sabunebismetyvelo gamokvlevaSi mcenareTa metamorfozis axsnis cda (Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklren) (Goethe 2000e: 64-101), romelic saboloo jamSi etablirdeba rogorc naturfilosofiuri narkvevi, da ara rogorc wmindad sabunebismetyvelo gamokvleva. amgvarad, goeTe axal perspeqtivas xsnis subieqt-obieqtis urTierTmimarTebis ontologiuri gaazrebisaTvis, da mas es urTierTmimarTeba wminda, e. i. cdiseulisagan miRma arsebuli Semecnebis Teoriis sferodan gadaaqvs cdiseuli Semecnebis sferoSi. marTalia, goeTe da kanti erTi da imave terminebiT operireben (subieqti, obieqti), magram TiToeul avtorTan am terminTa Sinaarsi arsebiTad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan: kantis subieqti es aris Semecnebis formebis (grZnobadi aRqma, warmosaxva, warmodgena, Wvreta, gansjis unari) safuZvelze moqmedi Semmecnebeli subieqti, romlis Semecnebis obieqti imTaviTve saganTsamyaro, emiriuli sinamdvilea, ramdenadac kantiseuli winaswardaSvebis Tanaxmad, subieqtis goneba da misi SemecnebiTi qmedeba a priori arasrulyofili mocemulobaa. subieqtiseuli gonebis Semecnebis arealSi mxolod da mxolod garesamyaro, movlenaTa sinamdvile Semodis, mis gonebas/cnobierebas mxolod am mocemulobis Wvreta da Semecneba SeuZlia, xolo empiriuli sinamdvilisagan miRma arsebuli sagani TavisTavad (Ding an sich), anu, araempiriuli mocemuloba subieqtisaTvis imTaviTve Seumecnebeli da miuwvdomelia. is, rogorc subieqtis (Semmecnebeli me-s), ise obieqtis (empiriuli, xiluli sinamdvile) miRma egzistirebs. amgvarad, Semmecnebeli subieqtis arsebobis safuZvelia sakuTari Semecnebis formebis safuZvelze empiriuli sinamdvilis, anu saganTsamyaros Semecneba da misi sakuTari cnobierebis sakuTrebad qceva. xolo goeTes subieqti es aris empiriul sinmadvileSi organuli bunebis ama Tu im formis individualuri, calke arsebuli gamovlineba, saxeoba (Gattung, Gestalt) _ mag., calkeuli mcenare, cxoveli, an adamiani. Sesabamisad, goeTes subeqti saku-

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

33

Tari enteleqiis, e. i. ontologiurad ukve winaswar gansazRvruli Sinagani arsisa da Zalmosilebis safuZvelze mimarTulia ara empiriul sinamdvileze, rogorc kantiseuli Semmecnebeli subieqti, romlisTvisac sagani TavisTavad, anu araempiriuli sinamdvile misi gonebis (Vernunft) Semecnebis miRma rCeba, aramed goeTes subieqtis aprioruli arsia gardasaxva (Metamorphose) da zeaRsvla (Steigerung), anu, swrafva iseTi obieqtisaken, romelic saganTsamyaro, empiriuli sinamdvile ki aRaraa, aramed araempiriulis sferoa, transcendenturi mocemulobaa (Sdr. goeTes leqsi netari swrafva (Selige Sehensucht), aseve misive lirikuli cikli orfikuli pirvelsityvebi (Urworte. Orphisch). aRniSnul lirikul teqstebTan dakavSirebiT Semdgom qvemoT meqneba detaluri msjeloba). goeTeseuli subieqtis arsebobis aprioruli arsia swrafva obieqtisaken, anu empiriuli sinamdvilis miRma mocemuli araempiriuli sferosaken. amgvarad, Tuki kantis obieqti movlenaTa, fenomenTa sinamdvilea, maSin goeTes obieqti araempiriulis sferoa, anu urfenomeniseuli, pirvelmovleniseuli sinamdvilea. xolo egzistencialuri TvalsazrisiT, Tuki kantiseuli subieqtis Semecnebis Tavisebureba mis arsebobas imTaviTve mxolod empireis farglebSi gansazRvravs (ix. zemoT), maSin goeTes subieqti imTaviTve transcendirebs, anu iswrafis gadalaxos empireis sazRvrebi. Sesabamisad, kantTan vlindeba ontologiuri dualizmi, ramdenadac warmoiqmneba ori urTierTgamijnuli da SeuTavsebeli yofiereba: erTi mxriv, Semmecnebeli subieqti, misi Semecnebis formebi (misi cnobiereba) da movlenaTa sinamdvile; xolo, meore mxriv, sagani TavisTavad, anu, empiriuli sinamdvilis miRma arsebuli mocemuloba, romelsac subieqtis goneba Tavisi SezRuduli ontologiuri arsidan gamomdinare imTaviTve ver da verasodes Seimecnebs, gonebisaTvis igi a priori miuwvdomelia. goTes subieqti ki ara empiriuli obieqtis Semmecnebeli subieqtia, aramed a priori winmswrafi, transcendirebadi subieqtia, romlis egzistenciis arsia imTaviTve iswrafodes sakuTari zeempiriuli sawyisebisa da egzistenciisaken. am SemTxvevaSi ki ontoliuri dualizmi moxsnilia, ris Sedegadac myardeba ontologiuri sinTezi, ramdenadac goeTeseuli subieqti da (araempiriuli) obieqti, anu urfenomeni urTierTisagan ki aRaraa gamijnuli, aramed maTi urTierTmimarTeba urTierTgamomdinareobis

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konstantine bregaZe

princips efuZneba, ris Sedegadac empiriuli (mcenare, an adamiani) da araempiriuli (pirvelmcenare, pirveladamiani) mocemulobebi urTierTs SeenivTeba da urTierTisaken iswrafis, TiToeulis arseboba erTmaneTzea damokidebuli. amgvarad, goeTes urfenomenis koncefciaSi ganviTarebulia ontologiuri sinTezurobis principi da ontologiuri dualizmis daZlevis cda. subieqt-obieqtis urTierTmimarTebis swored msgavs dialeqtikas aviTarebs goeTe Tavis cnobil leqsSi netari swrafva (Selige Sehnsucht), lirikuli ciklidan dasavlur-aRmosavluri divani (1814-1819):

brZenkacis garda, nuravis etyvi, radgan brbo wamsve agigdebs masxrad, daRupvas cecxlis alSi rom eltvis, sicocxles xotba minda Sevasxa. trfobis RameTa gril niavqarSi, romelmac gSoba, sad Sen hbadebdi, Tavbrus dagaxvevs ucxo marmaSSi sanTeli mSvidi amonaTebiT. Camogecleba garemomcveli bneli, ukuni da Crdil-bindeba, axladCenili survili mwveli simaRleebSi daiwindeba. arcra siSore giRirs arafrad da monusxuli eSvebi freniT, Suqs daewafe, pepela, xarbad, ferfladqceuli xar geniiT. erTi icode, Tu ar gaqvs niWi, sikvdilisa da aRdgomis neba, soflis stumari wyvdiadSi iWri gzas uRimRamo da moCveneba.
[germanulidan Targmna amiran (pako) svimoniSvilma] (Goethe 2000b: 18-19; svimoniSvili 2000: 68). aq davakvirdeT semiotikurad niSandobliv leqsikur erTeulebs _ swrafva (Sehnsucht), eltvis (sich sehnt), uc-

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

35

xo marmaSi (fremde Fhlung), axladCenili survili (neu Verlangen): am sityvebiT leqsSi gacxadebuli ucnaur grZnobiT atanil farvanas sinaTlisaken ltolva da misi wyurvili simbolurad swored bunebis calkeul fenomenTa enteleqiisaTvis imTaviTve damaxasiaTebel transcendirebad bunebaze mianiSnebs, iqneba es mcenaris, cxovelis, Tu adamianis enteleqia. anu, am SemTxvevaSi subieqti, anu calkeuli individi, romlis simboluri xati leqsSi farvanaa, imTaviTve iswrafis empiriuli sazRvrebis gadalaxvisaken, raTa SeerTos mTels, anu zeempiriuls, metaempiriuls, urfenomeniseuls da ase moipovos WeSmariti egzistencia, anu moipovos arsebobis axali forma, iqmnas ufro maRal saxeobad (auf zu hheren Begattung). am SemTxvevaSi sikvdili, romelic goeTes mixedviT cecxlSi sikvdilia (Flammentod), riTac sikvdilis ontologiuri arsi moazrebulia, rogorc Taviseburi ganaTvla-ganwmenda (cecxli, rogorc substanciis, arsis misterialuri ganwmendis simbolo, Sdr. Metzler 2008: 102), simbolurad ganasaxierebs bunebis calkeuli fenomenis ara finalobas, anu saboloo aRsasruls, aramed mianiSnebs mis mier axali maRali egzistenciis mopovebas (simaRleebSi daiwindebi/ auf zu hheren Begattung), rasac Semdgom goeTe leqsSi acxadebs formuliT mokvdi da iqmen (Stirb und werde) (magram aqve unda iTqvas, rom goeTe arc aRniSnul lirikul teqstSi, da arc Tavis urfenomenis koncefciaSi, aRar aviTarebs, Tu rogoria subieqtis Semdgomi egzistencia urfenomeniseul ganzomilebaSi _ pirovani Tu upirovno: anu, pirvelfenomenTan apriorul SerTvaSi (ferfladqceva/verbrannt) subieqti egzistencialuri TvalsazrisiT kargavs, Tu inarCunebs Tavis pirovnulobas, subieqturobas? es problema goeTesTan Riad rCeba, ix. qvemoT). Ppirvelmcenarisa, da zogadad, urfenomenis ideis safuZvelze kantis Semecnebis transcendentaluri sqemis ukugdebis TvalsazrisiT aseve arsebiTia goeTes Semdegi lirikuli teqstebi, naturfilosofiuri leqsebi mcenareTa metamorfoza (1798) da cxovelTa metamorfoza (1799), sadac, iseve rogorc goeTes botanikur gamokvlevaSi mcenareTa metamorfozis axsnis cda, kvlav ganviTarebulia idea fenomenis enteleqiis erTdroulad ori mimarTulebiT _ win (vorwrts) da ukan (rckwrts) _ ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. 1 am konteqstSi goeTe aseve aviTarebs subieqt-obieqtis dialeqtikuri urTierTmimarTebis sakuTar, kanti-

36

konstantine bregaZe

sagan gansxvavebul gagebasac (ix. zemoT). faqtobrivad, am leqsebSi ganmeorebuli da kidev erTxel dazustebulia is debulebebi, romlebic goeTem gadmosca Tavis gamokvlevaSi mcenareTa metamorfozis axsnis cda:
yoveli geStalti (anu, mcenaris saxeoba _ k. b.) msgavsia, da arcerTi hgavs erTimeores. ase mianiSnebs qoro (aq: baRis yvavilebi _ k. b.) idumal kanonze, wminda gamocanaze.
TeslSi Tvlems Zala; sawyisi pirvelsaxe (e. i. pirvelmcenare, urfenomeni k. b.) Tavis TavSi gayursuli,

garsSi garinduli, foToli, fesvi, Canasaxi _ naxevarformiT da uferuli.


da ros axali forma myis xels Seavlebs Zvels (miniSneba mcenaris metamorfozisas erTi stadiidan meoreze gadasvlaze _ k. b.), maSin uwyveti jaWvi garemoicavs

yovel droebas, da mTeli kvlav cocxlobs, viT calkeuli.


.................................................................................................... yoveli mcenare mudam gicxadebs marad kanonebs. [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Goethe 2000a: 199-201). 2

amgvarad, goeTes ontologiuri xedva efuZneba Semecnebis ormxriv, ormag process _ mTelidan (das Ganze), (e. i. pirvelmcenaridan) nawilisaken (das Einzelne) (e. i. calkeuli mcenarisaken), rac aris svla win (vorwrts), da nawilidan (calkeulidan) mTelisaken, rac aris svla ukan (rckwrts). xolo fenomenisa (calkeuli mcenarisa) da urfenomenis (pirvelmcenaris) es dialeqtika goeTesaTvis apriorulia. Sesabamisad, kantis transcendentaluri sqemisagan gansxvaebiT, sadac imTaviTve gamijnulia erTmaneTisagan subieqti da obieqti, (am SemTxvevaSi, obieqti, rogorc araempiriulis sfero, transcendenturoba _ sagani TavisTvad), goeTeseuli subieqti, romlis enteleqia, Sinagani arsi (Sinasaxe) urfenomenis mieraa determinebuli, imTaviTve iswrafis empiriulis sazRvrebis gadalaxvisa da obieqtisaken, anu sagnisaken TavisTavad, e. i. urfenomeniseuli yofierebisaken. amgvarad, Tuki kantTan a priori mocemulia Semecnebiseuli Tu ontologiuri dualizmi, ramdenadac kantiseuli subieqtis SezRu-

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

37

duli gonebisaTvis imTaviTve Seumecnebelia sagani TavisTavad, maSin goeTe urfenomenis ideis SemotaniT afuZnebs subieqtisa da obieqtis sinTezsa da maT apriorul urTierTgamomdinareobas, ramdenadac goeTeseuli subieqti sakuTari transcendirebadi enteleqiis safuZvelze apriorulad iswrafis metafizikurisa da araempiriulis sferosaken. aqedan gamomdinare, kantsa da goeTesTan Ksubieqtisa da obieqtis urTiermimarTebis gagebis es principuli sxvaoba gamomdinareobs Tavad amosaval punqtSi: kantaTan subieqt-obieqtis urTierTmimarTebis gagebisa da dafuZnebi konteqsti epistemologiuria, xolo goeTesTan _ fenomenologiuri. amgvarad, goeTes mier bunebismetyveluri kvlevebis dros ganviTarebuli pirvelmcenaris (Sesabamisad, urfenomenis, pirvelmovlenis) idea saboloo jamSi fuZndeba, rogorc zogadontologiuri msoflxedva, sadac SegviZlia gamovyoT Semdegi punqtebi: 1. ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT goeTes mier yofiereba moiazreba rogorc mTelisa (das Ganze) da calkeulis (das Einzelne) dialeqtikuri mTlianoba, rasac safuZvlad udevs maTi aprioruli urTierTmimarTeba: mTeli, anu obieqti aq warmoadgens empiriulis gamovlinebis metafizikur, araempiriul safuZvels, anu urfenomens (pirvelmovlenas); xolo calkeuli, anu subieqti empiriul sinamdvileSi organuli bunebis ama Tu im empiriuli formis gamovlinebaa: mag., Tuki saubaria ama Tu im empiriuli mcenaris saxeobaze (Gestalt), maSin mas aqvs Tavisi araempiriuli da metafizikuri safuZveli pirvelmcenaris saxiT, anu, goeTes terminiT _ tipi (Typ). amgvarad, mTeli vlindeba obieqtur sinamdvileSi sxva da sxva calkeulebis (Gestalt-ebis) mravalferovnebaSi, xolo es calkeulebi Tavis mxriv kvlav ubrundebian Tavis winasaxes (Urbild), anu sakuTar metafizikur pirvelsawyisebs, anu urfenomeniseul yofierebas. mTelisa da nawilis, anu subieqt-obieqtis urTierTmimarTebis goeTeseul sinTezur sqemaSi, romelic imTaviTve upirispirdeba kantis subieqt-obieqtis urTierTmimarTebis dualistur trancscendentalur sqemas, subieqti erTdroulad viTardeba ori mimarTulebiT _

38

konstantine bregaZe

2.

3.

win da ukan: anu, svla win, rogorc subieqtis individualurobis, misi subieqturobis ganviTareba empiriuli sinamdvilis farglebSi, xolo svla ukan _ sakuTari enteleqiidan gamomdinare pirvelsawyisebisaken aprioruli swrafva; mTelisa da nawilis (calkeulis) urTierTmimarTebis es dialeqtikuri principi safuZvlad udevs Tavad calkeulis empiriul sinamdvileSi ganviTarebasac: kerZod, calkeuli mcenaris ganviTarebis (metamorfozis) esa Tu is stadia, mag., mcenaris foTlobis an yvavilobis stadia, an mcenaris calkeuli kiduri (Glied), mag., foToli, an yvavili amavdroulad potenciurad Seicavs mcenaris ganviTarebis mTlian suraTs, anu, mcenaris metamorfozis srul cikls, rodesac erTi calkeuli kiduridan an stadiidan SesaZlebeli xdeba mTliani mcenaris warmoSoba. aq mcenaris calkeuli kiduri potenciurad Seicavs mTliani mcenaris warmoqmnis unars, anu mcenaris metamorfozis TiToeuli stadia Seicavs mTliani mcenaris aRmocenebis unars (ix. Sen. 1); aqedan gamomdinare, anTropologiuri TvalsazrisiT, SesaZlebelia saubari pirvel adamianze, rogorc calkeuli empiriuli adamianis, an istoriuli kacobriobis (an erebis), araempiriul, metafizikur pirvelsawyisze (mag. bibliuri adami), romelic vlindeba istoriul drosa da sivrceSi calkeuli adamianis, an erebis empiriul-istoriul formebsa da enobriv da kulturul mravalferovnebaSi. Sesabamisad, dgeba empiriuli anTroposis (anu, calkeulis, subieqtis) egzistenciis problema: anu, saboloo jamSi, rogoria empiriuli adamianis Semdgomi arsebobis forma. goeTes urfenomenis ideidan gamomdinare, calkeuli adamiani _ masSi mocemuli transcendirebadi enteleqiis safuZvelze (es anTropologiuri maxasiaTebeli ki masSi apriorulia) _ gadalaxavs empiriulis sazRvrebs da kvlav sakuTar pirvelsawyisebs, anu pirveladamianis, urfenomenis sferos ubrundeba.

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

39

III. mistikur-lirikuli cikli orfikuli pirvelsityvebi


swored es idea, anu adamianis (subieqtis) mier empiriuli sazRvrebis aprioruli gadalaxvisa da Sesabamisad, mis anTropologiur arsSi transcendirebadi bunebis apriorulobis ideaa gacxadebuli goeTes mier mistikur-lirikul ciklSi orfikuli pirvelsityvebi (Urworte. Orphisch) (1817). aq goeTe ontologiuri perspeqtividan kvlav subieqt-obieqtis diqotomias Wrets, anu, calkeuli empiriuli anTroposisa (subieqti) da araempiriuli pirvelanTroposis (obieqti) dialeqtikuri urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxs. orfikul ciklSi goeTe urfenomenis ideas mcenareuli samyaros sibrtyidan ukve adamianis anTropologiuri arsis sibrtyeze ganavrcobs, sadac impliciturad Semodis ontologiuri da egzistencialuri problematikac. ciklSi, iseve rogorc sabunebismetyvelo-botanikur gamokvlevebsa da naturfilosofiur lirikaSi, kvlav ganviTarebulia metamorfozisa da zeaRsvlis konceptebi, oRond ukve adamianis anTropologiur arssa da mis egzistenciasTan mimarTebaSi, rasac safuZvlad kvlav urfenomenis koncefcia udevs. aqac metamorfozisa da ciklurobis safuZvelia mTelisa (obieqtisa), e. i. urfenomeniseulisa (am SemTxvevaSi, pirveladamianis) da calkeulis (subieqtis), e. i. empiriuli adamianis dialeqtikuri mTlianoba, maTi arsobis urTierTgamomdinareoba, da ara SeuTavsebloba, gaTiSuloba, da Sesabamisad, ontologiuri dualizmi, rogorc es kantTanaa (erTi mxriv, Semmecnebeli subieqtis goneba, xolo, meore mxriv, am goenebisaTvis miuwvdomeli transcendturoba _ sagani Tavis Tvad, Ding an sich). ciklis mixedviT, empiriul sinmadvileSi calkeulis, e. i. empiriuli adamianis arsebobis winapirobaa misi goneba, gansjisa da Semecnebis unari da amis safuZvelze ganviTarebuli misi subieqturoba da individualizmi, rogorc misi TviTdadginebisa da TviTobis winapiroba, rasac goeTe ciklSi demoniurs uwodebs (ciklis pirvel rvataepeds swored demoni/. Dmon

goeTes orfikul ciklTan dakavSirebiT aseve ix. n. baqaniZis statia pirvelqmnili orfikuli sityvebi (baqaniZe 2004: 90-105).

40

konstantine bregaZe

ewodeba; unda iTqvas, rom am punqtSi, da cxadia, mxolod am punqtSi, goeTe kants `miyveba~):
myis aRmocendi da aRizarde im kanoniTve, romelmac gSoba. da unda iqmne, Tavs ver wauxval
[citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Goethe 2000a: 359).

amgvarad, subieqtis empiriul sinamdvileSi, anu konkretul istoriul-yofiT garemoSi, konkretul drosa da sivrceSi aRmoCena anu, subieqtis empiriuli egzistenciis imTaviTve winaswargansazRvruloba mis winaSe mocemuli ontologiuri aucileblobaa (im kanoniTve/Nach dem Gesetz). saganTa es wyoba ontologiurad subieqtze araa damokidebuli da am wesrigze subieqti verasodes moipovebs gavlenas: anu, saganTa am winaswargansazvrul wesrigs subieqti verasodes Secvlis. Sesabamisad, es aucilebloba Tavisi arsiT SemTxveviTia, SemTxveviTobis princips emyareba. magram subieqti Semdgom swored am SemTxveviTobis wiaRSi, mis SigniT avlens/unda gamoavlinos, gansazRvravs/unda gansazRvros da Seimecnebs/unda Seimecnos sakuTar/i Tav(i)s (da unda iqmne/So musst du sein) da amgvarad aviTarebs sakuTar individualurobas, subieqturobas (Camoqnil formis, cxovelmyofeli ganviTareba/Geprgte Form, die lebend sich entwickelt). (Sesabamisad, SemTxveviTi araa, rom ciklis meore rvataepedis saTauria SemTxveviToba/ . Das Zufllige). marTalia obieqturi sinamdvile, dro da sivrce subieqtis winaSe aRmarTulia, rogorc aucilebloba (ciklis meoTxe rvataepedi _ aucilebloba/ . Ntigung, aq kanti `ikiTxeba~), magram is imTaviTve daZleul unda iqnas siyvarulis ZaliT, rac subieqtis ukve metamorfozis apriorul procesSi CarTvasa da mis axal safexurze zeaRsvlas niSnavs (Steigering), rac mas aniWebs transcendirebis, anu empireis daZlevis spiritualur unars, ris Sedegadac subieqti empiriuli sinamdvilis daZlevis gziT adis sakuTari metamorfozis, anu enteleqiis ganviTarebis umaRles safexurze da daemkvidreba transcendentur sinamdvileSi, riTac igi kvlav ubrundeba pirvelsawyiss, urfe-

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

41

nomeniseul WeSmarit yofierebas (ciklis mexuTe rvataepedi imedi/ . Hoffnung):


arseba erTi laRobs da iSvebs, da agvamaRlebs sakuTar frTebiT nislebsa da RrubelTa zeda;
.

erTi frTagaSla _ eonTa zeda


[citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Goethe 2000a: 360).

amgvarad, ciklis mixedviT, adamianis enteleqiis metamorfoza, rac gulisxmobs sakuTari Sinagani arsis ganviTarebas zeaRsvlis principis safuZvelze, mimdinareobs empiriuli realobis farglebSi, sadac subieqti gadis metamorfozis Semdeg fazebs: I.

II. III.

IV.

SemTxveviToba _ empiriul sinamdvileSi aprioruli gamovlena calkeuli saxeobis, (Gattung, Gestalt) formiT; demoniuroba _ empiriulis farglebSi sakuTari subieqturobis ganviTareba; aucilebloba _ arsebuli sayovelTao ontologiuri kanonebisadmi morCileba, anu movaleobaze dafuZnebuli eTika, rac gulisxmobs mxolod arsebuli empiriuli sinamdvilis farglebSi sakuTari individualurobis ganviTarebas (kantianuri nakadi); imedi _ rogorc aucileblobis, anu empiriulis sazRvrebis gadalaxva; Sesabamisad, kantianuri dualizmis daZleva da urfenomeniseuli yofierebis damkvidreba.

magram goeTesTan mainc gaurkveveli rCeba mniSvnelovani egzistencialuri detali: bolomde gaurkvelia, pirvelfenomenTan aprioruli SerTvis (erTi frTagaSla _ eonTa zeda / Ein Flgelschlag - und hinter uns onen) Semdgom empiriuli subieqti kargavs sakuTar subieqturobas, pirovnulobas, Tu ara? Sesabamisad, sakiTxi dgas asec: subieqtis subieqturoba mxolod empiriuli sinamdvilis Rirebulebaa da is mxolod empiriuli

42

konstantine bregaZe

sinamdvilis pirobebSi viTardeba, Tu subieqtis subieqturoba urfenomeniseul yofaSic agrZelebs pirovan substancionalur egzistencias da misi kategoriacaa? goeTe am egzistencialur problemas Riad tovebs, rac miniSnebulia kidec ciklis mexuTe rvataepedSi, sadac Cans, rom subieqti urfenomenisul sivrces sakuTari pirovnuli Zalmosilebisa da nebelobis safuZvelze (fixteanuri da romantikosebiseuli gagebiT), sakuTari subieqturobis safuZvelze ki ar imkvidrebs, aramed goeTes mixedviT, urfenomeniseuli egzistenciis damkvidrebac eqvemdebareba metamorfozisa da zeaRsvlis obieqtur onto-egzistencialur sayovelTao kanonzomierebebs, da aqedan gamomdinare, transcendirebis aprioruloba subieqtis subieqturi nebelobidan ki ar iRebs saTaves, aramed mis miRmaa da isic winaswaraa determinebuli _ arseba erTi laRobs da iSvebs // da agvamaRlebs sakuTar frTebiT nislebsa da RrubelTa zeda (xazi Cemia _ k. b.). Sesabamisad, goeTesTan subieqtis subieqturobis urfenomeniseul sinamdvileSi transcendirebisSemdgomi arseboba-ararsebobis sakiTxi Riad rCeba: marTalia, goeTesTvis cxadia, rom calkeuli subieqti sakuTari enteleqiidan gamomdinare a priori transcendirebs, anu iswrafis empiriulis sazRvrebis gadalaxvisa da urfenomonis wiaRSi damkvidrebisaken, rac goeTes mixedviT aprioruli bunebisaa, magram goeTe arafers gvibarebs subieqtis araempiruli egzistenciis formaze _ anu bundovania, pirovnulia es egzistencia, Tu upirovno. is, rom goeTe aRniSnul problemas Riad tovebs, sruliad bunebrivia, ramdenadac misi anTropologiuri da ontologiuri msoflxedva efuZneba jer kidev vaimaruli klasikis periodSi (daaxl. 1785-1805) mis mierve SemuSavebul zomierebisa (der Mass) da TviTSezRudvis, TviTuaryofis (das Entsagen) koncepts, rac ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT, subieqtis subieqturobis ganviTarebas garkveul sazRvrebs uwesebs, da subieqturobis kategorias empiriuli sinamdvilis Rirebulebad acxadebs. amitomac SemTxveviTi araa, rom im lirikul teqstebSi, sadac pirvelfenomenis ideaa intencirebuli, goeTe yvelgan icavs zomierebas da subieqtis subieqturobis moqmedebas yvelgan da yovelTvis zRvars uwesebs, raTa ar dairRves sami postulatis erTianobis principi _ mSvenierebis, WeSmaritebisa da sikeTis mTlianoba (das Schne das Wahre das Gute); vinaidan goeTes anTropologiuri

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

43

koncefciis Tanaxmad (ix. misi lirikuli teqstebi _ oda kacobriobis sazRvrebi/Die Grenzen der Menschheit; aseve, himni RvTaebrivi/Das Gttliche), da es, faqtobrivad, goeTes mrwamsia, subieqtSi subieqturobis zedmetad ganviTareba aRvivebs titanizms da misi dionisuri arsidan gamomdinare, aRvivebs aracnobieri ltolvebis nakads, rac subieqts ukve gadaaqcevs iseT madekonstruirebel arsad, romelic upirispirdeba da angrevs yofierebiseul harmonias. amitomac, goeTesTvis saboloo jamSi subieqtis subieqturoba mxolod empiriuli sinamdvilis kategoriaa, romelic empiriulis gadalaxvisa da urfenomenTan SerTvis Sedegad empiriul sinamdvilesTan erTad unda daiZlios.3 aqedan gamomdinare, orfikul ciklSi subieqtis pirvelfenomenTan aprioruli SerTva imTaviTve ar niSnavs subieqtis subieqturobis, misi pirovnulobis Semdgom araempiriul substancionalur egzistenciasac, aramed piriqiT, aq ufro metad mocemulia transcendenturTan/urfenomenTan upirovno SerTva subieqturobis daZlevis xarjze. am TvalsazrisiT, aseve mniSvnelovania leqsSi netari swrafva gacxadebuli formula _ mokvdi da iqmen (Stirb und Werde), romlis Tanaxmadac yofierebaSi subieqti Tavisi mokvdavi anTropologiuri bunebidan gamomdinare, imTaviTve midrekilia sasrulobisaken, rac vlindeba sikvdilSi. magram goeTes rwmeniT, es misi saboloo finaloba ki ar aris, aramed axali egzistenciis dasawyisia, ramdenadac subieqti/calkeuli ubrundeba Tavis metafizikur sawyisebs _ urfenomeniseul sferos da mis wiaRSi ganagrZobs Tavis Semdgom arsebobas. magram Semdgom swored aq warmoiqmneba egzistencialuri dilema: subieqtis sikvdilisSemdgomi arseboba (Werden) pirovnulia Tu upirovno; anu, subieqti Tavis subieqturobasa da individualurobas, rac man empiriul sinamdvileSi ganaviTara, araempiriul sinamdvileSic inarCunebs, Tu subieqti transcendirebis Semdgom kargavs Tavis individualurobas, subieqturobas, pirovnulobas da usaxelo araras wiaRSi inTqmeba da qreba? magram, rogorc zemoT ukve SevniSne, sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi koncefciidan da msoflmxedvelobrivi mrwamsidan gamomdinare, goeTem es fundamenturi sakiTxi aRar gaaRrmava da ganaviTara, ramdenadac goeTe _ moyolebuli vaimaruli klasikis periodidan Semoqmedebis bolo, faustur fazamde _ imTaviTve ukuag-

44

konstantine bregaZe

debda dionisurobasTan wilnayar yovelgvar gadaWarbebul mistikasa da iracionalizms, Sesabamisad, gadaWarbebul subieqturobasa da individualurobas, rogorc aramSvenier da araeTikur, da aqedan gamomdinare, araWeSmarit mocemulobas. amitomac, zemoaRniSnuli sakiTxis ufro metad gaRrmaveba goeTes, misive rwmeniT, ukidures subieqtivizmsa da misticizmSi gadaagdebda da Semecnebis obieqtis (am SemTxvevaSi urfenomenis) obieqtur Wvretasa da SemecnebaSi daabrkolebda, da amdenad, WeSmaritebas aacdenda. amitomac, goeTesaTvis ufro metad misaRebi iyo obieqturi, zomieri mistika, risi dasturicaa zogadad misi gviani, vaimaruli klasikis Semdegdroindeli periodis Semoqmedeba, da kerZod, orfikul-mistikuri lirika (igive orfikuli pirvelsityvebi), fausti (gansakuTrebiT faustis meore nawili), anda sulac, mwvane gvelisa da mSvenieri SroSanis zRapari. zemoaRniSnuli fundamenturi egzistencialuri problema, anu subieqtis Semdgomi araempiriuli pirovnuli substancionaluri egzistenciis SesaZlebloba da misi dafuZneba SemdgomSi germanuli subieqturi idealizmis didma qurumma, i. g. fixtem da germanulma romantizmma, kerZod ki, adreulma germanulma romantizmma (novalisi, fr. Slegeli, fr. Slaiermaxeri) ganaviTara da gaaRrmava, rodesac maT msoflmxedvelobrivi da SemecnebiTi TvalsazrisiT qristianobas mimarTes, moaxdines misi adogmaturi, Tavisufali interpretacia da esTetizeba, Semdgom mxatvrul teqstebSi ganaviTares ieso qristesTan TviTidentifikacia da igi gamoacxades subieqtis subieqturobis dafuZnebis SesaZleblobis umTavres winapirobad rogorc empiriul, ise araempiriul egzistenciaSi. swored am idealis/ideis umaRlesi poeturi gacxadebaa novalisis mistikuri lirikuli cikli Ramis himnebi (Hymnen an die Nacht) (1799-1800), sadac romantizmis filosofiisa da esTetikis safuZvelze (qristianobis miTologia, magiuri idealizmi, romantizebis postulati) sruliad axleburadaa recifirebuli da gadaazrebuli ieso qristes dogmatur-konfesiuri figura, romelic aRniSnul lirikul teqstSi da teqstis saSualebiT ukve fuZndeba rogorc axali anTroposi, romelic sakuTari pirovnuli nebelobisa da amoqmedebuli dafaruli Tu miCqmaluli spiritualuri unarebis safuZvelze Tavad imkvidrebs maradisobaSi pirovnul/pirovan substancionalur egzistencias.

goeTes urfenomenis (Urphnomen) idea da kantis transcendentaluri filosofia

45

S e n i S v n e b i:
1. aqve ramdenime amonaridi goeTes aRniSnuli naSromidan: 5. mcenaris metamorfoza sami saxisaa: regularuli (regelmssig), araregularuli (unregelmssig) da SemTxveviTi (zufllig). 6. regularul metamorfozas aseve SegviZlia vuwodoT winmswrafi (fortschreitend) metamorfoza: masze

dakvirveba yovelTvisaa SesaZlebeli, vinaidan igi safexurebrivi ganviTarebis saxiT vlindeba _ marcvlidan vidre nayofis Camoyalibebamde. 7. araregularul metamorfozas aseve SegviZlia vuwodoT ukanmswrafi (rckschreitend) metamorfoza. rogorc im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac buneba umaRlesi miznisaken win miiswrafis, aq (e. i. araregularuli metamorfozis dros _ k. b.) igi erTi an ramdenime safexuriT ukan ixevs. rodesac buneba iq (winswrafvaSi _ k. b.) dauokebeli swrafviTa da sruli ZalisxmeviT yvavilebs qmnis, aq (ukanswrafvaSi _ k. b.) yuCdeba da Tavis qmnilebas araqmediT da uRono mdgomareobaSi gardasaxavs. [...] 120. gamomdinare iqidan, rom erTmaneTisagan vmijnavT fenomenTa win da ukan ganviTarebas, Cven Tavisuflad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom mtvriana igive SekumSuli yvavilis furcelia, xolo yvavilis furcelze SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom is gaSlis procesSi myofi butkoa. xolo yvavilis Tasis foToli igive SekumSuli Reros foTolia, Reros foTolze SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom is gaSlili yvavilis Tasis foTolia. 121. xolo Reroze SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom is gaSlili kokoria, xolo kokorze, _ rom is SekumSuli Reroa [citatis Targmani statiis avtors
ekuTvnis _ k. b.] (Goethe 2000e: 64-65, 100-101). 2 subieqt-obieqtis, Sesabamisad, fenomenisa da urfenomenis dialeqtikuri mTlianoba da sinTezi da am mTlianobis aprioruloba goeTes mier gacxadebulia aseve sxva naturfilosofiur leqsSi cxovelTa metamorfoza:
yoveli saxeoba (Glieder) yalibdeba maradiul kanonTa mixedviT, da calkeuli forma idumal inaxavs pirvelsaxes (Urbild).

keTilSobil qmnilebaTa arsSi mocemuli Zala Caabams maT cxovelmyofeli qmnadobis wminda wreSi
(miniSneba organuli bunebis fenomenTa enteleqiis apriorul transcendirebad arsze k. b.). [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Goethe 2000a: 201-203)

3 goeTe analogiur ideas aviTarebs Semoqmedebis gviani periodis sxva lirikul teqstebSic: erTi da yvela(1821), Tumca (1820), anderZi

46

konstantine bregaZe

(1829) da sxva.; aseve romanSi vilhelm maisteris mogzaurobis wlebi (1828) (sxvaTa Soris, misi sruli saTauria vilhelm maisteris mogzaurobis wlebi anu uarmyofelni, germ. Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre oder die Entsagenden) da tragediaSi fausti (1808-1832). aqve _ amonaridi leqsidan erTi da yvela (Eins und alles) (1821):
usazRro sivrceSi sakuTari Tavis povnisTvis yvela Cvengani sixaruliT uCinardeba, nacvlad mxurvale ndomis da velur vnebis, nacvlad mtanjveli da mkacri valis ganqarvebaa Sveba da tkboba
[citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Goethe 2000a: 368).

aqac subieqtis enteleqiis transcendirebad Tvisebazea miniSnebuli (usazRro sivrceSi sakuTari Tavis povnisTvis, yvela Cvengani sixaruliT uCinardeba / Im Grenzenlosen sich zu finden, wird gern der einzelne verschwinden). magram subieqtis subieqturobis, misi pirovnulobisa da pirovnuli nebelobis transcendirebisSemdgomi substanciuri arseboba-ararsebobis sakiTxi aqac Riad rCeba.

damowmebuli literatura:
Eckermann 1994: Eckermann J. P. Gesprche mit Goethe, Reclam, Stuttgart, 1994. Goethe 2000a: Goethe, J. W. v. Werke, Hamburger Ausgabe in 14 Bnden. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Mnchen, 2000. Bd. I Goethe 2000b: Goethe, J. W. v. Werke, Hamburger Ausgabe in 14 Bnden. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Mnchen, 2000. Bd. II Goethe 2000c: Goethe, J. W. v. Werke, Hamburger Ausgabe in 14 Bnden. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Mnchen, 2000. Bd. XI Goethe 2000d: Goethe, J. W. v. Werke, Hamburger Ausgabe in 14 Bnden. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Mnchen, 2000. Bd. XII Goethe 2000e: Goethe, J. W. v. Werke, Hamburger Ausgabe in 14 Bnden. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Mnchen, 2000. Bd. XIII

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Metzler 2008: Metzler Lexikon literarischer Symbole, (Hg.) G. Butzer, Metzler Verlag, Stuttgart, 2008. baqaniZe 2004: baqaniZe n. pirvelqmnili orfikuli sityvebi (gv. 90-105); wignSi: goeTe da ezoterizmi, Tsu, Tbilisi, 2004. svimoniSvili 2000: svimoniSvili a. leqsebi/Targmanebi, gamomc. omega-Tegi, Tbilisi, 2000.

zeinab gvariSvili

keningebis semiozisis diaqronuli analizi


In the beginning was the word, and primitive societies venerated poets second only to their leaders. A poet had the power to name, and so to control; he was, literally, the living memory of a group or tribe who would perpetuate their history in song; Kevin Crossley

filologiis doqtori, baTumis rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis asistent-profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: internetis enaSi gamoyenebuli religiuri leqsikis pragmalingvisturi analizi (2008); sityvaTa semantikuri transformacia aramonaTesave enebSi (2009); qarTul inglisuri Tarjimnis cru megobrebis Sesaxeb (2010). interesTa sfero: semiotika, pragmatika, enaTa SepirispirebiTi tipologia.

Tanamedrove inglisuri enis leqsikasa da zepirmetyvelebaSi dafuZnebuli neologizmebis mniSvnelovani wili metaforul Sedgenil arsebiT saxelebze modis. msgavsi leqsikuri erTeulebi sintaqtikuri, pragmatul da semiotikuri TaviseburebebiT gamoirCevian. metaforul Sedgenil neologizmTa Soris gansakuTrebul interess e.w. keningebi iwveven. keningebi iseT Sedgenil leqsikur erTeulebs warmoadgenen, sadac semantikur birTvsa da referents Soris kavSiri gamoxatulad Seusabamoa, magram miuxedavad amisa, Sedgenili saxelis orive nawilis monawileobiT iseTi metonimiuri an metaforuli Sedgenili leqsikuri erTeulebi miiReba, romlebic gasagebi xdeba interpretatorisaTvis, romelic naziarebia am sazogadoebis socialuri da kulturuli Sreebis momcvel informacias (D. Crystall, 1996, p.67). Sesabamisad, flobs garkveul codnas, ris Sedegadac semiozisis jaWvisaTvis aucilebe-

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li rgolebidan, romelic Setyobinebis warmoqmnas, kodirebas, gadacemas, dekodirebasa da interpretacias gulisxmobs, yvela rgoli moqmedia. Tanamedrove keningis TvalsaCino magaliTebs warmoadgenen metaforuli Sedgenili neologizmebi: Kneemail romelic ori leqsikuri erTeulis muxli da fostas SejerebiT miiReba da muxlmoyril locvas niSnavs; BlackBerry prayer; bleqberi-(smartfoni) da locva _ Setyobinebis SeparviT kiTxva; Devil's dandruff" eSmakis qertli _ kokaini, Mouse word mausi sityva kompiuteriT damyarebuli komunikacia; Kitchen pass samzareulo gasasvleli _ meuRlisagan (colisagan) miRebuli nebarTva wveulebaze wasasvlelad; Couch potato `divani~ `kartofili _ zarmaci adamiani, romelic mTel dRes televizorTan atarebs; Road hog gza taxi mZRoli, romelic agresiulad ikavebs imaze met adgils, vidre esaWiroeba da a.S. zemoT moyvanili neologizmebi Tanamedrove metaforuli azrovnebis TvalsaCino magaliTebia. rogorc vxedavT, maTSi kavSiri aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris ikonuria da vizualur asociaciebs emyareba. magaliTisaTvis gavaanalizoT keningi road hog. mocemul metaforul Sedgenil arsebiT saxelSi gadamwyveti roli sityva Hog-s ukavia. inglisur, isee rogorc sxva bevr kulturaSi, sityvaRori gaumaZRrobasTan, etiketisa da qcevis normebis ugulebelyofasTan asocirdeba, maSasadame Aam konkretul SemTxvevaSi sityvis denotaciuri mniSvneloba Sors ar midis misi konotaciuri datvirTvisagan. xSirad gvinaxavs mZRoli, romelic agresiulad, gaumaZRrad ikavebs imaze met adgils, vidre realurad esaWiroeba, riTac ugulebelyofs zogadad miRebul moZraobis wesebs. Sesabamisad, mocemuli metaforuli neologizmi ikonuria, efuZneba ra zogad kognitur bazas, da Sesabamisad, advilad gasagebi xdeba interpretatorisTvis. semiotikuri TvalsazrisiT, metafora gulisxmobs process, rodesac erTi aRsaniSni, romelic mocemul SemTxvevaSi aRmniSvnelis funqciiT itvirTeba, gamoiyeneba sxva, gansxvavebuli Sinaarsis, planis mqone meore aRsaniSnis gamosaxatavad.Mmetafora gulisxmobs rogorc simbolos, aseve xatis Tvisebasac. amdenad metaforuli aRmniSvneli metadre xazs usvams da wina planze ayenebs aRmniSvnels da ara _ aRsaniSns. cnobilia, rom metafora aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns Soris msgavsebazea agebuli, rac udavod moicavs niSnis ikonurobas.

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zeinab gvariSvili

rogorc aRvniSneT, zemoT moyvanili neologizmebi keningebis jgufs ganekuTvnebian. sayuradReboa, rom keningebis magaliTebs Zvel inglisur enaSic vxdebiT. isini Zvel inglisur poeziaSi skandinaviuri poeziis zegavlenis Sedegad damkvidrdnen jer zepirsityvierebaSi, Semdeg ki damwerlobis ganviTarebasTan erTad, damwerlobiTi enis nawiladac gvevlinebian. rogorc aRvniSneT, keningebis gamoyeneba gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebeli iyo skaldebisaTvis. Sesabamisad, ganvasxvavebT Zvel inglisur (dasavleT germanikul) da skaldur (skandinaviur) keningebs. skalduri keningebi, romlebic metonimuria da miTologiur aluziebzea agebuli, interpretantisaTvis gansakuTrebul sirTules warmoadgens. Zveli inglisuri enisaTvis ufro metad metaforuli Sinaarsis keningebia damaxasiaTebeli, sadac urTierToba aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris simbolur-ikonuria. MmagaliTad: cnobil keningTa Sorisaa: Zv.ingl. hronrode- whale road, veSapi gza rac zRvas niSnavs; Zv.ingl. bonehs, bone house Zvali saxli, sxeuls; Zv.ingl. gleobeam, glee wood `mxiaruleba xe~ arfas, beodolema battle light brZola Suqura _ xmals swan-rd swan-road gedi gza- zRva, heofon-candel heaven candle zeca sanTeli _ mze da a.S. Tumca Zvel inglisur leqsikur korpusSi moipoveba metonimiuri keningebis magaliTebic. metaforisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic agebuli ar aris aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris uSualo kavSirze, metonimia gulisxmobs iseTi aRsaniSnis gamoyenebas, romelic gamoiyeneba meore aRsaniSnis gadmosacemad da amasTan pirdapir an gamoxatulad asociaciur kavSirSia masTan. metonimiur aRsaniSnebs Soris kavSiri ara simboluri an ikonuri, aramed indeqsaluri urTierTobebiT, amdenad metonimiis indeqsaluroba gulisxmobs, rom aRsaniSnebi pirdapir kavSirSi arian realobasTan. aseve unda aRiniSnos is faqtic, rom metaforisagan gansxvavebiT, sadac, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, wina planze aRmniSvneli dgeba, metonimiuri aRmniSvneli wina planze aRsaniSns ayenebs. metonimia Cveni mentaluri ruqis da Sesabamisad realobis saerTo suraTis Sesaxeb Cveneuli codnis verbalur aRweras warmoadgens. metonimiis interpretacia ar moiTxovs erTi cnebidan meoreze transpozicias, rogorc es metaforis SemTxvevaSi xdeba. rogorc jakofi da jonsoni aRniSnaven, metafora ufro kulturuli fenomenia, vidre lingvisturi, imdenad, ramdenadac is varirebs sxvadasxva erebsa da kulturaSi da aRniSnuli eris fizikuri, socialuri da kulturuli ga-

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mocdilebis Sedegs warmoadgens. (Lakof George & Mark Johnson 1980, p.39). xolo metonimia eyrdnoba, kognitur bazas romelic codnisa da realobis aRqmis erTobliobas warmoadgens da saerToa mocemuli lingvo-kulturuli sazogadoebis yvela wevrisaTvis, aerTianebs ara kerZo individis mier akumulirebul codnas an warmodgenas realobaze, aramed misi aRqmis erovnulad determinirebul invariantebs. Zveli inglisuri Mmetonimiuri keningis magaliTebia: Goldgufan oqro micema, rac mefes niSnavs da medeorn hs Tafli saxli rac mefis darbazs niSnavs. aRniSnuli keningebi uSualod winareqristianul, heroikul periods ukavSirdeba. kamitatusis wevri mamakaci xelmZRvanelobda idealebiT, romlebic mefisTvis, batonisTvis Tavganwirvas da morCilebas emyareboda, sapasuxod batoni, mefe icavda Tavis mebrZolebs, asaCuqrebda oqroTi da umarTavda wveulebebs Tavis darbazSi, sadac mebrZolebs Taflisagan damzadebuli sasmeliT umaspinZldebodnen. swored es kulturul-istoriuli faqti udevs safuZvlad aRniSnul keningebs. keningi _ freouwebbe mSvidoba mqsoveli, romelic qals niSnavs (B. Mitchell, 2000, p.75), Zvel anglo-saqsur tradicias ukavSirdeba, romlis mixedviTac, mtrulad ganwyobili ojaxebis dasazaveblad erTi ojaxis qaliSvils mtrulad ganwyobil dinastiis warmomadgenels miaTxovebdnen. amdenad, swored qali iqceoda xolme mSvidobis mqsovelad mtrulad ganwyobil or ojaxs an dinastias Soris. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, metonimiuri aRsaniSnebi pirdapir kavSirSi arian imdroindel realobasTan, xolo urTierToba aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris indeqsaluria. rogorc vxedavT, metonimiuri keningebi mentaluri da socialur-kulturuli kodebia, romlebic imdroindel sazogadoebrivi yofisa da realobis amsaxvel zust informacias Seicaven. Sesabamisad, im kognituri bazis Semadgenel nawils warmoadgenen, romelic moqmedi da aqtualuri iyo enis ganviTarebis garkveul etapze. kulturuli da lingvisturi ganviTarebis Sedegad Seicvala kognituri baza, ris Sedegadac imave enis matarebeli sociumisaTvisac ki mocemuli leqsikuri erTeulebi gaugebari rCeba. adgili aqvs asemias, radgan cnobil samkuTxedSi moqceuli sami elementidan obieqti, aRmniSvneli, interpretatori _ interpretatori moklebulia codnas, rac saSualebas aZlevs, aRadginos metonimiuri kavSiri aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris.

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zeinab gvariSvili

daskvnis saxiT ki SegviZlia ganvacxadoT: miuxedavad imisa, rom Tanamedrove keningebi struqturul msgavsebas amJRavneben Zvelinglisur keningebTan, isini mkveTrad gansxvavdebian maTgan Sinarsiis planis TvalsazrisiT, warmoadgenen ra Tanamedrove socialur-kulturuli realobis amsaxvel leqsikur erTeulebs, sadac kavSiri aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris, gansxvavebiT Zveli inglisuri keningebisagan, ikonuria da ara _ indeqsaluri. Ggamoyenebuli literatura: 1. B. Mitchell, An invitation to Old English and Anglo-Saxon England Oxford UK and Cambridge USA, 2000 2. Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson Metaphors We Live By, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980 3. D. Crystall, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English language, Cambridge, Cambridge University press, 1996. A avtorizebuli internetresursebi: http://www.kennin/norse/edu/12/13/sedr.html http://www.experiencefestival.com/kenning_-_modern_kennings http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_kennings

amiran gomarTeli

`sulikos~ semiotika anu


kidev erTxel `sulikos~ saidumlos Sesaxeb

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: literaturul-kritikuli werilebis krebuli `WirTa Tqma sjobs~ (1985); `qarTuli simbolisturi proza~ (monografia) (1997), literaturuli werilebi da eseebi (2005). interesTa sfero: XIX da XX qarTuli literatura hermenevtikul da semiotikur diskursSi, qarTuli da rusuli modernistuli proza da poezia, literaturuli kritika.

`samefo siyvarulisa~ 1894 wels daiwera, magram arc akakis da arc vaJas sicocxleSi ar gamoqveynebula. maSin rogorRa SeiZleba msje-

ucnauri bedi dahyva akakis `sulikos~. miuxedavad imisa, rom mTeli saqarTvelo mReroda, aravin icoda, vis an ras gulisxmobda poeti lirikuli leqsis adresatSi. sulikoSi xan gardacvlil satrfos xedavdnen da xan samSoblos (akakis poeziaSi samSoblo xom Zalze xSirad aris warmodgenili satrfos saxiT). ase gagrZelda lamis erTi saukunis manZilze, vidre akaki baqraZem ar amoikiTxa `sulikos~ saidumlo leqsis WeSmariti azrobrivi Sinaarsi (rasac qvemoT, bunebrivia, aucileblad Sevexebi). da mainc, `sulikoSi~ kidevaa damarxuli saidumlo, romlis amoxsna mkafio warmodgenas mogvcems akakis leqsis genezisze mis mimarTebaze e. w. literaturul arqetipebTan, maT saxismetyvelebis SinaarsTan. am mizniT `sulikos~ Seqmnis istorias (mizezsa Tu winapirobas) unda gavadevnoT Tvali. am SemTxvevaSi saqme gveqneba akakis farul SemoqmedebiT dapirispirebasTan. dapirispirebis obieqtia vaJas leqsi `samefo siyvarulisa~.

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loba am leqsTan akakis `sulikos~ (gamoqveynda 1895 wels) mimarTebaze? vidre am kiTxvas pasuxs gavcemde, or sakiTxs unda Sevexo: pirveli _ vaJas leqsis gamoqveynebis `Tavgadasavals~ da meore _ akakis religiur mrwamss. vaJa-fSavelas TxzulebaTa akademiur gamocemebSi aRniSnulia, rom xelnawerTa institutis vaJas fondSi daculia erTad SekinZuli patara krebuli, romelSic moTavsebulia avtografi sami leqsisa: `samefo siyvarulisa,~ `aTasjer moxvel, iavo,~ `Savi Rrubeli~ da lermontovis `demonis~ Targmani. rogorc gamomcemelni gvamcnoben, `samefo siyvarulisas~ bolos, frCxilebSi, avtoris xeliT miwerilia: `gagzavnilia ##`moambis~ V ##-saTvis, 1894 w. analogiuri minaweri aqvs meore leqssac (`aTasjer moxvel, iavo~)... ratomRac `samefo siyvarulisa~ avtoris sicocxleSi ar gamoqveynebula, `aTasjer moxvel, iavo~ ki daibeWda gazeT `iveriaSi~ mxolod xuTi wlis Semdeg _ 1899 wels. rac Seexeba mesame leqss _ `Savi Rrubeli~, daibeWda `kvalSi~ 1894 welsve~ (ix. vaJa-fSavela, TxzulebaTa xuTtomeuli, tomi 1, 1961, gv. 448). teqstologiuri SeniSvnidan udavoa erTi ram: vaJas samive leqsi 1894 wels aris dawerili. oRond pasuxia gasacemi kiTxvaze: sad SeiZleboda gacnoboda akaki wereTeli leqss `samefo siyvarulisa?~ gamoricxuli ar aris, akakis es leqsi waekiTxa `moambis~ redaqciaSi 1894 wels, sadac, vaJas minaweris Tanaxmad, gagzavnili iyo gamosaqveyneblad, magram es nakleb sarwmunoa. ufro savaraudoa, rom akaki wereTelma vaJas leqsi `samefo siyvarulisa~ waikiTxa `kvalis~ redaqciaSi. es mas, rogorc redaqciis TanamSromels, samsaxurebrivad evaleboda. 1894 wels dawerili vaJas sami leqsidan erTi, `Savi Rrubeli~, rogorc iTqva, daibeWda `kvalSi~ imave wels. logikuria vifiqroT, rom sxva ori leqsic _ `samefo siyvarulisa~ da `aTasjer moxvel, iavo~ _ avtorma aseve `kvalis~ redaqcias gaugzavna da is masalaa, romelic Sesafaseblad gadasces akaki wereTels da man daiwuna.


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1894 wlis 2 aprils vaJa-fSavela ugzavnis sayveduris werils `kvalis~ redaqtors anastasia TumaniSvil-wereTlisas. vaJas sayveduri iman gamoiwvia, rom `kvalis~ redaqtorma ar dabeWda vaJas romeliRac nawarmoebi Tu nawarmoebebi (werilSi naTqvamia _ `masala~) im mizeziT, rom redaqciis wevrma akaki wereTelma daiwuna. vaJa sakuTar RirsebaSi Rrma darwmunebuli mimarTavs `kvalis~ redaqtors: `me TviTon did pativs vcem akakis niWsa da moRvaweobas, magram ise ki ara... rom sakuTaris Tavis pativiscemazed xeli aviRo an sakuTar msjelobazed, sakuTar Sexedulebaze ama Tu im saganze!~ rogorc Cans, erTad akinZuli sami leqsidan pirvel ors vaJas xeliT imitom aweria, gaigzavna `moambis~ redaqciaSio, rom `kvalis~ uaris mere isini sxva redaqciisTvis gaugzavnia, xolo mesame leqss (ukve gamoqveynebuls `kvalSi~), bunebrivia, aRarsad gaagzavnida da minaweric amitom ara aqvs. rogorc iTqva, CvenTvis saintereso `samefo siyvarulisa~ avtoris sicocxleSi arsad dabeWdila, magram es akakis mier dawunebuli swored is leqsi (an oridan erT-erTi) unda iyos, romlis Taobazec acnoba `kvalis~ redaqtorma vaJas da poetis sayveduric daimsaxura. amitom vvaraudob _ akakis, rogorc `kvalis~ redaqciis TanamSromels, wakiTxuli aqvs `samefo siyvarulisa~. am gancxadebis safuZvels dokumentur monacemebze aranakleb vaJas leqsisa da akakis `sulikos~ gaanalizeba, maT azrobriv Sinaarsze dakvirveba mogvcems. magram manamde upriania, dapirebisamebr, oriode sityviT akakis msoflmxedvelobas, mis religiur mrwamss SevexoT (mxolod ase mogvecema saSualeba, CavwvdeT mizezs vaJas leqsis dawunebisa).

miuxedavad didi mcdelobisa, anastasia TumaniSvil-wereTlis werili, gagzavnili vaJa-fSavelasadmi, verc xelnawerTa institutis da verc literaturis muzeumis fondebSi ver moinaxa. amitom Wirs imis dokumenturad dadastureba, Tu konkretulad vaJas romeli nawarmoebi daiwuna dasabeWdad akakim.

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eris sulieri winamZRoloba akaki wereTlisgan, ilias msgavsad, mkacr realizmsa da pragmatizms moiTxovda. akakic leqsiT exmianeboda lamis yvela saqveyno problemas (yoveldRiuri muSa varo, ambobda). bevri miiCnevs, rom aman garkveulwilad daazarala misi poezia, Tumc akakis poetur pragmatizms SesaniSnavi gamarTleba mouZebna Salva amirejibma: `akakis poezia damonebuli eris gariTmuli politikaa~-o. miuxedavad zemoTqmulisa, akaki wereTeli sakmaod Rrma religiuri gancdis poetia. misi religiuri cnobiereba maSinac ki ar ibindeba, roca ilias `poets~ xumrobanarevi toniT epaeqreba. aqac mkafiod acxadebs: poeti `Suakacia~, anu mediumia, raTa saRmrTo sityva msmenelamde miitanos; rogorc rusTveli ityoda: `saRmrTo-saRmrTod gasagoni, msmenelTaTvis didi margi~ gaxados. akaki Rrmad aris gamsWvaluli samyaros RvTaebriobis gancdiT. grZnobs da Cvenc gvagrZnobinebs _ `rom aris zeca aRvsili raRac ZaliT sagznobiT~. amgvari `gzneba~ unetaresi gancdaa; amgvari `gzneba~ gonebazec aRmatebulia. amitom daiCivla xmamaRla: `magram goni mibams enaso~. akakis religiuri msoflgancdis warmoCenisas arafers vityvi iseT qmnilebebze, romelTa religiuri Tematika aSkaraa. aseTia, magaliTad, poemebi: `andria pirvelwodebuli~ da `wminda nino, anu qristianobis SemoReba saqarTveloSi~. Cveni msjelobisTvis ufro mniSvnelovania leqsi `qebaTa-qeba~. am bibliuri saTauris qveS ara marto Rrma religiuri Sinaarsia daunjebuli, aramed, rac mTavaria, mkafiod asaxavs akakis mrwamssa Tu msoflgancdas. amjeradac SeiZleba paralelis gavleba vaJasTan. leqsebi analogiuri saTauriT _ `qebaTa-qeba~ sakmaod aqvs vaJa-fSavelas (Cemi _ angariSiT Teqvsmeti) _ oRond arc erT maTgans araferi aqvs saerTo bibliur `qebaTa-qebasTan~. amgvari dasaTaurebis yvela, Teqvsmetive, leqsSi gamJRavnebulia poetis kritikuli damokidebuleba yofiTi sinamdvilis mimarT.


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vaJas leqsebis ciklSi `qebaTa-qeba~ aRwerilia ukuRmarTi mdgomareoba qveynisa, sadac `mama-papaTa anderZi mikitnebs misces valSia;~ sadac yvela TanamoZmis daCagvra-motyuebaze fiqrobs; sadac `arafris dardi ara gvaqvs, oRond vsvaT, vsWamoT, viZinoT;~ sadac `iudas sakmels ukmeven, jvarze acmeven qristesa;~ sadac xalxi brbod qceula, romlis `siyvaruls moixveW, mxolod ZaliT da SiSiTa...~ aSkraa, rom vaJa bibliidan momdinare saTaurs parodirebisTvis iyenebs, raTa kidev ufro gausvas xazi miuRebel, biwier yofiT sinamdviles. axla sagangebod SevCerdeT akakis leqsze `qebaTa-qeba~. TviTon akaki am leqss gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda. sxvagvarad rogor unda avxsnaT sxvadasxva saTauriT leqsis samjer gamoqveyneba. `qebaTa-qeba~ akakim pirvelad 1882 wels dabeWda `droebaSi~ saTauriT _ `salami~ da grigol orbelians uZRvna; meored _ 1887 wels `iveriaSi~ saTauriT _ `lxini~ da mesamed _ 1900 wels `akakis krebulSi~ saTauriT _ `qebaTa-qeba~. miuxedavad saTauris cvlilebisa, poeti sakuTriv teqstSi arafers cvlida. ramdenimegzis gamoqveynebiT akaki mkiTxvelis mometebuli yuradRebis miqcevas cdilobs am leqsze. surs, sakuTari mrwamsi drodadro Seaxsenos mkiTxvels. akaki `qebaTa-qebaSi~ uzenaesi Semoqmedis sidiades Wvrets. RvTaebrivi siyvaruli realurad aris ganxorcielebuli xilul, materialur samyaroSi. `sxivmomfinare mTvare,~ `varskvlavni mokaSkaSeni,~ `yvavilTa ena _ sunnelTa fSvena,~ `wyalTa Cqriali, foTolT Sriali~ Tu `balaxT bibini~ _ erTi sityviT, mTeli xiluli, materialuri samyaro _ RvTaebriobis gamovlenaa, anu, rogorc grigol robaqiZe am leqsze ambobs: `mTeli buneba Sestrfis RvTaebriobis sxeulebas samyaroSi~. roca akakis leqsis lirikuli gmiri yovelive amas, anu `bunebis mayruls, saqorwilod sruls~ mzers da grZnobs, maSin `cnobs, rom aris kacSi RvTisa xateba~. mere ki kiTxvaze: `ram amamaRla? vin magrZnobina es saidumlo, RvTiuri Zala?~ poetis

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pasuxi aseTia: `Sen, siyvarulo, cisa da qveynis kavSiro da Tan Suamavalo~. akakis msoflgancda srul TanxmierebaSia axali aRTqmis umTavres debulebasTan: `siyvaruli RvTisagan ars, rameTu RmerTi siyvaruli ars!~. swored siyvarulis amgvari rwmena msWvalavs poets RvTaebrivi eqstaziT da aRavsebs sixaruliT: `sxvebma svan Rvino!.. me uRvinodac mTvrali var metis sixaruliTa! emata sofels mSveniereba Cems TvalSi misis siyvaruliTa~. axla, roca, ase Tu ise, zogadad mainc visaubreT akakis religiur mrwamsze, droa, vaJas leqss movuxmoT: samefo siyvarulisa satrfo davkarge, imas veZebdi, Semoviare mTeli qveyana. Wiri da sevda zRva da xmeleTze satrfos moZebars Semxvda bevrgana. ramdenjer fiqri cecxl-modebuli gavgzavne caSi maRla RmerTTana, magram me da im Cems bedis varskvlavs ar mogvixerxda Seyra erTgana. moxetiale gaxelebuli wavawydi sadRac erTs turfa mdelos. codvaa, misi mSveniereba adamianma fexiTa sTelos. samoTxes hgavda, an ki samoTxe imaze kargi riTRa iqneba? Cems aRtacebas ar aqvs samzRvari, ros mis suraTi Tvalwin midgeba.


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yoveli fiqri saamqveynio maSin qarwyldeba, gulSi miqreba. civni wyaroni uricxvT yvavilTa ankara namiT pirebsa hbanden. wyaro xom TviTac lamazi aris, maSin ki trfobis RmerTebsa hgavden. ukvdavebisa wyaroni iyvnen da ukvdavebiT midamos hrwyavden. ukvdavebis xec iqve hyvaoda, iq ver acdenda gveli evasa, vera hbedavda boroti suli codvis saqmnelad gulis rwevasa. Suris TvaliTa SoriT umzerda, magram xdeboda igi verasa. samefo taxtze yvavilianze TviT siyvaruli zed brZandeboda, kacTa da pirutyvT grZnoba-vnebebze igi mefobda da brZaneblobda. vefxvni da lomni wynarad, uvneblad iremT da SvelTa Soris dioden, qor-Savardenni kakabT, gnolT gverdiT isxden da samtrod ara hkioden. arwivsa xmali qarqaSs Caego, klanWzedac sisxli arRa scxeboda, myis damtkbariyo misi buneba, ra siyvaruli gulsa hxleboda. visac guSina gul-civad hklavda, dRes igi mis mters Seakvdeboda.

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orni mefeni, erTmaneTzeda aSfoTebulni SuriT, mtrobiTa, erTi iqiT mxriT, meore aqiT pirispir modgnen Tvis mxedrobiTa. saomar velad es daesaxaT, turfa samefo siyvarulisa, aq hsurT erTmaneTs rom gaumwaron dRe sicocxlis da sixarulisa. gulSi mxedarni siZulvils hlesen, grZnoba ar uCansT sibralulisa da miiwies erTmaneTzeda xmal-mowvdiT, Tanac kiJina dasces. magram uecrad yvelani dacxren. myis iaraRi xeliT gauSves, Tav-dakidebiT SteriviT dadgen. mere mividen da erTmaneTsa, viT RviZlma Zmebma, kocna dauwyes, sul dahviwynodaT, radac aq Sekrben, ca da xmeleTsa sxva xma auwyes. veRara hReben kacis sisxliTa maT Semacqerals turfa mxaresa. erTurTs Sestrfian Tval-damSeulni, viT ca gadmosuls mazed mTvaresa. me ki viZaxdi: `satrfov, sada xar, rad ar maCveneb Sensa saxesa? me TviT gaxlavar is Seni satrfo! trfobis qveyana erTxmad hkioda. gamomeRviZa. sizmrad menaxa da amis gamo guli mtkioda.


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rogorc vnaxeT, vaJas lirikuli gmiris mier satrfos Zebna gvirgvindeba samoTxis xilviT, sadac ukvdavebis wyaroc aris da samoTxis xec cnobadisa, oRond gveli veRar acdunebs evas da veRarc boroteba boginebs; samefo taxtze siyvaruli zis da kacTa Tu pirutyvT qvena grZnobebze mbrZaneblobs. swored siyvarulis ZaliT lomi da vefxvi aRar mtrobs iremsa da Svels, qor-Sevardeni _ kakabsa da gnols; erTmaneTze saomrad gamzadebuli molaSqreni, Tavis mefian-mxedrianad, xmal-iaraRze da urTierTmtrobaze xels iReben da ca da xmeleTs `veRara hReben kacis sisxliTa~. piriqiT, Sehxarian erTmaneTs... miuxedavad samoTxis xilvisa, leqsis lirikuli gmiri mainc ver mSviddeba: `me ki viZaxdi: satrfov, sada xar, rad ar maCveneb Sensa saxesa?~ _ me TviT gaxlavar is Seni satrfo! _ trfobis qveyana erTxmad hkioda. gamomeRviZa sizmrad menaxa da amis gamo guli mtkioda~. daskvna aSkarad pesimisturia. samoTxe miraJia. `Txa da mgeli erTad Zovdes~ _ sizmriseuli moCvenebaa. isic aSkaraa, rom qveyniereba imis sapirispirod aris mowyobili, rasac samoTxis suraTi gvixatavs. amas gveubneba vaJas leqsis qveteqsti, romelic eWvis qveS ayenebs samyaros RvTaebriobas, amqveynad RvTaebrivi siyvarulis arsebobas. rogorc vxedavT, vaJas `samefo siyvarulisas~ da akakis zemoT ganxilul `qebaTa-qebas~ sapirispiro Sinaarsi aqvs. sxvadasxva msoflgancda da msoflSegrZnebaa gamoxatuli am or leqsSi. amitom gasakviri ar unda iyos, rom akakim ukritikod ver miiRo vaJas leqsi. ar gamovricxav, anastasia wereTlis mier vaJasadmi gagzavnil baraTSi isic yofiliyo dakonkretebuli, ratomac Tqva akakim uari leqsis dabeWdvaze. logikuria vifiqroT, akakis uaris mizezi misi Sinagani mrwamsisTvis miuRebeli azrobrivi Sinaarsi iyo. maSin ufro gasagebia vaJas pasuxi: akakis pativis-

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cemis miuxedavad, ar SemiZlia, `xeli aviRo... sakuTar msjelobazed, sakuTar Sexedulebaze ama Tu im saganze!~ magram axla umTavress, vaJas leqsisa da akakis `sulikos~ Sepirispireba-analizs mivubrundeT. roca vaJa leqsis dasawyisSi ityvis: `satrfo davkarge, imas veZebdi, /Semoviare mTeli qveyana,~_ ar SeiZleba, am orma taepma sulikos dasawyisi striqonebi ar gagvaxsenos: `sayvarlis saflavs veZebdi, / ver vnaxe, dakarguliyo~. roca vTqvi, `suliko~ gagvaxsendeba-meTqi, Segnebulad ar vaniWeb upiratesobas qronologias, imas Tu romeli leqsi ufro adre Seiqmna. yovelgvari winapirobis gareSe var darwmunebuli, rom Cveni mkiTxvelis mexsierebaSi upiratesad `sulikoa~ aRbeWdili. amas, ra Tqma unda, garda akakis leqsis formismieri mSvenirebisa, varinka wereTlis wyalobiT, leqsis sasimRero melodiad qcevamac Seuwyo xeli (Tu piriqiT, `sulikos~ poeturma mSvenierebam dabada ukvdavi melodia). amJamad Cveni msjelobisTvis arsebiTi mniSvneloba imasa aqvs, Tu ras niSnavs, ras gulisxmobs vaJas mier naxsenebi `satrfo~ an akakis `sayvareli~ da `suliko?~ am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemaSi im poetis qmnileba dagvexmareba, romelsac akakic da vaJac did pativs scemdnen. es aris daviT guramiSvili da misi `daviTiani~. akakim iona meunargias anketis SekiTxvas, Tu vis poezias afasebda yvelaze metad, upasuxa: `poezia daviT guramiSvilisa~. vaJa Tavs guramiSvilis sulier memkvidred miiCnevda: `Sen Cemo winamorbedo, uZvirfaseso papao!.. Senis cremlebiT movxarSe Cemis grZnobebis fafao~. (`daviT guramiSvilis xsovnas~). akakisac hqonda am sityvebis gameorebis ufleba. swored `daviTianis~ erTi konkretuli frazaa akakis genialuri `ganTiadis~ biZgis mimcemi _ `geajebi, nu gamwirav, movhkvde, Sen kerZ dammarxeo~ (`daviTiani~). Sdr. `dedaS-


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vilobam, bevrs ar gTxov, Sens miwas mimabareo~ (`ganTiadi~). guramiSviliseuli vedreba RvTaebriv wiaRSi dabrunebisa akakis `ganTiadSi~ mSobliur wiaRSi dakrZalvis natvrad transformirdeba. vfiqrob, SesaniSnavi magaliTia Cveni klasikuri mwerlobis uwyvetoba-erTianobisa, rasac revaz TvaraZem TxuTmetsaukunovani mTlianoba uwoda. erTi sityviT, mTavari da arsebiTi mainc is aris, rom daviT guramiSvilis `daviTiani~ akakisac da vaJasac Rrmad hqondaT gaTavisebuli. CvenTvis saintereso orive leqsi, vaJas `samefo siyvarulisa~ da akakis `suliko,~ dasabams (Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas) swored guramiSvilTan iRebs, kerZod, misi leqsidan `simRera daviTisa. zubovka~. `zubovkas~ refreniviT gasdevs fraza: `sad wavida, vera vnaxe Cemi sayvareli~. es sityvebi RmerTis Ziebaze migvaniSnebs. `sayvareli~ e.w. aRorZinebis xanis poeziaSi, iseve, rogorc `satrfo~, macxovris epiTetebia. vaxtang meeqvse `vefxistyaonis~ komentarebSi garkveviT acxadebs: sayvareli qristes hqvian. `daviTianSic~ mkafiod Cans es _ `momikles me sayvareli, Ze RvTisad Txrobili~. `zubovkis~ yaidis leqsebi orplaniania. mTavari misi siRrmiseuli, simbolur-alegoriuli plania. `zubovka~, Tu mas zedapirulad wavikiTxavT, Cveulebrivi satrfialo, samijnuro leqsia, magram, rogorc korneli kekeliZe ganmartavs: guramiSvilTan `qalisadmi trfobasa da mijnurobaze laparaki araa... am leqsSi, ise rogorc vaxtang mefisa da mamuka baraTaSvilis nawerebSi... igulisxmeba macxovari, romelsac `misi (kacisadmi) siyvarulisaTvis scemes xelSekrulsa~ (k. kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, 1952, t. II gv. 540-541). ase rom, leqsis meore, simbolur-alegoriuli plani gacilebiT Rrma Sinaarss Seicavs. igi saRmrTo trfialebiT aris damuxtuli. `daviTianis~ lirikuli gmiris Civili ar aris konkretuli qalis dakargviT gamowveuli; arc qalis dapirebad unda aRviqvaT _ `dampirda, Tqva: `kidev moval, aw me imas veli~. poetis urvis mizezi (`misTvis vstiri, cremliTa maqvs ube, kalTa sveli~) gacilebiT Rrma da amaRle-

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bulia. es mistikosis wadilia, RvTaebis natvriT gamowveuli. amdenad, rogorc vaJas, ise akakis leqsis arsebiTi Sinaarsi guramiSvilis striqonebs eyrdnoba, misi variaciaa. SevadaroT erTmaneTs: `sad wavida, vera vnaxe, Cemi sayvareli...~ `aw Sen, Cemo sayvarelo, imyofebi sada?~ /`daviTiani~/ `satrfo davkarge, imas veZebdi, Semoviare mTeli qveyana...~ `me ki viZaxdi: satrfov, sada xar, rad ar maCveneb Sensa saxesa?~ /`samefo siyvarulisa~/ `sayvarlis saflavs veZebdi, ver vnaxe, dakarguliyo...~ `sada xar Cemo suliko?.. /`suliko~/ miuxedavad guramiSvilis `zubovkasTan~ aseTi mimarTebisa, vaJas mainc sapirispiro daskvna gamoaqvs, akakis leqsis azrobrivi Sinaarsi ki srul TanxmierebaSia guramiSvilis mrwamsTan. `RvTis gamo qmnili ars yoveli, ars myofobs rac nivTieri,~ _ ityvis daviT guramiSvili, romelmac kargad icis, rom amqveynad yvelafers ori mniSvneloba aqvs: _ er

erTi Semoqmedi udavod axdens gavlenas meoreze. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi vaJa da akaki aSkarad agrZeleben guramiSvilis azrobrivsa da saxismetyvelebiT tradicias. sityvakazmul mwerlobaSi es xSiri movlenaa; metic memkvidreobiTobisa da tradiciis uwyvetobis gamovlenaa. amgvari urTierTkavSiri aduRabebs erT mTlianobad ama Tu im eris literaturas. sxvagvarad mxolod enobriv gansxvavebaze davidoda iseTi rTuli da RrmaSinaarsiani definicia, rasac qarTuli, rusuli, franguli (Tu nebismieri kulturuli eris) mwerloba hqvia.


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Ti TavisTavadi da meore Semoqmedze mimaniSnebeli: `mas (RmerTs) aqeben~, _ ambobs `daviTianis~ avtori leqsis dasawyisSi. ase rom, daviT guramiSvilis striqonebi aSkarad cxadyofs, rom materialuri samyaro RvTaebrivi Semoqmedebis Sedegia, RvTaebriobis gamovlenaa. guramiSviliseul mrwamss Tu akakis `sulikos~ magaliTebze gavavrcelebT, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom caze mokiafe varskvlavi mnaTobic aris da RvTis Semoqmedebis mauwyebelic. aseve, bulbuli Tu vardic RvTaebrivi Semoqmedebis gamovlenaa, maTi arsebobac Semoqmedze mianiSnebs. amdenad, akakis `sulikoSic~ is zogadqristianuli azri dominirebs, rom materialuri samyaro RvTaebrivis nawilia, misi gamovlena, misi ganfena-emanaciaa. amitom ver miiRebs akaki vaJas Tvalsazriss, verc rogorc `qebaTa qebis~ da verc rogorc `sulikos~ avtori. erTi ki saocaria. miuxedavad poziciaTa sxvadasxvaobisa, rogorc akakis, ise vaJas, zustad esmiT guramiSvilis leqsis religiuri Sinaarsi. marTalia, vaJa sapirispiro Tvalsazriszea, magram misi leqsis gaanalizeba kidev ufro gvexmareba `sulikos~ Sinaarsis imgvar gaazrebaSi, rogoric akaki baqraZem warmoadgina. swored `sulikos~ akaki baqraZiseulma wakiTxvam mibiZga, momeZiebina am leqsis literaturuli arqetipi daviT guramiSvilisa Tu mamuka baraTaSvilis poeziaSi da aseve sacnauri gaxada akakis `sulikos~ mimarTeba vaJas leqsTan). Tuki erTxel kidev gavixsenebT vaxtang meeqvsis ganmartebas _ `sayvareli qristes hqvian~ _ aSkaraa, rom akakis leqsSi sayvarlis saflavis (samyoflis), misi sauflos Tu samkvidreblis Zieba RmerTis Ziebaa. swored amitom SfoTavs da drtvinavs akakis leqsis lirikuli gmiri da mxolod maSinRa damSviddeba, roca gaicnobierebs, rom

aRsaniSnavia, rom macxovris epiTeti `suliko~ mamuka baraTaSvilTanac Cans, oRond `sulo~-s formiT da isic im leqsSi, romlis orplanovaneba aSkaraa (`vixile Seni Sveneba _ saxesa vetrfialebi... sulo~).

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RmerTi yvelgan aris, yovel arssa Tu arsebaSi RvTaebaa ganfenili, yovelive RvTis gamovlenaa _ miwazec (vardi), caSic (bulbuli) da Soreul kosmiur sivrceSic (varskvlavi). `samad daSlila is erTi _ varskvlavad, bulbul, vardado~, _ ityvis poeti da roca yovel saganSi am sampirovani erTarsebis gamovlenas Seicnobs gamouTqmeli RvTaebrivi netarebiT aRivseba _ `rasaca vgrZnob me im dros, ver gamomiTqvams eniTa~. rac Seexeba vaJas pozicias (`qebaTa-qebis~ ciklsa Tu leqsSi `samefo siyvarulisa~), igi realuri viTarebiT aris nakarnaxevi. vaJasTan mkafiod airekla yofierebiT gamowveuli skefsisis gancda. mizezi amisa, rogorc iTqva, isaa, rom uflis xeliT Seqmnili materialuri sinamdvile adamianur biwierebas moucavs. ra Tqma unda, amgvari pozicia ar iZleva vaJas religiur mrwamsSi eWvis Setanis safuZvels. aq, egebis, upriani iyos gaxseneba vaJas daufaravad naTqvamisa: magram gavigebT erTxelac, vin axlos vsdgevarT RmerTTana. rac Seexeba, sazogadod, vaJas vrcelsa da mravalwaxnaga Semoqmedebas, genialuri fSavelis msoflmxedvelobrivi mrwamsis warmosaCenad `gvelismWamelic~ ikmarebda. vaJas mkiTxvelisTvis aSkaraa, rogor TanxmierebaSia `gvelismWamelis~ avtoris pozicia axali aRTqmis mrwamsTan _ mindiam icis da grZnobs, rom CvenTan erTad `yoveli dabadebuli Tana-kvnesis da Tana-elmis aqamomde~ (rom. 8-22). amitomac aris gamsWvaluli TanagrZnobiT yoveli dabadebulisadmi da aRvsili samyaroseuli erTianobis grZnobiT. vaJas leqsebi, saTauriT `qebaTa-qeba~, xmamaRali protestia, wuxilia uRmerTobis gamo. iseTive wuxili da sinanuli, rogorsac galaktioni gamoTqvams Tanadrouli, rwmenasmoklebuli sazogadoebis mimarT _ `aq arasodes ar yofila nazareveli!~. ra Tqma unda, yofierebisadmi vaJas protestis gancda, rogorc iTqva, raRac doziT skefsissac Seicavs. es iTqmis


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rogorc `qebaTa-qebis~ ciklze, ise akakis mier dawunebul leqsze _ `samefo siyvarulisa~ (leqsis finali aSkarad iZleva amgvari gancxadebis safuZvels). magram wamier, impulsur skefsisSic ki ver daeTanxmeba akaki vaJas da verc imas miaqcevs yuradRebas, rom vaJas skefsisis safuZveli yofierebis biwierebaa. aseT dros akaki verc vaJas zemomoxmobil gancxadebas _ `vin axlos vsdgevarT RmerTTana~ _ gauwevs angariSs. akaki vaJas leqss `samefo siyvarulisa~ `sulikoTi~ pasuxobs. `sulikos~ meSveobiT gamoTqvams sakuTar mrwamss xiluli, materialuri sinamdvilis RvTaebriobis, yovelive arsebulis RvTaebrivi nebiTa da ZaliT gamsWvalvis Sesaxeb. amgvari konkretuli poeturi dapirispirebisa Tu Sepaeqrebis Jams muza aSkarad akakis mxaresaa. `samefo siyvarulisa~ namdvilad ver Seva vaJas rCeuli lirikis krebulSi. poeziis qalRmerTma aSkarad akakis gaumarTla. egebis, ufro Cven gagvimarTla _ `sulikos~ mkiTxvelsa da msmenels; qarTul hangsa da melodias gaumarTla. am gamarTlebaSi lomis wili vaJa-fSavelas udevs. swored vaJas leqsma ubiZga akakis, mzera miemarTa WeSmaritad poeturi, iracionaluri samyarosaken; vaJas leqsma akaki kidev erTxel miabruna daviT guramiSvilis poeziisken _ `daviTianis~ saxismetyvelebisken. swored vaJas leqsma misca impulsi da STagoneba `sulikos~ avtors da konkretuli leqsis gamo gamowveuli uTanxmoeba qarTuli poeziis gamarjvebad aqcia. `suliko~ xom erT ukeTes qmnilebaTagania qarTuli lirikuli poeziisa. mizezi amisa, garda akakis poeturi talantisa, leqsis RvTaebrivi Sinaarsicaa.

Tamar lomiZe

sosiuris anagramaTa Teoria da enobrivi eqsperimentebi futuristul poeziaSi


sosiuris mier SemuSavebuli anagramaTa Teoriis mixedviT, Zveli indoevropuli poeziis da, kerZod, adreuli laTinuri, veduri, Zveli berZnuli, Zveli germanuli poeziis saerTo princips warmoadgens teqstis sagangebo struqturuli principi _ kerZod, anagramuli principi. sityvebi teqstebSi imgvarad SeirCeoda, rom sixSiris mixedviT prevalirebda sakvanZo sityvis (RmerTis an gmiris saxelis) fonemebi. amasTan, sosiuri xazgasmiT aRniSnavda, rom anagramebSi monawileobda ara marto sityvebis poziciurad gamoyofili nawilebi, aramed _ yvela marcvali. `...bgeraTa amgvari Sexamebebi araa damokidebuli leqsze da mis ritmze da poeturi forma yalibdeba leqsis ritmuli sqemis SexamebiT meore principTan, romelic misgan damoukidebelia~, ese igi, bgerweris Taviseburebebze ar zemoqmedebda arc terfebis warmoqmna da arc ritmuli maxvilebi. romauli literaturis kvlevisas sosiurma gamoavlina leqsTa struqturis anagramuli principi vergiliusTan,

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori; ZiriTadi naSromebi: `qarTuli riTmis istoriidan~, `feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi n. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi~, `Teoriuli dafuZnebis problema poetikaSi, `me~-s koncefcia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~. interesTa sfero: semiotika, leqsmcodneoba, literaturis istoria da Teoria, Semoqmedebis mxatvruli fsiqologia.


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lukreciusTan da, agreTve, romaul prozaSi. Zvelgermanuli aliteraciuli leqsi, romlis Taviseburebasac warmoadgenda aliteraciuli pirveli marcvlebi, sosiuris azriT, warmoiSva anagramuli leqsidan, romelic, amgvarad, ufro Zvelia, vidre aliteraciuli leqsi. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa sosiuris mosazrebebi berZnul eposTan dakavSirebiT. mecnieris azriT, Tu hipoTeza anagramuli leqsis arqaulobis Sesaxeb dadasturdeba, maSin es niSnavs eposis warmomavlobas lirikidan. sosiuris azriT, Tavdapirvelad iqmneboda patara lirikuli nawarmoebebi, romlebic 4-8 striqonisgan Sedgeboda. es iyo an magiuri formulebi, an locvebi, an samgloviaro leqsebi. anagramuli principis gamoyenebis safuZveli unda yofiliyo religiuri warmodgena, romlis Tanaxmad, RmerTisadmi mimarTva, locva, himni ver miaRwevs Tavis mizans, Tu masSi CarTuli araa RmerTis saxelis Semadgeneli marcvlebi. gamonakliss warmoadgens lesbosuri lirikuli poezia, romelic, sosiuris SeniSvniT, Zalze bgerweriTia, magram ar moicavs anagramebs, e.i. garkveuli saxelis Semadgeneli marcvlebis gameorebas ar isaxavda miznad. da, piriqiT, homerosiseuli poezia bgerweriTia swored im gagebiT, rom eqvemdebareba anafoniur da anagramul princips _ masSi drodadro meordeba garkveuli saxelis Semadgeneli marcvlebi. am anagramuli hipoTezis sasargeblod, ambobs sosiuri, arsebobs uamravi argumenti. vikiTxoT: gacnobierebuli hqondaT Zvel mwerlebs es principi Tu gaucnobiereblad iyenebdnen mas? sosiurma ver gasca pasuxi am kiTxvas. levi-strosis azriT, sosiuris dabneuloba gamoiwvia iman, rom Zvel mwerlebs araferi uTqvamT anagramuli principis cnobieri gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. Tu es gaucnobiereblad xdeboda, maSin, hipoTezis saxiT, unda vivaraudoT. rom anagramuli principi SeiZleba warmoadgendes, sazogadod, poeturi teqstebis universalur struqturul princips da unda Segvxvdes yvela epoqis teqstebSi. im problemis gadasawyvetad, funqcionirebs Tu ara Tanamedrove poeziaSi anagramuli principi, Cven CavatareT eqsperimenti. vgulisxmobdiT, rom yovel poetur teqstSi SeiZleba daiZebnos erTgvari birTvi _ garkveuli bgeraTkompleqsi, romelic recipientebis

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mier aRiqmeba rogorc ama Tu im sagnis an movlenis saxeli, ese igi, garkveuli teqstis referentis saxeli. am hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad SevarCieT galaktion tabiZis 25 leqsi, romlebic mieZRvna ama Tu im sagans an movlenas (muxa, qari, Semodgoma, Tovli, vuali, anZebi, Hhaeri, sanTeli, kvnesa, sibere, gadia, dedofala, avdrebi, xelebi, tye, dro, balaxebi, Tvalebi, Woti, yanebi, zRapari, sizmrebi, qalwuli, foTlebi, sinanuli). yoveli leqsidan amovkrifeT statistikurad yvelaze xSiri sami Tanxmovani da sami xmovani. fonetikuri SemadgenlobiT isini ar emTxveodnen referentebis uzualur saxelebs da, bunebrivia, ar figurirebdnen teqstebSi. maTgan SevadgineT sammarcvliani uazro sityvebi, romlebic, amosavali hipoTezis mixedviT, unda yofiliyo amave sagnebis anagramuli saxelebi. as ormocdaaT recipients davurigeT baraTebi, romelTagan TiToeulze dawerili iyo sami nawarmoebis saxelwodeba, maT gaswvriv ki _ amave nawarmoebebidan amokrefili anagramuli sityvebi (bunebrivia, maTi rigi gansxvavebuli iyo). as ormocdaaTidan oTxmocdaToTxmetma recipientma, ese igi daaxloebiT orma mesamedma, sworad daukavSira uazro saxelebi Sesabamisi nawarmoebebis saxelwodebebs. amgvarad, SeiZleba miviCnioT, rom poeturi teqstebis mocemul amonakrebSi funqcionirebs teqstis bgeriTTTi organizebis anagramuli principi, Tumca es anagramuli saxelebi ar warmoadgenen enis leqsikuri maragis nawils. rogoria amgvari sityvebis semantikuri struqtura? aqvT Tu ara maT, sazogadod, raimenairi semantika? rogorc Cans, maT aqvT erTgvari implicituri semantika, sxva SemTxvevaSi recipientebi ver daukavSirebdnen am sityvebs garkveul referentebs. Tumca, saubari imaze, rom maT aqvT semebis raimenairi erToblioba, ese igi, met-naklebad rTuli semantikuri struqtura, an imaze, rom es sityvebi Seesabamebian raime cnebas, ar SeiZleba. am sityvebis `mniSvnelobebis~ dadgena kidev ufro garTuldeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maT ganvixilavT izolirebulad, anu garkveuli semantikis mqone sityvebTan Sejerebis gareSe. miuxedavad amisa, ar SeiZleba Cveni eqsperimentis Sedegebis ignorireba _ garkveuli, Tumca ki bundovani semantika am sityvebs namdvilad aqvT da, Sesabamisad, anagramuli principi mocemul lirikul teqstebSi funqcionirebs, ese igi, am teqstebSi


sosiuris anagramaTa Teoria da enobrivi eqsperimentebi futuristul poeziaSi

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xorcieldeba nawarmoebTa saxelwodebebSi miTiTebuli referentebis erTgvari saxeldeba, SesaZlebelia iTqvas _ meoradi saxeldeba. dimitri uznaZis fsiqologiur koncefciaSi,romelic exeba saxeldebis problemebs, aRniSnulia, rom Zveli adamianis enobrivi aqtivobis ganmsazRvreli fsiqologiuri meqanizmi ucvleladaa Semonaxuli Tanamedrove adamianis fsiqikaSi. uznaZisa da misi mowafeebis gamokvlevebma daadastura, rom aRmniSvneli da aRsaniSni kanonzomierad ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs (aq, ra Tqma unda, igulisxmeba analizis fsiqologiuri da ara lingvisturi done. amitom es Tvalsazrisi ar warmoadgens arguments enobrivi niSnis sosiurisuli definiciis winaaRmdeg), ese igi, saxelis SerCeva garkveuli referentisTvis SemTxveviTi araa. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom Tanamedrove poetur teqstebSi mimofantuli anagramuli saxelebi kanonzomierad (ganwyobismierad, aracnobierad) ukavSirdeba mocemuli teqstebis referentebs. amasTan, aris epoqebi (yovel SemTxvevaSi, erTi epoqa) rodesac anagramuli saxeli ar monawileobs teqstSi impliciturad, aramed uSualodaa reprezentirebuli recipientisTvis. kerZod, aseTia futuristuli poeziis literaturuli teqstebi. maTSi semantikuri TvalsazrisiT gamWvirvale leqsikur erTeulebs, romlebic ukavSirdeba gansazRvrul referentebs, enacvleba zaumuri1 sityvebi, romelTac gaurkveveli, bundovani semantika aqvT. xlebnikovi fiqrobda, rom `SesaZlebelia zaumuri enis gadaqceva gonismier enad. Tu aviRebT erT sityvas, magaliTad, , maSin ar gvecodineba, ra mniSvneloba aqvs mTeli sityvisTvis yovel calkeul bgeras. magram Tu movagrovebT bgera `C~Ti dawyebul sityvebs ((,,,),maSin yvela danarCeni bgera erTmaneTs gaanadgurebs da is zogadi mniSvneloba, romelic eqneba am sityvebs, iqneba `C~-s mniSvneloba. amgvarad.
1

sityva `zaumi~ Sedgenilia rusuli prefiqsidan `za~ (ukan) da sityvisgan `um~ goni, goneba.

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zaumuri ena zaumuri aRar iqneba. is iqceva TamaSad Cven mier gacnobierebuli anbaniT... zaumuri ena emyareba or wanamZRvars: 1. martivi sityvis pirveli Tanxmovani ganagebs mTel sityvas.... 2. erTi da imave TanxmovniT dawyebuli sityvebi erTiandebian erTi da imave cnebiT da TiTqos sxvadasxva mxridan miiswrafvian gonebis erTi da imave wertilisken.~ leqsis bgeriTi organizebis es xerxi, ra Tqma unda, anagramuli araa am sityvis zusti mniSvnelobiT, yovel SemTxvevaSi, sosiuriseuli gagebiT. sosiuri mas iseve daaxasiaTebda, rogorc daaxasiaTa lesbosuri poezia _ rogorc Zalze bgerweriTi, magram ara anagramuli, radgan is miznad ar isaxavda ama Tu im saxelis (romeoic TviTon ar unda figurirebdes tqstSi) Semadgeneli marcvlebis gameorebas teqstSi. meore cnobili rusi futuristi, aleqsei kruConixi, zaumur enad miiCnevda sityvaTa nawyvetebs, daboloebebs, grafikulsa da fonetikur Sexamebebs. misi azriT, werisas saWiroa daCexili sityvebis, naxevarsityvebis gamoyeneba da maTi uCveulo kombinaciebis Seqmna. rogorc Cans, futuristuli teqstebis es Tavisebureba ganpirobebulia imiT, rom isini miekuTvneba egreT wodebul `cxel kulturas~ (levi-strosis termini), romelic xasiaTdeba axali enebis Seqmnis tendenciiT. `cxeli kulturebi~ gamoirCeva gamudmebuli swrafviT gamomgoneblobisken, rac SeiZleba meti energiisa da informaciis warmoqmnisa da moxmarebisken, gansxvavebiT `civi kulturebisgan~, romlebic kmayofildebian arsebobis martivi da mwiri pirobebis reproduqciiT. amgvarad, futuristuli enobrivi eqsperimentebi SeiZleba davaxasiaToT, rogorc miswrafeba ara marto konvenciuri enobrivi elementebis deformaciisken, aramed _ im arsebiTi bgerweriTi kanonzomierebis destruqciiskenac, romelic aRmoaCina ferdinand de sosiurma.

ada nemsaZe

TeTri feris simboluri gaazrebisaTvis


feri is universaluri kategoriaa, romelsac civilizaciis nebismier safexurze aRiqvamda adamiani. sxvadasxva kulturaSi ferTa simbolikis analizisas mecnierebma daadgines sami principi: pirdapiri Sesabamisoba (cecxli wiTeli), asociacia (Savi sikvdili, sasowarkveTa), Cveulebebze, SemTxvevebze, SeTanxmebaze damokidebuleba (TeTri glovis feri CineTSi) (ferTa... 2010:). aqedan gamomdinare, naTelia, rom Tu ganviTarebis adreul etapze mxolod zedapiruli niSniT xdeboda ferisTvis mniSvnelobis miniWeba, kacobriobis ganviTarebis aRmaval xazTan erTad am mniSvnelobebma da Sesabamisobebma ufro meti siRrme da qveteqsti SeiZina. ukve karga xania, rac feri komunikaciis erT-erTi ZiriTadi saSualebaa, vizualuri sasignalo sistemebis safuZveli. yvela feri SeiZleba waikiTxo, rogorc sityva an ganmarto, rogorc signali, niSani an simbolo. ferTa mniSvneloba da maTTvis upiratesobis miniWeba realur cxovrebaSi mraval faqtorzea damokidebuli. maT Soris gamoyofen jgufur (bunebrivi garemo, eTnikuri jgufi, kulturuli tradiciebi, kla-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografia _ identifikaciis problema oTar WilaZis romanebSi' (2009). interesTa sfero: semiotika, kritika, identobis kvleva.

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sobrivi mikuTvnebuloba, moda, stili) da individualur (asaki, sqesi, kulturuli done, ganaTleba, warmomavloba, moRvaweoba, nervul-fsiqologiur maxasiaTebelTa erToblioba - xasiaTi, temperamenti, saarsebo garemo) faqtorebs. maT Soris erT-erTi mTavaria kultura, Tumc, amave dros, mniSvnelovania individis asaki, sqesi da ganwyoba mocemuli momentisaTvis. kultura yovelTvis arCevania. mxatvruli kultura pirvel rigSi feris arCevaa, ferTa modelis ageba. SemTxveviTi araa, rom erTi kulturul-istoriuli regionisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ferobrivi upiratesobani mkveTrad gansxvavdeba sxva, misgan geografiulad daSorebuli regionisagan. SeniSnulia, rom, rac ufro axlosaa xalxi ekvatorTan, miT ufro metia miswrafeba kaSkaSa, elvare ferTa gamisaken (amis naTelsayofad sakmarisia, gavixsenoT espanelTa wiTel-yviTel-Savi da finelTa TeTr-cisferi droSebi). ferebiT kacobrioba sakmaod adre dainteresda da Zvel civilizaciebSive (antikuri saberZneTi, Zveli indoeTi da CineTi) daiwyo msjeloba mis Sesaxeb. mecnieruli gamokvlevebi feris bunebisa da fizikuri Tvisebebis Sesaxeb ukavSirdeba niutonis saxels. 1966 wels kembrijSi Caatarebuli cdiT man daadgina, rom TeTri rTuli feria da prizmaSi gatarebisas igi iSleba Svid ferad: wiTeli, narinjisferi, yviTeli, mwvane, cisferi, lurji, iasamnisferi. maT niutonma speqtris ferebi uwoda. am ferebis SekrebiT ki isev TeTri miiReba (niutonis...). ferebi bunebis mixedviT iyofa: qromatul da aqromatul ferebad. aqromatuli ferebia: TeTri, ruxi da Savi. isini xasiaTdebian mxolod areklili sinaTlis raodenobiT an, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, areklvis araerTgvarovani koeficientiT. xolo qromatulia sxivis daSliT miRebuli 7 ZiriTadi feri. amrigad, TeTri aris rTuli feri. es Tviseba mniSvnelovania mxatvrul teqstebSi misi simboluri mravalferovnebis asaxsnelad. xelovnebis yvela dargSi feri sxvadasxva intensivobiTa da mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba. Tuki, magaliTad, ferweraSi yvelaferi iTqmis feris saSualebiT, literaturisTvis igi sityvis damatebiTi saSualebaa mxatvruli saxis Tu Canafiqris naTelsayofad. winamdebare werilSi Cven visaubrebT TeTri feris mniSvnelobebze mxatvrul diskursSi, radgan diskursis yvela mravalsaxeobas Soris egzistenciisTvis yvelaze ufro gaxsnili,

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pirvel rigSi, mxatvruli diskursia; gamovarkvevT, rasTan erTiandeba TeTri feri ufro did simbolur blokebad da warmovaCenT misi asociaciuri mniSvnelobebis speqtrs. saanalizo masalad gamoviyenebT XX saukunis bolo mesamedis ramdenime mxatvrul teqsts, kerZod, o. WilaZis, g. Coxelisa da j. TofuriZis moTxrobebsa da romanebs. TeTri umniSvnelovanesi feria samyaroSi. pirvelyofil kulturebSi igi erT-erTia sam ZiriTad (TeTri, Savi, wiTeli) ferTagan. pirvelyofili adamiani Cven mier ukve aRniSnuli pirdapiri Sesabamisobis principze dayrdnobiT TeTrs miiCnevda dRisa da sinaTlis, rZis ferad. SemdgomSi misi mniSvnelobebi ufro gaRrmavda da gamravalferovnda, Tumc TeTris amosavali mniSvneloba - sinaTle - TiTqmis yvela kulturaSi darCa ucvleli. igi igivdeba mzis sinaTlesTan, naTeli ki aris RvTaebrioba, sikeTe, sicocxle, yofierebis sisavse. TeTrs aqvs urTierTsawinaaRmdego mniSvnelobiTi velebi: pozituri da negatiuri. TeTris pozitiuri mniSvnelobebia: simSvide, sisufTave, sicariele, umankoeba, xangrZlivi sicocxle, janmrTeloba, warmateba, koncentrireba. mas ZaluZs ganwmenda da warmateba omSi (primitiul tomebSi), keTilSobileba, sibrZne. TeTri aris RmerTebTan da sulebTan saurTierTo ena, umaRlesi silamazis atributi. amasTan, TeTri aRniSnavs iseT uaryofiT movlenebsac, rogorebicaa: sikvdili, avadmyofoba, uZlureba, boroteba, gaucxoeba, tanjva, martooba, zizRi da sisastikec ki. igi aris sicivis, ganSorebis, gauziarebeli siyvaruliT tanjvis simbolo (simboloTa...). XX saukuneSi ferweraSi momxdarma revoluciam Secvala TeTri feris simbolika, misca mas aqamde ucxo mniSvnelobebi. suprematistebisTvis TeTri aris usazRvro sivrcis simbolo, romelic wmends suls. amas mowmobs TviTon suprematizmis damfuZneblis k. maleviCis sityvebi: `suprematizmis moZraoba ukve miemarTeba TeTri usagno bunebis Sesaxvedrad, TeTri aRelvebisaken, TeTri cnobierebisaken da TeTri sisufTavisaken, rogorc am mdgomareobis umTavresi safexuri, rogoricaa simSvide an moZraoba~. maleviCis suprematistuli ferweris mwvervali da dasasruli iyo namuSevari `TeTri kvadrati TeTr fonze~, riTac man `daamsxvria ferobrivi SezRudulobis laJvardovani Crdili~, rogorc Tavad aRniSnavda (mironova... 2008: ). XX saukunis meore naxevris abstraqcionistebi k. maleviCs TavianT maswavleblad Tvlidnen da, rogorc niWierma moswavleebma, gauswres kidec Ta-

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vianT metrs TeTri feris usazRvro siRrmeebis wvdomaSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom kulturis zogadi ganviTarebis am xazs literaturamac gadauxada xarki da maT Soris arc qarTuli yofila gamonaklisi. saanalizo teqstebSic TeTri bevri urTierTgansxvavebuli, zogjer erTmaneTTan axlos myofi, zogjer ki sruliad sapirispiro, dadebiT Tu uaryofiT mniSvnelobaTa matarebelia. semiotikaSi SeniSnulia, rom sityva-niSnis konstruirebas sWirdeba Semecnebis procesi. am procesSi niSani amyarebs ormxriv kavSirs: erTi mxriv _ obieqtTan da meore mxriv - interpretatorTan. radgan interpretaciis procesSi mTavari `gmiria~ interpretatori, es ukve gulisxmobs sityvis asociaciur mniSvnelobaTa mravlobiTobis warmoCenas. TavisTavad cxadia, niSnis interpretaciaSi mniSvnelovani faqtoria koleqtiuri cnobiereba, magram amasTan erTad am procesSi erTveba individi, romelsac aqvs am koleqtivisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sexedulebani. Tumc imdenad, ramdenadac igi individualuri cnobierebis matarebelicaa, SesaZloa, romelime enobrivi Tu kulturuli koleqtivisaTvis damaxasiaTebel yvela Sexedulebas ar iziarebdes. swored es movlenebi iwvevs asociaciur mniSvnelobaTa mravlobiTobas. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinareobs, rom nebismieri niSnis interpretirebisas interpretatori eyrdnoba koleqtiur cnobierebas an ukve dagrovil gamocdilebas da Tan poulobs masSi axals, individualurad SeniSnuls. yvelaferi es TvalnaTliv dasturdeba oTar WilaZis mxatvruli teqstebis analizisas. misi simboloebi kulturuli gavlenis Tu koleqtiur cnobierebaSi Senaxuli informaciis `wyalobiT~ kveTen simboloTa leqsikonebSi aRnusxul mniSvnelobaTa CamonaTvals, Tumc mwerlis xedvis TavisTavadoba yvela teqstSi SesamCnevia. romanSi `yovelman Cemman mpovnelman~ TeTri dominanturi niSania anas dakrZalvis epizodSi. im RamiT iseTi Tovli movida, `xalxi ki ar modioda, mocuravda... moxucebsac ar axsovdaT aseTi Tovli~ (WilaZe 1986: 248) (SedarebisaTvis gavixsenoT Tovli oTaraanT qvrivis sikvdilis dRes). am siTeTris fonze Semodis iremi. `soflis orRobeSi moabijebda, mSvidi da lamazi, rogorc Raribi, magram patiosani mSoblebis gazrdili bavSvi, sibralulis ki ara, danaSaulis grZnobisa da sikeTis Cadenis survilis aRmZvreli. misi mxdali gulis bagabugi sofels aognebda, anamusebda, xel-fexs uborkavda kidev erTi codvis Casadenad...~ (WilaZe 1986: 249). anas amqveynidan wasvlis paralelurad Tov-

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lis mosvla TeTri feris pozitiur mniSvnelobebs kidev ufro aZlierebs. es aris anas uangaro sikeTiT savse cxovrebis logikuri aRmniSvneli _ siwmindis, sisufTavis, sulieri umankoebis niSani, Tumc amave dros igi aris sikvdilisa da momavali sicivis simboloc. radganac is, rac anas gardacvalebis Semdeg viTardeba makabelTa fuZeze, swored sicivea - sikeTes Canacvlebuli boRmisa da sibilwis narevi. Tanac Tovli aq zRvis konotaciebsac iTavsebs _ `xalxi ki ar modioda, mocuravda~ - riTac Tovlis ara marto Tvisobrivi, aramed raodenobrivi maxasiaTebelic Semodis. anas saxlamde misvla gaZnelda, Tumca ara fizikurad. soflisaTvis swored anasTan misasvleli gzaa rTuli, radgan uruqelTa savali sxva sivrceSia, anasi - sxvaSi. es siZnele teqstis denotaciur velSi fizikurad SeigrZnoba (`zosime mRvdeli epifane diakvans mohyavda ori ficriT, galumpul ficrebs unacvlebda fexqveS da sanam erT ficarze atortmanebuli zosime mRvdeli dahyviroda: Cqara qeni, CaviZireo - meores win axvedrebda~), ris qveSac mniSvnelovani miniSneba imaleba. am yvelafers emateba iremic. iremi universaluri simboloa, romelic asocirdeba sinaTlesTan, siwmindesTan, ganaxlebasTan, Semoqmedebasa da sulierebasTan. irmis metnaklebad saxasiaTo Tvisebebia: mizandasaxuloba, graciozuloba da silamaze. mamali iremi aris siuxvis mziani emblema, misi datotvili rqebi gamoxatavs sicocxlis xes, igi ixsenieba, rogorc gvelis mteri, romelsac SeuZlia gamoityuos igi TavSesafridan sunTqviT, Semdeg ki gasrisos. bibliaSi mwyurvali iremi Sedarebulia adamianis suls, romelsac wyuria ufali, amitomac igi xSirad aris RvTismosaobis simbolo. iremi aris qristes simboloc, romelic eZebs eSmaks, raTa gaanadguros igi (tresideri). irems makabelTa ojaxSi tyis suni Semoaqvs anu siwminde, sisufTave, pirvelqmnili bunebis niSani. anetasac ise Seuyvarda iremi, `yvelafers erCia tyisa da tyiuris surneliT gaJRenTil gomurSi yofna... `gexvewebi, mec aq momitane saWmelio~, _ yels uwevda aRaTias da mama-babuis rom ar Sineboda, RamiTac aq daiZinebda, iremTan da saxedarTan erTad~ (WilaZe 1986: 250). iremi teqstSi (gavixsenoT, ras ambobs masze zosime mRvdeli: `eg giorgas sulia, dedas moakiTxa~) umankoebis, siwmindis, bunebis harmoniis, erTi sityviT, yvelafer imis Semomtania, rac makabelTa sacxovrebel sivrceSi ikargeba anas sikvdilis Semdeg. am danakargs mxolod aneta grZnobs, radgan igia anas sikeTis fesvze amosuli nergi, misi

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sicocxlis gamgrZelebeli. amitomac afarebs Tavs irems - rwmenas, siZlieres, qristes - raTa amiT gaZlierebulma SeZlos dapirispireba qaixosros borotebasTan. amrigad, TeTris simboluri mniSvnelobebi aq Zlierdeba Tovlisa da irmis simboluri velebiT, romlebic sivrceSi gadakveTen erTmaneTs: Tovli horizontaluradaa ganfenili, iremi ki vertikaluradaa mimarTuli, cisken atyorcnili didi datotvili rqebiT, rac sicocxlis xes gamoxatavs simbolurad. yvelaferi es romanSi dakarguli sikeTis Canacvlebis droebiT, Sualedur niSnad gvevlineba, romelic Tavis movaleobas asrulebs _ anetas aZlevs winaaRmdegobisa da protestis gamoxatvis Zalas, rac sikeTis kvlav aRzevebis safuZvelia. Tovlis simboluri velis ganfeniloba romanSi mravalSriania da moicavs ara mxolod erT geografiul areals. konkretulad, igi grZeldeba cimbiris Tovlian tyeSi, sadac aRmoCndeba Zmis mosaZebnad wasuli aleqsandre. Tovlis upirvelesi simboluri mniSvnelobaa sicive (simboloTa...). tiumenis katorRaSi mimavali aleqsandre am sicives fizikuradac grZnobs da metafizikuradac. siciveSia Cakarguli uamravi meamboxe adamiani, aqtiuri, Tavisuflebismoyvare da TavisuflebisTvis mebrZoli. siciveSia Cakarguli TviTon aleqsandrec _ ojaxze, daze, Zmaze gulayrili da boRmiani. asec iqneba manam, vidre marTaze pasuxismgeblobas ar ikisrebs da amiT ar daibrunebs dakargul adamianobas. Tovlis siTeTresTan opoziciur wyvils qmnis Savi feri _ yvavi, romelic misCxavis mimaval aleqsandres. es mxatvruli saxe SesaZloa, moviazroT, rogorc boRmiani warsuli, boroteba, romelsac gaurbis aleqsandre da sikeTisaken _ patara marTasken _ iwvdis xels. katorRelTa qoxTan misuls ukve aRar aqvs yvavis SiSi. igi sabolood amarcxebs barabas sakuTar TavSi da gzas uTavisuflebs qristes, zosime mRvdlis darigebis aRmsrulebeli xdeba: `Sen xar qriste barabaSi da baraba qristeSi. ase ki, ar SeiZleba. an erTi unda iyo, an meore~ (WilaZe 1986: 424). Sav-TeTris opoziciaSi TeTris gamarjveba swored am brZolis Sedegia. mxatvrul teqstSi ama Tu im simbolos SesaZloa axldes damatebiTi komponentebi: sxva parametrebi, romelTac TviT es saxe gulisxmobs an sxva simbolo, romelic exmareba da avsebs am ZiriTadi simbolos mniSvnelobaTa vels da, amave dros, mis srulyofil saxes da mravalplanianobas ganapirobebs. amrigad,

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iqmneba simboloTa garkveuli blokebi, romlebic sxvadasxva raodenobis simbolos aerTianebs. ra Tqma unda, am blokebis konotaciur mniSvnelobaTa areali gacilebiT farToa. oTar WilaZis mxatvruli teqstis Rrma SreebSi simboloTa zedapirul niSnebs TiTqmis mTlianad anacvleben asociaciuri mniSvnelobebi. asea TeTr ferTanac. siwminde da umankoeba aq is zedapiruli niSania, romelic bevri sxva TanamniSvnelobiT Canacvldeba. Tuki romanSi `yovelman Cemman mpovnelman~ moqmedebisTvis avtori moniSnavs areals, `rkinis TeatrSi~ igi konkretuli geografiuli sivrcis lokalizacias ar axdens. am or romans aqvs saerTo _ Tovli, siTeTre da tye _ Tumc `rkinis Teatris~ simboluri bloki ufro rTuli saxisaa: yvelafer amas emateba kidev ramdenime saxe _ fiWvnari, mwyemsebis qoxi da cxvari. miTologiur leqsikonebSi tye aris saSiSroebis adgili, emorCileba sulebs, druidebs. es aris adgili, sadac SeiZleba daikargo. rac Seexeba fiWvs: aRmosavlur tradiciaSi aris ukvdavebisa da xangrZlivi sicocxlis simbolo. Tvlidnen, rom mas hqonda gaxrwnisa da daSlis Semaferxebeli Zala, ris gamoc rgavdnen saflavebis garSemo. fiWvi aris simamacis, gambedaobis, simtkicis, warmatebis, Zlieri xasiaTis, dumilis, ganmartoebis, xolo fiWvis girCa _ mamakacuri nayofierebis gamomxatveli (tresideri). aq simboluri veli kidev ufro rTuldeba da itvirTeba qveteqstiT. enobrivi niSnis semiozisis analizisas J. varZelaSvili wers: `verbalizaciisas komunikantebis cnobierebaSi sityva-niSani SeiZleba sityva-simbolos, sityva-xatis donemde amaRldes. es axali done gamoirCeva imiT, rom rom enobrivi niSani iZens unars, gaaerTianos ara marto cnobadis, aramed `usityvo~ elementebi (varZelaSvili 2010: 300). fiWvis tye mocemul konteqstSi swored amgvar elementebs iZens: xe _ sicocxle, fiWvi simamace da gambedaoba, Tovli _ sicive da siwminde. yvelafer amas emateba `usityvo~ elementebic, romelTa meSveobiTac cnobierTan erTad Seucnobelic realizdeba sityva-niSnis konotaciebSi, asociaciebSi, qveteqstur Tana-mniSvnelobebSi, anu _ mocemuli enobrivi sistemis CarCoSi sityvaTa interpretaciis TavisuflebaSi. tyis mistikur rkalSi moqceulma gmirma (aleqsandrem, gelam) iniciaciis gzaze bevri gansacdelis gadatana unda SeZlos, raTa ki ar daikargos masSi, aramed ipovos gza. Tanac is erTaderTi swori gza, tyidan gamosaRwevi da sakuTari Tavisa da sisxlis gadamrCeni rom iqneba. fiWvis tye mocemul teqsteb-

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Si SesaZloa nayofierebis mniSvnelobebsac iTavsebdes. gelam sakuTari Svilis dasacavad unda gamoaRwios tyidan, aleqsandrem ki _ ZmiSvilis. orive maTgani sisxlis gadarCenaze zrunavs. `rkinis Teatris~ simboluri blokis erT-erTi komponentia cxvari, romelic aq ara marto fizikuri arsebobis SesanarCunebeli saSualebaa, aramed adamianurobis, RvTiuri xatis dasacavi faria saTvalianis, brtyelsaxianisa da airwinaRianis mglur samyaroSi. evropul folklorSi tyeSi dakargva gamocdilebis uqonlobis metaforaa, xolo masSi gzis povna aris im codnis aTviseba, romliTac samyaros an sakuTari Tavis Secnoba xdeba. cxovrebiseuli gamoucdelobis gamo aereva gza cixidan gamoparul gelas da xvdeba iseT garemoSi, sadac yovelgvar borot sawyiss ecnoba. Tuki tyes moviazrebT umarTav adgilad da boroti sulebis adgilsamyoflad, es sami ucnauri kaci swored im boroti sulebis simboluri saxeebia. qoxis binadrebi nel-nela klaven cxvrebs da amiT TandaTan anadgureben sakuTar adamianobas. cxvari _ simSvide, Tviniereba, morCileba - samwysos qristianuli simboloa, romelic advilad ibneva, amitomac saWiroebs sulier winamZRols (tresideri). gela gzasacdenili cxvaria. igi manam unda wamovides qoxidan, vidre ukanasknel cxvars daklaven qoxis binadrebi da aq yofna ukve gelas sicocxlisTvis gaxdeba saSiSi. yoveli cxvris dakvlisas wiTlad iRebeba Tovli. cxvari da Tovli erTad is dadebiTi sawyisia, romelmac gzaabneul gelas cxovrebis mTavari azri unda Seacnobinos. TeTrisa da wiTlis amgvari simboluri wyvili gvxvdeba goderZi Coxelis roman `adamianTa sevdaSi~, sadac TeTris wiTliT `Seryvna~ Seubraleblobis, sicivisa da gulqvaobis maniSnebelia, es feri aqac mosalodneli sikvdilis winaswarmetyvelebaa (`mamamTilis samarTali~ moTxroba mwerlis rveulidan): `Tovs. Tovs. TeTria yvelaferi. marTas Zlivs mihyavs aRmarTze xbo. xandaxan fexi usxlteba da oriveni ecemian. ...isev Tovs... dana ar hqonda. kedlidan Tovli gadaxveta da basrpiriani sipi qva amoarCia. wamoaqcia xbo da gamousva yelSi sipi. xbom daibRavla. TeTr TovlSi Tbilad Cxrialebda sisxli~ (Coxeli 1989: 479). simbolos, marTalia, aqvs reprezentaciuli buneba, esTeti-

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kurad mimzidvelia, magram xSirad igi inarCunebs formalur simartives, rac aqtualuria misi xmarebisas komunikaciur sivrceSi. simbolos komunikaciuri aqtualobis Sedegi araiSviaTad aris misi yoveldRiuri analogiis formireba, romelic gadmoicema yoveldRiur verbalur an JestiT komunikaciebSi. TeTri rogorc siwminde, SesaZloa, CavTvaloT swored amgvar analogiad, rac, erTi mxriv, amartivebs am simbolos, magram reprezentaciulobis Tvisebis wyalobiT sZens sxva, ufro Rrma mniSvnelobebs rogorc informaciuli, ise emociuri da eqspresiuli TvalsazrisiT. simbolos dinamikuri xasiaTi da asociaciur mniSvnelobaTa mravlobiToba ganapirobebs imas, rom dasaxelebul or romanSi erTi da igive mxatvruli saxe (sisxliani Tovli, romelTac erTi umciresi detali ganasxvavebs - erTgan xbo, meoregan cxvari) sruliad gansxvavebuli azrobrivi velis matarebelia calkeul SemTxvevaSi.

`adamianTa sevdaSi~ kidev erTi simboluri bloki _ TeTri, Tovli da arwivi _ ikvreba. simbolos ZaluZs, realobis gansxvavebuli planebi gaaerTianos erT mTlianobad. am SemTxvevaSi arwivisa da Tovlis konotaciebi iWrebian erTmaneTSi da warmoqmnian rTul azrobriv vels. konotaciur kavSirebze agebuli simbolo ki, lingvisturisgan gansxavavebiT, yovelTvis met Tavisuflebas da interpretaciis saSualebas iZleva. swored aseT simbolos uwodebda lotmani `konotators~ (postmodernizmi 2001: 726). denotaciur doneze Tovlsa da arwivs araferi aqvT saerTo, piriqiT, isini SesaZloa upirispirdebodnen kidec erTmaneTs miwa/zecisa da TeTri/Savis opoziciebiT. simbolosTvis niSandoblivi swored esaa, mniSvnelobaTa simravle da gansxvavebuloba Riaobisken gvibiZgebs da aRmqmelic iwyebs dialogs teqstTan. am dialogSi yalibdeba simboluri blokis calkeul erTeulTa mniSvnelobebic. ferTa simbolikaSi aRniSnulia, rom TeTri Tavisi bunebiT TiTqos STanTqavs, aneitralebs yvela danarCen fers da Seesabameba sicarieles, usxeulobas, civ dumils da, bolos da bolos, sikvdils (ferTa...). mocemul teqstSi Tovlis, TeTrisa da arwivis saerTo simboluri veli swored sikvdiliskenaa mimarTuli. daWrili, miwaze mijaWvuli arwivi

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dauZlurebis, xolo TeTri maradisobaSi gadasvlis maniSnebelia, rac dasasruls axdeba kidec: bubunaurTa gvaris ukanaskneli STamomavali gigia kvdeba, misi Zmadnafici arwivi ki zed daakvdeba (Coxeli 1989: 506-507). sikvdilis maniSnebelia TeTri cikanic, romelsac sikvdilis stumrobis dRes klaven gudamayrelebi elias mTaze (Coxeli 1989: 520-528). gavixsenoT isic, rom ritualur praqtikaSi Sewiruli cxovelis feri aris TeTri, rac erTdroulad ukavSirdeba rogorc ganwmendas, ise sikvdils, ganwmendis gziT sxva samyaroSi gadasvlas.
feris mravalmxrivi datvirTviT gamorCeulia moTxroba `vardisferi kaci~. sofelSi marto darCnen qalebi, radgan kacebi cxvarSi wavidnen. `aRarc Tovli apirebda soflamde Camosvlas. kvirias gorze ijda da nisls ixvevda~, _ sevdianad SeniSnavs avtori. qalebi elian... gamoCnda Tu ara ambrosai, cac moemzada saTovlelad. aq Tovls erTdroulad aqvs rogorc pozitiuri, ise negatiuri datvirTva: ambrosais dagvianebis gamo erTerTma qalma, `momkvdarao~, Tqva. es `momkvdarao~ maSinve aCens sicivisa da sikvdilis asociacias, rac moTxrobis bolos cxaddeba kidec. Tumc manamde ambrosais (da masTan erTad mosul Tovls) sicocxle Semoaqvs qalebis cxovrebaSi. ambrosais saRebavebi moaqvs sofelSi da Tovlze yris, Tovlis SeferadebasTan erTad feraddeba martod darCenil qalTa erTferovani dReebi. Tovlis, Semdeg ki tansacmlis, Seferadeba moTxrobaSi aris cxovrebis galamazebis, gamravalferovnebis, umizno cxovrebisTvis azris dabrunebis metafora. is erTferovneba, rac zamTarSi eZleva TeTrad Seferil mTas, ispoba ambrosais mosvliT. ambavi nel-nela midis kuliminaciisken, roca qmrebi brundebian da moswonT, magram TiTqos ukadrisoben kidec ferad tansacmels. xumrobasa da TamaSSi kvdeba ambrosai, jer TovlSi Caemxoba, mere ki aragvis talRebs gaatanen mis ferebs mTvrali qmrebi. teqstSi mniSvnelovania sxva detalic: ambrosai calTvalaa. amqveyniuri silamazis, mSvenierebis dasanaxad mas erTi Tvalic yofnis, radgan amisTvis ufro mniSvnelovani _ Sinagani xedva aqvs mas gamZafrebuli. silamazis aRqmis unari Sinagani samyaros kuTvnilebaa da ara mxedvelobis aRqmis organos funqcia, radgan TviT mSveniereba sulieri samyaros Tvisebaa. amitom uamrav fers xedavs ambrosai da mxolod rux ferebs arCeven

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mTieli kacebi. ambrosais sikvdilis Semdeg xvdebian isini, rom raRac dakarges: `ra Camokertilebi davdivarT, es tivlebi! - Civis gamixardai. Soridan ZlivsRa scnoben colebi~ (Coxeli 1989: 92). ruxi feri aq codvis simboloa, im codvis, romliTac maT cxovreba daimZimes, roca wyalkurTxevis dRes aragvis rux da civ talRebSi garecxes `feradi~ ambrosai. Savi da TeTri calcalkec da erTadac (ruxis saxiT) sikvdilis, codvis niSania teqstSi. mkveTrad gamoxatuli negatiuri mniSvnelobebi aqvs TeTr fers jemal TofuriZis moTxrobebSi (amis Sesaxeb ix. m. kvaWantiraZe `ixseniT Cveni sulebi...~ wignSi: werilebi literaturaze, Tbilisi, 2001, gv. 153-155). sikvdilsa da martoobas ufro xSirad gamoxataven SaviT, magram Tu davakvirdebiT, SevamCnevT, rom TeTri feriT gamoxatuli sikvdilis simZafrisa da sicivis xarisxobrivi maCvenebeli gacilebiT didia. Cveni azriT, sicivis amgvari gancdis dabadebas xels uwyobs individis cnobierebaSi arsebuli siTeTris materialuri forma, fizikuri niSani - Tovli, romlis gaxseneba TavisTavad aCens siTeTrisa da sicivis gancdas, maSin roca Savs aseTi SegrZnebebi ar ukavSirdeba. jemal TofuriZesTan TeTris negatiuri mniSvnelobebi - sikvdili, avadmyofoba, boroteba, gaucxoeba, tanjva, gulSeRoneba, sicive, dumili, Zalis gamocla, martooba, zizRi da sisastikec ki umaRles registrSia ayvanili. TeTria Tamazis oTaxis kedlebi moTxroba `nuciko emxvarSi~. TeTri feri TxrobaSi Tavidanve Semodis, rogorc sicivis da mosalodneli ubedurebis niSani. martoobisa da tragizmis gancdas amZafrebs rkinis sawoli, rogorc umweobis, uZlurebisa da miusafrobis winaswarmetyveleba, rac realuri xdeba, roca Tamazi veRar brundeba omidan. moTxroba `martoSi~ sikvdilis feria loTis TeTri perangi. yvelaze Rrma simboluri veli TeTrs aqvs moTxrobaSi `dioskuria zRvaSi CaZiruli qalaqia~. aq TeTri dominanturi feria, romelic, SeiZleba iTqvas, personaJis xarisxSia ayvanili. igi garSemo yvelafers sicivisa da gulgrilobis zewarSi axvevs. TeTr zewars ixvevs tanze Temuris mama, roca goneba aereva da zRvaSi CaZirul qalaqze iwyebs saubars. esTetikurad sasiamovnoa TeTri xis komodi, romelic dgas Temuris oTaxSi, magram masac negatiur elfers aZlevs erTi ubralo Strixi: zed iseTi yvavilebia amokveTili, `panaSvidebze rom mihqondaT xolme adre~ (TofuriZe 1979: 152); Tovli modis im dRes, roca mama Tavs ik-

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lavs da am dros mas TeTri perangi acvia. TeTrsufragadafarebul magidas usxedan babua da TeTrkabiani dedaberi, roca Svilis sikvdilis Semdeg cols irTavs Temuris babua. Tuki TeTri saqorwino kaba sicocxles, siwmindes, naTel momavals, imedianobas gamoxatavs zogadad, aq piriqiTaa _ uadgilobis, Seusabamobisa, azrdakargulobis simboloa. qorwilisa da sikvdilis mistikur scenebSi dominirebs TeTri feri _ TeTri sufra, TeTri saqorwino kaba, TeTri dolbandiT piraxveuli da TeTrperangiani micvalebulebi. moTxrobis bolo akordSi ki tragizmi kulminacias aRwevs, roca siTeTris uaryofiTi veli kidev ufro Zlierdeba sikvdilis aRmniSvneli meore feriT _ wiTliT: `mciva, viRacas uTxra Temurim. is viRac ver miekara. Temuri Tovlze egdo da sisxli ido Tovlze. ...dedamiwas TeTri da sisxliani perangi ecva~ (TofuriZe 1979: 191). TeTris amgvari gaazrebiT jemal TofuriZis moTxrobebi enaTesaveba axali drois evropul kulturas, sadac TeTrs aseTive negatiuri mniSvnelobebi aqvs: TeTr saxlSi cxovrobs bernarda alba, Jan koktos gmiri TviTmkvlelobamde cxovrobs oTaxSi, sadac yvelaferi TeTria, a. blokTan TeTri xSirad aRniSnavs sikvdils, dards, martoobas... gamoyenebuli masalis analizma gvaCvena, rom TeTri atarebs TiTqmis yvela ZiriTad mniSvnelobas, rogorc pozitiurs, ise negatiurs, rac am fers aqvs sxvadasxva kulturis konteqstSi. Cveni TvalTaxedviT, es arCevani, nawilobriv, mwerlis midgomiTa da misi individualuri msoflmxedvelobrivi koncefciiT unda iyos gamowveuli, nawilobriv ki, kulturuli mexsierebis Sedegia. gamoyenebuli literatura: varZelaSvili 2010: varZelaSvili J. konkretulidan abstraqtulisken: enobrivi niSnis semiozisis egzistencialuroba, semiotika, #8, 2010. TofuriZe 1979: TofuriZe jemal, `dioskuria zRvaSi CaZiruli qalaqia~, merani, Tb., 1979. mironova... 2008: - , - http://mironovacolor.org/theory/humans_and_color/symbolism.

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- http://mikhalkevich.narod.ru/ kyrs/Cvetovedenie/nuton.htm. postmodernizmi 2001: - . . : , 2001. simboloTa... - ttp://mirslovarei.com/content_sim tresideri www.gumer.info/bibliotek_buks/Culture/JekTres idder. ferTa... 2010: http://artclubvd. ucoz.ru/load/teorija_zhivopisi/cvet/ simvolika_cveta_i_cvetovyepredpochtenija/63-1-0-137. ganTavsebulia 27.04.2010 Coxeli 1989: Coxeli g. Tevzis werilebi, Tb., sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1989. WilaZe 1986: WilaZe o. rCeuli Txzulebani 3 tomad. tomi 2. Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1986. niutonis ...

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bibliur simboloTa semiotikuri analizi d.h. lorensis SemoqmedebaSi


literatura drois xelovnebaa, misi arsi adamianTa urTierTobis survilSia. literaturuli xelovneba, SeiZleba iTqvas, nawilobrav aris simboloTa manipulacia droSi. rogorc deliozi acxadebs, ,,roca gvgonia, rom dros vkargavT, swored maSin vecnobiT niSnebs~ ( . 1999:50) adamianebi ki simboloTa da niSanTa meSveobiT amyareben urTierTobas. literaturis formebze, Rirebulebebze usasrulod SeiZleba visaubroT. aseve usasrulod SeiZleba visaubroT bibliis universalurobaze, romelic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi axdenda gavlenas kacobriobis azrovnebaze. mwerlebi xSirad cdilobdnen Zveli fragmentebidan erTiani teqstebis Seqmnas. xSir SemTxvevaSi es fragmentebi bibliidanaa aRebuli. dResdReobiT, Tundac pirvelad kiTxulobdes, aravis SeuZlia waikiTxos cnobili romani an leqsi, Sexedos cnobil tilos, skulpturas, mousminos cnobil musikas an uyuros cnobil speqtakls da films, ise rom gacnobierebuli ar qondes konteqsti, romliTac

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis maswavlebeli, doqtoranti. ZiriTadi naSromebi: dualizmi da cisartyelas arqiteqturuli metafora d. h. lorensis cisartyelas mixedviT. (2009); cisartyelas semiotikuri mniSvneloba d.h. lorensis romanSi cisartyela (2009); ,,d.h. lorensi, biblia da bibliuri diskursebi (2010); ,,
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(2010); ,,modernistuli tendenciebi eliotisa da lorensis SemoqmedebaSi - (Tanaavtori n. saluqvaZe) ( 2010); interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, semiotika, kulturis semiotika.

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teqstia aRdgenili, ,,moqarguli, damowmebuli. mkiTxvelebi qmnian avtorebs, isini funqcionireben, rogorc arqeologebi, ,,xelaxla qsoven maT teqstualuri zedapirisagan da euflebaT SegrZneba, TiTqos es manamdec waekiToT. XX saukunis ingliseli mwerlis, devid herbert lorensis pirveli wakiTxva, meore da mesamec ki, qaosuri moqmedebebis da scenebis STabeWdilebas gvitovebs, ise Cans, TiTqos, maT akldeT formaluri Sida urTierTobani. magram saboloo jamSi vrwmundebiT, rom nawarmoebis struqtura Seudarebelia. Cven vRebulobT wesrigSi moyvanil mTlianobis nimuSs, romelic miRweulia romanebSi, gafantuli semiotikuri niSnebiT. semiotika miiCnevs, rom yvelafers SeuZlia funqcionireba niSnad. is niSans xedavs izolirebul sityvaSi an mTlian romanSi, xazSi an mTlian monaxazSi, adamianis saxelSi an mTlian biografiaSi, xelis JestSi an mTlian sabaleto warmodgenaSi. raimes ,,niSnobrioba rom mianiWo, is unda gviCvenebdes mis miRma arsebul raimes, romelic interpretaciisTvis iqneba misawvdomi da saintereso. albaT yvelas, visac waukiTxavs ,,cisartyela da ,,Seyvarebuli qalebi, dainteresebula im niSnebisa Tu simboloebis mniSvnelobebiT, rac mravladaa teqstSi mimofantuli. lorensTan xdeba yvelafris gadafaseba, Zveli egos dakargva da axali ,,me-s Zieba, seqsualuri Tavisuflebisaken swrafva, grZnobebisa da gancdebis Cveneba. am mweralTan Zveli simboloebic kargaven TavianT mniSvnelobebs da gvibiZgeben maTi xelaxali gadaazrebisaken. Tavad lorensi simboloebs ganixilavda, rogorc Organic Units of Conciousness with a life of their own-s cnobierebis organul erTeulebs. misi azriT, simbolo moicavs kompleqsur emociur gamocdilebas. miaCnia, rom ioli ar aris simbolos interpretacia, radganac misi mniSvneloba aris dinamikuri, emociuri. da es procesi ar aris mxolod mentaluri, is miekuTvneba sxeulisa da sulis SegrZneba-gacnobierebas, romlis gadmocema SeuZlebelia pirdapir sityvebiT, swored am procesis aRmniSvnelia masTan simbolizmi. rac Seexeba mis mier bibliuri Tu miTiuri simboloebis gamoyenebas, sayuradReboa, rom bibliuri simboloebi masTan gansxvavebuli da sruliad Seusabamo interpretaciiTaa warmodgenili.

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magaliTisTvis sainteresoa miTiur-bibliuri faskunjis, daviTis cekvis scenis, wylis, mTvaris, cxenis niSnobrivi statusis gansazRvra. lorensis siyvaruli bibliisadmi mTeli sicocxlis manZilze vlindeboda mis werilebSi, dialogebSi, sadac moyvanilia adgilebi bibliidan, Sesaqmidan. uTuod aRsaniSnavia isic, rom ,,misi mwerlobis struqturis qronologiuri analizi anareklia bibliisa, iwyeba dabadebiT da mTavrdeba apokalifsiT. (wright, R.T.2000:14) lorensis romanSi ,,cisartyela uiliamis xis nakeToba _ miTiuri faskunji niSnobrivia. zogadad masSi mamakacuri siZliere moiazreba. Tumca lorensTan konteqsti sxvagvari aRqmisaken gvibiZgebs. ,,romanSi qalia, vinc siZlieris gamoxatulebaa da ara mamakaci. qalia vinc anadgurebs da xelaxla qmnis mamakacs (Burden,R. 2000:128) es aris magaliTi imisa, rom miTi aris saSualeba, romliTac axali mtkicdeba, maSin roca ZvelTan damokidebuleba kvlav narCundeba. ebrauli legendis Tanaxmad, faskunjia frinveli, romelsac ZaluZs xorci Seisxas sakuTari ferflisagan. is aris aRdgomis simbolo. Aam legendas kargad esadageba ,,cisartyelas qali personaJebis bedi. isinic nadgurdebian moralurad da sulierad, magram es ganadgureba maT xelaxla ubrunebs cxovrebis stimuls. bibliaSi faskunji (iobi 29:18) aris xangrZlivi sicocxlis simbolo. faskunjs mohqonda gardacvlili mamis Zvlebi heliopolisis taZarSi da pativs miagebda. lorensma bibliur faskunjs Taviseuli mniSvneloba SesZina da masSi Zlieri qalis saxe gviCvena. anas qaluri siZliere da mamakacze misi zemdgomobis survili ormagdeba ,,cisartyelas VI TavSi _ Anna victrix, romelic warmodgenilia cekvis saxiT. qmarTan urTierTobaSi gamarjvebuli ana SiSveli wardgeba sarkis win da cekvavs uflisTvis. sakuTar Tavs adarebs bibliur daviTs: rogorc daviTma hpova siSiSvleSi sulieri da fizikuri harmonia, aseve dediSobila anamac qmarTan gamarjvebiT mopovebuli sulieri harmonia gamoxata cekviT. ,,naxes Seni svla, RmerTo, svla Cemi RmrTisa, Cemi mefisa wmidaSi. win wardgnen mgaloblebi, ukan memusikeni, SuaSi medaire qalwulebi.( fs:67: 25-26). daviT mefsalmune ganasaxierebs RvTis msvlelobis procesias: moemarTeba momReralTa gundi, qalwulebiT garSemor-

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tymuli, xelSi dairebiT, riTac musikalur akompanements uwevdnen. TavadiSvilebi midiodnen momRerlebis da qalwulebis win da am msvlelobiT iwvevdnen ers RvTis sadideblad. es sayovelTao procesia imarTeboda uflisadmi madlierebis niSnad. daviT mefsalmune SesTxovs ufals, gaaZlieros ebraelTa eris yofa da ZRvens uZRvnis mas. es ZRveni cekvaa. romanSi cekvis epizodSi igulisxmeba matriarqaluri yofis gandideba da sulieri Zalauflebis mtkicebac, rac ewinaaRmdegeba qristianul morals. simboluri cekviT anas sakuTari Tavi ufro uyvardeba, vidre uiliami. qristianuli miTi misTvis aRar funqcionirebs, qristianul simboloebs misTvis mniSvneloba daukargavT. cekvaSi igrZnoba ritmis SegrZneba, adamianis cxovrebis cikli aRiqmeba, rogorc bunebis ganuyofeli nawili. roca adamiani ritms moipovebs, is Tavs aRwevs materialur qaoss. amitomac cekva eliotisa da lorensis SemoqmedebaSi socialuri kulturis uzarmazari faqtoria. aseve sainteresoa wylis semiotikuri mniSvneloba. ,,semiotikuri gagebiT, wyali miiCneva da, mTeli istoriis manZilze miCneuli iyo, rogorc dabadebis, aRmocenebis niSani. amaze miuTiTebs dabadeba: 1:20. Nnoes warRvnis Semdgom movlenili cisartyela aris dasturi imisa, rom warRvna aRar iqneba. wyali bibliaSi aseve aris WeSmaritebis simbolo (efeselTa 5:25, 26). wyali ukavSirdeba mcenareebs, qals, mTvares, cxovrebas. is aris qmnadobis niSnobriobis matarebeli. magram ,,Seyvarebul qalebSi, jeraldTan, is kargavs Tavis bibliur mniSvnelobas da sul sxva niSnad gvevlineba. jeraldi ar aris cxovrebis simbolo, mas ZaluZs mxolod ganadgureba. romanSi wyali ara mxolod cxovrebis da gagrZelebis, aramed ganadgurebis da sikvdilis niSania (Beynon, R. 1997:100). Zalian sainteresoa mTvaris simbolos (niSnis) amocnobac, romelic romanSi gvamcnobs ana brenguinis xasiaTs. simbolurad axali mTvare miuTiTebs bavSvobaze, naxevarmTvare axalgazrdobasa da savse dedobaze (online symbolism dictionary). mTvareze saubrisas greivsi miuTiTebs qalis sami mdgomareobis Sesaxeb: qalwuloba, qaloba, moxucebuloba, romelsac sami feri Seesabameba: TeTri _ axali mTvaris simbolo, wiTeli _ naxevarmTvaris da Savi savse mTvaris ( . 1992:151).

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gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa mTvaris simbolo qarTul zepirsityvierebasa da warmarTobaSi. ,,wminda giorgis saqarTveloSi mTvaris adgili ukavia, arc mTvaris sqesi uSlis, radgan qarTuli xalxuri SexedulebiT mTvare sqesiT mamakacia. es cxadada Cans Semdegi saero leqsidan: ,,daiZine genacvale, iav, nanina, mze dawva da mTvare Soba, iav, nanina! (javaxiSvili, iv. 1960:58) ,,sainteresoa is garemoeba, rom mTvare, qarTveli xalxis Sexedulebisamebr, mamakacia da ara dedakaci, rogorc Cveulebriv aris miRebuli. egviptelebi, ebraelebi, berZnebi, romaelebi, arabebi da finikielebi mTvares Cveulebriv dedakacada sTvlidnen xolme (javaxiSvili, iv. 1960: 60). bibliaSi mTvare macxovris jvarcmis dros iyo savse, rac imis maniSnebeli iyo, rom ebraeli eri mzad iyo TavianTi mesiis misaRebad. jvarcmis Semdeg mTvarem gauCinareba daiwyo. mTvare romanSi ,,cisartyela arisQqaluri idumalebis saxe, romelic ukavSirdeba anas idumalebas, qalurobas. erT-erT epizodSi mTvaris Suqi ecema anas, misi idumali qalurobis sibneleze miuTiTebs, romelic unda ipovos uiliamma, Sevides masSi da daeuflos mas (Vivas, E.1960:210). mkiTxvelis yuradRebas ipyrobs cxenebis simboluri mniSvnelobac, romlebic gaigivebulni arian ursulas mucladmyof SvilTan da mis mdgomareobasTan. romanSi maTi qceva aris bavSvis dabadebis procesis Sesatyvisi. Tumca ursula gaurbis cxenebs, sinamdvileSi ki kargavs bavSvs da Sedis axal cxovrebaSi. zogierTi kritikosi cxenSi ursulas saqmros skribenskis moiazrebs da cxenis Camotovebis Tu skribenskis uaryofis Semdeg, gaxarebuli ursulas mdgomareobas da cisartyelas xilvas amiT xsnis. bibliis mixedviT, ioane xedavs gaxsnil cas da TeTr cxenebs, romlebic qristes saxea. ca ixsneba, raTa gza dauTmos dedamiwisken momaval TeTr cxenebs da mxedars. mxedari iwodeba WeSmaritad da erTgulad. es epiTetebi qristeze miuTiTebs. mas amSvenebs diadema, rac Tavad metyvelebs qristes RvTaebriv bunebaze. orive _ ,,cisartyela da ,,Seyvarebuli qalebi _ romanis ZiriTadi forma efuZneba or sasiyvarulo istorias. ursulasa da birkinis, gudrunisa da jeraldis istorias. TiToeuli scena,

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konversacia emsaxureba erTi an meore sasiyvarulo moqmedebis ganviTarebas. Tavis mxriv, maTi urTierTobanic ixsneba romanSi mimofantuli niSnebiTa da simboloebiT, romelTa gaSifrva ayalibebs romanebis erTian formas. simboloebisa da niSnebis gaSifrva mkiTxvels uxsnis personaJis xasiaTs da naTeluyofs epizodis Tu romanis finals. gamoyenebuli literatura javaxiSvili, iv. ,,qarTveli eris istoria~ Tbilisis saxelmw. universitetis gamomcemloba. Tbilisi 1960 . : . . .: "", "", 1994 Lawrence, D.H. The Rainbow. Everyman Publishers, London 1993 Beynon, R D.H Lawrence, The Rainbow, Women in Love, Icon Books 1997 Burden, R D.H.Lawrence and Michel Foucault, A Poetics Of Historical Vision: Neophillologus 1999 Preston, P. Hoare, P. D.H.Lawrence in Modern World, Cambridge. ,1989 Vivas, E. D. H LAWRENCE The failure and the triumph of art Northwestern University Press,1960 Wright T.R. D.H. Lawrence and The Bible , Cambridge 2000 . . . . . 1992 .. . 1904-19 . "", -, 1999

kulturis semiotika a
xaTuna TavdgiriZe

drakonis intronizacia
ZvelCinuri miTosur-filosofiuri kosmologia
,,aRmosavluri drakoni ar gvevlineba sazarel monstrad, rac Suasaukuneebis warmodgenebis nayofia. aRmosavluri drakoni gvevlineba sikeTisa da Zlierebis geniad. drakoni aris cvlilebebis suli da amitom suli Tavad sicocxlisa. is imaleba miuwvdomeli mTebis gamoqvabulebSi, an eSveba zRvis miuwvdomel siRrmeebSi, sadac elodeba gaRviZebisa da moqmedebis dros. misi xma ismis qariSxlebSi, romlebic daZrwian dasustebul tyeebSi da aRviZeben tyeebs axali gazafxulisTvis... Sou ven, II saukune

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori; baTumis niko berZeniSvilis institutis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: ,,miTologiuri gadmocemebi aWaraSi(weraqveTas miTi, ukvdavebis maZiebeli luymani) (baT.2001); ,,aWaruli samonadireo miTosi (baT. 2004); gamoqveynebuli aqvs statiebi qarTul miTo-ritualur, miTo-sociogoniur sakiTxebze: ,,qarTuli kosmogonia-Sesaqmis fragmentebi (gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis cikli) (2005); ,,qarTuli sociogonia - qalis gvelTan qorwinebis miTosi(2007); ,,graalis Tasebi da varskvlavT-qvebi qarTul miTologiaSi (2007); ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis qarTuli kosmogoniuri miToritualuri modelebi (2008) da sxva. mxatvruli proza: ,,Samani da dedofali (2007); ,,HOMO TATUS (2008). interesTa sfero: semiotika, miTis poetika, arqaul kulturaTa kvlevebi, analizuri fsiqologia.

swored im epoqaSi, roca saberZneTSi hesiodes ,,Teogonia, homerosis ,,iliada da ,,odisea iwereboda, CineTSi Seiqmna ,,iZina erT-erTi ZiriTadi teqsti im kanonikur teqstebs Soris, romelTac Zveli Cineli ,,yovladbrZenni qmnidnen da romelTac arsebiTad gansazRvres ZvelCinuri azrovnebisa da cnobierebis forma. Cinuri tradiciuli azrovnebis saTaveebTan swored amgvari ,,sibrZnis wignebi dgas da ara _ miTebi. da marTlac, ZvelCinelebs ratom unda miemarTad miTebisTvis, Tuki maTive istoriis


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wiaRSi realurad arsebulma mravalma ,,yovladbrZenma mSvenivrad uwyoda yofierebis kanonebi, romelTac kanonikur wignebSi (,,Zin) aTavsebda da sazogadoebamde mihqonda. TavisTavad cxadia, amanac gansazRvra Cinuri miTebis totaluri evhemerizacia da Cinuri filosofiisa da Teologiis Taviseburi, evropuli kulturisagan sruliad sxvagvari ganviTareba. CineTSi, imTaviTve, samyaros modelis, kosmologiuri suraTis, yofierebis sistemis sruliad gansxvavebuli gaazreba Camoyalibda. Cinuri filosofiuri individualizmi da miTosuri koleqtiuri cnobiereba uZvelesi droidanve Rrma Sinagan urTierTzemoqmedebas (rac udavod konkurenciis elementebsac Seicavda) ganicdian. swored am urTierTzemoqmedebis fonze miTi, filosofia da religia erTmaneTis gverdigverd Tanaarseboben da viTardebian. am urTierTkavSirSi Seiqmna, erTi mxriv, miTologiur-religiuri kosmologiuri warmodgenebi, xolo meore mxriv, Zveli CineTis yvela naturfilosofiuri moZRvreba. moZRvreba ,,xuT pirvelstiqiaze mogvagonebs Cinur kosmologiur warmodgenas ,,rva stiqiaze; moZRvreba in da ian Zalebze da mis sawyis mTlianobaze Zalze hgavs Cinuri miTis kosmiur pirvelwyvils fusis da niu-vasTan dakavSirebul warmodgenaTa sistemas. daos moZRvrebas ki, iseve, rogorc ZvelCinur ,,did triadas, bevri ram aqvs saerTo cisa da miwis Cinuri miTologiis kosmologiur warmodgenebTan; dabolos, Cinuri RvTaebrivi panTeonis evhemerizacias, rac gansakuTrebiT konfucianur swavlebaSi SeiniSneba, da, rac mniSvnelovanwilad miTiur personaJTa intronizaciiTa da politikuri legitimaciis miniWebiT gamoixateba, bunebrivad mohyva konceptualuri istorizmis damkvidreba. sabolood, ZvelCinuri msoflxedveloba istoriulobis, miTosuri da filosofiur-religiuri azris unikalur sinTezad Camoyalibda. * * *

,,saSinelebiT garemoculma, Sevxede da davinaxe uzarmazari gveli, wreSekruli, mis SigniT ki _ Zalian patara wre. da Tqva man, romelsac me Sevxvdi: ,,ici ki Sen, es ra aris? wre miwaa, xolo gveli zRva, romliTac garemoculia miwa, anu mTeli samyaro, _ naTqvamia Suasaukuneebis laTinurenovan romanSi _
,,aleqsandria. Suasaukuneebis ezoTeruli da alqimiuri tradicia kosmiur wesrigs, yofierebas da maradiul wre-brunvas gamosaxavda ,,kudismWameli, e.w. ,,uraborasis xatiT. kudismWameli

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urCxuli kosmosis xatia: urCxuls//gvels sakuTari kudi piriT uWiravs, wre aqvs Sekruli da samyaros qaotur wylebs kosmosis kalapotiT SemosazRvravs, riTac kosmiur wesrigs uzrunvelyofs. ,,kudismWameli gvelis//urCxulis kosmologiuri xati msoflios uZveles miTologiur warmodgenaTa wiaRSi Camoyalibda. ,,kudismWamelis miTologema moiazrebs, erTi mxriv, samyaros kosmiuri wyobis wriul models, xolo meore mxriv, kosmiuri ciklebis monacvleobas erTis aRsasrulisa da meoris dasawyisis usasrulobas. CineTSi aRmoCenili ,,kudismWameli drakonebis figurebi ekuTvnis xunSanis kulturas (4700-2900w.w.); indusur miTebSi uraborasis saxes qmnis gveli ananta-SeSa, romelic Tavisi sxeuliT iWers samyaros; afrikul kosmogoniaSi gvxvdeba ,,kudismWameli gveli-cisartyela aido-hvedo. skandinaviur miTologiaSi ,,kudismWamels ganasaxierebs kosmiuri gveli ormugandi. egvipteSi `kudismWameli gvelis gamosaxuleba pirvelad Cndeba Sua samefos xanaSi (daaxloebiT: 1600w.Cv.w.-mde). egviptidan ,,kudismWamelis simbolo gavrcelda finikiaSi, sadac igi ganasaxierebda ianuss, Semdeg ki saberZneTSi. swored saberZneTSi miiRo saxelwodeba _ ,,uraborasi ( _ ,,kudi da berZnuli -,,saWmeli. sityvasityviT _ ,,kudis (sakuTari) mWameli). uraborasi iqca dualuri gnosticizmis simbolod; Suasaukuneebis alqimiaSi uraborasi gamoiyeneboda maradisobisa da mTeli alqimiuri procesebis aRsaniSnavad. ,,kudismWameli urCxuli mTliani da ganucalkevebeli, orsawyisovani (orsqesovani), androginuli arsebaa. gveli zogadad iTvleboda kidec orsqesovan, yvela TviTganayofierebadi da TviTmSobadi RvTaebis emblemad. swored androginias gviCvenebs urCxulis morkaluli da piriT SeerTebuli sxeuli, sadac gvelis zeda nawili, Tavi, romelic cas ganasaxovnebs _ mamrobiTia, xolo qveda nawili kudi mdedrul xTonur sawyiss gamoxatavs. androginuli ,,kudismWamelis, rogorc sawyisi ontologiuri mTlianobis, miTologema mravali Teologiur-kosmologiuri sistemis safuZveli xdeba uZveles kulturebSi. amgvari Teologiur-filosofiuri moZRvreba Seiqmna Zvel CineTSi, es aris swavleba ,,in da ,,ian Zalebze. ,,vinca Seicno mamroba Tvisi, manve Seicno mdedroba Tvisi (lao Zi 1990:106), _ naTqvamia ,,dao-de-ZinSi. amgvari androginiiT gacxadebu-


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lia ZvelCinuri moZRvrebis (daosuri da sxva filosofiuri swavlebani) umniSvnelovanesi aspeqti warmodgena ontologiur sawyisze, romelic warmoadgens ori sawinaaRmdego sqesis inisa da ianis mTlianobas. ZvelCinuri moZRvreba yofierebis sawyisis amgvar gagebaSi misive wiaRis miTosur kosmologiur tradicias misdevs. erT-erTi ZvelCinuri kosmogoniuri miTis mixedviT, sruliad samyaros Semoqmedad gvevlineba pirveli wyvili _ da-Zma fusi da niu-iva. isini garegnulad warmoadgenen gvelistanian da adamianisTavian, gvelis kudebiT erTmaneTSi gadaxlarTul kosmiur arsebebs. ZvelCinur kosmogoniur miTebSi saubaria fusisa da niu-vas kreaciul aqtebze: cisa da miwis gancalkevebaze, samyarosa da kacobriobis Seqmnaze (niu-va adamians Zerwavs Tixisagan), ris Semdegac isini zrunaven kosmosis srulyofisTvis da araerT demiurgul aqts axorcieleben. maT agreTve uwevT samyaros dacva warRvnis yovliswarmxoceli wylebisagan. mogvianebiT fusi iqca aRmosavleTis RvTaebad lurj drakonad. rom ara am RvTaebaTa nawilobrivi anTropomorfizacia, albaT, es wyvili warmogvidgeboda mTeli sxeuliT gadajaWvul, wriulad Sekrul ,,kudismWamel kosmiur urCxulebad uraborasad, romlis religiur-filosofiur ganviTarebad gvevlineba ZvelCinuri ini da iani. inis da ianis emblematuri niSani warmoadgens kidec ,,kudismWameli ori urCxulis grafikulad stilizebul variacias: urTierTgadajaWvul, wreSekrul, naTel da bnel ferebSi Sesrulebul stilizebul or gvels (wriuli TaviT, romelSic Casmulia wertili-Tvali, xolo Tavis qvemoT figuris TandaTanobiTi Seviwroeba sabolood gvelis kudis formas iRebs).

Zv. Cinuri ,,kudismWameli drakoni. Sanis epoqa

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ikonografiaSi uraborasi, msgavsad inisa da ianisa, zogjer gamoisaxeboda naxevrad naTeli da naxevrad bneli ferebiT, riTac gamoxatuli iyo samyaros dualuri dayofa. ZvelCinuri kosmologiuri warmodgenebis mixedviT, samyaroSi naTeli (iani) da bneli (ini) sawyisebis moqmedeba-monacvleobis fazebi damokidebulia inis (qaluri) da ianis (mamakacuri) morigeobaze Tu romlis moqmedebis fazaSi imyofeba samyaro. es morigeoba gansazRvravs sikvdil-sicocxlis, dRe-Ramis, zamTar-gazafxulis monacvleobas. aq SeiZleba paralelis danaxva qarTul miTosur warmodgenebTan, sadac samyaroSi yovelgvari keTildReoba (gamravleba, nayofiereba, amindi da sxva bunebiTi gamovlinebebi) damokidebulia aseve dasabamiseuli pirvelwyvilis gvelistanian (//Tevzistanian) zRvis qalisa da zRvis kacis morigeobaze. qarTuli (aWaruli miTosis am personaJebs megrulSi Seesabameba mesefebi) miTosis mixedviT, isini mTel weliwads zRvaSi atareben da weliwadSi mxolod erTxel, gazafxulze erTi kviriT, morigeobiT amodian xmeleTze. roca zRvis qali amodis, maSin mTeli weli naTeli Zalebi batonoben, yovelgvari keTildReobaa mosalodneli, xolo zRvis kacis amosvlis Semdeg samyaroSi uamindoba, unayofoba isadgurebs (TavdgiriZe 2010: 104 ). miuxedavad inisa da ianis, iseve rogorc uraborasis sawyisTa polarulobisa, naTeli da bneli sawyisis dapirispireba mxolod formalur doneze atarebs dualur aspeqts (dualuri aspeqti uraborasma ZiriTadad gnostikur moZRvrebaSi SeiZina). am formalizmsac sabolood auqmebs, abaTilebs wre (maradiuli brunva), romelic amTlianebs pirvelwyvils. ,,kudismWamelis// inisa da ianis miTosur-filosofiuri ontologiuri idea sawyisis da mis farglebSi yovelnair polarul gamovlinebaTa mTlianobas da am mTlianobis Tavisi centris garSemo maradiul wrebrunvas moiazrebs. amitom iyo Zveli CinelisTvis es kosmiuri wre yofierebis Suaguli, xolo misi centri yofierebis RerZi. yofierebis centrs _ ,,miwis centrs aseve drakoni ganasaxi-


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erebda uZveles Cinur tradiciaSi. es iyo cis RmerTi _ Cinuri kosmologiis uzenaesi RvTaeba _ yviTeli (oqrosferi) drakoni xuan-lun, aRmatebuli xuT pirvelstiqiaTa (ZvelCinuri kosmologia) ganmasaxierebel sxva feris drakonTa Soris. xuan-luni ,,miwis centrTan erTad cis meufec aris, Sesabamisad, kosmiur centrSi inisa da ianis SuagulSi ,,moxvedra, masTan ziareba sicocxlis ganaxlebis, epifaniis momaswavebelia. ,,kudismWamelis //inisa da ianis kosmiuri wre da misi RerZi ZvelCinur tradiciaSi daos kreaciuli arsis _ ,,umoqmedo qmnadobis _ TeologiaSia asaxuli. rene genoni ZvelCinuri religiuri ,,didi triadis ganxilvisas ,,umoqmedo qmnadobis geometriul-simbolur gamoxatvas centris garSemo wris brunvaSi xedavs. ,,mas ,,Signidan marTavs RvTaebrivi sawyisi ise, rom TviTon ucvalebeli rCeba. igi aRZravs, magram TviTon ar aris aRZruli" (jayeli 2010:318). centris//RerZis garSemo mbrunavi wre urmis Tvlis simbolikiT figurirebs ,,dao de ZinSi. laoZis azriT, borblis Tvlis RerZze moZraobas da Tavad borblis arss misi RerZis, Suagulis sicariele gansazRvravs: ,,ocdaaTi mana erT morgvze brunavs. magram borblis arss morgvSi moqceuli sicariele qmnis (lao-Zi 1990:93). RerZis, centris simbolika ZvelCinur kulturaSi grafikulad gamoxatulia centris Cinuri ieroglifiT - ,,jun, romelic mogvagonebs wris centrSi gamaval RerZs.

igi tradiciulad gagebulia yofierebis RerZad _ ,,centri (,,jun) didi fesvi cisqveSeTSi, naTqvamia ZvelCinuri ,,oTxwignis erT-erT traqtatSi _ ,,jun-iuna. ,,RerZi iwyeba wris (cvalebadoba) centrSi, romelic Seesabameba maradisobas", _ wers juan-Zi Tavis wignSi ,,juan-Zi. inisa da ianis mTlianobas tradiciiT Tan axlavs ZvelCinuri unitarizmi erTianobasTan, sawyis mTlianobasTan Serwymisken swrafva. insa da ianSi, mis centrSi moxvedrisa da maradisobasTan ziarebis sakraluri aqti, umniSvnelovanesi ontologiuri sazrisis matarebelia Zveli CinelisTvis. amasTan dakavSirebiT m. eliade wers: daosi, cnobili azriT, miiltvis moipovos andro-

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ginis done adamianuri srulyofilebis uZvelesi ideali. orive sqesis integracia aadvilebs bavSvobaSi dabrunebas, xolo amgvari dabruneba gansazRvravs sicocxlis perioduli ganaxlebis SesaZleblobas. daoss vitaluri sisavse, bunebrioba da keTildReoba miecema mxolod ,,Sesaqmis an sicocxlis axali epifaniisas. yvelaze Zvel droSi koleqtiuri ierogamia vaJisa da qalisa, romlebic warmoadgendnen ins da ians, periodulad reaqtualizebs kosmiur da socialur movlenebs. aq daosi STagonebulia religiuri arqaikiT da mas iRebs nimuSad (eliade, religiis, 2 ... 2002: 69-70). cota mogvianebiT, ZvelCinuri evhemerizaciis pirobebSi sawyisi mTlianobis da centris ZvelCinuri kosmologia mkveTrad socializebuli xdeba, romlis kvalzec safuZveli eyreba monarqiul Teologias, niSandoblivs aRmosavluri monarqiuli tradiciisaTvis. monarqiul TeologiaSi mefe Tavisi wre-gvirgviniT (romelic gaxsnisas wrfiv kverTxad gadaiqceva) kosmiuri modelis wreSekruli, ,,kudismWameli drakonis adgils iWers. ,,kudismWameli drakoni frTosani (ciuri) da gvirgvinosani intronizebuli drakonia. amieridan sawyisTan dabrunebis ontologiuri idea koncentrirdeba mefis, umaRlesi saxelmwifoebrivi xelisuflis garSemo. amieridan mefe xdeba pasuxismgebeli mTel kosmiur wesrigze da momakvdavi kosmiuri ciklebis periodul epifaniebze, rac mefed kurTxevis ritualis uSualo komponenti xdebaA da rac intronizaciisas ganxorcielebuli ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis miTo-ritualur-magiuri qmedebebiT aris gamyarebuli. rogorc m. eliade wers, xelmwifis taxtze ayvanis dros kosmogonia meordeboda. fijisa da viti-levus aborigenebSi intronizacias samyaros Seqmna ewodeboda, romlis drosac mefes SeeZlo mTeli kosmosis aRdgena. bolodroindeli interpretaciis mixedviT, indoeli mefis kurTxeva samyaros aRdgenas niSnavda. marTlac, ritualis sxvadasxva faza TanamimdevrobiT asrulebda momavali mefis dapataravebas Canasaxovan mdgomareobamde, erT wels mis muclad yofnas da kosmokratorad mis mistikur axladSobas. mas erTdroulad aigivebdnen prajapatisTan (yovlis Semoqmedi) da kosmosTan (eliade 1998: 29; eliade 2000: 54-55). kosmologiuri movlenebis samarTavad mefis gankargulebaSia ontologiuri sawyis-wrisa da misi centris//RerZis sakraluri regaliebi gvirgvini (wriuloba) da kverTxi (wrfivoba),


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romlebic ara mxolod simbolurad, aramed realuradac asaxaven ontologiur fenomenebs (ramdenadac miTosSi nebismieri simboluri asaxva aris ara dublireba, aramed sruli identoba asaxul saganTan). samefo gvirgvinis brwyinvaleba, elvareba _ ,,melami xdis mas RvTaebaTa Tanaswors. ,,meufebis melami (aqad. ,,melam SarruTi) rqadasxmuli gvirgvinis Tu tiaras sinonimia; masSia moqceuli RvTaebis mTeli Zala da avtoriteti. es is niSania, romliTac RmerTi RmerTobs (kiknaZe, 1979:90). gvirgvinis wriuloba mefis Zalauflebas qveynierebis oTxiv mxares ganavrcobs da xelmwifis RvTaebriv maradiulobas gaacxadebs. amas emateba gvirgvinis qimebi _ rqebi, romlebiTac mefe zeciuri uzenaesi RvTaebis zoomorful sawyiss cis rqian cxovels1 frTosan drakons ukavSirdeba.2 samyaros centris//RerZis funqcias mefes ontologiuri mniSvnelobis sakraluri atributi _ kverTxi aniWebs: ,,kverTxi _ cis RerZi; kverTxi _ RerZi ciuri saxlisa. fesvi misi wyvdiadi, wveri misi ciuri tabla (beriaSvili, TorTlaZe: 35), _ vkiTxulobT erT sumerul himnSi. Zvel CineTSi saimperatoro xelisuflebis simbolod ,,miwis centris ganmgebeli da gansaxovneba yviTeli wminda drakoni xuan-luni iqca, rogorc materialuri xati _ miwis//mTeli yofierebis religiur-ontologiuri da socialur-empiriuli centrisa. rogorc Cans, warmodgenaTa msgavi sistema arsebobda skandinaviur kosmologiaSic, sadac frTosani da gvirgvinosani ,,kudismWameli urCxuli ormugandi aRniSnavs ,,bumberaz kverTxs. samyaros RerZis//kverTxis pyrobiT mefe yofierebis wris centrSi dgas, xolo misi samefos sazRvrebi kosmosis xats moxazavs. ,,samefo-kosmosis mkveTrad SemosazRvrul, Caketil ,,Sina-sivrces esazRvreba da mudmivad upirispirdeba am sivrcis miRma darCenili mTeli ,,gare-sivrce qaosi, romelic ,,SinasivrceSi SemoRwevis mudmivmolodinSia. uZvelesma Cinelebma Tavis samefos, rogorc sruliad ,,cisqveSeTs, galavani _ ,,Cinuri kedeli Semoavles, riTac xiluli zRvriTac gamijnes kosmosi qaosisagan. Cinur kedels yovelgvari qaosuri gamovlinebisagan unda daecva ,,cisqveSeTi. mTeli samefo, qveynis miwa-wyali _ mTel kosmosad (Cinuri kosmologiuri terminologiiT _ ,,cisqveSeTi), mefis sasaxle da samefo taxti kosmosis centrad, xolo Tavad xelmwife uzenaes RmerTad moiazreboda Zvel aRmosavleTSi. xelmwifeRvTaebis miTosuri paradigma uSualod kosmologiuri warmodge-

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nebidan aRmocenda. am mxriv Cinuri monarqiuli Teologia3 yvelaze sistemuri da xangrZlivi aRmoCnda, rasac zurgs udavod umagrebda ZvelCinuri filosofiur-religiuri swavlebani. daosurma moZRvrebam samefo xelisuflebis kosmologiur-miTosuri semantika Teologiurad gaaRrmava da umaRlesi miwieri xelisufali RvTaebrivi ,,didi triadis meoTxe wevrad, ipostasad gamoacxada: ,,dao diadia. ca diadia. miwa diadia. xelmwifec diadia (lao-Zi 1990:104). ZvelCinur panTeonSi cis RmerTs ganasaxierebda yviTeli drakoni xuan-luni, Sesabamisad, CineTis umaRlesi xelisufalic cis yviTel drakonTan gaigivda.4 Zvel CineTSi yviTeli drakonisa da imperatoris gaigiveba gamyarebelia im genealogiuri miTebiT, romlebic mogviTxroben Cineli imperatorebis yviTel drakonTan genetikuri naTesaobis Sesaxeb. imperatori TavisTavs acxadebs ,,cisqveSeTis RvTaebad, radgan mis ZarRvebSi Cqefs drakonis sisxli. miTebis mixedviT, dedofali dafexmZimda cis meufe yviTeli drakonisagan, romelsac dedofali piradad Sexvda, sizmarSi naxa, an sasaxlis Tavze gamoCnda da a.S. (enciklopedia II, 1998: 77). Zvel CineTSi ara mxolod umaRlesma xelisufalma ganicada astralizacia da iqca cis yviTel drakonad, aramed, moxda piriqiTac _ yviTeli drakonis _ ,,xuan-lunis socializaciiT warmoiSva ,,xuan-Zi _ ,,yviTeli imperatoris, kulturuli gmiris saxe. konfucianurma trdiciam xuan-Zis istoriuli Strixebi SesZina, igi Sen-Sunis memkvidred gamoacxada da misi sicocxlis wlebic miuTiTa _ 2698-2598 Cv.w.-mde (nemirovski 2000: 504). socializaciis kvalze, yviTelma imperatorma xuan-Zim yviTeli drakonisagan cis meufebasTan erTad, ,,miwis centris funqciac imemkvidra. miTebis Tanaxmad, ,,xuan-Zis, sanam ,,centris RvTaeba gaxdeboda, qveynierebis oTxive mxaris drakon-RvTaebebTan mouxda brZola (sinelCenko 1995:486). wminda drakonis intronizacias, rac religiurad da politikurad iyo legitimirebuli, udavod Rrma tradiciuli safuZveli hqonda, romlis Zirebi CineTis Soreul warsulSia saZiebeli, im warsulSi, sadac drakonis wminda xatis tradicia yalib-


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deboda da romelic uZvelesi miTosuri kosmologiuri warmodgenebiT iyo STagonebuli. ,,lun drakonis Cinuri saxelwodebaa. lunis xati Camoyalibda CineTis Rrma miTiur warsulSi.

,,lun (,,drakoni)

Cinuri

ieroglifi

ieroglifi ,,lun-i warmoadgens piqtogramas, romelic gamosaxavs cxovels wagrZelebuli taniT da rqiani TaviT. drakons ukavSirdeba ZvelCinuri swavleba xuT sawyisovan pirvelelementze. ,,Su-ZinSi weria: pirveli dasabamia wyali, meore cecxli, mesame xe, meoTxe liToni da mexuTe miwa, xolo ,,juan-Sis mixedviT, ,,cam Seqmna xuTi pirvelsawyisi da xalxi sargeblobs am sawyisebiT. sakmarisia, warixocos erTi maTgani da sicocxlec Sewydeba (ZvelCinuri... I,1972:9). ontologiur-kosmologiuri xuTjeri klasifikaciis sistemis CamoyalibebasTan erTad yalibdeba warmodgena Sesabamis xuTi ferisa da funqciis xuT lunze _ drakonze: xuan-lun yviTeli; cin-lun lurji; Cin-lun wiTeli; bai-lun TeTri; suan lun Savi. maT Soris mTavari funqcia akisria yviTel xuan-luns, rogorc cis RmerTsa da samyaros centris drakons; agreTve lurj drakons _ cin-luns, rogorc aRmosavleTis simbolos. kosmologiuri da miTologiuri warmodgenebis ganviTarebis Sedegad drakonma mniSvnelovanwilad dakarga kavSiri xTonur samyarosTan, rogorc bnel, qalur -,,in sawyisTan da amieridan naTeli, ciuri, mamakacuri ,,ian Zalis gamoxatulebad iqca. amitom mas xSirad gamosaxaven cis, wvimebis, Rrublebis, Weqa-quxilis ganmgebel frTosan arsebad. ciur luns sabolood mainc ar gauwyvetia kavSiri Tavis sawyis pirvelstiqiasTan. zogierTi gadmocemis mixedviT, drakoni gazafxuls caSi atarebs, xolo Semodgomaze zRvebsa da okeaneebSi brundeba.5 lunis dasabamiseul wylebSi

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dabruneba Seesabameba drakonis da masTan erTad mTeli samyaros zamTris ciklur Zils. ,,Zilis faza yvelaze axlosaa drakonis komogoniur sawyisTan. maradiuli kosmiuri wre-brunvis xati _ ,,kudismWameli drakoni, romelic Tavisi sxeuliT iWers qaosis wylebs da samyaroSi kosmosis mdgomareobas inarCunebs _ ,,mZinare drakonia. drakonis Zilis da gaRviZebis fazebi Zvelma Cinelebma TavianT astrologiur kalendarSic asaxes. amgvarad, wminda drakoni cis da miwis, dasabamiseuli pirvelstiqiebis, mTeli samyaros uzenaes RmerTad dasaxa uZvelesma Cinurma tradiciam, amave tradiciis wiaRSi drakons religuri da saxelmwifoebrivi legitimacia mieniWa. dasavlur-evropuli tradiciisagan gansxvavebiT, aRmosavluri drakoni ar gvevlineba sazarel monstrad, rac Suasaukuneebis warmodgenebis nayofia da amitomac ar icnobs ZvelCinuri tradicia evropuli civilizaciebisTvis damaxasiaTebel ,,veSapTmebrZoleobis motivs. Tumca, Cinur gadmocemebSi mainc Cans urCxulTan (romelic borot, uwmindur drakonad aris gamocxadebuli) brZolis calkeuli SemTxvevebi. vfiqrobT, es SemTxvevebi ZvelCinuri kulturisTvis meoreuli movlenaa da CineTSi induri budizmis gavrcelebas ukavSirdeba (induri kosmogonia Tvisobrivad atarebda urCxulTan brZolis miTologemas, mag. indra da vritra). induri sruliad axali kulturuli informaciis SeWram, romlis wiaRSic axali ,,Cinuri budizmi Camoyalibda, msoflmxedvelobrivi TvalsazrisiT bevri ram Secvala CineTSi. sabolood miviReT urCxulTan brZolis msoflio kulturologiuri suraTi. sruliad samyaro da misi vitaluri Zalebi warimarTa drakonTan sabrZolvelad, mis gasanadgureblad, imisda miuxedavad, warmoadgenda Tu ara urCxuli uzenaesi RmerTis Zalian latentur da imavdroulad, mkveTrad gamoxatul ,,simulirebul formas, romelsac udavod hqonda safuZveli, mogvvlenoda RmerTis ,,WeSmariti pretendentis (platoni) saxeliT. SeniSvnebi:
1. rqiani cxoveli mraval kulturaSi miwis cxovels xarsac (xari-demiurgi) gamoxatavs (Sdr: Cinuri xuan-luni). 2. drakonis rqebi asaxulia ZvelCinur astrologiur warmodgenebSi. drakonis rqebis gamoCena Ramis cargvalze drakonis gaRviZebisa da gazafxulis dadgomis momaswavebelia (arefievi 1994: 119).


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3. monarqiuli Teologiidan ganviTarda termini ,,politikuri Teologia, romlis avtoria romaeli moazrovne markus terencius varo (Zv.w. II-I s.s.). monarqiuli da politikuri Teologia umaRles xelisufals ganixilavs, rogorc RmerTTan identificirebul (metad Tu naklebad) personas, xolo mmarTvelobis aqtebi (koronacia, reformebi, omebi....) gaTanabrebulia demiurgis religiur-ritualur aqtebTan. ZvelCinuri saimperatoro xelisufleba politikuri Teologiis yvelaze naTeli nimuSia. faraonis xelisufleba politikuri Teologiis sistemur saxes iRebs agreTve Zvel egvipteSi exnatonis reformis Sedegad. exnatonis reformis da misi cnobili himnis (,,didi himni atonisadmi) mTavari arsi tradiciiT arsebuli, magram amjerad uprecedento maqsimalizmamde misuli faraonisa da RmerTis sruli identificireba iyo. amaris RvTismsaxurebaSi RmerTi gvevlineba samyaros mbrZaneblad, umaRles xelisuflad, magram Tavis xelisuflebas samyaroSi RvTaeba mxolod mefis saSualebiT axorcielebs. yovelgvari kavSiris damyareba RmerTTan SesaZlebelia mxolod mefis SuamdgomlobiT. es aris ,,didi himnis centraluri azri (akimovi 2007). 4. aRsaniSnavia, rom zogierTi wyaro yviTel drakons aigivebs mzesTan, rac Zvel CineTSi cis kultis winare tradiciaa roca mze iyo uzenaesi RvTaeba. rogorc Cans, mze, rogorc uzenaesi RvTaeba, jous dinastiis (XI-VIII s.s.Cv.w.-mde) periodis CaTvliT dominantobs. es is epoqaa, roca drakonis miTosuri saxe samefo cxovrebaSi iWreba. am periodidan drakons gamosaxaven ufliswulebisa da princesebis samosze, riTac mijnaven imperatorebis samosisagan, romelTac mzis da mTvaris gamosaxulebebi amSvenebs. tan-is dinastiis (618-907) saimperatoro gankargulebiT drakoni mxolod imperators da mis kars ganasaxierebs. am periodidan drakoni nacionaluri simbolo xdeba da misi gamosaxulebebi Zirfesvianad mkvidrdeba rogorc hiraldikaSi, ise _ samefo karis sayofacxovrebo sagnebze (poliakovi 2009:23-33). 5. Cinuri miTologiis Sesaxeb ix: poliakovi, koCerigina 2009:3234; poliakovi, raCkovski 1999:7-9; enciklopedia II, 1998:77; nemirovski 2000:486-518; sinelCenko 1995:459-500; torCinovi 2007; arefievi 1994.

gamoyenebuli literatura: arefievi 1994.., ? , 1999. 4. .84-124. beriaSvili, TorTlaZe 2001 - beriaSvili m., TorTlaZe z., saRvTo da samefo Zalauflebis simboloebi miTologiaSi, kreb. ,,ena da kultura, #2, Tb.2001.

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eliade 1998 - ., . , .1998. eliade 2000 - ., , .2000. eliade, religiis, 2 . . ,.: , 2002. enciklopedia II, 1998 , , II. . 1998. TavdgiriZe 2010 x. TavdgiriZe, zRvis miTosi: semiotika da poetika (statia-leqsikoni),Jurn. ,,semiotika, #8, Tb. 2010. kiknaZe 1979 z.kiknaZe, Suamdinaruli miTologia, Tb.1979. lao Zi 1990 lao-Zi, dao de Zini, Targmani, Sesavali da ganmartebani leri alimonakisa, Tb.1990. nemirovski 2000 _ ., , .2000. poliakovi, raCkovski 1999 _ .. , .., : , : ,1999.18(21). poliakovi, koCerigina 2009 _ .. , .., , , 2,2009. sinelCenko 1995 _ , - ., - 1995. torCinovi 2007 _ ..p, : , .: "-", " ", 2007 . ZvelCinuri... I,1972 _ , 1, .1972. jayeli 2010 _ T. jayeli, rene genonis didi triada, Jurn. ,,afra, kavkasiuri saxli, Tb.2010.

maka laSxia

erosis bunebis gansazRvreba platonis filosofiaSi

ilias saxelmwifo universitetis mecnierebaTa da xelovnebis fakultetis asistent-profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: absurdis dramis esTetika 1999; metyveleba, werili, yofiereba 1999; saTnoebebis arsi da samarTlianobis principi platonis moZRvrebaSi m. beriaSvilTan erTad _2002; sxvisi yofierebis aspeqtebi 2002; bernhard valdenfelsi da misi filosofia 2003. interesTa sfero: Tanamedrove filosofia, semiotika.

platonis dialogi `nadimi~ umniSvnelovanesia imiT, rom aq siyvarulis ideis safuZvelze ganixileba sakiTxi platoniseuli filosofiis cnebis, ufro zustad ki, platonis filosofiaSi dialeqtikuri epistemologiis Sesaxeb1. upirvelesad unda aRvniSnoT, rom dialogis garegnuli forma saSualebas iZleva vimsjeloT iseT sakiTxebze platonis filosofiaSi, rogorebicaa da , erTi mxriv, da da , meore mxriv. es ori forma antagonizmisa, romelic sakmaod naTlad mxolod `nadimSi~ iSleba, warmoadgens platonis filosofiis gasaRebs, amosaval wertils, radgan aq ikveTeba umniSvnelovanesi azri imis Sesaxeb, rom filosofosoba da dialogi platonTan erTmaneTs udris da rom fi-

R. Rehn, Der entzauberte Eros: Symposion, in Platon, Seine Dialoge in der Sicht neuer Forschungen, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1996, . 81
1

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losofosoba siyvarulis RmerTis prioritetia2. sanam platonis dialogis am erTi SexedviT garegnuli formis momawesrigebel elementebs ganvsazRvravdeT, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia platonis filosofiisaTvis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi ideisadmi siyvarulisadmi _ miZRvnili dialogis ganxilva. agaTonis saxlSi imarTeba nadimi, sadac aTenis gamoCenili moqalaqeebi tragediebis dResaswaulze agaTonis gamarjvebas zeimoben. nadimis monawileebi mokle diskusiis Semdeg SeTanxmdebian, rom saRamo filosofiur saubarSi gaataron da isaubron erosze siyvarulis RmerTze. erosis Sesaxeb saxotbo sityvebi warmoTqves fedrosma, pavsaniam, eriqsimaxosma, aristofanem, agaTonma da sokratem. magram mas Semdeg, rac `nadimSi~ sokrates jeri dadgeba, aqos erosi, ikveTeba metad mniSvnelovani punqti platonis filosofiisaTvis. kerZod, sokrates surs WeSmariteba gvamcnos erosis Sesaxeb, radgan siyvarulis RmerTze aqamde ufro lamazi sityvebi moismina da Zalian cota WeSmariteba. platonis mowafe aq mkafiod mianiSnebs, rom filosofiur sakiTxebze msjelobisas aqcenti unda gakeTdes ara aqcidentalur mniSvnelobebze, aramed esencialurze, Tu gvinda problemas srulad CavwvdeT. platonis filosofiis dialeqtikuri xasiaTidan gamomdinare, dialogSi sokrates mier pavsanias, eriqsimaxosis da a. S. mier warmoTqmuli sityvebi ara Tu uariyofa, aramed daniSnulebisamebr gadanawildeba ise, rom ar irRveva mTeli struqtura agebuli izomorfulobis principiT3. ufro konkretulad: marTalia, Cven vmsjelobT sakiTxis ritorikul ganxilvaze, magram es sakiTxi, rogorc sxva sakiTxebi, ase advilad ar wydeba. ritorikuli mxare, pirvel rigSi, siyvarulis RmerTs warmogvidgens rogorc meoreul ideas, rogorc Sualedur RmerTs, romelic samyaroSi harmoniis damkvidrebis garantia; igi samyaroSi gamovlindeba, rogorc keTili saqme, romelic mibaZvis Rirsia, rogorc silamaze,
M. Erler, Platon, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, Die Philosophie der Antike, Bd. 2/2, Basel, 2007, . 198 3 L. brisson, Den Kosmos betrachten, um richtig zu leben: Timaios, in Platon, Seine Dialoge in der Sicht neuer Forschungen, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft,Darmstadt, 1996, . 240-241
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romelsac eswrafian da romelic mxolod grZnobadmidrekilebiTi ki ar aris, aramed Tavad mSvenierebis siyvarulia. amis Semdeg iwyeba sokrates, rogorc WeSmaritebis moyvarulis, gamosvla, romelic Tavidan mxolod am sakiTxTa ufro daxvewasa da gaSlas isaxavs miznad, magram rogorc mogvianebiT gairkveva, mas ufro didi misiac akisria, kerZod, gvaCvenos erosis, siyvarulis RmerTis namdvili arsi, misi absoluturi buneba, romelic yvela dadebiT atributs gulisxmobs, radgan is aris umaRlesi idea, momcveli erTdroulad epistemologiuri, eTikuri, esTetikuri mxareebisa. amdenad, ase iwyeba Sebruneba Temis sofistur-ritorikulidan filosofiuri ganxilvisaken, rac zemoT naxseneb da -s Soris antagonizms warmoadgens. dialog `nadimSi~ sakiTxi da -s Sesaxeb pirdapiri saxiT ar Tematizdeba, es antagonizmi aq wanamZRvradaa mocemuli, ufro metic, is erTgvarad `gaTamaSdeba~ kidec, rac kidev erTxel dialogis maRal mxatvrul doneze miuTiTebs. da -s amgvar inscenirebas miekuTvneba is, rom sokrate: mkafiod ar acxadebs, rom ar surs (an ar SeuZlia) erosis Sesaxeb saxotbo sityvis Tqma; cdilobs agaTonis saubarSi CaTrevas manam, sanam misi rigiT gaTvaliswinebuli dro mova; agaTons moCvenebiTad sTxovs nebarTvas, rom sanam saboloo sityvas warmoTqvamdes erosis Sesaxeb, winaswar ramdenime kiTxva dausvas mas; saboloo sityvas siyvarulis RmerTis Sesaxeb Tavad is ki ar warmoTqvams, aramed gadmogvcems saubars masa da diotimas Soris, da iq, sadac es saubari xangrZliv monologebs Seicavs, laparakobs isev da isev diotima da ara _ sokrate4. amgvarad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom platonisaTvis filosofosobis mxolod garegnuli forma ki ar aris, aramed, piriqiT, swored aris mis mier filosofosobis integraciul momentad miCneuli. ufro metic, pla
4

. R. Rehn, Der entzauberte Eros: Symposion, in Platon, Seine Dialoge in der Sicht neuer Forschungen, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft,Darmstadt, 1996, . 81-95

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tonisTvis anu dialogi da filosofia erTmaneTs udris5. axla rac Seexeba meore antagonizms -- da -s. ritorikis Canacvleba filosofiiT dialogSi ara mxolod kvlevis meTodis Secvlas niSnavs, aramed kiTxvis dasmis sxvagvar aqcentirebasac kvlevis mimarTulebaSi. amis maCvenebelia mokle saubari sokratesa da agaTons Soris, romelic agaTonis mier erosis Sesaxeb saxotbo sityvis dasrulebis Semdeg gaimarTeba. sokrate ambobs, rom `axla Sevigne raoden sasircxvilo viyavi, roca dageTanxmeT, TqvenTan erTad meqo erosi da amayad ganvacxade, `erotikis~ garda amqveynad ara gamegeba-meTqi, Tumca isic ki ar vici, rogor Sevaqo vinme. sibriyve Cemi, me megona, roca vinmes aqeb, mTavaria simarTle ilaparako masze, xolo Semdeg aqedan gamoyo is, rac lamazi da arsebiTia da daskvnis saWiro forma misce-meTqi mas.~ aqedan naTlad ikveTeba, rom sokrates araferi esmis erosis Sesaxeb aqamde warmoTqmuli sityvebidan, rom sinamdvileSi mas ar ainteresebs, rasac amboben erosis Sesaxeb, lamazad aris Tu ara naTqvami. misTvis ufro mniSvnelovania is, rom rasac amboben, WeSmaritia Tu mcdari, radgan filosofiisaTvis ufro mniSvnelovania mocemuli sakamaTo sagani da ara forma, romlis saSualebiTac azri gamoiTqmis sakvlev saganze. es dapirispireba, romelic wiTel zolad gasdevs platonis mTel filosofias, gamoiTqmis - iT da romelic aq sofistur ideals warmoadgens da romlis gamomTqmeladac gorgias mowafe agaToni gvevlineba da iT, romelic filosofiuri idealia da romelsac dialogSi sokrate ganasaxierebs6. rac unda ucnaurad gveCvenebodes, sokrates pozicia, arafrad Caagdos mis win gamomsvlel aTenis moqalaqeTa saxotbo sityvebi, mTeli dialogis naxevarze mets Seadgens. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom platons amiT surda dialogSi warmoeCina erosis Sesaxeb gavrcelebul TvalsazrisTa farTo speqtri, ris
D. Frede, Platon, Philebos, Uebersetzung und Kommentar, Goettingen, 1997, . 190 platoni, nadimi, 198 b 6 - d 4 6 H. Ottmann, Geschichte des politischen Denkens, Die Griechen, Von Platon bis zum Hellenismus, Bd. Sttutgart, Weimar, 2001, . 54-57
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Semdegac mas saSualeba miecemoda gamoekveTa miseuli koncefcia erosis filosofiuri cnebis Sesaxeb. yovel SemTxvevaSi, daskvna erTia: es ori saxis antagonizmi arsebiTad gansazRvravs platonis mTel filosofias, Tumca dapirispirebebi sxvadasxva dialogSi kvlevis sagnad ki araa mocemuli, aramed wanamZRvrad, formad imisaTvis, rom WeSmaritebas vwvdeT. am ori saxis antagonizmis gaTvaliswinebiT platonis filosofiaSi ikveTeba meTodi, romlis saSualebiTac ganxorcielebuli iqneba platoniseuli ideali _ sakvlevi sagnis Tu ideis WeSmariti bunebis gageba mxolod dialogis formiT. `nadimis filosofiurad mniSvnelovani nawili SegviZlia or monakveTad davyoT. pirvelia saubari sokratesa da agaTons Soris da meore _ sokrates monaTxrobi mantinel wminda qalTan _ diotimasTan misi Sexvedris Sesaxeb. amdenad, dialogi `nadimi gaiyo sul sam nawilad: pirvelSi warmodgenili sofisturi xasiaTis ritorikuli sityvebi erosis Sesaxeb sokrates mier ugulvebelyofili iqneba im azriT, rom mas surda pasuxi mieRo erosis WeSmariti bunebis kvlevis Sesaxeb da ara ubralod _ qeba, xotba. dialogis meore nawilSi ukve aSkarad Secvlilia sakvlevi meTodi da mimarTuleba: sityvebis adgilas aq Semodis mokle xasiaTis saubari, dialogi da lamazad Tqma icvleba WeSmaritebis TqmiT. es monakveTi dialogis umniSvnelovanes punqts Seadgens, radgan swored am nawils akisria amocana, saaSkaroze gamoitanos erosis sisusteebi da dasaxos gza erosis platoniseuli gagebis ZiriTadi niSnebis gagebisaTvis. amis damadasturebelia sokrates mosazreba, romelsac is agaTonTan saubarSi axmovanebs: Tu erosi raRacis siyvarulia da Tuki eross surs is, rasac is eswrafis, maSin erosi eswrafis imas, rasac ar flobs. dabolos, dialogis mesame monakveTi, romelic, rogorc ukve vTqviT, sokratesa da mantineli wminda qalis saubars gadmogvcems, safuZvels aclis erosis Sesaxeb gavrcelebul Tvalsazrisebs da eross, rogorc siyvarulis RmerTs, warmogvidgens, rogorc naklovanebas, romelic swored am naklovanebiTaa mdida-

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ri da rogorc saSualo arsebas, romelic sxva araferia, Tu ara filosofosi.7 * * * siyvarulis ideis ganxilvasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxTa gacnobiereba, ra Tqma unda, mxolod dialog `nadimis~ safuZvelze SeuZlebelia. erosis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb dasmuli kiTxva saSualebas mogvcems, ufro mkveTri zRvari gavavloT erosis Sesaxeb ritorikul-sofistur msjelobasa da erosis filosofiuri cnebis dadgenas Soris. nadimSi bevri laparakobs erosis warmomavlobaze. fedrosi Tavis sityvaSi erosis Sesaxeb hesiodes moiSveliebs, romlis Tanaxmadac, `pirvelad qmnul iqnao qaosi, Semdeg ki vrcelkalTiani dedamiwa, ukvdavi fuZe yvela saganTa arsebulTa da siyvaruli~. amdenad, hesiodes Tanaxmad, pirvelad iSva miwa da erosi. parmenide ki pirvelSesaqmisaTvis gveubneba, rom `ukvdavTa Soris man erosi Seqmna pirvelad.~ erosisaTvis ara mxolod pirveladoba da uxucesobaa damaxasiaTebeli, aramed isic, rom is, rogorc siyvarulis RmerTi, mSvenierebisaken swrafvaa, romelic RmerTebs Soris urTierTobas awesrigebs. agaTonis saxotbo sityva erosis Sesaxeb mxolod amiT ar amoiwureba, radgan arsebobs ori erosi, Sesabamisad imisa, rom arsebobs ori afrodite: ciuri da miwieri. `afrodite rom daibada, nadimi gamarTes RmerTebma, da maT Soris iyo porosic, metidas vaJi. nadimis dasasruls, Cveulebisamebr, mowyalebis saTxovnad modga penia da karTan aituza. da, aha, neqtariT galeSili radgan Rvino jer kidev ar iyo maSin porosi gamovida zevsis walkotSi da nasvams CaeZina. maSin peniam, Tavisi umweobiT aRZrulma, gadawyvita muclad eRo porosisagan, gverdiT miuwva mas da ase Caisaxa erosi. da raki afro
. M. Erler, Platon, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, Die Philosophie der Antike, Bd. 2/2, Basel, 2007, . 192-201 platoni, nadimi, 197b `RmerTebs Soris wesrigic imitom damyarda, rom siyvaruli moevlina maT, ra Tqma unda, mSvenierebis siyvaruli, radgan ar arsebobs siyvaruli simaxinjisa. manamde ki, mravali saSineli ram xdeboda ukvdavTa Soris, radgan gadmocemiT, ananke mefobda maSin, xolo roca es RmerTi iSva, mSvenierebisadmi swrafvam yvela sikeTes aziara, rogorc ukvdavni, ise mokvdavnic~.
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dites dabadebis dRes Caisaxa, misi ganuyreli mxlebeli da msaxuria igi. egec ar iyos, erosi Tavisi bunebiT Tayvanismcemelia yovelive mSvenierisa, afrodite ki mSvenieria. radgan porosisa da penias vaJia, amitom es daewera bedad: jer erTi, miwyiv upovaria da nazi da keTili ki ar aris, rogorc es mravals hgonia, aramed uxeSia, usufTao, uxamuri da miusafari. miwaze goravs SiSvel-titveli da ca xuravs sabnad WiSkrebTan da gzebze gaSxlarTuls. raki dedis bunebasTan wilnayaria, gaWirveba gamudmebiT Tana sdevs mas, xolo, meores mxriv, raki misTvis mamis bunebac araa ucxo, gamudmebiT mSvenieris da keTilis ZiebaSia mamaci, gambedavi, SemmarTebeli da nadirobis didi trfiali, gamudmebiT cbierebis qsels xlarTavs, gonierebas etrfis, eZebs da Zalac Seswevs misi povnisa da mTelis arsebiT Tayvans scems sibrZnes eg didi grZneuli, mogvi da sofisti~ (203 b), vkiTxulobT `nadimSi.~ am strofebSi aSkarad SeiZleba im triadis danaxva, romelic aq amgvaradaa warmodgenili: mama porosi, deda penia da Svili erosi da, romelic platonis `timeosSi~ platonis kosmologiis arsebiT punqtebs Semdegnairad eTanadeba: demiurgosi, romelic qmnis, materia, romliTac iqmneba, da samyaro, maTi Semoqmedebis Sedegi8. amdenad, zemoT aRwerili paralelizmis Tanaxmad, erosi aris demiurgosis Semoqmedebis Sedegi, demiurgosis ukvdavebis wyaro, samyaros suli, romelic demiurgosma qaoss STabera da kosmosad aqcia igi. erosi is Zalaa, romelic Tavisi winaaRmdegobrivi bunebis wyalobiT: 1. RmerTTa urTierTobas awesrigebs; 2. saSualo arsebaa RmerTTa da kacTa Soris; 3. is saTnoebaa, romlis Semecnebac brZenTa mizans warmoadgens; 4. dabolos, is siyvarulia, romelic mizezia adamianTa erTmaneTisadmi ltolvisa, erTad ganazrebisa anu dialogisa; nuTu yovelive arsebuls `buneba qmnis, romelic TviTneburi mizezis ZaliT, gonebis winaaRmdegobis gareSe Sobs yvelafers? Tu, piriqiT, vaRiarebT, rom es mizezi mosilia gonebiT da RvTiuri codniT, rac RmerTisagan iRebs dasabams?~
ix. amis Sesaxeb M. Erler, Platon, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, Die Philosophie der Antike, Bd. 2/2, Basel, 2007, . 264-265 platoni, sofisti, 265 c d
8

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am kiTxvaze pasuxs srulad da amomwuravad iZleva platonis erT-erTi Sedevri `timeosi.~ samyaros Semoqmedi demiurgosi, anu kosmiuri goneba _ inteligibelur pirvelnimuSTa ideaTa mixedviT qmnis samyaros; da amitom samyaro, rogorc idealuri sikeTisa da mSvenierebis srulqmnili xati, Tavadac keTili, mSvenieri da gonieria9. `keTilma, Surisagan Tavisufalma~ demiurgosma moisurva, rom `yvelaferi keTili yofiliyo da, SeZlebisamebr, ara yofiliyo ra ukeTuri, RmerTma Seiwynara yovelive xiluli, rac uZravad ki ar ego, aramed uwesrigod da uTavbolod iZvroda; da uwesrigobidan wesrigad moaqcia igi.~ amis Semdeg mowesrigebul samyaros Semoqmedi gonierebis savaned aqcevs: `gonierebis savane SeuZlebelia sxva rame iyos, garda sulisa. am azris Tanaxmad, man goniereba Caunerga suls, suli ki Caudga sxeuls da amnairad aago samyaro, raTa Seeqmna umSvenieresi da, Tavisi bunebiT, yovlis umjobesi qmnileba.~ suls, iseve, rogorc adamianSi, mTel samyaroSic dominanturi funqcia akisria, is aris yovlismacocxlebeli da mamoZravebeli sawyisi: `RmerTma upirvelesad da uxucesad Seqmna suli, rogorc sxeulis meufe da mbrZanebeli, SeqniT ki Semdegnairad da Semdegi nawilebisgan Seqmna: dauyofeli da miwyiv igiveobrivi arsisagan, iseve rogorc imisagan, rac sxeulebSi dayofas ganicdis, man Serevis gziT Seqmna mesame, Sualeduri saxe arsisa, romelic wilnayaria rogorc igiveobrivis, ise sxvis bunebasTanac, da dauyofadsa da sxeulebSi dayofads Soris daamkvidra igi. mere aiRo samive arsi da erT mTlian idead Seazava isini, aiZula ra Serevis mimarT urCi buneba sxvisa Serwymoda igiveobrivs. Semdeg man Seuzava pirveli ori buneba mesamisas da samidan Seqmna erTi, xolo es mTeli, Tavis mxriv, saTanado raodenobis nawilebad dahyo, romelTaganac TiToeuli igiveobrivis, sxvisa da Sualeduri arsis nazavia.~ swored amgvarad Seqmnili sulis meSveo
9

M. Baltes, , (Platon, Timaios 28b7). Ist die welt real entstanden oder nicht? in: K.A. Algra, P. W. Van der Horst, D. T. Runia (ed): Pollyhistor. Studies in the history and historiography in honor of J. Mansfeld, Leiden 1996, gv. 9091 platoni, timeosi 30a b platoni, timeosi 30b c platoni, timeosi, 34c - 35a


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biT ukavSirdeba goneba Seqmnil samyaros, materias. RmerTma sulis SigniT ganfina yovelive sxeulebrivi da harmoniulad miusadaga erTmaneTs orive maTganis Suaguli. sami nawilisagan igiveobrivis bunebis, sxvis bunebisa da mesame arsisagan Semdgari suli saganTan Sexebisas sityviT acxadebs, Tu ris mimarTaa sagani igeveobrivi da ris mimarT sxva. sulis mier warmoTqmuli `sityva TviTmoZrav samyaroSi uxmo da mdumarea... igi Tanabrad WeSmaritia miuxedavad imisa, Tu ras exeba, igiveobrivsa Tu sxvas.~ * * * im mtkicebiT, rom erosi arc mSvenieria da arc keTili, mTavrdeba sokrates saubari agaTonTan da iwyeba diotimas sityva erosis WeSmariti bunebis Sesaxeb. es saubari, romlis moulodneli Sedegebi safuZvels aclis erosis im xats, saxotbo sityvebSi rom iyo warmodgenili, platoniseul erosis cnebas samgvarad hfens naTels: 1. erosi Tavisi bunebiT intencionaluria, is yovelTvis moiTxovs obieqts, romelsac miemarTeba 2. erosi aris swrafva, survili. es aspeqti erosis qebis aristofaneseul sityvaSi vlindeba. es aris platonuri sokrate, romelic siyvarulis RmerTis erotikul mxares ufro met mniSvnelobas aZlevs 3. saSualeba gvaqvs vaRiaroT, rom erosis platoniseuli cneba dinamikuri konceptia. visac uyvars, ar flobs imas, rac uyvars, aramed eswrafis mas. maSasadame, siyvarulis mizezi naklia. is faqti, rom erosi ar aris mSvenieri, saSualebas aZlevs mas, rogorc es teqstSia naTqvami, inadiros yvelanair mSvenierebaze. erosi ar aris mSvenieri, is aris arseba mniSvnelovani nakliT, rac upirveles yovlisa, sokratesa da agaTons Soris saubarSi gamovlinda. magram kiTxva, ra aris RmerTi Tavisi bunebiT, Tu is arc mSvenieria da arc keTili, Riad rCeba. es diotimas monaTxrobis pirvelive monakveTis Temas Seadgens. es monakveTi, romelsac, arc Tu SemTxveviT, dialogis Sua nawili uWiravs,

platoni, timeosi, 37a b

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Seadgens nadimis ZiriTad nawils. formalurad aq laparakia sokrates moxsenebaze logosze, erosis Sesaxeb, romlis Sesaxebac man mantineli wminda qalisagan diotimasagan mosimina. logosi aq umTavresad iTargmneba, rogorc warmoTqmuli sityva, rac mTlad gamarTlebuli ar unda iyos, radgan faqtobrivad, rogorc teqsti gviCvenebs, sokrate gadmogvcems ara mantineli wmindanis sityvas, aramed Tavis moZRvrebas erosis Sesaxeb. sokrate ki ar malavs diotimas naambobs, aramed mas surs, is saubarSi qveteqstis saxiT moaqcios, radgan monaTxrobis mTavar personaJad isev da isev diotima gamoCndes da ara _ sokrate. amrigad, diotimas sityva SeiZleba ganvixiloT ara mxolod Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT, aramed formalur-meToduri TvalsazrisiTac, rac aSkara miniSnebaa imisa, rom im nawilSic ki, sadac mantineli wmindani erosis Sesaxeb did saidumlos gvamcnobs, filosofia dialogsa da dialeqtikas moiTxovs10. erosi, rogorc man warmoaCina sakuTari Tavi, arc mSvenieria da arc keTili, arc ugvani da arc boroti, aramed `raRac maT Soris~. is, rom erosi mSvenieris da ugvanis, kargis da cudis, gonieris da sulelis da a. S. Sorisaa, Cans diotimas saubridan. erosi Caisaxa Wkviani porosisa da upovari da umecari peniasagan. amitom erosi, Tavisi bunebiT, arc RmerTia da arc adamiani, is unda iyos demoni Semdegi garemoebebis gamo: `jer erTi miwyiv upovaria, da nazi da keTili ki ar aris, rogorc es mravals hgonia, aramed uxeSia, usufTao, uxamuri da miusafari. miwaze goravs SiSvel-titveli da ca xuravs sabnad _ WiSkrebTan da gzebze gaSxlarTuls. raki dedis bunebasTan wilnayaria, gaWirveba gamudmebiT Tana sdevs mas. xolo meores mxriv, raki misTvis mamis bunebac araa ucxo, gamudmebiT mSvenieris da keTilis ZiebaSia mamaci, gambedavi, SemarTuli da nadirobis didi trfiali, gamudmebiT cbierebis qsels xlarTavs, gonierebas etrfis, eZebs da Zalac Seswevs misi povnisa da mTelis arsebiT Tayvans scems sibrZnes eg didi grZneuli, mogvi da sofisti.~
F. M. Cornford, The doctrine of Eros in Plato's Symposium, in: F. M. C: The unwritten philosophy and other essays, ed. by W. K. C. Guthrie, Cambrdge, 1950, gv. 78-79 platoni, nadimi, 203c6-d8
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xati, romelsac diotima erosisagan qmnis, orfenovania. erosi, erTi mxriv, arasrulyofili arsebaa. is arc lamazia da arc keTili, arc brZeni, aramed mSvenierebas, WeSmaritebas da sikeTes ganasaxierebs. meore mxriv, erosi Tavs iCens naklSi (esec siyvarulis RmerTis siZlierea). imis gamo, rom erosi or ukiduresobas Soris _ `mSvenieri-ugvani~, `brZeni-suleli~ da `keTili-boroti~ _ dgas, is sakuTar Tavs warmoaCens, rogorc potenciurad filosofiuri arseba, radgan, rogorc diotima ambobs: `arc erT RmerTTagans ar uyvars sibrZne da ar eswrafis sibrZnis moxveWas. radgan isedac brZenia igi, brZens ar uyvars sibrZne. Tavis mxriv, umecarsac ar uyvars sibrZne da arc cdilobs sibrZnis moxveWas, radgan umecreba imis umecrebaa, rom Tumca mSvenierebac aklia, sikeTec da sibrZnec, Tavisi TaviT savsebiT kmayofilia mainc. da raki hgonia yvelaferi maqvso, arc iltvis misken, rac, misi azriT, mas ar aklia.~ platonuri erosi, gansxvavebiT RmerTebisagan, romlebic sibrZnesa da mSvenierebas floben, nakliT mdidaria da, gansxvavebiT ugunurebisagan, romlebic arc erTs ar eswrafian, eross SeuZlia sibrZnesa da mSvenierebas eswrafodes, SeuZlia filosofosoba da siyvaruli. diotimas mier daxasiaTebuli aseTi erosi sokrates prototipia, radganac swored sokrate da mxolod is cdilobs `sxvasTan dialogSi,~ `sxvasTan erTad~ WeSmariti logosi Tavis uflebebSi aRadginos. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, nadimSi erosi vlindeba rogorc Zala, romelsac adamianebi erTmaneTTan mihyavs da maT saSualebas aZlevs erTmaneTTan filosofiurad isaubron. platonisTvis ki yvelaferi es sabolood Semdegs niSnavs: erToblivad kamaTi saukeTesoa logosis Sesaxeb11. amrigad, erosis, rogorc siyvrulis RmerTis, mTavari Tviseba mis filosofiurobaSia. sabolood, Cven SegviZlia erosis Sesaxeb ZiriTadi SeniSvnebi ase CamovayaliboT: 1. diotimas erosi (realurad, platonis) tradiciuli berZnuli erosis xatis sapirispiroa. es erosi
11

platoni, nadimi,204a1-7 B. Mojsisch, Dialektik und Dialog: Politeia, Theaitetos, Sophistes in: Platon, Seine Dialoge in der Sicht neuer Forschungen, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft,Darmstadt, 1996, . 177-178

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sadmi miZRvnilma sityvebma gamoavlines, romlebic agaTonma da misma megobrebma warmoTqves. diotimaseuli erosi is RmerTi ar aris, romelic lamazi garegnobiT, momxiblaobiTa da axalgazrduli ZaliTaa gamorCeuli, aramed isaa demonuri arseba, romelic Tavisi naklis meSveobiT (mSveniereba rom aklia!), uxeSi da uxamuri garegnobiT, pirvel Tvalsazriss ufro uaryofs, vidre izidavs. 2. erosi Tavisi bunebiT filosofosia, radgan moicavs siyvaruls mSvenierebisadmi, sibrZnesac da mecnierebasac, sibrZne da ganswavluloba ki, platonis mixedviT, umSvenieresia sazogadod, radgan mSvenierebis idea esTetikuris sferoSi ontologiuri sikeTis ideis Tanafardia 3. visac, msgavsad erosisa, arc WeSmariteba aqvs da arc mSveniereba, aris filosofosi da moyvaruli. amas isic unda davumatoT, rom es erosi Tavis nakls Tavadve acnobierebs. am cnobierebis gaRviZeba aris sokratul-platonuri meTodis mTavari mizani, romelsac surs arsebaTa codnis destruqciis meSveobiT umaRles codnasa da sakuTar umecrebas miaRwios da amiT SesaZlebeli gaxados namdvili codnisaken miswrafeba. `nadimSi~ gamoTqmuli formula, rom erosi aris siyvaruli mSvenierebisadmi, sakmaod formaluri da gacveTili maxasiaTebelia erosis bunebisa. is iseTi zogadia, rom mraval kiTxvas upasuxod tovebs. magaliTad: ra igulisxmeba mSvenierebaSi? ras niSnavs siyvaruli? ra aris aseTi siyvarulis mizezi? saiTken mivyavarT amgvar siyvaruls? es is kiTxvebia, romlebic sokrates diotimasTan saubris bolo nawilSi ikveTeba, swored im nawilSi, romelic platonuri erosis cnebis uarsebiTes elementebs Seicavs. roca sokrate diotimas ekiTxeba adamianebisTvis siyvarulis sargeblianobis Sesaxeb, diotima amxels, Tu ra aris erosis mSvenierebisaken ltolvis mizezi. erosi mieltvis mSvenierebas, radgan mas mSvenierebaSi surs dabadeba da Casaxva, radgan is Tavis ukvdavebisaken swrafvas gulisxmobs. rogor SeiZleba gavigoT mantineli wmindanis winaswarmetyveluri sityva? platonisTvis arsebobs bunebrivi midrekileba adamianisa, grZnobad mocemulTan ar SeCerdes, aramed kvlav ganagrZos kiT-


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xvebis dasma misi pirveladi xatis Sesaxeb12. ras emyareba es midrekileba? amas gulisxmobs platonis anamnezisis Teoria: calkeuli mSvenierebis Wvretisas suli moigonebs im WeSmarit mSvenierebas, rac man erTxel ukve ixila. suli Semecnebis aqtSi imis realizebas axdens, rom daafiqsiros, calkeuli rogor mimarTebas avlens srulyofil zogadTan, pirvelxatTan, gvarTan anu am SemTxvevaSi, ideasTan, romelic empiriulad araa gaSualebuli da romlis Sesaxebac suls mudam aqvs codna. Tumca yoveli suli flobs pirvelad codnas ideebisa, magram cota maTgani aRwevs aRmasvlas calkeuli sagnebidan am sagnis zogad formamde, radgan, rogorc fedrosSia naTqvami: `imis gaxseneba (sulis meSveobiT ideebs rom Wvretda, sanam sxeuli eqneboda) sulisTvis advili araa, radgan erTni mxolod Zalian cota xani Wvretdnen imas, rac iq aris, meoreni ki, Camovardnen ra aq, miemarTnen usamarTlobisadmi ucxo gavleniT da daiviwyes TavianTi siwminde, rac odesRac ixiles. Zalian cotaa iseTi sulebi, romelTac mogonebis Zlieri unari SeswevT.~ gza, romlebsac sagnebidan ideebisaken mivyavarT, ioli araa. amisTvis aucilebelia damxmare. `nadimSi~ naTqvamia, rom am gzaze saukeTeso Tanamgzavri erosia. mokvdavi buneba eZebs `WeSmaritebas, rom mudam iyos da ukvdavi iyos~, ukvdavebas ki mokvdavi arseba aRwevs mxolod Casaxvis saSualebiT, axlis dabadebiT, romelic rogorc misi nawili, ganagrZobs arsebobas. diotima ambobs: mamakacebs sxeulebrivad surT Casaxva, amitom mimarTaven isini qalebs da bavSvebis meSveobiT cdiloben ukvdavebis garkveuli saxe daimkvidron. xolo isini, romelTa sulebic floben ganayofierebis Zalas, Casaxaven ukvdav qmnilebebs, sibrZnes, saTnoebas da xelovnebis ukvdav nawarmoebebs da amiT arideben TavianT saxelebs daviwyebas. aSkaraa dinamikuri cnebebis _ `Casaxva mSvenierebaSi~, `sibrZnis, saTnoebis da xelovnebis ukvdavi qmnilebebi~ -- msgavseba platonuri filosofiis eTikur, esTetikur da SemecnebisTeoriul urTierTdakavSirebul aspeqtebTan. aqedan gamomdinare, ukve SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom platonis filosofia maievtikaa, rogorc dabadebis xelisSemwyobi xelovneba. es gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans
A. Graeser, Probleme der platonischen Seelenteilungslehre, Ueberlegungen zur Frage der Kontinuitaet im Denken Platons, Muenchen, 1969, gv.64-67
12

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mogvianebiT Seqmnil dialogSi `Teeteti~. sokrate am dialogSi xazs usvams, rom filosofiis amocanaa, dabadebaSi daexmaros imas, visi sulic codniT aris damZimebuli. filosofias, platonis azriT, sapirispirod sofistikisa, saqme aqvs ara mxolod codnis gaSualebasTan anu gadacemasTan, aramed misi mizani is aris, rom sibrZnis dabadebaSi, mopovebaSi, aRmoCenaSi daexmaros meores, gaacnobierebinos adamians sakuTari codna, romelsac is, platonis anamnezisis Teoriis mixedviT, latenturad atarebs. diotima Zalian lamazad aRwers filosofiuri erosis ltolvas: `da ra moiwifeba is, vinc Tavis RvTisboZebul sulSi siyrmiTganve atarebs am saTnoebaTa Tesls, Sobis wyurvili aatokebs mas da daZrwis igi da daeZebs mSvenierebas, raTa Svas masSi, radgan maxinjSi ar ZaluZs Soba. da agre orsuls mSvenieri sxeuli ufro xiblavs, vidre maxinji, xolo roca mSvenier sxeulSi sulsac mSveniers da keTilSobils hpovebs, igi mTlianad ixibleba am ormagi mSvenierebiT. amgvari arsebis winaSe wamsve enamzeobas iwyebs igi siqvelisaTvis da uxsnis, rogori unda iyos, risTvis unda muSaobdes keTili kaci. erTi sityviT, naTels hfens mas, radgan, Cemi azriT, mxolod mSvenierTan siaxlovisa da urTierTobis wyalobiT Sobs igi mas, rasac amdenxans Canasaxis saxiT daatarebda. miwyiv Tavisi satrfosaTvis fiqrobs igi, mis gverdiT Tu misgan Sors myofi. isini erTad zrdian TavianT naSierT da maT Soris ufro didi erTsulovneba da megobroba isadgurebs, vidre ojaxis dedasa da mamas Soris, radgan ufro mSvenier da ukvdav SvilTa siyvaruli aerTebs maT.~ azrovneba platonisTvis, rogorc man es `TeetetSi~ da `sofistSi~ warmoaCina, aris Sinagani dialogi, uxmo saubari sulisa. Sinagani azrovnebis dialeqtikuri struqtura TavisTavad dialogis garegan mxareSic airekleba. da mainc, garegan dialogs emateba is, rac sakuTriv azrovnebisTvis moucilebelia (sxvisi, meore adamianis) eWvis Semtani, Semsworebeli, SemkiTxveli da damTanxmebeli Tanaazrovneba. dialogi `nadimi~ ki zemoTTqmuls kargad gviCvenebs siyvarulisa da filosofiis erTmaneTTan damakavSirebel niSanze miTiTebiT. radgan platonis filosofia, rogorc sokratuli dialogis gagrZeleba, ganisazRvreba, rogorc TviTmyofadi dialeqtika,

platoni, nadimi, 209d3-210c8


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rogorc Semecnebis dialeqtikuri meTodi, romelic arsobriv yofnaze da sikeTis ideazea mimarTuli,13 dialogi platonTan garegnuli forma ki ar aris, aramed piriqiT, is aris misi filosofiis integraciul momentad aRiarebuli. dialogi, igive _ dialoguri azrovneba, platonTan is formaa, romelSic vlindeba xuTi umniSvnelovanesi gvari (moZraoba, uZraoba, igiveoba, gansxvavebuloba da myofi), maTi warmoSoba da urTierTmimarTeba, amdenad am umniSvnelovanesi gvarebis urTierTkavSiri badebs azrovnebas, romelic sxva araferia, Tu ara _ sulis saubari Tavis TavTan. azrovneba, iseve rogorc sxva ZiriTadi gvarebi gansxvavebulobis gvaris saSualebiT danarCeni gvarebisagan gansxvavebulia, magram, amave dros _ maTTan mimarTebaSi myofi. amrigad, dialogurma azrovnebam Tavisi Tavi umniSvnelovanes gvarad daafuZna.14 amdenad, ZiriTadi gvarebi, romlebic dialogSi, rogorc aseTSi, vlindeba, saSualebas gvaZlevs, gaviazroT iseTi mniSvnelovani ideebi, rogorebicaa siyvaruli, sikeTe da a. S. msgavsi dawanamZRvrebis Semdeg vixilavT siyvarulis ideas, romelsac platoni `nadimSi~ ganixilavs da romelic xatia filosofosis svlisa mSvenierebidan sikeTis ideamde. dialogi `nadimi~ pirobiTad or nawilad SegviZlia warmovidginoT: 1. dialogis ritorikuli nawili, romelSic eross xotbas asxamen aTenis gamoCenili moqalaqeebi da 2. dialogis filosofiuri nawili, romelic moicavs saubrebs agaTonsa da sokrates Soris da sokratesa da mantinel wmindan qals Soris da romelSic ukve aSkarad ikveTeba platonis mosazreba siyvarulis ideis Sesaxeb. erosis, rogorc siyvarulis RmerTis, warmomavloba platonTan miTis saSualebiT ixsneba. afrodites dabadebis dReze Casaxuli erosisaTvis orbunebovnebaa damaxasiaTebeli. misi es Tviseba ara mxolod mSoblebis warmomavlobiT ganisazRvreba, aramed afrodites gamoc: radganac arsebobs ori afrodite, arsebobs ori erosi: ciuri da miwieri. siyvarulis RmerTis es orbunebovneba isev da isev dialeqtikis saSualebiT ixsneba. erosi aris swrafva, oRond swrafva mSvenierebisaken, radgan ar
13

B. Mojsisch, Dialektik und Dialog: Politeia, Theaitetos, Sophistes in: Platon, Seine Dialoge in der Sicht neuer Forschungen, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft,Darmstadt, 1996, . 179 14 iqve

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SeiZleba eswrafode ugvans. magram eswrafian imas, rasac ar floben. amrigad, erosi ar aris mSvenieri, magram is arc ugvania, aramed raRac saSualo maT Soris ( ), msgavsad amisa, erosi saSualoa codnasa da arcodnas Soris, sikeTesa da borotebas Soris, igi arc RmerTia da arc mokvdavi, aramed isev saSualo arseba maT Soris, demoni. amdenad, erosi anu siyvaruli, naklovanebaa, imis survilia, rasac ar vflobT. erosi eswrafis mSvenierebas da Tan mudmivad, radgan mSvenierebis ideis wvdoma erTjeradi aqtiT ar xasiaTdeba. es aris procesi TavisTavadi ideis wvdomisa. vinaidan eross obieqtad mSveniereba aqvs, amdenad aris is filosofosi. siyvaruli mSvenierebisa moicavs sam safexurs: 1. siyvaruli sxeulebrivi mSvenierebisa, 2. siyvaruli sulis mSvenierebisa da 3. siyvaruli codnis mSvenierebisa, absoluturi mSvenierebisa anu siyvaruli ideisa, romliskenac swrafvis gza Semecnebaze gadis. absoluturi mSveniereba, rogorc ukve vTqviT, sxva araferia, Tu ara TavisTavadi sikeTe. amrigad, siyvaruli, romelic mSvenierebis siyvarulia, Tavis ganxorcielebas hpovebs absolutur sikeTeSi anu sikeTis ideaSi. magram aq sxva problemebi iCens Tavs: Tu erosi ar aris mSvenieri, mSveniereba ki igive sikeTea, maSin erosi arc keTili yofila da saerTod, ras niSnavs is, rom erosi aris saSualo arsebaa mSvenierebasa da ugvans, sikeTesa da borotebas, codnasa da arcodnas Soris. `nadimSi~ vkiTxulobT, rom siyvaruli, romelsac adgili aqvs codnasa da arcodnas Soris, aris filosofosi. es ukanaskneli ki, arsobrivad, azrovnebaa da sxva araferi, azrovneba ki aris sulis saubari (dialogi) Tavis TavTan. amrigad, azrovneba, igive dialoguri azrovneba, , aris unificireba ideebisa (ZiriTadi ideebis CaTvliT), es aris aqti, romelic daviwyebulis gaxsenebaSi mdgomareobs da Tan mudmivad, procesualurad, radgan dialoguri azrovneba ar SeiZleba statikurad Sedgenili codniT ganvsazRvroT. siyvarulis ideis gaazrebiT mivdivarT absolutur mSvenierebamde anu sikeTemde, magram misi arsi mxolod SemecnebiT ar amoiwureba. sikeTe, rogorc aseTi, Tavis ganxorcielebas poulobs sazogadoebaSi, saxelmwifoSi, radganac platoniseul polisSi adamianis mizani sikeTis qmnaSia. gamodis, rom erosi, rogorc siyvaruli, adamianebis erTmaneTisadmi ltolvaa, erosi, rogorc sikeTe sazogadoebis formirebis saukeTeso saSualebaa, erosi, rogorc filo-


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sofosi sibrZnis wvdomaa, erosi, rogorc RmerTi kosmosSi harmoniis Semotanis, adamianTa da RmerTTa momrigebeli pirobaa. zemoTTqmuli ki saSualebas gvaZlevs, platonis filosofiaSi izomorfizmis principze visaubroT. kerZod: platoni laparakobs ara `dialeqtikosTa inteleqtualur erTianobaze, aramed sxvis moucileblobadobaze filosofiuri Semecnebis procesSi. mxolod sxvis wyalobiT, kerZod ki, mSvenierebis, wyalobiTaa SesaZlebelia filosofosoba.~ sabolood, diotima eross axasiaTebs, rogorc `ukanasknel da umaRles~ saidumlos, rogorc sulis aRmasvlas Tavad mSvenierebis saWvretad. `radgan WeSmariti gza siyvarulisa, romelzec TviTon midis an moZRvars misdevs, esaa gza mSvenier saganTan umaRles mSvenierebaze TandaTanobiTi gadasvlisa da TiTqos safexurebs mihyvebao kibisas, erTi mSvenieri sxeulidan orze, oridan ki yvela mSvenier sxeulze unda gadadiodes kaci, mSvenier sxeulTagan mSvenier saqmeebze, mSvenier saqmeTagan ki mSvenier moZRvrebebze, raTa amrigad eziaros im moZRvrebas, romelic sxva ara aris ra, Tu ara moZRvreba absoluturi mSvenierebis Sesaxeb, da bolos da bolos, Seicnos TviT mSvenierebac~ (211 c 19). es pasaJi platonis `saxelmwifoSi~ gamoqvabulis miTis msgavsad aRwers gzas, romelSic filosofia imas uTiTebs, rasac erosi moiTxovs miRmurze dasvas kiTxva. am gzis mimarTuleba konkretulidan abstraqtulisakenaa, kerZodan zogadisaken, mokled _ iqidan, rac SemecnebaSi mogvecema da iqiTken, rac yovelTvis Tavisi Tavis identuria da mxolod azrovnebisTvis aris misawvdomi. vinc am gzas daadgeba, rogorc es `saxelmwifoSia~, ifxizlebs da Seimecnebs, rom mravali mSvenieris gverdiT arsebobs Tavad mSveniereba da rom grZnobadad misawvdomi mxolod am TavisTavadi mSvenierebasTan ziarebis safuZvelze arsebobs15. amdenad, umTavresad dialog `nadimis~ safuZvelze SeZlebisdagvarad gaeca kiTxvas pasuxi: Tu ratom udris platonis filosofiaSi dialogi da filosofia erTmaneTs da ra roli akisria am konkretuli Tezisis dasabuTebisTvis siyvarulis
R. Rehn, Der entzauberte Eros: Symposion, in Platon, Seine Dialoge in der Sicht neuer Forschungen, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft,Darmstadt, 1996, . 93
15

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maka laSxia

RmerTs, anu eross. platonis filosofiis mizani mxolod sibrZne SeiZleba iyos. sibrZne, romelic igive wminda Semecnebadobaa, radgan sibrZne ganekuTvneba umSvenieress. es ukanaskneli ki saboloo miznis sikeTis _ erT-erTi gamoxatulebaa. vinaidan eross obieqtad mSveniereba aqvs, amdenad aris erosi filosofosi, anu filosofia platonisaTvis swored miswrafebaTa filosofiaa. erosi, rogorc sikeTisa da mSvenierebis survili, ar aris aucilebeli, Tavadac keTili da mSvenieri iyos. misTvis umTavresi miswrafebaa, eziaros TavisTavad sikeTes, TavisTavad mSvenierebas da am miswrafebaSi Tavisi Tavi gamoavlinos, rogorc _ sibrZne, rogorc _ umaRlesi idea.

malxaz mayaSvili

mcenareTa saxeldeba qarTul enaze

ilias saxelmwifo universitetis gamoyenebiTi fsiqologiis insstitutis direqtori, asocirebuli profesori, mecnierebaSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo premiis paureati. ZiriTadi naSromebi: adamianis Tavis tvinis asimetria (monografia), statiebi fiziologiis da fsiqo-fiziologiis dargSi. interesTa sfero: biologia, fiziologia, fsiqologia.

mcenareTa saxeldebaSi SesaZlebelia davinaxoT garkveuli kanonzomiereba im TvalsazrisiT, Tu ris mixedviT erqmeva saxeli ama Tu im mcenares. qarTul enaSi mcenareTa saxeldeba xdeba mcenaris feris (magaliTad, gulyviTela, ZirwiTela) da formis (cxeniskuda, Citiwviva, kurdRlistuCa, Cibuxa, kelaptara) mixedviT. moyvanili magaliTebidan Cans, rom formis mixedviT saxeldeba metaforul xasiaTs atarebs: mcenaris sxeulis forma mimsgavsebulia cxovelis sxeulis nawilis an sagnebis formas. Citiwvivas Tu cxeniskudas (gurul dialeqtze joriskudas) Semxedvare, vrwmundebiT, rom metafora zustia.

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Citiwviva

cxeniskuda

zogierT SemTxvevaSi saxeldeba ufro kompleqsuria. magaliTad, mcenare kelaptara ara marto waagavs formiT kelaptars, aramed yvavilebis feriT cecxls mogvagonebs da mTlianobaSi anTebuli kelaptris STabeWdilebas tovebs. Y

kelaptara

qaraZenZi


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yvavilis feri an yvavilis feris mimsgavseba cxovelis garegani safarvelis SeferilobasTan xSirad SesaniSnav asociacias iwvevs, magaliTad, cisTvala, pirimze, cisvazi guguliskaba. mcenareTa metaforuli saxeldebis zogierTi nimuSi klasifikacias Znelad eqvemdebareba. magaliTad, laSqara da miTumetes, amave mcenaris saxelwodeba kaxur dialeqtze _ qalbatonebi. Tumca, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am SemTxvevebSi aqcenti yvavilis raodenobazea gakeTebuli. ufro Znelia klasifikaciis CarCoSi moeqces qaraZenZi, marTlac qarisgan daZenZiliviT rom gamoiyureba. mcenareTa saxeldebaSi metaforis gansakuTrebul formad unda CaiTvalos opuncias qarTuli saxelwodebebi _ dedinacvlis ena, ZaRlis yba. es saxelwodebebi am mcenaris eklebTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli.

opuncia

kidev erTi nairsaxeobaa saxeldeba mcenaris gavrcelebis adgilis mixedviT. magaliTad, saxelwodeba Crdilis lamaza

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malxaz mayaSvili

(pirimzes saxelwodeba kaxur dialeqtze) migviTiTebs, rom es mcenare ufro metad Crdilian adgilebSi izrdeba, kldis vardi ki qvian, kldovan adgilebSi gvxvdeba. mcenareTa saxeldebis zemoT aRniSnuli variantebi gvxvdeba sxva enebSic, Tumca enebs Soris am TvalsazrisiT garkveuli gansxvavebac SeimCneva. magaliTad, gavrcelebis adgilis mixedviT mcenareTa saxeldeba qarTul enaSi metad iSviaTia, xolo rusul enaSi SedarebiT xSiria saxeldebis sxva variantebTan SedarebiT. gTavazobT Cvens mosazrebas _ Tu ras SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes saxelwodeba yoCivarda. es mcenare erT-erTi pirveli gvevlineba adre gazafxulze. ufro metic, is TebervalSic amoyofs xolme Tavs Tovlidan, iwyebs yvavilobas da TiTqos iseve mouZRvis win gazafxulis yvavilebs, rogorc _ yoCi faras. mcenareTa saxeldebis kidev erTi variantia saxeldeba mcenaris fiziologiuri maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT: magaliTad, gemos (Zirtkbila, balamwara) da janmrTelobisaTvis mavne nivTierebebis Semcvelobis mixedviT (lencofa, giJana, Smaga). bolo magaliTi imiTac aris saintereso, rom saxeldeba migviTiTebs im SesaZlo Sedegze, romelic moyveba am mcenaris sakvebad gamoyenebas (gaSmageba, gagiJeba). specialur interess imsaxurebs mcenareTa saxelwodebebi, romlebic asaxavs mcenaris samkurnalo Tvisebebs: mkervala, moWrilis wamali, yiyvis wamali, gul-filtva da sxv. Tanamedrove qarTul farmakopeaSi cnobilia mravali mcenare, romelsac xalxi odiTganve iyenebda samkurnalo mizniT. magram qarTul samedicino literaturaSi Cven ver vnaxeT cnobebi zogierTi iseTi mcenaris samkurnalo daniSnulebis Sesaxeb, romelTa saxelwodeba (ZiriTadad, mTiel qarTvelTa dialeqtze) _ magaliTad, moWrilis wamali _ aSkarad miuTiTebs maT samkurnalo Tvisebaze. mcenareTa saxeldebaSi garkveuli adgili uWiravs religiur motivs. uflis xe (bza qarTlur dialeqtze), qristesisxla, mariamsakmela, xeTufala da mironis xe (piramiduli kviparozis saxelwodeba qarTlur dialeqtze) ukavSirdeba qristianul tradicias.


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piramiduli kviparozebi (marcxniv da ukana planze marjvniv) iyalTos amaRlebis monasterSi.

warmarTuli tradiciidan unda modiodes eSmakis maTraxi askilis saxelwodeba qarTlur dialeqtze. Ees saxelwodeba savaraudod asaxavs avi sulebisagan dacvisaTvis ezos Robeze da saxlis karze askilis totebis Camokidebis warmarTul tradicias (1). gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. abakelia n., alaverdaSvili q., RambaSiZe n. qarTul xalxur dReobaTa kalendari. Tbilisi, 1991 2. mayaSvili a. botanikuri leqsikoni. Tbilisi, 1961

irakli mWedliSvili

proeqciuli utopia da utopiuri proeqti


samyaros silamazisa da harmoniis warmomCeni, amqveyniuris, miwieris win wamomwevi renesansuli xedva mxolod `sagnobrivi bunebis~ sferoTi ar unda SemosazRvruliyo. kosmiuri harmoniis gamomvleni ganazreba an warmodgena elinebs adamianuri `me~-s gare samyarosTan morgebis modelTan erTad da mis Sesabamisadac, moqalaqeTa Tanacxovrebisa da polisuri garemos mowyobis principTa safuZvelsac uqmnida. analogiurad _ samyaros wyobis ganaxlebuli, renesansuli xedvis gavlenis Tu mocvis are im periodis socialur sferosac unda gaswdomoda. `...miageT keisars keisrisa, xolo RmerTs RmrTisa~ (maT. 22:21) _ qristes am gamonaTqvamSi, miwieri mmarTvelobis warmavlobisa da meoradobis mtkicebis garda, Sua saukuneebis Teologia RvTiuri ganzraxviT Tu ganwesebiT Seqmnili samyaros ierarqiuli wyobis sazogadoebriv sivrceSi ganfenis dasturis amokiTxvasac axerxebda. amis gamo, bibliurpatriarqaluri Ziridan momdinare erTpirovnuli mmarTvelobis modeli, anu monarqia, TiTqmis bunebriv, TavisTavad movlenad, sazogadoebrivi daqvemdebare-

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, kinomcodne, inJiner-fizikosi. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `cifruli gamosaxuleba da eidosuri xati~, `kosmosi, sivrce-dro da virtualuri realoba~, `perspeqtiva aRorZinebidan cifrul gamosaxulebamde...~ samecniero interesebi: filosofia, kulturaTa civilizacia.


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bis saTanado wesad aRiqmeboda _ `maS, RmerTis gulisaTvis, daemorCileT yovelgvar xelmwifebas: ginda mefes, rogorc uzenaes mbrZanebels~ (1 petr. 2:13). aRorZinebis periodis italia ki, monarqiuli mmarTvelobis samefoebisa da samTavroebis garda, qalaquri TviTmmarTvelobis respublikebsac moicavda. florencieli saxelmwifo moRvawisa da moazrovnis, nikolo makiavelis nawerebi swored amgvar mdgomareobas asaxaven. didi Tanamoqalaqisa da winamorbedis, gandevnili dantes msgavsad, `momxduris damyvavebeli, qedmaRlobisa da ucabedi moxveWis Jins ayolili~ qalaqisadmi sayveduri masac SeiZleba dascdenoda. SeTqmulebis braldebiT Sepyrobili da wamebis Semdeg gaTavisuflebuli makiaveli florenciis maxloblad, Tavis mamulSi ganmartovda da Tanadrouli, daqucmacebuli italiis bedze, misi gaerTianebis politikur pirobasa da SesaZleblobaze fiqrs mieca. makiavelis cnobil traqtats, `mTavars~ (Niccol Machiavelli. Il Principe) monarqiuli mmarTvelobis ufro praqtikuli saxis saxelmZRvanelod miiCneven, radgan Tavad aseTi saxelmwifos funqcionirebisa da mowyobis princips aq, am naSromSi, meoradi mniSvneloba eniWeba. misi azriT, saxelmwifos stabilurobis, statusquo-s SenarCuneba TavisTavad udidesi moraluri sikeTe da saTnoebaa. amitomac, memkvidrobiT miRebuli an sxva saSualebiT miRweuli Zalauflebis gansamtkiceblada da misave gansavrcobad mkacri da Seuwynarebeli meTodebis gamoyenebas makiaveli mizanSewonilad miiCnevs. cnobil gamonaTqvams, `mizani saSualebas amarTlebs~ swored mas miaweren1. amis gamo, zogni, makiavelis erTgvar cinizmSi sdeben brals _ sityva `makiavelizmi~ mzakvrul da uzneo xasiaTis Tu arsis politikur qmedebaTa aRmniSvnel terminadac ki damkvidrda. meore naSromi _ `saubari titus liviusis pirveli dekadis Sesaxeb~ (Niccol Machiavelli.Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio) _ pirvelTan, `mTavarTan~ SedarebiT, naklebad saxelganTqmulia. magram liberalizmis bevri mkvlevari `saubars...~ axali evropisa da demokratiuli azrovnebis adreuli etapis umniSvne
arsebobs mosazreba, rom es fraza, `mizani saSualebas amarTlebs~ ufro iezuitTa (`iesoitTa~) ordenis damaarsebelis, egnate (ignacio) loiolas makiavelis SexedulebaTa interpretaciidan unda modiodes.
1

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lovanes monapovrad Tvlis. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba traqtatma jer kidev ganmanaTleblobis epoqaSi miipyro. Jan Jak ruso `saubars...~ makiavelis `respublikelobis~ damadastureblad miiCnevda. igi am naSromiT imdenad aRfrTovanebuli iyo, rom imxanad ukve uaryofiTi reputaciis `mTavarsac~ demokratiuli TvalTaxedviT aRiqvamda da Tvlida, rom es traqtati monarqiuli mmarTvelobis mankierebis samxileblad iyo Seqmnili. `...Tu xalxisa da mTavarTa naklsa da aseve, maT dadebiT Tvisebebsac SevajerebT aRmoCndeba, rom xalxi yvelaferSi, rac zneobrivi da didebulia, gacilebiT aRmatebulad gamoiyureba.~2 `saubarSi...~ gamoTqmuli es da kidev bevri sxva amgvari sentencia ganmanaTleblobis saukunis moRvaweTa dromoWmuli monarqiuli wyobis uarmyofel ganwyobas namdvilad unda misadageboda. Tumca, kritikulTan erTad, es naSromi gamorCeul yuradRebas konstruqciuli midgomis gamoc imsaxurebda. momavali axali evropis saxelmwifoebrivi wesrigi aq, am traqtatSi gamoTqmul erT-erT Zireul princips, ufro ki, mis monaxazs daefuZna. `...rodesac erT da imave wyobaSi mTavris, warCinebulTa da xalxis Zalmosileba erTiandeba, maSin, es sami Zalaufleba erTurTis mudmivi Tvalyuris midevnebisa da Semowmebis mdgomareobaSi unda imyofebodes~3. makiavelis es, TiTqos mxolod praqtikuli daniSnulebis, rCeva Tu mosazreba ganmanaTleblobis epoqaSi Sarl lui monteskiem xelisuflebis dayofis, kontrolisa da balansis principad Camoayaliba... samyaroSi RvTiuri wesrigisa da harmoniis gamomvleni aRorZinebiseuli, xedvis siaxle ara sinamdvilis gardaqmnas, aramed ukve arsebuli Tu dadgenili wesrigis gafarToebul aRqmas gulisxmobda. `gafarToeba~ ki antikuri memkvidreobis Tavidan gadaazrebis xarjze xorcieldeboda. amitomac makiavelis, iseve, rogorc sxva renesansul moazrovneTa, yuradReba warsuli gamocdilebisken iyo mipyrobili. florenciidan gamoZevebuli makiaveli antikur avtorebsa da maT wignebs sasaxlis karisTvis gankuTvnil Zvirfas tansacmelSi gamowyobili eaxleboda. isinic, rogorc makiaveli wers, ~...guliTadad miRebdnen da iq iseT sak
2

Niccol Machiavelli. Discourse on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy. Book I, Chapter LVIII 3 Ibid. Book I, Chapter II


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vebs vagemovnebdi, romelic marto CemTvis iyo gankuTvnili, swored iseTs _ romlisTvisac Turme dabadebuli vyofilvar~4. respublikuri romis istoriis aRmweri titus liviusis wignebisaTvis makiavelis idealuri sazogadoebis, platonis an aristoteles klasikuri modelis gamovlenis mizniT ar miumarTavs. igi Tvlida, rom politikuri universumi, bunebis msgavsad, ucvleli kanonebiT imarTeba. Tanadrouli italiis politikuri aRreulobis mowesrigebas makiaveli swored gafarToebuli kvlevis, respublikur-imperiuli romis praqtikuli magaliTis gaTvaliswinebis xarjze imedovnebda. amgvari midgomis gamoa, rom makiavelis pragmatul politikosad da realist avtorad miiCneven. sinamdvileSi, misi yvelaze praqtikuli daniSnulebis naSromi, `mTavari~ literaturul gamonagons Tu fiqciasac moicavs _ masSi uamravi warmosaxviTi da naxevrad miTiuri personaJic aris CarTuli. makiavelis mTavari mizanic _ sxvadasxva saxis mmarTvelobis italiur politikur warmonaqmnTa gaerTianeba Tu konsolidacia _ im droisaTvis ganuxorcielebel, arsobrivad warumatebel, utopiur mcdelobas Tu ocnebas warmoadgenda. namdvili utopia ki, imave periodSi, makiavelis `mTavris~ (1513 w) sinqronulad, italiis CrdiloeTiT, britaneTSi iwereboda. ingliseli politikuri moRvawe, Tomas moric, makiavelis msgavsad, Tanadroul sazogadoebriv sinamdviles, mis avkargianobas Caukvirda. naSromi, romelic amgvari dainteresebis Sedegad Seiqmna da romelsac SemoklebiT, `utopias~ uwodeben (Of the Best State of a Republic, and of the New Island Utopia, a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More) ukve praqtikul-konkretuli mizandasaxulobis iers moklebuli, calsaxa fiqcia, anu `srulfasovani~ literaturuli nawarmoebia. laTinur enaze dawerili es wigni warmosaxviTi kunZulis sazogadoebas, mis religias, socialur da politikur tradiciebs aRwers. platonis `atlantidas~ msgavsad, es kunZulic sadRac okeaneSi, oRond, am SemTxvevaSi, evropidan Sors, `axali samyaros~ farglebSi moiazreba. nawarmoebSi aRwerili danarCeni qveynierebidan mowyvetili da materikisagan izolirebuli utopiis adamianTa komunaluri Tanacxovrebis wess Semdegi principe
4

TheLiteraryWorksofMachiavelli,trans.J.R.Hale.(Oxford:1961),p.139D.1

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bi gansazRvravs: Tanasworoba, religiuri Semwynarebloba, kerZo sakuTrebis uaryofa da simdidris Zraxva (borkilebi da Ramis qoTnebi iq oqrosgan amitomac mzaddeba), zogadi ganaTlebisa da samuSaos sayovelTao aucilebloba da a. S. wignSi aRwerili sazogadoebis an komunis yvela kanoni Tu wes-Cveuleba, magaliTad: monobis, ganqorwinebis, mRvdelmsaxurTa qorwinebisa da evTanaziis daSveba, colqmruli Ralatis monobiT dasja, da sxv., Tavad orTodoqsuli Sexedulebis kaTolike avtorisaTvis idealuri an saukeTeso ar unda yofiliyo. amitomac, miCneulia, rom Tomas moris `utopia~ mxolod satiris doneze unda iyos aRqmuli da rom wigni marto idealur sazogadoebas ki ar aRwers, aramed da ufro _ avtoris Tanadrouli inglisisa da evropis socialur sinamdviles amxels. aseTi interpretaciis safuZvels wignis saTaurad da kunZulze mosaxle eris saxelad moxmobili sityva `utopiis~ aracalsaxa mimarTebis gaTvaliswinebac iZleva. ori berZnuli sityvis, `utopiis~ (topi) _ `ara adgilis~ an `uadgilosa~ da `eutopiis~ (Eutopi) _ `kargi adgilis~ msgavsi JReradoba (inglisuri gamoTqmiT ki, homonimia) avtoris CanafiqriT, imas unda migviTiTebdes, rom srulyofili, `kargi adgili~ sinamdvileSi `ararsebuli adgilia~. Tomas moris es nawarmoebi literaturuli, utopiuri Janris wamomwyebi Tu winamorbedi gaxda. XVII saukuneSi utopiur nawarmoebs im periodis TiTqmis yvela moazrovne werda (mag.: tomazo kampanelas `mzis qalaqi~, frensis bekonis `axali atlantisi~ da sxv.). xolo ganmanaTleblurma miswrafebam, XVIII saukuneSi, gamravalferovnebasTan erTad, Janris gansxvavebuli daniSnulebiT ganSlac SeZlo. am periodSi warmoSobil axal literaturul JanrTa, `aRmzrdelobiTi literaturisa~ (rusos `emili~) da `samecniero fantastikis~ (volterisa da sviftis sciencefiction) warmomavloba swored `ararsebuli adgilis~ mentalur sivrceSi Canergvis Tu `gaTamaSebis~ qmediTi zemoqmedebis ukve gamovlenil SesaZleblobas unda ukavSirdebodes. ganmanaTleblobis Semdgom da Sedegad, adamianTa Tanacxovrebis samarTliani Tu swori mowyobis mecnieruli xedvis safuZvelze aRmocenebuli `utopiuri socializmi~ ukve sxva rigis, wina periodis `utopianizmisgan~ gansxvavebuli movlenaa. ufro sworad, `utopiuri socializmi~ aRorZinebisuli ganwyobisa da mimarTebisgan mniSvnelovnad daSorebul Sexedulebas Tu


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ganazrebas warmoadgens. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom adamianTa samarTliani Tanacxovrebis XIX saukunis dasawyisis am modelebs utopiurs Cven mxolod marqsisa da engelsis wyalobiT damkvidrebuli gansazRvrebis inerciuli zemoqmedebis gamo vuwodebT. Tavad socialur moZRvrebaTa avtorebi literaturul utopiebs ar werdnen. utopiurad, anu ganuxorcieleblad, isini arc sazogadoebis wyobis TavianT modelebs miiCnevdnen. robert ouenis `axali harmonia~, Sarl furies `falansterica~ da anri sen-simonis `axali qristianobac~ XVII-XVIII saukuneebis evropis ekonomikur da politikur sivrceSi momxdar cvlilebaTa Sedegsa da maTi gaTvaliswinebis Tu socialur sinamdvileSi danergvis mcdelobas warmoadgens. inglisisa da safrangeTis revoluciaTa garda, amgvar mcdelobaTa aRZvris `pativi~ kidev or, Zalze swrafi ganviTarebis gamo, revoluciad saxeldebul, industriul da samecniero `gadatrialebasac~ unda mieweros. aRorZinebiseuli msoflaRqmisgan da Sesabamisi ganwyobisgan `utopiur socializms~ swored aseTi uSualo winapiroba da saTanado miswrafebac ganasxvavebs. utopianizmi, anu srulyofili sazogadoebis platonisa da aristoteles koncepciaTa da romauli ritorikis xelovnebis (ciceroni, kvintiliane) gaerTianebisa da maTi Tanadroul miswrafebasTan Sexamebis mcdeloba, wminda renesansuli movlenaa, rac imas niSnavs, rom samyaros wesrigis gamomvleni, idealur da miwier formaTa erTdroulad aRmqmeli renesansuli xedvis Tanadad da Sesabamisadac, am xsenebul socialur ganazrebaTa Camoyalibeba Tu ganTavseba mxolod warmodgenaSi, mentalur sivrceSi, anu `adamianur ganzomilebaSi~ SeiZleboda. da Tu renesansuli mxatvroba sistemur erTianobad moazrebuli warmodgenis, samyaros wesrigisa da harmoniis vizualuri warmoCena an gamovlenaa, `utopiac~ _ amgvarad Sedgenili socialuri konstruqciis sityvierad aRweril `xats~, anu verbalur proeqcias unda warmoadgendes.5 diax, utopianizmi mentaluri warmodgenis verbaluri proeqciaa, anu, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom is renesansuli proeqticaa.
saintereso da sagulisxmoa, rom Tomas moris `utopiis~ pirveli, originaluri gamocema `vizualuri gamovlenis~ elements, simetriuli saxis `utopiur anbansac~ moicavda.
5

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`utopiuri socializmic~ proeqtia da swored es dasaxeleba, anu terminis calsaxad aRqmis Cveva erTgvar cTomil Sexedulebas warmoSobs. Cveulebriv, am ori saxis proeqtis sruli gaigiveba Tu ara, maT Soris analogiuri mimarTebis moazreba an daSveba, TiTqmis yovelTvis xdeba. laTinuri sityva projectumis gansazRvreba _ `raRac, rac mocemuli Semdgomi qmedebis moxdenamde gvaqvs~ _ da, aseve, aqedanve warmomdgari terminis mniSvneloba or, modaluradac da droSic gansxvavebul, dasaxvisa da qmedebis dones gulisxmobs. renesansuli xedvis, sistemurad erTiani warmodgenis Sesabamisad, xsenebul doneebs Soris myisier-WvretiTi, anu sivrculi saxis organuli kavSiri Tu bma moiazreba. cvlilebas, romelic aRorZinebiseulma msoflgancdam XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi ganicada, xsenebul doneTa Soris mimarTebis gardaqmnac mohyva. renesansuli da Semdgomi periodis `proeqtebi~ swored am, zedapirulad uCinar bmaTa, nagulisxmev sazrisTa wiaRis damsaxsrav nawevarTa xasiaTis mixedviTa da maTsave gamoc gansxvavdebian. aRorZinebis humanisturi mimarTeba, romelic piko dela mirandolas samyaros SuawelSi mdgomi adamis simboloTi anda, horizontze, anu absolutursa da konkretuls Soris sazRvarze myofi adamianuri gonis kuzaneliseuli modelis mixedviT SeiZleba gamoisaxos, garkveuli wesiT gansazRvruli Tu mocemuli msoflaRqmiT Tvalsawiersa da sivrcul ganfenas gulisxmobs. misi wyobis farglebSi grZnobadi gziT aRqmul konkretul saganTa `xatebis~ garda da maTTan erTad, RvTiuri srulyofilebidan momdinare idealuri, anu WvretiTi formebic Tavsdeba. amitomac, aRorZinebiseuli, struqturuli erTianobisaken mswrafi warmodgena an xedva miwieris zRvars miRma `gasvlas~, zedroul wvdomas Tu kontemplaciur moments yovelTvis moicavs. yovelive amaRlebulis, rogorc xSirad uwodeben, `renesansuli damiweba~ sinamdvileSi zebunebrivi, meta-realobis miwierTan daaxloebis mcdelobas warmoadgens. idealuri da mokvdavTaTvis miuwvdomeli absoluturi ganzomilebis ~fermkrTali anareklis~, anu misi anabeWduri gamovlenis Suasaukuneebis modelis nacvlad, aRorZinebis msoflganwyobam am ze-sinamdvilis RvTiuri wesrigis elementTa `adamianur ganzomilebaSi~ CamrTveli, sistemurad erTiani xedva Semoitana. renesansuli proeqti, amrigad, iseT mentalur konstruqciad warmodgeba, romelic aqtualur qmedebas, anu Camoyalibebu-


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li xedvis miwier sinamdvileSi ganSlas sulac ar gulisxmobs. aq, am proeqtSi racionalurad an, SeiZleba iTqvas, mecnierulad moazrebuli warmodgena grZnobad-esTetikuri formiT aris mocemuli. sulier wiaRSi topologiurad, sivrculi wesiT ganfenili aseTi are `goniTi xedviT~ aRiqmeba da Sesabamisi gancdac nebelobiT-zneobrivi arCevanis Tanadi, erTianad da erTdroulad momcveli vnebiTi aqtiT miiRweva. amgvar xedvas Tu gancdas naziareb adamianTa swrafvaca da maTive Tavgamodebac (devotio) erTgvar, goniT moxilvadi samyaros Tu `warmosaxviTi samSoblos~ moqalaqeobriv suliskevTebas utoldeba. aRorZinebiseul msoflgancdas sxva danarCenTagan sivrciTi ganSlis Tu moazrebis swored aseTi wesi ganasxvavebs. qronologiur-droiTi zRvrebiT Tu naWdeviT zustad moniSnuli arc adreuli warmosaxviTi `adgilebi~, platonis `atlantida~ da avgustines `RvTis qalaqia~, magram droiTi mimarTeba orivegan mainc Tanaobs. erTgan, platonTan, marTalia miTiuri, magram mainc dro, warsuli dro moiazreba. xolo meoregan _ zeciurmaradiuli qalaqis mokvdavTaTvis dawesebul droTa Semdgom da Sedegad wvdomis pirobac igulisxmeba. renesansuli xedva da Sesabamisi utopia swored am or, usasrulod daSorebul kides, miwiersa da absoluturs Soris an droiTi dinebis miRma, sadRac, sivrceSi myof `adgilasa~ da Sesabamisad, `goniTi TvaliT~ aRqmad ganzomilebaSi, anu virtualobaSi moiazreba. `socialuri utopia~ ki, miwier qmedebas, anda misken mowodebasa da saTanado `droiT ganSlas~, an uSualod moiTxovs an yovelTvis gulisxmobs. Tanadroul sazogadoebriv urTierTobaTa Zireuli gardaqmna, anu misi samarTliani da Tanasworuli principebis mixedviT gadawyoba social-utopistTa warmodgeniT, swored droiT TanmimdevrobaSi gamovlenadi mecnieruli kanonzomierebisa da droSive ganxorcielebadi Zalisxmevis mixedviTa da missave Sesabamisad miiRweva. amitomac, yvela es Teoria Tu proeqti miznis dasaxvis zogad mowodebasTan erTad, uSualo qmedebas, konkretuli magaliTis Tu Sedegis aucilebel, Tanmimdevrul gamovlenasac moiTxovs. saqsovi manufaqturis mflobeli robert oueni sakuTari sawarmos daqiravebul muSebs gaumjobesebul samuSao, yofiTi Tanacxovrebisa da ganaTlebis miRebis pirobebs jer SotlandiaSi uqmnida da Semdgom, imave miswrafebis ufro srulyofil xorcSesxmas is amerikaSi, indianas StatSi daafuZnebuli `axali

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harmoniis~ saxeliT cnobili Temis mkvidrTaTvisac cdilobda. Sarl furiesa da anri sen-simonis Teoriul mowodebas ki, mimdevarTa iseTi Tavgamodeba mohyva, rom `furiestuli~ da `sensimonisturi~ komuna-seqtebis skandaluri reputaciis gamoZaxilma evropis ganapira qveynamde, ruseTamdisac miaRwia. TanamedroveTa aRSfoTebas, gaocebasa da, SeiZleba iTqvas, Sokirebasac erToblivi Tanacxovrebis, saerTo sakuTrebisa da memkvidreobiTi uflebebis uaryofasTan erTad, da ufro metadac, komunis mimdevarTa Soris ojaxur, sqesTa urTierTobis tradiciulis nacvlad axali, ucnauri da Tavneba formebis danergvac iwvevda (mag.: furies sasiyvarulo vnebaTa ricxvobrivi kombinaciis Teoriidan momdinare seqsualuri Tavisufleba). utopistur-seqtantur fenomens miT ufro mkveTri reaqcia da gamoZaxili momZlavrebuli slavofiluri ganwyobis ruseTSi unda moyoloda. asec moxda, dasavlurad orinetirebul inteleqtualebTan, `zapadnikebTan~ dapirispirebul rusul, tradiciul niadagze mdgom `poCvennikebs~ utopistTa axirebam `mankieri dasavluri kulturis~ kanonzomieri gadagvarebis damadasturebeli kidev erTi argumenti SesZina. uaryofiTi Sefaseba Tu ugulebelmyofi damokidebuleba, romelsac dostoevski im drois ruseTis ganaTlebul wreebSi popularul `pozitivistur~ ideaTa da maTTanve asocirebul utopistTa iCxibur eqsperimentTa mimarT gamoTqvams (romanSi, `eSmakeulni~), swored `poCvennikuri~ ganwyobidan unda modiodes. organul, tradiciul rusul niadags mowyvetili da dasavluri nawerebiT `cdunebuli~, anu `eSmakeulSeCenili~ sazogadoebis nawilis, axlad ganswavluli kulturuli fenis Sefasebas Tu daxasiaTebas dostoevski romanis erT-erTi personaJis ironiuli fraziT axdens _ `qaRaldisgan Sekowiwebuli udReuri adamianebi ( , ). saintereso da sagulisxmoa isic, rom dostoevskis mier amgvari epiTetiT `Semkobil~ fenas iqve, imave periodis, XIX saukunis samocdaaTiani wlebis demokratiulad momarTul publicistur presaSi progresuli misiis mtvirTvelis Sesatyvisi saxeli _ `inteligencia~ daenaTla. dasavleTidan ukve Semdgom Semosuli `socialisturi~ moZRvreba da Sesabamisi revoluciurgardamqneli aRtkineba mTel rusul sivrces swored am fenis wyalobiT, misi aqtiuri Zalisxmevis Sedegadac moedo...


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`eSmakeulnSi~ gamoTqmuli SeSfoTebis Tu gafrTxilebis mniSvneloba patriotuli an `derJavnikuli~ Tavgamodebis farglebs scildeba. dostoevskis genialuri wvdoma, mgrZnobeloba Tu intuicia imperiuli sivrcis mosalodneli destruqciis xelSemwyob pirobebTan erTad da maTsave miRma ufro farTo, ufro siRrmiseuli, humanitaruli katastrofis, pirovnul-zneobriv sayrdenTa `CamoSlisa~ da iracionalur, qtonur ZalTa zeobis saSiSroebasac Wvretda. arnaxuli masStabis dapirispireba da msxverpli, romelic XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi dawyebul da TiTqmis mTeli XX saukunis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare, `keTili ganzraxviT~ STagonebul socialistur moZRvrebaTa epidemiis msgavsad gavrcelebas mohyva, swored savalalo winaTgrZnobaTa samarTlianobis dadasturebas unda warmoadgendes. masebis sayovelTao destruqciaSi gadazrdili borgva da amboxi gansakuTrebiT mZafr da radikalur xasiaTs im qveyanaSi iRebda, sadac evropul wesze gadawyobisa da industriuli modernizaciis mcdelobis Tanamdev, dasavlur saazrovno koncepciaTa SeRwevis process sruliad moumzadebeli, nedli kulturuli sivrce Tu berwi socialuri niadagi xvdeboda. marTalia, viTarebaTa da procesTa amgvar Tanadebas dromoWmuli `caristuli imperia~ emsxverpla, magram mis adgilas warmoqmnilma axalma `wiTelma imperiam~ swored `CamoSlis~ Sedegad gamoTavisuflebul destruqciul energiaTa Sida Tu gare klasobriv mtrebze mimmarTvel, negatiur ganwyobaTa Semomkreb kvanZTa saSualebiTa da `diadi momavlisken~ svlis qimerul Tu iluziur samizneTa dasaxvis xarjze iarseba. calkeul qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli Tanasworobis moqadage utopiis, pirveli `muSur-glexuri~ saxelmwifos mTel Semdgom `aRmasvlasac~ swored masuldgmulebel, uaryofiT energiaTa vnebiTi daZabulobis naZaladevi SenarCuneba da misive mudmivi kvlavwarmoeba ganapirobebda. rusuli sabWoTa eqsperimentis gaqaneba da simZafre Tanamedroveebze imdenad momnusxav STabeWdilebas axdenda, rom marqsist `winaswarmetyvelTa~ mier SemuSavebuli, ganviTarebis evropuli gzisgan gansxvavebuli, alternatiuli kursis marTebuloba bevrma dasavlelma inteleqtualmac iwama. am mizezisa da kidev sxva movlenaTa gamoc, `wiTelma imperiam~ mecnieruli ieris socialuri moZRvrebis `fiqlebiT~ gadafaruli Tu SeniRbu-

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li rusuli didmpyrobluri miswrafebis lamis naxevari msofliosTvis Tavmoxvevac SeZlo. industriuli modernizaciis kursis calsaxa pragmatizmi da aseve, komunizmis istoriuli garduvalobis `mecnieruli dasabuTebis~ martivi da sworxazovani sqema im drois ukmayofilebis paTosiT gajerebuli masobrivi gonisaTvis advilad gasagebi da adviladve misaRebic iyo. Sesabamisad, `bednieri da samarTliani Tanacxovrebis sazogadoebis Senebis~ sabWouri proeqti da mimdinare rusuli socialuri eqsperimenti mTeli msoflios `CagrulTa~ misabaZ magaliTadac gadaiqca. paliatikuri, sanaxevro an calmxrivi zomebiT ki, rogorc sakacobrio gamocdileba anu kulturis istoria gvidasturebs, saqmes Tavi ar ebmeba _ adamianuri arsebobisaTvis aucilebeli cxovelmyofeli qmnadoba ar miiRweva. sabWouri eqsperimentis saboloo warumatebloba swored am WeSmaritebis kidev erT dadasturebas warmoadgens. `wiTeli imperiis~ aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi aqtualuri, msoflios gamwvdomi Zalmosileba calmxriv, mxolod materialuri sinamdvilis maRiarebel xedvas efuZneboda. miwier-sagnobriv Sedegze momiznul swrafvas ki, rogorc wesi, utilitarul Tu momxmareblur ganwyobaTa gabatoneba mohyveba. amitomac moxda, rom sabWouri sazogadoebis `samyaros gardamqmneli miswrafeba~ sabolood, martivi da primitiuli bunebis vitaluri sawyisidan momdinare, yofiT moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis winacivilizaciur donemde dasulma ndomam Secvala. gviani sabWoTa periodis adamianisaTvis naTeli gaxda, rom `sayovelTao bednierebisa da diadi momavlisken svlis~ iluzoruli saburvelisgan ganZarcvuli komunisturi moZRvrebis RirebulebaTa kodeqsi swrafi da ucabedi gamorCenis, wvrilman-TaRliTuri cxovrebis wess didad ar ewinaaRmdegeboda. social-utopistTa `netar~ ganzraxvaTa gadmomRebi da hegelis aRmavali, istoriuli ganviTarebis sqemis momrgebi revoluciuri doqtrinaca da komunisturi sazogadoebis Senebis proeqtic iluzionistur, `ideologiuri TaRliTobis~ sawyiss TavisTavad, safuZvelSive Seicavda. `rkinis farda~, romelic stalinma petre didis mier `evropisaken gaWril sarkmels~ Camoafara, imperiuli miswrafebis `ideologiuri SefuTvis~, anu, Tanamedrove terminiT, PRteqnologiuri TvalTmaqcobis TvalsaCino nimuSs warmoadgenda. aseTi, im droisaTvis `inovaciuri, far-


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da~ erTgvari membranuli filtris rols asrulebda _ is dasavluri sivrcidan dasesxebul: kulturul, mecnierul, teqnologiur Tu sxva saxis miRwevebs msoflmxedvelobriv cxav-cxrilSi atarebda da maT Tanamdev, ideologiurad ucxo da miuRebel, rogorc `daTa TuTaSxias~ cnobili personaJi (seTuri) ityoda, `gamaubedurebel~ konceptebs acilebda. caristuli imperiis rRvevis ZiriTad mizezs stalini, rogorc Cans, yvelaze ukeT Caswvda. rusuli saxelmwifos totalurad gaunaTlebeli, konfesiuri Tu erovnuli SemadgenlobiT Wreli da amasTan, usamarTlo Cagvris gamo isedac mdvrtvinavi masis destruqciul ganwyobaTa kidev ufro metad gamZafreba swored zemodan wamosuli, mmarTveli fenis mier gauazreblad wamowyebuli ruseTis modernizaciis mcdelobis gamo da masTanve dakavSirebul dasavlur, liberalur ideaTa Tu ganazrebaTa SemoRwevis Sedegadac moxda. wina imperiidan memkvidreobiT gadmosuli, sruliad amorfuli nazavis, destruqciul-feTqebadi muxtis momcveli `adamianuri masalis~ axal, `sabWoTa sazogadoebad~ gardasaxva, anu morCileba-daqvemdebarebis axal CarCoTa Camoyalibeba stalinma swored winamorbedTa Secdomis gaTvaliswinebis Sedegad moaxerxa. man dasavluri sivrcidan Tavisufali sityvis, azrisa Tu ideebis ukontrolo Semosvlac SezRuda da kompartiis winaswarmetyvelur codnasTan Tu wvdomasTan naziareb gadawyvetilebaTa ueWveli marTebulobac daakanona. sabWoeTis didma beladma represiul da ideologiur meTodTa SeTanadebis wyalobiT jer `ukve gaubedurebulTa gauvnebelyofac~ moaxerxa da Semdgom _ aumRvrevel gonTa `gadarCenasac~ amgvaradve mihyo xeli. xelovnebis nawarmoebTa ideologiuri Sefasebisas xSirad gamoTqmuli misi cnobili fraza _ `sabWoTa adamians es ar sWirdeba~ _ amgvari mcdelobis miamit da `Seuryvnel sulTa~ mzrunveli mofrTxilebis erT-erT naTel gamovlenas warmoadgens. Tumca, proletariatis didi beladis misia mxolod `ubedurebaTa amrideblis~ movaleobiT ar unda SemosazRvruliyo. dasavluri sivrcisagan gammijnav `rkinis fardas~ Tu membranas sabWoTa sazogadoebis ideologiuri ubiwobis dacvisa da mofrTxilebis garda, msoflioSi progresuli msoflmxedvelobisa da sabWouri keTildReobis miTis ganvrcoba, e. i. saTanado `gzavnilTa~ ukumimarTulebiT gatarebac evaleboda. wina sauku-

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nis samocdaaTian wlebamde stalinis nebiTa da ZalisxmeviT mogvarebul am saqmes ideologiur-propagandistuli manqanis mesveurni sakmao warmatebiTac uZRvebodnen. sabWoTa imperia dasavlur samyaros misganve gadmoRebuli miRwevebis sanacvlod, dasesxebul industriul teqnologiebze dafuZnebuli Zalmosilebis Tavsmoxvevis muqaris garda, aseve dasavluri warmomavlobis socialur ganazrebaTa saxvevebSi SefuTul `ideologiur alternativasa~ da utopiuri sinamdvilis cru anarekls, mis virtualur aCrdilsac ubrunebda... XIX saukunis Sua periodis evropaSi fexadgmuli da meore msoflio omis Semdgom, stalinis wyalobiT momZlavrebuli `komunizmis aCrdilis~ Zalmosil-gavleniani svla swored maSin Seferxda, roca profeturi, winaswarmetyveluri SepirebiT, `miwieri samoTxis~ damamyarebel am moZRvrebas triumfaluri gamarjveba unda ezeima. sainteresosTan erTad, sagulisxmo isic unda iyos, rom dasavluri ideis `aCrdilis~ Tu misi `ganStoebis~, komunisturi msoflxedvis gaufasurebasTan erTad, Tavad `modernuli proeqtis~ aRmavali svlis sakiTxic gaxda sakamaTo. ori koncefciis _ `moderni~ Tu `postmoderni~ _ dapirispirebac swored komunisturi ideologiis kraxis paralelurad moxda. es movlena, rogorc Cans, siRrmiseul-sazrisuli logikis kanonzomier gamovlenas unda warmoadgendes. kiTxva _ `dasrulda Tu ara moderni?~ _ sakmaod vrcel da mravlismomcvel gansjas moiTxovs. Tumca, amjerad, zemoT ganxilulis gaTvaliswinebiT, modernuli proeqtis aqamde miRebul warmodgenaSi uneburada da gauTvaliswineblad Sesuli erTi uzustoba Tu cToma mainc SeiZleba moiniSnos. miuxedavad imisa, rom erTni modernis sawyiss aRorZinebidan iTvlian, xolo meoreni, am proeqts mxolod axali evropis epoqas ukavSireben, orive xedva uwyveti da Tanmimdevruli ganviTarebis sqemis farglebs mainc ar scildeba. arada, orgvari, aRorZinebiseuli, `proeqciuli~ da socialuri, `proeqtuli~ saxis utopiaTa arseboba imas unda migvaniSnebdes, rom gzaTa gayra swored qronologiuri mimdevrobis miRma, sazrisul wiaRSi moxda. ganmanaTleblur ganazrebaSi warmoqmnili erTian-msofl-


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mxedvelobrivi warmodgenis wyveta Tu mimarTebaTa gaoreba6 Semdgomma, Tanaswor da samarTlian sazogadoebaTa revoluciur gardatexaTa gareSe Camoyalibebis Tu danergvis `social-utopiurma~ mcdelobam calsaxa mimarTebiT Caanacvla. aRorZinebiseuli, erTiani xedvis saboloo rRveva swored aq, sazogadoebis kanonzomieri ganviTarebis social-utopistTa `miamitur~ warmodgenaSi moxda. aqedan moyolebuli, sazogadoebis ganviTarebis Semdgom warmoSobili yvela modeli da socialuri Teoria, rogorc wesi, obieqtur, adamianisgan damoukidebel da droSi gamovlenad kanonzomierebas esadageboda. aRmavali ganviTarebis calsaxa sqemis `siswores~ Tu `marTebulobas~, XX saukunis 70-ian wlebamde, yvelaze naTlad da yvelaze TvalsaCinod swored modernuli modelis ukiduresi saxesxvaobis, revoluciurad SemarTuli komunisturi msoflmxedvelobis Zalmosili svla avlenda. marqsistuli moZRvrebis srul kraxs ki, Tavad modernuli proeqtis `amowurvis~ Tu misi dasrulebis sakiTxis win wamoweva sruliad kanonzomierad, swored imave calsaxa logikis ukuqcevis Tanaxmad da Sesabamisadac unda gamoewvia...

erTiani, aRorZinebiseuli warmodgenis ganxilvas wina werili mieZRvna. ix.: `renesansuli `adamianuri ganzomileba~, proeqcia da modernuli proeqti~ _ kreb. `semiotika~ 7, Tb. 2010, gv. 185-197.
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WeSmariteba, interpretacia da perspeqtivizmis problemebi nicSes ,,ase ityoda zaratustras mixedviT


"mcnebari uxalisod Sedis wyalSiara odes WeSmariteba uwminduria, aramed odes igi mdabalia" nicSe, ,,umankoebisaTvis" aTasia biliki, romliTac aravis uvlia, aTasia jansaRoba da faruli kunZulebi cxovrebisa, uwuravia da kidev ar aRmoCenila adamiani da miwa adamianisa.' nicSe, ,,gamRebi siqvelisaTvis~ ,,...zrda hqvia: ganxvna saqanelni cisani da amave dros miwis ukunSi fesvi gaidga, rom yoveli davargebuli mxolod maSin Rvivis, roca adamiani orive Tanabrad aris: mzadfmyofili uzenaesi zecis mowodebisaTvis da marCenali miwis kalTas Sefarebuli,''martin haidegeri ,,TemSara''

filologiis doqtori, baTumis rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: ,,baZvis filosofiuri koncepti da misi rusTveluri interpretacia, (2008); ,,g. tabiZe klsikur da modernistul paradigmaTa konteqstSi (2008); ,,sicilis poetika uaxles mxatvrul azrovnebaSi(2009); ,,teqstis gagebis Tanamedrove problemebi (2010); ,,zRvarze yofnis poetika (g. alxaziSvilis poezia)(2010); romani da ,,sinamdvile (2011). interesTa sfero: literaturis kritika. filosofia.

Semecnebis tradiciul TeoriebSi Semecnebis mizans WeSmaritebis dadgena warmoadgenda. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi gnoseologiuri TvalsazrisiT igi moiazreboda, rogorc absoluturi, aucilebeli da sayovelTao (aristotele),


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xolo ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT _ subieqt-obieqtis diqotomiaze dafuZnebuli idealuri transcendenturi yofiereba (platoni). nicSes perspeqtivizmis Teoria WeSmaritebis sayovelTaobasa da absolutizms upirispirebs interpretaciis gagebas, romlis gnoseologiuri sazrisi absoluturis nacvlad ukavSirdeba usasrulo perspeqtivaTa pluralizms, xolo ontologiur sazrisi igive maradi dabrunebis ideaa. gnoseologiur da ontologiur sazrisTa gadamkveTi ki aris ara RvTiuri transcendentaloba, aramed imanenturi sawyisi adamianisa _ Zalauflebis neba. perspeqtivizmis mixedviT, Semecnebis mizani ar aris codnis dagroveba. teleologizmisa da progresis uaryofa ukavSirdeba codnis dagrovebisa da Tanmimdevruli zrdis SesaZleblobis uaryofasac. Semecnebis iracionaluri ganviTareba saWiroebda ara ubralod racionalisturi msoflmxedvelobis uaryofas, aramed arsebobis tradiciul sayrdenTa mimarT gaucxoebas, yvelaferi, rac nacnobi iyo manam, unda gamxdariyo ucnobi: sagnebsa da movlenebs CamoSoreboda maTi mniSvnelobebi, gaucxoebuliyvnen, wesrigi dabruneboda qaosur sawyiss. swored am sawyisTan abrunebs nicSe adamianis azrovnebas, anu rogorc Zveli berZnebi ityodnen ,,qaosSi, rogorc _ RvTaebriv wesrigSi~.'' aqedan: sadac qaosia, sadac wesrigisaTvis winaswardadgenili safuZvlebi ar arsebobs (an aRar muSaobs), arc WeSmariteba arsebobs. qaosi es aris interpretaciisa da enobrivi TamaSebis usasrulo sivrce, ,,WeSmariteba ki dedakaci, romelsac aqvs ufleba, fskeri ar dagvanaxos~ (nicSe). nicSes iracionalizmi, racionalizmis sapirispirod, arsebobis safuZvlad da damdgenad ganixilavs ara raime obieqtur safuZvels, aramed aracnobier sawyiss, SemTxveviTobas, brma nebas. Sesabamisad, perspeqtivizmi gulgrilia samyaros namdvilyofis tradiciuli ontologiuri safuZvlebis mimarT da Semecneba refleqsuri sivrcidan mTlianad nebelobiT-emociur sivrceSi gadahyavs. perspeqtivizmisaTvis amosavalia ara samyaros, rogorc TavisTavad arsebulis, Cvengan damoukideblis namdvilyofa, aramed samyaros namdvilyofa adamianis sulieri cxovrebis dinamizmSi.

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amdenad, samyaro ar aris erTjeradi. gancdis mravalgzisoba mravalgziss xdis TviTon samyaros arsebobas. TviTdadgenis permanentuli wertilebi, rogorc adamianis eqsistencialuri punqtebi, ar eqvemdebarebian maTematikur Sejamebas, radgan aseTi ,,Sejameba raRac sazrisis dadgenas niSnavs. garda amisa, es wertilebi ikargebian mexsierebis sicarieleSi, anu kargaven mniSvnelobiT sixSireebs, ris gamoc isini arsebiTad mouxelTebelni arian: es aris uwarsulo da umomavlo mdgomareoba (rac niSnavs, rom warsulica da momavalic awmyos ipostasebia). aq ar arsebobs araviTari determinaciuli xazi, monakveTi. es aris ufro wyvetilebi, romlebic mxolod sakuTari TaviT ganimartebian da ar eqvemdebarebian arsebobis raime logikur sistemas, radgan nebismieri sistema (moraluric, maT Soris) istoriis konteqstSi arsebobs. WeSmaritebaTa pluralizmi ki istorias Slis. igi TviTon warmodgeba TviTkmar mocemulobad, romelsac ar axasiaTebs droiT mTlianobasTan dakavSirebuli istoriis maxasiaTebeli sazrisi. aqedan, adamiani ki ar aris istoriaSi, aramed istoriaa adamianSi. raoden nivelirebulic unda iyos istoriis, rogorc sazrisiseuli procesis, mniSvneloba adamianis SigniT, swored am nivelirebiT mniSvnelobs igi. istoria, sazrisi gauCinarebulia, magram ara gamqrali da Tavis rols sicarielis konturebis moniSvniT asrulebs... nicSes perspeqtivizmi ar aris demokratiuli Teza, romelic nebismieri interpretaciis (rogorc WeSmaritebis) legitimacias SeiZleba axdendes. es aris sicocxlis damdgeni gageba, romelic miiRweva Sinagani nebiT, samyaros mimarT dasturyofiT, da, am dasturyofaSi sakuTari pirovnuli nebis ganxorcielebiT, romelsac SeeZleba, ara ubralod zidos cxovreba, warsuli, istoria, aramed gaimeoros igive da ganaTavsos igi maradiul awmyoSi, romelic warsulisa da momavlis idumali gadakveTaa da morCilebisa da Zlevis iracionaluri paradoqsic... rac Seexeba perspeqtivizmis aqsiologiur mxares, cxadia, aq erTaderTi RirebulebiTi absoluti aris sicocxle. Rirebulebebi unda warmoadgendes ara miznebs, aramed sicocxlis ganxorcielebis formebs, ramdenadac es formebi ganusazRvrelia da individualuri _ amdenad nicSes perspeqtivizmi afuZnebs imoralizms. pirovnuli srulqmnis gza dafarulia. srulqmnis ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelia moraluri kliSeebisagan Tavisufle-


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ba. es aris nicSes civi, sastiki pozicia, romelic aSiSvlebs moralur crurwmenebsa Tu spekulacias... perspeqtivizmi interpretaciisa da WeSmaritebis Taviseburi sinTezia. magram rogor SeiZleba igi warmoadgendes amgvar sinTezs, Tu interpretacia WeSmaritebis tradiciul gaazrebas angrevs? nicSe ar uaryofs Zvel terminebs, igi Signidan angrevs maT. am nangrevebze ki axal mniSvnelobaTa damynobis'perspeqtivas qmnis. es ukve aRar aris WeSmariteba, tradiciuli gagebiT. WeSmariteba, romelic aristoteles ganmartebiT da mis Semdgom, ukavSirdeboda aucileblobisa da savaldebulobis predikatebs, xolo platonis tradiciiT _ idealurs, nicSesTan icvleba pluralizmiT. nicSe Tavisi ,,CaquCis filosofiiT angrevs azrovnebis tradiciul formebs da uaryofs filosofiuri azrovnebis meTodologiur poziciebs. rogorc TviTon ambobs, Slis Zvel sjulis ficars da gvTavazobs axals. magram is ar axdens am siaxlis racionalur fiqsacias. amitomac nicSes azrovneba interpretaciis farTo vels qmnis. sakiTxi SeiZleba davsvaT ase: Tu yvelaferi WeSmaritia, maSin arc araferi araa WeSmariti. meore mxriv, Tu WeSmariteba ar arsebobs, maSin relativizmic ar SeiZleba arsebobdes. gnoseologiuri relativizmi jer kidev heraklitesa da protagorasTan gvaqvs, romelsac upirispirdeba platonis ontologia... nicSes pluralizmi efuZneba subieqt-obieqtis diqotomiis gauqmebas. warmarTuli miTologiuri azrovnebisTvis ucxo iyo amgvari diqotomia. arc aRmosavluri sibrZne (budizmi, romelsac nicSe sulis higienas uwodebda) afuZnebs masze WeSmaritebis gagebas. nirvana swored subieqt-obieqtis ganzavebis aqtSi miiRweva, romelSic adamiani Seicnobs samyarosTan sakuTar erTianobas. erTianobis cnobierebis dakargvis _ RmerTisagan mowyvetis gamoxatulebaa _ adamisa da evas codviTdacema da samoTxidan gamoZevebac, bibliis mixedviT. perspeqtivizmi, rogorc SemecnebiTi koncefcia, nicSesTan ar warmoadgens sistemur Teorias, nicSe winaaRmdegi iyo yovelgvari sistematizaciis. perpeqtivizmi, Tu ki mas ganvixilavT rogorc Teorias, mTel mis SemoqmedebaSia gabneuli da ukavSirdeba iseT konceptebs, rogorebicaa igives maradiuli dabruneba, Zalauflebis neba da zekacis idea.

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nicSes perspeqtivizmi sivrcis maorganizebeli warmodgenaa. amdenad, gamocdileba, romliTac samyaros droiTi konstruireba xdeboda, aq gamousadegaria. tradiciul subieqt-obieqtis diqotomiaSi obieqti yovelTvis iyo subieqtis gareT da Tavis gnoseologiur Tu ontologiur sinamdvileSi gaxldaT idumali, dafaruli, is, rac saWiroebda gacxadebas. racionalizmi, romelic dafaruls, ,,TavisTavad sagnebs'Cveni empiriuli codnis miRma ayenebda, maT (,,TavisTavadi sagnebis) Semecnebas varaudebis sferoSi ganixilavda da xazs usvamda adamianuri gonis SezRudulobas, wvdes dafaruls, anu imas, rac misi gamocdilebebis, droisa da sivrcis miRmaa. nicSe subieqt-obieqtis diqotomiaSi abaTilebs transcendentur sazriss da obieqti subieqtis sivrceSi gadmoaqvs. anu individSi xdeba subieqt-obieqtis gaerTmniSvnelianeba, sakuTari Tavis obieqtivacia. maSasadame, am Sinagan diqotomiaSi adamiani valdebulia daadginos Tavisi arsebobis sazrisi, WeSmariteba, rac mdgomareobs sakuTar TavSi arsebuli subieqt-obieqtis identobis miRwevaSi. adamianuri arsebobis sazrisi amgvari Sinagani moZraobaa. magram ramdenadac diqotomiis gamaerTmniSvnelianebeli individia, da ar arsebobs aranairi garegani fiqsirebuli transcendenturi centri, saiTkenac SeiZleba miemarTebodes Sinagani moZraoba, WeSmaritebac sazrisTa wertilebia, romlebic aiTvleba da dinamikuria. interpretacia nicSesTan aris matafizikuri azrovnebisagan gaTavisuflebis gza. magram, rogorc Tavad ambobs, gaTavisufleba ar aris Tavisufleba. Tu gaTavisuflebas Tavisufleba _ sakuTari Tavis povna _ ar mohyveba, umjobesia, adamiani Zvel RirebulebaTa erTguli darCes. Tavisuflebas gansazRvravs adamianis Sinagani neba, daafuZnos sakuTari Tavi ise, rogorc mas esmis da warmoudgenia. magram mxolod warmodgenebi da survilebi ar kmara. Zalauflebis neba aris is, riTac adamiani axdens sakuTari cxovrebis dafuZnebas, gamyarebas. xolo sazrisi am dafuZnebisa, mamoZravebeli am Zalisa aris igives maradiuli dabruneba anu sakuTari warsulis mimarT, samyaros mimarT ,,hos'' Tqma. amgvari ,,ho'aris ara morCileba, aramed ganzaveba, bunebaSi gadasvla. e.i. is, rasac am gardasvliT veziarebiT, aris WeSmariteba. gamodis, WeSmariteba aris ara ,,kompasi, romelic moZraobis swor veqtors windawin gansazRvravs, aramed iracionaluri


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fenomeni, romelic ar SeiZleba mogeces, rogorc codna. is mxolod gamocdilebiTia, gveZleva SegrZnebebSi da Seicnoba intuiciurad. amgvarad gagebuli WeSmaritebis Tanaxmad adamiani warmoadgens mudmivi gardamavlobis poziciaSi. misi qronotoposi aris gza da zRvari. ,,gza qristes simbolocaa (,,me var gzai). es gza veqtorulia da adamians ayenebs miwier da zecier, realur da transcendentur xdomilebaTa zRvarTan. nicSes ,,gza aris igives maradiuli dabrunebis uwyveti moZraoba, romelSic gadailaxeba adamianis Sinagani mijnebi, yoveli amgvari gadalaxva aris adamianis SigniT moqceuli cisa da miwis gadakveTa da amiT _ Tavisuflebis ganxorcieleba. perspeqtivis matarebeli aris mogzauri, ,,Tezevsi Zafis gareSe, romlis mizani TavisTavadi mogzaurobaa. am miznis miRweva kasridan'SeuZlebelia, raoden zustic unda iyos adamianis warmosaxviTi proeqciebi imisa, rac sinamdvileSi arsebobs, amgvari proeqciiT samyaros sivrciTi sazrisis Secnoba SeuZlebelia. mogzaurobis, rogorc gamocdilebiTi Semecnebis, empiriuli codnis Teza nicSesTan svams gamosaxvis sakiTxs. tradiciuli gamomsaxvelobiTi forma aq ver gamodgeba. radgan asaxvis sagania gamotovebuli da/an daviwyebuli adgilebi, teritoriebi, sadac adamiani jer ar yofila. amitom maTi amsaxveli ena Sesaqmnelia. am mogzaurobis aRmweri funqcia SeiZleba itvirTos metaforam. swored aq dgeba subieqtisa da obieqtis diqotomiis gauqmebis faqti, romelic nicSes enaSi _ metaforaSi gadawydeba da wvdomis iracionalur perspeqtivas qmnis. ,,imaT Soris, rasac vxedavT, xilvadia da rasac xilvads veZaxiT, arsebobs wyveta, acdena, radganac subiqtursa da obieqturs Soris, rogorc amas nicSe miiCnevda, verasodes davadgenT swori aRqmis (die richtige Perception) procedurebs. ar aris da arc SeiZleba arsebobdes obieqtis adekvaturi asaxva subieqtSi, maT Soris ar arsebobs aranairi kauzaloba, aranairi siswore, araviTari gamosaxva, aramed maT Soris aris iseTi umaRlesi esTetikuri damokidebuleba (Ubertragung) Targmani, gadatana, romelic msgavsia arasrulyofili Targmanisa sruliad ucxo enaze. gadatana warmoadgens metafizikuri Wvretis arss. ,,ors'' Soris am wyvetaSi metafora asrulebs semantikuri operatoris rols, romelsac gadaaqvs ra erTi meoreSi, xazs usvams maT gadauWrel gansxvavebas da amiTve aiZulebs azrs, vibrirebdes er-

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Ti da imave movlenis sapirispirod. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, metafizikuri Tvali _ ai, ra dominirebs nicSes e.w. Sinagan mogzaurobaSi. mas, rac uxilavia, miuRwevadia, miuwvdomelia, rac dayofilia, dafantulia da gabneuli, SeuZlia Tavisi Tavi ipovos mogzaurobaSi, romelSic batonobs metaforuli xilvis Zala. swored es Zala aniWebs sivrciT saxeebs Tavisuflebas, izidavs mogzaurs qmnadobis nakadSi. metaforuli xedva nicSesi ar axdens azris ilustrirebas da arc misi ornamentebia. azrovneba gulisxmobs, gagebebs daubruno Tavisi pirvandeli azri, metaforuli bmis Zala, romelic ukve daviwyebulia, waSlilia cnebiT enaze. dakvirvebad samyaroSi metaforas Seaqvs uamravi distancia da pozicia dakvirvebisaTvis... Tavisi energiiT igi iZleva yovlisSemZle eqsperiments drosTan, dro metaforaSi feTqdeba, iRvreba nakadebad, aviTarebs qarborbalebs da ar SeiZleba Sesabamisi iyos drosTan, sworxazovnad, wrfivad mdinare drosTan (4.153). dabolos, nicSes perspeqtivizmi es aris samyaros sivrciTi proeqcia, romelic samyaros cnebiTi, racionaluri ilustraciis nacvlad warmogvidgens metaforas, iracionalur sivrces ara mxolod rogorc asaxvis Tavisuflebis, aramed _ rogorc gagebis Tavisuflebis sivrces. nicSes WeSmaritebis pluralizmi esaa misi (WeSmaritebis) mouxelTebloba, sxltoma, ganmartebuli metaforiT. amiTve gamoixateba TviTon samyarosa da sazrisis cvladi, dinamikuri, mouxelTebeli buneba. am igiveoba-acdenis (asaxulisa da asasaxis) amsaxveli mxolod metafora SeiZleba iyos. metafora aris azris moZraobis Tavisufali da usazRvro sivrce da ara perspeqtivaTa warmomSobi saTave, romelic marto tovebs adamians samyaros xedva-gancdebis winaSe, romelSic raime garegani mediacia SeuZlebelia. gadaTargmnis'msjelobis sagani SeiZleba iyos mediatori, mediaciuri elementi subieqtsa da obieqts Soris. magram ramdenadac es diqotomia transcendenturidan adamianis imanentur bunebaSia gadmotanili, misi garegani dakvirvebis instrumenti ar arsebobs da arc SeiZleba arsebobdes. is SeiZleba gadmoices Tavad ganmcdelis mier, romlis komunikaciur iaraRad isev metafora SeiZleba mogvevlinos.


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ase rom, perspeqtivizmi aris adamianisa da samyaros imanentur _ metaforuli jaWvis kvanZi, romelic imdenad gauxsnelia, rom Riaa Tavisufali interpretaciisaTvis... gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. 2. 3. nicSe f. ase ityoda zaratustra, Targ. i.tatiSvilisa, Tb, 1993 nicSe f. Txzulebani 2 tomad, rusul enaze, m. 1990 , ?. , 8 1953 , : Wer ist Nietzsches Zarathustra?// Vortrage und Aufsitze. Teil I. Pfullmgen: Neske, 1967. S. 93-118. c . . . : . ., 2000. 1. .5065. , : , Ad Marginem, 1995. TevzaZe g. me-20 saukunis filosofiis istoria, Tb; 2002 ebanoiZe m. teleologizmis, progresis, ,,erTianobis kritika, ix. diskursi, q; 2006 buaCiZe T. WeSmaritebis obieqturobis Sesaxeb, Tb; 1964 buaCiZe T. sicocxlis filosofia, Tb; 1991

4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

salome omiaZe

yofis semiotikis sakiTxisaTvis


adamianis yoveldRiuri cxovreba mraval niSanTa sistemas aerTianebs. niSnadoba axasiaTebT sagnebs, sacxovrebels, samoss, qcevas, socialur institutebs, profesiebs, teqnikasa da teqnologiebs, metyvelebasa da mraval sxvas _ yvelaferi es kulturis enebia, romelTa gareSe adamianuri yofa ver iqneba. niSnebisa da niSanTa sistemebis Semswavleli mwyobri mecnieruli sistemaa axalgazrda, Torem Tanamedrove semiotikis ideebi uxvadaa XIX-XX saukunis enaTmecnier-filosofosTa: humboldtis, potebnias, biuleris, boduen de kurtenes naSromebSi. semiotikis wanamZRvrebis Zebna ufro adridan rom daviwyoT, netari avgustine unda vaxsenoT. Tu niSnebis dasaxelebasac siZvelis mixedviT movindomebT, unda aRvniSnoT, rom erT-erTi uZvelesi niSani Tavad adamiania _ `Seqmna RmerTman kaci saxed Tvisad da xatad RmrTisa Seqmna, igi~ (dab. 1, 27), da im wuTidan dRemde adamianis amocana ar Secvlila _ igi RmerTisave Seqmnil did niSanTa sistemaSi _ samyaroSi _ cdilobs gzis gakvlevasa da adgilis povnas.

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `SeuZlebeli Sexamebani~ Tanamedrove poeziis enaSi; qarTuli diskursis lingvokulturul SemadgenelTa struqtura, semantika da funqcionireba; qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeuli _ lingvokulturologiur kvlevaTa fundamenturi wyaro; erovnul-kulturuli konceptebi: `bedi~, `wuTisofeli~ Targmanis adekvaturobis Sesaxeb kognitiuri midgomis TvalsazrisiT. interesTa sfero: stilistika, ritorika, kognitiuri lingvistika, semiotika, lingvokulturologia.


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am amocanis Sesruleba kulturis kodebis codnisa da gamoyenebis gareSe SeuZlebelia. maTi aTviseba advili ar aris. yvela sazogadoeba fenebisagan Sedgeba, romelTagan TiToeuls sakuTari niSanTa sistema aqvs. yvela es fena konkretul sazogadoebriv institutad gardaiqmneba da Seqmnil garemoebaTa gamo, maT sakuTari gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebi uCndebaT. rogorc wesi, calkeuli niSnebis codna sakmarisi ar aris, maTi erT sistemad gaerTianeba da adekvaturad aRqma-gamoyeneba mxolod im SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli, Tu adamiani Tavad aris am sistemis wevri. yofiTi kulturis enebi obieqtur garemoebebsa da sazogadoebis ganviTarebis kanonzomierebebzea damokidebuli, iqneba es politikuri Tu ekonomikuri krizisi, revoluciuri cvlilebebi, sazogadoebis ganviTarebis mSvidi etapi Tu sxv. Tavis mxriv, yoveldRiurobis kulturaze gavlenas axdens rogorc bunebrivi ena, aseve yvela is kodi, romelTa komutirebac xdeba sazogadoebaSi. swored yofis semiotikis codnazea mniSvnelovanwilad damokidebuli adamianis nebismieri warmateba. visac es ara aqvs gacnobierebuli, ukvirs, metic, usamarTlobad miaCnia, rodesac gansakuTrebul niWierebas moklebuli adamianebi WeSmaritad niWier adamianebze met warmatebas aRweven. Tu am movlenis kanonzomierebaze msjeloba Cveni kvlevis farglebs scildeba, am movlenis arsi Cveni kvlevis uSualo sagania. warmatebamde aseT adamianebs saSualo, arafriT gamorCeul, Cveulebriv adamianebad moixsenieben, amiT maTi saSualoobis xazgasma surT. saSualooba ki iseTi Sefasebaa, romelic, erTi SexedviT, warmatebulobasTan axlosac ar unda idges, magram marTlac mxolod erTi SexedviT _ es TiTqos Cveulebrivi adamianebi araCveulebrivebi da gamorCeulebi imiT arian, rom kargad ician mocemuli sociumisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli aucilebeli kodebi, zedmiwevniT aqvT gaTavisebuli pirobiTobaTa sistema, rasac lomis wili udevs maT warmatebaSi. adamiani garesamyaros akustikuri, taqtiluri da vizualuri arxebis saSualebiT Seimecnebs. swored es xdis yofas polilingvurs. igi odiTganve anTropomorfulad aRiqvams garemos, rac komunikaciur sivrceTa gansxvavebul tipebs qmnis. bevri xalxi mzes scemda Tayvans, rogorc _ siTbosa da sinaTlis, rogorc sicocxlis wyaros. es damokidebuleba ukavSirdeboda sxvadasxva opozicias, magaliTad, droiTs: dRe _ Rame, zafxuli

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_ zamTari; sivrciTs: aRmosavleTi _ dasavleTi, samxreTi _ CrdiloeTi; miTopoetikursa da religiurs: naTeli _ bneli; sicocxle _sikvdili; bedniereba _ ubedureba; sikeTe _ boroteba da sxv. kulturul enaTa gansxvavebulobis miuxedavad, arsebobs garkveuli kanonzomierebani, romlebic ganapirobeben kulturaTa urTierTgagebasa da daaxloebas. nebismieri enis aRmoceneba praqtikuli saWiroebiTaa nakarnaxebi. es praqtikuli saWiroeba ki saerToa sxvadasxva xalxisaTvis. swored es saerTo warmoadgens im niSnebis safuZvels, romlebic meore enaze uTargmneladac gasagebia. nebismieri sagani Tu movlena, romelic semiotikuri TvalsazrisiT, niSnis statuss imsaxurebs, mraval asociacias aRZravs, sxvadasxvagvar simbolur kavSirTa rTul sistemaSia CarTuli. yofis semiotika yvelaze srulad xelovnebaSi aisaxeba. xelovneba realurad arsebulis modelirebas axdens, Tumca, zogjer xelovnebis nawarmoebs SeuZlia Tavad ukarnaxos sazogadoebas cxovrebis wesebi, garkveuli niSnebi, romlebic Semdeg sazogadoebis mier modelirebul kvlav xelovnebis nimuSebSi SeiZleba aisaxos. ase rom, semiotikuri kodebis codna yofasa Tu xelovnebaSi erTnairad mniSvnelovania. Tu SeiZleba universalur semiotikur kodebze saubari, erT-erTi maTgani sinaTlea. naTeli yofasa da xelovnebaSi gansakuTrebul komunikaciur sivrces qmnis. misi semantika uZvelesi droidan dRemde did interess iwvevs. adamianis garemomcvel samyaroSi sinaTle mkveTrad gamoirCeva simbolurobiT. misi simbolika met-naklebad imiT sxvaobs, Tu, diskursis romeli saxeobis Semadgenlad gvevlineba igi. zemoT yofiTi kulturis enebisa da obieqturi garemoebebis damokidebuleba vaxseneT. eleqtronaTuris sinaTle, romelic, TiTqos, yofis Cveulebrivi niSania, sul sxvadasxva konotaciiT SeiZleba daitvirTos sxvadasxva socialur konteqstSi. ramdenime aTeuli wlis win, rodesac saqarTveloSi energokrizisi mZvinvarebda da TiTqmis mTeli qveyana Cabnelebuli iyo, zogierTi binis fanjrebSi gaCaxCaxebuli WaRebis sinaTle absoluturad sxva semiotikur niSnad gvevlineboda. dRes, rodesac energokrizisi daZleulia, zogierTi binis fanjrebSi gaCaxCaxebuli WaRebis sinaTle sxva fanjrebidan mokrZalebulad gamomavali TiTo naTuris Suqis fonze sul sxva konotaciis mqonea.


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ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi didi raodenobiT eleqtroenergiis xarjva, misi maRali safasuridan gamomdinare, mxolod materialuri simdidris niSania, romelic adamianma sakuTari SromiTac SeiZleba daagrovos. magram pirvel magaliTad moxmobil viTarebaSi, sayovelTao wyvdiadSi gabrwyinebuli WaRebi ara imdenad simdidris, ramdenadac TavkerZobis, gulgrilobisa da udidesi cinizmis niSnadac ki aRiqmeba im sazogadoebaSi, romlis yofiT-kulturul tradiciaTa mixedviT, naTesavis, megobris, mezoblisa da zogadad _ gansacdelSi myofi adamianis _ TanagrZnoba da Tanadgoma Cveulebrivi ram aris. sinaTle qarTuli erovnuli konceptsferos nawilia. es kulturuli koncepti, rogorc semiotikuri niSani, nasazrdoebia sxvadasxva diskursSi SeZenili maxasiaTeblebiT. naTlis esTetikasa da naTlis qristianuli simbolikis sakiTxebs araerTi gamokvleva (maT Soris qarTulic) eZRvneba. Cveni mizania, ganvixiloT am konceptis erT-erTi Semadgeneli _ naTlis sveti _ romelic igive naTelia da romlis gauTvaliswineblad sinaTlis konceptis aRwera sruli ver iqneba. sakvlevi Sesityveba umciresi konteqstia, sadac sityva sveti masTan gramatikulad da semantikurad dakavSirebul meore sityvasTan erTad ganixileba. es meore sityva _ naTeli, pirvelis semantikur Zvrebs iwvevs. aq `pirveli~ da `meore~ pirobiTad SeiZleba vixmaroT, radgan, roca semantikur mimarTebazea laparaki, mniSvneloba ara aqvs arc sityvaTa ganlagebis rigs da arc imas, romeli sityvaa sintaqsurad sayrdeni da romeli masze damokidebuli. warmmarTveli sityva SesityvebaSi SeiZleba sintaqsurad damokidebuli iyos (Sdr.: eWvis Wia = eWvs, abreSumis Wia = Wias). amasTanave, semantikuri mimarTeba calmxrivi rodia, igi urTierTmimarTebaa or sityvas Soris, romlebic erTmaneTis mikrokonteqstebia da romlebic erTmaneTis semantikur struqturebSi `monawileoben~. qegl-is ganmartebiT, sveti sagangebo kvarcxlbekze dadgmuli an miwaSi CarWobili swori Zeli an qvis, aguris da misT. maRali da viwro nagebobaa. mas eyrdnoba Weri, koWi, aivani da sxv., aseve _ moedanze an quCaSi aRmarTuli aseTive nageboba raime istoriuli ambis aRsaniSnavad. bibliis leqsikonSic es pirdapiri mniSvneloba aqvs svets, svetebs (Ze-lebs, Zeglebs) maSinac aRmarTavdnen raimes gasaxseneblad da Rirssaxsovar movlenaTa aRsaniSnavad (omiaZe 2009:93). iqve gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT

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uxmariaT zecaTa Seuryevlobis, miwis Seuryevlobis, eklesiis, qristes, qristes mier ganmtkicebul wmindanTa aRsaniSnavad (bibl. leqs. 2000:142). amgvarad, svetis konceptSi aqtualuri komponentia is, rom igi miwidan zeviT aRmarTuli myari nagebobaa, romelic amyarebs yvelafers, rac mas eyrdnoba. svetis gadataniT mniSvnelobas qegl-i ase ganmartavs: saerTod, grZlad da vertikalurad aRmarTuli an moZravi ram (siTxe, boli da sxv.). saxuravze ... kvamlis sveti amarTuliyo (s. kld.)1; atyda sazareli qari da grigali, datrialda Tovlis sveti (T. razik.); namqeris sveti da sveti / nisliviT caSi trialebs (vaJa 1961:14). bibliis wignebSi gvxvdeba Rrublis sveti, romlidanac ufali elaparakeba moses da ahrons `da suetiTa RrublisaTa etyoda maT~ (fsal. 98:6). Rrubeli Tan sdevda israelT mTeli mogzaurobis manZilze udabnoSi: `xolo RmerTi uZRoda maT dRisi ukue suetiTa RrublisaTa ... da ara moaklda sueti igi Rrublisa dRisi da sueti cecxlisa Rame yovlisa erisa (gam. 13:21-22). svetisa da naTlis semantikuri mimarTeba mkvidrdeba da xSirad ixsenieba ukve qristianul literaturaSi. `vefxistyaosanSi~ igi ramdenimegan gvxvdeba: maT samTa Svidni mnaTobni hfarven naTlisa svetiTa (1409); indoeTs zeciT sinaTle Cadga, marT viTa svetia (1617); sad wahxe da sad dahkargen sinaTlisa ege svetni? (821). pirvel or taepSi zeciur sinaTlezea laparaki, svetisa da naTlis semantikuri mimarTeba qristianul literaturaSi damkvidrebuli mimarTebaa. 1617-e strofi imiTac aris saintereso, rom masSi gaxsnilia metaforis _ (si)naTlis sveti _ Seqmnis meqanizmi, igi metaforizaciis etapze _ Sedarebaze _ miuTiTebs: sinaTle aRweriTad aris Sedarebuli svetTan. SedarebaSi Sesadarebeli (sveti) da Sedarebuli (sinaTle) avtonomiurobas inarCuneben, maSin rodesac, metaforaSi aRniSnuli elementebis
aq da yvelgan, sadac mxolod avtoria miTiTebuli, ilustracia moyvanilia qeglidan.
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Seuqcevadi gardasaxva gvaqvs poetur sinamdviled. amasTanave, aq arsebiTia struqturis elementTa urTierTSesatyvisobis ara realoba, aramed _ mesame mniSvnelobis aqtualizaciis procesi. amitom Sedareba ufro axloa empiriul sinamdvilesTan, metafora ki _ poeturTan. aRniSnuli religiur-kulturuli koncepti kognitiuri metaforis nimuSia. 821-e strofSi avTandilis sikeTe-siqvele igulisxmeba, rac Tan gahyva avTandils, roca is rostevans gaepara tarielis saZebnelad. tarieli nestanTan pirispir Seyris gamo ambobs: gulsa bneli ganminaTlda, zeda lxini adga svetad (409). vuk. beriZis ganmartebiT, taepis azria: `guls bneli gaminaTda da lxini svetad damadga~ (beriZe 1974:142). ufro zedmiwevniT: guls bneli gaminaTda, zed (guls) lxini adga svetad. n. naTaZe amgvar komentars gvTavazobs: `rusTavelis mier naxmari poeturi saxe migvaniSnebs, rom tarielis gulSi sixaruli (`lxini~) naTlis svetiviT Cadga~ (rusTaveli 1974:134). `lxini svetad~ ar gaCndeboda, rom ar yofiliyo naTlis sveti, is ki, Tavis mxriv, da Tavis droze, warmoSva sxivTa nakadis vizualurma msgavsebam xis (qvis) svetTan, xolo, meore mxriv, naTlis sveti, rogorc cidan dedamiwaze daSvebuli sinaTle da siTbo, gaazrianda uzenaesis wyalobad, misi keTili ganwyobis niSnad da amitom _ sixarulis momtanad. qarTul diskursSi aRniSnuli koncepti imave niSnebiT ixmareba, magaliTad _ guramiSvilTan: caTa Sina israelTa sazdo uwvimeo, / egreca naTlis svetiTa Rame avlineo (guramiSvili 1955:98); Savebraldi, Tavs damadga, viT bnels, naTlis sveti (iqve, gv. 213). am ukanaskneli striqonis, romelic mogvyavs leqsidan `zubovka~, aseT interpretacias gvawvdis r. siraZe: `zubovkeli qali _ `siyvaruli~ _ viTarca mediumi _ macxovari. es mediumi RvTisgan momdinare angelozuri Zalaa (`Zali RvTisa~), romelic akavSirebs kacobrivsa da RvTaebrivs ... `naTlis sveti~ siyvarulia~ (siraZe 2005:55). ilia WavWavaZis `gandegilSi~ naTlis sveti RvTis niSania, romliTac amowmebs gandegili Tavis ucodveloba-codvianobas: im sarkmliT sxivi misi senakSi / svetad brwyinvaled CaeSveboda (ilia 1957:155); da kvlav mzis sxivi imave svetad / hnaxa sarkmlidan gadmoSvebuli (iqve, gv. 168).

156

salome omiaZe

amgvarad, naTlis svetis koncepturi komponentebi iqneba: ZiriTadi niSani _ zemodan daSvebuli sinaTlis zoli (sxivi), damatebiTi niSnebi: RvTis niSani, RvTis wyaloba, madli, sikeTe, sixaruli. sxvadasxa diskursSi SeZenili da sinaTlis konceptsa da mis Semadgenel naTlis svetSi akumulirebuli informacia enis frazeologiur fondSi ganaxlda: gamoTqmebi _ naTeli daadgeba (`mamaCems daadges naTeli, me Sen dRe dagayeno! _ a. bel.), naTels daayenebs (`RmerTo, naTeli daayene Cems ded-mamas~ _ r. erisTavi), rac cxonebas niSnavs, naTeli Caudgeba gulSi _ sixaruliT aivseba, naTeli ferebi _ mxiaruli ferebi, mowmoben, rom qarTul cnobierebaSi naTeli, romelsac xSir SemTxvevaSi religiur-msoflmxedvelobrivi datvirTva aRara aqvs, qarTuli kulturis faqtia. araqristianul kulturebSi sinaTlisadmi dadebiTi damokidebulebac imas mowmobs, rom TviT sinaTlis dadebiTi semantika yofis semiotikidan momdinareobs. sinaTle is semiotikuri niSania, romelic, kulturis enaTa gansxvavebulobis miuxedavad, yvelasaTvis gasagebia da am gasagebobas sxvadasxva sistemaSi ganapirobebs misi semantikuri invarianti _ sikeTe.

gamoyenebuli literatura: beriZe 1974: vuk. beriZe, vefxistyaosnis komentari, Tbilisi. bibl. leqs. 2000: bibliis leqsikoni (masalebi), t. I, Printedin theNetherlands. gam. gamosvlaTa, wigni II mosesi, mcxeTuri xelnaweri, Tbilisi, 1981. guramiSvili 1955: d. guramiSvili, daviTiani, Tbilisi. dab. dabadeba, wigni I mosesi, mcxeTuri xelnaweri, Tbilisi, 1981. vaJa 1961: vaJa-fSavela, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. I, Tbilisi. ilia 1957: i. WavWavaZe, Txzulebani, Tbilisi. omiaZe 2009: s. omiaZe, qarTuli diskursis kulturologiuri paradigma, Tbilisi. rusTaveli 1974: SoTa rusTaveli, vefxistyaosani, saskolo


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gamocema (teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, Sesavali, ganmartebani da komentari daurTo n. naTaZem), Tbilisi. siraZe 2005: r. siraZe, daviT guramiSvilis saxismetyveleba // `daviT guramiSvili _ 300~ samecniero Sromebis krebuli, Tbilisi. fsal. fsalmunis daviTisi, mcxeTuri xelnaweri, Tbilisi, 1983. qegli: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. VI, Tbilisi, 1960.

guram yifiani

Zveli samyaros geometriis anasaxebi arqiteqturul detalebze


narkvevi saqarTveloSi qumbaTis velze (siRnaRis r.-ni, md. alaznis marjvena napiri) aRmoCenil zarisebri bazisis1 (sur.1-4) fuZeze da sari-TefeSi (azerbaijani, yazaxis r-ni) mikvleul amave tipis arqiteqturuli detalis2 zedapirze datanil sqemebs eZRvneba. (sur. 9-10). es barierebi svetTaTvis iyo gankuTvnili. Cveni nimuSebi `mxatvruli kanoniT~ savsebiT Seesabameba aqemeniduri iranis centrebsa da aracentrebSi gavrcelebul zarisebr bazisTa modelebs (sur. 18). maT bazisis korpusis Semkulobis erTi da igive sistema axasiaTebT:
n. mamaiaSvili, k. ficxelauri, S. dedabriSvili. kaxeTis arqeologiuri eqspedicia. savele arqeologiuri kvleva-Zieba 1973 w. Tb., 1974. gv. 24. 2 . . , V-IV . .. . 1960. 4. . gv. 162-164. 2; .. , a . V-IV . .. . 1664. 3 gv. 73-74.
1

arqiteqtori da arqeologi, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: kolxeTis da iberiis warmarTuli taZrebi da qarTuli qristianuli xuroTmoZRvrebis warmoSobis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2000; ufliscixe, Tb., 2002; Zveli Tbilisis zoroastruli taZari, Tb., 2009. interesTa sfero: antikuroba da adreqristianuli samyaro.


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bazisis tani gamoxatavs lotosis qvedaSvebuli yvavilis gvirgvins. es mxatvruli kanonia, magram TviT lotosis yvavilis furclebi stilisturad erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba. qumbaTsa da sari-Tefes garda, amdagvari bazisebi kavkasiis kidev ramdenime punqtSi dadasturda: beniaminsa (somxeTi)3, da yarayamirli-yoi-Si (azerbaijani)4. amasTanave, yvela nimuSi samxreT-aRmosavluri bazisebisa stilisturad erTgvarovania da msgavsi nimuSi sxvagan ar gvxvdeba.5 adre gamovTqvi mosazreba, rom bazisTa es kavkasiuri jgufi ufro adreuli nimuSebia, vidre _ TviT aqemeniduri iranis centrebSi mikvleuli, analogiuri `kanonis~ mixedviT Seqmnili detalebi. es ukanasknelni kavkasiuri bazisebis (SesaZloa midiuri saxelmwifoebriobis mier formirebulni) Semdgom srulyofad miviCnie.6 qumbaTisa da sari-Tefes bazisebi, garda imisa, rom identurni arian morTulobis sistemiTa da proporciebiT (Tumc zomebiT erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian), saerTo metrologiuri safuZvliTaca reglamentirebulni arian. sari-Tefes bazisze es safuZveli pirdapiraa asaxuli mis zedapirze (svetis fuZeze). misi diametri 52,5 sm-ia, rac uaxlovdeba, rogor samosur, aseve ioniur da egviptur, e. w. samefo wyrTebs.7
M.H. Zardarian, A.P. Akopian, Archeological excavation of ancient Monuments in Armenia, Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia, 1994. I. #2. gv. 186-187. sur. 6. 4 Il. Babaev, J. Gadoshidze, Fl. Knau. An Achaemenid Palace at Qarajamirli (Azerbaijan). Preliminary.Report on the Excavations in 2006. Ancient Civilizations from to Siberia, 2007. 13. 33-41. 5 g. yifiani. qumbaTi da sari-Tefe. narkvevebi, IV (saiubileo krebuli: nodar lomouri 70) Tb. 1998. gv. 31-51. aqve ixile zarisebr bazisTa Sesaxeb vrceli bibliografia. 6 g. yifiani qumbaTi da sari-Tefe. gv. 41 da Smd.
7
3

samosuri wyrTa utoldeba 0,5250 mm-s g. berves mixedviT, an 0,5245 m-s (g. grubenis mixedviT). ix. .. . . . 1984. gv. 263-264. ionuri wyrTis dadgenili ganzomilebeba 0,52245 m-ia, xolo didi egvipturi (samefo) wyrTisa 0,5236 m-i. ix. H. Bsing. Metrologishe Beitrage (Hand und Fuss) Jiarbuch des Deutshen Archologishen Instituts. tomi 97. 1982. gv. 8-9; i. ciciSvilma sigrZis 52sm-ni mo-

160

guram yifiani

bazisTa fuZis diametrebi, ki 52,5 sm-is, anu Cvens mir pirobiTad wyrTad miCneuli monakveTis 1/10-dan, anu 52,5 mm-is toli ganzomilebidan gamomdinarea da igi orive SemTxvevaSi 1 erTeulis mniSvnelobiT figurirebs. ix. cxrili: sari-Tefe

fuZis diametri 400 mm 1/10 wyrTa X 18 = 892,5 mm.


900 892,5 = 7,58. svetis diametri 525 mm = 1 pirobiT wyrTas lilvis simaRle 132 mm = wyrTas absoluturi sizuste = 13,125 mm. bazisis simaRle 525 mm = 1 wyrTas9 qumbaTi fuZis diametri _ 840 mm 1/10 wyrTa X 16. aq sxva monacemebze ver vilaparakebT, radgan igi daaxloebiT Tavdapirveli simaRlis naxevriT SemogvrCa, horizontalurad gadatexili, mis rekonstruqcias vaxdenT, mis fuZeze datanili sqemisa da nawilobriv, sari-Tefes bazisTan misi Sejerebis Sedegad. rogorc aRvniSneT, qumbaTis bazisis fuZem Semogvinaxa ostatis mier masze Rrma nakawrebiT datanili sqema, (sur. 7),10
nakveTi qarTlis antikuri xanis ZeglebisaTvis (ZiriTadad, armazcixeze gamovlenili nagebobebis metrologiuri analizis Sedegad) wyrTad miiCnia. aseTi varaudi friad saeWvod gamoiyureba, radgan wyrTa, upirvelesad, ufro mcire `metrebis~ ganzomilebaTa erTobliobaa da wiladebis wvlili naSromSi, wyrTad miCneul sigrZis monakveTTan mimarTebiT, gamokveTili araa. ix. i. ciciSvili. Zvel saqarTveloSi xmarebul sigrZis sazomTa Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe, t. IX, #5. Tbilisi 1948, gv. 330-332. 8 sigrZis es umciresi monakveTi 7,5 mm-i yuradRebas imsaxurebs da mas mogvianebiT davubrundebi. 9 aq ar igulisxmeba 10 mm-is simaRlis cilindruli naSveri. igi svetis nawilia da ara bazisisa. 10 bazisis fuZeze arsebul sqemaze mimaniSna profesorma kiazo ficxelaurma da madlierebiT aRvniSnav am faqts.


Zveli samyaros geometriis anasaxebi arqiteqturul detalebze

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rac yvela niSnis mixedviT bazisis mxatvruli da proporciuli srulyofisaTvis SemuSavebuli geometriuli meTodis anasaxia. qumbaTis bazisis fuZe oTx kvadrantadaa dayofili. napovnia wris centri (O)11 da diametrebi wrewirs kveTen A, B, C, D wertilebSi. (sur. 8). bazisis tanze qvedaSvebuli lotosis yvavilis 20 furcelia amokveTili da TiToeuli maTgani ori Sewyvilebuli Rarisagan (kanelurisagan) Sedgeba. e.i. bazisis tani 40 kanelurs Seicavs. amdenad _ gamodis, rom wrewiris TiToeul meoTxedSi yvavilis 5 furceli, anu 10 kaneluri Tavsdeba. wrewiris aseTi danawevreba mainc ar Cans sakmarisi imisaTvis, rom wrewirze zustad dadgindes yoveli kaneluris sazRvari, Tumc masac, rogorc erTgvar makontrolebel saSualebas, azri aqvs. es iqidanac Cans, rom ostats diametrebis wrewirTan gadakveTis wertilebi bazisis cokolzec gadaaqvs vertikaluri Strixebis saxiT. (sur. 5-6). wrewiri 6 Tanabar nawiladaa dayofili: BdaD wertilebi miCneulia centrebad da aqedan radiusis toli monakveTebis SemoxazviT wrewirze vRebulobT: E, F, G da H wertilebs da wrewiris 1/6 is tol rkalebs: EF, FB, BG, GH, HD, DE. wrewiris 6 Tanabar nawilad dayofis es sistema, upirvelesad, imiT iqcevs yuradRebas, rom ostatma icis umartivesi Tanafardoba wreSi Cawerili tolgverda (da Sesabamisad, tolkuTxa) eqvskuTxedis gverdi radiusis tolia. es toloba kargad iyo cnobili Zveli babiloneTis maTematikosebisTvisac12, da imave xerxs gvTavazobs evklidec wrewiris eqvs tol nawilad dasayofad13 (sur. 12). amasve imeorebs yvela Semdegdroindeli maTematikosic14. (sur. 13). wrewiris eqvs tol nawilad da
laTinuri aso niSnebiT A, B, C O da a.S., anu elementaruli simboloebiT, Txrobis gamartivebis mizniT aRvniSnav miRebul faqtobriv wertilebsa da wris elementebs. 12 . . . . . 1977, gv. 141. 13 . . . . . -. t. I, wigni IV, . . 1948. winadadeba 15. gv. 138-140. 14 . -. , (. ..) . . I (IV). . 1966. gv. 80. aq
11

162

guram yifiani

yofis analogiuri meTodi xSirad gamoiyeneboda dekoratiul saxeTa, mag. vardulTa Sesaqmnelad15 (sur. 14). da sxv. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom wrewiris 1/6-di srulebiTac ar warmoadgens jerads 40 kanelurisaTvis, rac imas gvafiqrebinebs, rom am sqemas, upirvelesad, etalonis mniSvneloba unda hqonoda. fuZeze D wertilidan kidev erTi rkalia moxazuli. radiusi gazrdilia OM monakveTiT. es rkali wrewirs I wertilSi hkveTs. OMmonakveTi ki im ganzomilebis tolia, romelic am sqemis gasaRebs iZleva. igi 21 mm-is sigrZisaa da fuZis diametris 1/40 nawils Seadgens (21 mm X 40 840 mm). Sesabamisad, radiusSi (R) OM monakveTi 20-jer Tavsdeba (400 mm : 21 mm 20). Tu diametrs kanonikurad 1200 davanawevrebT, maSinOM monakveTi 30-is Sesabamisia (840 mm : 120 mm = 7 mm; 7 mm X 3 = 21 mm). garda amisa, 21 mm-i, _ `wyrTis~ 1/25-dia (525 mm : 21 mm = 25). rogorc aRiniSna, wrewiri 6 tol nawiladaa danawevrebuli im codnis safuZvelze, romK = A6. aq ki radiusi gadidebulia R : 20-is toli monakveTiT, anu _ OM-iT, da misi sigrZis wrewirze gadmotaniT, I wertilSi isazRvreba wrewiris AI rkali, e. i. igi mokldeba wrewiris 1/12-dis toliAE rkaliT. AIqorda tolia OM X 9, daAI rkali Sesabamisad wrewiris 9/120-di nawilia, anu 3/40-di, da masSi zustad 3 kaneluri Tavsdeba. e.i. gamodis, rom ID rkali wrewiris sigrZis 7/40-dia da igi 7 kaneluris tolia. ise Cans, rom ostatma wrewiris 1/4 nawili daanawevra 3 da 1 kaneluris tol monakveTebad calcalke, da ara _ ori wyvili kaneluris Semadgenel manZilebad. es imiT unda iyos gamowveuli, rom kenti ricxviT ostati iadvilebs wrewiris danawevrebas. AI monakveTi ostatma samjer rom Semoataros wres, igi bazisis tanze yvela kaneluris sazRvars miiRebs, xolo Tu, vTqvaT, xelT eqneboda oTxi kanelu
isaa saintereso, rom wrewiris eqvsad dayofis winadadebis gadmocemisas, avtori uTiTebs evklides Sromis Sesabamis teqsts. 15 T. Schreiber. Ausgrabungen in Alexandria t. I Lpz. 1908. gv. 91. sur. 47; A. Kaufman. Where was the Temple? Biblical archaeology Review. July/August. tomi 25. #4. gv. 49.


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ris toli mrudi, mas misi gayofisa da danawevrebis operaciebi unda ewarmoebina. aq TavisTavad ibadeba kiTxva: ostati icnobda Tu ara `~-isaTvis ufro zust mniSvnelobas vidrea ` = 3~. savaraudoa, rom icnobda, radgan babilonuri geometriuli Sinaarsis mqone erT-erT teqstSi ufro zust miaxloebasac vxvdebiT: =3

1 3,125 ,da aq isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom am mniSvnelobamde 8

babilonelebi mividnen swored wrexazisa da masSi Caxazuli tolgverdaeqvskuTxedis perimetrTa dapirispirebis Sedegad.16 Cven imis Tqma SegviZlia, rom ostatma icis, rom `~, 3-is toli srulebiTac araa, da igi swored am cdomilebis Tavidan asacileblad qmnis sqemas bazisis fuZeze. cdomilebas, da _ arc Tu mcires, igi namdvilad miiRebda, Tu ganaxorcielebda wrewiris 40 nawilad dayofas `=3~-dan gamomdinare, anu Tu uSualod wrewirze gadazomavda OM-is, an mis jerad monakveTebs. ostatis mier datanili sqema Semogvinaxa sari-Tefe-s bazisis zedapirmac (sur. 10). aqac centria napovni da Sesabamisad, wre oTx kvadrantadaa dayofili. am bazisis tanze 30 furcliani lotosis qvedaSvebuli yvavilis gvirgvinia asaxuli, anu masze 60 kaneluria amokveTili, romelic Sesabamisad, wrewiris1/4, 15 kanelurs Seicavs. diametrze ostats aRebuli aqvs raRac wertili da igi radiuss hyofsOE daEC monakveTebad (sur 11).EC monakveTi diametris 1/3 nawilia, xolo OE ki 1/6, da amas garda ostati E wertilidan sxivsac xom atarebs, romelic OD radiuss F wertilSi kveTs, da gamoiyo kidevac mcire OF monakveTi 15 mm-is sigrZisa. ostati gamohyofs ODradiuszeOF monakveTs, romelic diametris 1/60-i nawilia, anu 20-is tolia. igi OC radiusze aRniSnavs E wertils da vRebulobT Semdeg suraTs: OF = FE :

R 3

da TuOE-s pirobiTad mcire radiusad(r) miviRebT daE wertilidan SemovxazavT wres, maSin misi wrewiris sigrZe bazisi zedapiris diametris toli gamodis ` = 3~-is SemTxvevaSi. monak
16

. . . .1963.gv. 61.

164

guram yifiani

veTiOF,Sesabamisad, am mcire wrewiris (C2) 1/60-dia. bunebrivia, rom OAradiusiT Semoxazuli wrewiris sigrZis 1/60, tolia _ OF X 3. aq ostati wris elementTa im umartives damokidebulebas eyrdnoba, romelic dadasturebulia Zvelbabilonur teqstSi, sadac saZebnia ori koncentruli wrewiris sigrZe da cnobilia sxvaobani radiusebsa da rkalebis sigrZeSi: maT erTi da igive centraluri kuTxe Seesabameba. am amocanis amoxsnisas babiloneli maTematikosi eyrdnoboda wrewiris sigrZisa da radiusis urTierTdamokidebulebas da radgan rkalebic erTi da imave centralur kuTxes Seesabameba, am elementTa Sefardeba gamoisaxeba, rogorc
C1 R D L = = = (C C2 r d l

wrewiris sigrZe: R,r _ radiusebi; D,d diametrebi; L,l rkalebi).17 analogiuri SemTxveva gvaqvs sari-Tefes baziszec, an ufro zustad saZiebeli monakveTi, wrewiris 1/60 nawili, anu kaneluris sigrZe _ garkveulia wrexazis elementTa analogiuri urTierTdamokidebulebiT:
C 2 EF (r ) OF (l ) . = = C1 EI ( R ) IK ( L)

unda aRvniSnoT,

rom tolobas _ =3 _ am SemTxvevaSi praqtikuli gamoyeneba aqvs, miuxedavad imisa, rom, rogorc aRiniSna, babiloneTis maTematika ukeTes miaxloebasac icnobda am koeficientisaTvis, magram Cveulebriv, mcire gamonaklisis garda, toloba `=3~ ZalaSi rCeboda.18 am koeficients vitruviusic ki gvTavazobs praqtikuli saqmianobisaTvis.19 sari-Tefes bazisze is Cans, rom misi korpusis Sesamkobad lotosis yvavilis furcelTaAraodenoba 30 erTeuliT ganisazRvra. ram ganapiroba es, Zneli saTqmelia. aq rom mag. 32 furclis ganTavseba yofiliyo gansazRvruli, ostati umartivesi gziT gaarTmevda amocanas Tavs da araviTari sqemis warmoqmna ar dasWirdeboda. igi jer oTxad gahyofda wres da Sesabamisad _ rkalebsac, sanam 32-mde ar miaRwevda.
. . . . gv. 135-136. . . . III . . . 1961. gv. 134. 19 . , . . 1938. gv. 369.
18 17


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sagangebodaa aRsaniSnaviOM daOF monakveTebis mniSvneloba qumbaTisa da sari-Tefes bazisebze. orive monakveTi radiusebzea moniSnuli da erTi erTeulis mniSvnelobiT sawyis sidideebs warmoadgendnen garkveuli miznebis gansaxorcieleblad. isic unda iTqvas, rom isini sxvadasxva geometriuli meTodiT moqmedebdnen. amasTanave, aq, es monakveTebi aRebulia gradusis gasammagebuli da gaormagebuli mniSvnelobiT:OM = 10 X 3; OF = 10 X 2. gamodis, rom am mcire monakveTebiT, dadasturebuli gvaqvs, rogorc praqtikuli funqciis mqone ganzomilebebiT, gradusTa sistemis mniSvneloba formadwarmoqmnis procesSi. qumbaTis bazisze is Cans, rom wris seqstantebad danawevrebas etalonis mniSvneloba hqonda da rom ostati TiToeul seqtstants yofs gradusis jerad monakveTbad. es sistema ucvleli saxiT, Sumerebidan momdinare, konkretuli miznebis ganxorcielebas emsaxureboda.20 savaraudoa, rom bazisTa formirebaSi 10-c, rogorc garkveuli sididis monakveTic, funqcionirebda. aRiniSna, rom sariTefes bazisis fuZis diametri 900 mm-ia rac, SesaZloa, miRebulia 1 wyrTisa da 7/10 wyrTis jamiT, an martivad rom gamovsaxoT, aseTi rigi gamogviva: 1 wyrTa + 1/2 wyrTa + 1/5 wyrTa anu 525 mm + 262,5 mm + 105 mm + 892,5 mm-s. aq 900 mm-mde Sesavsebad 7,5 mm-ia saWiro da es mcire ganzomileba aris kidevac 900 mm-is 1/120 nawili, anu 10 da amave dros, wyrTis 1/70-ic. vfiqrob, im geometriuli sqemis mniSvneloba, romelic qumbaTis baziszea datanili, ar amoiwureboda martooden imisaTvis, rom wrewiri 40 Tanabar nawilad dayofiliyo. misi etalonuri mniSvneloba gacilebiT didia, da es gaxlavT bazisis proporciuloba da misi teqtonika. qumbaTis bazisi Cvenamde fragmentuladaa moRweuli, magram sari-Tefes nimuSebi avseben Cvens warmodgenebs. amierkavkasiis bazisTa korpusebi sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba aqemeniduri nimuSebisagan. am gansxvavebas proporciebis garda korpusis gansxvavebuli modelirebani ganapirobebs. kavkasiur bazisebs mkveTri gadasvla axasiaTebT tanidan mxarisaken da _ mxaris horizontaluro
. . . . . 1976. gv. 42; O. Neugebauer. The History of Ancient Astronomy. Journal of Near Eastern Shudies. 1945. tomi IV #1, gv. 12.
20

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bac. am bazisTa korpusebi SemuSavebulia TandaTan Semcirebuli radialuri wreebis kombinaciiT da bunebrivia, rom ostati meqanikurad ver aiRebda ama Tu im wris diametrs. mas raRac amosavali geometriuli sqema dasWirdeboda am ganzomilebaTa harmoniuli urTierTkavSirisaTvis, da qumbaTis bazisis fuZeze asaxuli sqema, ZiriTadad, albaT, am mizans emsaxureboda. sari-Tefes bazisTa korpusebis diametrTa urTierTSefardeba gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs. aq fuZisa da mxris diametrTa urTierTSefardeba gvaZlevs 1,15. aseve Seefardeba mxrisa da korpusis dasasrulis, anu lilvis sawyisis diametrebic erTmaneTs. es Sefardeba ki gamoisaxeba, rogorc _ 2 : 3 , rac axasiaTebT swored tolgverda eqvskuTxedis garSemo Semoxazul da masSi Caxazul wrexazebs (sur. 15, 16). amdenad, Tu davuSvebT, rom qumbaTis bazisTa korpusebic amave principiT iyo SemuSavebuli (da amaSi daeWveba Znelia maTi sruli stilisturi erTgvarovnebis gamo), maSin gasagebi xdeba qumbaTis bazisis fuZeze wrewiris eqvsad danawevrebis sruli sqemis arseboba, ris gareSec, am proporciis warmoqmna, SeuZlebeli iqneboda. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom proporciulobis am sistemas _ (2 : 3 ) _ antikuri arqiteqtura sakmaod xSirad iyenebda gegmarebiTi kompoziciuri sqemebis srulyofisaTvis.21 sari-Tefes bazisTa ZiriTadi proporcia: fuZisa da simaRlis urTierTSefardeba 1 : 3 (sur. 17) aseve _ wrewiris 6 Tanabar nawilad dayofidan gamomdinarea.22 gamodis, rom yvela SemTxvevisaTvis wris 6-ad dayofis sqema etalonia, rogorc mxatvruli, aseve teqtonikuri srulyofisaTvis. Cans, rom samxreT-aRmosavleT kavkasiaSi lokaluri, mZlavri arqiteqturuli skola moqmedebda, mkacrad Camoyalibebuli mxatvruli kanoniT, mxatvruli stiliT, proporciulobaTa sistemebiTa da formaTwarmomqmneli geometriiT. ix. qumbaTis bazisis rekonstruqcia (sur. 19).
. . . . 1936. gv. 147. sur. 61. 22 Tu wreSi Caxazuli eqvskuTxedis or mopirdapire gverds SevaerTebT erTmaneTTan, maSin am sworkuTxedis gverdebi erTmaneTs Seefardeba,
21

rogorc 1 : 3 . dawvr. ix. . . . gv. 20.


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12. _ qumbaTSi aRmoCenili zariseburi bazisi 3. _ qumbaTis bazisi, anazomi (g. yifiani) 4. _ qumbaTis bazisis fuZeze arsebuli sqema 5. _ bazisis cokoli, vertikaluri Strixi 6. _ bazisis cokoli, vertikaluri Strixi 7. _ qumbaTis bazisis fuZe, grafikuli asaxuloba, anazomi (g. yifiani) 8. _ qumbaTis bazisis fuZe _ elementTa aRniSvniT 9. _ sari-Tefes zarisebri bazisi (ilustracia dasesxebulia wignidan: . . , . . 1988. tab. 118 10. _ sari-Tefes erT-erTi bazisi, zedapirze arsebuli sqemiT, anazomi (g. yifiani) 11. _ sari-Tefes bazisis zedapirze datanili sqema analiziTurT (g. yifiani) 12. _ wrewiris eqvs tol nawilad danawevrebis meTodi evklides mixedviT 13. _ wrewiris eqvs tol nawilad danawevrebis meTodi abu-l kafa-al-buzjanis mixedviT 14. _ ornamenti kom-eS-Sukafas katakomburi samarxis kedelze 15-16. _ bazisTa agebulebani etalonidan gamomdinare (rekonstruqcia, g. yifiani) 17. _ sari-Tefes bazisTa proporciebi 18. _ aqemeniduri xanis zariseburi bazisebi: suza, persepolisi, Tefe suravani, babiloni 19. _ qumbaTis zarisebri bazisi, rekonstruqcia (g. yifiani).

qeTevan jiSiaSvili

qalaquri sivrce da kulturis axali paradigma


tradiciulad, qalaqis filosofiaze saubari arqiteqturis stilis aRwerasa da analizs eyrdnoba, rac ara mxolod sxvadasxva samSeneblo stilis monacvleobas gulisxmobs, aramed gamoxatavs ,,epoqis suls, ama Tu im epoqis xilul msoflmxedvelobas. Tuki Cvens dedaqalaqs am aspeqtiT ganvixilavT, TvalSisacemi gaxdeba misi saxecvlileba bolo aTwleulebis manZilze, rac sabWouri epoqis rRvevasa da axali politikuri da sociokulturuli realobisaken swrafvas daemTxva. istoriuli warsulis yoveli politikur-ekonomikuri formacia sakuTar ,,qalaqs qmnida. gviani kapitalizmisaTvis qalaqis organuli forma megapolisia _ sarke, sadac Tanamedroveobis yvela paradigma mkafiod irekleba. aq gansakuTrebiT iCens Tavs individisa da qalaqis garemos urTierTobis sakiTxi, swored maTi dinamikuri urTierTproeqcia warmoqmnis im rTul sociokulturul kvanZs, romlis meSveobiTac qalaqis metafizikuri saxe ikveTeba. aRniSnuli garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT davakvirdeT Tbiliss: sabWoTa sistema TviTon kisrulobda qalaqis ganaSe-

filologiis doqtori, ilias univeristetis doqtoranti sabWoTa da postsabWoTa kvlevebis mimarTulebiT; mTargmneli. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, semiotika.

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nianebas: erTi mxriv, axali nagebobebi erTiani gegmis nawili iyo, meore mxriv, igive sistema aregulirebda mis ganviTarebas. dedaqalaqi sistemis funqciobis gamWvirvale saxe iyo, misi kulturul-socialur funqcionirebis asparezi. sistema agvarebda qalaqis yvela socialur sakiTxs, uzrunvelyofda misi TiToeuli elementis arsebobas, anu zRvari sistemasa da qalaqis socialur-kulturul arsebobas Soris TiTqmis ar arsebobda. igi qalaqis yvela SreSi aRwevda, amitomac, sabWoTa epoqis dasrulebasTan erTad qalaqs gamoecala sistemis mdgradi substancia da avtonomiuri ganviTarebis realuri Sansi mieca. Tuki dRes qalaqis saxecvlilebis masStabs ganvixilavT, naTeli gaxdeba, rom igi ufro damoukidebeli, avtonomiuri organizmi gaxda, jer isev TviTidentifikaciis procesSia da sakuTari saxisa da potenciis gamovlena-damkvidrebisaken iswrafis. ramdenad warmatebulia es procesi, ramdenad esTetikur an marTebul formebs qmnis qalaqi, es calke Temaa. axali SesaZleblobebis Zieba, garkveuli geografiuli zonebis aqcentireba, centrebis gadanacvleba, axali funqciuri nagebobebis mSenebloba, sxvadasxva arqiteqturul stilTa SeWraqalaqs mudmiv fluqtuaciur substanciad aqcevs, romelic damoukidebeli TviTregulirebiT xasiaTdeba. es procesebi mimdinareobs kapitalizmis danergvis fonze, rac, bunebrivia, ganapirobebs qalaqis saxecvlilebis veqtorsac. dedaqalaqi erTaderTi aRmoCnda, romelmac sakuTar Tavze aiRo axali moTxovnebis dakmayofilebis funqcia. axali saxis ekonomikuri urTierTobebi, rac sruliad ucxo an umniSvnelo iyo socialisturi reJimisdroindeli TbilisisTvis _ axla qalaqis cxovrebis dominantad da sasicocxlo impulsad iqca. am SemTxvevaSi vgulisxmob ara zogadad dedaqalaqis rols qveynis an saerTaSoriso masStabiT, aramed kapitalistur urTierTobaTa mTel speqtrs, romelmac srulad daikava rRvevis dros socialur urTierTobebSi warmoqmnili vakuumi. sabazro ekonomikis formebi, romlebic ukve myarad damkvidrebuli da gamocdili iyo sabWouri sivrcis miRma, mtkivneulad misaRebi, da me vityodi, xSirad uxerxulic ki gamodga arsebuli socialuri garemosaTvis. miuxedavad rigi mkafiod gansazRvruli orientaciisa da socialur-ekonomikuri urTerTmimarTebisa, qalaqsa da individs Soris es urTierToba dRemde mouwesrigebeli da bundovania. arqiteqtura yvelaze funqciuri xelovnebaa, misi funqciis damkveTi ki sociumia. arqiteqtura sazogadoebis ,,Sinagani moZ-


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raobis niSanTa saukeTeso mauwyebelia da imavdroulad, gardaqmnisaken ubiZgebs sakuTar damkveT sociums. ,,sazogadoebis gaCenis wuTidan, nebismieri, rasac igi iyenebs, misi moxmarebis niSnad iqceva, _ ambobs rolan barti (barti 1968:). amgvari urTierTgavlenebi Znelad gasamijnia, rac kidev ufro arTulebs maT diferencirebul analizs. magaliTad, Tuki CavTvliT, rom socialur garemoSi dRes dominanturi adgili savaWro urTierTobebs uWiravT, maT Sesatyvis arqiteqturul movlenad SegviZlia miviCnioT qalaqis sivrceSi SemoWrili iseTi zonebi, rogorebicaa bazroba, maRaziebi, xSirad istoriul-kulturuli daniSnulebis SenobaTa gaqiraveba-gayidva kvebis obieqtebsa da sxva saxis savaWro dawesebulebebze, aseve _ gare vaWroba, sxvadaxva sareklamo abrebi. arqiteqtura, romelic socialurad yvelaze ,,gulaxdili xelovnebaa, araorazrovnad mogviTxrobs qalaqis, anu sazogadoebis kulturul-istoriuli Rirebulebebis, ukana planze gadasvlasa da mis adgilas axali prioritetebis aRmocenebaze. qalaqi ki, rogorc zearqiteqturuli substancia, am garegnuli niSnebiT Cveni yofis raobas ki ar asaxavs mxolod, aramed stimulis saxiT zemoqmedebs Cvenze. Tu ki stimuls ganvsazRvravT, rogorc SegrZnebaTa kompleqss, arsebuli arqiteqturis zegavlena individze (ukuqmedeba Cven mier ganxorcielebul cvlilebebze) amgvar saxes miiRebs: Tbilisis arqiteqturuli komunikacia metwilad samomxmareblo datvirTvis matarebelia, nagebobaTa kulturuli komunikacia ukana planze gadadis, rogorc ufro susti, naklebagresiuli. maSinac ki, rodesac kulturuli komunikaciis damyarebas cdilobs, igi saurTierTod iyenebs ,,arakulturul enas, iqneba es _ koncertis afiSa Tu speqtaklis reklama. rogorc wesi, igi damfinansebel kompaniaTa ramdenime logos mainc Seicavs, rac, misi mTavari mesijis garda, garkveul finansur urTierTobasa da valdebulebaze gvatyobinebs. ase rom, kulturuli plasti, romelic qalaqis metafizikuri saxis mniSvnelovani nawili iyo, TandaTan sagrZnoblad sustdeba. am movlenas paul Seerbarti Semdegnairad xsnis: ,,Cveni kultura garkveulad Cvenive arqiteqturis nayofia. Tuki gvsurs, rom Cveni kultura ufro maRal safexurze aviyvanoT, iZulebuli viqnebiT rogorc unda SevewinaaRmdegoT amas _ SevcvaloT Cveni arqiteqtura. aseTi transformaciis ganxorcielebas ki mxolod maSin SevZlebT, roca winaaRmdegobas gavuwevT im Caketil sivrces, romelSiac vcxovrobT (frisbi 2002:).

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Tuki SevTanxmdebiT, rom qalaqi aris ara mxolod materialuri realoba, romelsac Cven vxedavT, aramed qalaqis arsi mdgomareobs im funqciebsa da gavlenebSi, romelTac igi saxelmwifosa da individze axdens, maSin SesaZlebeli gaxdeba zogierTi movlena swored am gavlenebis fonze ganvixiloT. Tbilisi mimzidveli gaxda, rogorc inteleqtualur-savaWro SesaZleblobaTa asparezi, ramac gamoiwvia mosaxleobis intensiuri dineba centrisken, Sedegad ki gaizarda sivrciT erTeulze individTa koncentracia. aq vgulisxmobT ara mxolod raodenobriv maCvenebels, aramed komunikaciis mravalferovnebasa da sixSiresac. momxmarebelze orientirebuli axali kapitalisturi sabazro principebis damkvidreba imTaviTve Seicavs miswrafebas masaTa amgvari ,,dagrovebisaken, maqsimaluri materialuri mogebis mizniT. amitomac didi qalaqebi, didi fuladi meurneobiT, sadac mosaxleobis msyidvelobiTi unari ufro maRalia, vidre patara qalaqebSi, masaTa akumulaciis erTgvar kerebs warmoqmnian. zemoT ukve aRvniSne, rom qalaqis arqiteqtura da yofa mTlianad daemorCila kapitalizmis principebs, amitom verc im fsiqologiur gavlenas avicilebT Tavidan, romelic am wyobilebis samagaliTo gamovlinebisaTvis _ megapolisisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. gazviadebuli iqneboda Cveni dedaqalaqis Sedareba evropul an amerikul megapolisebTan, sadac qalaquri cxovrebis nebismieri aspeqti _ komerciuli urTierTobebi, dasaqmebis bazari, teqnikur-inteleqtualuri moRvaweoba _ Seudareblad maRal intensivobas aRwevs da Sesabamisad, bevrad mZafr gavlenas axdens individis fsiqikur mdgomareobaze, magram isic cxadia, rom ganviTarebis axal veqtorTan erTad, Tavs iCens megapolisisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iseTi faqtorebi, romelTa erTobliobac TandaTan cvlis qalaqis aRqmas da ubiZgebs individs meti izolaciisa da Caketilobisaken. amis yvelze TvalsaCino da advilad SesagrZnob magaliTs droisa da sivrcis axleburi aRqma warmoadgens. axal mSeneblobaTa simravlem sagrZnoblad Secvala Tbilisis bevri ubnis iersaxe. qalaqis ganaSenianebis axali talRis masStabi molodinis logikur zRvars scdeba da yvela SesaZlebeli Tu SeuZlebeli mimarTulebiT edeba qalaqs. stilisturad gansxvavebul mravalsarTulian SenobebTan erTad iqmneba axali mikroubnebi, axali socialuri datvirTviT, rac socialuri aqcentebis axlebur gadanawilebas iwvevs. stilTa SeuTavseblobisa da xazgasmuli kontrastebis gamo sivrcis aRqmaSi garkveuli fragmen-


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tuloba Semodis. erTiani sivrce, romelic erTian arqiteqturul xats ganapirobebda, nawilebad iSleba da aRqmaSiac kargavs mTlianobas. calkeul fragmentebad aRiqmebian sxvadasxva gareubnebic da centric, romlebmac axali gadanawilebisas gansxvavebuli datvirTva SeiZines. vinaidan sivrcis aTviseba yovelgvari winaswari gegmis gareSe, mxolod bazris moTxovna _ miwodebis principiT mimdinareobs, individi wydeba misTvis nacnob sivrces. aseTi swrafi da qaoturi saxecvlilebebis gamo adamiani ver aswrebs axal formasTan adaptirebas da ver grZnobs Tavs am, TiTqos ,,TavisTavadi, procesis monawiled, rac iwvevs mis gaucxoebas, daSorebas sakuTari qalaqis arqiteqturul sivrcesTan. qalaqis ritmis sagrZnobi aCqareba aranakleb mtkivneulad aisaxa individis sulier cxovrebazec. qalaqis ritmi garkveul movlenaTa ganmeorebis intensiurobaa qalaqis SigniT. garda piradi sulieri gamocdilebisa, romelic aseve qalaqis xats gulisxmobs _ individis yoveldRiur yofas metwilad swored ,,qalaquri movlenebis erToblioba gansazRvravs. sityva ,,movlena dRevandel realobaSi, ra Tqma unda, aRar atarebs Zvel mniSvnelobas da miTumetes _ adrindel xarisxs. movlena SegviZlia miviCnioT nebismier im ,,gamaRizianeblad, romelsac kapitalisturi manqana sakuTari miznisTvis, kerZod ki _ fuladi mogebis maqsimaluri gazrdisTvis iyenebs, magram am SemTxvevaSi arsebul miznebsa da mizezebs naklebi mniSvneloba aqvT, gadamwyveti mxolod is fsiqologiuri Sedegia, rac amgvar daCqarebul temps axlavs Tan. garkveuli sixSiriT monacvle emociuri gamaRizianeblebi adekvatur reaqcias iwveven subieqtis mxridan: xSiri nerviuli agznebis Sedegad subieqti ,,amowuravs, cveTs emociaTa marags da aRar reagirebs gamaRizianeblebze, romlebic misgan energiis uazro xarjvas moiTxoven. gulgrili, civi damokidebuleba nebismieri faqtis mimarT adamianis erTgvari sapasuxo TavdacviTi reaqciaa, erTaderTi iaraRi moZalebuli realobis winaaRmdeg. rac ufro agresiuli xdeba qalaqis obieqturi realoba, miT meti izolaciisa da avtonomiurobisaken iswrafis subieqti. igi cdilobs Seqmnas kultura, romlis saSualebiTac sapasuxo gavlenas moaxdens qalaqis obieqtur realobaze, cdilobs sakuTari originalobis damkvidrebiT xazi gausvas subieqtur uflebebs. yovelive zemoTqmuli iwvevs ,,individualuri kulturis hipertrofias, risi mizezic, devid frisbis azriT, am orive obieqturi kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli avtonomiurobis-

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ken swrafvaa. amasTan, obieqturi kultura erTiani da TviTkmaria, subieqturi kultura ki ,,Tanamedroveobis subieqtivizmis pirmSoa da amitomac ,,disociaciiTa da obieqturi kulturisagan ganze dgomiT xasiaTdeba (frisbi 2002:). qalaqis damTrgunveli zemoqmedebis kvaldakval, adamiani, TavdacviT sulier formebTan erTad, ,,materialuri TavSesafris Zebnasac iwyebs. impulsi, romelsac qalaqis arqiteqturuli realoba aRZravs, subieqts iseTi sivrceebis Ziebisaken ubiZgebs, sadac igi daZabulobisa da yovlismomcveli nevrozulobis gancdisgan gaTavisufldeba. alternatiuli sivrce erTaderT moTxovnas unda akmayofilebdes iyos didi qalaqisagan gansxvavebuli, radgan mxolod gansxvavebulobis dafiqsirebis safuZvelze gascems tvini ,,modunebis signals. sivrce, romelic yvelaze metad akmayofilebs Cvens am moTxovnas, qalaqis Zveli ubnebia. amas mowmobs is gazrdili yuradRebac, romelic am bolo dros Tbilisis evropuli da aRmosavluri nawilis mimarT gaCnda: uecrad da sagrZnoblad gazrdili fasebi am, dangrevis piras misul ubnebSi, mxolod maTi ,,prestiJuli awmyosa daYmomavlis mauwyebelia. qalaqis am nawilebis kulturul-istoriuli Rirebuleba yovlTvis saTanadod iyo dafasebuli. gansakuTrebulad Zveli Tbilisis xis arqiteqturas epyrobodnen, romelic sabWour periodSi erTxmad aRiares qarTuli qalaquri yofisa da kulturis saxed, Tbilisis savizito baraTad. magram, vfiqrob, dRevandel viTarebaSi qalaqis am ubnebis win wamoweva mxolod maTi istoriul-kulturuli Rirebulebis gamo ki ar xdeba, aramed im faqtorebis gamoc, romelTa gamokveTas swored Tbilisis axleburma ganviTarebam Seuwyo xeli. is, razec pirvel rigSi Rirs yuradRebis SeCereba, aris stiluri erTianoba, romelic Zvel ubnebs axasiaTebs. TavisTavad cxadia, rom aq ar vgulisxmobT stilur igiveobas xis arqiteqturasa da evropul nagebobebs Soris (es msgavseba mxolod danarCeni qalaqisgan ,,gansxvavebulobis safuZvelze myardeba), aramed am zonaTa daunawevrebel, xelSeuxebel landSafts, sadac jer kidev sustad igrZnoba mzardi qalaqis metastazebi. aq ar vxvdebiT arqiteqturuli sivrcis araerTgvarovani qsovilsa da ulogiko fluqtuacias. didi qalaqisgan gansxvavebiT, sololakis, yofili plexanovisa da Zveli Tblisis zonebSi axali mravalsarTuliani Senobebi iSviaTad gvxvdeba. arqiteqturuli pei-


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zaJi erTiania, mTliani da daurRveveli. sxva sakiTxia, ramdenad misaRebia moralurad an esTetikurad dabzaruli da naxevrad Camongreuli saxlebi, magram erT-erTi Zireuli gansxvaveba Zvelsa da axal qalaqs Soris aq aSkarad vlindeba: es aris naklebad ekleqturi arqiteqtura, rac sivrcis erTiani aRqmis saSualebas iZleva. stabilurobis gancda, romelic am ubnebSi gadaadgilebisas gveufleba, erTgvari ,,vizualur modunebulobas badebs. danarCen qalaqsa da Zvel ubnebs Soris arqiteqturul formaTa gansxvavebuli stiluri niSnebic aq axleburi konteqstiT Semodis subieqtis aRqmaSi. funqciuri stilis egzaltireba, romelic qalaqis cxovrebis yvela SreSi vlindeba, naklebad sagrZnobia Tbilisis im nawilebSi, sadac evropuli arqiteqtura Warbobs. Tuki Tqven qalaqis am nawilSi moxvdebiT, aucileblad SeamCnevT saguldagulod Semkul nagebobebs, fasadebis dekoratiul danawevrebas, xSirad _ modernistul motivebs, larnakebs, morTul fasadebs. am detalebis gamoyeneba didi xania aRar xdeba Tanamedrove esTetikuri Rirebulebebis gamo, agreTve _ maTi siZvirisa da ,,ufunqciobis mizeziT. es dekori kidev erTxel gvaxsenebs, rom Cven gansxvavebul sivrceSi vimyofebiT, im sivrceSi, sadac ,,ufunqcioc SeiZleba iyos Rirebuli. rac Seexeba xis arqiteqturas, aq Zveli qalaqi sxvagvarad `gvesaubreba~. amasTan dakavSirebiT eko Semdeg mosazrebas gamoTqvams: ,,arqiteqturis mier SemoTavazebuli SesaZleblobebi (gav-

la, Sesvla, SeCereba, kibeze asvla, dajdoma, fanjridan gaxedva, dayrdnoba da a.S) mxolod maT funqciebSi ki ar mdgomareobs,
aramed, upirveles yovlisa, maT im mniSvnelobebze migviTiTebs, romlebic garkveuli moqmedebisken gvibiZgeben (eko 1998: 207). Zveli Tbilisis gamWvirvale arqiteqturuli sqemebi, Ria kibeebiTa da xis rikulebiani aivnebiT, Riaa uSualo komunikaciisaTvis. arqiteqturis amgvari dagegmareba axlo yofiT urTierTobebzea gaTvlili _ rogorc nagebobaTa SigniT mcxovreblebisaTvis, aseve mis gareT darmoCenilTaTvisac. TiToeuli arqiteqturuli detalis mniSvneloba arsebul situaciaSi mas ukve kargad aqvs gacnobierebuli, isic icis, rom amgvari komunikacia misTvis ukve SeuZlebeli da ulogikoa. qvis kedlebisa da rkinis karebs miRma cxovreba erTaderTi saSualebaa, gamijno sakuTari individualoba qalaqis realobisagan. interieris, dizainis bumi swored amiT aris ganpirobebuli _ sakuTar samyaros xom adamiani sakuTar binaSi qmnis! yofis imgvari forma ki, rogorsac xis

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arqiteqturaSi vxvdebiT, mxolod fantomia, romlis xilvac ukve muzeumad qceul nagebobebSi Tu SeiZleba. igive iTqmis Zveli quCebis drosivrcul komunikaciaze. sasruli sivrce viwro quCebiT subieqts droisa da sivrcis daubrkolebeli daZlevis Sesaxeb atyobinebs da xsnis im kompleqss, rac transportiT gadaadgilebasa da amasTan dakavSirebul uazro droiT danakargs axlavs Tan. qalaqis mkacrad dadgenili marSrutis daZabulobis magivrad Zveli quCebi individs umizno, ,,daugegmav seirnobas sTavazobs. swored amgvari alternatiuli sivrce, romlis Rirebulebac pirdapirproporciulia danarCen qalaqTan arsebuli gansxvavebisa, TandaTan ufro avtonomiuri xdeba. igi TiTqos emijneba saxelmwifos funqcionalur centrs _ dedaqalaqs da sakuTar Tavs sTavazobs gadaRlil adamians. igi arqiteqturas iyenebs, rogorc samarko niSans, TavdajerebiT gamodis ,,bazarze da daTrgunul individs hpirdeba: erTian arqiteqturul landSafts _ fragmentuli sivrcis nacvlad; _ dekoratiul ornamentsa da cxovrebis elitarul wess _ yovlismomcveli mSrali funqciurobis sanacvlod; Caketili, ganmartoebuli yofis magivrad Zveli ubani saerTo ezoebsa da aivnebs gamofens; nevrozuli siCqare aq SeiZleba nebieri, auCqarebeli xetialiT Seicvalos. SemTxveviTi ar aris Zvel TbilisSi galereaTa siuxve. xelovneba alternativaa, romlis meSveobiTac subieqti qalaqis agrasiisagan Tavis daxsnas da sakuTari individualobis gamovlenas cdilobs, amitomac xelovanTaTvis amgvari sivrce axlobelia da misaRebi. mas ki, visac mxolod moduneba surs, SeuZlia, Zvel TbilisSi gaxsnil kafeebs ewvios, sadac yvelaze metad igrZnoba, rom qalaqis ,,miRma xar, samyaroSi, romelsac saerTo araferi aqvs arc Tanamedrove megapolisTan da, miTumetes, arc sabWoTa qalaqTan. misTvis ucxoa am orive sistemis funqcionirebis kanonebi. Zveli qalaqi ,,sxva sistemaSi arsebobs. gamoyenebuli literatura: barti 1968: Roland Barthes, Elements of Semiology, 1964, publ. Hill and Wang, 1968


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[http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/wo rks/fr/barthes.htm]. david frisbi 2002: . : , [http://magazines.russ.ru/logos/2002/3/]. eko 1998: . ; , 1998 .

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`xelmoweris~ grafiti urbanuli ena da mxatvroba

fsiqologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: politikuri konfliqtebis marTva 2001; TanaavtorobiT: konfliqti, genderi da mSvidobis mSenebloba. 2003; TanaavtorobiT: qarTulosuri konfliqtis mizezebis dinamikis, gadaWris gzebis Ziebisa da savaraudo mimarTulebebis Sesaxeb, 2004. interesTa sfero: konfliqtebis marTva, socialur mecnierebaTa kvlevis meTodebi, fsiqoistoria, fsiqosinTezi, semiotika, socialuri fsiqologia.

D qalaqis iersaxes bunebriv garemosTan mimarTebiT arqiteqturuli proeqtebis dagegmva gansazRvravs. arqiteqturuli nagebobebi formis, ganlagebis, dekoris, brikolaJis, ferTa TanafardobiT individualur saxes aZlevs qalaqs. adamianis mier sivrcis aRqma geStaltis srulyofas gulisxmobs. aqve SesamCnevia, rom sruli harmoniuloba ar arsebobs. xiluli kontrastebi siaxleebis da interesis safuZveli xdeba. aseTi mTlianoba irRveva im SemTxvevaSi, Tu qalaqur garemos sqematur velSi iWreba axali elementi. amgvari darRveva exeba formebs, perspeqtivas, simetrias da a.S. yovelive es ki gemovnebis simwiriTaa gamowveuli an xelovnuradaa Seqmnili. Zveleburis da Tanamedrovis, klasikuris da modernulis, axlis da Zvelis Tanafardoba im saxiT warmoadgens qalaqis saerTo suraTs, rom Seqmnili garemo kontrastuloba-asimetriulobis principis manifestirebas eyrdnoba. aseT suraTs Tu ki daemateba xelovnurad, ugemovnod, TviTneburad Seqmnili formebi, xatebi, maSin viRebT damaxinjebul aRqmas. es tendencia aSkarad Cndeba mega-


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polisebSi da gamonaklisi arc patara qalaqebia. dReisaTvis, urbanul sxva darRvevebTan erTad, quCis mxatvroba anu grafitic maT rigs miekuTvneba. maTi gavrcelebis arealia quCebi, ezoebi, Senobis kedlebi, sadarbazoebi. swored am artefaqtebis iersaxis darRveva amaxinjebs qalaqis vizualur mxares. grafiti Tanamedrove saqarTvelos qalaqebisTvis (gansakuTrebiT, dedaqalaqisTvis) mniSvnelovan atributad iqca, romelic, umetes SemTxvevaSi, vandalur aqts ufro waagavs. grafitis sxvadasxva saxeobebs Soris yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia xelmoweris grafiti anu saxelis dawera (TAG), romelic aris stilizebuli xelmowera da erT an or ferSi sruldeba. xelmoweris grafitis gamosaxuleba, umetes SemTxvevaSi, kontrastSia fonTan. aseTi xelmowerebi qalaqis yvela ubanSi gvxvdeba, Tumc umetesi maTgani realur xelmowerasTan ufro axlosaa, vidre xelmoweris grafitTan. am saxis xelmowerebi mocemuli qalaqisaTvis lokaluri kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli stilisaa. Sesrulebis teqnikac gansxvavebulia _ is farTepiriani markeriT an aerozolian WurWelSi moTavsebuli saRebaviT sruldeba. xelmoweris grafiti nebismier zedapirze, rogorc uZravze, aseve moZravze, gansakuTrebiT ki, saxlis kedlebze an Robeebze gvxvdeba. xelmoweris grafiti avtoris (TAGGER) logoa, anu misi piradi stilizebuli xelmoweraa. Tu xelmoweris grafiti grZelia, maSin avtori dawerils xSirad inicialebis saxiT warmoadgens, sadac gamosaxulia pirveli ori aso an pirveli da bolo aso (inglisurenovan qveynebSi aris daboloebebi sufiqsebiT one, ski, rock, em, er). xelmoweris mxatvari (anu naxatis da xelmoweris erTad gadmocema) gansxvavdeba xelmoweris grafitis Semsruleblisgan (TAGGER) imiT, rom es ukanaskneli mxolod saxels wers stilizebuli saxiT. gansxvavebulia aseve swrafad damwerebic (THROWUP) da aris SemTxveva, roca maT mier sami fericaa gamoyenebuli (PIECE). xelmoweris grafitis garda TbilisSi gvxvdeba sxva stilic, magaliTad (WILDSTYLE), romelic ufro damoukidebeli stilia, gamosaxuleba samganzomilebiania, vidre xelmoweris grafitisa. kvlevis mTavar miznad davisaxeT Tbilisis erTi ubnis xelmoweris grafitis Seswavla, rogorc maTi teqsturi, aseve vizualuri bunebis garkvevisaTvis. Tbilisis, vake-saburTalos ubanSi, kerZod, i. WavWavaZis gamzirze da mis mimdebare terito-

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riebze gavamaxvileT yuradReba, radgan mTeli qalaqis masStabiT, am adgilasaa grafitis Warbi raodenoba. movaxdineT grafitis fotografireba (fotografireba ganvaxorcieleT 2008 wlis april-maisis TveebSi). Ffotoebze aRvbeWdeT yvela saxis grafiti, rac fiqsirdeboda am raionSi. gadaRebuli iqna TAG, HipHop stilis naxatebi, stensili da sxva saxis grafitebi. kvlevisTvis SevarCieT is gamosaxulebebi, romlebzedac mxolod xelmoweris grafiti iyo. kvlevisTvis grafitis gamosaxulebiT 74 fotosuraTi SevarCieT. Aaqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom 74 fotodan mxolod 22-Si dafiqsirda qarTuli warwerebi, isic _ mcire raodenobiT. danarCeni grafitebi laTinuri SriftiTaa dawerili da es SeiZleba xelmoweris grafitis stilizebul mxared CavTvaloT. aseT grafitebSi laTinuri nabeWdi SriftiT, didi da patara aso-niSnis Tanmimdevruli rigiTobiT daweras vxvdebiT. SesaZloa Tu ara grafitis enobrivi TvalsazrisiT ganxilva? xom ar miekuTvneba is mxolod vizualur sferos? am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema e. Smielevskas naSromSia nacadi [, 2007]. avtori erTmaneTs adarebs ori qalaqis (monreali da varSava) xelmoweris grafitebs. empiriul masalaze dayrdnobiT grafits ganixilavs ikonografiul, sivrciT-temporalur da lingvisturi ganzomilebebiT. am SromaSi xelmoweris~ grafiti urbnul lokalur konteqstSia gaazrebuli, romelSic ikveTeba vizualuri, Secvlili enis da grafikuli aRniSvnebis erToblioba. swored aqedan gamomdinare, avtori daaskvnis, rom grafiti urbanul sivrceSi sami faqtoriTaa warmodgenili ena, konteqsti da Teoria anu grafitis sivrcobrivi, teqsturi da dasuraTebuli elementebiT. lingvisturi TvalTaxedviT, mecnierebis didi nawili grafitis Seswavlas did yuradRebas ar uTmobs. am mdgomareobaSi kvlevisTvis Zalze sainteresoa teqstidan vizualur mxares gadasvlaze aqcentis gakeTeba. e. Smielevskas azriT, grafitis enobrivi TvalsazrisiT ganxilva i. biuleris enis Teoriis Suqzea SesaZlebeli, konkretulad ki _ deiqsisis velis farglebSi. am TeoriiT SesaZlebelia lingvisturi da grafikuli, teqsturi da xatis, diskursuli da reprezentuli Sinaarsebis dafiqsireba. deiqsisis - ORIGO


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xelmoweris grafitis ganxilvasTan dakavSirebiT, mniSvnelovania mimovixiloT i. biuleris enis Teoriuli daSvebebi. komunikaciis procesSi deiqsisi subieqturi orientirebiT (amosavali wertilidan _ ORIGO-dan) sami veqtoriT iSleba aq, amJamad da me. es ki adamianis enis mimmarTvel vels warmoadgens. yovel konkretul metyvelebiT epizodSi is funqcionirebs Taviseburad, magram fiqsirebuli saxiT [biuleri, 2000. .94]. swored amitom komunikaciis procesSi Setyobinebis deiqsuri bunebis gamo dekodireba gaadvilebulia. aqedan gamomdinare, deiqsuri veli warmosaxul situaciazec vrceldeba. i. biuleri aqve aRniSnavs, rom deiqsisis fsiqologiur warmoSobaSi yvela grZnoba da fantazia ar Sedis, rac metyvelebas udevs safuZvlad, xolo komunikaciis procesSi _ gagebas. enobriv mxares rac Seexeba, is sagnobrivia da tradiciulad misi axsna enis simboluri veliTaa SesaZlebeli. i. biuleris azriT enobrivi velSi simbolurad gadmocema nawarmoebis gagebis da konstruirebis safuZvelia. am dros s i t ua c i a da k o n t e q s t i is ori wyaroa, romlebic konkretuli SemTxvevis zusti interpretaciis saSualebas iZleva, enobrivi gamonaTqvamebis SemTxvevaSi. avtori, am sakiTxis ganxilvisas, reprezentuli sistemis amosaval wertils eyrdnoba, romelSic gadmocema reprezentuli veliT xorcieldeba (sanoto rveuli, geografiuli ruka), radgan sufTa furceli amgvar velad ver CaiTvleba. magaliTad, geografiul rukaze konturebis miTiTeba reprezentul vels qmnis. avtoris azriT, msgavs procesTan gvaqvs saqme, roca mxatvari tiloze figurebs daxatavs, romlis zedapiri ukve reprezentul vels qmnis, swored iq, sadac gamosaxulebaa. amgvarad, reprezentuli velis maCvenebelia fizikur zedapirze elementebisadmi mniSvnelobis miniWeba (magaliTad, mxatvrobaSi feradi saRebavebis datana tiloze). i. biuleri aseve aRniSnavs, rom miRebuli produqti (naxati, ruka) ar Seesabameba enobriv reprezentirebas. magaliTad, mxatvrobaSi elementTa ganlageba sibrtyezea, xolo enobrivi elementebi konkretulad droSia ganlagebuli garkveuli TanmimdevrobiT, sadac diferencirebis saSualebiT ivseba sivrce. am Sexedulebidan gamomdinare, grafiti aris reprezentuli velis erT-erTi nimuSis Tanamedrove varianti. Aaqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom is aseve enobriv elementsac Seicavs, rodesac saqme gvaqvs grafitis erT-erT saxeobasTan xelmoweris grafitTan

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(TAG). grafitSi sivrce da dro erTmaneTs erwymis, sadac, erTi mxriv, is avsebs vels, xolo meore mxriv, Tavisi xelmoweriT gacnobis Setyobinebas gzavnis. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, i. biuleri exeba SuasaukuneebSi gamoyenebul heraldikas. i. biuleri miiCnevs, rom heraldikis sferoSi arsebuli niSnebi reprezentuli velis saukeTeso magaliTia. yoveli grZnobad-aRqmadi sagani gamoiyeneba konkretul SemTxvevaSi, rogorc enobrivi niSani. mas Tavisi adgili aqvs sivrcesa da sagnobriv garemocvaSi (biuleri,2000. g.147). reprezentul velze fizikuradaa mimagrebuli niSani da is xelmisawvdomia aRqmisaTvis. Sua saukuneebis raindTa gerbebi swored aseTi niSniTaa Sevsebuli. Aamgvar gerbebze gamosaxavdnen jvrebs, cxovelebs, fizikur sxeuls da a.S. XIII saukuneSi gerbebi patronis iaraRze iyo gamosaxuli. gerbebi Taobidan Taobas STamomavlobiT gadaecemoda. mogvianebiT is axal mniSvnelobas iZens, rogorc gvaris aRmniSvneli anu is gvarisa da titulis simbolod formulirda. raindTa Sejibrebebze gerbebis gamofena misi mflobelis keTilSobilur, warCinebul warmoSobaze, Rirsebasa da sapatio statusze miuTiTebda. yoveli fari (gerbi) Sedgeboda feradi niSnebisgan, Zalze lamazi FformebiT. am simboloSi ikiTxeboda gvaris warCinebuloba da keTilSobileba. i. biuleris azriT, swored aseTi niSnebi farze reprezentul vels qmnida, mogvianebiT ki niSnebi gerbad gadaiqca. swored am velis dayofaa mocemuli farze. mTlianobaSi, gerbi simboloTa vels qmnis, masze moTavsebuli elementebiT da niSnebiT. Yyovel maTgans Tavisi mniSvneloba aqvs miniWebuli. is, vinc am vels aRiqvamda, yuradRebas aqcevda dayofas da simboloebis ganlagebas. raindTa Sejibrebaze gerbTa warmodgena mxolod esTetikurad ar ganicdeboda, aramed mas kiTxulobdnen [ogneva, 2000]. Sejibris dasawyisSi yuradReba eqceoda, Tu ra iyo masze aRniSnuli. aRniSvnebi sxvadasxva saxis magaliTad, rodis gardaicvala winapari, imyofeboda Tu ara wminda miwaze (ierusalimSi), sadaa misi winapris guli damarxuli, romel brZolaSi monawileobda da a.S. amgvar velSi ferebsac sakuTari datvirTva hqonda, sadac oqrosferi gamoxatavda rwmenas, samarTlianobas, gulisxmiere-


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bas; wiTeli siyvaruls, mamacobas, siTamames; vercxlisferi sando adamianis statuss, keTil zraxvebs; Savi keTilgonierebas, sifxizles; cisferi mxardaWeras, upiratesobas; mwvane imeds, Tavisuflebas, sixaruls. saintereso faqtia, rom Tavidanve gerbebis Seqmnisas dominirebda mxolod oTxi feri TeTri, wiTeli, cisferi da Savi. mogvianebiT ki daemata mwvane, oqrosferi, stafilosferi. amis miuxedavad, Tu raindi uRirss saqciels Caidenda, mas titulovan fers arTmevdnen. i. biuleris azriT, amgvari reprezentuli veli aRniSnavda deiqsiss, oRond _ vizualuri gamoxatviT. amodioda ra enobrivi Teoriidan, Tvlida, rom amgvari vizualuri xatebi pragmatikis sferos farglebSia Sesaswavli. reprezentuli veli dRes qalaqis kedlebzea gadmocemuli, sadac Suasaukuneebis gerbis msgavsad sxvadasxva formis warwerebia gadmocemuli, romlebzec damweris mxatvrul profesionalizmsac davinaxavT. grafitis sxvadasxva saxeobebSi sxvadasxva raodenobis ferebia gamoyenebuli da rac ufro rTulia grafitis Sesrulebis teqnika, miT ufro emateba ferTa raodenoba. xelmoweris~ grafiti (TAG) ZiriTadad iyenebs erT an or fers da grafitebs Soris yvelaze metadaa gavrcelebuli. kedelze avtografis datoveba `Rirsebis saqmea~, radgan grafitis Semsrulebeli riskze midis, sCadis akrZalul saqciels, arRvevs wesebs da kanons, romliTac amgvari qmedeba vandalizmis kvalifikacias iZens. iseve, rogorc SuasaukuneebSi raindi amayobda sakuTar farze gamosaxuli gerbiT, aseve amayobs Tanamedrove grafituri Tavisi SemoqmedebiT, radgan misi danaxva sajarodaa SesaZlebeli, mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom mnaxveli mxolod aRiqvams da ver kiTxulobs mas. dReisaTvis grafiti SejibrSia CarTuli xelmoweris datoveba, Tugind arastilizebuli, erT da imave adgilas amis maCvenebelia. aseTi adgilebi Sejibris arenadaa qceuli. semiotika niSanTa sistemas sami aspeqtiT swavlobs. i. morisi [, 2009] semiozisis sam ganzomilebas gamoyofs semantika, sintaqtika, pragmatika. grafitis Seswavla samive TvalsazrisiTaa saintereso, gansakuTrebiT ki pragmatikis kuTxiT, romelsac aseve wina oris gamaerTianebelsac uwodeben. Ppragmatika aris niSnis da mis momxmarebels Soris damokidebulebis Semswavleli. is swavlobs niSnis mimarTebas realobasTan.

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e. benvenisti [, 2002] aRninavda, rom pirobiTi niSnebis damokidebuleba realobisadmi qmnis enas, romlidanac yalibdeba teqsti. teqsti ki SeiZleba iyos sxvadasxvagvari, magaliTad, mxatvruli nawarmoebi, cekva, Teatri, mxatvroba da sxva. teqsti SesaZloa iyos mTeli qalaqic, Tavisi quCebiT, maRaziebiT, reklamebiT da a.S. [, 2000]. swored am kuTxiT unda ganvixiloT urbanuli naxatebi. i. biuleri da sxva avtorebic miiCneven, rom deiqsisi enisa da konteqsts Soris damokidebulebis asaxvaa, enaSi arsebuli struqturebiT. DEIXSIS berZnulad miTiTebas, Cvenebas niSnavs da enaSi xorcieldeba CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeliT, pirveli da meore piris nacvalsaxeliT, zmnis drois da droisa da adgilis zmnizedis gamoyenebiT. i. petriaSvili [, 2008] Tavis monografiaSi sistemurad ayalibebs deiqsisis (piris, adgilis da drois) kategoriebs. deiqsisis sakiTxs pragmatikis sferoSi aTavsebs da komunikaciaSi gamosayeneblad miiCnevs. es azri vizualur sferozec SeiZleba gavavrceloT. piris deiqsisi (me) _ aqtori sametyvelo moqmedebisas, piris kategoriebiT moqmedebs. rac Seexeba xelmoweris grafits, aqac saqme gvaqvs piris deiqsisTan, rodesac xelmomweri sakuTar Tavze miuTiTebs, rom is namdvilad aris es pirovneba da Setyobineba exeba pirveli piris kategorias, radgan stilizebuli xelmowera an beWduri asoebiT Sesrulebuli warwera mas warmoaCens da unikalurobiT gamoarCevs. aseTi saxis xelmowerebia saxeli, gvari, iniciali, zedmetsaxeli, Semoklebuli an sruli saxeli. magaliTad, Tu kedelze vkiTxulobT BoBy is mianiSnebs, rom damweri pirveli piridan gvesaubreba da referencias sakuTar Tavze axdens anu pirveli piris mxolobiTi nacvalsaxelis (saxeli, zedmetsaxeli, iniciali) xmarebiT zust referencias amyarebs moqmedTan anu avtorTan (sakuTar TavTan). vizualur gamosaxulebaSi meore da mesame piris kategoria ar gvxvdeba. adgilis/sivrcobrivi deiqsisi (aq) adgilis deiqsisi exeba sivrcobriv gamoxatvas metyvelebaSi. komunikaciis procesSi proqsemikas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba. gamoyofen komunikaciis proqsimalur da distalur mxares anu pirvel SemTxvevaSi mTqmelTan axlos mdgomi da meore SemTxvevaSi _ mTqmelTan man-


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Zilze mdgomi. grafitis SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs adgilis deiqsiss orTave mxaresTan. enaSi gamoyenebulia zmnizedebi aq _ iq, an CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli es is. xelmoweris grafitis aRwerisas mniSvnelobas iZens proqsimaluri da distaluri mxareebi axlos myofi(aq) da Sors myofi(iq), xelmowera (aq) am sivrceSi dafiqsirebuli da es gameorebulia sxva sivrceSi da sxvadasxva manZilze (iq). grafitSi sivrcobrivi deiqsisi aSkaradaa warmodgenili gameorebebis xarjze, oRond garkveul manZilze. Llokaciis saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia maTi aRwera. Ddrois/temporaluri deiqsisi (amJamad) metyvelebaSi temporaluri elementi mniSvnelovania da teqstSi droiT mimarTebebs exeba. Ddrois deiqsisi subieqturi drois kategoriiT gamoixateba, rac zmnizedis saxiT gadmoicema, romlis nimuSebia axla-maSin, guSin-amwuTas da sxva. aseve, is zmnis drois formiT gamoixateba. vizualur sferoSi, gansakuTrebiT ki xelmoweris grafitis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi gadmocemuli saxeli an zedmetsaxeli, verbaluri kategoriis mzgavsad zmnizediT gadmocemul formas Seesatyviseba da droSi ganfenilia. es niSnavs, rom xelmowera am wuTSicaa da guSindelicaa, is aq iyo da aris, iyo warsulSi da perspeqtivaSic iarsebebs, anu drois samive kategorias moicavs. xelmoweris grafitis stilizebuli gadmocema verbalur sferoSi daSvebul nacvalsaxels waagavs (mxolobiT/mravlobiT forma) da mxolobiTi formiT damweris logo an simbolo xdeba. Aamgvarad, xelmoweris grafiti emorCileba deiqsur vels, sadac piris, adgilis da drois Tavmoyra xdeba. radganac teqstur (naratiul) deiqsiss, aseve vizualursac, sakomunikacio daniSnuleba aqvs. swored ase xerxdeba imaze metis Setyobineba, vidre grafitSia gamoxatuli. xelmoweris grafiti, rogorc vizualuri ena da Tanamedrove miTi u. eko [ , 1997] exeba vizualur komunikacias, romelSic vizualuri niSnebi gamoiyofa. es niSnebi sagnis msgavsia da SesaZloa, formiTi msgavsebac hqondeT. swored es niSnebia ikonuri, romelTa masalis Secvla xdeba stimulebis aRqmis saSualebiT. amgvari ikonuri niSnebi, rogorc aRqmis piroba, aRadgenen da gadmoscemen kodebiT. ikonuri niSnebi, romlebic realur samyaroSi

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arsebobs, erTgvari modelia grafikul gamosaxulebebTan mimarTebiT. grafitSi aseTi ikonuri niSnebi gamoiyeneba, magram umetes SemTxvevaSi, isini SeumCnevelia, gansakuTrebiT, roca saqme xelweras exeba. grafitSi SesaZloa davinaxoT TiTqmis uxilavi kodi, rac Tavs iCens sagnebTan urTierTmimarTebiT, formebTan da sxva. u. eko aRniSnavs, rom mxatvari erTi enis niSnebs gadasvams sxva niSnebSi, qmnis axal kods, xolo adresatma ki maTi dekodireba unda moaxdinos. Tanamedrove xelovneba (grafitic, zog SemTxvevaSi) aseT axal kods qmnis, magram es arsebulis safuzvelze xdeba. u. ekos am azris gavrceleba xelmoweris grafitze Zalze Znelia, radgan dekodirebaa garTulebuli (stilizebis SemTxvevaSi, ZiriTadad, an maTi laTinuri asoebiT gamoxatvisas). e. Smielevska [, 2007] xelmoweris grafits (TAG) enisa da grafikulis aRniSvnebis erTianobaSi xedavs. grafitSi Cans lingvisturi da grafikuli, teqsti da xati, diskursi da reprezentuli Sinaarsebi. aqedan gamomdinare, avtori Tvlis, rom grafitis mizania, sagnebs saxeli daarqvas, raTa rekognicia ganxorcieldes. me var aq (Smielevska, 2007, gv. 159) niSnavs ganusazRvrel sivrceSi arsebobas, romelic Semdgom socialur velSi kosmopolitur sivrced yalibdeba. kosmopolitur sivrceSi da ufro farTod _ sazogadoebaSi, grafiti iZens dekoraciis rols, rogorc vizualuri fenomenis da vizualuri kulturis nimuSi. radgan xelmoweris~ grafiti xSirad gvxvdeba, mis specifikuri buneba Znelad Sesacnobia, magram is unikalurobas ar kargavs. swored aqedan gamomdinare, grafitebs Soris arsebobs lokaluri gansxvavebebi. magaliTad, Tbilisis grafiti laTinuri asoebis manifestirebiT gamoirCeva, rac, erTi mxriv, damweris saxels faruls xdis da meore mxriv, is stilizebulad gadmocemuli saxelia, romelic kosmopolitur sivrcezec miuTiTebs. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aq saqme gvaqvs zogadisa da specifikuris mimarTebasTan. stilizeba grafits naxatad xdis da amave dros, is saxelia. i. Smielevska xelmoweris grafits vizualur enas uwodebs. amgvarad, xelmoweris grafiti enisa da vizualuri xatebis Serwymaa. Eexeba ra Tanamedrove miTologias, r. barti [, 2000] popularuli kulturis teqstebis analizis saSualebiT, aRmniSvnelisa da aRniSnulis mimarTebiT niSnis bunebaze aqcentirebs. mi-


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si azriT, niSanTa ori done arsebobs pirveladi axsna denotacia da meoradi axsna konotacia. konotireba niSans miTad aqcevs anu iqmneba ideologia. r.Pbarti daaskvnis, rom mibaZviT xelovnebaSi erTi Setyobinebaa denotacia (realuri analogi) da meore konotacia (Seqmnili). konotacia mibaZviT yalibdeba, is zogadi simboluri an grafikuli epoqis ritorikiTaa nakarnaxevi. Kkonotaciuri veli ar gvxvdeba fotografiaSi. grafitSi ki konotacia aSkaradaa gamoxatuli. xelmoweris grafiti (TAG) konotaciuri bunebisaa da es, pirvel rigSi, gadmocemis maneraSi gamoixateba. grafitis aRmqmeli subieqturad ayalibebs STabeWdilebebs. magaliTad, kvlav SevexoT warweras BoBy, romlis gamosaxva iseTi saxiTaa, rom misi wakiTxvac ki Wirs. swored aseT xelweras aqvs kodi, romelic realobas naklebad iziarebs da grafitis stils qmnis. Tanamedrove miTebi ara marto sityvebSi, aramed gamosaxulebaSi, audialur da warmosaxviT sferoSicaa. Aaris Tu ara grafiti urbanuli miTi? xelmoweris grafiti da misi gaformeba miuTiTebs, rom saxeli aris aRniSnuli, xolo suraTi aRmniSvneli, xolo maTi erToblioba miTis saxes iRebs, radga axsnis meore doneze konotaciur bunebas iZens. Ggrafiti, rogorc niSani, miTia, sadac mxatvari gmiris rolSia, radgan is farulad moqmedebs da ucnaur suraTs qmnis, romlis wakiTxvac xeldasxmulebs SeuZliaT. ase acnobs mxatvari Tavis Tavs sxvebs da ganacxads akeTebs, rom is deiqsur velSi arsebobs, aq aris da gansakuTrebulad azrovnebs, gansxvavebuli aRqma da sxva Sexedulebebi aqvs. am saxiT sazogadoebas Seaxsenebs, rom is igivdeba miTosSi, oRond sxva ganzomilebaSi (es SeiZleba iyos marginaluri wrec). mxatvrebi racionalurad ganwyobil sazogadoebas amcnoben maT swrafvebs _ iyvnen gamoCenilni. is Tavs mxatvrad Tvlis da gamofenas awyobs ufasod yvelasaTvis, dasanax adgilas quCaSi. yoveli warwera misi saxelis ukvdavsayofadaa, radganac SeiZleba misi waSlis SemTxvevaSi kvlav iqnes msgavsadve gameorebuli, anda mas Secvlis sxva gmiri Tavisi originaluri warwerebiT. aseTi saxis gamofena xelmowerebia, magram mnaxveli, umetes SemTxvevaSi, mas ver igebs da xSirad ignorirebs. yoveldRiur gamofenaze miTosuri siuJetis performansia da miTia gadmocemuli gamosaxulebaSi. aseTi Sexedulebis dros ibadeba kiTxva: ra kodia Cadebuli am SetyobinebaSi, rom sxva ver igebs, ver waikiTxavs, ver dekodi-

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rebs? swored, aqedan iwyeba am fenomenis axsna, rogorc miTis, magram is garkveulwilad jer kidev Tanamedrove miTis auxsnel mxared rCeba. amgvari grafitebi sivrcis markirebas axdens da miTebis tiraJirebas uwyobs xels. xelmowerebSi mxatvris piradi miTia gadmocemuli, romelic SerCeul adgilas sruldeba (xSirad gansxvavebul teritoriaze) da sakuTar saxels afiqsirebs. aq sazogadoebas sTavazoben stilizebul xelmoweras, romelic auditoriis aRqmazea gaTvlili. xelmoweris grafitiT (TAG) gagzavnil Setyobinebas Seswevs mnaxvelSi kreatiuli bunebis provocireba, romelic axali realobis konstruirebis unars ayalibebs da aRZravs gameorebis moTxovnilebas. Yyovel miTSi tabus elementebi Cans, xolo Tanamedrove miTSi grafitSi, aris xelSeuxebel adgilze miTiTeba. Ggrafitis `avtori anonimia, magram misi stilizebuli xelmowera SesaZloa qalaqis sxvadasxva nawilSi vixiloT. Cven mier SerCeul Tbilisis ubanSi gamoxatuli xelmoweris grafitze ZiriTadad weria saxelebi, zedmetsaxelebi, gvarebi, inicialebi. laTinuri asoebiT dawerili grafitebi, ZiriTadad, Savi feriTaa Sesrulebuli. aseve gvxvdeba lurji da wiTeli ferebic. iSviaTadaa mwvane, yviTeli, oxra an TeTri ferebi. aris SemTxvevebi, roca xelmoweris grafiti gvxvdeba grafitis sxva saxeebTan erTad. ZiriTadad xelmoweris grafiti erTmaneTzea dawerili, TiTqos mxatvrebi SejibrSi iwveven erTmaneTs. aris SemTxveva, roca erTi da igive xelmowerebi, TiTqmis ori kilometris radiusis daSorebiT gvxvdeba. AaseTi xelmowerebi orgvaria. erTi mxriv, es grafitebi Semsruleblis logod an simbolodaa qceuli da meore is, rom bevr adgilasaa dawerili erTi da igive saxelebi, romelSic stilizebac naklebad SeirCeva da SeiZleba CaiTvalos dabali xarisxis grafitad. SerCeuli 74 suraTidan 7 xelmowera iyo iseTi, romelic avtoris logoze miuTiTebs. grafitebis umravlesoba laTinuri asoebiTaa gamosaxuli da es asoebi umeteswilad nabeWds hgavs. xelmoweris grafiti erTi an ori feriTaa gadmocemuli. kvlevis Sedegebi SeiZleba Semdegi debulebebis saxiT CamovayaliboT: 1. erT da imave adgilas ramdenimejer meordeba msgavsi xelmowerebi; 2. xelmowerebi ZiriTadad beWduri laTinuri asoebiTaa Sesrulebuli;


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3. grafitis stilizebuli mxare sxvadasxvanairia, magaliTad, laTinuri nabeWdi asoebis gamoxatva didi da patara asoebis Tanmimdevrobis rigrigobiT; pirveli asos xelovnuri gadideba da a.S. 4. grafitSi ZiriTadad erTi feria gamoyenebuli, magram iSviaTad, or ferSicaa Sesrulebuli; 5. bevr adgilas xelmoweris grafiti erTmaneTTan axlos an erTmaneTzea dawerili; 6. umetes SemTxvevaSi fiqsirdeba sakuTari saxeli an zedmetsaxeli; 7. xSirad stilizebuli xelmowerebis qvemoT aris Cveulebrivi xelmowera, Tumc es warwerac SeiZleba xelmoweris grafitad CaiTvalos; 8. erTmaneTze dawerili xelmoweris~ grafiti srul qaoss qmnis da umeteswilad, vandalizmis aqts waagavs; 9. xelmoweris grafiti gamosaxulebis mixedviT SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc maRali da dabali donis; (maRali donisaa grafiti, Tu is meordeba Camoyalibebuli stilizebuli saxiT, xolo dabali donisaa is grafiti, romelic ubralo warweraa). 10. stilizebuli grafitis SemTxvevaSi, is mxatvris logodaa miCneuli da xSirad grafitis sxva formebTan erTad gvxvdeba; 11. enobrivi TvalsazrisiT, grafiti deiqsuri velis farglebSi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, romelSic aSkarad fiqsirdeba mimarTebebi aq amJamad me, sadac me aris saxeli, gvari, iniciali da a.S. amJamad droiTi faqtoria, romelic gvamcnobs, rom is aq aris da mudmivad darCeba. aq sivrcobrivi organizebaa, da swored aqedan gamomdinare, qalaqis, kvartlis, ubnis yoveli toposi gvamcnobs grafitis arsebobas. 12. xelmoweris grafitSi, rogorc enobrivi, aseve vizualuri mxarec fiqsirdeba, da garkveulwilad Tanamedrove miTis saxes iZens.. Ffotoebze asaxuli masalis ganmartebebi: suraTi # 1. xelmoweris grafitis nimuSi, sadac erTi saxelia gamoxatuli da avtoris zedmetsaxels niSnavs; suraTi # 2. grafiti, sadac mxatvarTa jgufis wevrebis saxelebia gadmocemuli; suraTi #3. grafiti, sadac stilizebuladaa gadmocemuli xel-

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mowera; suraTi # 4. Ggrafiti, sadac Sereuladaa gadmocemuli saxeli, adgilis identoba da a.S. suraTi # 5. stilizebuli logo, romelic yvelaze metad gvxvdeba im ubanSi, romelic Cveni kvlevis adgili iyo; suraTi # 6. erTmaneTze gadawerili grafitebi. Bbibliografia barbaqaZe, 2009: barbaqaZe c., 2009, poeziis semiotika. Tbilisi. universali. barti, 2000: ., 2000, . .- . benvenisti, 2002: ., 2002, . . . biuleri, 2000: ., 2000, . . . eko, 1998: ., 1998, . . . . . iuli, 1997: YYule, G., 1997, Pragmatics. Oxford University press. ogneva, 2000: ., 2000, , , . . . petriaSvili, 2008: petriavili i., 2008, avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis semantikuri da pragmatikuli Taviseburebebi (inglisuri romanis magaliTze), Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba. Tbilisi. rudnevi, 2000: ..,2000,.. Smielevska, 2007: Chmielewska E., Framind [Con]text: Graffiti and place, p. 145-169. In Space and Culture, Vol: 10, 2007.

gia joxaZe

maradi Suasaukuneebi
1. nostalgia Jak le gofis azriT, termin Sua saukuneebis SemoRebisas XV saukunis II naxevarSi moRvawe italiel humanistebs _ mag., jovani andreas, papis yofil biblioTekars _ surdaT, TavianTi Tanamedroveni, ase vTqvaT _ renesanselebi _ maTgan daeSorebinaT, visac Zvelebs eZaxdnen. jer kidev XIII saukunis bolos progresis cnebis Camoyalibeba warsulTan brZolis signalad iqca. axali xelovnebis (ars nova) adeptebi warsulis xelovanebs upirispirdebian, filologebi da Teologebi aristotelizms uaryofen: XIV saukuneSi imgvari politikis safuZvlebic daamuSaves, romelic _ religiisagan, saxelmwifo ki eklesiisagan distancirebuli iqneboda. Tanamedroveni (igulisxme: novatorebi) WeSmarit antikurobas, saberZneTisa da romis epoqebs unda dabrunebodnen da, aseve _ bibliur droebas... rogorc vxedavT, humanistebi cdiloben TavianTi Sua saukuneebis, erTgvari bneli gvirabis Seqmnas, romlis erT mxares brwyinvale antikuri epoqa, meore mxares ki _ aseve brwyinvale renesansi moeqceoda. XVII saukunis germaneli eruditebi kacobriobas sam erad yofen: antikuroba, Sua saukuneebi, axali dro (imxanad ukve Camoyalibda termini Sua sau-

istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis samagistro da sadoqtoro fakultetis profesori. SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis institutis mkvlevari.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:

XIII-XIV saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoriidan, avgustineseuli providencializmi da JamTaaRmwerlis religiuri msoflmxedveloba ,istoriuli esseebi, iosif brodski. mSvenieri epoqis dasasruli, adamianis saxaistoria. istoriuli anTropologiis Sesavali. interesTa sfero: eklesiisa da religiis istoria, istoriuli anTropologiis problemebi, literaturaTmcodneoba, amerikanistika.

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kuneebi (medium aevum), romelic 300-dan 1500 wlamde periods moicavda). frangebma laTinuri enac daacalkeves: maRali laTinuri (igulisxme: antikurobis droindeli) da mdabali laTinuri (igulisxme: Sua saukuneebis droindeli). gansazRvreba Sua saukuneebi kninobiTi SinaarsiT aRivso. Tumc, rogorc Cans, es mxolod zedapiruli Sexedulebaa, erTgvari inercia, romelic saukunidan saukuneSi gadadis... Tu kargad davakvirdebiT, renesansis mier dayofili Zveda axali arc ise urTierTsapirispiroa da, rac mTavaria, li droSi arc ise dacilebuli: renesansi brwyinvale, magram zedapiruli movlenaa. istoriaSi ar arsebobs aRorZineba. renesansis periodSi mxolod iseTi cvlilebebi moxda, romlebic karga xans iniRbeboda antikurobisken mibrunebiT. vrceli droiTi mijnisTvis _ antikurobidan vidre XIX saukunemde _ roca Tanamedrove epoqa marTlac yalibdeba _ cxadia, niSandoblivia aRorZinebis periodebi. metic: es bunebrivia da mosalodneli. magaliTad, evropaSi aRorZinebis elvare amofrqvevebs vxvdebiT karolingebis epoqaSi (VIII-IX saukuneebi), XII saukuneSi, didi italiuri aRorZinebisas (XII_XIV saukuneebi), aseve, XV-XVI saukuneebSi, roca es talRa mTel evropas moedo; XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi ganaxlda xelovneba, literatura, Teologia... magram renesansi ar aris Sua saukuneebis ukanaskneli dideba, ukanaskneli dResaswauli... imitom, rom, rbilad rom vTqvaT, Znelia Sua saukuneebis qronologiuri dasazRvra, mozRudva. es imdenad vrceli da mravalwlovani periodia, rom evropa gamudmebiT eZebs warsulSi xan avtoritetebs, xan _ oqros xanas... minavlulia is wyalgamyofi, is Sualedi, romelsac ase xSirad axsenebdnen renesansisas. TxuTmeti saukunis ganmavlobaSi _ IV-dan XIX saukunis CaTvliT _ fuZemdeblurma sazogadoebrivma struqturebma, kavSirebma evropul sociums saSualeba ar misces, daSliliyo. Tumc, SesaZloa, arc Tu ise usafuZvlo Candes marqsis mtkiceba, rom Sua saukuneebis feodaluri warmoebis wesi gansxvavdeba Semdgomi epoqebis ekonomikuri wyobisagan. axla davaxasiaToT es xangrZlivi Sua saukuneebi: es qristianobis batonobis epoqaa. qristianoba religiacaa da ideologiac, romelic feodalur samyaros er-

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Tdroulad mtrobs da amyarebs kidec. RmerTi satanas ebrZvis. es brZola mZvinvarebs adamianSi da adamianis irgvliv. aq JorJ diumezilis samfunqciuri socialuri sqema moqmedebs, romelic IX saukunis inglisSi Caisaxa, XI saukuneSi ki sayovelTaod gavrcelda: mlocvelebi (oratores), meomrebi (bellatores) da muSakni (laboratores), anu mRvdlebi, jariskacebi da glexebi. es aris epoqa, roca gadaadgilebis mTavari saSualeba cxeni da oTxTvalaa. am orma instrumentma Tavis droze adamianuri gamwevi Zala da xari Secvala, XIX saukuneSi ki adgili rkinigzas dauTmo. es xana sazogadoebrivi higienis (abanoebis _ Termebis) antikuri sistemis moSliT daiwyo da Tanamedrove saavadmyofos aSenebiT dasrulda. es aris periodi misani mkurnalebisa, daTrgunul-gandevnili sxeulisa; es aris dro, roca araferi ician stadionebisa da sportis Sesaxeb; es aris epoqa, roca Cndeba hospitalebi, romlebic Tavidan TavSesafrad, Semdeg ki izolaciis adgilad da, ara _ samkurnalod _ gamoiyeneba. aq mTliandeba antikuri skolebis gaqrobisa da sayovelTao saskolo ganaTlebis SemoRebis xana XIX saukuneSi; es aris periodi wera-kiTxvis dauflebisa, saswaulebis rwmenisa, elitur da xalxur kulturaTa dialogisa, romelic arc brZolas gamoricxavs da arc urTierTsesxebas. es aris dro zepiri Tu werilobiTi ambebisa, magaliTebisa, damrigebluri anekdotebisa, moxetiale siuJetebisa...

Sua saukuneTa niSandoblivi elementebis CamoTvlis Semdeg, istorikosisa da sazogadoebis simarjvezea damokidebuli, am epoqas qronologiur mijnebad dayofen Tu saerTod iuareben nebismier periodizacias. aseTi koncefcia, uwinaresad, uazros gaxdis dapirispirebas or viwro mniSvnelobiT danaxuli Sua saukuneebis dapirispi-

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rebas, roca erTi maTgani mxolod sibnelesa da wyvdiadTan asocirdeba, meore ki _ mxolod idiliasa da SvebasTan. vin ityvis, rom barbarosTa omebiT gaTanguli Sua saukuneebi idealuri Jamia? an vin uaryofs, rom ganmanaTleblobis epoqa didi progresis simptomi iyo? ubralod, ukeT unda davinaxoT, rom aq iyo SimSilica da epidemiebic, glaxaknica da koconze damwvarnic, magram Sendeboda taZrebica da cixe-koSkebic, qalaqebica da universitetebic... istoria nela moZraobs, oRond Rrma kvals avlebs. Cven ki gvsurs, avaCqaroT igi da mxolod is movlenebi davinaxoT, romlebic zedapirze Zevs. dabolos: Sua saukuneTa epoqa Cveni fesvebia, Cveni dabadeba, yrmoba, bednier cxovrebaze ocnebaa, romelTan daSorebac ase gviWirs. es is samyaroa, romelic davkargeT, dro Cveni bebiebisa da babuebisa, dro, romlis nostalgiuri xsovna dRemde gvaforiaqebs (le gofi 2001:31-38). 2. kulturologiuri kazusi umberto ekos yuri mosWra misive Tanamemamulis, inJinris, mwerlisa da Jurnalistis, roberto vakas 1971 wels dastambuli wignis _ ,,Sua saukuneebi _ uaxloesi momavali _ saTaurmac da Sinaarsmac: Cven ukve axal Sua saukuneebSi gviwevs cxovreba. vaka gulisxmobs teqnologiuri epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli msxvili sistemebis degradacias. am Zalze farTo da rTuli konglomeraciebis qmedebaTa koordinireba centralur xelisuflebas gauWirdeba. TviT am sistemis xelmZRvaneli aparatic ki ver SeZlebs efeqtur marTvas. es sistemebi daingreva da mTeli samrewvelo industria ukan daixevs. am futuristuli scenaris ganxilvas gvTavazobs eko da pirvel rigSi cdilobs, ,,Sua saukuneebis cneba gaaTavisuflos kulturologiuri publicistikis mier damkvidrebuli uaryofiTi aurisagan. Sua saukuneebi aRniSnavs or erTmaneTisagan sruliad gansxvavebul istoriul moments, romelTagan erTi dasavleT romis imperiis dacemidan 1000 wlamde gagrZelda: es iyo krizisis, dacemis, xalxTa gadasaxlebisa da kulturaTa Sejaxebis periodi; 1000 wels inicirebulma meore momentma humanizmis epoqam-

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de gastana: es namdvili ayvavebis xanad, metic: sami aRorZinebis epoqad miaCniaT: pirvels _ karolingebis zeobaSi uZebnian adgils, meores _ XI-XII saukuneebSi, mesames ki _ sakuTriv aRorZinebis xanaSi. romel epoqas unda ganvekuTvnoT Cven? nebismieri cda kontemporaruli qronologizaciisa dasaRupadaa ganwiruli: procesebi iseTi aswrafebulia, Cveni drois xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi momxdari movlenebi SesaZloa maSindel xuTsaukunovan periods SeeTanados. samyaros centri gafarTovda, ganviTarebis sxvadasxva stadiaze myofi civilizaciebi da kulturebi Tanaarsebobas axerxeben. yoveldRiurobis TvalsazrisiTac, SegviZlia vilaparakoT bengalelTa cxovrebis ,,Sua saukuneobriv pirobebze, maSin roca niu-iorki ayvavebul babilons mohgavs, pekini _ ki axali aRorZinebis models. eko TamaSSi CarTvasa da Cvens droSi Sua saukuneebis ,,Seqmnas gvTavazobs. amisTvis saWiroa zeimperia, romelic daiSleba kulturuli Riaobis, axali rasobrivi komponentebis aTvisebis, socialuri rolebis gauqmebis, polireligiurobis gamo. mxolod antiklerikalurma reaqciam mouxveWa Sua saukuneebs ,,bnelis reputacia. sinamdvileSi swored maSin momwifda Tanamedrove dasavleli adamiani. egeb gamocdilebis am modelma mainc dagvanaxos is, rac dRes xdeba: zeimperias krizisi msWvalavs. erTmaneTs erkinebian sxvadasxva civilizaciebi da TandaTanobiT ikveTeba axali adamianis iersaxec. is mogvianebiT ufro mkafio gaxdeba, magram ZiriTadi elementebis SemCneva axlac SeiZleba. zeimperia amerikis SeerTebuli Statebia. barbarosebad gamodgebian Cinelebi, mesame samyaros xalxebi, axali protestantebi, emigrantebi da a.S. vinc unda iyvnen gare Zalebi, isini ver cvlian realur suraTs: Tavisufali adamiani _ yofili romaeli _ qreba. misi modgma gaTqvefilia indielTa, meqsikelTa, budistTa, leninistTa kulturis artefaqtebSi, is erTmaneTs uTavsebs heses, zodiakos, alqimias, maoizms, marihuanas, urbanulpartizanuli brZolis teqnikas... TviT romaeli mowyenilobas puritanuli ojaxis ngreviT iqarvebs. mniSvneloba aRara aqvs, xvdeba Tu vera, magram is ukve cxovrobs absoluturi decentralizaciis, centraluri xelisuflebis krizisis, abstraqtuli principebis pirobebSi. teqnologiurma Zalauflebam saxelmwifoebriv institutebs azri daukarga da sazogadoebrivi struqturebis centri dasayrdenis gareSe dastova. teritoria vietnami-

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zebulia anu avtonomizebul-feodalizebuli. umciresobebs aRar surT integracia. yalibdeba klanebi da maT mier sakontrolebeli raionebi. klanuri suli (surneli?) trialebs qalaqs gacilebul feodalTa sasaxleebsa da baRebSi... Tumc zogi ram piriqiTac xdeba, rac kidev erTxel gvarwmunebs, rom marTlac Sua saukuneebSi vcxovrobT. Tu maSin mosaxleoba mcirdeboda, qalaqebi carieldeboda, soflebSi SimSilobdnen, erTmaneTTan dakavSireba Wirda, gzebi dangreuliyo, fosta moSliliyo, centris kontroli gaqarwylebuliyo, dRes sapirispiro fenomenis mowmeni varT: mosaxleobis siWarbe, romelic arsebobs kavSirgabmulobisa da satransporto saSualebaTa siWarbis xarjze, qalaqebs sacxovreblad gamousadegs xdis, da ara _ ngrevisa da dacarielebis, aramed _ aqtivobis arnaxuli amofrqvevis gamo. xelT gvrCeba dabinZurebuli atmosfero da nagvis gorebi, maxinji da Jangbadis STanmTqmeli ganaxlebuli Senobebi; qalaqi ivseba imigrantebiT, ZirZveli mkvidrni ki qalaqSi mxolod muSaoben, raTa saRamoobiT qalaqgareT gaiqcnen... versad gaveqceviT ekologiur dacemasac: did qalaqebs ar yofniT wyali, eleqtroenergia, sagzao moZraoba paralizebulia. meore mxriv, moxmarebis sagnebis sazogadoeba am sagnebs uxeirod amzadebs. teqnologiuri sazogadoeba SesaZloa male usargeblo saganTa sazogadoebad iqces. soflad iRupeba tyeebi, mindvrebi ar muSavdeba, wyali, atmosfero, mcenareuli samyaro binZurdeba, cxovelTa zogi saxeoba gadaSenebis pirsaa... Tu gagvaxsendeba, rom dRes teqnikur saSualebaTa bumia, arc is unda dagvaviwydes, rom Sua saukuneebic samrewvelo revoluciisa da Sromis nayofierebis zrdis epoqaa. Tu Sua saukuneebSi mogzaurobisas arsebul safrTxes gaixseneben, nurc Tanamedrove aviakatastrofebsa da kontrolis ukiduresad arakomfortul procedurebs daiviwyeben (eko).

3. TamaSis epoqa TamaSi kulturamdeli fenomenia. Nnebismieri cocxali arsebisaTvis niSandoblivia TamaSi, rogorc _ misi odindeli da ganuyofeli elementi. am problemas iohan heizingam mTeli wigni miuZRvna da adamianis saxeobis mosaxelTebel terminebs kidev erTi miumata _

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Homo Ludens. * * * yvelanairi TamaSi, uwinaresad, Tavisufali qmedebaa _ aq iZulebiTi mxolod TamaSis wesebis dacvaa. amdenad, TamaSi ufro metia, vidre _ bunebrivi procesi. TamaSi bunebrivi procesis samkaulia. moTamaSisaTvis Tavisufleba, rogorc wesi, arc arsebobs: is imitom TamaSobs, rom amisken instinqti ubiZgebs; aseve, imitom, rom TamaSisas saCinovdeba misi sxeulebrivi da arCeviTi SesaZleblobani. instinqti idumali ramaa: ar viciT mizezi, magram viciT, rom sasargebloa. moTamaSe TamaSobs imitom, rom TamaSSia siamovneba, da swored esaa Tavisuflebac. zrdasrul adamians SeuZlia, arc iTamaSos. uimisodac icocxlebs. SeuZlia, TamaSi gadados. SeiZleba, TamaSi arc gamovides... TamaSs ar apirobebs arc fizikuri aucilebloba, arc _ moraluri movaleobani. TamaSi ar aris raime amocana. TamaSoben ,,Tavisufal dros. magram kulturis erT-erT funqciad TamaSis gadaqcevisas valdebulebis cneba ufro da ufro ukavSirdeba TamaSs. asea Tu ise, iqneb SevTanxmdeT, rom TamaSis ZiriTadi Tavisebureba Tavisuflebaa?! * * * TamaSi ar aris yofiTi, Cveulebrivi an namdvili cxovreba: piriqiT, TamaSi am yofiTobidan gansvlaa _ moTamaSem icis, rom TamaSi irealuria da isic icis, rom sagangebod ityuebs Tavs; is sagangebod irCevs arasrulyofils, irealurs. am ierarqiaSi moTamaSe, rasakvirvelia, namdvils, seriozuls, Cveulebrivs ufro win ayenebs, Tumc TamaSis ,,araseriozulad, ,,irealurad miCneva imas ar niSnavs, rom moTamaSe TamaSs araseriozulad udgeba. metic: xandaxan moTamaSe mTlianad Sepyrobilia, savsebiT STanTqmulia am irealobis mier, iseT netarebas ganicdis, TiTqos realur samoTxeSi moxvedriliyos. am Tvisebis gamo, TamaSi ganixileba sicocxlis Tanamdev, srulmyof, aucilebel elementad. * * * TamaSi daxSulia, SemosazRvrulia _ misi ,,gaTamaSeba SesaZlebelia droisa da sivrcis garkveul sazRvrebSi. TamaSis

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mimdinareoba, mimarTuleba da Sinaarsi masSivea. TamaSi iwyeba da mTavrdeba. erTxel naTamaSebi mexsierebaSi sulier faseulobad rCeba: erTisagan meores gadaecema da nebismier dros SeiZleba, ganmeordes. sivrcis TvalsazrisiTac, TamaSs sWirdeba gansazRvrul areali, iseve, rogorc _ RvTismsaxurebas: arena, saTamaSo magida, taZari, scena da a.S. es droebiTi samyaroebia Cveulebrivi samyaros SigniT. maTi daniSnuleba romelRac sakuTar TavSi Caketili qmedebis ganxorcilebaa. * * * TamaSi moiTxovs wesrigs. igi TviTonaa wesrigis gansaxiereba. am arasrulyofil samyaroSi is warmoadgens droebiT, garkveul srulyofilebas. amdenad, TamaSi esTetikuri fenomenia. * * * TamaSi moiTxovs sulieri da fizikuri Zalebis daZabvas. mxolod am daZabulobis wyalobiT miiRweva raRac. daZabuloba TamaSisaTvis aucilebeli normebis umkacres dacvas niSnavs _ am procesSi sulieri Tvisebebi monawileobs. amdenad, TamaSi eTikuri fenomenicaa. * * * yvela TamaSs aqvs wesebi, romelTa wamieri darRveva ,,zebunebrivs, ,,irealurs maSinve yofiTad, Cveulad, ,,miwierad aqcevs. * * * TamaSi moiTxovs ,,patiosnebas: araswori, ,,ukanono qmedebebiT TamaSis CamSleli mxolod TvalTmaqcobs, rom TamaSobs _ sinamdvileSi, TamaSis wesebs ar emorCileba. amas iolad patioben, magram is ki, vinc im myife samyaros damangrevladaa Seracxili, romelSic sxvebTan erTad droebiT imyofeboda, risxvas ver gadaurCeba. TamaSSi igi iluzias klavs, riTac safrTxes uqmnis moTamaSeTa mocemul erTobas. amitomac cxaddeba igi ,,mSiSrad, ,,laCrad. amitomac idevneba.

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* * * moTamaSeni midrekilni arian, mudmivi Semadgenloba TamaSis merec SeinarCunon (sazogadoebis, socialur jgufTa Camoyalibeba). * * * moTamaSeni miiswrafian TavianTi qmedebis gaidumalebisaken. es SeiZleba gamoixatos tansacmlis SecvlaSic. am dros gadacmuli TamaSobs ,,sxvas.

amgvarad, TamaSi, formis TvalsazrisiT, erTgvari Tavisufali qmedebaa, romelic miCneulia ,,aranamdvilad. igi ar ukavSirdeba yofiT yoveldRiurobas, da miuxedavad amisa, moTamaSes mTlianad ipyrobs. TamaSs ar apirobebs materialuri interesi an sargebeli. TamaSi mimdinareobs sagangebod gamoyofil sivrcesa da droSi. TamaSi mowesrigebulia. igi qmnis sazogadoebriv gaerTianebebs, roca moTamaSeni TavianTi arsebobis gaidumalebas an Cveulebriv samyarosTan SedarebiT _ tansacmliTa da iersaxiT _ TavianTi gansxvavebulobis gaxazvas cdiloben. * * * TamaSis funqcia or ZiriTad aspeqts amJRavnebs: brZolas raimesTvis da raimes warmodgenas, sanaxaobas; es sakiTxi asec SeiZleba gaerTiandes: TamaSi ,,warmoadgens raimesTvis brZolas, an iqceva asparezobad maTTvis, visac sworad rom raRac sxvebze ukeT xelewifeba. warmodgena Tvalwin raRacis arsebobaa. igi SeiZleba Cvens winaSe wardges ise, rogoric bunebam gviboZa, magram _ zebunebrivi, gansxvavebuli, gansakuTrebuli saxiTac. RvTismsaxureba ufro metia, vidre _ simboluri gardasaxva. igi mistikuri gardasaxva ufroa. am warmodgenaSi raRac, gamousaxav-gamouTqmeli wmindavdeba, mSvenierdeba, mniSvnelobas iZens. sakulto msaxurebis monawileni darwmunebulni arian, rom es aqti cxovrebas madliT mosavs, xolo sagnebis umaRlesi wesrigi maT Cveulebriv cxovrebaSi iWreba. da mainc: es warmodgena mainc inarCunebs TamaSis formalur niSnebs. igi, rogorc dResaswauli, sagangebod gamoyofil realur saTamaSo sivrceSi TamaSdeba. mis gamo da misi wyalobiT iqmneba droebiTi samyaro.

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amasTan, moqmedeba TamaSis dasrulebisTanave rodi wydeba: is iqamde ganagrZobs yofiTi samyaros gadasxvaferebis process (amyarebs imeds, wesrigs, monawileT keTildReobas aniWebs...), sanam dResaswauli anu dRe sakraluri xelaxla ar ganmeordeba. * * * yvela TamaSisaTvis niSandoblivia agonaluri anu ,,SejibrebiTobis, paeqrobis Tavisebureba. es msWvalavda berZenTaTvis umniSvnelovanes sferos _ Sejibrebebsa da orTabrZolebs. * * * arqaul sazogadoebaTa kulturuli cxovrebis agonalur safuZvelze migvaniSnebs britaneTis kolumbiaSi mcxovreb indielTa Cveulebis _ potlaCis aRwera. kvakiutlis tomis magaliTiT, potlaCis tipuri gamoxatuleba iyo didi dResaswauli, romelzec erTi jgufi meores sazeimod Zvirfas ZRvens gadascemda. mas sxva mizani, garda sakuTari gamorCeulobisa da aRmatebulebis gaxazvisa, ar unda hqonoda. erTaderT aucilebel sapasuxo qmedebad miCneuli iyo meore jgufis valdebuleba, garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi aseve moewyo dResaswauli da ramdenadac moaxerxebda, ZRvnis xarisxiTa da odenobiT, mowinaaRmdegisaTvis gadaeWarbebina. Cuqebis es aqti gansazRvravda im tomTa sazogadoebriv cxovrebas, romlebic awyobdnen potlaCs: sakulto wes-Cveulebebi, samarTlebrivi adaTebi, dabadeba, qorwili, WabukTa iniciacia, sikvdili, tatuireba, sasaflaoze niSnis dasma _ yvelaferi es SesaZloa potlaCis gamarTvis sababad gamomdgariyo. tomis beladi potlaCs awyobda saxlis aSenebisa da satotemo svetis aRmarTvisas. potlaCis dros sxvadasxva sqesisa da klanis warmomadgenlebi TavianT xelovnebas uCvenebdnen: mRerodnen wminda simRerebs, gamofendnen niRbebs, jadosnebi eqstazSi cviodnen... mTavari epizodi saCuqrebis gadacema iyo. dResaswaulis momwyobi mTeli klanis qonebas flangavda. zeimis monawile klani nebayoflobiT iRebda valdebulebas, raTa ufro guluxvi potlaCi gaemarTa. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, es klani dakargavda pativsa da didebas, totemis niSans, Tavis mxriv ki, am klanis totemebi Rirsebisagan ganiZarcvebodnen. amgvarad, WurWeli da sxva qoneba ase Tvalsaseirod mogza-

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urobs (daxetialobs) erTi didgvarovnis saxlidan meorisaSi. savarudoa, rom Tavdapirvelad potlaCi erTi tomis gvarebs Soris imarTeboda. potlaCis dros upiratesobis gamoxatvas gulisxmobda ara mxolod saCuqrebis gadacema, aramed _ sakuTari qonebis ganadgurebac, raTa Tavmomwoned etrabaxaT, rom uamisodac gaZlebdnen. amasac sdevda dramatuli rituali, romelic mowinaaRmdegis ampartavnulad gamowvevas gulisxmobda. yovelive es Sejibrebis formiT warimarTeboda: Tu beladi amsxvrevs brinjaos qoTans, wvavs sabnebis dastas, nafotebad aqcevs kanoes, misi mowinaaRmdege movalea, gaanadguros _ sul cota _ maTi sworferi nivTebi mainc. nafotebsa da namsxvrevebs mowinaaRmdeges ugzavnian, an sakuTari Rirsebis aRsaniSnavad gamofenen. tlinkitTa tomis belads, meoris jibrze, Tavisi tomis ramdenime monac ki mouklavs, rac mowinaaRmdeges ufro metis mokvlas avalebda. * * * potlaCi aris gamarjveba, ufrosoba, dideba, prestiJi, revanSi... pirispir dgas ori dajgufeba, ori megobari da ori mteri... pativiscemis gamoxatvis Tavdapirveli safuZvelia agonaluri instinqti. pirveladia mTeli sazogadoebis TamaSi koleqtiuri da individualuri pirovnebis asamaRleblad. TamaSi SeiZleba iyos seriozulic, damRupavic, sisxlianic... magram es mainc TamaSia. potlaCi kacobriobis fundamenturi moTxovnilebis _ didebisa da Rirsebis mosapovebeli TamaSis _ yvelaze damuSavebuli da yvelaze gamomsaxveli formaa. * * * marsel mosi daakvirda melinezieli da polinezieli xalxis qcevas da aRmoaCina, rom ZRvnis gacvla-gamocvla aucilebeli, magram _ sruliad uangaro aqtia. amiT arqauli sazogadoebani erTmaneTis movaleni xdebian. tomis wevrebi statusis asamaRleblad yvelafers gascemen. iwveven mezobel klanebs (lxinis safuZveli). aqvT saZmoebi, xSirad _ internacionaluric. ZRvnis

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nawili da sapasuxo gacema imas emsaxureba, rom TanmimdevrobiT gadaixadon pativis mopovebisa da saZmoSi gandidebis Tanxa. es aris gamudmebuli give and take. moss Semoaqvs ori ,,ekonomikuri cneba: krediti da Rirseba. britaneTis kolumbiis indielebi kredits eyrdnobian. tomis wevrebs yvela saqmeSi megobrebis daxmarebis imedi aqvT. arsebobs dapireba, rom gaweuli daxmarebisaTvis samagieros gaiReben. Tu daxmareba Zvirfaseulobis gacemas gulisxmobs, indieli ,,procentiT gadaxdis valdebulebas iRebs. indiels ara aqvs damwerlobis sistema, ris gamoc SeTanxmebis garantias sajarod iZleva. potlaCs ori ram esafuZvleba: gadaixados vali sajarod da moipovos sargebeli TavisTvisa da Tavisi SvilebisaTvis. ZRvnis mimRebma erTxelac vali monagebiTurT unda daabrunos. ,,kreditis gageba potlaCSi ori terminiT gamoixateba: ,,ZRveni da ,,sapasuxo ZRveni. rogor ganisazRvreba valis gadaxdis dro? logikurad: sapasuxo stumrobisas, qorwilSi, zavis dadebisas, regularul TamaSebSi monawileobisas, dResaswaulebze da a.S. mokled: urTierTpativiscemis gamoxatvisas. es unda edos safuZvlad kredits, gacvla-gamocvlas, yidva-gayidvas, giraos... yvelafris daxarjva indielis Rirsebis saqmea. yvelaze mdidari yvelaze mflangvelic unda iyos. potlaCis saxesxvaobaa mowinaaRmdegis dasamcireblad yvelafris dawva-ganadgureba. ganadgurebis sqemas ori veqtori amoZravebs: es aris omi da msxverplSewirva. potlaCi omia. omSi moklulTa qonebas euflebi. qonebrivi omisas ki qonebas ,,klav: an Sensas, sxva rom ar daeuflos; an sxvisas, roca mas aZlev ZRvens, romelic unda dagibrunon. msxverplSewirvisas qonebas imitom ,,klaven, rom is ,,cocxalia. potlaCi religiur-miTologiuria, radgan masSi monawile beladebi im winaprebsa da RmerTebs ganasaxiereben, romelTa saxelebi hqviaT, romelTa cekvebs asruleben, romelTa sulebs emorCilebian...

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potlaCi ekonomikuri fenomenia _ erTgvari finansuri xelSekruleba. potlaCi socialur-morfologiuria: tomebis, klanebis, ojaxebis, erebis Sekreba megobrobisa Tu mtrobis safuZvelia. potlaCi esTetikuri fenomenia: mSvenierebas eswrafis. potlaCi iuridiuli fenomenia: xelSekruleba iuridiulad formdeba. simdidris gacema Senanebaa. es aris gamosasyidi msxverpli sulebisadmi. simdidris gacema sxva adamianebTan erTobis aRdgenis perspeqtivaa. saCuqris miRebaze uaris Tqma ar SeiZleba, radgan miuTiTebs SiSze, rom sanacvlos ver daabruneb. es uRirsobas, usaxelobas eTanadeba. saCuqris miReba ki TanasworTa Soris Tanasworobas giqadis. vinc uars ambobs saCuqarze, SesaZloa, imasac gamoxatavdes, rom is mimZRvnelze upiratesia, rac agresiul damokidebulebas Sobs (heizinga 1997: 21, 45, 95). * * * aron gureviCi Tavis naSromSi ,,Sua saukuneobrivi kulturis kategoriebi sagangebo yuradRebas uTmobs iseTi cnebebis ganxilvas, rogorebicaa: ,,pativi, ,,dideba, ,,gvariSviloba da a.S. maT mkvlevari klasobriv sazogadoebamde arsebuli wyobis gadmonaSTad miiCnevs. im RirsebaTagan, romlebic niSandoblivi gaxldaT feodaluri seniorisaTvis, pirvel adgilze idga guluxvoba. seniors lxinis, dResaswaulebis gamarTvis, stumrebis miRebisa da gamaspinZlebis, dasaCuqrebis saSualeba aqvs. es normadaa miCneuli. angariSianoba, momWirneoba misi fenis eTikisaTvis sapirispiro cnebebia. Semosavalze mouravi zrunavs, misi daxarjva ki senioris saqmea. Tanac, rac ufro pompezurad moaxerxebs igi amas, miT ufro gaeTqmeba saxeli, miT metad maRal sazogadoebriv mdgomareobas daiWers, miT metad pativdebuli da prestiJuli Seiqneba... am wreSi miRebul normaTa Tanaxmad, feodalisaTvis simdidre TviTmizani rodia. es arc dagrovebisa da meurneobis gaumjobeseba-ganviTarebis saSualebaa. seniori sawarmoo miznebiT Tavs ar itvirTavs: Semosavlis gazrdam mas meti megobari, meti vasali da mokavSire unda SesZinos. swored maTi siamovnebisaTvis xarjavs is Tavis qonebas. feodaluri mflangveloba gabato-

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nebul klasSi qonebis gadanawilebis erT-erTi saSualebaa, Tanac _ erTob specifikuri. saunjis flobiT seniori siamovnebas ver iRebs, Tu misi xarjvisa da demonstrirebis, ukeT _ demonstratiulad xarjvis saSualeba ar mieca. saqme is ki ar aris, simdidre ubralod gaaniavos: es sazogadod, sajarod unda moxdes lxinisas Tu saCuqar-saboZvaris gacemisas. simdidris amgvarad gaflangva gvagonebs Crdiloamerikel indielebSi gavrcelebul ,,potlaCs. mark bloksac mohyavs ramdenime msgavsi magaliTi Sua saukuneTa feodaluri praqtikidan. erTi raindis brZanebiT, daxnul miwaSi vercxlis natexebi dauTesavT. meore SeSis naclad cecxls cvilis sanTlebiT anTebda. mesames sakuTari guluxvobis niSnad ocdaaTi cxeni cocxlad dauwvevinebia. aseTi aqtebi sajarod sruldeboda, sxva feodalTa da vasalTa Tvalwin da maT saseirod. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi aseTi eqstravaganturoba azrs dakargavda. potlaCis msgavs mflangvelur asparezobebsa da feodalur etikets Soris bevri saerToa. arc ise Znelia agresiuli guluxvobis kvalis, im miswrafebis ganWvreta, rom senioris xelgaSlilobiT mowveulni ,,daiTrgunon, TviTon ki am Tavisebur socialur TamaSSi, romlis fsonic prestiJisa da gavlenis damkvidrebaa, gamarjvebas miaRwios. simdidre TavisTavad pativisa da Rirsebis garantia ar aris, Torem feodalur sazogadoebaSi vaWari aseTi damcrobili reputaciiT ar isargeblebda. feodali simdidres im mizanTa miRwevis saSualebad aRiqvams, romlebic ekonomikis sazRvrebmiRmaa. simdidre niSania, romelic adasturebs Rirsebas, gulkeTilobas, senioris xelgaSlil bunebas. es niSani zemoT CamoTvlil TaviseburebaTa demonstrirebiT realizdeba. amgvarad, simdidriT netarebis uzenaesi wertili xalxis maqsimalurad didi raodenobis winaSe misi gaflangvaa. mowveulebma monawileoba unda miiRon am saboZvaris STanTqmaSi. maT wili udevT am qonebaSi. yvela socialuri mniSvnelobis mqone niSnis realizacia ritualsa da dawesebul normebs emorCileba. wveulebebi, dResaswaulebi, sasaxlis karis Sekrebebi, turnirebi dadgenil vadebSi mimdinareobs, saWiro dekorums ceremoniebic erTvis. raindis sazogadoebrivi cxovreba gulisxmobs an brZolas, an _ senioris karze garTobas. am ritualizebuli yofis ilustraciad

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gamodgeba trubaduruli poezia. poetebi uwinaresad xelgaSlilobis ideas ganadideben. msxvili senioris kari ,,gacemisa da miRebis adgilia. samyaro gaiazreba saTnoebisa da mankierebis Serkinebis asparezad. mankTagan gansakuTrebul codvad pativmoyvareoba, siZunwe, angareba iTvleba. siZunwes upirispirdeba keTilSobiluri uSurveloba. simdidrisa da sixarulis erTianobis darRveva, romelsac qonebis gacema apirobebs, samyaros wesrigs emuqreba, radgan sixarbe yvela sxva codvis dedaa, xolo gulmowyaleba _ yvela sxva saTnoebisaa. eTikuri sistemis mwvervalze uSurvelobaa, romelic sabrZolo siCauqesac ki Crdilavs. damsaCuqrebeli uflis keTilganwyobas imkis. Aamave dros, es erTaderTi gzaa siyvarulis mosapovebladac. ZRvnis mniSvneloba sakuTriv masa da im adamianebSia, romelnic gascemen da iReben. msaxureba orive aqts gulisxmobs. guluxvoba mefisa da zogadad, msxvili senioris markeria. mefem unda gasces cxenebi, oqro, tansacmeli, miwebi... _ am SemTxvevaSi xelmwife arafers dakargavs, mxolodRa SeiZens (gureviCi 1972: 225-235). 4. qarTuli versia rusTvelis poemis pirvelive TavebSi gamoxatulia arqaulSua saukuneobrivi sazogadoebisaTvis niSneuli potlaCis modeli: erTi mxriv, es aris qonebis uSurvelad gacema da am ciklis xelaxla dawyeba (,,zRvaTaca Sesdis da gaedinebis!); meore mxriv _ gaTamaSebuli asparezoba, paeqroba pirvelobisaTvis. gavixsenoT, ra xdeba TinaTinis taxtze asvlis epizodSi: TinaTins ,,Tavi ar eRirseba ,,taxtze sajdomad, amitomac tiris. mefe brZnuli rCeviT amSvidebs: mamas yovelTvis Ze cvlis. ukve mefe xar da mefurad unda moiqce. mze Tanabrad unaTebs mdidarsac da Raribsac, ymasac da didgvarovansac. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, didsac gaumarTe xeli da wvrilsac. guluxvi mtersac miimxrobs. masve uerTgulebs is, vinc isedac emxroboda. (arsebobs am strofis amgvari interpretaciac: uxvi, xelgaSlili adamiani mtersac miimxrobs, is ki, vinc emxroba, Tavisi nebiT emsaxureba da ara _ iZulebiT (,,uxvi axsnilsa daabams, igi TviT ebis, vin ebis). mefeTaTvis siuxve imgvaradve niSandoblivia, rogorc edemSi _ alvis xe. uxvs orgulic hmorCilebs. amas mosdevs stro-

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fi: ,,sma-Wama didad Sesargi _ deba ra savargulia. rasaca gascem, Senia, rasc ara _ dakargulia! swored aq sWvivis potlaCis anarekli: mefem (beladma) yvelas (didisa Tu mciris) Tvalwin unda gasces qoneba. uxmari nivTi gamousadegia. is unda gamoiyenon sicocxlisaTvis, romlis niSandoblivi Tavisebureba lxini da sma-Wamacaa. am ganmartebis validurad CaTvla kidev SesaZlebelia, magram striqoni: ,,rasaca gascem, Senia, rasc ara dakargulia! egeb imsaxurebs, mentalur umsjelobaTa rigs ar Seematos. qristianuli TvalsazrisiT, aq saxarebiseuli postulati igulisxmeba: saaqao saunje aras niSnavs _ dakargulia, amitomac unda gasce yvelaferi, rac gabadia, raTa sasufevels mieaxlo... pirvelyofili kulturebis koleqtiur SexedulebaTa ganxilvas sxva versiamde mivyavarT: dagrovilis gacema sxva araferia, Tu ara mefis mefobis xazgasma, misi prestiJis amaRleba, vardsa Tu nexvze ufrosobis warmoCena, sakuTari didebis kidev erTxel pedalireba. TinaTinic ise unda moiqces, rogorc _ rostevani da sxva xelmwifeni. ra xdeba Semdeg? qali mamis rCevas aWaSnikebs, mefe ki ,,smasa da mRerasa iqms, metad moilxinebda. ,,mRera ZvelqarTulad TamaSs niSnavs. diax, arsebobs aseTi TamaSi: gacema, saWurWleTa gaxsna, simdidris ganadgureba... mis xelaxla mosapoveblad. Semdeg TinaTini ubrZanebs Tavis gamzrdels, ufliswulobaSi dagrovili saunje moarTvan. qalma gaxsna da mciresa Tu didebuls uSurvelad dauriga. amas garda, rogorc potlaCis wesia, unda gaices mTeli klanis qoneba. TinaTinic ,,iqms saqmesa mamisagan swavlebulsa da ubrZanebs, aravin damalos da dainanos saWurWle. gaxsnan, Tu sadme saunjea, amiraxorma moasxas pirutyvTa jogebi da cxenTa remebi. asec moiqcnen. Zvirfas nivTebsa da qsovilebs laSqari mekobreebiviT _ qurdebiviT _ xvets. arqaul-Sua saukuneobriv mentalur arenaze gamodis asparezoba-TamaSis meore monawile: meore ,,tomi, bellatores anu laSqari, romelTan erTadac beladi, mefe am TamaSs warmarTavs. sazeimo TamaSi am strofiT dasturdeba: ,,dRe erT gardaxda puroba, sma-Wama iyo, xiloba, nadimad msxdomTa laSqarTa mun didi Semoyriloba. mefe mainc mowyenilia. mizezi avTandilma hkiTxa: is xom ar

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gadardebs, Senma asulma mTeli saWurWle rom gaaniava, xom ar Secdi, mefed rom dasvio? mefes gaukvirda da, kacma rom Tqvas, gasakviric iyo: gana sul cota xnis win TviTon mefem ar urCia asuls, saunje uSurvelad gaecio? maS, es mizezi amTaviTve unda gamoricxuliyo. bolos da bolos, am TamaSSi siZunwe wesebis darRvevaa. swored es ukvirs mefes: ,,an sityvani viT gahbedna..., ,,gaukvirda, viT mkadrao, ,,Cemi zraxva siZunwisa, tyuis, vinca daiybedna. mefis wuxilis mizezi, poemis Tanaxmad, isaa, rom monarqs vaJi ara hyavs, rom misTvis eswavlebina ,,samamaconi znenia: mSvildosnoba, burTaoba... burTi ,,qarTul leqsikonSi ase ganimarteba: ,,mgrgvali meSTagan saTamaSo asparezobaTa Sina. gamodis, rom samamaco zne ara mxolod mSvildosnobaa, aramed _ TamaSic: burTaoba, asparezoba, turniri... amaSi odnav avTandili mgavs, Cemi gazrdiliao. avTandili sTavazobs: naZlevi davdoT, mowmed Tqveni ymebi daviyenoT, viasparezoT, ,,gardamwyvedeli misica burTi da moedaniao. mefe Tanaxmaa. isic axsenebs karg ymaT, mowmed rom unda iaxlon. fsonad Rirseba ideba: ,,vinca iyos uaresi, TavSiSveli sam dRes vlides! Tormeti mona unda gahyves mefes. Sermadini avTandils unda eaxlos. unda gairkves, vin ramden nadirs moklavs. Tanac ,,zmides anu zmebiT erTmaneTs epaeqrebodnen. zmac sityvaTa TamaSia. aq kidev erTxel uxmoben ,,potlaCis meore monawiles _ laSqars: ,,modiT da moijareniTo!... lxinic sruldeba. asparezoba zeimia _ ,,zeimi da zari iyo. asparezoba TamaSia _ ,,erTmanerTsa Tu ,,me gjobo, siciliT eubnebodes, xumrobdnen, oxunjobdnen... avTandilma gaimarjva. orives mier erTad nasroli isari orass Seadgenda, Tumc avTandils ociT meti nadiri moekla... mefe am SedegiT ukmayofilo rodia. metic: ,,mefesa ese ambavi urCs, viTa mRera nardisa, imitom, rom TamaSia. Camoxdnen. Camoisvenes. Semdeg kvlav ,,aTamaSdnen: ,,TamaSobdes da uWvretdes wyalsa da pirsa tyeTasa. aq yvela erTadaa. TamaSobs orive monawile _ samefo xelisuflebaca da laSqaric. ,,TamaSa Turqulad sanaxavsa hqvian

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(warmodgena), xolo TamaSoba mRera-SeqcevaTa saxelia. TamaSis eqvs saxeobaTagan asparezoba pirvelia (rusTaveli). 5. ,,moxetiale daskvnebi amgvarad, arqauli sazogadoebebisaTvis niSandoblivi elementebi _ saCuqrebis gacvla-gamocvla, simdidris udardeli moxmareba da ganawileba, mflangveloba..._ feodalizmsac axasiaTebda. es imas sulac ar niSnavs, rom feodalurma formaciam Zveli Cveuleba mxolod imemkvidreva da Cvens winaSe oden gadmonaSTebia. Cans, arqaulma Cveulebebma sicocxlisunarianoba Sua saukuneebSic gamoavlines, magram arsebiTi isaa, ra roli itvirTes maT axal sistemaSi? ZRveni, lxini, nivTebisa da servisis gacvla-gamocvla da maTi mentaluri naSTebi simdidris niSneuli funqciaa, Cven mier ganxilul sazogadoebebSi arsebuli socialuri kavSirebis specifikuri bunebis gamovlineba. feodalizmSi am kavSirebs ukiduresad pirovnuli xasiaTi hqonda. sazogadoebis wevrebi uSualod eurTierTebodnen erTmaneTs, rac naTesaobriv erTobasa da saqorwino kavSirebs, mezoblobasa da Temobriv kuTvnilebas, mfarvelobas, urTierTdamokidebulebas, qveSevrdomobas efuZneboda. es kavSirebi feodalizmSi gamoixateboda individTa uSualo urTierTobiT, burJuaziuli sazogadoebisagan gansxvavebiT, romelSic urTierTobis ,,gasaqonleba mimdinareobs. XIV saukunis inglisSi sasaqonlo urTierToba sakmaod ganviTarebuli gaxldaT, magram mentaliteti _ kvlavac feodaluri. erT alegoriul poemaSi momWirnesa da mflangvelze es ukanaskneli ambobs: ,,ra bedenaa oqro-vercxli, Tu ar daxarje? daiJangeba, gaixrwneba an daRrRnis virTxa. RvTis gulisaTvis, nuRar avseb zanduks pirTamde! da eg qoneba mwirs da glaxaks gaunawile... qristianebis SveliT ufro aameb ufals, vidre _ simdidris gadamalviT boxCa-qisebSi, romelT mzis sxivi erTxel xvdebaT Svid weliwadSi. mflangvelis azriT, simdidre amaoebrivia da kacs siaviTac avsebs: mdidari adamiani miT metad mxdalia, rac ufro mdidaria.AaseT arsebobas xanmokle, magram bednieri sicocxle sjobs. feodalur sazogadoebaSi, romlis daisic axlovdeboda,

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simdidreze kvlavac kontrastuli Sexedulebani erkineboda erTimeores. pirovnuli batonobisa da daqvemdebarebis urTierTobebi msWvalavda feodalur sazogadoebas, rac feodaluri sakuTrebis xasiaTsac apirobebda. es ar iyo kerZo sakuTreba. burJuaziuli sakuTreba anonimuri gaxldaT, feodaluri ki _ personificirebuli. literatura , , . , , http://solnechnoeleto.narod.ru/vibor.htm ., Homo Ludens; . / . .. ; . . . - .. . , , , , www.lib.ge

Targmanebi a
rolan barti

TxrobiTi teqstebis struqturuli analizis Sesavali1


...ar aris, ar yofila da ar iqneba xalxi, romelmac ar icis Txroba; yvela klasi, nebismieri socialuri jgufi qmnis Tavis sakuTar narativebs da xSirad xdeba ise, rom gansxvavebuli da, SeiZleba iTqvas, sapirispiro kulturis adamianebi erToblivad ismenen erTsa da imave ambebs. Txroba arafrad agdebs gansxvavebas maRalsa da mdare literaturas Soris; gadalaxavs erovnul, istoriul da kulturul barierebs, is yvelganaa samyaroSi, iseve, rogorc TviT sicocxle. niSnavs Tu ara Txrobis aseTi universaluroba, rom is saintereso araa CvenTvis? imdenad yovlismomcvelia Tu ara es movlena, rom Cven garkveuli veraferi vTqvaT mis Sesaxeb da iZulebulni viyoT, udrtvinvelad aRvweroT misi zogierTi Zalze kerZoobiTi nairsaxeoba, rogorc amas xSirad sCadian literaturis istorikosebi? magram rogor unda gamovyoT TviT es nairsaxeobebi, rogor davasabuToT Cveni ufleba maT gamoyofasa da identifikaciaze? rogor gavarCi
*

ibeWdeba umniSvnelo kupiurebiT.


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oT romani novelisgan, zRapari miTisgan, drama tragediisgan (es xom araerTxel scades), ise, rom ar gamoviyenoT maTTvis saerTo modeli? nebismieri msjeloba TviT SemTxveviTi an istoriulad SezRuduli TxrobiTi formis Sesaxeb xom ukve gulisxmobs amgvari formis arsebobas. amitom sruliad bunebrivia, rom dawyebuli aristoteleTi, mkvlevrebi ara marto ar ambobdnen uars TxrobiTi teqstis Seswavlaze im sababiT, rom esaa universaluri movlena, aramed, piriqiT, periodulad ubrundebodnen TxrobiTi formis problemas; aranakleb bunebrivia is, rom axalaRmocenebuli struqturalizmisTvis es forma uaRresad sainteresoa: yvela SemTxvevaSi saubaria imis Sesaxeb, rom mocul iqnas konkretul gamonaTqvamTa usasrulo raodenoba im `enis~ aRweris gziT, romlebidanac isini warmoiSvnen da romelic maTi warmoSobis saSualebas iZleva. mkvlevari, romelic awydeba TxrobiTi teqstebis usasrulo simravles da maTdami mravalferovan midgomebs (istoriuls, fsiqologiurs, sociologiurs, eTnologiurs, esTetikurs da a.S.), daaxloebiT iseTsave mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeba, romelSic aRmoCnda sosiuri mravalsaxovani metyvelebiTi aqtivobis winaSe, rodesac man scada metyvelebiTi Setyobinebebis usistemo fragmentebidan gamoeyo maTi klasifikaciis principi da aRweris safuZveli. rac Seexeba Tanamedrove epoqas, maSin rusi formalistebi, propi da levi-strosi dagvexmarnen, Camogveyalibebina es dilema: an TxrobiTi teqsti aris movlenaTa ubralo gadmocema da mis Sesaxeb unda vilaparakoT iseTi kategoriebis meSveobiT, rogorebicaa mTxroblis (avtoris) `xelovneba~, `talanti~ an `genia~, romlebic SemTxveviTobis miTologizebuli gansaxierebebia; an amgvar teqsts aqvs sxva teqstebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli struqtura, romelic eqvemdebareba analizs, _ Tundac am struqturis aRmoCena did moTminebas saWiroebdes; saqme isaa, rom SemTxveviTobis urTules gamovlinebasa da kombinatorikis umartives formas Soris mTeli ufskrulia: ar arsebobs adamiani, romelic SeZlebs Seqmnas esa Tu is narativi amosavali implicituri erTeulebis sistemisa da maTi SeerTebis wesebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. maS, sad unda veZioT TxrobiTi teqstis struqtura? ra Tqma unda, TviT teqstebSi. magram, yvela teqstSi? mravali mkvlevari ar uaryofs TxrobiTi struqturis arsebobas, magram ver urigdeba imis aucileblobas, rom literaturuli analizi SeiZleba aigos eqsperimentul mecnierebaTa modelisgan

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gansxvavebuli modelis safuZvelze; isini daJinebiT moiTxoven naratologiaSi induqciuri meTodis gamoyenebas, surT Tavdapirvelad Seiswavlon calkeuli Janrebis, epoqebisa da sazogadoebebis TxrobiTi struqtura, Semdeg ki aagon ganzogadebuli modeli. es pozicia _ saRi gansjis pozicia _ utopiuria. TviT lingvistikam, romelic Seiswavlis mxolod da mxolod daaxloebiT sami aTas sityvas, ver SeZlo msgavsi miznis miRweva; amitomaa, rom lingvistika metad gonivrulad gardaiqmna deduqciur mecnierebad; swored amis Semdeg moxda misi WeSmariti gaformeba da winsvla giganturi nabijebiT. lingvistikam, agreTve, SeZlo jer kidev aRmouCeneli faqtebis winaswarmetyveleba. raRa vTqvaT naratologiaze, romelsac saqme aqvs milionobiT TxrobiT teqstTan? bunebrivia, man unda gamoiyenos deduqciuri procedurebi; is movalea, Tavdapirvelad Seqmnas aRweris sawyisi modeli (romelsac amerikeli lingvistebi uwodeben `Teorias~), Semdeg ki nel-nela daeSvas qvemoT, TxrobiTi teqstebis konkretuli nairsaxeobebisken, romlebSic nawilobriv xorcSesxmulia es modeli, nawilobriv ki gadaxrebi SeiniSneba. mxolod am Tanxvedrebisa da gadaxrebis planSi, aRweris erTiani instrumentis meSveobiT, naratologias SeuZlia moicvas am teqstebis yvela simravle, maTi istoriuli, geografiuli da kulturuli mravalferovneba. amgvarad, TxrobiTi teqstebis mTeli usasrulo simravlis aRwerisa da klasificirebisTvis saWiroa Teoria (am sityvis im pragmatuli mniSvnelobiT, romlis Sesaxebac axlaxan vsaubrobdiT). da upirvelesi amocanaa misi konturebis moniSvna. amasTan, msgavsi Teoriis SemuSaveba SeiZleba mniSvnelovnad gavaioloT, Tu Tavidanve nimuSad SevarCevT im models, romlisganac am Teoriam isesxa Tavisi ZiriTadi cnebebi da principebi. amgvarad, kvlevaTa Tanamedrove etapze gonivruli iqneba, TxrobiTi teqstebis struqturuli analizis safuZvlad miviCnioT lingvisturi modeli.


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I. TxrobiTi teqstebis ena 1. winadadebis sazRvrebis miRma cnobilia, rom lingvisturi analizi ganixilavs mxolod izolirebul winadadebas: winadadeba is maqsimaluri erTeulia, romlis Seswavlis uflebasac lingvistika Tavis Tavs aZlevs; marTlac, Tu winadadeba warmoadgens erTgvar mowesrigebulobas da ara elementTa ubralo mimdevrobas (da amitom ar daiyvaneba misi Semadgeneli sityvebis jamze da warmoqmnis damoukidebel erTeuls), samagierod, yoveli gavrcobili gamonaTqvami, piriqiT, aris mxolod misi Semadgeneli winadadebebis jami; magram, lingvistikis TvalsazrisiT, diskursSi araa araferi iseTi, rac ar SeiZleba iyos calkeul winadadebaSi. amgvarad, lingvistika ver ipovis ufro meti grZliobis obieqts, vidre winadadebaa, radgan winadadebis sazRvrebs miRma arseboben mxolod aseTive winadadebebi: mas Semdeg, rac botanikosi aRwers calkeul yvavils, mas aRar sWirdeba mTeli Taigulis aRwera. amasTan, aSkaraa, rom diskursi (rogorc winadadebaTa erToblioba) TviTonac organizebulia da imgvari Setyobinebaa, romelic agebulia ufro maRali rigis enis wesebis mixedviT, vidre lingvistebis Sesaswavli obieqtia. diskurss aqvs erTeulTa sakuTari nakrebi, sakuTari wesebi, sakuTari gramatika; is scildeba winadadebis sazRvrebs (Tumca Sedgeba mxolod winadadebebisgan) da, ra Tqma unda, sxvagvari lingvistikis sagani unda iyos. metad xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi am lingvistikas cnobil saxels _ ritorikas uwodebdnen. magram sxvadasxvagvari istoriuli Znelbedobis Sedegad ritorika miekuTvna kazmulsityvaobis sferos, xolo es ukanaskneli saerTod gaemijna enobriv kvlevebs; amitomaa, rom arc ise didi xnis win saWiro gaxda am problemis xelaxla wamoWra. ...aSkaraa, rom TxrobiTi teqstebis diskursi aris mxolod erT-erTi homologiuri saxesxvaoba, romelTac Seiswavlis diskursis lingvistika da amitom eqvemdebareba Cvens homologiur hipoTezas: struqturis TvalsazrisiT, yoveli TxrobiTi teqsti aigeba winadadebis modelis mixedviT, Tumca ar daiyvaneba winadadebaTa jamze _ nebismieri narativi didi winadadebaa, xolo TxrobiTi winadadeba, garkveuli gagebiT, mcire zomis narativis monaxazia. marTlac, TxrobiT teqstSi SeiZleba vipovoT yvela

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ZiriTadi zmnuri kategoria (teqstis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad, erTgvarad gamsxvilebuli da gardaqmnili), saxeldobr: zmnuri droebi, aspeqtebi, kiloebi, pirebi (Tumca, am kategoriebs aqvT gansakuTrebuli, zogjer metad rTuli aRmniSvnelebi); ufro metic, TviT `subieqtebi~ da maTi predikatebi TxrobiT teqstebSi eqvemdebarebian frazuli struqturis kanonebs; greimasma, romelmac Seqmna aqtantebis tipologiuri sqema, gamoaaSkarava, rom TxrobiTi literaturis personaJTa umravlesobas akavSirebs iseTive umartivesi mimarTebebi, rogorebic Tavs iCens frazis gramatikuli analizis dros. aq wamoyenebul homologiur princips ara marto evristikuli Rirebuleba aqvs: is gulisxmobs enisa da literaturis erTgvar igiveobriobas (miuxedavad imisa, rom literatura warmoadgens TxrobiTi Setyobinebebis gadmocemis privilegirebul xerxs), axla ukve aRar SeiZleba literaturis miCneva xelovnebis iseT dargad, romelic, mas Semdeg, rac gamoiyenebs enas garkveuli azris, grZnobis an esTetikuri SegrZnebis gadmosacemad, misdami yovelgvar interess kargavs: ena yovelTvis Tan axlda diskurss da awvdida mas sarkes, romelSic Canda misi struqtura. xom ar warmoadgens literatura da, pirvel rigSi, Tanamedrove literatura, iseT enas, romelic metyvelebs TviT enis arsebobis pirobebis Sesaxeb? 2. mniSvnelobis doneebi imTaviTve swored lingvistikam uzrunvelyo TxrobiTi teqstebis struqturuli analizi im fuZemdebluri cnebiT, romelsac SeuZlia ganmartos yovelgvari niSnobrivi sistemis arsi _ misi organizacia; garda amisa, is ganmartavs, riT gansxvavdeba TxrobiTi teqsti winadadebaTa ubralo mimdevrobisgan da, agreTve, iZleva im elementTa uzarmazari raodenobis klasificirebis saSualebas, romlebic monawileoben mis kompoziciaSi. esaa

aRweris done.
cnobilia, rom, lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT, winadadeba SeiZleba aRweril iqnas ramdenime doneze (fonetikurze, fonologiurze, gramatikulze, konteqstualurze); es doneebi ierarqiulad dakavSirebulni arian; Tumca maT aqvT erTeulTa sakuTari erTobliobebi da am erTeulTa korelaciis sakuTari wesebi (rac maTi cal-calke aRweris saSualebas iZleva), magram damoukideblad arc erT maTgans ar SeuZlia mniSvnelobebis warmoqmna: ama Tu im donis nebismieri erTeuli iZens mniSvnelobas mxolod ma-


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Sin, rodesac is Sedis ufro maRali donis erTeulis SemadgenlobaSi. magaliTad, calke aRebuli fonemis amomwuravi aRwera SesaZlebelia, magram TavisTavad is arafers niSnavs; is iZens mniSvnelobas mxolod maSin, rodesac iqceva sityvis nawilad, xolo sityva, Tavis mxriv, winadadebis komponenti unda gaxdes. doneebis Teoria (rogorc is benvenistma Camoayaliba) gulisxmobs elementebis urTierTmimarTebis or tips _ distribuciuls (rodesac mimarTebebi myardeba erTi donis elementebs Soris) da integraciuls (rodesac mimarTebebi myardeba sxvadasxva donis elementebs Soris). aqedan gamomdinare, distribuciul mimarTebebs, TavisTavad, jer kidev ar SeuZliaT mniSvnelobis gadmocema. maSasadame, struqturuli analizis mizniT, Tavdapirvelad aucilebelia maTi aRweris ramdenime planis gamoyofa da maTi ganTavseba ierarqiuli (integraciuli) perspeqtivis gaTvaliswinebiT. doneebi operaciebia. amitom bunebrivia, rom lingvistika, Tavisi ganviTarebisas, cdilobs gazardos maTi raodenoba. diskursis analizs jerjerobiT saqme aqvs mxolod umartives doneebTan. ritorika Taviseburad gamoyofda diskursSi, sul cota, aRweris or plans _ dispositio-s da elocutio-s. amJamad levistrosma, miTis struqturis Seswavlis Semdeg, gamoavlina, rom miTologiuri diskursis konstruqtiuli erTeulebi (miTemebi) mniSvnelobas mxolod imis meSveobiT iZenen, rom erTiandebian klasterebad, Semdgom ki xdeba am klasterebis kombinireba. cvetan todorovi _ rusi formalistebis kvalobaze _ gvTavazobs im ori donis Seswavlas, romelTa Sinagani danawevreba SesaZlebelia, _ moTxrobil istorias (Txrobis sagans), romelic moicavs personaJebis qcevis logikas da maT `sintaqsur~ kavSirebs, da TxrobiT diskurss, romelic gulisxmobs TxrobiTi droebis, aspeqtebisa da kiloebis arsebobas. SeiZleba nawarmoebSi gamoiyos doneTa sxvadasxva raodenoba da maTi sxvadasxvagvarad gansazRvra, magram ueWvelia, rom nebismieri TxrobiTi teqsti warmoadgens amgvari doneebis ierarqias. ama Tu im narativis gageba niSnavs ara marto dakvirvebas misi siuJetis ganviTarebaze, aramed _ Txrobis `Zafis~ warmomqmneli horizontaluri kavSirebis proecirebasac impliciturad arsebul vertikalur RerZze. narativis kiTxva an (mosmena) _ aris ara marto gadasvla erTi sityvidan meoreze, aramed gadasvlac erTi donidan meoreze. ganvmartavT Cvens mosazrebas maga-

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liTiT: `motacebul werilSi~ po gonebamaxvilurad aanalizebs policiis im prefeqtis marcxis mizezebs, romelmac ver SeZlo werilis povna; prefeqtis moqmedeba SesaniSnavi iyo, ambobs po, `misi specialobis sferoSi~: marTlac, prefeqtma gadaqeqa yvela kunWuli; `Cxrekis~ doneze man amowura Tavisi yvela SesaZlebloba; werili SeumCneveli iyo swored imitom, rom yvelaze SesamCnev adgilas ido. magram mis mosaZebnad saWiro iyo sxva doneze gadasvla, maZebris Tvalsazrisis Canacvleba werilis momparavis TvalsazrisiT. analogiurad, TxrobiTi mimarTebebis yvelaze amomwuravi `Cxreka~ horizontalur doneebze SeiZleba unayofo aRmoCndes; sasurveli Sedegis misaRwevad is `vertikaluric~ unda iyos: mniSvneloba ganTavsebulia ara moTxrobis `boloSi~, aramed msWvalavs mTel moTxrobas; es mniSvneloba SesamCnev adgilasaa, iseve, rogorc motacebuli werili, magram is mouxelTebelia yovelTvis, rodesac mas eZeben romelime erT sibrtyeze. uamravi mcdelobaa (zogjer _ marcxiani) saWiro, raTa namdvilad SevZloT TxrobiTi teqstis yvela donis gamoyofa. doneTa aq SemoTavazebuli winaswari sqemis roli TiTqmis mTlianad didaqtikuria: is saSualebas iZleva, CamovayaliboT da davajgufoT problemebis mTeli rigi, ise, rom ar davupirispirdeT ukve Catarebul gamokvlevebs. Cveni azriT, TxrobiT nawarmoebSi unda gamoiyos aRweris sami done: `funqciebi~ (im gagebiT, rogoriTac am termins iyeneben propi da bremoni); `qmedebebi~ (greimasis gagebiT, rodesac is saubrobs personaJebis, rogorc aqtantebis Sesaxeb) da `Txroba~ (romelic, mTlianobaSi, emTxveva TxrobiTi diskursis dones todorovTan). SegaxsenebT, rom es sami done dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan Tanmimdevruli integraciis mimarTebiT: calkeuli funqcia iZens mniSvnelobas mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac Sedis mocemuli aqtantis2 moqmedebaTa saerTo wreSi, xolo es qmedebebi, Tavis mxriv, saboloo azrs iZens mxolod maSin, rodesac viRac hyveba maT Sesaxeb, anu rodesac isini iqcevian sakuTari kodis mqone TxrobiTi diskursis obieqtad.

aqtanti _ moqmedi piri, personaJi.


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I. funqciebi. 1. erTeulTa gansazRvra vinaidan nebismieri sistema warmoadgens garkveul klasebSi Semaval erTeulTa kombinacias, amitom, pirvel rigSi, aucilebelia davanawevroT TxrobiTi teqsti da gamovyoT TxrobiTi diskursis iseTi segmentebi, romlebic SeiZleba davanawiloT mcirericxovan klasebad; mokled rom vTqvaT, saWiroa minimalur TxrobiT erTeulTa gansazRvra. aq SemoTavazebuli integraciuli koncefciis Tanaxmad, analizi ver SeizRudeba erTeulTa mxolod distribuciuli gansazRvriT; gamoyofis kriteriumad Tavidanve unda iqces maTi mniSvneloba. magaliTad, swored TavianTi funqciuri xasiaTis wyalobiT, siuJetis zogierTi segmenti ganixileba, rogorc struqturuli erTeuli. aqedan gamomdinareobs TviT saxelwodeba `funqcia~, romelsac imTaviTve iyenebdnen maT aRsaniSnavad. rusi formalistebidan moyolebuli, erTeulad miiCneven nebismier siuJetur elements, romelic ukavSirdeba sxva erTeulebs korelaciis mimarTebiT. TiToeul funqciaSi _ da amaSia misi arsi _ TiTqos aris raRac, rasac SeuZlia gaanayofieros Txroba axali elementiT, romelic mogvianebiT momwifdeba _ an imave, an sxva doneze; rodesac floberi `ubralo gulSi~ sxvaTa Soris SeniSnavs, rom pon-levekSi daniSnuli suprefeqtis qaliSvilebs hyavdaT TuTiyuSi, es imitom xdeba, rom SemdgomSi es TuTiyuSi mniSvnelovan rols Seasrulebs felisites cxovrebaSi. amgvarad, miTiTebuli detali (misi enobrivi aRniSvnisgan damoukideblad) warmoadgens funqcias, ese igi, TxrobiT erTeuls. yvelaferi funqciuria Tu ara TxrobiT teqstSi? aqvs Tu ara yvelafers (umciresi detalebis CaTvliT) mniSvneloba? SeiZleba Tu ara, rom udanakargod davanawevroT Txroba funqciur detalebad? male davrwmundebiT, rom arsebobs funqciaTa ramdenime tipi, iseve, rogorc arsebobs maTi korelaciis ramdenime tipi. magram nebismier SemTxvevaSi TxrobiT teqstSi ar SeiZleba iyos araferi, funqciebis garda: Tumca sxvadasxva xarisxiT, magram masSi yvelaferi mniSvnelobis matarebelia. es araa mTxroblis ostatobis Sedegi. es teqstis struqturuli organizaciis Sedegia: Tu diskursSi gamoiyofa romelime detali, es niSnavs, rom saWiro iyo am detalis gamoyofa: maSinac ki, Tu es detali, erTi SexedviT, sruliad uazroa da ar eqvemdebareba aravi-

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Tar funqcializacias, is, saboloo angariSSi, iqceva absurdulobis an usargeblobis gansaxierebad; an yvelafers aqvs mniSvneloba, an arafers ara aqvs. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, xelovnebisTvis ucnobia xmauri (im gagebiT, rogorc es sityva ixmareba informaciis TeoriaSi). masSi sistemurobis principi wminda saxiTaa xorcSesxmuli; xelovnebis nawarmoebSi ar arsebobs zedmeti elementebi, Tumca siuJeturi erTeulebis sxva erTeulebTan SemakavSirebeli Zafi SeiZleba iyos Zalian grZeli, wvrili an susti. aSkaraa, rom, lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT, funqcia aris Sinaarsis planis erTeuli: gamonaTqvami iqceva funqciur erTeulad imis wyalobiT, Tu `ras gvatyobinebs~ is, da ara _ Setyobinebis xerxis wyalobiT. amgvar aRsaniSns SeiZleba hqondes sxvadasxva, zogjer ki _ metad rTuli aRmniSvneli: magaliTad, fraza (`goldfingeridan~) `jeims bondma dainaxa ormocdaaTi wlis kaci~ Seicavs informacias sxvadasxva mniSvnelobis mqone ori funqciis Sesaxeb: erTi mxriv, personaJis asaki Sedis mis portretSi (es portreti metad arsebiTia momdevno istoriis gasagebad, magram mocemul momentSi misi `sargeblianoba~ arc ise TvalsaCinoa da SemdgomSi iCens Tavs); meore mxriv, moyvanil frazaSi uSualo aRmniSvneli aris is faqti, rom bondi ar icnobs Tavis momaval Tanamosaubres: es niSnavs, rom miTiTebuli erTeuli warmoqmnis Zalze Zlier korelacias (saSiSroebis warmoSobasa da misi gamovlenis aucileblobasTan). amgvarad, pirveladi TxrobiTi erTeulebis gamosayofad saWiroa ganuwyvetliv gvaxsovdes maTi funqciuri bunebis Sesaxeb da winaswar davuSvaT, rom isini aucileblad rodi unda emTxveodes TxrobiTi diskursis tradiciul nawilebs (moqmedebebs, scenebs, abzacebs, dialogebs, Sinagan monologebs da a.S.) da kidev ufro naklebad _ `fsiqologiur~ kategoriebs (personaJTa qcevis tipebs, emociur mdgomareobas, motivebsa da motivaciebs). aseve, TxrobiTi erTeulebi substanciurad araa damokidebuli lingvistur erTeulebze, radgan (Tumca, TxrobiTi teqstebi xSirad iyenebs bunebriv enas, rogorc masalas) maTi sakuTari ena ar Tanxvdeba bunebrivs; ufro zustad, aseTi Tanxvedra SesaZlebelia, magram mas aqvs okazionaluri da ara sistematuri xasiaTi. funqcia SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rogorc winadadebaze ufro didi erTeuli (aseTi erTeuli SeiZleba iyos winadadebaTa


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sxvadasxva sididis jgufi da TviT nawarmoebic, mTlianad). an rogorc winadadebaze ufro mcire erTeuli (sintagma, sityva an TviT calkeuli literaturuli elementebi sityvis SigniT); magaliTad, Tu vkiTxulobT, rom rodesac jeims bondi morigeobda saidumlo samsaxuris SenobaSi, mis kabinetSi awkrialda telefoni da `bondma aiRo erT-erTi (oTxidan) yurmili~, aq monema `oTxi~ TavisTavad warmoqmnis mTlianobiT funqciur erTeuls: misi meSveobiT gveqmneba warmodgena biurokratiuli teqnikis ganviTarebis maRali donis Sesaxeb, rac aucilebelia siuJetis gasagebad; saqme isaa, rom mocemul SemTxvevaSi TxrobiTi erTeulis rolSi gvevlineba ara lingvisturi erTeuli, rogorc aseTi (sityva), aramed _ mxolod misi konotaciuri mniSvneloba (lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT, sityva oTxi yovelTvis aRniSnavs ufro mets, vidre `oTxis~ ubralo cnebaa); amitomaa, rom zogierTi TxrobiTi erTeuli, romelic Sedis winadadebis SemadgenlobaSi, imavdroulad, warmoadgens diskursis erTeuls: es niSnavs, rom amgvari erTeulebi imyofebian ara winadadebis (romlis komponentebadac isini rCebian) sazRvrebs gareT, aramed enis denotatiuri donis sazRvrebs gareTac, xolo es done, iseve, rogorc calkeuli winadadeba, kvlav rCeba sakuTriv lingvistikis gamgeblobaSi. 2. erTeulTa klasebi funqciuri erTeulebi unda davanawiloT mcirericxovan formalur klasebad. am doneebis gamoyofisas, ise, rom ar mivmarToT Sinaarsis substancias (magaliTad, fsiqologiur substancias), kvlav unda davubrundeT gansxvavebul azrobriv doneebs; zogierTi erTeuli korelaciaSia imave donis erTeulebTan da, piruku, sxva erTeulebis gasagebad saWiroa sxva doneze gadasvla. amitom Tavidanve unda gamovyoT funqciaTa ori didi klasi _ distribuciuli da integraciuli funqciebi. pirveli klasi Seesabameba propis funqciebs, romlebsac props, kerZod, daesesxa bremoni; magram Cven ganvixilavT am funqciebs gacilebiT ufro dawvrilebiT, vidre dasaxelebuli avtorebi, da swored maT mimarT gamoviyenebT `funqciis~ cnebas (amasTan, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom danarCen erTeulebsac funqciuri xasiaTi aqvT); distribuciuli erTeulebis klasikuri analizi ganaxorciela tomaSevskim: magaliTad, revolveris SeZenas korelatis saxiT aqvs momenti, rodesac am revolveridan gaisvrian (xolo Tu

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personaJi ar isvris, es iqceva misi unebisyofobis niSnad da a.S.); telefonis yurmilis aReba korelaciaSia im momentTan, rodesac mas Tavis adgilas dadeben; TuTiyuSis gamoCena felisites oTaxSi korelaciaSia fitulis datenvis epizodTan, misdami Tayvaniscemis scenebTan da a.S. erTeulTa meore msxvili klasi, romelic integraciuli bunebisaa, Sedgeba `niSan-Tvisebebisgan~ (am sityvis farTo mniSvnelobiT); rodesac erTeuli miemarTeba ara mis momdevno da mis Semavsebel erTeuls, aramed _ met-naklebad mkafio warmodgenas, romelic aucilebelia siuJeturi sazrisis gamosavlenad; aseTia personaJTa qarakterologiuri niSan-Tvisebebi, informacia maTi ganmasxvavebeli niSan-Tvisebebis Sesaxeb, moqmedebis `atmosferos~ Sesaxeb da a.S. aseT SemTxvevaSi erTeuls da mis korelats akavSirebs ukve ara distribuciuli, aramed _ integraciuli mimarTeba (xSirad erToblivad ramdenime niSan-Tviseba miemarTeba erTsa da imave aRsaniSns da teqstSi maTi gamoCenis Tanmimdevroba arc ise arsebiTia); imis gasagebad, Tu `ras emsaxureba~ esa Tu is niSan-Tviseba, aucilebelia ufro maRal doneze _ qmedebaTa doneze an Txrobis doneze _ gadasvla, radgan niSan-Tvisebis mniSvneloba mxolod iq vlindeba; magaliTad, bondis zurgs ukan mdgari administraciuli meqanizmis simZlavre, razec miuTiTebs telefonis aparatebis raodenoba mis kabinetSi, araviTar zegavlenas ar axdens im movlenaTa Tanmimdevrobaze, romelSic is CaerTo molaparakebebze daTanxmebisas; is iZens mniSvnelobas mxolod aqtantebis zogadi tipologiis doneze (bondi mxars uWers arsebul wesrigs); TavianTi mimarTebebis erTgvari vertikaluri bunebis wyalobiT niSan-Tvisebebi WeSmariti semantikuri erTeulebia, radgan `funqciebisgan~ (am sityvis zusti gagebiT) gansxvavebiT, isini miemarTeba ara `operacias~, aramed _ aRsaniSns; niSan-TvisebaTa korelatebi yovelTvis ganTavsebulia ufro maRla, vidre TviT es niSan-Tvisebebi; zogjer isini virtualurobas inarCuneben da ar Sedian arc erT eqsplicitur sintagmaSi (personaJis `xasiaTi~ SeiZleba pirdapir arc erTxel ar iyos dasaxelebuli, magram araerTxel iyos miniSnebuli); esaa paradigmatuli korelacia; da piriqiT, `funqciaTa~ korelatebi yovelTvis ufro Sorsaa ganlagebuli, vidre TviT es `funqciebi~; esaa sintagmaturi korelacia. funqciebi da niSan-Tvisebebi Seesabameba kidev erT klasikur diqotomias. funqciebi gulisxmobs metonimiuri mimarTebebis arsebobas, niSan-Tvisebebi ki _ metaforulisas. pirveli saxis mimarTe-


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bebi moicavs funqciur klass, romelic ganisazRvreba cnebiT `qmedeba~, xolo meoreni _ cnebiT `myofoba~. erTeulebis ori didi klasis _ funqciebisa da niSan-Tvisebebis gamoyofa SesaZlebels xdis TxrobiTi teqstebis garkveul klasificirebas. maTi nawili gamoirCeva funqciurobis maRali xarisxiT (aseTia xalxuri zRaprebi), xolo sxvebSi (magaliTad, `fsiqologiur~ romanebSi) Zlieria niSan-Tvisebebis roli; am or poluss Soris ganlagebulia mTeli rigi Sualeduri formebisa, romlebic xasiaTdeba, upirveles yovlisa, maTi istoriuli, socialuri an Janruli kuTvnilebiT. magram amiT yvelaferi rodi amoiwureba: miTiTebuli klasebidan TiToeulis SigniT SeiZleba gamovyoT TxrobiTi erTeulebis ori qveklasi. rac Seexeba funqciaTa klass, masSi Semavali yvela erTeuli araa `mniSvnelovani~; maTi nawili teqstSi an teqstis fragmentSi asrulebs saxsris rols; sxvebi ki mxolod `avseben~ TxrobiT sivrces, romelic erTmaneTisgan yofs saxsrovan funqciebs: maTgan pirveli tipis funqciebs vuwodoT kardinaluri (anu nuklearuli) funqciebi, xolo meore tipisas _ katalizatoruli funqciebi. funqcia kardinaluria, rodesac Sesabamisi qmedeba avlens (mxars uWers an auqmebs) erTgvar alternatiul SesaZleblobas, romelic mniSvnelovania Txrobis gagrZelebisTvis an, mokled rom vTqvaT, rodesac is an warmoqmnis, an moxsnis situaciur gaurkvevlobas; magaliTad, Tu siuJetur situaciaSi gaismis telefonis zari, maSin erTnairad savaraudoa, rom yurmils aiReben an ar aiReben; amisda mixedviT, moqmedeba sxvadasxvanairad ganviTardeba. amasTan erTad, or kardinalur funqcias Soris yovelTvis SeiZleba ganvaTavsoT sxvadasxvagvari damxmare detalebi, romlebic erTiandeba ama Tu im birTvis garSemo, magram birTvi mainc inarCunebs Tavis alternatiul bunebas: sivrce, romelic yofs frazas `telefoni awkrialda~ frazisgan `bondma aiRo yurmili~, SeiZleba Seivsos mravali sagnobrivi detaliT da aRweriT, magaliTad: `bondi mivida magidasTan, aiRo yurmili, dado sigareti saferfleze~ da a.S. amgvari katalizatorebi inarCuneben TavianT funqciurobas imdenad, ramdenadac isini korelaciaSia birTvTan; magram esaa dasustebuli, parazituli da erTganzomilebiani funqciuroba, radgan is mxolod qronologiuri xasiaTisaa (katalizatorebi aRweren imas, rac yofs or siuJetur moments); da, piriqiT, funqciuri kavSiri kardinalur funqciebs Soris organzomilebiania: is qronologiuricaa da,

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imavdroulad, logikuric; katalizatorebi moniSnaven mxolod movlenaTa droiT Tanmimdevrobas, xolo kardinaluri funqciebi _ maT logikur urTierTmonacvleobasac. marTlac, yvela safuZveli gvaqvs imis samtkiceblad, rom siuJetis meqanizms amoZravebs swored faqtebis droiTi Tanmimdevroba da logikuri urTierTmonacvleoba, rodesac is, rac xdeba garkveuli movlenis Semdeg, aRiqmeba rogorc mis Sedegad momxdari; aseT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom siuJeturi teqstebi warmoiSoba sistematurad daSvebuli logikuri Secdomis Sedegad, romelic aRmoaCines jer kidev Sua saukuneebis sqolastebma da Camoayalibes formulaSi post hoc, ergo propter hoc; es formula SeiZleboda yofiliyo devizi TviT bediswerisa, Tu is alaparakdeboda TxrobiTi teqstebis enaze; swored kardinaluri funqciebiT warmoqmnili siuJeturi struqtura iZleva saSualebas, rom movlenaTa logika ganzavebul iqnas maT qronologiaSi. erTi SexedviT, es funqciebi TiTqos sruliad SeumCnevelia; magram maTi arsi mdgomareobs ara maT garegnul STambeWdaobaSi (rac gulisxmobs asaxuli qmedebebis mniSvnelovnebas, masStaburobas, uCveulobas an, vTqvaT, aSkara gabedulebas), aramed _ moulodnelobis elements, romelsac isini Seicaven: kardinaluri funqciebi _ esaa riskis momentebi TxrobaSi; samagierod, katalizatorebi, romlebic avseben sivrces teqstis am alternatiul wertilebs, `sadispetCero punqtebs~ Soris, warmoqmnis erTgvari uxifaTobis, simSvidis, `sulis moTqmis~ zonebs; Tumca, am `sulis moTqmis~ momentebs TavianTi rolic aqvT: SegaxsenebT, rom siuJetSi katalizatoris funqciuroba SeiZleba iyos Zalian susti, magram ara nulovani: katalizatori mTlianad Warbic rom aRmoCndes (Tavisi birTvis mimarT), is mainc darCeba TxrobiTi Setyobinebis nawilad; magram katalizatorebi siWarbiT arasodes gamoirCevian _ nebismieri detali, romelic, erTi SexedviT, SemTxveviTia, sinamdvileSi asrulebs Tavis sagangebo rols TxrobaSi _ aCqarebs mas, anelebs, ukan gadahyavs, ajamebs an winaswar ganWvrets siuJetis ganviTarebas, zogjer ki acruebs mkiTxvelis molodins; imdenad, ramdenadac teqstSi gamoyofili nebismieri detali aRiqmeba, rogorc aucileblad gamosayofi, katalizatorebi gamudmebiT inarCuneben TxrobiTi diskursis semantikur daZabulobas, isini TiTqos yovelTvis amboben: aq aris mniSvneloba, is axla gamovlindeba; aqedan gamomdinareobs, rom yvela SesaZlo pirobebSi katalizatorebis mudmivi funqciaa maTi fatikuri (Tu iakobsonis terminiT


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visargeblebT) funqcia, romelic saSualebas iZleva, SenarCunebul iqnas kontaqti mTxrobelsa da mis adresats Soris. SevajamoT: SeuZlebelia gavauqmoT romelime katalizatori ise, rom ar davarRvioT TxrobiTi diskursi. rac Seexeba TxrobiTi erTeulebis meore, integraciul klass (niSan-Tvisebebs), maTi zogadi Tavisebureba mdgomareobs korelatebis gamovlenaSi mxolod personaJebis doneze an Txrobis doneze; amgvarad, es erTeulebi warmoadgens parametruli mimarTebis pirvel wevrs, xolo misi meore, implicituri wevri gamoirCeva aradiskretulobiT da eqstensiurobiT garkveuli epizodis, personaJis an mTeli nawarmoebis mimarT: miuxedavad amisa, niSan-Tvisebebis klasSi SeiZleba gamovyoT niSan-Tvisebebi am sityvis zusti mniSvnelobiT (maTi saSualebiT xdeba personaJis xasiaTis, misi emociuri mdgomareobis gamoaSkaraveba, im atmosferos (magaliTad, eWvianobis atmosferos) miniSneba, romelSic viTardeba moqmedeba, guneba-ganwyobilebis gadmocema) da, maTTan erTad, informatiuli niSan-Tvisebebi, romelTa saSualebiTac SeiZleba adamianebisa da movlenebis identificireba drosa da sivrceSi. magaliTad, imis moxsenieba, rom gaRebul fanjaraSi bondi xedavda mTvares, romelic gamokrToda or mZime Rrubels Soris, warmoadgens zafxulis wvimiani Ramis niSan-Tvisebas, xolo amindi, Tavis mxriv, TiTqos miuTiTebs im pirquS da mRelvare atmosferoze, romelSic unda ganviTardes mkiTxvelisTvis jerjerobiT ucnobi movlenebi. amgvarad. niSan-Tvisebebis aRsaniSnebi implicituri xasiaTisaa; da piriqiT, informantebis aRsaniSnebi eqsplicituria; yovel SemTxvevaSi, es asea siuJetis doneze, sadac aRsaniSnebis rolSi gvevlineba sruliad garkveuli detalebi, niSan-Tvisebebi moiTxovs gaSifrvas: saWiroa mkiTxvelis garkveuli Zalisxmeva, raTa man SeZlos garkveuli xasiaTis, garkveuli viTarebis wvdoma; rac Seexeba informantebs, isini moicaven savsebiT mza cnobebs; katalizatorebis msgavsad, maT axasiaTebs Sesustebuli, magram ara nulovani funqciuroba; rac unda umniSvnelo iyos maTi roli siuJetSi, informantebi (magaliTad, personaJebis asakis zusti miTiTeba) saSualebas iZleva, warmoiqmnas momdinare movlenebis namdvilobis iluzia da rom gamonagoni Cainergos sinamdvileSi: informantebi operatorebia, romlebic realistur elfers aniWeben Txrobas da, am gagebiT, maT, udavod, funqciuroba axasiaTebs _ ara marto siuJetis, aramed _ Txrobis donezec.

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birTvuli funqciebi da katalizatorebi, niSan-Tvisebebi da informantebi (vimeorebT, rom saxelwodebebs aq mniSvneloba ara aqvT) _ aseTia, rogorc Cans, ZiriTadi klasebi, romlebadac winaswar unda gavanawiloT yvela funqciuri erTeuli. es klasifikacia saWiroebs or damatebiT dazustebas. jer erTi, erTi da igive erTeuli SeiZleba erTdroulad miekuTvnebodes or sxvadasxva klass: magaliTad, viskis daleva (aeroportis holSi) _ esaa qmedeba, romelic SeiZleba katalizatori iyos kardinaluri funqciis _ lodinis _ mimarT, magram, imavdroulad, esaa garkveuli atmosferos (Tanamedroveobis niSani, miTiTeba imisa, rom personaJi modunda, mieca mogonebebs warsulis Sesaxeb da a.S.) niSan-Tviseba; sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, zogierTi erTeuli SeiZleba Sereuli iyos. moqmedebis ganviTarebasTan erTad, SesaZlebelia amgvari erTeulebis namdvili TamaSi: romanSi `goldfingeri~ bonds, romelic apirebs Tavisi mowinaaRmdegis oTaxis Cxrekas, misi damqiravebeli aZlevs gasaRebs: esaa wminda saxis funqcia (kardinaluri); filmSi ki es detali Secvlilia: bondi xumrobiT arTmevs moaxles gasaRebebis Sekvras da gogona ar ewinaaRmdegeba mas: es detali ara marto funqciuria, aramed niSan-Tvisebis rolsac asrulebs, radgan miuTiTebs gmiris xasiaTze (Tavisufali qceva da warmateba qalebTan). garda amisa, unda SevniSnoT, rom oTxive klasi, romelTa Sesaxebac vsaubrobdiT, eqvemdebareba sxvagvar, lingvisturTan ufro daaxloebul dajgufebas (am sakiTxs qvemoT kidev davubrundebiT). marTlac, katalizatorebi, niSan-Tvisebebi da informantebi xasiaTdebian erTi saerTo niSniT: isini emsaxurebian birTvis ganvrcobas. birTvuli funqciebi ki, rogorc qvemoT vaCvenebT, warmoqmnian logikurad urTierTdakavSirebuli, aucilebeli da sakmarisi wevrebis sasrul erTobliobas; esaa Taviseburi karkasi, da danarCeni erTeulebi mxolod avseben mas birTvuli warmonaqmnebis principulad SeuzRudavi konkretizaciis meSveobiT. cnobilia, rom igive xdeba winadadebaSi, romelic Sedgenilia martivi winadadebebisgan, ise, rom SesaZlebelia maTi usasrulod ganvrcoba sxvadasxvagvari gaormagebebis, CanarTebis, damatebebis da a.S. gziT; frazis msgavsad, SeiZleba TxrobiTi teqstis SeuzRudavi katalizacia. malarme imdenad did mniSvnelobas aniWebda teqstis struqturuli organizebis am tips, rom masze aago Tvisi leqsi `Jamais un coup de ds~ misi `kvanZebiT~ da `korZebiT~, sakvanZo sityvebiT da maqmanisebri sityvebiT; es leqsi SeiZleba warmoad-


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gendes nebismieri TxrobiTi teqstis _ da nebismieri enobrivi warmonaqmnis simbolos. 3. funqciuri sintaqsi rogor, romeli `gramatikis~ mixedviT ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs yvela es sxvadasxvagvari erTeuli, ise, rom warmoiqmneba TxrobiTi sintagmebi? rogoria funqciuri kombinatorikis aucilebeli wesebi? rac Seexeba niSan-Tvisebebs da informantebs, isini sruliad Tavisuflad Tanaarseboben: magaliTad, portretSi SeiZleba erToblivad iyos warmodgenili personaJis xasiaTis Tvisebebi da miTiTeba mis samoqalaqo mdgomareobaze; katalizatorebi ki ukavSirdebian birTvul funqciebs martivi implikaciis mimarTebiT: katalizatoris arseboba garduvalad gulisxmobs kardinaluri funqciis arsebobas, romlisganac damokidebulia es katalizatori, magram ara piriqiT. rac Seexeba TviT kardinalur funqciebs, isini erTmaneTs ukavSirdebian solidarobis mimarTebiT: funqciis arseboba gulisxmobs imave tipis sxva funqciis arsebobas, magram ara piriqiT. solidarobis mimarTebaze dawvrilebiT unda SevCerdeT, radgan swored is warmoqmnis TxrobiT teqstis karkass (nawarmoebs SeiZleba movaciloT katalizatorebi, niSan-Tvisebebi da informantebi, magram ver movacilebT birTvul funqciebs), agreTve _ imitom, rom es mimarTeba gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa mkvlevrebisTvis, romlebic Seiswavlian TxrobiTi teqstis struqturas. Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom TviT TxrobiTi teqstis struqtura gulisxmobs movlenaTa droiTi Tanmimdevrobisa da mizezSedegobrivi mimarTebis, qronologiisa da logikis Serevas. swored es gaoreba warmoSobs TxrobiT sintaqsTan dakavSirebul ZiriTad problemas. xom ar imaleba siuJetis qronologiuri ganviTarebis miRma misi agebis aqroniuli logika? jer kidev axlaxan mkvlevrebi ver Tanxmdebodnen am sakiTxze. cnobilia, rom propi, romelmac gza gauxsna siuJeturi wyobisadmi miZRvnil Tanamedrove gamokvlevebs, mtkiced iyo darwmunebuli movlenaTa droiTi Tanmimdevrobis reducirebis SeuZleblobaSi; maTi qronologiuri kavSirebi props warmoudgeboda obieqtur realobad da amitom is aucileblad miiCnevda zRapris siuJetis Canergvas droiTYkontinuumSi. magram TviT aristotele, rodesac erTmaneTs upirispirebda tragedias (romelsac is gansazRvravda misi moqmedebis erTianobis safuZvelze) da istorias (romelSic is

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xedavda drois, magram ara moqmedebis erTianobas), upiratesobas aniWebda siuJetur logikas da ara qronologias. aseve iqceva yvela Tanamedrove mkvlevari (levi-strosi, greimasi, bremoni, todorovi): isini ar eTanxmebian erTmaneTs sakiTxTa mTel rigSi, magram yoveli maTgani xels moawerda levi-strosis am debulebas: `movlenaTa qronologiuri Tanmimdevroba SeiZleba mTlianad dayvanil iqnas aqroniul matricul struqturamde~. marTlac, Tanamedrove analitikosebi miiswrafian TxrobiTi kontinuumis `deqronologizebisa~ da, amis sanacvlod, misi `logizirebisken~, surT gamsWvalon is `logikis pirvelqmnili elviT~, rogorc ambobda malarme frangul enasTan dakavSirebiT. Cveni azriT, unda SemuSavdes qronologiuri iluziis struqturuli aRwera. TxrobiTi dro unda ganidevnos TxrobiTi logikis sazRvrebidan. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, droiTi Tanmimdevroba aris Txrobis (diskursis) mxolod da mxolod struqturuli klasi, iseve, rogorc enaSi dro arsebobs mxolod zmnuri droebis saxiT; TxrobiTi Tvalsazrisi, anu is, rasac dros uwodeben, an saerTod ar arsebobs, an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, arsebobs mxolod funqciurad, `rogorc semiotikuri sistemis elementi; dro ganekuTvneba ara diskurss, rogorc aseTs, aramed _ referenciis plans; Txroba, iseve, rogorc ena, icnobs mxolod semiologiur dros; rogorc propis naSromSia naCvenebi, `WeSmariti~ dro _ esaa mxolod referentuli, `realisturi~ iluzia, da swored amgvari saxiT unda iqces is struqturuli aRweris obieqtad. rogoria logika, romelsac eqvemdebareba TxrobiTi teqstis ZiriTadi funqciebi? amJamad aqtiurad swored es sakiTxi ganixileba da yvelaze cxare diskusiebis saganicaa. amitom Cven mivuTiTebT mkiTxvels a.-J. greimasis, kl. bremonisa da c. todorovis naSromebs, romlebic eZRvneba TxrobiTi funqciebis logikas. c. todorovi aaSkaravebs, rom arsebobs sami ZiriTadi kvleviTi mimarTuleba. pirveli gza (bremoni) yvelaze metadaa sakuTriv logikuri gza; saubaria imis Sesaxeb, rom moxdes TxrobiT teqstSi asaxuli adamianTa qcevebis sintaqsis rekonstruqcia, anu `arCevanTa~ im Tanmimdevrobaze dakvirveba, romelTac garduvalad emorCileba mocemuli personaJi siuJetis yovel wertilSi, da amis MmeSveobiT gamovlindes, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, siuJetis energetikuli logika, radgan is ganixilavs personaJebs maT mier qmedebis SerCevis momentSi. meore modeli (levi-stro-


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si, greimasi) _ lingvisturia. aq kvlevis ZiriTadi amocanaa funqciaTa Soris paradigmatuli opoziciebis gamovlena _ da, Semdeg, maTi `proecireba~ sintagmatur RerZze, `poeturis~ iakobsoniseuli principis Tanaxmad3 ...mesame (todorovis mier moniSnuli) gza ramdenadme gansxvavdeba pirveli orisgan, radgan mas gadahyavs analizi `qmedebaTa~ (ese igi, personaJTa) doneze da cdilobs daadginos wesebi, romelTa meSveobiTac teqsti axorcielebs sabazo predikatebis garkveuli raodenobis kombinirebas, varirebasa da transformacias. am samuSao hipoTezebidan upiratesobas arc erTs ar vaniWebT; isini ar gamoricxaven urTierTs, aramed paraleluri Teoriebia, romlebic jerjerobiT damuSavebis procesSi imyofebian. erTaderTi ram, romelsac gavkadnierdebi da, davumateb, exeba analizis sazRvrebs. im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu ar ganvixilavT niSan-Tvisebebs, informantebsa da katalizatorebs, TxrobiT teqstSi (gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac ganvixilavT romans da ara zRapars) Zalze bevri kardinaluri funqcia rCeba; bevri maTgani ar eqvemdebareba analizs zemoxsenebuli koncefciebis CarCoebSi, radgan maTi avtorebi bolo xanebamde ikvlevdnen mxolod TxrobiTi teqstis msxvil monakveTebs. magram aucilebelia TxrobiTi teqstis imdenad detaluri aRwera, rom man moicvas misi yvela erTeuli, umciresi segmentebi; SegaxsenebT, rom SeuZlebelia kardinaluri funqciebis gansazRvra maTi `Rirebulebis~ TvalsazrisiT, es SesaZlebelia mxolod maT Soris arsebuli mimarTebebis bunebis (romelic gulisxmobs urTierTSorisi implikaciis arsebobas) gaTvaliswinebiT: rac unda umniSvnelo iyos, erTi SexedviT, iseTi funqcia, rogoricaa `telefonis zari~, is moicavs ramdenime kardinalur funqcias (nomris akrefa, yurmilis aReba, saubari, yurmilis dadeba); meore mxriv, unda SevZloT am funqciis CarTva, yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tanmimdevruli miaxloebebis gziT _ ufro msxvil siuJetur segmentebSi. TxrobiTi teqstis funqciuri plani gulisxmobs mimarTebaTa iseT organizebas, sadac sabazo erTeuli SeiZleba iyos mxolod funqciaTa mcire jgufi, romelsac, bremonis terminologiis Tanaxmad, mimdevrobas vuwodebT.
. //: .., 1975.
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mimdevroba _ esaa im birTvuli funqciebis logikuri jaWvi, romlebic erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulia solidarobis mimarTebiT. mimdevroba ixsneba maSin, rodesac mis erT-erT wevrs ar gaaCnia misTvis solidaruli antecedenti. da ixureba maSin, rodesac meore wevrs ara aqvs araviTari konsekventi. magaliTis saxiT ganvixiloT yvelaze banaluri mimdevroba: sadilis SekveTa, SekveTili sadilis miReba, mirTmeva, fulis gadaxda; yvela es sxvadasxvagvari funqcia aSkarad warmoqmnis Caketil mimdevrobas, radgan SeuZlebelia iseTi qmedeba, romelic SekveTis winmswrebi da fulis gadaxdis momdevno qmedeba iqneba, ise, rom ar dairRves qmedebaTa erTgvarovani erToblioba, romelsac `sadils~ uwodeben. marTlac, yovelTvis SesaZlebelia nebismieri mimdevrobis saxeldeba. zRapris teqstis warmomqmneli msxvili funqciebis gamoyofisas propis, Semdeg ki _ bremonis winaSe wamoiWra maTi saxeldebis problema (motyueba, Ralati, brZola, SeTanxmeba, cduneba da a.S.); saxeldeba sruliad aucilebelia yvelaze mcire mimdevrobebis _ `mikromimdevrobebis~ mimarTac, romlebic warmoqmnian Txrobis qsovilis ufaqizes faqturas. ganekuTvneba Tu ara amgvari saxeldebis aqtebi mxolod da mxolod analitikosis kompetencias? sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, aris Tu ara isini wminda metalingvisturi xasiaTis aqtebi? ra Tqma unda, asea, vinaidan isini exeba TviT TxrobiTi teqstis kods, magram SeiZleba isic warmovidginoT, rom isini warmoadgens Sinagani metaenis nawils TviT mkiTxvelisa (msmenelisa), romelic gaiazrebs qmedebaTa yovelgvar logikur mimdevrobas, rogorc nominalur mTlianobas: kiTxva igivea, rac saxeldeba; mosmena _ niSnavs ara marto enis aRqmas, aramed _ enis konstruirebasac. mimdevrobebis saxelwodebebi garkveulwilad waagavs `qudebs~ (coverwords), romlebic gamoiyeneba manqanuri Targmnisas da moicavs mravalferovan sazrisebs da maT niuansebs. TxrobiTi ena, romelic aTvisebulia mkiTxvelis mier, uSualod moicavs am fuZemdeblur rubrikebs; ama Tu im mimdevrobis mastruqturirebeli TviTkmari logika ganuyoflad ukavSirdeba maT saxelwodebebs: nebismieri funqcia, romelic xsnis mimdevrobas _ cduneba, Tavisi gamoCenisTanave gulisxmobs _ ukve TviT saxelwodebaSi _ cdunebis mTel process, rogoradac mas vicnobT yvela im narativis safuZvelze, romlebmac CvenSi Camoayalibes narativis `ena~.


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raoden umniSvneloc unda iyos birTvuli funqciebis (ese igi, arsebiTad, `dispetCerebis~) mcire raodenobiT warmoqmnili mimdevroba, is aucileblad Seicavs riskis momentebs da swored es amarTlebs mis analizs: sigaretis SeTavazebis umartives qmedebaTa gaerTianeba logikuri jaWvis mimdevrobad (sigaretis SeTavazeba, misi aReba, cecxlis mokideba, moweva) SeiZleba uazro saqmianobad mogveCvenos; magram saqme isaa, rom TiToeul am wertilSi SesaZlebelia alternatiuli SerCeva da, maSasadame, azrobrivi Tavisufleba: jeims bonds misi damqiravebeli diuponi sTavazobs, moukidos Tavisi sanTebeladan, magram bondi uars ambobs; am bifurkaciis4azri isaa, rom bonds instinqturad eSinia, maxe xom ar dauges. amgvarad, yoveli mimdevroba warmoadgens potenciurad damTavrebel logikur erTeuls da es amarTlebs mis gamoyofas a minimo; amasTan erTad, is dasabuTebulia a maximoc: TavisTavSi Caketili, saxeldebuli mimdevroba warmoqmnis axal erTeuls, romelsac SeuZlia funqcionireba sxva, ufro msxvili mimdevrobis ubralo termis saxiT. ai, magaliTad, mikromimdevroba: xelis gawvdena, xelis CamorTmeva, xelis gaSveba. es misalmeba SeiZleba iqces martiv funqciad: erTi mxriv, is asrulebs niSan-Tvisebis rols (diupenis uxalisoba da mis mimarT bondis mtruli damokidebuleba), meore mxriv ki _ is, mTlianad, ufro msxvili mimdevrobis wevrad iqceva, romelic aRiniSneba sityviT Sexvedra da romlis danarCeni wevrebi (miaxloeba, SeCereba, mimarTva, misalmeba, dajdoma) SeiZleba TviTonac warmogvidgnen mikromimdevrobebis saxiT. amgvarad, narativi struqturirebulia imis wyalobiT, rom arsebobs siuJeturi erTeulebis integraciis mTeli sistema _ dawyebuli umciresi matriculi elementebT da damTavrebuli yvelaze msxvili funqciebiT. ra Tqma unda, saubaria elementebis iseT ierarqiaze, romelic teqstis funqciuri donis imanenturia: funqciuri analizi dasrulebulad SeiZleba CaiTvalos mxolod maSin, rodesac erTeulebis Tanmimdevruli gamsxvilebis gziT SevZlebT gadasvlas diuponis sigaretidan bondisa da goldfingeris Serkinebaze: aseT SemTxvevaSi funqciebis piramididan gadavdivarT narativis mom
bifurkacia _ wertili an momenti, sadac movlena orad iyofa, sadac warmoiSoba alternatiuli arCevanis SesaZlebloba.
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devno doneze (qmedebaTa doneze). amgvarad, im sintaqsur wesebTan erTad, romlebic Signidan awesrigebs siuJetur mimdevrobebs, arsebobs sintaqsuri (am SemTxvevaSi _ ierarqiuli) mimarTebebi, romlebic am mimdevrobebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs. am TvalsazrisiT, `goldfingeris~ pirveli epizodi SeiZleba warmovadginoT `stemebis~ sqemis saxiT: Txovna Sexvedris Sesaxeb | Sexvedra daaxloeba Txovna urTierToba xelis gawvdena molaparakeba misalmeba | xelis Tmeva Camordajdoma xelis gaSveba

daxmareba | dakvirveba datyveveba dasja

es sqema zedmiwevniTY analitikuria, mkiTxveli ki amCnevs mxolod termebis wrfiv mimdevrobas. magram unda aRvniSnoT, rom sxvadasxva mimdevrobis kuTvnil termebs SeuZliaT erTgvarad SeWra erTmaneTSi: xdeba ise, rom erTi mimdevrobis ganviTareba jer kidev araa dasrulebuli, magram ukve vxedavT sxva mimdevrobis terms: mimdevrobebi erTmaneTTan Senawevrdeba kontrapunqtis principiT; funqciuri TvalsazrisiT, narativis struqtura gvagonebs fugas. calkeuli nawarmoebis CarCoebSi mimdevrobaTa urTierTgadafarvis procesi SeiZleba Sewydes _ maTi sruli urTierTdacilebis Sedegad _ mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu zogierTi blokis (`stemis~) izolacia kompensirdeba qmedebaTa (personaJebis) ufro maRal doneze: magaliTad, romani `goldfingeri~ Sedgeba sami funqciurad damoukidebeli epizodisgan, radgan kavSiri mis funqciur stemebs Soris orjer irRveva: auzis epizodsa da fort-noqsis epizods Soris ar arsebobs araviTari kavSiri movlenebis doneze; magram aqtantebis


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doneze kavSiri maT Soris arsebobs, radgan orive SemTxvevaSi maTSi gvxvdebian erTi da igive personaJebi (da maTi struqturuli kavSirebi). es gvagonebs epopeas (`bevri fabulisgan Sedgenils~ _ aristotele): epopea _ esaa narativi, romelic daSlilia funqciur doneze, magram inarCunebs erTianobas aqtantebis doneze (rac aSkaraa `odiseaSi~ an brehtis TeatrSi). amgvarad, aucilebelia funqciaTa donis (romelic TxrobiTi sintagmis safuZvelia) dagvirgvineba ufro maRali doniT, saidanac pirveli donis erTeulebi sistematurad moipoveben TavianT sazriss; es donea qmedebaTa done. III. qmedebebi 1. personaJis struqturuli gansazRvris ZiebaSi Tavis `poetikaSi~ aristotele personaJebs meorexarisxovan rols miakuTvnebda da mTlianad uqvemdebarebda maT siuJeturi moqmedebis kategorias: SeiZleba arsebobdnen, ambobs aristotele, fabulebi `xasiaTebis~ gareSe, magram ar arsebobs xasiaTebi fabulis gareSe. es Tvalsazrisi gaiziares klasikuri epoqis Teoretikosebma (fosiusi). Tavdapirvelad personaJi iyo moqmedebis ubralo agenti da ar hqonda araferi, saxelis garda; mogvianebiT man SeiZina fsiqologiuri konsistencia, gadaiqca individad, `pirovnebad~, mokled _ damoukidebel `arsebad~, romelic konstruirdeboda misi qmedebebisgan damoukideblad da am qmedebebamde; personaJebSi, romlebic daqvemdebarebul rols aRar asrulebdnen (siuJeturi qmedebis mimarT), ukve xorcSesxmuli iyo fsiqologiuri substancia; am aspeqtSi SesaZlebeli gaxda maTi klasifikacia; amis yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTia `ampluebis~ nusxa burJuaziul TeatrSi (kekluci qali, keTilSobili mama da a.S.). struqturuli analizi pirvelive nabijebidan Zalze mtrulad ekideboda personaJTa fsiqologiur ganmartebas _ im SemTxvevebSic ki, rodesac amgvari ganmarteba maTi klasificirebis saSualebas iZleoda; amasTan dakavSirebiT cv. todorovi Segvaxsenebs, rom tomaSevski saerTod uaryofda personaJis siuJetur rols, Tumca, mogvianebiT manN Searbila Tavisi pozicia. rac Seexeba props, man ar gamoricxa personaJebi analizidan, magram maTi klasificireba moaxdina martivi sqemis mixedviT, romlis safuZvlad miiCnia ara fsiqologiuri niSan-Tvisebebi, aramed _ am personaJebisTvis damaxasiaTebel qmedebaTa wreebi (ja-

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dosnuri saSualebis mCuqebeli, damxmare an mavne adamiani da a.S.). propis Semdeg _ personaJis kategoriasTan dakavSirebiT _ narativis struqturuli analizis winaSe gamudmebiT warmoiSoba erTi da igive problema: erTi mxriv, personaJebi (dramatis personae-s, an aqtantebis saxiT) miekuTvneba nawarmoebis sagangebo dones, romelic aucileblad moiTxovs aRweras, radgan am donis gareT personaJTa yvela wvrilmani `qmedeba~, ubralod, gaugebaria; ase rom, SeiZleba iTqvas, amqveynad ar arsebobs arc erTi narativi `personaJebis~ gareSe an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, `agentebis~ gareSe; meore mxriv, SeuZlebelia am metad mravalricxovani `agentebis~ aRwera an klasificireba `pirovnuli~ terminebiT: marTlac, Tu ganvixilavT `pirovnebas~, rogorc zedmiwevniT istoriul movlenas, romelic damaxasiaTebelia mxolod zogierTi (CvenTvis yvelaze metad cnobili) JanrebisTvis, maSin unda gaviTvaliswinoT arseboba narativebis Zalze farTo jgufisa (xalxuri zRaprebi an zogierTi Tanamedrove teqsti), romlebSic arian moqmedebis agentebi, magram ar arian pirovnebebi; xolo Tu miviCnevT, rom TviT `pirovnebis~ kategoria warmoiSva mxolod rogorc kritikuli raconalizaciis produqti, romelsac Cveni epoqa Tavs axvevs personaJebs (sinamdvileSi _ mxolod naratiul agentebs), maSin aseT SemTxvevaSic SesaZlebelia `pirovnuli~ klasifikacia. struqturalisti analitikosebi Zalze cdiloben gverdi auaron personaJis gansazRvras fsiqologiuri terminebis meSveobiT da amitom bolo xanebamde cdilobdnen mis gansazRvras (sxvadasxvagvari hipoTezebis SemuSavebis meSveobiT) ara rogorc garkveuli `arsebis~, aramed _ rogorc qmedebis `monawilis~ saxiT. magaliTad, kl. bremonis mixedviT, yoveli personaJi SeiZleba iyos misi qmedebebisgan (mavnebloba, cduneba) Sedgenili mimdevrobis agenti; Tu mimdevroba gulisxmobs ori personaJis arsebobas (es ki Cveuli SemTxvevaa), maSin masSi monawileobs ori perspeqtiva an, Tu gnebavT, erTi da imave saqcielis ornairi aRniSvna (is, rac pirveli personaJis perspeqtivaSi mavneblobaa, meoris perspeqtivaSi motyuebaa); arsebiTad, nebismieri, Tundac meorexarisxovani personaJi iqceva sakuTari siuJeturi mimdevrobis gmirad. `fsiqologiuri~ romanis (`saxifaTo kavSirebis~) analizisas cv. todorovi emyareba ara masSi pirovnebebis niSnebiT aRWurvili personaJebis arsebobas, aramed _ mimarTebaTa sam tips, romlebic maT SeiZleba er-


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TmaneTTan daamyaron. am mimarTebebs todorovi uwodebs sabaziso predikatebs (siyvarulis, komunikaciis da daxmarebis mimarTebebi); es mimarTebebi eqvemdebareba ori tipis wesebs: erTi mxriv, esaa derivaciis wesebi, romlebic sxva mimarTebebze gadasvlis saSualebas iZleva, meore mxriv ki _ qmedebis wesebi, romlebic am mimarTebaTa transformaciebis saSualebas iZlevian: Tumca `saxifaTo kavSirebSi~ moqmedebs mravali personaJi, magram SeiZleba imis klasifikacia, `rasac amboben maT Sesaxeb~. bolos, a.-J. greimasi gvTavazobs naratiuli nawarmoebebis personaJTa aRweras da klasificirebas ara imis mixedviT, Tu ras warmoadgenen isini, aramed _ imis mixedviT, Tu ras akeTeben isini (aqedan gamomdinareobs maTi saxelwodeba _ aqtantebi), radgan SeiZleba am personaJebis ganawileba sam semantikur RerZze, romlebic Cveulebriv winadadebaSic (sadac aris subieqti da obieqti, damateba da garemoeba) asrulebs maorganizebel rols; esenia komunikaciis RerZi, survilis (an Ziebis) RerZi da gansacdelis RerZi; vinaidan aqtantebi wyviluradaa ganawilebuli, amdenad, naratiuli nawarmoebebis personaJTa usasrulo simravle agreTve eteva paradigmatul struqturaSi (subieqti/obiqti, mimcemi/mimRebi, damxmare/mteri), romelic realizdeba mTeli Txrobis ganmavlobaSi; xolo vinaidan garkveuli aqtanti Seicavs personaJTa mTel klass, is SeiZleba xorcSesxmuli iyos sxvadasxvanairad _ multiplikaciis, substituciis an gamotovebis wesebis Sesabamisad. sami zemomiTiTebuli koncefcia bevri ramiT waagavs erTmaneTs. kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, rom arsi mdgomareobs personaJis gansazRvraSi mis qmedebaTa wris meSveobiT, radgan es wreebi mcirericxovania, myari da eqvemdebareba klasifikacias; amitomaa, rom Tumca narativis aRweris meore done moicavs swored personaJebs, Cven mas mainc qmedebaTa dones vuwodebT: maSasadame, es sityva unda gavigoT ara im konkretuli qmedebis gagebiT, romelic Seadgens siuJetis qveda dones, aramed _ TxrobiTi praqsisis fuZemdebluri RerZebis (survili, Setyobineba, brZola) gagebiT. 2. subieqtis problema naratiuli nawarmoebebis personaJTa klasifikaciasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi jerjerobiT sabolood gadawyvetili araa. ra Tqma unda, yvela mkvlevari iziarebs im Tvalsazriss, rom naratiuli teqstebis personaJTa simravle SeiZleba eqvemde-

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barebodes substituciis wesebs da TviT erTi nawarmoebis farglebSic ki urTierTgansxvavebuli personaJebi SeiZleba dayvanil iqnan erTsa da imave tipamde. meore mxriv, SemuSavebul iqneba naratiuli nawarmoebebis personaJTa tipologia; da mainc, amgvar matricas klasifikaciis mniSvnelovani unari romc hqondes (rogorc greimasiseuli aqtantebis SemTxvevaSi), is sakmarisad amomwuravad ver ganmartavs naratiuli rolebis mravalferovnebas im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maT gavaanalizebT TiToeuli personaJis perspeqtivaSi; xolo Tu gaviTvaliswinebT amgvari perspeqtivebis arsebobas, maSin personaJTa sistema zedmetad danawevrebuli aRmoCndeba; marTalia, todorovis modelSi ar SeimCneva ori zemomiTiTebuli xarvezi, magram sadReisod misi daxmarebiT aRwerilia mxolod erTi nawarmoebi. miuxedavad amisa, savaraudoa, rom SeiZleba am winaaRmdegobebis swrafad gadaWra. personaJTa klasifikaciis WeSmariti siZnele is aris, rom unda ganisazRvros subieqtis adgili (da, maSasadame, arseboba) personaJTa nebismieri matricis CarCoebSi, am matricis konkretuli formisgan damoukideblad. vin aris naratiuli teqstis subieqti (gmiri)? arsebobs Tu ara personaJTa privilegirebuli klasi? frangulma romanebma sxvadasxva (zogjer _ negatiuric ki) xerxiT migvaCvies personaJTa mTeli masidan erTis, mTavaris gamoyofas. magram gmiris aseTi privilegirebuli mdgomareoba sulac araa damaxasiaTebeli mTeli naratiuli literaturisTvis. magaliTad, arsebobs bevri nawarmoebi, romlebSic aisaxeba ori mowinaaRmdegis brZola erTi da imave obieqtisTvis, ise, rom personaJTa es `qmedebebi~ erTgvarad gaTanabrebulia erTmaneTTan; aseT SemTxvevaSi subieqti gaorebulia, am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, da SeuZlebelia misTvis singularulobis miniWeba substituciis meSveobiT; SeiZleba, am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs arqaikisTvis Cveul naratiul formasTan, rodesac teqstSi (romelic TiTqos agebulia zogierTi enis msgavsad) agreTve xdeba personaJTa dueli. es dueli miT ufro sainteresoa, rom aaSkaravebs naratiuli teqstis naTesaobas zogierT (Zalze Tanamedrove) TamaSTan, romlebSic ori Tanabaruflebiani mowinaaRmdege cdilobs, xelSi Caigdos obieqti, romelTac maT arbitri sTavazobs; amgvari modeli gvagonebs personaJTa greimasiseul matricas, rac gasakviri araa, radgan TamaSic erTgvari enaa da aqvs iseTive simboluri struqtura, rogoric SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT bunebriv enaSic da naratiul teqstebSic: TamaSi _ erTgvari winadadebaa. amgva-


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rad, Tu mainc ucvlelad SevinarCunebT personaJTa privilegirebul klass (Ziebis, survilis, qmedebis subieqti), maSin mas meti moqniloba unda mivaniWoT, am aqtantis piris kategoriebiT, da ara fsiqologiuri pirovnebis kategoriebiT interpretirebis meSveobiT: piris (me/Sen), apersonaluri mxolobiTi ricxvis (is), orobiTi da mravlobiTi kategoriebis (romlebic warmarTavs moqmedebas) aRwerisa da klasificirebisTvis kvlav unda mivmarToT lingvistur models, SesaZlebelia, swored piris es gramatikuli (piris nacvalsaxelebSi xorcSesxmuli) kategoriebi mogvcems aqtantebis donis miRwevis saSualebas. magram vinaidan es kategoriebi SeiZleba ganisazRvron mxolod diskursis da ara referenciis planSi, amdenad, TviT erTeulebis saxiT gamoyofili (aqtantebis doneze) personaJebis gaazreba SeiZleba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini integrirdebian aRweris mesame donis CarCoebSi, romelsac _ funqciaTa donisa da qmedebaTa donisgan gansxvavebiT _ vuwodebT Txrobis dones. IV. Txroba 1. naratiuli komunikacia iseve, rogorc siuJetur teqstSi arsebobs gacvlis mimarTeba (gamgzavnsa da recipients Soris), TviT teqstic, romelic imave homologiur rigSi Sedis, Tavis mxriv, komunikaciuri aqtis obieqtia: nebismier teqsts hyavs gamgzavni da mimRebi. cnobilia, rom enobrivi komunikaciis farglebSi me da Sen gulisxmoben erTmaneTs absoluturi aucileblobiT; analogiurad, narativi ar SeiZleba iyos iq, sadac ar arian mTxrobeli da msmeneli (mkiTxveli). am banaluri debulebidan jerjerobiT ar gamoutaniaT yvela SesaZlebeli daskvna. marTalia, adresantis rolis Sesaxeb sakmarisad bevrs laparakobdnen (magaliTad, mkvlevrebi Seiswavlidnen romanis `avtors~, Tumca, xSirad arc ki dausvamT sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, marTlac aris Tu ara is `mTxrobeli~). samagierod, rodesac saqme exeba mkiTxvels, literaturis Teoria gacilebiT ufro kdemamosilia. marTlac, amocana is ki ar aris, rom CavwvdeT mTxroblis motivebs an narativis mier mkiTxvelze zemoqmedebis arss; amocana isaa, rom aRiweros kodi, romliTac aRiniSnebian mTxrobeli da mkiTxveli Txrobis mTeli procesis ganmavlobaSi, erTi SexedviT, mTxroblis niSnebi gacilebiT ufro SesamCnevi da mravalricxovania, vidre mkiTxvelis

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niSnebi (mTxrobeli gacilebiT ufro xSirad ambobs `me~-s, vidre `Sen~-s); sinamdvileSi ki mkiTxvelis niSnebi, ubralod, ufro rTulia, vidre _ mTxroblisa; magaliTad, yovelTvis, rodesac mTxrobeli aRar `asaxavs~ da iwyebs misTvis kargad cnobili, magram mkiTxvelisTvis ucnobi, faqtebis gadmocemas, Tavs iCens mkiTxvelis niSani: marTlac, sruliad uazro iqneboda, rom mTxrobels Tavisi TavisTvis ecnobebina is, rac man isedac mSvenivrad icis. `am dawesebulebis patroni iyo leo~, _ naTqvamia pirvel pirSi daweril erT-erT Tanamedrove romanSi5. es fraza aris mkiTxvelis aRmniSvneli niSani da Zalian waagavs imas, rasac iakobsoni konatiur funqcias uwodebda. magram, vinaidan aRqmis niSnebis klasifikacia SemuSavebuli araa (Tumca metad mniSvnelovania), droebiT SevwyvitoT maTze saubari da ramdenime sityva vTqvaT mTxroblis niSnebze. vin aris naratiuli teqstis gamgzavni? rogorc Cans, aqamde am kiTxvaze sami pasuxi gaecemoda. pirvelis Tanaxmad, Txrobas axorcielebs pirovneba _ am sityvis zedmiwevniT fsiqologiuri gagebiT; am pirovnebas aqvs saxeli, da is aris avtori, ese igi, sruliad garkveuli individi, romelSic `pirovnuloba~ da profesiuli ostatoba TiTqos gamudmebiT enacvleba erTmaneTs; drodadro es individi xelSi iRebs kalams, raTa SeTxzas morigi istoria; sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, nawarmoebi (kerZod, romani) warmoadgens am nawarmoebis mimarT gareSe me-s gamoxatvis saSualebas. meore koncefciis Tanaxmad, mTxrobeli sxva araferia, Tu ara yovlismcodne da, rogorc Cans, upirovno cnobiereba; Tavisi istoriebis Txrobisas is TiTqos dgas uzenaes poziciaze, RmerTis poziciaze: erTi mxriv, mTxrobeli Tavisi personaJebis imanenturia (radgan yvelaferi icis maTi Sinagani samyaros Sesaxeb), meore mxriv ki, distancirebulia maTgan (radgan arc erT maTganTan ar aigivebs Tavis Tavs ufro metad, vidre danarCenebTan). mesame _ uaxlesi _ koncefciis Tanaxmad (henri jeimsi, sartri) _ mTxrobelma unda gadmosces mxolod is, risi danaxva an gagebac SeuZliaT mis personaJebs, ise, TiTqos isini
aseTi fraza TiTqos Semobrundeba mkiTxvelisken da Tvals ukravs mas. da, piruku, winadadeba `amgvarad, leo axlaxan gavida~ warmoadgens mTxroblis niSans, radgan garkveuli `pirovnebis~ Sesaxeb msjelobis nawilia.
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rigrigobiT gvevlinebian mTxroblis rolSi. yvela es koncefcia erTnairad arasrulyofilia, imdenad, ramdenadac isini ganixilaven mTxrobelsa da personaJebs realuri, `cocxali~ adamianebis saxiT (am literaturuli miTis maradiuli Zlevamosileba kargadaa cnobili), ise, TiTqos TxrobiTi teqstis buneba ganisazRvrebodes referenciis miseuli doniT (samive koncefcia erTnairad `realisturia~). magram sinamdvileSi _ yovel SemTxvevaSi, Cveni TvalsazrisiT _ mTxrobeli da misi personaJebi, arsebiTad, `qaRaldis figurebia~; teqstis fizikuri avtori araferSi ar Tanxvdeba mTxrobels; mTxroblis niSnebi TviT Txrobis imanenturia da, maSasadame, mTlianad eqvemdebarebian semiotikur analizs. magram imis dasamtkiceblad, rom avtorsac (romelic xmamaRla acxadebs Tavisi Tavis Sesaxeb, imaleba an ganzavdeba Tavis personaJebSi) aqvs `niSnebi~, romlebic mimofantulia nawarmoebSi, unda vivaraudoT, rom pirovnebis ena TiTqos aRwers mis sakuTar niSan-Tvisebebs, ris Sedegadac avtori iqceva suverenul subieqtad, naracia ki _ am suverenulobis instrumentul gamoxatulebad: struqturuli analizisTvis miuRebelia amgvari daSveba. misTvis is, vinc laparakobs (TviT naratiul nawarmoebSi), araa is, vinc wers (realur cxovrebaSi), xolo is, vinc wers, araa is, vinc arsebobs. praqtikaSi TxrobiTi done, rogorc aseTi (mTxroblis kodi) warmoiqmneba, enis msgavsad, niSanTa mxolod ori sistemiT _ pirovnuliT da upirovnoTi. es sistemebi aucileblad rodi moiTxoven lingvistur markirebas pirveli (me) an mesame (is) piris nacvalsaxelTa meSveobiT; magaliTad, SeiZleba Segvxvdes nawarmoebi an calkeuli epizodebi, romlebic dawerilia mesame pirSi, magram WeSmariti subieqtis saxiT pirveli piri hyavT. rogor mivxvdeT amas? sakmarisia, `gadavweroT~ moTxroba (an epizodi), ise, rom nacvalsaxeli is SevcvaloT nacvalsaxeliT me: Tu amgvari operacia ar gamoiwvevs araviTar cvlilebebs, gramatikuli piris Secvlis garda, maSin unda davaskvnaT, rom pirovnuli sistemis farglebSi vrCebiT: magaliTad, Tumca `goldfingeris~ dasawyisi dawerilia mesame pirSi, sinamdvileSi Txrobas aq TviT jeims bondi awarmoebs; TxrobiTi instanciis SecvlisTvis aucilebelia, rom rewriting-i SeuZlebeli iyos: magaliTad, fraza `man SeamCnia ormocdaaTi wlis, sakmaod axalgazrduli ieris mqone kaci~ da a.S. zedmiwevniT pirovnulia _ man nacvalsaxelis miuxedavad (`me, jeims bondma, SevamCnie~ da

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a.S.); magram naratiuli Setyobineba `Wiqis kedlebze yinulis wkarunma bonds TiTqos uecrad gaunaTa goneba...~ ar SeiZleba pirovnuli iyos, radgan aq gvxvdeba sityva `TiTqos~; swored es sityva (da ara nacvalsaxeli man) iqceva upirovno formis niSnad. aSkaraa, rom upirovno modusi tradiciuli TxrobiTi modusia: enam gamoimuSava droTa mTeli sistema, romelic damaxasiaTebelia naratiuli teqstebisTvis da orientirebulia aoristze. amgvari sistemis mizania im awmyo drois ganadgureba, romelSic imyofeba molaparake subieqti. `naratiul teqstSi, _ SeniSnavs benvenisti, _ aravin laparakobs~. miuxedavad amisa, pirianma formam (misi met-naklebad SeniRbuli gamovlinebebiT) TandaTan daipyro Txroba da daiyvana is metyvelebiTi aqtis hic et nunc-ze (swored amaSi mdgomareobs piriani formebis sistemis arsi); amitom gasakviri araa, rom sadReisod SeiZleba Segvxvdes mravali naratiuli nawarmoebi, romlebSic erTmaneTs Zalze swrafad enacvleba piriani da upiro formebi _ zogjer erTi winadadebis farglebSic; aseTia, magaliTad, fraza `goldfingeridan~: misi Tvalebi, piriani forma mocisfro ruxi ferisa, _ upiro forma miaSterdnen diupons, romelmac ar icoda, rogor moqceuliyo, _ piriani forma radgan am daJinebul mzeraSi gamosWvioda ironiasTan da TviTironiasTan Serwymuli gulwrfeloba _ upiro forma am sistemaTa Sereva aRiqmeba, rogorc xelsayreli xerxi, romelic zogjer `eSmakur~ miznebsac ki emsaxureba: magaliTad, agaTa kristis erT-erT deteqtivSi (`xuTi saaTi da ocdaxuTi wuTi~) idumalebas warmoqmnis mxolod `eSmakoba~ TxrobiT doneze: erT-erTi personaJi aRiwereba Signidan, Tumca swored is aris mkvleli: yvelaferi isea mowodebuli, TiTqos erTsa da imave pirovnebas aqvs diskursisadmi imanenturi mowmis cnobiereba da, imave dros, referenciis planisadmi imanenturi mowmis cnobiereba: idumaleba warmoiqmneba mxolod da mxolod ori sistemis Serevis safuZvelze. advili misaxvedria, ratom xorcieldeba literaturis sapirispiro polusze SerCeuli sistemis mkacrad dacvis mcdelobebi, rogorc nawarmoebis aucilebeli piroba (miuxedavad imisa, rom es mcdelobebi yovelTvis rodia warmatebuli).


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amgvari simkacrisken miswrafeba _ rasac bevri Tanamedrove mwerali emxroba _ aucileblad rodia nakarnaxevi esTetikuri moTxovnebiT; rac Seexeba egreT wodebul fsiqologiur romans, misTvis, Cveulebriv, damaxasiaTebelia orive sistemis Sereva; masSi Tanmimdevrulad enacvleba pirisa da upiro niSnebi. paradoqsi isaa, rom `fsiqologias~ ar SeuZlia SeizRudos mxolod upiro formebis gamoyenebiT, radgan Tu narativs mTlianad daviyvanT mxolod diskursiul instanciaze an, Tu gnebavT, laparakis aqtze, maSin safrTxe daemuqreba TviT pirovnebis fsiqologiur Sinaarss: fsiqologiur pirovnebas (romelic referenciis plans miekuTvneba) araviTari mimarTeba ara aqvs lingvistur pirTan; am ukanasknelis gansazRvrisas ver daveyrdnobiT ganwyobilebebs, ganzraxvebs an xasiaTis niSan-Tvisebebs, aramed mxolod mis adgils (kodificirebuls) naratiuli diskursis farglebSi. swored es formaluri piri iqceva im sagnad, romlis Sesaxebac msjelobs mravali Tanamedrove mwerali; saqme exeba umniSvnelovanes gadatrialebas (SemTxveviT rodi warmoeqmna sazogadoebas STabeWdileba, rom `romanebi~ aRar iwereba), romlis mizania naratiuli teqstis gadayvana wminda konstatiuri registridan (romelsac is miekuTvneboda bolo xanebamde) performatiul registrSi, sadac gamonaTqvamis Sinaarss warmoadgens TviT warmoTqmis aqti: amJamad wera _ aRar niSnavs Txrobas raRacis Sesaxeb; wera amJamad aris laparaki TviT Txrobis aqtze, nebismieri referentis (`is, ris Sesaxebac mogviTxroben~) gadaqceva metyvelebis aqtad; amitomaa, rom axla Tanamedrove literaturis garkveuli nawili deskrifciuli ki ara, tranzitiulia: is cdilobs, metyvelebaSi xorci Seasxas awmyo dros misi wminda saxiT, imdenad wmindaTi, rom nebismieri diskursi unda Tanxvdes TviT mis warmomSob aqts, xolo yoveli logos-i dayvanil (an gavrcelebul) iqnas lexis-amde. 2. Txrobis situacia amgvarad, Txrobis done warmoqmnilia naratiulobis niSnebiT, im operatorTa erTobliobiT, romelTa saSualebiTac SeiZleba funqciebisa da qmedebebis reintegrireba im TxrobiTi komunikaciis CarCoebSi, romlebic erTmaneTTan akavSirebs teqstis gamgzavnsa da mimRebs. zogierTi amgvari niSani adrec Seiswavleboda: magaliTad, cnobilia, rom zepir literaturaSi arsebobs nawarmoebis Sesrulebis kodificirebuli wesebi (metruli for-

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mulebi, atributuli formulebi da a.S.). cnobilia isic, rom avtorad am SemTxvevaSi iTvleba ara is, visac SeuZlia yvelaze saintereso ambebis gamogoneba, aramed _ is, vinc yvelaze ukeT flobs mesityvisa da misi msmenelebisTvis saerTo naratiul kods; folklorSi naratiuli done imdenad mkafiod gamoiyofa, misi wesebi imdenad savaldebuloa, rom Zneli warmosadgenia Txrobis kodificirebul niSnebs (`iyo da ara iyo ra~ da a.S.) moklebuli `zRapari~. rac Seexeba werilobiT literaturebs, maTSi, didi xania, aRniSnulia sxvadasxvagvari `diskursis formebis~ (romlebic sinamdvileSi naratiulobis niSnebia) arseboba: es Seexeba avtoriseuli Carevis formaTa klasifikacias, romelic moniSna platonma da ganaviTara diomedem, dasawyisebisa da dasasrulebis kodifikacias, metyvelebis sxvadasxvagvar formebs (oratio directa, oratio indirecta, misi Sesavali sityviT inquit, oratio tecta), TxrobiTi `Tvalsazrisebis~ Seswavlas da a.S. yvela es movlena miekuTvneba Txrobis dones. amas unda davamatoT mTlianad weriloba, radgan misi roli mdgomareobs ara narativis `gadmocemaSi~, aramed _ mis `gaTvalsaCinoebaSi~. marTlac, qveda ori donis erTeulebi integrirdeba Txrobis doneze mxolod maSin, rodesac is SesagrZnobi xdeba: Txrobis, swored rogorc Txrobis, umaRlesi forma transcendenturia sakuTriv siuJeturi Sinaarsisa da formis (funqciebisa da qmedebebis) mimarT. amiT aixsneba is faqti, rom Txrobis done warmoadgens analizisTvis xelmisawvdom ukanasknel dones, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar gavcdebiT teqsti-obieqtis sazRvrebs, ese igi, im imanenturi wesebis CarCoebs, romlebic mis safuZvelSia. da, marTlac, TxrobaSi sazrisi Setana SeiZleba mxolod im samyaroSi, romelic misiT sargeblobs; Txrobis donis miRma iwyeba is samyaro, anu sxva (socialuri, ekonomikuri, ideologiuri) sistemebi, romelTa erTeulebia ukve ara mxolod narativebi, aramed _ sxva substanciis kuTvnili elementebic (istoriuli faqtebi, socialuri determinaciebi, qcevis tipebi da a.S.). iseve, rogorc lingvistikis kompetencia ifargleba winadadebis sazRvrebiT, TxrobiTi analizis kompetencia ifargleba TxrobiTi diskursis doniT. lingvistikisTvis cnobilia amgvari sazRvrebi, romlebsac man uwoda (Tumca jer ar Seuswavlia) `situaciebi~. holidei gansazRvravs `situacias~ (winadadebis mimarT), rogorc iseTi lingvisturi faqtebis erTobliobas, romlebic asocirebuli araa frazaSi, xolo prieto _ rogorc `im faqtebis erTob-


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liobas, romelic cnobilia Setyobinebis mimRebisTvis semiotikuri aqtis momentSi da misgan damoukideblad~. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom nebismieri Txroba ukavSirdeba `Txrobis situacias~, kodificirebuli wesebis erTobliobas, romlebic aregulireben mis moxmarebas, egreT wodebul `arqaul~ sazogadoebebSi Txrobis situacia gamoirCeoda msgavsi kodifikaciis maRali xarisxiT, sadReisod ki mxolod avangardistuli literatura ganagrZobs ocnebas kiTxvis aqtis kodifikaciis Sesaxeb, romelic sanaxaobrivi unda iyos, rogorc malarmesTan (romelsac surda, rom wignis deklamacia sazogadoebis winaSe ganxorcielebuliyo mkacri wesebis Sesabamisad), an rogorc miSel biutorTan (romelic miiswrafvis, daurTos wigns misi `wignurobis~ niSnebi). magram Cveni sazogadoebis Cveuli praqtika isaa, rom SeniRbos, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia, TviT Txrobis situaciis kodificirebuli xasiaTi: TxrobiTi xerxebis usasrulo raodenoba, romelTa mizania Semoyvanili situaciis naturalizeba, misi moCvenebiTi axsna bunebrivi motivebiT da, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, `misi dasawyisis CamoWra~: aseTia epistolaruli romanebi; viTomda sadRac napovni xelnawerebi; avtorebi, romlebic viTomda Sexvdnen mTxrobels; filmebi, romlebSic moqmedeba iwyeba titrebamde. sakuTari kodebis afiSirebis undomloba _ tipuri niSania burJuaziuli sazogadoebisa da mis mier warmoSobili masobrivi kulturisa, romelsac surs hqondes iseTi niSnebi, romlebic ar unda hgavdnen niSnebs. Tumca, es movlena mxolod da mxolod erTgvari struqturuli epifenomenia: raoden Cveuli da umniSvneloc unda iyos moZraoba, romliTac vSliT wigns, gazeTs an vrTavT televizors, es SeumCneveli moZraoba myisve, mTlianad da garduvalad amoqmedebs TxrobiT kods, romelic arsebobs CvenSi da romelsac Cven vsaWiroebT. amgvarad, Txrobis done ormag rols asrulebs: erTi mxriv, Seexeba (zogjer ki moicavs) ra Txrobis situacias, mas gamohyavs teqsti garesamyaroSi _ iq, sadac teqsti ixsneba (moixmareba); magram, amave dros, es done TiTqos agvirgvinebs nawarmoebis qveda doneebs da amitom teqsts Caketilobasa da dasrulebulobas aniWebs: is sabolood aqcevs teqsts gamonaTqvamad iseT enaze, romelic gulisxmobs da Seicavs Tavis sakuTar metaenas.

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V. naratiuli teqstis sistema bunebrivi ena SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT, rogorc ori ZiriTadi meqanizmis urTierTmoqmedebis Sedegi: erTi mxriv, esaa danawevrebis, anu segmentaciis meqanizmi, romelic ganapirobebs diskretuli erTeulebis (formis _ benvenistis terminologiiT) warmoqmnas, meore mxriv ki _ integraciis meqanizmi, romelsac Seaqvs es erTeulebi ufro maRali donis erTeulebis SemadgenlobaSi (rac warmoqmnis sazriss). aseTive binaruli meqanizmi SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT naratiuli nawarmoebebis enaSi; aqac xdeba danawevrebisa da integraciis procesebi, aqac aris forma da sazrisi. 1. dacalkeveba da ganvrcoba naratiul formas ori SesaZlebloba aqvs: jer erTi, mas SeuZlia daacalkevos niSnebi siuJetis ganviTarebisas da, meorec, Seavsos warmoqmnili xarvezebi. erTi SexedviT, es orive SesaZlebloba naratiuli Tavisuflebis gamovlinebaa; sinamdvileSi ki narativis arsi isaa, rom es gadaxrebi gaTvaliswinebulia TviT enis sistemiT. niSnebis dacalkeveba bunebriv enasac axasiaTebs. Sarl balim Seiswavla es movlena frangul da germanul enebTan mimarTebiT. magaliTad, Tu garkveuli Setyobinebis warmomqmneli niSnebi aRaraa Tanmimdevrulad ganlagebuli da maTi wrfivi (logikuri) mimdevroba irRveva (magaliTad, maSin, rodesac predikati win uZRvis subieqts), maSin Cven winaSea distaqsia. arsebobs distaqsiis iseTi forma, rodesac erTi niSnis nawilebis Setyobinebis farglebSi gamoyofilia erTmaneTisgan sxva niSnebiT (magaliTad, amgvaradaa erTmaneTisgan gamoyofili uaryofa ne jamais da zmna a pardonn frazaSi elle ne nous a jamais pardonn _ `man Cven arasodes gvapatia~): Tu niSani fraqcionirebulia, maSin misi aRsaniSni ganawilebulia ramdenime aRmniSvnels Soris, romlebic cal-calke, TavisTavad, gaugebaria. funqciuri donis ganxilvisas vnaxeT, rom narativebSi gvxvdeba zustad aseTive movlena: Tumca siuJeturi mimdevrobis Semadgeneli elementebi warmoqmnian erT mTlianobas, magram isini SeiZleba dacalkevebulni aRmoCndnen im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maT Soris SeiWreba sxva mimdevrobebis erTeulebi: ukve vTqviT, rom narativis struqtura fugis struqturas waagavs. Tu visargeblebT balis (romelic erTmaneTs upirispirebda sinTezur enebs, romlebSic, germanulis


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msgavsad, Warbobs distaqsia, da, meore mxriv, analitikur enebs, romlebSic _ magaliTad, frangulSi _ umeteswilad, Tavs iCens logikuri wrfivobisa da monosemiis principi) terminologiiT, maSin unda vaRiaroT, rom narativebis ena gamoirCeva maRali sinTezurobiT, radgan masSi gamoiyeneba iseTi xerxebi, rogorebicaa mocva da CarTva; Txrobis yoveli punqti moicavs ramdenime azrobriv koordinats: magaliTad, rodesac TviTmfrinavis momlodine jeims bondi viskis ukveTs, Cven winaSea polisemiuri niSanTviseba, erTgvari simboluri kvanZi, romelic erTdroulad moicavs ramdenime aRsaniSns (Tanamedrove garemo, simdidre, Tavisufali dro); magram funqciuri erTeulis saxiT viskis SekveTa TandaTanobiT unda CaerTos sul ufro farTo konteqstebSi (SekveTili sasmeli, molodini, gamgzavreba), manam, sanam ar SeiZens saboloo sazriss: swored amgvarad `Sedis~ nebismieri erTeuli naratiuli teqstis mTlianobaSi, Tumca, amasTan erTad, amgvari teqstis simwyobres ganapirobebs mxolod misi erTeulebis dacalkeveba da iradiacia. dacalkevebis principi Tavis daRs asvams naratiul teqsts: vinaidan es principi emyareba sxvadasxva elementebs Soris mimarTebebis _ zogjer Zalze Soreulis _ arsebobas da amitom gulisxmobs adamianis gonisa da mexsierebisadmi ndobas, is aris wminda logikuri movlena, romelic movlenaTa martivi dazusti aslebis nacvlad warmogvidgens maT sazriss: magaliTad, naklebad savaraudoa, rom `cxovrebaSi~ _ ori adamianis Sexvedrisas _ dajdomis SeTavazebas ar mohyves Sesabamisi moqmedeba; samagierod, naratiul teqstSi es ori momijnave _ mimeturi TvalsazrisiT _ erTeuli SeiZleba dacalkevdes sxva funqciuri mimdevrobebis kuTvnil elementTa grZeli jaWviT; ase warmoiqmneba Taviseburi logikuri dro, romelic ar hgavs realur dros, radgan garegnulad gafantuli erTeulebi SekavSirebulia mkacri (birTvuli funqciebis mimdevrobebad gamaerTianebeli) logikiT. aSkaraa, rom `Sekavebis~ xerxi _ esaa elementTa dacalkevebis mxolod privilegirebuli an, Tu gnebavT, intensiuri saSualeba: erTi mxriv, es saSualeba (gadavadebisa an reaqtivaciis emfatikuri xerxebis meSveobiT) Riad tovebs siuJetur mimdevrobas, riTac ganamtkicebs kavSirs mkiTxvelTan da uSualod asrulebs fatikur funqcias; meore mxriv _ is aiZulebs mkiTxvels eSinodes, rom es mimdevroba samudamod daumTavrebeli darCeba, xolo paradigma _ Ria (Tuki marTebulia Cveni varaudi, rom yoveli mimdevroba Seicavs or poluss); sxva

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sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, es xerxi safrTxes uqmnis siuJetis logikur simwyobres, rasac mkiTxveli SeSfoTebiTa da siamovnebiT (miT ufro mZafriT, rom saboloo angariSSi siuJeti yovelTvis aRadgens Tavis logikas) ganWvrets; amgvarad, `Sekavebis xerxi~ TiTqos eTamaSeba naratiul struqturas da mas riskis qveS ayenebs mxolod imitom, rom kidev ufro ganamtkicos: siuJetis inteligibeluri aRqmis planSi is namdvili thrilling-is funqcias asrulebs: funqciaTa Soris sintagmaturi (magram ara paradigmatuli) kavSirebis arasimyaris gamovlenisas `Sekaveba~ TiTqos ganasaxierebs principul Taviseburebas TviT enisa, romelSic yovelive emociuri imavdroulad inteleqtualuricaa: `Sekaveba~ zemoqmedebs Tavisi funqciis, da ara Tavisi Semavsebeli masalis wyalobiT. yovelTvis, rodesac SesaZlebelia dacalkeveba, SesaZlebelia Sevsebac. funqciur birTvebs Soris warmoiqmneba sivrce, romelic SeiZleba usasrulod SevavsoT, aq Caeteva katalizatorebis didi raodenoba; magram katalizatorebi TviTonac iZlevian axali tipologiis agebis SesaZleblobas: katalizaciis Tavisufleba SeiZleba gamomdinareobdes rogorc TviT funqciaTa Sinaarsidan (zogierTi maTgani, magaliTad, molodini, ukeT eqvemdebareba katalizacias, vidre sxvebi), aseve _ narativis substanciidan (werilobiTi ena gacilebiT metad eqvemdebareba diereziss, da, maSasadame, katalizaciasac, vidre, magaliTad, kinos ena: gacilebiT ufro advilia garkveuli moZraobis `danawevreba~ mis Sesaxeb Txrobisas, vidre misi vizualuri asaxvisas). narativis katalizaciis SesaZlebloba ganapirobebs misi elifsisis SesaZleblobasac. erTi mxriv, yoveli funqcia (magaliTad, `man kargad isadila~) masSi nagulisxmevi virtualuri katalizatorebis (sadilis detalebis) Tavidan acilebis saSualebas iZleva, meore mxriv ki, nebismieri mimdevroba SeiZleba daviyvanoT mis birTvul funqciebamde, mimdevrobaTa ierarqia ki _ ufro maRali donis erTeulebamde, ise, rom ar dairRves siuJetis sazrisi: siuJeti amocnobadia im SemTxvevebSic ki, rodesac misi (ukiduresad SekumSuli) sintagmatika Sedgeba mxolod aqtantebisa da yvelaze msxvili funqciebisgan, imaTgan, romlebic warmoiqmneba danarCeni funqciuri erTeulebis Tanmimdevruli integraciis Sedegad. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, naratiuli teqsti SesaZlebels xdis mis reziumirebas (uwin amgvar reziumes argumentum-s uwodebdnen). erTi SexedviT, aseTive viTarebaa nebismieri sxva


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tipis gamonaTqvamis SemTxvevaSi. sinamdvileSi TiToeuli maTgani gulisxmobs reziumirebis sakuTar xerxs; magaliTad, lirikuli leqsis (romelic erTaderTi aRsaniSnis gaSlili metaforaa) reziumireba niSnavs, ubralod, am aRsaniSnis dasaxelebas; magram es operacia imdenad damangrevelia, rom anadgurebs leqss (reziumirebisas nebismieri leqsi daiyvaneba aRsaniSnebze siyvaruli da sikvdili): amas emyareba Sexeduleba, TiTqos leqsis reziumireba SeuZlebelia. piruku, narativis reziumirebisas (Tu is xorcieldeba struqturuli kriteriumebis Tanaxmad) Setyobinebis individualoba SenarCundeba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, narativi udanakargod eqvemdebareba Targmans: masSi uTargmneli rCeba mxolod is, rac miekuTvneba bolo, sakuTriv naratiul dones: magaliTad, naratiulobis niSnebis gadatana romanidan kinofilmSi Zalze Znelia, radgan kino mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi cnobs personalur moduss; rac Seexeba naratiuli donis yvelaze zeda Sres _ sakuTriv werilobas, is saerTod ar gadadis enidan enaSi (an gadadis sruliad araadekvaturi formiT). narativis Targmnadobis faqti gamomdinareobs TviT misi enis struqturidan; amitom, sapirispiro mimarTulebiT moZraobisas SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT es struqtura narativis gansxvavebuli (sxvadasxva xarisxiT Targmnadi da uTargmneli) elementebis gamoyofisa da klasifikaciis gziT: Tanamedrove pirobebSi mravalferovani, konkurentuli semiotikuri sistemebis (literaturis, kinos, komiqsebis, radiogadacemebis) arsebobam SeiZleba mniSvnelovnad gaaadvilos amgvari analizi. mimesisi da sazrisi meore mniSvnelovani procesi, romelic xdeba narativis enaSi, aris integraciis procesi: garkveul doneze danawevrebuli movlena (magaliTad, esa Tu is mimdevroba) xSirad mTliandeba momdevno doneze (amgvaria ufro maRali ierarqiuli rangis mimdevrobebi, ramdenime dacalkevebuli niSan-Tvisebis erToblivi aRmniSvnelebi, garkveuli klasis personaJTa moqmedebebi). narativis sirTule SeiZleba SevadaroT organigramis sirTules, romelsac ZaluZs rogorc ufro adreuli, aseve _ gviandeli operaciebis integrireba; ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, swored integraciis meqanizmi _ sruliad sxvadasxvagvari formebiT _ iZleva ama Tu im donis erTeulTa rTuli da, erTi SexedviT, qaoturi erTobliobis mowesrigebis saSualebas; swored misi meSveobiT

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SeiZleba teqstis (rogorc isini mocemulia naratiul sintagmaSi, romlisTvisac cnobilia mxolod erTi ganzomileba _ wrfivi) dacalkevebuli, momijnave an, ubralod, heterogenuri elementebis Cveneuli gagebis organizeba. Tu, greimasis kvalobaze, garkveul azrobriv mTlianobas (magaliTad, iseTs, romelic msWvalavs niSans da mis konteqsts) izotopias vuwodebT, maSin SeiZleba iTqvas, rom integracia _ izotopiis faqtoria: yoveli integraciuli done gadacems Tavis izotopias qveda donis erTeulebs da amis meSveobiT sazriss meryeobis saSualebas ar aZlevs, rac aucileblad moxdeba, Tu ar gaviTvaliswinebT doneTa urTierTgamijnulobis faqts. miuxedavad amisa, naratiuli integracia araa absoluturad gamarTuli procesi, mwyobri arqiteqturuli nagebobis msgavsad, romelic warmoiqmneba usasrulo raodenobis martivi elementebis simetriulad awyobisa da rTuli mTlianobis warmoqmnis gziT; xSirad erTsa da imave erTeuls erTdroulad ori korelati aqvs _ pirveli erT doneze (aseTia, magaliTad, mimdevrobaSi Semavali funqcia), meore ki _ meore doneze (aseTia niSan-Tviseba, romelic aqtants miemarTeba); amis meSveobiT yoveli narativi warmogvidgeba, rogorc erTmaneTTan uSualod an gaSualebulad dakavSirebuli da erTmaneTze daSrevebuli elementebis mimdevroba; distaqsiis meqanizmi axorcielebs teqstis `horizontaluri~ wakiTxvis organizebas, xolo integraciis meqanizmi avsebs mas `vertikaluri~ wakiTxviT: struqtura, romelic gamudmebiT TamaSobs sxvadasxvagvari potenciuri SesaZleblobebiT, TiTqos `koWlobs~ da am SesaZleblobaTa realizaciis mixedviT, aniWebs narativs mis specifikur `tonuss~, mis energias; TiToeuli erTeuli warmogvidgeba rogorc misi wrfivi, aseve _ siRrmiseuli ganzomilebiT, da narativi `Semdegnairad `moZraobs~: ori zemodasaxelebuli meqanizmis urTierTmoqmedebis wyalobiT struqtura ganitoteba, farTovdeba, ixsneba, Semdeg ki kvlav iketeba Tavis TavSi; nebismieri axali elementis gamoCena winaswaraa gaTvaliswinebuli am struqturiT. ra Tqma unda, naratiuli Tavisufleba arsebobs zustad iseve, rogorc arsebobs molaparakis Tavisufleba mis mier gamoyenebuli enis mimarT, magram es Tavisufleba, am sityvis zusti gagebiT, SezRudulia: enis mkacr kodsa da naraciis aseve mkacr kods Soris Zevs erTgvari Seuvsebeli sivrce _ winadadeba. Tu SevecdebiT, movicvaT werilobiTi narativi mTlianad, SevamCnevT, rom is iwyeba yvelaze Zlieri kodificirebuli


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safexuriT (esaa fonematuri an merizmatuli done), Semdeg daZabuloba TiTqos iklebs, sanam ar aRwevs winadadebas, rogorc kombinatoruli Tavisuflebis umaRles wertils, Semdeg ki kvlav iwyebs gamyarebas; winadadebaTa mcire jgufebidan (mikromimdevrobebidan) moZraobisas, sadac jer kidev SenarCunebulia mniSvnelovani Tavisufleba, is, bolos da bolos, aRwevs msxvili qmedebebiT warmoqmnil da mkacri, SezRuduli kodisadmi daqvemdebarebul dones: amgvarad, SemoqmedebiTi zona narativis SigniT (yovel SemTxvevaSi, cxovrebasTan misi `miTologiuri~ gaigivebis SemTxvevaSi) vrceldeba sivrceSi or kods _ lingvistursa da translingvisturs _ Soris. amitom, paradoqsulad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom xelovneba (am sityvis romantikuli gagebiT) daiyvaneba detalebis SerCevis unarze, maSin, rodesac warmosaxva TviT kodis dauflebis saSualebas iZleva. `arsebiTad, _ ambobs po, _ advili SesamCnevia, rom sazrian adamians yovelTvis aqvs mdidari warmosaxva, xolo WeSmariti warmosaxviT dajildoebuli adamiani sxva aravinaa, Tu ara analitikosi...~. amgvarad, aucilebelia kritikulad gadavxedoT naratiuli teqstis egreT wodebul `realisturobas~. rodesac oTaxSi, sadac bondi morigeobs, gaismis telefonis wkriali, gmiri, avtoris TqmiT, `fiqrobs~: `kavSiri honkongTan yovelTvis cudi iyo da iqidan darekvac Znelia~. arc bondis `fiqrebi~ da arc satelefono kavSiris cudi xarisxi ar warmoadgens realur informacias; SesaZloa, es detalebi met `damajereblobas~ aniWeben epizods, magram WeSmariti informacia, romelic mxolod mogvianebiT gaxdeba xelmisawvdomi, satelefono zaris lokalizaciasa da, saxeldobr, imaSia, rom bonds unda daurekon swored honkongidan. amgvarad, nebismier narativSi imitacia SemTxveviTi faqtoria; narativis funqcia is ki araa, rom raRac `asaxos~, aramed is, rom gaTamaSdes erTgvari speqtakli, romelic CvenTvis metad idumalia, magram romlis arsi nebismier SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleba iyos mimeturi; ama Tu im siuJeturi mimdevrobis `damajerebloba~ is sulac ar aris, rom garkveuli movlenebi aisaxeba maTi `bunebrivi~ TanmimdevrobiT, aramed _ is logikaa, romelic axorcielebs am mimdevrobis organizebas, am dros TiTqos riskze midis, magram sabolood imarjvebs; SeiZleba iTqvas, rom yoveli siuJeturi mimdevrobis warmoSobis ganmsazRvreli sawyisi araa sakuTriv dakvirveba sinamdvileze, aramed _ adamianisTvis mocemuli upirvelesi formis _ ganmeorebis Secvlisa da

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rolan barti

daZlevis aucilebloba: Tavisi arsiT, siuJeturi mimdevroba aris iseTi mTlianoba, romlis SigniT SeuZlebelia nebismieri ganmeoreba; TviT logika _ da, masTan erTad, mTeli naratiuli teqsti aq gamaTavisuflebel rols asrulebs; Zalze savaraudoa, rom adamianebi, kvlav da kvlav, narativze maT mier gancdilisa da nanaxis proecirebas axdenen; magram es proecireba xdeba iseTi formiT, romelmac gaimarjva ganmeorebadobis principze da ganamtkica qmnadi yofierebis modeli. naraciis arsi araa movlenebis vizualizacia, narativi ar baZavs; mRelvareba, romelsac ganvicdiT romanis kiTxvisas, _ es araa Sesabamisi xatebis `TvalsaCinoebiT~ gamowveuli mRelvareba (marTlac, Txrobisas Cven verafers `vxedavT~); es mRelvareba gamowveulia sazrisiT, anu garkveuli umaRlesi relaciuri mowesrigebulobiT, romlisTvisac agreTve damaxasiaTebelia Tavisi gancdebi, imedebi, saSiSroebebi da gamarjvebebi: referenciis (realobis) TvalsazrisiT, `is, rac mimdinareobs~ narativSi, sityvasityviT, araferia; xolo is, rac narativSi `xdeba~, aris TviT ena, Tavgadasavali enisa, romlis gamoCena yovelTvis sasixaruloa. naraciis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb Cven imdenive viciT, rac enis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb, magram gonivruli iqneba varaudi, rom naracia warmoiSva monologTan erTad, romelic, dialogTan SedarebiT, ufro gviandeli produqtia; nebismier SemTxvevaSi _ kidec rom ar SeviWraT filogeneturi hipoTezis sferoSi _ SeiZleba vaRiaroT mniSvneloba im faqtisa, rom bavSvi `igonebs~ winadadebas, Txrobas da oidiposs erTsa da imave dros (daaxloebiT sami wlis asakSi).

ABSTRACTS
Guram Bakhtadze The traces of the programme poems of Ilia Chavchavadze in Data Tutashkhia The article based on the intertextual method. Especially noted the one of the famous spiritual disaster of Ilia Chavchavadze is Chabua Amirejibi who particularly stress attention on the problems advanced by Ilia Chavhavadze in his novel Data Tutashkhia. For example, problems of national identity, religious, moral hero, etc. All of them are motivated by the national senses and civil moral. Konstantine Bregadze Goethes Notion of Urphnomen and Kants Transcendental Philosophy Goethes notion of the archetypal plant (correspondingly, Urphnomen, archetypal phenomenon), eventually being established as a general ontological world-conception, was a result of his natural scientific studies. The following points can be singled out in relation to this issue: 1. From ontological standpoint, Goethe considers existence as a dialectical unity of a whole (das Ganze) and a separate (das Einzelne) where their a priori interrelationship form the basis: the whole, or the object, here, serves as a metaphysical, non-empirical foundation, or Urphnomen (archetypal phenomenon) manifesting the empirical; on the other hand, the separate or the subject is a demonstration of an organic nature of the empirical form in the empirical reality: For example, if we are dealing with one of the forms of the empirical plant (Gestalt), then it has its non-empirical and metaphysical basis in the form of archetypal plant, or Type, to use Goethes term. Therefore, the whole is revealed in the objective reality, in the variety of different separates, these separates, in their turn, return to their Urbild, or their metaphysical archetype, Urphnomenic existence. Goethes synthetical scheme concerning the interrelation between the whole and the separate or subject-object from the very beginning opposes Kants dualistic transcendental scheme; the subject simultaneously develops towards to directions to and fro; Moving to means the development of subjects individuality and subjectivity within the frameworks of empirical reality, and the latter a priori longing towards the archetypes, triggered by self intellect. The dialectic principle of the interrelation between the whole and the separate form the foundation for the development of a separate in the empirical reality as well; in particular, a concrete stage of the

2.

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development (metamorphosis) of each separate plant, for example: the stage of producing leaves and blossoming, or separate joint, organ (Glied) of a plant, leaf or a blossom potentially contain the complete picture of the evolution of the plant, the complete circle of the metamorphosis of a plant, the possibility to produce a complete plant from a single joint (organ) or stage. Each separate joint of a plant potentially embraces the ability to produce a new plant, or each separate stage of the plant metamorphosis contains the ability to regenerate a whole plant. Therefore, from anthropological standpoint we can speak about an archetypal human, as a separate empirical human, historical mankind (or nations), non-empirical, metaphysical archetype (E.G. Biblical Adam), who is revealed in the historical time and space, in empiricalhistorical forms and linguistic and cultural versatility of each separate person or nations. Correspondingly, there emerges a problem of the existence of the empirical anthropos: eventually, what is the next form of existence for an empirical human? Due to Goethes concept of Urphnomen, each individual on the basis of the intellect goes beyond the empirical boundaries and returns to the sphere of archetype human or Urphnomen.

3.

Zeinab Gvarishvili Diachronic analyses of the semiosis in kennings The paper deals with the diachronic analyses of the semiosis in metaphoric and metonymic compound lexical units - kennings. As the analyses of the issue in question emphasizes, notwithstanding with the structural congeniality of present-day and old kennings, modern English kennings differ from their structural counterparts from the point of view of relationships between signifier and significant. Present-day kennings are metaphoric involving one signified, acting as a signifier, referring to a different signified thus, disregarding literal or denotative resemblance. Basing on the analyses of the modern kennings we can argue, that metaphor-based kennings involve iconic and symbolic modes whereas old English ones are characterized by indexical mode.

Tamar Lomidze Ferdinand de Saussures Theory of Anagrams and the Linguistic Experiments in Futuristic Poetry According to Ferdinand de Saussures theory of anagrams, the general principle of early Latin, Vedic, ancient Greek, ancient Germanic poetry is a special sound organization of texts. In particular, The anagrammatic principle is

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the general principle of ancient Indo-European poetry. The words in poetic texts were choosed in such manner, that there were prevailing phonemes of basic word, that is,of the name of deity or of the hero. Did ancient writers apply this principle consciously or unconsciously?If it was being happened unconsciously, then, may be, this anagrammatic principle is , generally, the universal principle of poetic texts. Hence, anagrammatic principle probably owe to functioning in texts of all epoches. In order to verify this hypothesis I selected 25 poems of famous georgian poet of XX century Galaktion Tabidze. From each poem were choosed statistically most frequent 3 vowels and 3 consonants. From these vowels and consonants were made up trisillabic meaningless words, that is, according to initial hypothesis, the anagrammatic names of the same things. Their phonological structure wasnt coinciding with the usual names of appropriate referents and,naturally, these words were not appearing in texts. 94 recipient, that is, two third of them, have correctly correlated meaningless words with the names of corresponding things or phenomena. Thus, it may be consider, that in given poetic texts and, may be, in all poetry, works an anagrammatic principle of text organization, although anagrammatic words arent parts of language vocabulary. Nevertheless, there are eras (in any case, one epoch) when anagrammatic names are not present in poetic texts implicitly, but are directly represented to recipients. In particular, in literary texts of futuristic poetry transparent (at semantic point of view) lexical units, connected with defined referents, are substituted by Zaum words, not meaninigless, but having indefinite, vague semantics, where intuitive basis is dominating over the rational aspect.. Evidently, given peculiarity of futuristic texts was conditioned (caused) by their belonging to so-called `hot culture` (Levi-Strausss term). Hot cultures are characterized by new languages creating, by continuous invention process, unlike of cold cultures, in which invention activity concerns to mithological time and to ancient cultural heroes. Thereby, the futuristic linguistic experiments may be characterized as aspiration to deforming of conventional linguistic elements and as destruction of essential sound laws, revealed by Saussure.

Nino Salukvadze Semiotic analysis of biblical symbols in D.H.. Lawrences novels D.H.Lawrence is a modern writer whose novels are unique for their style, structure and form. His modern writing techniques are thought provoking and challenge readers to analyze his novels according to his meaningful structure. The structure of the Rainbow and Women in Love is achieved by usage of symbols and signs which construct the plot of the novels. His first, second and even the third reading make readers feel that there are chaotic combinations of actions in the novels, but as we have mentioned these scattered actions, signs and symbols give readers one complete plot.

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D.H. Lawrence is the writer who reworks everything, even those symbols and signs which are already interpreted require new decoding in his novels. They are given with new meanings. For instance the symbols of phoenix, water, the moon challenge readers to interpret them from different points of view. The symbol of phoenix is concerned to Rainbows male character Will Brangwen. With widely spread idea phoenix is the symbol of male power and might. But in the novel Will Brangwens carving of phoenix, is concerned to woman and not man , it indicates female strength and power over the male characters. It symbolizes Anna Brangwens strength and her power that can destroy and create Wills personality. Readers interest is also evoked by the sign of water. From semiotic point of view water is regarded as the sign of birth, creation. It implies plants, the moon, life in general. But this sign in Women In Love looses its cultural meaning and signifies death and destruction. It is connected to Gerald Crich. It is not altogether irrelevant at this point to dwell on the manner in which Lawrence employs water, and not only in Women in Love, but also in The Rainbow: not as a symbol of generation and life, but of destruction and death. The sign of the moon according to Greivs indicates three states of woman: virginity, femininity, old age which correspond three colors: white, red and black. In Georgian folk-lore it is associated with Saint George and indicates male sex. In Rainbow the moon, of course, is Annas female goddess and mystery. Anna is dominant and a young man follows.. When they finally come together, the moon is on her, the darkness within the mystery of her womanhood and it is the dark mystery within that he has to discover, to enter, and to possess in full. Thus the form of the novels is given by the account of the genesis and development of two contrasting love affairs that of Birkin and Ursula and that of Gerald and Gudrun. Every incident, conversation or scene can be shown to bear on and to support the development of one or both of the love affairs that constitute the novels main theme. Their relationships are revealed by means of signs and symbols which require decoding in the novels and they construct the plot and underpin the main characters personalities. . Irakli Mchedlishvili Projective Utopia and the utopian project The purpose put Machiavelli in the political reflections ("Sovereign") was unattainable and utopian, as, his practical councils leaned on an opportunity of application of antique experience for association of Italy his time. Other politician, Thomas More, synchronously with Machiavelli wrote political satire, "Utopia" which had no practical purposefulness and which met to spirit of Revival. If painting of Revival in the system, projective form expressed images of both, a terrestrial and unearthly origin, "Utopia" also repeated the same

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topology. It represented a verbal projection attitude of revival Utopian socialism of the beginning of XIX century (Owen, Fourier, SaintSimon) already leaned not on mental topology but on belief of realization of fair arrangement of a society, which law, comes to light in temporary sequence. Instead of a revival projected Utopia there was a utopian project. All the subsequent social views and theories, as a rule, were under construction in conformity objective law of development of a society revealed in temporary sequence. The concept of the Modern age meant such scheme of development Till seventieth years of XX century increasing distribution of the most extreme branch of the modernist project, Marxist view, most brightly confirmed suitability of such scheme of development. Salome Omiadze On the Semiotics of Being Everyday life of man contains a system of numerous signs. One of the oldest signs is man himself So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him (Gen. 1, 27). Beginning from that moment the task of man has not changed he is trying to make a path and find his own place in the big system of signs, also created by God, i.e. in the universe. Carrying out this task is impossible without the knowledge and use of culture codes, whereas their mastering is not easy. Languages of everyday life culture depend on objective circumstances and regularities of the development of the society. In its turn, the culture of everyday life is influenced by natural language as well as all codes the commutation of which occurs in the society. Any object or phenomenon, deserving the status of a sign from the semiotic point viewpoint, evokes many associations, and is included in a complex system of different symbolic relations. The semiotics of being is most fully reflected in art. Art models the really existing, however, sometimes a work of art may itself dictate to the society the rules of life, certain signs, which, modeled by the society, may afterwards be again reflected in works of art. Thus, knowledge of semiotic codes is equally significant in being as well as life. Ketevan Jishiashvili The urban space and new cultural paradigm Urban philosophy, generally based on architectural analysis, considers architecture not only as the aesthetic style but also as the ,,soul of the era , the most clear sign of cultural perception and ideology of state or individual. The last decades in Georgia have been the period of constant political, social and ideological changes. The collapse of Soviet Union gave new impulse and dynamic to urban structure. These changes of architectural body of the capital are the main indicators that tell us a true story about our social and cultural values and the same time point to the vector of future development. .

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Nana Trapaidze Authenticity, Interpretation and Problems of Perspectivism According to Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Nietzsche Nietzsches theory of Perspectivism is not a systematic one. This homogeneous concept is disseminated in all his works and is related to the concepts such as eternal recurrence of the sameness, will to Power and the idea of an Over man. Nietzsches theory of Perspectivism is a determined understanding of life, which is in opposition with traditional metaphysics. Nietzsches metaphysics is the organizing imagination of space. The experiences that constituted in time construction of the universe are rejected together with these imaginations. Theory of Perspectivism reflects a changeable and dynamic character of the universe. Logical and conceptual language fails to describe it. Therefore, Nietzsche applies metaphors to depict the unity of sameness and differences much better; thus providing infinite perspective for free interpretation. gamomcemloba `universali~

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